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Sample records for high-capacity optical storage

  1. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S

    2015-02-03

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  2. Towards green high capacity optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesk, I.; Mohd Warip, M. N.; Idris, S. K.; Osadola, T. B.; Andonovic, I.

    2012-02-01

    The demand for fast, secure, energy efficient high capacity networks is growing. It is fuelled by transmission bandwidth needs which will support among other things the rapid penetration of multimedia applications empowering smart consumer electronics and E-businesses. All the above trigger unparallel needs for networking solutions which must offer not only high-speed low-cost "on demand" mobile connectivity but should be ecologically friendly and have low carbon footprint. The first answer to address the bandwidth needs was deployment of fibre optic technologies into transport networks. After this it became quickly obvious that the inferior electronic bandwidth (if compared to optical fiber) will further keep its upper hand on maximum implementable serial data rates. A new solution was found by introducing parallelism into data transport in the form of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) which has helped dramatically to improve aggregate throughput of optical networks. However with these advancements a new bottleneck has emerged at fibre endpoints where data routers must process the incoming and outgoing traffic. Here, even with the massive and power hungry electronic parallelism routers today (still relying upon bandwidth limiting electronics) do not offer needed processing speeds networks demands. In this paper we will discuss some novel unconventional approaches to address network scalability leading to energy savings via advance optical signal processing. We will also investigate energy savings based on advanced network management through nodes hibernation proposed for Optical IP networks. The hibernation reduces the network overall power consumption by forming virtual network reconfigurations through selective nodes groupings and by links segmentations and partitionings.

  3. Towards green high capacity optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesk, I.; Mohd Warip, M. N.; Idris, S. K.; Osadola, T. B.; Andonovic, I.

    2011-09-01

    The demand for fast, secure, energy efficient high capacity networks is growing. It is fuelled by transmission bandwidth needs which will support among other things the rapid penetration of multimedia applications empowering smart consumer electronics and E-businesses. All the above trigger unparallel needs for networking solutions which must offer not only high-speed low-cost "on demand" mobile connectivity but should be ecologically friendly and have low carbon footprint. The first answer to address the bandwidth needs was deployment of fibre optic technologies into transport networks. After this it became quickly obvious that the inferior electronic bandwidth (if compared to optical fiber) will further keep its upper hand on maximum implementable serial data rates. A new solution was found by introducing parallelism into data transport in the form of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) which has helped dramatically to improve aggregate throughput of optical networks. However with these advancements a new bottleneck has emerged at fibre endpoints where data routers must process the incoming and outgoing traffic. Here, even with the massive and power hungry electronic parallelism routers today (still relying upon bandwidth limiting electronics) do not offer needed processing speeds networks demands. In this paper we will discuss some novel unconventional approaches to address network scalability leading to energy savings via advance optical signal processing. We will also investigate energy savings based on advanced network management through nodes hibernation proposed for Optical IP networks. The hibernation reduces the network overall power consumption by forming virtual network reconfigurations through selective nodes groupings and by links segmentations and partitionings.

  4. Robo-line storage: Low latency, high capacity storage systems over geographically distributed networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Randy H.; Anderson, Thomas E.; Ousterhout, John K.; Patterson, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in high performance computing are making possible more complete and accurate computer-based modeling of complex physical phenomena, such as weather front interactions, dynamics of chemical reactions, numerical aerodynamic analysis of airframes, and ocean-land-atmosphere interactions. Many of these 'grand challenge' applications are as demanding of the underlying storage system, in terms of their capacity and bandwidth requirements, as they are on the computational power of the processor. A global view of the Earth's ocean chlorophyll and land vegetation requires over 2 terabytes of raw satellite image data. In this paper, we describe our planned research program in high capacity, high bandwidth storage systems. The project has four overall goals. First, we will examine new methods for high capacity storage systems, made possible by low cost, small form factor magnetic and optical tape systems. Second, access to the storage system will be low latency and high bandwidth. To achieve this, we must interleave data transfer at all levels of the storage system, including devices, controllers, servers, and communications links. Latency will be reduced by extensive caching throughout the storage hierarchy. Third, we will provide effective management of a storage hierarchy, extending the techniques already developed for the Log Structured File System. Finally, we will construct a protototype high capacity file server, suitable for use on the National Research and Education Network (NREN). Such research must be a Cornerstone of any coherent program in high performance computing and communications.

  5. High Capacity High Speed Optical Data Storage System Based on Diffraction-Free Nanobeam. Final Report, 09-02-98 to 03-17-99

    SciTech Connect

    Tin Aye

    1999-06-16

    Physical Optics Corporation (POC) investigated the development of an optical data storage system built around a current well-engineered high-speed optical disk system with an innovative diffraction-free micro-optical element to produce a beam {approximately}250 nm wide with {approximately}4-5 mm depth of focus, allowing the system to address data at {approximately}100 Mbits/second and to store it 100 to 1,000 times more densely ({approximately}10 Gbit/in.{sup 2}) than in present systems. In Phase 1 of this project POC completed a thorough feasibility study by system design and analysis, successfully demonstrated fabrication of the key components, and conducted a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. Specifically, production of a subwavelength ({approximately}380 nm) large depth of focus ({approximately}4-5 mm) addressing beam was demonstrated by fabricating a special microdiffractive optical element and recording this beam on a standard optical recording disk coated with a photopolymer material.

  6. Charged fullerenes as high-capacity hydrogen storage media.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mina; Yang, Shenyuan; Wang, Enge; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2007-09-01

    Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we explore systematically the capacity of charged carbon fullerenes Cn (20 storage media. We find that the binding strength of molecular hydrogen on either positively or negatively charged fullerenes can be dramatically enhanced to 0.18-0.32 eV, a desirable range for potential room-temperature, near ambient applications. The enhanced binding is delocalized in nature, surrounding the whole surface of a charged fullerene, and is attributed to the polarization of the hydrogen molecules by the high electric field generated near the surface of the charged fullerene. At full hydrogen coverage, these charged fullerenes can gain storage capacities of up to approximately 8.0 wt %. We also find that, contrary to intuitive expectation, fullerenes containing encapsulated metal atoms only exhibit negligible enhancement in the hydrogen binding strength, because the charge donated by the metal atoms is primarily confined inside the fullerene cages. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage media.

  7. Carbon Honeycomb High Capacity Storage for Gaseous and Liquid Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.; Zubarev, Evgeniy N.

    2016-02-01

    We report an exceptionally stable honeycomb carbon allotrope obtained by deposition of vacuum-sublimated graphite. The allotrope structures are derived from our low temperature electron diffraction and electron microscopy data. These structures can be both periodic and random and are built exclusively from s p2 -bonded carbon atoms, and may be considered as three-dimensional graphene. They demonstrate high levels of physical absorption of various gases unattainable in other carbon forms such as fullerites or nanotubes. These honeycomb structures can be used not only for storage of various gases and liquids but also as a matrix for new composites.

  8. High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Zhitao; Yong, Chaw K.; Wu, Guotao; Chen, Ping; Shaw, Wendy J.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Jones, Martin O.; Johnson, Simon; Edwards, Peter; David, Bill

    2008-02-21

    A substantial effort worldwide has been given to materials development for onboard hydrogen storage over the past decade.1-6 One interesting family of potential hydrogen storage materials are ammonia borane (AB-NH3BH3) and the related amineboranes. Ammonia borane having a H content of 19.6 mass% encounters relatively high kinetic barrier in dehydrogenation. Recently some work has been reported on approaches to lower the ammonia borane dehydrogenation temperature by introducing nanoscaffold, using Ir-based catalysts or ionic liquids.4-6 Some work has focused on modifying the thermodynamics of ‘stable’ hydrides with additives that stabilize the dehydrogenated products.7 We have been thinking about this from the opposite point of view, i. e., altering the chemical composition of ammonia borane through the addition of amides and hydrides in order to destabilize it.8 The rationale behind this is that the inherent polarity and intermolecular interactions (dihydrogen bonding) of ammonia borane can be altered, and result in different dehydrogenation mechanism. In this paper we report that the interaction between LiH and ammonia borane leads to the replacement of a hydrogen by lithium to yield LiNH2BH3 with substantial resultant changes in dehydrogenation behavior. Battelle operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy.

  9. Charge Modulation in Graphitic Carbon Nitride as a Switchable Approach to High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2015-11-01

    Electrical charging of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C4 N3 and g-C3 N4 ) is proposed as a strategy for high-capacity and electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of H2 molecules on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets is dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At full hydrogen coverage, the negatively charged graphitic carbon nitride achieves storage capacities up to 6-7 wt %. In contrast to other hydrogen storage approaches, the storage/release occurs spontaneously once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled by switching on/off the charging voltage. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Importantly, g-C4 N3 has good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility, which can be a very good candidate for electron injection/release. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials.

  10. Optical Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderstar, John

    1987-01-01

    Classifies and briefly describes several types of optical storage media available today--read-only and write-once analog disks, read-only and write-once digital disks and erasable disks. The appropriateness of CD-ROM (compact disk read-only memory) for use in libraries of developing nations is discussed in terms of users' information needs and…

  11. The H60Si6C54 heterofullerene as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Yongliang; Zhou, Qingxiao; Li, Xiaohong; Lv, Shijie

    2016-07-01

    With the great success in Si atoms doped C60 fullerene and the well-established methods for synthesis of hydrogenated carbon fullerenes, this leads naturally to wonder whether Si-doped fullerenes are possible for special applications such as hydrogen storage. Here by using first-principles calculations, we design a novel high-capacity hydrogen storage material, H60Si6C54 heterofullerene, and confirm its geometric stability. It is found that the H60Si6C54 heterofullerene has a large HOMO-LUMO gap and a high symmetry, indicating it is high chemically stable. Further, our finite temperature simulations indicate that the H60Si6C54 heterofullerene is thermally stable at 300 K. H2 molecules would enter into the cage from the Si-hexagon ring because of lower energy barrier. Through our calculation, a maximum of 21 H2 molecules can be stored inside the H60Si6C54 cage in molecular form, leading to a gravimetric density of 11.11 wt% for 21H2@H60Si6C54 system, which suggests that the hydrogenated Si6C54 heterofullerene could be suitable as a high-capacity hydrogen storage material.

  12. Titanium-decorated graphene for high-capacity hydrogen storage studied by density functional simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yali; Ren, Ling; He, Yao; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2010-10-01

    We present results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the adsorption of hydrogen molecules on Ti-decorated graphene. Our results indicate that the binding energies of molecular hydrogen on Ti-decorated graphene can be dramatically enhanced to 0.23-0.60 eV. The hybridization of the Ti 3d orbitals with the H2 σ and σ* orbitals plays a central role in the enhanced binding. There is also a contribution from the attractive interaction between the surface dipole and the dipole of polarized H2. It can be expected that Ti-decorated graphene could be considered as a potential high-capacity hydrogen storage medium.

  13. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, M.; Shaffer, F.; Palm, N.; Salmon, E.; Raghavan, S.; Kempster, L.

    1998-01-01

    This technology assessment of long-term high capacity data storage systems identifies an emerging crisis of severe proportions related to preserving important historical data in science, healthcare, manufacturing, finance and other fields. For the last 50 years, the information revolution, which has engulfed all major institutions of modem society, centered itself on data-their collection, storage, retrieval, transmission, analysis and presentation. The transformation of long term historical data records into information concepts, according to Drucker, is the next stage in this revolution towards building the new information based scientific and business foundations. For this to occur, data survivability, reliability and evolvability of long term storage media and systems pose formidable technological challenges. Unlike the Y2K problem, where the clock is ticking and a crisis is set to go off at a specific time, large capacity data storage repositories face a crisis similar to the social security system in that the seriousness of the problem emerges after a decade or two. The essence of the storage crisis is as follows: since it could take a decade to migrate a peta-byte of data to a new media for preservation, and the life expectancy of the storage media itself is only a decade, then it may not be possible to complete the transfer before an irrecoverable data loss occurs. Over the last two decades, a number of anecdotal crises have occurred where vital scientific and business data were lost or would have been lost if not for major expenditures of resources and funds to save this data, much like what is happening today to solve the Y2K problem. A pr-ime example was the joint NASA/NSF/NOAA effort to rescue eight years worth of TOVS/AVHRR data from an obsolete system, which otherwise would have not resulted in the valuable 20-year long satellite record of global warming. Current storage systems solutions to long-term data survivability rest on scalable architectures

  14. Array of nanosheets render ultrafast and high-capacity Na-ion storage by tunable pseudocapacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Dongliang; Zhu, Changrong; Yang, Peihua; Xia, Xinhui; Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Fan, Xiaofeng; Savilov, Serguei V.; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are a potentially low-cost and safe alternative to the prevailing lithium-ion battery technology. However, it is a great challenge to achieve fast charging and high power density for most sodium-ion electrodes because of the sluggish sodiation kinetics. Here we demonstrate a high-capacity and high-rate sodium-ion anode based on ultrathin layered tin(II) sulfide nanostructures, in which a maximized extrinsic pseudocapacitance contribution is identified and verified by kinetics analysis. The graphene foam supported tin(II) sulfide nanoarray anode delivers a high reversible capacity of ~1,100 mAh g-1 at 30 mA g-1 and ~420 mAh g-1 at 30 A g-1, which even outperforms its lithium-ion storage performance. The surface-dominated redox reaction rendered by our tailored ultrathin tin(II) sulfide nanostructures may also work in other layered materials for high-performance sodium-ion storage.

  15. Array of nanosheets render ultrafast and high-capacity Na-ion storage by tunable pseudocapacitance.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dongliang; Zhu, Changrong; Yang, Peihua; Xia, Xinhui; Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Fan, Xiaofeng; Savilov, Serguei V; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are a potentially low-cost and safe alternative to the prevailing lithium-ion battery technology. However, it is a great challenge to achieve fast charging and high power density for most sodium-ion electrodes because of the sluggish sodiation kinetics. Here we demonstrate a high-capacity and high-rate sodium-ion anode based on ultrathin layered tin(II) sulfide nanostructures, in which a maximized extrinsic pseudocapacitance contribution is identified and verified by kinetics analysis. The graphene foam supported tin(II) sulfide nanoarray anode delivers a high reversible capacity of ∼1,100 mAh g(-1) at 30 mA g(-1) and ∼420 mAh g(-1) at 30 A g(-1), which even outperforms its lithium-ion storage performance. The surface-dominated redox reaction rendered by our tailored ultrathin tin(II) sulfide nanostructures may also work in other layered materials for high-performance sodium-ion storage. PMID:27358085

  16. Array of nanosheets render ultrafast and high-capacity Na-ion storage by tunable pseudocapacitance

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Dongliang; Zhu, Changrong; Yang, Peihua; Xia, Xinhui; Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Fan, Xiaofeng; Savilov, Serguei V.; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are a potentially low-cost and safe alternative to the prevailing lithium-ion battery technology. However, it is a great challenge to achieve fast charging and high power density for most sodium-ion electrodes because of the sluggish sodiation kinetics. Here we demonstrate a high-capacity and high-rate sodium-ion anode based on ultrathin layered tin(II) sulfide nanostructures, in which a maximized extrinsic pseudocapacitance contribution is identified and verified by kinetics analysis. The graphene foam supported tin(II) sulfide nanoarray anode delivers a high reversible capacity of ∼1,100 mAh g−1 at 30 mA g−1 and ∼420 mAh g−1 at 30 A g−1, which even outperforms its lithium-ion storage performance. The surface-dominated redox reaction rendered by our tailored ultrathin tin(II) sulfide nanostructures may also work in other layered materials for high-performance sodium-ion storage. PMID:27358085

  17. High capacity fiber optic sensor networks using hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qizhen; Li, Xiaolei; Zhang, Manliang; Liu, Qi; Liu, Hai; Liu, Deming

    2013-12-01

    Fiber optic sensor network is the development trend of fiber senor technologies and industries. In this paper, I will discuss recent research progress on high capacity fiber sensor networks with hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications in the fields of security monitoring, environment monitoring, Smart eHome, etc. Firstly, I will present the architecture of hybrid multiplexing sensor passive optical network (HSPON), and the key technologies for integrated access and intelligent management of massive fiber sensor units. Two typical hybrid WDM/TDM fiber sensor networks for perimeter intrusion monitor and cultural relics security are introduced. Secondly, we propose the concept of "Microstructure-Optical X Domin Refecltor (M-OXDR)" for fiber sensor network expansion. By fabricating smart micro-structures with the ability of multidimensional encoded and low insertion loss along the fiber, the fiber sensor network of simple structure and huge capacity more than one thousand could be achieved. Assisted by the WDM/TDM and WDM/FDM decoding methods respectively, we built the verification systems for long-haul and real-time temperature sensing. Finally, I will show the high capacity and flexible fiber sensor network with IPv6 protocol based hybrid fiber/wireless access. By developing the fiber optic sensor with embedded IPv6 protocol conversion module and IPv6 router, huge amounts of fiber optic sensor nodes can be uniquely addressed. Meanwhile, various sensing information could be integrated and accessed to the Next Generation Internet.

  18. Test results for a high capacity cryocooler with internal thermal storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertele, Ted; Glaister, Dave; Gully, Wilfred; Hendershott, Paul; Levenduski, Robert; Marquardt, Eric; Wilson, Colin

    2012-06-01

    Ball Aerospace and Redstone Aerospace are developing a space cryocooler for cooling complex optical systems whose loads are intermittent. An example of such a system would be an Earth observation satellite that images for only a fraction of its orbit. If a cooler can store refrigeration during the lull and provide it when the system is active, the cooler can be considerably smaller than one sized to provide the full load continuously. Our cooler provides two stages of refrigeration, a stage of intermittent cooling at 35 K for a focal plane assembly and a stage of continuous cooling at 85 K for the surrounding thermal shields. The cooler provides the intermittent cooling by collecting liquid neon in a unique internal thermal storage tank and forwarding it to the focal plane when the heat loads are high. Our paper presents extensive performance data for neon at 35 K. It carries 2 W at 35 K for 30 minutes plus the 8.5 W of continuous cooling at 85 K for less than 300 W DC power. It is ready to cool again in an hour. For contrast, the same hardware was filled with nitrogen and tested at 82 K. It carries 5 W for 25 minutes plus 15 W of continuous cooling at 130 K for less than 220 W DC power. It is ready to cool again in a little over an hour. The system has many features for space system compatibility. Because the storage is located within an active control loop, the cooler can maintain the 35 K interface temperature to better than ± 0.1 K. Because it circulates liquid it can be located remotely, which solves many compatibility issues. And with careful liquid management, it can work in any orientation and in 0-g. In this paper our flight like equipment will be described, and its continuing evolution to flight will be discussed.

  19. Optical signal processing for enabling high-speed, highly spectrally efficient and high capacity optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazal, Muhammad Irfan

    The unabated demand for more capacity due to the ever-increasing internet traffic dictates that the boundaries of the state of the art maybe pushed to send more data through the network. Traditionally, this need has been satisfied by multiple wavelengths (wavelength division multiplexing), higher order modulation formats and coherent communication (either individually or combined together). WDM has the ability to reduce cost by using multiple channels within the same physical fiber, and with EDFA amplifiers, the need for O-E-O regenerators is eliminated. Moreover the availability of multiple colors allows for wavelength-based routing and network planning. Higher order modulation formats increases the capacity of the link by their ability to encode data in both the phase and amplitude of light, thereby increasing the bits/sec/Hz as compared to simple on-off keyed format. Coherent communications has also emerged as a primary means of transmitting and receiving optical data due to its support of formats that utilize both phase and amplitude to further increase the spectral efficiency of the optical channel, including quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). Polarization multiplexing of channels can double capacity by allowing two channels to share the same wavelength by propagating on orthogonal polarization axis and is easily supported in coherent systems where the polarization tracking can be performed in the digital domain. Furthermore, the forthcoming IEEE 100 Gbit/s Ethernet Standard, 802.3ba, provides greater bandwidth, higher data rates, and supports a mixture of modulation formats. In particular, Pol-MUX QPSK is increasingly becoming the industry's format of choice as the high spectral efficiency allows for 100 Gbit/s transmission while still occupying the current 50 GHz/channel allocation of current 10 Gbit/s OOK fiber systems. In this manner, 100 Gbit/s transfer speeds using current fiber links, amplifiers, and filters

  20. Mg-based nanocomposites with high capacity and fast kinetics for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiangdong; Wu, Chengzhang; Du, Aijun; Lu, Gao Qing; Cheng, Huiming; Smith, Sean C; Zou, Jin; He, Yinghe

    2006-06-22

    Magnesium and its alloys have shown a great potential in effective hydrogen storage due to their advantages of high volumetric/gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity and low cost. However, the use of these materials in fuel cells for automotive applications at the present time is limited by high hydrogenation temperature and sluggish sorption kinetics. This paper presents the recent results of design and development of magnesium-based nanocomposites demonstrating the catalytic effects of carbon nanotubes and transition metals on hydrogen adsorption in these materials. The results are promising for the application of magnesium materials for hydrogen storage, with significantly reduced absorption temperatures and enhanced ab/desorption kinetics. High level Density Functional Theory calculations support the analysis of the hydrogenation mechanisms by revealing the detailed atomic and molecular interactions that underpin the catalytic roles of incorporated carbon and titanium, providing clear guidance for further design and development of such materials with better hydrogen storage properties.

  1. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, M.; Shaffer, F.; Palm, N.; Salmon, E.; Raghavan, S.; Kempster, L.

    1998-01-01

    The density of digital storage media in our information-intensive society increases by a factor of four every three years, while the rate at which this data can be migrated to viable long-term storage has been increasing by a factor of only four every nine years. Meanwhile, older data stored on increasingly obsolete media, are at considerable risk. When the systems for which the media were designed are no longer serviced by their manufacturers (many of whom are out of business), the data will no longer be accessible. In some cases, older media suffer from a physical breakdown of components - tapes simply lose their magnetic properties after a long time in storage. The scale of the crisis is compatible to that facing the Social Security System. Greater financial and intellectual resources to the development and refinement of new storage media and migration technologies in order to preserve as much data as possible.

  2. High capacity hydrogen storage materials: attributes for automotive applications and techniques for materials discovery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Sudik, Andrea; Wolverton, Christopher; Siegel, Donald J

    2010-02-01

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically upon the ability to store hydrogen on-board at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract/insert it at sufficiently rapid rates. As current storage methods based on physical means--high-pressure gas or (cryogenic) liquefaction--are unlikely to satisfy targets for performance and cost, a global research effort focusing on the development of chemical means for storing hydrogen in condensed phases has recently emerged. At present, no known material exhibits a combination of properties that would enable high-volume automotive applications. Thus new materials with improved performance, or new approaches to the synthesis and/or processing of existing materials, are highly desirable. In this critical review we provide a practical introduction to the field of hydrogen storage materials research, with an emphasis on (i) the properties necessary for a viable storage material, (ii) the computational and experimental techniques commonly employed in determining these attributes, and (iii) the classes of materials being pursued as candidate storage compounds. Starting from the general requirements of a fuel cell vehicle, we summarize how these requirements translate into desired characteristics for the hydrogen storage material. Key amongst these are: (a) high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen density, (b) thermodynamics that allow for reversible hydrogen uptake/release under near-ambient conditions, and (c) fast reaction kinetics. To further illustrate these attributes, the four major classes of candidate storage materials--conventional metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, complex hydrides, and sorbent systems--are introduced and their respective performance and prospects for improvement in each of these areas is discussed. Finally, we review the most valuable experimental and computational techniques for determining these attributes, highlighting how an approach that

  3. Li and Ca Co-decorated carbon nitride nanostructures as high-capacity hydrogen storage media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yusheng; Ji, Yong; Li, Meng; Yuan, Pengfei; Sun, Qiang; Jia, Yu

    2011-11-01

    Using first-principles method based on density functional theory, we perform a detailed study of the hydrogen storage properties of Li and Ca co-decorated graphene-like carbon nitride (g-CN) nanostructures. The results show that the average adsorption energy of the molecular hydrogen is ˜0.26 eV/H2, which is acceptable for reversible H2 adsorption/desorption near ambient temperature. Moreover, the findings also show that the storage capacity of the Li and Ca co-decorated g-CN can reach up to 9.17 wt %, presenting a good potential as hydrogen storage material. Regarding the H2 adsorption mechanism, it is demonstrated that the Li adatoms become positively charged through charge transferring to g-CN and then bind hydrogen molecules via the polarization mechanism.

  4. Process for the generation of high capacity pulses from an inductive energy storage device

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, F.; Maier, S.

    1984-04-03

    An inductive storage circuit for generating high voltage pulses includes a quenching circuit and a discharge circuit each connected in parallel with a storage inductor. One branch of the quenching circuit includes a quenching capacitor and one branch of the discharge circuit includes a resistor and a diode in series. These two branches have a common junction, to which is connected a quenching thyristor that forms the second branch of each of the quenching and discharge circuits. Thus, the quenching thyristor is in series with each of the quenching capacitor and the discharge resistor.

  5. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, Milton

    1999-01-01

    In a recent address at the California Science Center in Los Angeles, Vice President Al Gore articulated a Digital Earth Vision. That vision spoke to developing a multi-resolution, three-dimensional visual representation of the planet into which we can roam and zoom into vast quantities of embedded geo-referenced data. The vision was not limited to moving through space, but also allowing travel over a time-line, which can be set for days, years, centuries, or even geological epochs. A working group of Federal Agencies, developing a coordinated program to implement the Vice President's vision, developed the definition of the Digital Earth as a visual representation of our planet that enables a person to explore and interact with the vast amounts of natural and cultural geo-referenced information gathered about the Earth. One of the challenges identified by the agencies was whether the technology existed that would be available to permanently store and deliver all the digital data that enterprises might want to save for decades and centuries. Satellite digital data is growing by Moore's Law as is the growth of computer generated data. Similarly, the density of digital storage media in our information-intensive society is also increasing by a factor of four every three years. The technological bottleneck is that the bandwidth for transferring data is only growing at a factor of four every nine years. This implies that the migration of data to viable long-term storage is growing more slowly. The implication is that older data stored on increasingly obsolete media are at considerable risk if they cannot be continuously migrated to media with longer life times. Another problem occurs when the software and hardware systems for which the media were designed are no longer serviced by their manufacturers. Many instances exist where support for these systems are phased out after mergers or even in going out of business. In addition, survivability of older media can suffer from

  6. Lithium decoration of three dimensional boron-doped graphene frameworks for high-capacity hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yunhui; Meng, Zhaoshun; Liu, Yuzhen; You, Dongsen; Wu, Kai; Lv, Jinchao; Wang, Xuezheng; Deng, Kaiming; Lu, Ruifeng E-mail: rflu@njust.edu.cn; Rao, Dewei E-mail: rflu@njust.edu.cn

    2015-02-09

    Based on density functional theory and the first principles molecular dynamics simulations, a three-dimensional B-doped graphene-interconnected framework has been constructed that shows good thermal stability even after metal loading. The average binding energy of adsorbed Li atoms on the proposed material (2.64 eV) is considerably larger than the cohesive energy per atom of bulk Li metal (1.60 eV). This value is ideal for atomically dispersed Li doping in experiments. From grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, high hydrogen storage capacities of 5.9 wt% and 52.6 g/L in the Li-decorated material are attained at 298 K and 100 bars.

  7. Yttrium-dispersed C{sub 60} fullerenes as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Zi-Ya; Dong, Shun-Le

    2014-02-28

    Interaction between hydrogen molecules and functionalized C{sub 60} is investigated using density functional theory method. Unlike transition metal atoms that tend to cluster on the surface, C{sub 60} decorated with 12 Yttrium atoms on each of its 12 pentagons is extremely stable and remarkably enhances the hydrogen adsorption capacity. Four H{sub 2} molecules can be chemisorbed on a single Y atom through well-known Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson interaction. The nature of bonding is a weak physisorption for the fifth adsorbed H{sub 2} molecule. Consequently, the C{sub 60}Y{sub 12} complex with 60 hydrogen molecules has been demonstrated to lead to a hydrogen storage capacity of ∼6.30 wt. %.

  8. Development of Regenerable High Capacity Boron Nitrogen Hydrides as Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Damle, A.

    2010-02-03

    The objective of this three-phase project is to develop synthesis and hydrogen extraction processes for nitrogen/boron hydride compounds that will permit exploitation of the high hydrogen content of these materials. The primary compound of interest in this project is ammonia-borane (NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}), a white solid, stable at ambient conditions, containing 19.6% of its weight as hydrogen. With a low-pressure on-board storage and an efficient heating system to release hydrogen, ammonia-borane has a potential to meet DOE's year 2015 specific energy and energy density targets. If the ammonia-borane synthesis process could use the ammonia-borane decomposition products as the starting raw material, an efficient recycle loop could be set up for converting the decomposition products back into the starting boron-nitrogen hydride. This project is addressing two key challenges facing the exploitation of the boron/nitrogen hydrides (ammonia-borane), as hydrogen storage material: (1) Development of a simple, efficient, and controllable system for extracting most of the available hydrogen, realizing the high hydrogen density on a system weight/volume basis, and (2) Development of a large-capacity, inexpensive, ammonia-borane regeneration process starting from its decomposition products (BNHx) for recycle. During Phase I of the program both catalytic and non-catalytic decomposition of ammonia borane are being investigated to determine optimum decomposition conditions in terms of temperature for decomposition, rate of hydrogen release, purity of hydrogen produced, thermal efficiency of decomposition, and regenerability of the decomposition products. The non-catalytic studies provide a base-line performance to evaluate catalytic decomposition. Utilization of solid phase catalysts mixed with ammonia-borane was explored for its potential to lower the decomposition temperature, to increase the rate of hydrogen release at a given temperature, to lead to decomposition products

  9. Development and evaluation of a low-cost and high-capacity DICOM image data storage system for research.

    PubMed

    Yakami, Masahiro; Ishizu, Koichi; Kubo, Takeshi; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori

    2011-04-01

    Thin-slice CT data, useful for clinical diagnosis and research, is now widely available but is typically discarded in many institutions, after a short period of time due to data storage capacity limitations. We designed and built a low-cost high-capacity Digital Imaging and COmmunication in Medicine (DICOM) storage system able to store thin-slice image data for years, using off-the-shelf consumer hardware components, such as a Macintosh computer, a Windows PC, and network-attached storage units. "Ordinary" hierarchical file systems, instead of a centralized data management system such as relational database, were adopted to manage patient DICOM files by arranging them in directories enabling quick and easy access to the DICOM files of each study by following the directory trees with Windows Explorer via study date and patient ID. Software used for this system was open-source OsiriX and additional programs we developed ourselves, both of which were freely available via the Internet. The initial cost of this system was about $3,600 with an incremental storage cost of about $900 per 1 terabyte (TB). This system has been running since 7th Feb 2008 with the data stored increasing at the rate of about 1.3 TB per month. Total data stored was 21.3 TB on 23rd June 2009. The maintenance workload was found to be about 30 to 60 min once every 2 weeks. In conclusion, this newly developed DICOM storage system is useful for research due to its cost-effectiveness, enormous capacity, high scalability, sufficient reliability, and easy data access.

  10. Simultaneous high-capacity optical and microwave data transmission over metal waveguides.

    PubMed

    Banan, Behnam; Hai, Mohammed Shafiqul; Berini, Pierre; Liboiron-Ladouceur, Odile

    2015-06-01

    The implementation of power efficient and high throughput chip-to-chip interconnects is necessary to keep pace with the bandwidth demands in high-performance computing platforms. In recent years, considerable effort has been made to optimize inter-chip communications using traditional copper waveguides. Also, optical links are extensively investigated as an alternative technology for fast and efficient data routing. For the first time, we experimentally demonstrate simultaneous microwave and optical high-speed data transmission over metallic waveguides embedded in polymer. The demonstration is significant as it merges two layers of communications onto the same structure towards increased aggregated bandwidth, and energy-efficient data movement. PMID:26072782

  11. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we show up to a 40-Gbit/s link by multiplexing and transmitting four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam; we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the 40-Gbit/s link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the 4-Gbit/s link, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we show that inter-channel crosstalk induced by thermal gradients can be mitigated using multi-channel equalisation processing.

  12. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we show up to a 40-Gbit/s link by multiplexing and transmitting four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam; we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the 40-Gbit/s link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the 4-Gbit/s link, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we show that inter-channel crosstalk induced by thermal gradients can be mitigated using multi-channel equalisation processing. PMID:27615808

  13. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E.

    2016-09-01

    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we show up to a 40-Gbit/s link by multiplexing and transmitting four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam; we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the 40-Gbit/s link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the 4-Gbit/s link, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we show that inter-channel crosstalk induced by thermal gradients can be mitigated using multi-channel equalisation processing.

  14. Orbital Angular Momentum-based Space Division Multiplexing for High-capacity Underwater Optical Communications

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yongxiong; Li, Long; Wang, Zhe; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Ehsan; Arbabi, Amir; Zhao, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; Yan, Yan; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Faraon, Andrei; Willner, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    To increase system capacity of underwater optical communications, we employ the spatial domain to simultaneously transmit multiple orthogonal spatial beams, each carrying an independent data channel. In this paper, we show up to a 40-Gbit/s link by multiplexing and transmitting four green orbital angular momentum (OAM) beams through a single aperture. Moreover, we investigate the degrading effects of scattering/turbidity, water current, and thermal gradient-induced turbulence, and we find that thermal gradients cause the most distortions and turbidity causes the most loss. We show systems results using two different data generation techniques, one at 1064 nm for 10-Gbit/s/beam and one at 520 nm for 1-Gbit/s/beam; we use both techniques since present data-modulation technologies are faster for infrared (IR) than for green. For the 40-Gbit/s link, data is modulated in the IR, and OAM imprinting is performed in the green using a specially-designed metasurface phase mask. For the 4-Gbit/s link, a green laser diode is directly modulated. Finally, we show that inter-channel crosstalk induced by thermal gradients can be mitigated using multi-channel equalisation processing. PMID:27615808

  15. Holographic Optical Data Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising

  16. Implementation of optical dynamic RAM using spatially distributed spectral storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Alan E.; Maniloff, Eric S.; Mossberg, Thomas W.

    1999-11-01

    Optical Dynamic RAM (ODRAM) is a high capacity, low latency optical memory architecture based on persistent spectral hole burning in frequency selective materials. This paper describes the basic ODRAM architecture and progress towards realization of a high capacity, low latency, tabletop demonstration unit. In particular, a new technique, Spatially Distributed Spectral Storage (SDSS) is introduced and demonstrated to provide over two orders of magnitude improvement in spectral capacity for materials that experience excitation induced frequency shifts. Finally, the relative strengths and weaknesses of ODRAM are emphasized in a competitive analysis that includes currently available memory technologies such as semiconductor DRAM and magnetic disks.

  17. An open, parallel I/O computer as the platform for high-performance, high-capacity mass storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abineri, Adrian; Chen, Y. P.

    1992-01-01

    APTEC Computer Systems is a Portland, Oregon based manufacturer of I/O computers. APTEC's work in the context of high density storage media is on programs requiring real-time data capture with low latency processing and storage requirements. An example of APTEC's work in this area is the Loral/Space Telescope-Data Archival and Distribution System. This is an existing Loral AeroSys designed system, which utilizes an APTEC I/O computer. The key attributes of a system architecture that is suitable for this environment are as follows: (1) data acquisition alternatives; (2) a wide range of supported mass storage devices; (3) data processing options; (4) data availability through standard network connections; and (5) an overall system architecture (hardware and software designed for high bandwidth and low latency). APTEC's approach is outlined in this document.

  18. From Fundamental Understanding To Predicting New Nanomaterials For High Capacity Hydrogen/Methane Storage and Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Yildirim, Taner

    2015-03-03

    On-board hydrogen/methane storage in fuel cell-powered vehicles is a major component of the national need to achieve energy independence and protect the environment. The main obstacles in hydrogen storage are slow kinetics, poor reversibility and high dehydrogenation temperatures for the chemical hydrides; and very low desorption temperatures/energies for the physisorption materials (MOF’s, porous carbons). Similarly, the current methane storage technologies are mainly based on physisorption in porous materials but the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are below the target values. Finally, carbon capture, a critical component of the mitigation of CO2 emissions from industrial plants, also suffers from similar problems. The solid-absorbers such as MOFs are either not stable against real flue-gas conditions and/or do not have large enough CO2 capture capacity to be practical and cost effective. In this project, we addressed these challenges using a unique combination of computational, synthetic and experimental methods. The main scope of our research was to achieve fundamental understanding of the chemical and structural interactions governing the storage and release of hydrogen/methane and carbon capture in a wide spectrum of candidate materials. We studied the effect of scaffolding and doping of the candidate materials on their storage and dynamics properties. We reviewed current progress, challenges and prospect in closely related fields of hydrogen/methane storage and carbon capture.[1-5] For example, for physisorption based storage materials, we show that tap-densities or simply pressing MOFs into pellet forms reduce the uptake capacities by half and therefore packing MOFs is one of the most important challenges going forward. For room temperature hydrogen storage application of MOFs, we argue that MOFs are the most promising scaffold materials for Ammonia-Borane (AB) because of their unique interior active metal-centers for AB binding and well

  19. ICI optical data storage tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, Robert A.; Duffy, Joseph F.

    1991-01-01

    Optical data storage tape is now a commercial reality. The world's first successful development of a digital optical tape system is complete. This is based on the Creo 1003 optical tape recorder with ICI 1012 write-once optical tape media. Several other optical tape drive development programs are underway, including one using the IBM 3480 style cartridge at LaserTape Systems. In order to understand the significance and potential of this step change in recording technology, it is useful to review the historical progress of optical storage. This has been slow to encroach on magnetic storage, and has not made any serious dent on the world's mountains of paper and microfilm. Some of the reasons for this are the long time needed for applications developers, systems integrators, and end users to take advantage of the potential storage capacity; access time and data transfer rate have traditionally been too slow for high-performance applications; and optical disk media has been expensive compared with magnetic tape. ICI's strategy in response to these concerns was to concentrate its efforts on flexible optical media; in particular optical tape. The manufacturing achievements, media characteristics, and media lifetime of optical media are discussed.

  20. Polyhedral magnetite nanocrystals with multiple facets: facile synthesis, structural modelling, magnetic properties and application for high capacity lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Su, Dawei; Horvat, Josip; Munroe, Paul; Ahn, Hyojun; Ranjbartoreh, Ali R; Wang, Guoxiu

    2012-01-01

    Polyhedral magnetite nanocrystals with multiple facets were synthesised by a low temperature hydrothermal method. Atomistic simulation and calculations on surface attachment energy successfully predicted the polyhedral structure of magnetite nanocrystals with multiple facets. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution transmission microscopy confirmed the crystal structure of magnetite, which is consistent with the theoretical modelling. The magnetic property measurements show the superspin glass state of the polyhedral nanocrystals, which could originate from the nanometer size of individual single crystals. When applied as an anode material in lithium ion cells, magnetite nanocrystals demonstrated an outstanding electrochemical performance with a high lithium storage capacity, a satisfactory cyclability, and an excellent high rate capacity.

  1. Calcium as a superior coating metal in functionalization of carbon fullerenes for high-capacity hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Mina; Yang, Shenyuan; Hicke, Christian; Wang, Enge; Geohegan, David B; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2008-01-01

    We explore theoretically the feasibility of functionalizing carbon nanostructures for hydrogen storage, focusing on the coating of C60 fullerenes with light alkaline-earth metals. Our first-principles density functional theory studies show that both Ca and Sr can bind strongly to the C60 surface, and highly prefer monolayer coating, thereby explaining existing experimental observations. The strong binding is attributed to an intriguing charge transfer mechanism involving the empty d levels of the metal elements. The charge redistribution, in turn, gives rise to electric fields surrounding the coated fullerenes, which can now function as ideal attractors upon molecular hydrogen adsorption with binding strengths strong enough for potential room temperature applications but weak enough to avoid H2 dissociation. With a hydrogen uptake of >8.4wt% on Ca32C60, Ca is superior to all the recently suggested metal coating elements.

  2. Dual hybrid strategy towards achieving high capacity and long-life lithium storage of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ying; Cao, Minhua

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we propose a facile and efficient strategy for mitigating capacity fading of ZnO by co-hybridization of cobalt (Co) and N-doped carbon (C-N). The ZnO-based hybrid (ZnO/Co/C-N) is prepared by calcining metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) under a vacuum condition. In view of the unique microstructure of MOFs used in our case, the resultant hybrid displays a three dimensional (3D) spherical morphology with abundant pore structure. The electrochemical tests indicate that the ZnO/Co/C-N nanospheres exhibit excellent cycling stability, high specific capacity, and good rate capability. This work proposes a facile strategy for the synthesis of nanomaterials with unique microstructure, desired composition and high surface area, endowing an excellent lithium storage performance. The current route is convenient and cost-effective, and therefore it is highly promising for scaled-up production. Moreover, the method we adopted may be extended to synthesize other porous nanomaterials with desired composition.

  3. Optical storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Sharon S.

    1991-01-01

    A new holographic image storage device which uses four-wave mixing in two photorefractive crystals is described. Photorefractive crystals promise information storage densities on the order of 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 12) bits per cubic centimeter at real-time rates. Several studies in recent years have investigated the use of photorefractive crystals for storing holographic image information. However, all of the previous studies have focused on techniques for storing information in a single crystal. The disadvantage of using a single crystal is that the read process is destructive. Researchers have developed techniques for fixing the information in a crystal so that it may be read many times. However, when fixed, the information cannot be readily erased and overwritten with new information. It two photorefractive crystals are used, holographic image information may be stored dynamically. That is, the stored image information may be read out more than once, and it may be easily erased and overwritten with new image information.

  4. Compact all-pass filters in photonic crystals as the building block for high-capacity optical delay lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Fan, Shanhui

    2003-12-01

    Optical all-pass filters, which generate strong on-resonance optical delay while maintaining a unity transmission coefficient throughout the entire resonant bandwidth, are of great importance for constructing delay lines in optical buffer applications. We provide an analysis of optical delay lines based upon cascading multiple stages of all-pass filter structures. We show that the maximum capacity of such delay lines is determined primarily by the dimensions of each stage. Motivated by this analysis, we describe compact optical all-pass filters in two-dimensional photonic crystals. The accidental degeneracy of the cavity modes introduces a strong group delay and dispersion while maintaining total transmission. PMID:14754345

  5. High capacity multicomponent hydrogen storage materials: Investigation of the effect of stoichiometry and decomposition conditions on the cycling behaviour of LiBH 4-MgH 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Gavin S.; Grant, David M.; Price, Tobias C.; Yu, Xuebin; Legrand, Vincent

    LiBH 4-MgH 2 is an attractive reversible hydrogen storage system, it combines two high capacity hydrides (18.3 and 7.6 wt.%, respectively) and the concerted dehydrogenation reaction has a smaller enthalpy change than either species on its own. The latter effect leads to a destabilisation of the hydrided products and results in a lowering of the dehydrogenation temperature. In situ neutron diffraction experiments have been undertaken to characterise the mechanism of decomposition of the LiBD 4-MgD 2 system, with an emphasis on investigating the synergistic effects of the components during cycling under various conditions. This study compares the effect of stoichiometry of the multicomponent system on the cycling mechanism. Results show that LiBD 4-MgD 2 in a 2:1 molar ratio can be reversibly dehydrogenated under low pressures of hydrogen or under vacuum, contrary to earlier reports in the literature, although the reaction was only partially reversed for the 2:1 mixture decomposed under vacuum. This work shows that the reaction pathway was affected by dehydrogenation conditions, but the stoichiometry of the multicomponent system played a minor role.

  6. Two-Dimensional Optical Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Lee, Alexander; Bruls, Dominique; Busch, Christopher; Immink, Andre; Coene, Wim; Hekstra, Andries

    2004-07-01

    Two-dimensional optical storage aims at increasing the data capacity and data rate for a given physical read-out system. It uses parallel read-out in combination with advanced signal-processing. Experimental results results on read only memory (ROM) discs are presented that proof the concept. Laser beam recorded discs proof the concept, and electron beam recorded disc show the feasibility at real physical parameters for a density at 35 GB with ample tilt margins.

  7. Optical system storage design with diffractive optical elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostuk, Raymond K.; Haggans, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Optical data storage systems are gaining widespread acceptance due to their high areal density and the ability to remove the high capacity hard disk from the system. In magneto-optical read-write systems, a small rotation of the polarization state in the return signal from the MO media is the signal which must be sensed. A typical arrangement used for detecting these signals and correcting for errors in tracking and focusing on the disk is illustrated. The components required to achieve these functions are listed. The assembly and alignment of this complex system has a direct impact on cost, and also affects the size, weight, and corresponding data access rates. As a result, integrating these optical components and improving packaging techniques is an active area of research and development. Most designs of binary optic elements have been concerned with optimizing grating efficiency. However, rigorous coupled wave models for vector field diffraction from grating surfaces can be extended to determine the phase and polarization state of the diffracted field, and the design of polarization components. A typical grating geometry and the phase and polarization angles associated with the incident and diffracted fields are shown. In our current stage of work, we are examining system configurations which cascade several polarization functions on a single substrate. In this design, the beam returning from the MO disk illuminates a cascaded grating element which first couples light into the substrate, then introduces a quarter wave retardation, then a polarization rotation, and finally separates s- and p-polarized fields through a polarization beam splitter. The input coupler and polarization beam splitter are formed in volume gratings, and the two intermediate elements are zero-order elements.

  8. CSTI High Capacity Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Jerry M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  9. CSTI high capacity power

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed.

  10. Laser beam modeling in optical storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treptau, J. P.; Milster, T. D.; Flagello, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    A computer model has been developed that simulates light propagating through an optical data storage system. A model of a laser beam that originates at a laser diode, propagates through an optical system, interacts with a optical disk, reflects back from the optical disk into the system, and propagates to data and servo detectors is discussed.

  11. Diffused holographic information storage and retrieval using photorefractive optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, Deanna Kay

    Holography offers a tremendous opportunity for dense information storage, theoretically one bit per cubic wavelength of material volume, with rapid retrieval, of up to thousands of pages of information simultaneously. However, many factors prevent the theoretical storage limit from being reached, including dynamic range problems and imperfections in recording materials. This research explores new ways of moving closer to practical holographic information storage and retrieval by altering the recording materials, in this case, photorefractive crystals, and by increasing the current storage capacity while improving the information retrieved. As an experimental example of the techniques developed, the information retrieved is the correlation peak from an optical recognition architecture, but the materials and methods developed are applicable to many other holographic information storage systems. Optical correlators can potentially solve any signal or image recognition problem. Military surveillance, fingerprint identification for law enforcement or employee identification, and video games are but a few examples of applications. A major obstacle keeping optical correlators from being universally accepted is the lack of a high quality, thick (high capacity) holographic recording material that operates with red or infrared wavelengths which are available from inexpensive diode lasers. This research addresses the problems from two positions: find a better material for use with diode lasers, and reduce the requirements placed on the material while maintaining an efficient and effective system. This research found that the solutions are new dopants introduced into photorefractive lithium niobate to improve wavelength sensitivities and the use of a novel inexpensive diffuser that reduces the dynamic range and optical element quality requirements (which reduces the cost) while improving performance. A uniquely doped set of 12 lithium niobate crystals was specified and

  12. Improved sodium-storage performance of stannous sulfide@reduced graphene oxide composite as high capacity anodes for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lin; Lu, Haiyan; Xiao, Lifen; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-10-01

    Stannous sulfide@reduced graphene oxide (SnS@RGO) composite is successfully synthesized via a facile precipitation route. The structural and morphological characterizations reveal SnS@RGO composites are composed of SnS nanoparticles of the size 5-10 nm, which are uniformly anchored on the surface of RGO. The electrochemical measurements demonstrate the reversible capacity of the SnS@RGO composite - that includes contributions from the conversion reaction of SnS to Sn and NaxS and the alloying reaction of Sn to NaxSn. The SnS@RGO electrode exhibits a reversible capacity of 457 mAh g-1 at 20 mA g-1, superior cycling stability (94% capacity retention over 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1) and adequate rate performance. Compared to the neat SnS nanoparticles, the enhanced electrochemical performance of the SnS@RGO composite is primarily due to the incorporation of RGO as a highly conductive, flexible component as well as possessing a large available surface area, which provides desirable properties such as improved electronic contact between active materials, aggregation suppression of intermediate products, and alleviation of the volume change during sodiation and desodiation. Encouraging experimental results suggest that the SnS@RGO composite is a promising material to achieve a high-capacity and stable anode for NIBs.

  13. Photorefractive materials for optical storage and display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, R. R.; Kim, D. M.; Rabson, T. A.; Tittel, F. K.

    1976-01-01

    Real-time data storage and processing using optical techniques have been considered in recent years. Of particular interest are photosensitive electro-optic crystals which permit volume storage in the form of phase holograms, by means of a charge transfer process. A survey of the state of the art of such holographic memories is presented. The physical mechanism responsible for the formation of phase holograms in such crystals is discussed. Attention is focused on various aspects of materials characterization, development and utilization. Experimental reversible holographic read-write memory systems with fast random access and high storage capacity employing this new class of photosensitive materials have already been demonstrated.

  14. Optical data storage and metallization of polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roland, C. M.; Sonnenschein, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of polymers as media for optical data storage offers many potential benefits and consequently has been widely explored. New developments in thermal imaging are described, wherein high resolution lithography is accomplished without thermal smearing. The emphasis was on the use of poly(ethylene terephthalate) film, which simultaneously serves as both the substrate and the data storage medium. Both physical and chemical changes can be induced by the application of heat and, thereby, serve as a mechanism for high resolution optical data storage in polymers. The extension of the technique to obtain high resolution selective metallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) is also described.

  15. Optical Storage and Retrieval of Library Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folen, Doris R.; Stackpole, Laurie E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the newly installed optical disk storage system at the Naval Research Laboratory's Research Library and Technical Information Center. Planning and design of the system, the conversion of 140,000 reports to optical disk, the information retrieval process, and future plans are covered. (Contains nine references.) (KRN)

  16. ``H2 sponge'': pressure as a means for reversible high-capacity hydrogen storage in nanoporous Ca-intercalated covalent organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Sun, Jia Tao; Meng, Sheng

    2015-03-01

    We explore the potential and advantages of Ca-intercalated covalent organic framework-1 (CaCOF-1) as a 3-dimensional (3D) layered material for reversible hydrogen storage. Density functional theory calculations show that by varying the interlayer distance of CaCOF-1, a series of metastable structures can be achieved with the interlayer distance falling in the range of 4.3-4.8 Å. When four hydrogen molecules are adsorbed on each Ca, a high hydrogen uptake of 4.54 wt% can be produced, with the binding energy falling in the ideal range of 0.2-0.6 eV per H2. While H2 absorption is a spontaneous process under H2 rich conditions, tuning the interlayer distance by reasonable external pressure could compress CaCOF-1 to release all of the hydrogen molecules and restore the material to its original state for recyclable use. This provides a new method for gradual, controllable extraction of hydrogen molecules in covalent organic frameworks, satisfying the practical demand for reversible hydrogen storage at ambient temperatures.We explore the potential and advantages of Ca-intercalated covalent organic framework-1 (CaCOF-1) as a 3-dimensional (3D) layered material for reversible hydrogen storage. Density functional theory calculations show that by varying the interlayer distance of CaCOF-1, a series of metastable structures can be achieved with the interlayer distance falling in the range of 4.3-4.8 Å. When four hydrogen molecules are adsorbed on each Ca, a high hydrogen uptake of 4.54 wt% can be produced, with the binding energy falling in the ideal range of 0.2-0.6 eV per H2. While H2 absorption is a spontaneous process under H2 rich conditions, tuning the interlayer distance by reasonable external pressure could compress CaCOF-1 to release all of the hydrogen molecules and restore the material to its original state for recyclable use. This provides a new method for gradual, controllable extraction of hydrogen molecules in covalent organic frameworks, satisfying the

  17. Holographic Optical Storage Using Photorefractive Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, L. Michael; Strutz, Shane J.; Harris, Kristi; Ayachitula, Rajani

    2000-01-01

    The task for this report is to perform the basic research and develop a prototype benchtop holographic optical storage system based on photochromic and/or photorefractive polymers so that both permanent and erasable images may be stored and retrieved in the same mixed polymer medium. The task consist of: assembly and setup of the benchtop holographic storage system, including lasers, optics, and other ancillary equipment in a laboratory setting; and research and development of a suitable polymer matrix that will allow practical storage and retrieval of digital data. This will necessitate molecular design of the matrices involved and subsequent physics test to verify the characteristics of the matrices provide practical storage and retrieval.

  18. Binder-free network-enabled MoS2-PPY-rGO ternary electrode for high capacity and excellent stability of lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, D.; Wang, D. H.; Tang, W. J.; Xia, X. H.; Zhang, Y. J.; Wang, X. L.; Gu, C. D.; Tu, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    A unique MoS2-based composite composed of MoS2 nanosheets wrapped by a conductive polypyrrole (PPY) layer and closely incorporated within reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets is prepared by all-solution method. As a free-binder electrode for lithium-ion batteries, the ternary electrode delivers an initial discharge capacity of 1428 mAh g-1, maintains 1070 mAh g-1 after 400 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1, and also exhibits superior rate capacity of 600 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 2000 A g-1. The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the advantageous combination of the 3D hierarchically rGO skeleton and in-situ formed conductive PPY coating. This design route represents a new direction for high-performance lithium ion batteries and related energy storage application with advanced nanostructured materials.

  19. Scanning Techniques For Optical Data Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towner, David K.

    1987-01-01

    It seems almost paradoxical that beams of light can be moved and steered at very high speeds using a variety of scanning methods, yet the optical disk drives now being designed and marketed for data storage applications have comparatively long access times. Knowing that optical data storage has unrealized potential is of interest, but of more immediate concern is the recognition that poor access performance is a serious design issue. Magnetic disk drives offer average seek times in the 15-25ms range, compared to about 80-500ms (or more, for CD ROMS) for current optical drives. This performance disparity exists, in part, because the relatively massive "optical heads" in use today cannot be transported across the radius of a disk as quickly as a stack of much lighter magnetic heads. Any potential distance advantage that the optical drive might have, due to its substantially higher track density, is offset by the magnetic drive's use of a multi-disk stack. As a result, the drive must achieve similar radial accelerations during seeks if it is to have similar average access times. The inability of current optical drives to approach the access speeds of comparable magnetic drives significantly reduces the competitiveness of optical products in major segments of the very large data storage market. This shortcoming is especially disturbing when we know that opto-mechanical scanners typically operate in the 1-10ms range and that non-mechanical scanning techniques can be substantially faster than that.

  20. Optical Digital Disk Storage: An Application for News Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Mary Jo

    1988-01-01

    Describes the technology, equipment, and procedures necessary for converting a historical newspaper clipping collection to optical disk storage. Alternative storage systems--microforms, laser scanners, optical storage--are also retrieved, and the advantages and disadvantages of optical storage are considered. (MES)

  1. Cobalt carbonate dumbbells for high-capacity lithium storage: A slight doping of ascorbic acid and an enhancement in electrochemical performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shiqiang; Wei, Shanshan; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuxi; Yu, Yue; Shen, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    Synthesis of materials with desirable nanostructures is a hot research topic owing to their enhanced performances in contrast to the bulk counterparts. Herein, dumbbell-shaped cobalt carbonate (CoCO3) nano architectures and the bulk counterpart of CoCO3 rhombohedra are prepared via a facile hydrothermal route in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (AA), respectively. By comparison, it has been found that: the addition of AA in the hydrothermal crystallization system changes the shape of the building blocks from Co2CO3(OH)2 nanosheets to CoCO3 nanoparticles, and then further influences the final configuration of the products. When applied as anodes of lithium ion batteries, CoCO3 dumbbells deliver a 100th capacity of 1042 mAh g-1 at 200 mA g-1 and even exhibit a long-term value of 824 mAh g-1 over 500 cycles at 1000 mA g-1, which are much higher than the rhombohedral counterparts with corresponding 540 and 481 mAh g-1 respectively. The much higher capacity, better cycling stability and enhanced rate performance of CoCO3 dumbbells can be attributed to the higher specific surface area, smaller charge transport resistance and better structure stability resulting from the slight doping (∼4.6 wt%) of AA, and also relate with a novel lithium storage mechanism in CoCO3.

  2. Integrated 3D porous C-MoS2/nitrogen-doped graphene electrode for high capacity and prolonged stability lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, D.; Tang, W. J.; Xia, X. H.; Wang, D. H.; Zhou, D.; Shi, F.; Wang, X. L.; Gu, C. D.; Tu, J. P.

    2015-11-01

    Scrupulous design and fabrication of advanced anode materials are of great importance for developing high-performance lithium ion batteries. Herein, we report a facile strategy for construction of free-standing and free-binder 3D porous carbon coated MoS2/nitrogen-doped graphene (C-MoS2/N-G) integrated electrode via a hydrothermal-induced self-assembly process. The preformed carbon coated MoS2 is strongly anchored on the porous nitrogen-doped graphene aerogel architecture. As an anode for lithium ion batteries, the C-MoS2/N-G electrode delivers a high first discharge capacity of 1600 mAh g-1 and maintains 900 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles at a current density of 200 mA g-1. Impressively, superior high-rate capability is achieved for the C-MoS2/N-G with a reversible capacity of 500 mAh g-1 at a high current density of 4000 mA g-1. Furthermore, the lithium storage mechanism of the obtained integrated electrode is investigated by ex-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy in detail.

  3. Biomolecular optical data storage and data encryption.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Thorsten; Neebe, Martin; Juchem, Thorsten; Hampp, Norbert A

    2003-03-01

    The use of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) as an active layer in write-once-read-many optical storage is presented. This novel feature of BR materials may be used on a wide variety of substrates, among them transparent substrates but also paper and plastics. The physical basis of the recording process is polarization-sensitive two-photon absorption. As an example for this new BR application, an identification card equipped with an optical recording strip is presented, which has a capacity of about 1 MB of data. The recording density currently used is 125 kB/cm2, which is far from the optical limits but allows operation with cheap terminals using plastic optics. In the examples given, data are stored in blocks of 10 kB each. A special optical encryption procedure allows the stored data to be protected from unauthorized reading. The molecular basis of this property is again the polarization-sensitive recording mechanism. The unique combination of optical storage, photochromism, and traceability of the BR material is combined on the single-molecule level. BR introduces a new quality of storage capability for applications with increased security and anticounterfeiting requirements.

  4. Optical storage media data integrity studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podio, Fernando L.

    1994-01-01

    Optical disk-based information systems are being used in private industry and many Federal Government agencies for on-line and long-term storage of large quantities of data. The storage devices that are part of these systems are designed with powerful, but not unlimited, media error correction capacities. The integrity of data stored on optical disks does not only depend on the life expectancy specifications for the medium. Different factors, including handling and storage conditions, may result in an increase of medium errors in size and frequency. Monitoring the potential data degradation is crucial, especially for long term applications. Efforts are being made by the Association for Information and Image Management Technical Committee C21, Storage Devices and Applications, to specify methods for monitoring and reporting to the user medium errors detected by the storage device while writing, reading or verifying the data stored in that medium. The Computer Systems Laboratory (CSL) of the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) has a leadership role in the development of these standard techniques. In addition, CSL is researching other data integrity issues, including the investigation of error-resilient compression algorithms. NIST has conducted care and handling experiments on optical disk media with the objective of identifying possible causes of degradation. NIST work in data integrity and related standards activities is described.

  5. A biometric access personal optical storage device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, David H.; Ray, Steve; Gurkowski, Mark; Lee, Lane

    2007-01-01

    A portable USB2.0 personal storage device that uses built-in encryption and allows data access through biometric scanning of a finger print is described. Biometric image derived templates are stored on the removable 32 mm write once (WO) media. The encrypted templates travel with the disc and allow access to the data providing the biometric feature (e.g. the finger itself) is present. The device also allows for export and import of the templates under secure key exchange protocols. The storage system is built around the small form factor optical engine that uses a tilt arm rotary actuator and front surface media.

  6. High Bandwidth Electro-optic Scanner for Optical Data Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Jinhui; Huang, Yuhong; Schroeck, Steve; Messner, W.; Stancil, Daniel D.; Schlesinger, T. E.

    2000-02-01

    Beam deflectors can be used as fine tracking actuators to improve track access time and data rate in future high performance optical disk drives. In this paper we report on the use of an electro-optic (EO) scanner for optical data storage. Track following has been accomplished using this EO actuator with a servo bandwidth of 200 kHz, and single-stage high-speed track switching/following has been demonstrated in a new optical head tracking system with reduced offset. A fine tracking experiment has also been demonstrated using an EO actuator with a voice coil motor (VCM) actuator to extend the fine tracking range. A new compensator design method, the PQ method, has been used for this scanner/VCM compound actuator system. Significant improvements in track switching/following speed are demonstrated with the scanner/VCM compound actuator as compared to tracking with the VCM actuator alone.

  7. Nonadiabatic approach to quantum optical information storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsko, A. B.; Rostovtsev, Y. V.; Kocharovskaya, O.; Zibrov, A. S.; Scully, M. O.

    2001-10-01

    We show that there is no need for adiabatic passage in the storage and retrieval of information in the optically thick vapor of Lambda-type atoms. This information can be mapped into and retrieved out of long-lived atomic coherence with nearly perfect efficiency by strong writing and reading pulses with steep rising and falling edges. We elucidate similarities and differences between the ``adiabatic'' and ``instant'' light storage techniques, and conclude that for any switching time, an almost perfect information storage is possible if the group velocity of the signal pulse is much less than the speed of light in the vacuum c and the bandwidth of the signal pulse is much less then the width of the two-photon resonance. The maximum loss of the information appears in the case of instantaneous switching of the writing and reading fields compared with adiabatic switching, and is determined by the ratio of the initial group velocity of the signal pulse in the medium and speed of light in the vacuum c, which can be very small. Quantum restrictions to the storage efficiency are also discussed.

  8. The WORM in Research (Write Once Read Many Optical Storage)

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, David; Marciniak, Thomas A.; Srivastava, Sudhir

    1988-01-01

    Write once, read many (WORM) optical storage is an available technology for storing inexpensively large amounts of data on a personal computer system. We summarize the technical tradeoffs of WORM drives and other forms of optical storage and discuss the use of WORM storage for typical medical data base applications: (1) flat files; (2) complex databases; and (3) text files.

  9. Balloon borne optical disk mass storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanek, M. D.; Jennings, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    An on-board data recording system for balloon-borne interferometer using a vacuum operable, ruggedized WORM optical drive is presented. This system, as presently under development, provides 320 Mbytes of data storage (or approximately 11 hrs at the 64 kbits/sec telemetry rate of the experiment). It has the capability of recording the unmodified telemetry bit system as transmitted or doing some preprocessing of the data onboard. The system is compact and requires less than 28 watts of battery power to operate.

  10. High capacity heavy media processing

    SciTech Connect

    Chedgy, D.G.; Yu, S.; Addison, F.; Stanley, F.

    1996-12-31

    Pittston Coal Company recognized the potential economic benefit of improving process efficiency with increased capacity at it`s U.K. No. 1 Coal Preparation Plant. Accordingly, extensive research, both domestically and internationally, was conducted to select the appropriate technologies to achieve the desired circuit in the most cost effective manner while, at the same time, sacrificing neither structural integrity nor process performance. Large diameter heavy media cyclone technology was combined with highly efficient banana type screens and improved high intensity magnetic separators to create a coordinated process circuit that provided high efficiency at very high capacities in an economically attractive package.

  11. Pilot Project for Spaceborne Massive Optical Storage Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. J.

    1996-01-01

    A space bound storage device has many special requirements. In addition to large storage capacity, fas read/ write time, and high reliability, it also needs to have small volume, light weight, low power consumption, radiation hardening, ability to operate in extreme temperature ranges, etc. Holographic optical recording technology, which has been making major advancements in recent years, is an extremely promising candidate. The goal of this pilot project is to demonstrate a laboratory bench-top holographic optical recording storage system (HORSS) based on nonlinear polymer films 1 and/or other advanced photo-refractive materials. This system will be used as a research vehicle to study relevant optical properties of novel holographic optical materials, to explore massive optical storage technologies based on the photo-refractive effect and to evaluate the feasibility of developing a massive storage system, based on holographic optical recording technology, for a space bound experiment in the near future.

  12. High capacity tieback installation method

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherby, D.E.

    1988-01-12

    A method of installing a high capacity tieback is described comprising: connecting a unitary hollow casing to a drill; inserting prestressing steel within the casing; fixing a lost bit to one end of the casing; positioning the drill and casing at the desired location of the tieback; rotating the casing into the ground with the drill and removing soil with a drilling fluid as the casing is advanced into the ground; releasing the bit from the casing and pumping grout down the hollow interior of the casing at a pressure of at least 150 psi forcing water in the grout to bleed from the grout; extracting the casing from the ground by developing a torque of at least 12,000 ft./lbs on the casing with the drill to overcome the frictional engagement between the grout and the casing and by applying a pulling force to the casing generally along the axis of the casing with the drill; and anchoring the prestressing steel.

  13. Research Studies on Advanced Optical Module/Head Designs for Optical Data Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Preprints are presented from the recent 1992 Optical Data Storage meeting in San Jose. The papers are divided into the following topical areas: Magneto-optical media (Modeling/design and fabrication/characterization/testing); Optical heads (holographic optical elements); and Optical heads (integrated optics). Some representative titles are as follow: Diffraction analysis and evaluation of several focus and track error detection schemes for magneto-optical disk systems; Proposal for massively parallel data storage system; Transfer function characteristics of super resolving systems; Modeling and measurement of a micro-optic beam deflector; Oxidation processes in magneto-optic and related materials; and A modal analysis of lamellar diffraction gratings in conical mountings.

  14. Experimental study of optical storage characteristics of photochromic material: pyrrylfulgide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Ming; Yao, Baoli; Chen, Yi; Han, Yong; Wang, Congmin; Wang, Yingli; Menke, Neimule; Chen, Guofu; Fan, Meigong

    2003-04-01

    Optical data storage is a frontier in the information science. Currently, there are mainly two kinds of storage materials, i.e., thermal-optic and photonic materials. The storage methods are divided into serial and parallel modes. In the market, the mature technique is CD-RW, which uses the thermal-optic material and serial method. The storage density of the CD-RW is restricted by the size of material particles, the conduction of heat, etc. Besides, the recording speed is seriously limited by the process of heating. Photonic materials and parallel method will be the trend in the optical data storage. Because it is based on the photon reaction on the molecule scale, the storage density and speed will be greatly increased. In this paper, a new kind of organic photochromic material -- pyrrylfulgide was studied. A parallel optical data storage system was established. Using the pyrrylfulgide/PMMA film as a recording medium, micro-images and binary digital information could be recorded, readout and erased in this parallel system. The recorded information on the film can be kept for at least 8 months in dark at room temperature. So far, the storage density is 3 x 107 bit/cm2.

  15. A new tape product for optical data storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, T. L.; Woodard, F. E.; Pace, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    A new tape product has been developed for optical data storage. Laser data recording is based on hole or pit formation in a low melting metallic alloy system. The media structure, sputter deposition process, and media characteristics, including write sensitivity, error rates, wear resistance, and archival storage are discussed.

  16. Bacteriorhodopsin films for optical signal processing and data storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkup, John F. (Principal Investigator); Mehrl, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the research results obtained on NASA Ames Grant NAG 2-878 entitled 'Investigations of Bacteriorhodopsin Films for Optical Signal Processing and Data Storage.' Specifically we performed research, at Texas Tech University, on applications of Bacteriorhodopisin film to both (1) dynamic spatial filtering and (2) holographic data storage. In addition, measurements of the noise properties of an acousto-optical matrix-vestor multiplier built for NASA Ames by Photonic Systems Inc. were performed at NASA Ames' Photonics Laboratory. This research resulted in two papers presented at major optical data processing conferences and a journal paper which is to appear in APPLIED OPTICS. A new proposal for additional BR research has recently been submitted to NASA Ames Research Center.

  17. Method and apparatus for bistable optical information storage for erasable optical disks

    DOEpatents

    Land, Cecil E.; McKinney, Ira D.

    1990-01-01

    A method and an optical device for bistable storage of optical information, together with reading and erasure of the optical information, using a photoactivated shift in a field dependent phase transition between a metastable or a bias-stabilized ferroelectric (FE) phase and a stable antiferroelectric (AFE) phase in an lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT). An optical disk contains the PLZT. Writing and erasing of optical information can be accomplished by a light beam normal to the disk. Reading of optical information can be accomplished by a light beam at an incidence angle of 15 to 60 degrees to the normal of the disk.

  18. Method and apparatus for bistable optical information storage for erasable optical disks

    DOEpatents

    Land, C.E.; McKinney, I.D.

    1988-05-31

    A method and an optical device for bistable storage of optical information, together with reading and erasure of the optical information, using a photoactivated shift in a field dependent phase transition between a metastable or a bias-stabilized ferroelectric (FE) phase and a stable antiferroelectric (AFE) phase in a lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT). An optical disk contains the PLZT. Writing and erasing of optical information can be accomplished by a light beam normal to the disk. Reading of optical information can be accomplished by a light beam at an incidence angle of 15 to 60 degrees to the normal of the disk. 10 figs.

  19. ORNL concept would greatly increase optical data storage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    ORNL researchers have developed a technique, surface-enhanced Raman optical data storage (SERODS), which uses the light-emitting properties of molecules to pack considerably more information into compact discs. This new technology has the potential to store 10 days of music-instead of just 90 minutes-on a single disc.

  20. Interactive Optical Disc Systems: Part 1: Analog Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, David W.

    1984-01-01

    Details distinction between digital and analog data, advantages of analog storage, and optical disc use to store analog data. Configuration and potential of three levels of laser disc systems are explained. Selection of display devices for use with laser disc systems and accessing audio data are addressed. (Continued in next issue.) (EJS)

  1. Optical Disk for Digital Storage and Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Denis A.

    1983-01-01

    Availability of low-cost digital optical disks will revolutionize storage and retrieval systems over next decade. Three major factors will effect this change: availability of disks and controllers at low-cost and in plentiful supply; availability of low-cost and better output means for system users; and more flexible, less expensive communication…

  2. Optical distortions in electron/positron storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.L.; Donald, M.; Servranckx, R.

    1983-01-01

    We have studied the optical distortions in the PEP electron/positron storage ring for various optical configurations using the computer programs DIMAT, HARMON, PATRICIA, and TURTLE. The results are shown graphically by tracing several thousand trajectories from one interaction region to the next using TURTLE and by tracing a few selected rays several hundred turns using the programs DIMAT and PATRICIA. The results show an interesting correlation between the calculated optical cleanliness of a particular lattice configuration and the observed operating characteristics of the machine.

  3. Surface-enhanced raman optical data storage system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage (SERODS) System is disclosed. A medium which exhibits the Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) phenomenon has data written onto its surface of microenvironment by means of a write-on procedure which disturbs the surface or microenvironment of the medium and results in the medium having a changed SERS emission when excited. The write-on procedure is controlled by a signal that corresponds to the data to be stored so that the disturbed regions on the storage device (e.g., disk) represent the data. After the data is written onto the storage device it is read by exciting the surface of the storage device with an appropriate radiation source and detecting changes in the SERS emission to produce a detection signal. The data is then reproduced from the detection signal.

  4. Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1991-03-12

    A method and apparatus for a Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage (SERODS) System are disclosed. A medium which exhibits the Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) phenomenon has data written onto its surface of microenvironment by means of a write-on procedure which disturbs the surface or microenvironment of the medium and results in the medium having a changed SERS emission when excited. The write-on procedure is controlled by a signal that corresponds to the data to be stored so that the disturbed regions on the storage device (e.g., disk) represent the data. After the data is written onto the storage device it is read by exciting the surface of the storage device with an appropriate radiation source and detecting changes in the SERS emission to produce a detection signal. The data is then reproduced from the detection signal. 5 figures.

  5. DWT-Based High Capacity Audio Watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahpour, Mehdi; Megías, David

    This letter suggests a novel high capacity robust audio watermarking algorithm by using the high frequency band of the wavelet decomposition, for which the human auditory system (HAS) is not very sensitive to alteration. The main idea is to divide the high frequency band into frames and then, for embedding, the wavelet samples are changed based on the average of the relevant frame. The experimental results show that the method has very high capacity (about 5.5kbps), without significant perceptual distortion (ODG in [-1, 0] and SNR about 33dB) and provides robustness against common audio signal processing such as added noise, filtering, echo and MPEG compression (MP3).

  6. High capacity measurement systems for liquid lines

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, R.E. )

    1989-06-01

    High capacity flow control and measurement systems offer advantages over installing individual components, according to the author. In this article, he lists the advantages and types of equipment available. A typical prepackaged, pretested high capacity flow control and measurement system is shown. This system includes positive displacement flowmeters, strainers, flow control valves, block and bleed shut-off valves, bi-directional meter provers and remote instrument console; all pre-assembled on skid frames with electrical conduit, electro-hydraulic power supply, sampler system, pipe, fittings and manifolding., This particular system is designed to measure and control the flow of crude oil loading tankers from a single buoy mooring point.

  7. Electron trapping optical data storage system and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brower, Daniel; Earman, Allen; Chaffin, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    A new technology developed at Optex Corporation out-performs all other existing data storage technologies. The Electron Trapping Optical Memory (ETOM) media stores 14 gigabytes of uncompressed data on a single, double-sided 130 mm disk with a data transfer rate of up to 120 megabits per second. The disk is removable, compact, lightweight, environmentally stable, and robust. Since the Write/Read/Erase (W/R/E) processes are carried out photonically, no heating of the recording media is required. Therefore, the storage media suffers no deleterious effects from repeated W/R/E cycling. This rewritable data storage technology has been developed for use as a basis for numerous data storage products. Industries that can benefit from the ETOM data storage technologies include: satellite data and information systems, broadcasting, video distribution, image processing and enhancement, and telecommunications. Products developed for these industries are well suited for the demanding store-and-forward buffer systems, data storage, and digital video systems needed for these applications.

  8. SERODS optical data storage with parallel signal transfer

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-06-24

    Surface-enhanced Raman optical data storage (SERODS) systems having increased reading and writing speeds, that is, increased data transfer rates, are disclosed. In the various SERODS read and write systems, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) data is written and read using a two-dimensional process called parallel signal transfer (PST). The various embodiments utilize laser light beam excitation of the SERODS medium, optical filtering, beam imaging, and two-dimensional light detection. Two- and three-dimensional SERODS media are utilized. The SERODS write systems employ either a different laser or a different level of laser power.

  9. SERODS optical data storage with parallel signal transfer

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2003-09-02

    Surface-enhanced Raman optical data storage (SERODS) systems having increased reading and writing speeds, that is, increased data transfer rates, are disclosed. In the various SERODS read and write systems, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) data is written and read using a two-dimensional process called parallel signal transfer (PST). The various embodiments utilize laser light beam excitation of the SERODS medium, optical filtering, beam imaging, and two-dimensional light detection. Two- and three-dimensional SERODS media are utilized. The SERODS write systems employ either a different laser or a different level of laser power.

  10. Advanced high capacity domestic satellite communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iso, Akio; Kohiyama, Kenji; Odate, Hitoshi; Ishida, Noriaki

    This paper describes a concept of multibeam high capacity transmission possible with a 30/20 GHz and 50/40 GHz domestic satellite communication system. The relationship between satellite antenna pointing accuracy and multi-beam antenna interference, as well as the relationship between satellite antenna pointing accuracy and multi-satellite interference are looked at. The ultra high capacity domestic satellite communication system will have multi-beam antennas with a 76.0 dB at both 20 GHz and 40 GHz. These antennas will provide 4950 beams that approximately correspond to the number of end office of the Japanese telephone network, and have a pointing accuracy of 0.005 degrees. This system will be equipped with 9900 30/20 GHz and 50/40 GHz transponder channels with bit rates of 800 Mbps. Its capacity will be 119 Tbps through use of 15 large communication satellite platforms.

  11. New optical fibres for high-capacity optical communications.

    PubMed

    Richardson, D J

    2016-03-01

    Researchers are within a factor of 2 or so from realizing the maximum practical transmission capacity of conventional single-mode fibre transmission technology. It is therefore timely to consider new technological approaches offering the potential for more cost-effective scaling of network capacity than simply installing more and more conventional single-mode systems in parallel. In this paper, I review physical layer options that can be considered to address this requirement including the potential for reduction in both fibre loss and nonlinearity for single-mode fibres, the development of ultra-broadband fibre amplifiers and finally the use of space division multiplexing.

  12. New optical fibres for high-capacity optical communications

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers are within a factor of 2 or so from realizing the maximum practical transmission capacity of conventional single-mode fibre transmission technology. It is therefore timely to consider new technological approaches offering the potential for more cost-effective scaling of network capacity than simply installing more and more conventional single-mode systems in parallel. In this paper, I review physical layer options that can be considered to address this requirement including the potential for reduction in both fibre loss and nonlinearity for single-mode fibres, the development of ultra-broadband fibre amplifiers and finally the use of space division multiplexing. PMID:26809569

  13. High capacity magnetic separator for volatile dust

    SciTech Connect

    Mendrela, E.A.; Mendrela, E.M.; Osadnik, Z.; Staszak, J.

    1983-05-01

    The high percentage of ferromagnetic particles/..gamma.. - Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3// in chimney dust of coal power stations and a significant industrial demand for these materials suggests the possibility of extracting them on a large scale. Currently applied magnetic separators are too small for the requirements. A magnetic separator is presented which assures high capacity of dust flow and good quality of a separated ferromagnetic concentrate. The structure of this new magnetic separator and test results are described.

  14. Surface-enhanced raman optical data storage system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1994-01-01

    An improved Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage System (SERODS) is disclosed. In the improved system, entities capable of existing in multiple reversible states are present on the storage device. Such entities result in changed Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) when localized state changes are effected in less than all of the entities. Therefore, by changing the state of entities in localized regions of a storage device, the SERS emissions in such regions will be changed. When a write-on device is controlled by a data signal, such a localized regions of changed SERS emissions will correspond to the data written on the device. The data may be read by illuminating the surface of the storage device with electromagnetic radiation of an appropriate frequency and detecting the corresponding SERS emissions. Data may be deleted by reversing the state changes of entities in regions where the data was initially written. In application, entities may be individual molecules which allows for the writing of data at the molecular level. A read/write/delete head utilizing near-field quantum techniques can provide for a write/read/delete device capable of effecting state changes in individual molecules, thus providing for the effective storage of data at the molecular level.

  15. Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1994-06-28

    An improved Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage System (SERODS) is disclosed. In the improved system, entities capable of existing in multiple reversible states are present on the storage device. Such entities result in changed Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) when localized state changes are effected in less than all of the entities. Therefore, by changing the state of entities in localized regions of a storage device, the SERS emissions in such regions will be changed. When a write-on device is controlled by a data signal, such a localized regions of changed SERS emissions will correspond to the data written on the device. The data may be read by illuminating the surface of the storage device with electromagnetic radiation of an appropriate frequency and detecting the corresponding SERS emissions. Data may be deleted by reversing the state changes of entities in regions where the data was initially written. In application, entities may be individual molecules which allows for the writing of data at the molecular level. A read/write/delete head utilizing near-field quantum techniques can provide for a write/read/delete device capable of effecting state changes in individual molecules, thus providing for the effective storage of data at the molecular level. 18 figures.

  16. A high capacity 3D steganography algorithm.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-hung; Yu, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a very high-capacity and low-distortion 3D steganography scheme. Our steganography approach is based on a novel multilayered embedding scheme to hide secret messages in the vertices of 3D polygon models. Experimental results show that the cover model distortion is very small as the number of hiding layers ranges from 7 to 13 layers. To the best of our knowledge, this novel approach can provide much higher hiding capacity than other state-of-the-art approaches, while obeying the low distortion and security basic requirements for steganography on 3D models.

  17. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Schmitz, P.; Vandersande, J.

    1992-01-01

    The elements of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. The overall project will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements are presented, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  18. Rewritable three-dimensional holographic data storage via optical forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yetisen, Ali K.; Montelongo, Yunuen; Butt, Haider

    2016-08-01

    The development of nanostructures that can be reversibly arranged and assembled into 3D patterns may enable optical tunability. However, current dynamic recording materials such as photorefractive polymers cannot be used to store information permanently while also retaining configurability. Here, we describe the synthesis and optimization of a silver nanoparticle doped poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) recording medium for reversibly recording 3D holograms. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate organizing nanoparticles into 3D assemblies in the recording medium using optical forces produced by the gradients of standing waves. The nanoparticles in the recording medium are organized by multiple nanosecond laser pulses to produce reconfigurable slanted multilayer structures. We demonstrate the capability of producing rewritable optical elements such as multilayer Bragg diffraction gratings, 1D photonic crystals, and 3D multiplexed optical gratings. We also show that 3D virtual holograms can be reversibly recorded. This recording strategy may have applications in reconfigurable optical elements, data storage devices, and dynamic holographic displays.

  19. Mechanical and optical characterization of gelled matrices during storage.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, Gabriel; Zaritzky, Noemí; Califano, Alicia

    2015-03-01

    The effect of composition and storage time on the rheological and optical attributes of multi-component gels containing locust bean gum (LBG), low acyl (LAG) and high acyl (HAG) gellan gums, was determined using three-component mixture design. The generalized Maxwell model was used to fit experimental rheological data. Mechanical and relaxation spectra of gelled systems were determined by the type of gellan gum used, except LBG alone which behaved as a diluted gum dispersion. Storage time dependence of the gels was analyzed using the rubber elasticity theory and to determine changes in network mesh size the equivalent network approach was applied. Destabilization kinetic was obtained from light scattering results; increasing LAG content improved the long-term stability of the matrices. Almost every formulation exhibited an increment in both moduli during the first 10 days remaining practically constant thereafter or until they broke (binary mixtures with LBG); gels with HAG/LBG mixtures were the least stable. PMID:25498706

  20. Optical properties of a photopolymer film for digital holographic storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Changwon; Kim, Junghoi; Kim, Nam; Lee, Hyojin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2005-09-01

    Tir- and mono functional monomers were dispersed in a solution of polysulfone in organic solvent containing a photo initiator and other additives. New photopolymer film was prepared by dispersing acrylic monomer in a polysulfone matrix. The Polysulfone was adopted as a binder since it affords transparent thick films with low dimensional changes during holographic recording. Optical property of the photopolymer showed high diffraction efficiency (>90%) under an optimized optical condition at 532nm laser. The angular selectivity for angular multiplexing page oriented holographic memories (POHMs), the maximum diffraction efficiency of the material during holographic recording, the diffraction efficiency of the films as a function of an incident angle of two beams, exposure energy for saturation of the holographic material and application for holographic data storage will be discussed.

  1. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil applications. During 1986 and 1987, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was responsible for maintaining the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In 1988, the NASA Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA`s new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA advanced technology project, and provides a bridge to the NASA exploration technology programs. The elements of CSTI high capacity power development include conversion systems - Stirling and thermoelectric, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 years lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems while minimizing the impact of day/night operation as well as attitudes and distance from the Sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the program elements will be discussed, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  2. Optical storage based on coupling of one-way edge modes and cavity modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Ni, Zh.; He, H. Q.; Jiang, T.

    2015-08-01

    We design a new kind of optical storage composed of a ring resonator that is based on both the one-way property of the edge modes of magneto-optical photonic crystals and the coupling effect of cavities. The ring resonator can be served as an optical storage through a close field circulation. Through another edge waveguide and coupling cavity, the electromagnetic signals can either be written into the storage or be taken out from it.

  3. Holographic memory module with ultra-high capacity and throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir A. Markov, Ph.D.

    2000-06-04

    High capacity, high transfer rate, random access memory systems are needed to archive and distribute the tremendous volume of digital information being generated, for example, the human genome mapping and online libraries. The development of multi-gigabit per second networks underscores the need for next-generation archival memory systems. During Phase I we conducted the theoretical analysis and accomplished experimental tests that validated the key aspects of the ultra-high density holographic data storage module with high transfer rate. We also inspected the secure nature of the encoding method and estimated the performance of full-scale system. Two basic architectures were considered, allowing for reversible compact solid-state configuration with limited capacity, and very large capacity write once read many memory system.

  4. Research on the design of an optical information storage sensing system using a diffractive optical element.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun; Hou, Jianbo; Li, Xiangping; Ma, Jianshe; Gu, Min

    2013-11-08

    This paper introduces a compact optical information storage sensing system. Applications of this system include longitudinal surface plasmon resonance detection of gold nanorods with a single femtosecond laser in three-dimensional space as well as data storage. A diffractive optical element (DOE) is applied in the system to separate the recording-reading beam from the servo beam. This allows us to apply a single laser and one objective lens in a single optical path for the servo beam and the recording-reading beam. The optical system has a linear region of 8 λ, which is compatible with current DVD servo modules. The wavefront error of the optical system is below 0.03 λ(rms). The minimum grating period of the DOE is 13.4 µm, and the depth of the DOE is 1.2 µm, which makes fabrication of it possible. The DOE is also designed to conveniently control the layer-selection process, as there is a linear correlation between the displacement of the DOE and the layer-selection distance. The displacement of DOE is in the range of 0-6.045 mm when the thickness of the layer-selection is 0.3 mm. Experiments were performed and the results have been verified.

  5. High capacity 30 K remote helium cooling loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.; Icart, Y.; Ravex, A.

    2014-01-01

    Absolut System has built several 50 K remote helium cooling loops used as high capacity and very low vibration cooling source into large wavelength IR detectors electro-optical characterization test benches. MgB2 based superconducting electro-technical equipment's under development require also distributed high cooling power in the 20-30 K temperature range. Absolut System has designed, manufactured and tested a high capacity 30 K remote helium cooling loop. The equipment consists of a CRYOMECH AL325 type cooler, a CP830 type compressor package used as room temperature circulator and an intermediate LN2 bath cooling used between two recuperator heat exchangers (300 K-77 K and 77 K-20 K). A cooling capacity of 30 W @ 20 K or 80 W @ 30 K has been demonstrated on the application heat exchanger, with a 4-meter remote distance ensured by a specifically designed gas circulation flexible line. The design and the performance will be reported in this paper.

  6. SERODS: a new medium for high-density optical data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Stokes, David L.

    1998-10-01

    A new optical dada storage technology based on the surface- enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect has been developed for high-density optical memory and three-dimensional data storage. With the surface-enhanced Raman optical data storage (SERODS) technology, the molecular interactions between the optical layer molecules and the nanostructured metal substrate are modified by the writing laser, changing their SERS properties to encode information as bits. Since the SERS properties are extremely sensitive to molecular nano- environments, very small 'spectrochemical holes' approaching the diffraction limit can be produced for the writing process. The SERODS device uses a reading laser to induce the SERS emission of molecules on the disk and a photometric detector tuned to the frequency of the RAMAN spectrum to retrieve the stored information. The results illustrate that SERODS is capable of three-dimensional data storage and has the potential to achieve higher storage density than currently available optical data storage systems.

  7. High capacity heat pipe performance demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A high capacity heat pipe which will operate in one-g and in zero-g is investigated. An artery configuration which is self-priming in one-g was emphasized. Two artery modifications were evolved as candidates to achieve one-g priming and will provide the very high performance: the four artery and the eight artery configurations. These were each evaluated analytically for performance and priming capability. The eight artery configuration was found to be inadequate from a performance standpoint. The four artery showed promise of working. A five-inch long priming element test article was fabricated using the four artery design. Plexiglas viewing windows were made on each end of the heat pipe to permit viewing of the priming activity. The five-inch primary element would not successfully prime in one-g. Difficulties on priming in one-g raised questions about zero-g priming. Therefore a small test element heat pipe for verifying that the proposed configuration will self-prime in zero-g was fabricated and delivered.

  8. High-Capacity Communications from Martian Distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, W. Dan; Collins, Michael; Hodges, Richard; Orr, Richard S.; Sands, O. Scott; Schuchman, Leonard; Vyas, Hemali

    2007-01-01

    High capacity communications from Martian distances, required for the envisioned human exploration and desirable for data-intensive science missions, is challenging. NASA s Deep Space Network currently requires large antennas to close RF telemetry links operating at kilobit-per-second data rates. To accommodate higher rate communications, NASA is considering means to achieve greater effective aperture at its ground stations. This report, focusing on the return link from Mars to Earth, demonstrates that without excessive research and development expenditure, operational Mars-to-Earth RF communications systems can achieve data rates up to 1 Gbps by 2020 using technology that today is at technology readiness level (TRL) 4-5. Advanced technology to achieve the needed increase in spacecraft power and transmit aperture is feasible at an only moderate increase in spacecraft mass and technology risk. In addition, both power-efficient, near-capacity coding and modulation and greater aperture from the DSN array will be required. In accord with these results and conclusions, investment in the following technologies is recommended:(1) lightweight (1 kg/sq m density) spacecraft antenna systems; (2) a Ka-band receive ground array consisting of relatively small (10-15 m) antennas; (3) coding and modulation technology that reduces spacecraft power by at least 3 dB; and (4) efficient generation of kilowatt-level spacecraft RF power.

  9. Advanced high capacity domestic satellite communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iso, A.; Kohiyama, K.; Odate, H.; Ishida, N.

    1981-09-01

    The high capacity transmission of a 30/20 GHz and 50/40 GHz domestic satellite communication system is presented with an investigation of the relationship between satellite antenna pointing accuracy, multibeam antenna interference, and multisatellite interference. Antenna pointing is found to affect an antenna's gain and pattern and multibeam interference; thus the antenna beam width is defined to include antenna pointing accuracy. Results include a 6 m antenna gain of 69.5 dB at 20 GHz for 114 beams with a pointing accuracy of 0.05 deg, and a 17.6 m gain of 69.0 dB at 20 GHz for 630 beams with an accuracy of 0.01 deg. The frequency reuse number is given as a function of total beam number and pointing accuracy, and a bandwidth of 7 GHz allocated at 30/20 and 50/40 GHz is made possible by multispot beam antennas and linearly polarized waves.

  10. The NASA CSTI High Capacity Power Project

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Titran, R.; Schmitz, P.; Vandersande, J.

    1994-09-01

    The SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop technology for military and civil applications. Starting in 1986, NASA has funded a technology program to maintain the momentum of promising aerospace technology advancement started during Phase I of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the changes for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for a wide range of future space applications. The elements of the CSTI High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. Technology advancement in all elements is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall project with develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements will be presented, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  11. The NASA CSTI high capacity power project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, J.; Dudenhoefer, J.; Juhasz, A.; Schwarze, G.; Patterson, R.; Ferguson, D.; Titran, R.; Schmitz, P.; Vandersande, J.

    1992-01-01

    The SP-100 Space Nuclear Power Program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop technology for military and civil applications. Starting in 1986, NASA has funded a technology program to maintain the momentum of promising aerospace technology advancement started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for a wide range of future space applications. The elements of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) High Capacity Power Project include Systems Analysis, Stirling Power Conversion, Thermoelectric Power Conversion, Thermal Management, Power Management, Systems Diagnostics, Environmental Interactions, and Material/Structural Development. Technology advancement in all elements is required to provide the growth capability, high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall project will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems compatible with the SP-100 reactor which facilitates operation during lunar and planetary day/night cycles as well as allowing spacecraft operation at any attitude or distance from the sun. Significant accomplishments in all of the project elements will be presented, along with revised goals and project timelines recently developed.

  12. Large Format Multifunction 2-Terabyte Optical Disk Storage System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, David R.; Brucker, Charles F.; Gage, Edward C.; Hatwar, T. K.; Simmons, George O.

    1996-01-01

    The Kodak Digital Science OD System 2000E automated disk library (ADL) base module and write-once drive are being developed as the next generation commercial product to the currently available System 2000 ADL. Under government sponsorship with the Air Force's Rome Laboratory, Kodak is developing magneto-optic (M-O) subsystems compatible with the Kodak Digital Science ODW25 drive architecture, which will result in a multifunction (MF) drive capable of reading and writing 25 gigabyte (GB) WORM media and 15 GB erasable media. In an OD system 2000 E ADL configuration with 4 MF drives and 100 total disks with a 50% ration of WORM and M-O media, 2.0 terabytes (TB) of versatile near line mass storage is available.

  13. High Capacity Battery Cell Flight Qualified

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKissock, Barbara I.

    1997-01-01

    The High Capacity Battery Cell project is an effort equally funded by the NASA Lewis Research Center and Hughes Space and Communications Company (a unit of Hughes Aircraft Company) to develop and flight qualify a higher capacity nickel hydrogen battery for continuing use on commercial spacecraft. The larger diameter, individual pressure vessel cell will provide approximately twice the power, while occupying the same volume, as the current state-of-the-art nickel hydrogen cell. These cells are also anticipated to reduce battery cost by 20 percent. The battery is currently booked for use on 26 spacecraft, with the first flight scheduled in 1997. A strong requirement for batteries with higher power levels (6 to 12 kW), long life, and reduced cost was identified in studies of the needs of commercial communications spacecraft. With the design developed in this effort, the higher power level was accommodated without having to modify the rest of the existing spacecraft bus. This design scaled-up the existing state-of-the-art nickel hydrogen battery cell from a 3.5-in., 50-Ahr cell to a 5.5-in., 350-Ahr cell. An improvement in cycle life was also achieved by the use of the 26-percent KOH electrolyte design developed by NASA Lewis. The cell design was completed, and flight batteries were built and flight qualified by Hughes Space and Communications Company with input from NASA Lewis. Two batteries were shipped in September 1996 to undergo life cycle testing under the purview of NASA Lewis.

  14. Optical Storage System For Small Software Package Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrenberg, Paul J.

    1985-04-01

    This paper describes an optical mass storage system being developed for extremely low cost distribution of small software packages. The structure of the media, design of the optical playback system, and some aspects of mastering and media production are discussed. This read only system is designed solely for the purpose of down loading code in a spooling fashion from the media to the host machine. The media is configured as a plastic card with dimensions 85 mm x 12 mm x 2mm. Each data region on a card is a rectangle 1.33 mm x 59.4 mm which carries up to 64 KB of user data. Cost estimates for production are 0.06 per card for the media and 38.00 for the playback device. The mastering process for the production tooling uses photolithography techniques and can provide production tooling within a few hours of software release. The playback mechanism is rugged and small, and does not require the use of any electromechanical servos.

  15. Photovoltaics for high capacity space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    The anticipated energy requirements of future space missions will grow by factors approaching 100 or more, particularly as a permanent manned presence is established in space. The advances that can be expected in solar array performance and lifetime, when coupled with advanced, high energy density storage batteries and/or fuel cells, will continue to make photovoltaic energy conversion a viable power generating option for the large systems of the future. The specific technologies required to satisfy any particular set of power requirements will vary from mission to mission. Nonetheless, in almost all cases the technology push will be toward lighter weight and higher efficiency, whether of solar arrays of storage devices. This paper will describe the content and direction of the current NASA program in space photovoltaic technology. The paper will also discuss projected system level capabilities of photovoltaic power systems in the context of some of the new mission opportunities under study by NASA, such as a manned lunar base, and a manned visit to Mars.

  16. Photovoltaics for high capacity space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    The anticipated energy requirements of future space missions will grow by factors approaching 100 or more, particularly as a permanent manned presence is established in space. The advances that can be expected in solar array performance and lifetime, when coupled with advanced, high energy density storage batteries and/or fuel cells, will continue to make photovoltaic energy conversion a viable power generating option for the large systems of the future. The specific technologies required to satisfy any particular set of power requirements will vary from mission to mission. Nonetheless, in almost all cases the technology push will be toward lighter weight and higher efficiency, whether of solar arrays or storage devices. This paper will describe the content and direction of the current NASA program in space photovoltaic technology. The paper will also discuss projected system level capabilities of photovoltaic power systems in the context of some of the new mission opportunities under study by NASA, such as a manned lunar base, and a manned visit to Mars.

  17. Flexible storage medium for write-once optical tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strandjord, Andrew J. G.; Webb, Steven P.; Perettie, Donald J.; Cipriano, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    A write-once data storage media was developed which is suitable for optical tape applications. The media is manufactured using a continuous film process to deposit a ternary alloy of tin, bismuth, and copper. This laser sensitive layer is sputter deposited onto commercial plastic web as a single-layer thin film. A second layer is sequentially deposited on top of the alloy to enhance the media performance and act as an abrasion resistant hard overcoat. The media was observed to have laser write sensitivities of less than 2.0 njoules/bit, carrier-to-noise levels of greater than 50dB's, modulation depths of approximately 100 percent, read-margins of greater than 35, uniform grain sizes of less than 200 Angstroms, and a media lifetime that exceeds 10 years. Prototype tape media was produced for use in the CREO drive system. The active and overcoat materials are first sputter deposited onto three mil PET film in a single pass through the vacuum coating system, and then converted down into multiple reels of 35mm x 880m tape. One mil PET film was also coated in this manner and then slit and packaged into 3480 tape cartridges.

  18. High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and multifunctional operation. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flight-like, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

  19. High-Capacity Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Phillips, Scott; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions will require advanced life support technology that can operate across a wide range of applications and environments. Thermal control systems for space suits and spacecraft will need to meet critical requirements for water conservation and adaptability to highly variable thermal environments. This paper describes a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) that has been designed to meet performance requirements for future life support systems. A SEAR system comprises a lithium chloride absorber radiator (LCAR) for heat rejection coupled with a space water membrane evaporator (SWME) for heat acquisition. SEAR systems provide heat pumping to minimize radiator size, thermal storage to accommodate variable environmental conditions, and water absorption to minimize use of expendables. We have built and tested a flightlike, high-capacity LCAR, demonstrated its performance in thermal vacuum tests, and explored the feasibility of an ISS demonstration test of a SEAR system. The new LCAR design provides the same cooling capability as prior LCAR prototypes while enabling over 30% more heat absorbing capacity. Studies show that it should be feasible to demonstrate SEAR operation in flight by coupling with an existing EMU on the space station.

  20. High-capacity Ca2+ Binding of Human Skeletal Calsequestrin*

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Emiliano J.; Lewis, Kevin M.; Danna, Benjamin R.; Kang, ChulHee

    2012-01-01

    Calsequestrin, the major calcium storage protein in both cardiac and skeletal muscle, binds large amounts of Ca2+ in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and releases them during muscle contraction. For the first time, the crystal structures of Ca2+ complexes for both human (hCASQ1) and rabbit (rCASQ1) skeletal calsequestrin were determined, clearly defining their Ca2+ sequestration capabilities through resolution of high- and low-affinity Ca2+-binding sites. rCASQ1 crystallized in low CaCl2 buffer reveals three high-affinity Ca2+ sites with trigonal bipyramidal, octahedral, and pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometries, along with three low-affinity Ca2+ sites. hCASQ1 crystallized in high CaCl2 shows 15 Ca2+ ions, including the six Ca2+ ions in rCASQ1. Most of the low-affinity sites, some of which are μ-carboxylate-bridged, are established by the rotation of dimer interfaces, indicating cooperative Ca2+ binding that is consistent with our atomic absorption spectroscopic data. On the basis of these findings, we propose a mechanism for the observed in vitro and in vivo dynamic high-capacity and low-affinity Ca2+-binding activity of calsequestrin. PMID:22337878

  1. High-Capacity, High-Voltage Composite Oxide Cathode Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagh, Nader M.

    2015-01-01

    This SBIR project integrates theoretical and experimental work to enable a new generation of high-capacity, high-voltage cathode materials that will lead to high-performance, robust energy storage systems. At low operating temperatures, commercially available electrode materials for lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries do not meet energy and power requirements for NASA's planned exploration activities. NEI Corporation, in partnership with the University of California, San Diego, has developed layered composite cathode materials that increase power and energy densities at temperatures as low as 0 degC and considerably reduce the overall volume and weight of battery packs. In Phase I of the project, through innovations in the structure and morphology of composite electrode particles, the partners successfully demonstrated an energy density exceeding 1,000 Wh/kg at 4 V at room temperature. In Phase II, the team enhanced the kinetics of Li-ion transport and electronic conductivity at 0 degC. An important feature of the composite cathode is that it has at least two components that are structurally integrated. The layered material is electrochemically inactive; however, upon structural integration with a spinel material, the layered material can be electrochemically activated and deliver a large amount of energy with stable cycling.

  2. Delivery of video-on-demand services using local storages within passive optical networks.

    PubMed

    Abeywickrama, Sandu; Wong, Elaine

    2013-01-28

    At present, distributed storage systems have been widely studied to alleviate Internet traffic build-up caused by high-bandwidth, on-demand applications. Distributed storage arrays located locally within the passive optical network were previously proposed to deliver Video-on-Demand services. As an added feature, a popularity-aware caching algorithm was also proposed to dynamically maintain the most popular videos in the storage arrays of such local storages. In this paper, we present a new dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm to improve Video-on-Demand services over passive optical networks using local storages. The algorithm exploits the use of standard control packets to reduce the time taken for the initial request communication between the customer and the central office, and to maintain the set of popular movies in the local storage. We conduct packet level simulations to perform a comparative analysis of the Quality-of-Service attributes between two passive optical networks, namely the conventional passive optical network and one that is equipped with a local storage. Results from our analysis highlight that strategic placement of a local storage inside the network enables the services to be delivered with improved Quality-of-Service to the customer. We further formulate power consumption models of both architectures to examine the trade-off between enhanced Quality-of-Service performance versus the increased power requirement from implementing a local storage within the network. PMID:23389189

  3. Tunable storage of optical data packets modulated in spectrally efficient formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    An all-optical telecommunications network requires all-optical routers. These routers would be able to process optical signals directly, without the transformation to the electrical domain. Thus, optical routers have the potential to accelerate telecommunications, i.e. to enhance the data rate and to minimize the latency times. Furthermore, since the double transformation at each network node can be omitted, they could be able to reduce the energy consumption of telecommunications. Key elements of optical routers are optical buffers, which are able to store the optical packets prior to processing in order to avoid congestion. Therefore, many different concepts for the realization of optical buffers have been presented so far. Most of these can just store or delay on-off keyed (OOK) signals. However, in optical telecommunications advanced modulation formats will be increasingly used because they are able to improve the transmission properties and to take advantage of the capacity of optical fibers. Thus, advanced modulation formats can drastically increase the transmissible data rates. Most of these advanced formats modulate the carrier's phase or are a combination of amplitude and phase modulation. Here the storage of amplitude and phase modulated data packets with the so called quasi-light-storage (QLS) method will be shown. The QLS relies on the time-bandwidth coherence of each signal. Thus, as long as the sampling theorem in the frequency domain is not violated, a distortion-free storage of optical data packets with a delay-bandwidth product (DBP) of several thousand bits is possible. Here we will discuss the applicability of the QLS method to advanced modulation formats and we show experimental results of the tunable alloptical storage of OOK modulated signals with a DBP of 160 bit and the storage of phase shift keyed signals with a DBP of 60 bits.

  4. KEYNOTE ADDRESS: The role of standards in the emerging optical digital data disk storage systems market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, Ross C.

    1984-09-01

    The Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology at the National Bureau of Standards is pleased to cooperate with the International Society for Optical Engineering and to join with the other distinguished organizations in cosponsoring this conference on applications of optical digital data disk storage systems.

  5. Optical and holographic storage properties of F3, Cu, and Mg-doped lithium niobate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beatty, M. E., III; Meredith, B. D.

    1978-01-01

    Several samples of iron, copper, and magnesium doped lithium niobate were tested to determine their storage properties which would be applicable to an optical data storage system and an integrated optics data preprocessor which makes use of holographic storage techniques. The parameters of interest were the diffraction efficiency, write power, write time, erase time, erase energy, and write sensitivity. Results of these parameters are presented. It was found that iron doped lithium niobate samples yielded the best results in all parameters except for a few percent higher diffraction efficiency in copper doped samples. The magnesium doped samples were extremely insensitive and are not recommended for use in holographic optical data storage and processing systems.

  6. Optical holographic encrypted data storage using lenticular lens array phase-encoded multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. C.; Chen, G. L.; Teng, P. C.; Young, W. K.

    2006-04-01

    We propose a novel optical holographic encrypted data storage scheme based on phase encoding multiplexed scheme. In the proposed data storage scheme, patterns of encrypted images are stored holographically in a photorefractive LiNbO 3:Fe crystal by using lenticular lens array (LLA) sheet phase-encoded multiplexing. Experimental results show that rotating a LLA placed as a phase modulator in the path of the reference beam provides a simple yet effective method of increasing the holographic storage capabilities of the crystal. Combining this rotational multiplexing with two-axis tilting multiplexing offers not only further data storage capabilities but also data encryption possibilities.

  7. Multilayer optical data storage by fluorescence modulation using a CW laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Kenneth D.; Christenson, Cory W.; Saini, Anuj; Ryan, Christopher J.; Mirletz, Heather; Shiyanovskaya, Irina; Yin, Kezhen; Baer, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Optical data storage has been widely used in certain consumer applications owing to its passive and robust nature, but has failed to keep with larger industry data storage needs due to the lack of capacity. Many alternatives have been proposed and developed, such as 3D data storage using two-photon absorption that require complex and dangerous laser systems to localize the bits. In this paper, we present a method for localizing bits using a CW 405nm laser diode, in a multilayered polymer film. Data is stored by photobleaching a fluorescent dye, and the response of the material is nonlinear, despite the CW laser and absorption in the visible region. This is achieved using sub-μs pulses from the laser initiating a photothermal effect. This writing method, along with the inexpensive roll-to-roll method for making the disc, will allow for terabyte-scale optical discs using conventional commercial optics and lasers.

  8. Bistable optical information storage using antiferroelectric-phase lead lanthanum zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Land, C.E.

    1988-11-01

    A recently discovered photostorage effect in antiferroelectric-phase (AFE-phase) lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) compositions appears to be particularly applicable to binary optical information storage. The basis for bistable optical information storage is that exposure to near-UV or visible light shifts the electric field threshold of the phase transition between the field-induced ferroelectric (FE) phase and the stable AFE phase in the direction of the initial AFE /yields/ FE phase transition. Properties of this photoactivated shift of the FE /yields/ AFE phase transition, including preliminary photosensitivity measurements and photostorage mechanisms, are presented. Photosensitivity enhancement by ion implantation is also discussed.

  9. Six-dimensional optical storage utilizing wavelength selective, polarization sensitive, and reflectivity graded Bragg reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shangqing

    2014-09-01

    An optical storage system which stores data in three spacial and three physical dimensions is designed and investigated. Its feasibility has been demonstrated by theoretical derivation and numerical calculation. This system has comprehensive advantages including very large capacity, ultrafast throughputs, relatively simple structure and compatibility with CD and DVD. It's an actually practicable technology. With two-photon absorption writing/erasing and optical coherence tomography reading, its storage capacity is over 32 Tbytes per DVD sized disk, and its reading speed is over 25 Gbits/s with high signal-to-noise ratio of over 76 dB. The larger capacity of over 1 Pbyte per disk is potential.

  10. High capacity, reversible alloying reactions in SnSb/C nanocomposites for Na-ion battery applications

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Kovarik, Libor; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    A new SnSb/C nanocomposite based on Na alloying reactions is demonstrated as anode for Na-ion battery applications. The electrode can achieve an exceptionally high capacity (544 mA h g-1, almost double that of intercalation carbon materials), good rate capacity and cyclability (80% capacity retention over 50 cycles) for Na-ion storage.

  11. Storage and control of optical photons using Rydberg polaritons.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, D; Szwer, D J; Paredes-Barato, D; Busche, H; Pritchard, J D; Gauguet, A; Weatherill, K J; Jones, M P A; Adams, C S

    2013-03-01

    We use a microwave field to control the quantum state of optical photons stored in a cold atomic cloud. The photons are stored in highly excited collective states (Rydberg polaritons) enabling both fast qubit rotations and control of photon-photon interactions. Through the collective read-out of these pseudospin rotations it is shown that the microwave field modifies the long-range interactions between polaritons. This technique provides a powerful interface between the microwave and optical domains, with applications in quantum simulations of spin liquids, quantum metrology and quantum networks.

  12. Investigation of Near-Field Imaging Characteristics of Radial Polarization for Application to Optical Data Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wan-Chin; Park, No-Cheol; Yoon, Yong-Joong; Choi, Hyun; Park, Young-Pil

    2007-07-01

    Radially polarized incident light can generate a more confined longitudinal electric field on a focal plane in near-field (NF) optics than focusing circularly polarized light. Using this phenomenon, it is feasible to reduce beam spot size on storage media to increase the areal density of optical data storage. A radially polarized beam generates a beam spot which is 20% more confined on the 1st surface of medium than that of circularly polarized light. However, the peak intensity of total electric field sharply decreases and its transverse component is much more dominant inside the media stack. This confirms that radially polarized optics can be a candidate not for an NF recording system but for an NF read-only memory (ROM) system. Potentially, the results could be useful to understand the effect of radial and circular polarizations inside and outside medium for various applications of NF optics.

  13. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  14. Method of bistable optical information storage using antiferroelectric phase PLZT ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Land, Cecil E.

    1990-01-01

    A method for bistable storage of binary optical information includes an antiferroelectric (AFE) lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) layer having a stable antiferroelectric first phase and a ferroelectric (FE) second phase obtained by applying a switching electric field across the surface of the device. Optical information is stored by illuminating selected portions of the layer to photoactivate an FE to AFE transition in those portions. Erasure of the stored information is obtained by reapplying the switching field.

  15. Method of bistable optical information storage using antiferroelectric phase PLZT ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Land, C.E.

    1990-07-31

    A method for bistable storage of binary optical information includes an antiferroelectric (AFE) lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) layer having a stable antiferroelectric first phase and a ferroelectric (FE) second phase obtained by applying a switching electric field across the surface of the device. Optical information is stored by illuminating selected portions of the layer to photoactivate an FE to AFE transition in those portions. Erasure of the stored information is obtained by reapplying the switching field. 8 figs.

  16. Rewritable Optical Storage with a Spiropyran Doped Liquid Crystal Polymer Film.

    PubMed

    Petriashvili, Gia; De Santo, Maria Penelope; Devadze, Lali; Zurabishvili, Tsisana; Sepashvili, Nino; Gary, Ramla; Barberi, Riccardo

    2016-03-01

    Rewritable optical storage has been obtained in a spiropyran doped liquid crystal polymer films. Pictures can be recorded on films upon irradiation with UV light passing through a grayscale mask and they can be rapidly erased using visible light. Films present improved photosensitivity and optical contrast, good resistance to photofatigue, and high spatial resolution. These photochromic films work as a multifunctional, dynamic photosensitive material with a real-time image recording feature. PMID:26864876

  17. High capacity nickel battery material doped with alkali metal cations

    DOEpatents

    Jackovitz, John F.; Pantier, Earl A.

    1982-05-18

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  18. Storage and switching of multiple optical signals among three channels

    SciTech Connect

    Song Xiaoli; Li Aijun; Wang Lei; Kang Zhihui; Kou Jun; Wang Chunliang; Jiang Yun; Gao Jinyue; Zhang Bing

    2009-05-15

    We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that multioptical signals can be effectively stored and retrieved by fractional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage technique in a tripod-type four-level {sup 87}Rb atomic system. The optical pulses stored can be controllably released into two of the three different channels. The restored pulses have the same frequency, polarization, and propagation direction as the writing pulses. The experimental results fit very well with the numerical simulations.

  19. High-Capacity Three-Party Quantum Secret Sharing With Hyperentanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Bin; Xu, Fei; Ding, Liuguan; Zhang, Yanan

    2012-11-01

    We presents a novel scheme for high-capacity three-party quantum secret sharing (QSS) with the hyperentanglement in both the polarization and the spatial-mode degrees of freedom of photon pairs. The boss Alice need only prepare a sequence of photon pairs and some decoy photons. Her two agents measure their photons received from the boss Alice with two bases by choosing two unsymmetrical probabilities. The present QSS scheme has a high capacity as each pair can carry 2 bits of information, several times as other QSS schemes. Moreover, our setups with linear optical elements show that our QSS scheme does not increase the difficulty of its implementation in experiment and it is feasible with current techniques.

  20. Issues Involved in Developing Integrated Optical Jukebox Storage Systems for Customized Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augsburger, Wayne; McNary, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a process for evaluating and planning integrated optical jukebox storage systems. Considerations regarding architecture and system performance are summarized, and a modeling program for tailoring system response to specific applications is presented. Five robotics algorithms are examined to illustrate different hardware configurations.…

  1. Controllable high bandwidth storage of optical information in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Schultz, Justin T.; Murphree, Joseph D.; Hansen, Azure; Bigelow, Nicholas P.

    2016-05-01

    The storage and retrieval of optical information has been of interest for a variety of applications including quantum information processing, quantum networks and quantum memories. Several schemes have been investigated and realized with weak, narrowband pulses, including techniques using EIT in solid state systems and both hot and cold atomic vapors. In contrast, we investigate the storage and manipulation of strong, high bandwidth pulses in a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) of ultracold 87 Rb atoms. As a storage medium for optical pulses, BECs offer long storage times and preserve the coherence properties of the input information, suppressing unwanted thermal decoherence effects. We present numerical simulations of nanosecond pulses addressing a three-level lambda system on the D2 line of 87 Rb. The signal pulse is stored as a localized spin excitation in the condensate and can be moved or retrieved by reapplication of successive control pulses. The relative Rabi frequencies and areas of the pulses and the local atomic density in the condensate determine the storage location and readout of the signal pulse. Extending this scheme to use beams with a variety of spatial modes such as Hermite- and Laguerre-Gaussian modes offers an expanded alphabet for information storage.

  2. Purely electronic zero-phonon lines in optical data storage and processing.

    PubMed

    Rebane, Karl K

    2005-03-01

    Spectroscopies of matrix isolated species and impurity activated solids are close relatives. Both are among the well developing chapters of solid state spectroscopy and optics. In this paper I am trying to give very brief overview what has been achieved in science and applications of impurity activated solids based on zero-phonon lines (ZPLs) in optical data storage and processing. I would like to show that the latter comprises via persistent spectral hole burning time-and-space domain holography in a certain meaning also the "stopping of light". ZPLs are beginning to play a role in the approaches to optical quantum computing.

  3. High-Speed Flexible Optical Disk for Broadcast Archival Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Daiichi; Kajiyama, Takeshi; Tokumaru, Haruki; Takano, Yoshimichi; Onagi, Nobuaki; Aman, Yasutomo; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    2010-08-01

    We developed a prototype of a flexible optical disk (FOD) drive with a mechanical stabilizer. We prepared the FOD that had a high recording sensitivity of a recording layer and had low byte error rates below 2 ×10-4 at speeds from 36 to 252 Mbps, and examined the recording of video data on the FOD and the drive. We could record and play a high-definition television (HDTV) video (MPEG-2, 422P@HL) seamlessly at 144 Mbps over the entire area of the FOD and the FOD drive with broadcast video systems. We confirmed that the FOD and the FOD drive can record and play HDTV signals for professional broadcast use.

  4. A high capacity satellite switched TDMA microwave switch matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cory, B. J.; Berkowitz, M.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of the conceptual design of a high-capacity satellite switched-time division multiple access (SS-TDMA) microwave switch matrix fabricated with GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), including integration of both microwave and control logic circuits into the monolithic design. The technology required for a 30/20 GHz communications system includes an on-board SS-TDMA switch matrix. A conceptual design study that has been completed for a wideband, high-capacity (typically 100 x 100) channel switch matrix using technology anticipated for 1987 is described, noting that the study resulted in a switch matrix design concept using a coupled crossbar architecture implemented with MMIC. The design involves basic building block MMIC, permitting flexible growth and efficient wraparound redundancy to increase reliability.

  5. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-07-23

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 10(8) tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes.

  6. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 108 tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes. PMID:23836636

  7. An emerging network storage management standard: Media error monitoring and reporting information (MEMRI) - to determine optical tape data integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podio, Fernando; Vollrath, William; Williams, Joel; Kobler, Ben; Crouse, Don

    1998-01-01

    Sophisticated network storage management applications are rapidly evolving to satisfy a market demand for highly reliable data storage systems with large data storage capacities and performance requirements. To preserve a high degree of data integrity, these applications must rely on intelligent data storage devices that can provide reliable indicators of data degradation. Error correction activity generally occurs within storage devices without notification to the host. Early indicators of degradation and media error monitoring 333 and reporting (MEMR) techniques implemented in data storage devices allow network storage management applications to notify system administrators of these events and to take appropriate corrective actions before catastrophic errors occur. Although MEMR techniques have been implemented in data storage devices for many years, until 1996 no MEMR standards existed. In 1996 the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) approved the only known (world-wide) industry standard specifying MEMR techniques to verify stored data on optical disks. This industry standard was developed under the auspices of the Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM). A recently formed AIIM Optical Tape Subcommittee initiated the development of another data integrity standard specifying a set of media error monitoring tools and media error monitoring information (MEMRI) to verify stored data on optical tape media. This paper discusses the need for intelligent storage devices that can provide data integrity metadata, the content of the existing data integrity standard for optical disks, and the content of the MEMRI standard being developed by the AIIM Optical Tape Subcommittee.

  8. Bismuth sulfide: A high-capacity anode for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenping; Rui, Xianhong; Zhang, Dan; Jiang, Yinzhu; Sun, Ziqi; Liu, Huakun; Dou, Shixue

    2016-03-01

    Exploring high-performance anode materials is currently one of the most urgent issues towards practical sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). In this work, Bi2S3 is demonstrated to be a high-capacity anode for SIBs for the first time. The specific capacity of Bi2S3 nanorods achieves up to 658 and 264 mAh g-1 at a current density of 100 and 2000 mA g-1, respectively. A full cell with Na3V2(PO4)3-based cathode is also assembled as a proof of concept and delivers 340 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1. The sodium storage mechanism of Bi2S3 is investigated by ex-situ XRD coupled with high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and it is found that sodium storage is achieved by a combined conversion-intercalation mechanism.

  9. Liquid-crystalline polymer holograms for high-density optical storage and photomechanical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishido, A.; Akamatsu, N.

    2012-10-01

    We report linear and crosslinked azobenzene containing liquid-crystalline polymers which can be applied to high-density optical storage and photomechanical analysis. We introduced a molecular design concept of multicomponent systems composed of photoresponse, refactive-index change amplification, and transparency units. Taking advantage of characteristics of liquid crystals (optical anisotropy and cooperative motion), polarization holograms were recorded, which enabled us higher-density holographic storage. On the other hand, crosslinked liquid-crystalline azobenzene polymer films were fabricated to investigate the photomechanical behavior. We have found that a large change in Young's modulus is induced by several mol%-cis form production. Furthermore, a unique bending behavior, which cannot be explained by the conventional bending mechanism, was observed in the crosslinked liquid-crystalline polymer films with azobenzene in the side chain.

  10. Controllable all-optical stochastic logic gates and their delay storages based on the cascaded VCSELs with optical-injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Dongzhou; Luo, Wei; Xu, Geliang

    2016-09-01

    Using the dynamical properties of the polarization bistability that depends on the detuning of the injected light, we propose a novel approach to implement reliable all-optical stochastic logic gates in the cascaded vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with optical-injection. Here, two logic inputs are encoded in the detuning of the injected light from a tunable CW laser. The logic outputs are decoded from the two orthogonal polarization lights emitted from the optically injected VCSELs. For the same logic inputs, under electro-optic modulation, we perform various digital signal processing (NOT, AND, NAND, XOR, XNOR, OR, NOR) in the all-optical domain by controlling the logic operation of the applied electric field. Also we explore their delay storages by using the mechanism of the generalized chaotic synchronization. To quantify the reliabilities of these logic gates, we further demonstrate their success probabilities. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61475120) and the Innovative Projects in Guangdong Colleges and Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2014KTSCX134 and 2015KTSCX146).

  11. Controllable all-optical stochastic logic gates and their delay storages based on the cascaded VCSELs with optical-injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Dongzhou; Luo, Wei; Xu, Geliang

    2016-09-01

    Using the dynamical properties of the polarization bistability that depends on the detuning of the injected light, we propose a novel approach to implement reliable all-optical stochastic logic gates in the cascaded vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with optical-injection. Here, two logic inputs are encoded in the detuning of the injected light from a tunable CW laser. The logic outputs are decoded from the two orthogonal polarization lights emitted from the optically injected VCSELs. For the same logic inputs, under electro-optic modulation, we perform various digital signal processing (NOT, AND, NAND, XOR, XNOR, OR, NOR) in the all-optical domain by controlling the logic operation of the applied electric field. Also we explore their delay storages by using the mechanism of the generalized chaotic synchronization. To quantify the reliabilities of these logic gates, we further demonstrate their success probabilities. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61475120) and the Innovative Projects in Guangdong Colleges and Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2014KTSCX134 and 2015KTSCX146).

  12. Quantum storage of entangled telecom-wavelength photons in an erbium-doped optical fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saglamyurek, Erhan; Jin, Jeongwan; Verma, Varun B.; Shaw, Matthew D.; Marsili, Francesco; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    The realization of a future quantum Internet requires the processing and storage of quantum information at local nodes and interconnecting distant nodes using free-space and fibre-optic links. Quantum memories for light are key elements of such quantum networks. However, to date, neither an atomic quantum memory for non-classical states of light operating at a wavelength compatible with standard telecom fibre infrastructure, nor a fibre-based implementation of a quantum memory, has been reported. Here, we demonstrate the storage and faithful recall of the state of a 1,532 nm wavelength photon entangled with a 795 nm photon, in an ensemble of cryogenically cooled erbium ions doped into a 20-m-long silica fibre, using a photon-echo quantum memory protocol. Despite its currently limited efficiency and storage time, our broadband light-matter interface brings fibre-based quantum networks one step closer to reality.

  13. Effect of storage conditions of skin samples on their optical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Kochubey, V. I.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2009-12-01

    The optical characteristics of skin samples are experimentally studied ex vivo and in vitro at different storage conditions. The experiments are performed on a Cary-2415 spectrophotometer in the spectral range 400-700 nm. Based on the measured diffuse reflectance and total transmittance spectra, the spectra of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are calculated in terms of the inverse adding-doubling method. It is shown that the method of storage of samples mainly affects the reduced scattering coefficient of biotissue. Thus, upon storage of skin in an isotonic solution and in its absence, the reduced scattering coefficient increases ˜1.5 and ˜2 times, respectively, compared to the value of this parameter for the intact sample. The differences in the absorption spectra of ex vivo samples and samples stored under different conditions are the most noticeable in the absorption range of blood and are significant above 600 nm.

  14. Coumarin-Containing Polymers for High Density Non-Linear Optical Data Storage.

    PubMed

    Gindre, Denis; Iliopoulos, Konstantinos; Krupka, Oksana; Evrard, Marie; Champigny, Emilie; Sallé, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Optical data storage was performed with various thin polymer films containing coumarin-based derivatives and by using femtosecond laser pulses as well as two-photon absorption processes. Exploring the photodimerization attribute of coumarin derivatives and using appropriate irradiation wavelengths, recording/erasing processes could be carried out in the same area. Second harmonic generation microscopy was used to read the stored information. PMID:26821006

  15. Colloidal silica films for high-capacity DNA arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazer, Marc Irving

    The human genome project has greatly expanded the amount of genetic information available to researchers, but before this vast new source of data can be fully utilized, techniques for rapid, large-scale analysis of DNA and RNA must continue to develop. DNA arrays have emerged as a powerful new technology for analyzing genomic samples in a highly parallel format. The detection sensitivity of these arrays is dependent on the quantity and density of immobilized probe molecules. We have investigated substrates with a porous, "three-dimensional" surface layer as a means of increasing the surface area available for the synthesis of oligonucleotide probes, thereby increasing the number of available probes and the amount of detectable bound target. Porous colloidal silica films were created by two techniques. In the first approach, films were deposited by spin-coating silica colloid suspensions onto flat glass substrates, with the pores being formed by the natural voids between the solid particles (typically 23nm pores, 35% porosity). In the second approach, latex particles were co-deposited with the silica and then pyrolyzed, creating films with larger pores (36 nm), higher porosity (65%), and higher surface area. For 0.3 mum films, enhancements of eight to ten-fold and 12- to 14-fold were achieved with the pure silica films and the films "templated" with polymer latex, respectively. In gene expression assays for up to 7,000 genes using complex biological samples, the high-capacity films provided enhanced signals and performed equivalently or better than planar glass on all other functional measures, confirming that colloidal silica films are a promising platform for high-capacity DNA arrays. We have also investigated the kinetics of hybridization on planar glass and high-capacity substrates. Adsorption on planar arrays is similar to ideal Langmuir-type adsorption, although with an "overshoot" at high solution concentration. Hybridization on high-capacity films is

  16. Development of a high capacity variable conductance heat pipe.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosson, R.; Hembach, R.; Edelstein, F.; Loose, J.

    1973-01-01

    The high-capacity, pressure-primed, tunnel-artery wick concept was used in a gas-controlled variable conductance heat pipe. A variety of techniques were employed to control the size of gas/vapor bubbles trapped within the artery. Successful operation was attained with a nominal 6-foot long, 1-inch diameter cold reservoir VCHP using ammonia working fluid and nitrogen control gas. The pipe contained a heat exchanger to subcool the liquid in the artery. Maximum transport capacity with a 46-inch effective length was 1200 watts level (more than 50,000 watt-inches) and 800 watts at 0.5-inch adverse tilt.

  17. High specific energy, high capacity nickel-hydrogen cell design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.

    1993-01-01

    A 3.5 inch rabbit-ear-terminal nickel-hydrogen cell has been designed and tested to deliver high capacity at a C/1.5 discharge rate. Its specific energy yield of 60.6 wh/kg is believed to be the highest yet achieved in a slurry-process nickel-hydrogen cell, and its 10 C capacity of 113.9 AH the highest capacity yet made at a discharge rate this high in the 3.5 inch diameter size. The cell also demonstrated a pulse capability of 180 amps for 20 seconds. Specific cell parameters, performance, and future test plans are described.

  18. Ultra-high density optical data storage in common transparent plastics.

    PubMed

    Kallepalli, Deepak L N; Alshehri, Ali M; Marquez, Daniela T; Andrzejewski, Lukasz; Scaiano, Juan C; Bhardwaj, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for high data storage capacity has spurred research on development of innovative technologies and new storage materials. Conventional GByte optical discs (DVDs and Bluray) can be transformed into ultrahigh capacity storage media by encoding multi-level and multiplexed information within the three dimensional volume of a recording medium. However, in most cases the recording medium had to be photosensitive requiring doping with photochromic molecules or nanoparticles in a multilayer stack or in the bulk material. Here, we show high-density data storage in commonly available plastics without any special material preparation. A pulsed laser was used to record data in micron-sized modified regions. Upon excitation by the read laser, each modified region emits fluorescence whose intensity represents 32 grey levels corresponding to 5 bits. We demonstrate up to 20 layers of embedded data. Adjusting the read laser power and detector sensitivity storage capacities up to 0.2 TBytes can be achieved in a standard 120 mm disc. PMID:27221758

  19. Ultra-high density optical data storage in common transparent plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallepalli, Deepak L. N.; Alshehri, Ali M.; Marquez, Daniela T.; Andrzejewski, Lukasz; Scaiano, Juan C.; Bhardwaj, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    The ever-increasing demand for high data storage capacity has spurred research on development of innovative technologies and new storage materials. Conventional GByte optical discs (DVDs and Bluray) can be transformed into ultrahigh capacity storage media by encoding multi-level and multiplexed information within the three dimensional volume of a recording medium. However, in most cases the recording medium had to be photosensitive requiring doping with photochromic molecules or nanoparticles in a multilayer stack or in the bulk material. Here, we show high-density data storage in commonly available plastics without any special material preparation. A pulsed laser was used to record data in micron-sized modified regions. Upon excitation by the read laser, each modified region emits fluorescence whose intensity represents 32 grey levels corresponding to 5 bits. We demonstrate up to 20 layers of embedded data. Adjusting the read laser power and detector sensitivity storage capacities up to 0.2 TBytes can be achieved in a standard 120 mm disc.

  20. Ultra-high density optical data storage in common transparent plastics

    PubMed Central

    Kallepalli, Deepak L. N.; Alshehri, Ali M.; Marquez, Daniela T.; Andrzejewski, Lukasz; Scaiano, Juan C.; Bhardwaj, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for high data storage capacity has spurred research on development of innovative technologies and new storage materials. Conventional GByte optical discs (DVDs and Bluray) can be transformed into ultrahigh capacity storage media by encoding multi-level and multiplexed information within the three dimensional volume of a recording medium. However, in most cases the recording medium had to be photosensitive requiring doping with photochromic molecules or nanoparticles in a multilayer stack or in the bulk material. Here, we show high-density data storage in commonly available plastics without any special material preparation. A pulsed laser was used to record data in micron-sized modified regions. Upon excitation by the read laser, each modified region emits fluorescence whose intensity represents 32 grey levels corresponding to 5 bits. We demonstrate up to 20 layers of embedded data. Adjusting the read laser power and detector sensitivity storage capacities up to 0.2 TBytes can be achieved in a standard 120 mm disc. PMID:27221758

  1. Ensuring long-term reliability of the data storage on optical disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ken; Pan, Longfa; Xu, Bin; Liu, Wei

    2008-12-01

    "Quality requirements and handling regulation of archival optical disc for electronic records filing" is released by The State Archives Administration of the People's Republic of China (SAAC) on its network in March 2007. This document established a complete operative managing process for optical disc data storage in archives departments. The quality requirements of the optical disc used in archives departments are stipulated. Quality check of the recorded disc before filing is considered to be necessary and the threshold of the parameter of the qualified filing disc is set down. The handling regulations for the staffs in the archives departments are described. Recommended environment conditions of the disc preservation, recording, accessing and testing are presented. The block error rate of the disc is selected as main monitoring parameter of the lifetime of the filing disc and three classes pre-alarm lines are created for marking of different quality check intervals. The strategy of monitoring the variation of the error rate curve of the filing discs and moving the data to a new disc or a new media when the error rate of the disc reaches the third class pre-alarm line will effectively guarantee the data migration before permanent loss. Only when every step of the procedure is strictly implemented, it is believed that long-term reliability of the data storage on optical disc for archives departments can be effectively ensured.

  2. New optical architecture for holographic data storage system compatible with Blu-ray Disc™ system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Ken-ichi; Ide, Tatsuro; Shimano, Takeshi; Anderson, Ken; Curtis, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    A new optical architecture for holographic data storage system which is compatible with a Blu-ray Disc™ (BD) system is proposed. In the architecture, both signal and reference beams pass through a single objective lens with numerical aperture (NA) 0.85 for realizing angularly multiplexed recording. The geometry of the architecture brings a high affinity with an optical architecture in the BD system because the objective lens can be placed parallel to a holographic medium. Through the comparison of experimental results with theory, the validity of the optical architecture was verified and demonstrated that the conventional objective lens motion technique in the BD system is available for angularly multiplexed recording. The test-bed composed of a blue laser system and an objective lens of the NA 0.85 was designed. The feasibility of its compatibility with BD is examined through the designed test-bed.

  3. Nanostructured hybrid silicon/carbon nanotube heterostructures: reversible high-capacity lithium-ion anodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Kumta, Prashant N

    2010-04-27

    Lithium-ion batteries have witnessed meteoric advancement the last two decades. The anode area has seen unprecedented research activity on Si and Sn, the two anode alternatives to currently used carbon following the initial seminal work by Fuji on tin oxide nanocomposites. Recent reports on silicon nanowires, porous Si, and amorphous Si coatings on graphite nanofibers (GNF) have been very encouraging. High capacity and long cycle life anodes are still, however, elusive and much needed to meet the ever increasing energy storage demands of modern society. Herein, we report for the first time the synthesis of novel 1D heterostructures comprising vertically aligned multiwall CNTs (VACNTs) containing nanoscale amorphous/nanocrystalline Si droplets deposited directly on VACNTs with clearly defined spacing using a simple two-step liquid injection CVD process. A hallmark of these single reactor derived heterostructures is an interfacial amorphous carbon layer anchoring the nanoscale Si clusters directly to the VACNTs. The defined spacing of nanoscale Si combined with their tethered CNT architecture allow for the silicon to undergo reversible electrochemical alloying and dealloying with Li with minimal loss of contact with the underlying CNTs. The novel heterostructures thus exhibit impressive reversible stable capacities approximately 2050 mAh/g with very good rate capability and an acceptable first cycle irreversible loss approximately 20% comparable to graphitic anodes indicating their promise as high capacity Li-ion anodes. Although warranting further research, particularly with regard to long-term cycling, it can be envisaged that optimization of this simple approach could lead to reversible high capacity next generation Li-ion anodes.

  4. Ultrathin reduced graphene oxide films for high performance optical data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Fei; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Siwei; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2015-10-01

    Optical data storage (ODS) represents revolutionary progress for the field of information storage capacity. When the thickness of data recording layer is similar to a few nanometer even atomic scale, the data point dimension can decrease to the minimum with stable mechanical property. Thus the new generation of ODS requires data recording layer in nanoscale to improve areal storage density, so that the more digital information can be stored in limited zone. Graphene, a novel two-dimensional (2D) material, is a type of monolayer laminated structure composed of carbon atoms and is currently the thinnest known material (the thickness of monolayer graphene is 3.35 Å). It is an ideal choice as a active layer for ODS media. Reduced graphene oxide, a graphene derivative, has outstanding polarization-dependent absorption characteristics under total internal reflection (TIR). The strong broadband absorption of reduced graphene oxide causes it to exhibit different reflectance for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes under TIR, and the maximum reflectance ratio between TM and TE modes is close to 8 with 8 nm reduced graphene oxide films. It opens a door for a high signal to noise ratio (SNR) graphene-based optical data storage. Here, 8 nm high-temperature reduced graphene oxide (h-rGO) films was used for the ultrathin active layer of ODS. The data writing was performed on the h-rGO active layer based on photolithography technology. Under TIR, a balanced detection technology in the experiment converts the optical signals into electric signals and simultaneously amplifies them. The reading results show a stable SNR up to 500, and the graphene-based ODS medium has a high transparency performance.

  5. The sensory components of high-capacity iconic memory and visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Claire; Pearson, Joel

    2012-01-01

    EARLY VISUAL MEMORY CAN BE SPLIT INTO TWO PRIMARY COMPONENTS: a high-capacity, short-lived iconic memory followed by a limited-capacity visual working memory that can last many seconds. Whereas a large number of studies have investigated visual working memory for low-level sensory features, much research on iconic memory has used more "high-level" alphanumeric stimuli such as letters or numbers. These two forms of memory are typically examined separately, despite an intrinsic overlap in their characteristics. Here, we used a purely sensory paradigm to examine visual short-term memory for 10 homogeneous items of three different visual features (color, orientation and motion) across a range of durations from 0 to 6 s. We found that the amount of information stored in iconic memory is smaller for motion than for color or orientation. Performance declined exponentially with longer storage durations and reached chance levels after ∼2 s. Further experiments showed that performance for the 10 items at 1 s was contingent on unperturbed attentional resources. In addition, for orientation stimuli, performance was contingent on the location of stimuli in the visual field, especially for short cue delays. Overall, our results suggest a smooth transition between an automatic, high-capacity, feature-specific sensory-iconic memory, and an effortful "lower-capacity" visual working memory.

  6. High capacity demonstration of honeycomb panel heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzer, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of performance enhancing the sandwich panel heat pipe was investigated for moderate temperature range heat rejection radiators on future-high-power spacecraft. The hardware development program consisted of performance prediction modeling, fabrication, ground test, and data correlation. Using available sandwich panel materials, a series of subscale test panels were augumented with high-capacity sideflow and temperature control variable conductance features, and test evaluated for correlation with performance prediction codes. Using the correlated prediction model, a 50-kW full size radiator was defined using methanol working fluid and closely spaced sideflows. A new concept called the hybrid radiator individually optimizes heat pipe components. A 2.44-m long hybrid test vehicle demonstrated proof-of-principle performance.

  7. Testing of a high capacity research heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Tests were performed on a high-capacity channel-wick heat pipe to assess the transport limitations of v-grooves and the effects of boiling. The results showed that transport can vary significantly (less than 50 W) under similar conditions and the continuous boiling was observed at power levels as low as 40 W. In addition, some evidence was found to support the predictions using a groove transport model which shows that transport increases with lower groove densities and longer evaporators. However, due to transport variations, these results were not consistent throughout the program. When a glass fiber wick was installed over the grooves, a relatively low transport level was achieved (80 to 140 W). Based on these results and the identification of some potential causes for them, several design suggestions were recommended for reducing the possibility of boiling and improving groove transport.

  8. High specific energy, high capacity nickel-hydrogen cell design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.

    1993-01-01

    A 3.5 inch rabbit-ear-terminal nickel-hydrogen cell was designed and tested to deliver high capacity at steady discharge rates up to and including a C rate. Its specific energy yield of 60.6 wh/kg is believed to be the highest yet achieved in a slurry-process nickel-hydrogen cell, and its 10 C capacity of 113.9 AH the highest capacity yet of any type in a 3.5 inch diameter size. The cell also demonstrated a pulse capability of 180 amps for 20 seconds. Specific cell parameters and performance are described. Also covered is an episode of capacity fading due to electrode swelling and its successful recovery by means of additional activation procedures.

  9. High capacity demonstration of honeycomb panel heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzer, H. J.; Cerza, M. R., Jr.; Hall, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    High capacity honeycomb panel heat pipes were investigated as heat rejection radiators on future space platforms. Starting with a remnant section of honeycomb panel measuring 3.05-m long by 0.127-m wide that was originally designed and built for high-efficiency radiator fins, features were added to increase thermal transport capacity and thus permit test evaluation as an integral heat transport and rejection radiator. A series of subscale panels were fabricated and reworked to isolate individual enhancement features. Key to the enhancement was the addition of a liquid sideflow that utilizes pressure priming. A prediction model was developed and correlated with measured data, and then used to project performance to large, space-station size radiators. Results show that a honeycomb panel with 5.08-cm sideflow spacing and core modification will meet the design load of a 50 kW space heat rejection system.

  10. Stable high capacity, F-actin affinity column

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, E.J.; Wang, Y.L.; Voss, E.W. Jr.; Branton, D.; Taylor, D.L.

    1982-11-10

    A high capacity F-actin affinity matrix is constructed by binding fluorescyl-actin to rabbit anti-fluorescein IgG that is covalently bound to Sepharose 4B. When stabilized with phalloidin, the actin remains associated with the Sepharose beads during repeated washes, activates the ATPase activity of myosin subfragment 1, and specifically binds /sup 125/I-heavy meromyosin and /sup 125/I-tropomyosin. The associations between the F-actin-binding proteins are monitored both by affinity chromatography and by a rapid, low speed sedimentation assay. Anti-fluorescein IgG-Sepharose should be generally useful as a matrix for the immobilization of proteins containing accessible, covalently bound fluorescein groups.

  11. Inspection of commercial optical devices for data storage using a three Gaussian beam microscope interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, J. Mauricio; Cywiak, Moises; Servin, Manuel; Juarez P, Lorenzo

    2008-09-20

    Recently, an interferometric profilometer based on the heterodyning of three Gaussian beams has been reported. This microscope interferometer, called a three Gaussian beam interferometer, has been used to profile high quality optical surfaces that exhibit constant reflectivity with high vertical resolution and lateral resolution near {lambda}. We report the use of this interferometer to measure the profiles of two commercially available optical surfaces for data storage, namely, the compact disk (CD-R) and the digital versatile disk (DVD-R). We include experimental results from a one-dimensional radial scan of these devices without data marks. The measurements are taken by placing the devices with the polycarbonate surface facing the probe beam of the interferometer. This microscope interferometer is unique when compared with other optical measuring instruments because it uses narrowband detection, filters out undesirable noisy signals, and because the amplitude of the output voltage signal is basically proportional to the local vertical height of the surface under test, thus detecting with high sensitivity. We show that the resulting profiles, measured with this interferometer across the polycarbonate layer, provide valuable information about the track profiles, making this interferometer a suitable tool for quality control of surface storage devices.

  12. Beam dynamics simulations in laser electron storage rings and optical stochastic cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duru, Alper

    Laser-electron storage rings are potential compact X-ray sources. Longitudinal dynamics in laser-electron storage rings is studied including the effects of both laser interaction and synchrotron radiation. It is shown that the steady state energy spread can reach as high as a few percent. The main reason is the wide spread in the energy loss by electrons to laser photons. Optical stochastic cooling has been studied numerically. The effects of the finite bandwidth of the amplifier are mixing and signal distortion. Both are included in the simulations and the results are compared to theoretical results. It is shown that the beam can be cooled both in transverse and longitudinal phase phase spaces simultaneously.

  13. Experimental study of the dependences of retrieval efficiencies on time delay between magneto-optical-trap being turned off and optical storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-Rong, Chen; Zhong-Xiao, Xu; Ping, Li; Ya-Fei, Wen; Wei-Qing, Zeng; Yue-Long, Wu; Long, Tian; Shu-Jing, Li; Hai, Wang

    2016-02-01

    We report an experimental study of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-based light storage in a cloud of cold atoms loaded into a magneto-optical-trap (MOT). After the MOT is turned off, the retrieval efficiencies of right- and left-circularly polarized signal light fields each as a function of storage time are measured for different time delays between MOT off and the storage event, respectively. The results show that in the delay ranging from 0.015 ms to 3.5 ms, the retrieval efficiency for a zero-storage time (0.2 μs) and the storage lifetime can exceed 15% and 1.4 ms, respectively. The measured results will provide important help for optimizing the storage of the polarized entanglement photons in cold atomic ensembles. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2010CB923103) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11475109, 11274211, and 60821004).

  14. Optical memory development. Volume 2: Gain-assisted holographic storage media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.; Mezrich, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Thin deformable films were investigated for use as the storage medium in a holographic optical memory. The research was directed toward solving the problems of material fatigue, selective heat addressing, electrical charging of the film surface and charge patterning by light. A number of solutions to these problems were found but the main conclusion to be drawn from the work is that deformable media which employ heat in the recording process are not satisfactory for use in a high-speed random-access read/write holographic memory. They are, however, a viable approach in applications where either high speed or random-access is not required.

  15. Rapid production of structural color images with optical data storage capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Mohamad; Jiang, Hao; Qarehbaghi, Reza; Naghshineh, Mohammad; Kaminska, Bozena

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present novel methods to produce structural color image for any given color picture using a pixelated generic stamp named nanosubstrate. The nanosubstrate is composed of prefabricated arrays of red, green and blue subpixels. Each subpixel has nano-gratings and/or sub-wavelength structures which give structural colors through light diffraction. Micro-patterning techniques were implemented to produce the color images from the nanosubstrate by selective activation of subpixels. The nano-grating structures can be nanohole arrays, which after replication are converted to nanopillar arrays or vice versa. It has been demonstrated that visible and invisible data can be easily stored using these fabrication methods and the information can be easily read. Therefore the techniques can be employed to produce personalized and customized color images for applications in optical document security and publicity, and can also be complemented by combined optical data storage capabilities.

  16. High-Capacity Sulfur Dioxide Absorbents for Diesel Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2005-01-05

    High capacity sulfur dioxide absorbents based on manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) have been identified. These materials are based on MnO6 octahedra sharing faces and edges to form various tunnel structures (2x2, 2x3, 2x4, 3x3) differentiated by the number of octahedra on a side. The SO2 capacities of these materials, measured at 325 C with a feed containing 250 ppmv SO2 in air, are as high as 70wt% (wt/wt), remarkably higher than conventional metal oxide-based SO2 absorbents. Among the OMS materials the 2x2 member, cryptomelane, exhibits the highest capacity and adsorption rate. Its SO2 absorption behavior has been further characterized as a function of temperature, space velocity, and feed composition. The dominant pathway for SO2 absorption is through the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 by Mn4+ followed by SO3 reaction with Mn2+ to form MnSO4. Absorption can occur in the absence of gas phase oxygen, with a moderate loss in overall capacity. The inclusion of reducible gases NO and CO in the feed does not reduce SO2 capacity. The absorption capacity decreases at high space velocity and lower absorption temperature, indicating the important role of diffusion of sulfate from the surface to the bulk of the material in order to reach full capacity. A color change of cryptomelane from black to yellow-brown after SO2 absorption can be used as an indicator of absorption progress. Cryptomelane can be synthesized using MnSO4 as a reagent. Therefore, after full SO2 absorption the product MnSO4 can be re-used as raw material for a subsequent cryptomelane synthesis. Cryptomelane has a similarly high capacity toward SO3, therefore it can be used for removal of all SOx species generated from a variety of combustion sources. Cryptomelane may find application as a replaceable absorbent for the removal of SOx from diesel truck exhaust, protecting downstream emissions control devices such as particulate filters and NOx traps.

  17. Organotrisulfide: A High Capacity Cathode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Cui, Yi; Bhargav, Amruth; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Siegel, Amanda; Agarwal, Mangilal; Ma, Ying; Fu, Yongzhu

    2016-08-16

    An organotrisulfide (RSSSR, R is an organic group) has three sulfur atoms which could be involved in multi-electron reduction reactions; therefore it is a promising electrode material for batteries. Herein, we use dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) as a model compound to study its redox reactions in rechargeable lithium batteries. With the aid of XRD, XPS, and GC-MS analysis, we confirm DMTS could undergo almost a 4 e(-) reduction process in a complete discharge to 1.0 V. The discharge products are primarily LiSCH3 and Li2 S. The lithium cell with DMTS catholyte delivers an initial specific capacity of 720 mAh g(-1) DMTS and retains 82 % of the capacity over 50 cycles at C/10 rate. When the electrolyte/DMTS ratio is 3:1 mL g(-1) , the reversible specific energy for the cell including electrolyte can be 229 Wh kg(-1) . This study shows organotrisulfide is a promising high-capacity cathode material for high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries. PMID:27411083

  18. High-Capacity Drug Carriers from Common Polymer Amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhun; Munyaradzi, Oliver; Xia, Xin; Green, Da'Sean; Bong, Dennis

    2016-09-12

    We report herein a dual-purpose role for polyacidic domains in an aqueous-phase polymer amphiphile assembly. In addition to their typical role as ionized water-solubilizing and self-repulsive motifs, we find that polycarboxylic acid domains uniquely enable high levels of hydrophobic drug encapsulation. By attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, we find significant differences in the carbonyl stretching region of the nanoparticles formed by polyacidic amphiphiles relative to those in soluble, single-domain poly(acrylic acid), suggesting that stabilization may be derived from limited ionization of the carboxylate groups upon assembly. Acidic-hydrophobic diblock polyacrylates were prepared and coassembled with up to 60 wt % camptothecin (CPT) into nanoparticles, the highest loading reported to date. Controlled release of bioactive CPT from polymer nanoparticles is observed, as well as protection from human serum albumin-induced hydrolysis. Surface protection with PEG limits uptake of the CPT-loaded nanoparticles by MCF-7 breast cancer cells, as expected. Acidic-hydrophobic polymer amphiphiles thus have the hallmarks of a useful and general drug delivery platform and are readily accessible from living radical polymerization of cheap, commercially available monomers. We highlight here the potential utility of this common polymer design in high-capacity, controlled-release polymer nanoparticle systems. PMID:27476544

  19. Tracking inhomogeneity in high-capacity lithium iron phosphate batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, William A.; Zhong, Zhong; Tsakalakos, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) is one of the few techniques that can internally probe a sealed battery under operating conditions. In this paper, we use EDXRD with ultrahigh energy synchrotron radiation to track inhomogeneity in a cycled high-capacity lithium iron phosphate cell under in-situ and operando conditions. A sequence of depth-profile x-ray diffraction spectra are collected with 40 μm resolution as the cell is discharged. Additionally, nine different locations of the cell are tracked independently throughout a second discharge process. In each case, a two-peak reference intensity ratio analysis (RIR) was used on the LiFePO4 311 and the FePO4 020 reflections to estimate the relative phase abundance of the lithiated and non-lithiated phases. The data provide a first-time look at the dynamics of electrochemical inhomogeneity in a real-world battery. We observe a strong correlation between inhomogeneity and overpotential in the galvanic response of the cell. Additionally, the data closely follow the behavior that is predicted by the resistive-reactant model originally proposed by Thomas-Alyea. Despite a non-linear response in the independently measured locations, the behavior of the ensemble is strikingly linear. This suggests that effects of inhomogeneity can be elusive and highlights the power of the EDXRD technique.

  20. Organotrisulfide: A High Capacity Cathode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Cui, Yi; Bhargav, Amruth; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Siegel, Amanda; Agarwal, Mangilal; Ma, Ying; Fu, Yongzhu

    2016-08-16

    An organotrisulfide (RSSSR, R is an organic group) has three sulfur atoms which could be involved in multi-electron reduction reactions; therefore it is a promising electrode material for batteries. Herein, we use dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) as a model compound to study its redox reactions in rechargeable lithium batteries. With the aid of XRD, XPS, and GC-MS analysis, we confirm DMTS could undergo almost a 4 e(-) reduction process in a complete discharge to 1.0 V. The discharge products are primarily LiSCH3 and Li2 S. The lithium cell with DMTS catholyte delivers an initial specific capacity of 720 mAh g(-1) DMTS and retains 82 % of the capacity over 50 cycles at C/10 rate. When the electrolyte/DMTS ratio is 3:1 mL g(-1) , the reversible specific energy for the cell including electrolyte can be 229 Wh kg(-1) . This study shows organotrisulfide is a promising high-capacity cathode material for high-energy rechargeable lithium batteries.

  1. Polarization holographic high-density optical data storage in bacteriorhodopsin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Baoli; Ren, Zhiwei; Menke, Neimule; Wang, Yingli; Zheng, Yuan; Lei, Ming; Chen, Guofu; Hampp, Norbert

    2005-12-01

    Optical films containing the genetic variant bacteriorhodopsin BR-D96N were experimentally studied in view of their properties as media for holographic storage. Different polarization recording schemes were tested and compared. The influence of the polarization states of the recording and readout waves on the retrieved diffractive image's intensity and its signal-to-noise ratio were analyzed. The experimental results showed that, compared with the other tested polarization relations during holographic recording, the discrimination between the polarization states of diffracted and scattered light is optimized with orthogonal circular polarization of the recording beams, and thus a high signal-to-noise ratio and a high diffraction efficiency are obtained. Using a He-Ne laser (633 nm,3 mW) for recording and readout, a spatial light modulator as a data input element, and a 2D-CCD sensor for data capture in a Fourier-transform holographic setup, a storage density of 2×108 bits/cm2 was obtained on a 60×42 µm2 area in the BR-D96N film. The readout of encoded binary data was possible with a zero-error rate at the tested storage density.

  2. O/E/O storage mechanism for burst contention resolution in optical burst switching networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yutong; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hanyi; Pu, Tao; Wang, Lei; Guo, Yili

    2005-11-01

    Burst contention resolution is one of the most important issues in optical burst switching (OBS) networks. In this paper, an O/E/O conversion and electronic storage mechanism for contention resolution is proposed. Compared with fiber delay lines (FDL) O/E/O strategy can provide much longer and continuous delay time for the contending bursts, which can significantly reduce burst loss rate. For this mechanism, a new burst scheduling algorithm called Shortest Delay- Best Fit (SD-BF) is proposed here to improve bandwidth utilization. In a network, O/E/O can be implemented with FDL to achieve a better performance while reducing node cost. In this paper, a semi-share structure for this combination strategy is proposed to balance the cost and performance. Numerical results show that a better performance is achieved by the combination strategy in the long haul back-bone networks. We also investigate the maximum electronic RAM capacity needed in the nodes to support O/E/O storage, and how to implement Quality-of-Service (QoS) with O/E/O storage.

  3. A high-capacity streptavidin-coated microtitration plate.

    PubMed

    Välimaa, Lasse; Pettersson, Kim; Vehniäinen, Markus; Karp, Matti; Lövgren, Timo

    2003-01-01

    A majority of current immunoassays rely on capturing a specific analyte on a solid phase to allow the separation of the bound analyte from nonbound components. Streptavidin-coated microtitration plates are widely used for immobilization of capturing antibodies, since they provide a generic surface for immobilization of any biotinylated molecule and preserve biomolecule activity much better than direct passive adsorption. Our trials to further improve the properties of the plates resulted in a development of a modified plate, which has higher binding capacity than currently used control plate. The modified coat was prepared by cross-linking streptavidin chemically prior to adsorption onto the microtitration well surfaces. The binding capacities of the plates were measured with biotinylated, europium-labeled molecules and labeled antigen. The immunoassay performance of the plates was studied with noncompetitive, sandwich-type assays of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The maximum immobilization capacity of the modified plate was up to 2.5 times higher than that of the control plate. The higher binding capacity was especially emphasized with small-size molecules. The modified high capacity plate increased the linear ranges of the immunoassays and thus delayed the high-dose hook effect. At high antigen concentrations the signal increased up to 59%, and at the conventional linear ranges of the assays, the increase was up to 29%. We conclude that the modified coating method will be valuable for the future miniaturized systems, where high immobilization capacity is needed at limited areas. PMID:12526699

  4. Si/TiSi2 Heteronanostructures as high-capacity anode material for li ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sa; Liu, Xiaohua; Wang, Dunwei

    2010-03-10

    We synthesized a unique heteronanostructure consisting of two-dimensional TiSi(2) nanonets and particulate Si coating. The high conductivity and the structural integrity of the TiSi(2) nanonet core were proven as great merits to permit reproducible Li(+) insertion and extraction into and from the Si coating. This heteronanostructure was tested as the anode material for Li(+) storage. At a charge/discharge rate of 8400 mA/g, we measured specific capacities >1000 mAh/g. Only an average of 0.1% capacity fade per cycle was observed between the 20th and the 100th cycles. The combined high capacity, long capacity life, and fast charge/discharge rate represent one of the best anode materials that have been reported. The remarkable performance was enabled by the capability to preserve the crystalline TiSi2 core during the charge/discharge process. This achievement demonstrates the potency of this novel heteronanostructure design as an electrode material for energy storage.

  5. Glider optical measurements and BUFR format for data QC and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Weilin (Will); Carnes, Michael; Burrage, Derek; Arnone, Bob; Weidemann, Alan; Bryant, Danielle; Grembowicz, Ken; Mangin, Samuel R.; Mahoney, Kevin; Torres, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Unmanned underwater vehicles are becoming an increasingly important platform in oceanographic research and operational oceanography, where continuous in situ sampling throughout the water column is essential to understanding the ocean circulation and related biological, chemical, and optical activity. The latter directly affects field operations and remote sensing capabilities from space. A unified approach is necessary for data quality control (QC), access, and storage, considering the vast amount of data collected from gliders continuously deployed across large areas and over long durations. The Binary Universal Form for the Representation of meteorological data (BUFR) maintained by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is adapted to include physical and optical parameters from a variety of sensor suites onboard underwater vehicles. The provisional BUFR template and related BUFR descriptors and table entries have been developed by the U.S. Navy for ocean glider profile data and QC results. Software written in FORTRAN using the ECMWF BUFRDC library has been implemented to perform both the encoding and decoding of BUFR files from and to Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) files. This presentation also discusses data collected from sensors on gliders deployed both in deep water and shallow water environments, including issues specific to optical sensors at various depths.

  6. Acoustic emission detection with fiber optical sensors for dry cask storage health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Bin; Bao, Jingjing; Yu, Lingyu; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2016-04-01

    The increasing number, size, and complexity of nuclear facilities deployed worldwide are increasing the need to maintain readiness and develop innovative sensing materials to monitor important to safety structures (ITS). In the past two decades, an extensive sensor technology development has been used for structural health monitoring (SHM). Technologies for the diagnosis and prognosis of a nuclear system, such as dry cask storage system (DCSS), can improve verification of the health of the structure that can eventually reduce the likelihood of inadvertently failure of a component. Fiber optical sensors have emerged as one of the major SHM technologies developed particularly for temperature and strain measurements. This paper presents the development of optical equipment that is suitable for ultrasonic guided wave detection for active SHM in the MHz range. An experimental study of using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) as acoustic emission (AE) sensors was performed on steel blocks. FBG have the advantage of being durable, lightweight, and easily embeddable into composite structures as well as being immune to electromagnetic interference and optically multiplexed. The temperature effect on the FBG sensors was also studied. A multi-channel FBG system was developed and compared with piezoelectric based AE system. The paper ends with conclusions and suggestions for further work.

  7. Systems Issues Pertaining to Holographic Optical Data Storage in Thick Bacteriorhodopsin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.; Timucin, Dogan A.; Gary, Charles K.; Oezcan, Meric; Smithey, Daniel T.; Crew, Marshall; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The optical data storage capacity and raw bit-error-rate achievable with thick photochromic bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films are investigated for sequential recording and read- out of angularly- and shift-multiplexed digital holograms inside a thick blue-membrane D85N BR film. We address the determination of an exposure schedule that produces equal diffraction efficiencies among each of the multiplexed holograms. This exposure schedule is determined by numerical simulations of the holographic recording process within the BR material, and maximizes the total grating strength. We also experimentally measure the shift selectivity and compare the results to theoretical predictions. Finally, we evaluate the bit-error-rate of a single hologram, and of multiple holograms stored within the film.

  8. MeV ion-beam analysis of optical data storage films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, J. A.; Mcintyre, L. C., Jr.; Lin, Z.

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives are threefold: (1) to accurately characterize optical data storage films by MeV ion-beam analysis (IBA) for ODSC collaborators; (2) to develop new and/or improved analysis techniques; and (3) to expand the capabilities of the IBA facility itself. Using H-1(+), He-4(+), and N-15(++) ion beams in the 1.5 MeV to 10 MeV energy range from a 5.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, film thickness (in atoms/sq cm), stoichiometry, impurity concentration profiles, and crystalline structure were determined by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), high-energy backscattering, channeling, nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Most of these techniques are discussed in detail in the ODSC Annual Report (February 17, 1987), p. 74. The PIXE technique is briefly discussed in the ODSC Annual Report (March 15, 1991), p. 23.

  9. A high capacity data recording device based on a digital audio processor and a video cassette recorder.

    PubMed Central

    Bezanilla, F

    1985-01-01

    A modified digital audio processor, a video cassette recorder, and some simple added circuitry are assembled into a recording device of high capacity. The unit converts two analog channels into digital form at 44-kHz sampling rate and stores the information in digital form in a common video cassette. Bandwidth of each channel is from direct current to approximately 20 kHz and the dynamic range is close to 90 dB. The total storage capacity in a 3-h video cassette is 2 Gbytes. The information can be retrieved in analog or digital form. PMID:3978213

  10. All-optical light storage in bound states in the continuum and release by demand.

    PubMed

    Bulgakov, E N; Pichugin, K N; Sadreev, A F

    2015-08-24

    In the framework of the temporal coupled mode theory we consider bound states embedded in the continuum (BSC) of photonic crystal waveguide as a capacity for light storage. A symmetry protected BSC occurs in two off-channel microresonators positioned symmetrically relative to the waveguide. We demonstrate that the symmetry protected BSC captures a fraction of a light pulse due to the Kerr effect as the pulse passes by the microresonators. However the amount of captured light is found to be strongly sensitive to the parameters of the gaussian light pulse such as basic frequency, duration and intensity. In contrast to the above case the BSC resulted from a full destructive interference of two eigenmodes of a single microresonator accumulates a fixed amount of light dependent on the material parameters of the microresonator but independent of the light pulse. The BSCs in the Fabry-Perot resonator show similar effects. We also show that the accumulated light can be released by a secondary pulse. These phenomena pave a way for all-optical storage and release of light.

  11. Photonics applications in high-capacity data link terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Zan; Foshee, James J.

    2001-12-01

    Radio systems and, in particular, RF data link systems are evolving toward progressively more bandwidth and higher data rates. For many military RF data link applications the data transfer requirements exceed one Gigabit per second. Airborne collectors need to transfer sensor information and other large data files to ground locations and other airborne terminals, including the rel time transfer of files. It is a challenge to the system designer to provide a system design, which meets the RF link budget requirements for a one Gigabit per second data link; and there is a corresponding challenge in the development of the terminal architecture and hardware. The utilization of photonic circuitry and devices as a part of the terminal design offers the designer some alternatives to the conventional RF hardware design within the radio. Areas of consideration for the implementation of photonic technology include Gigabit per second baseband data interfaces with fiber along with the associated clocking rates and extending these Gigabit data rates into the radio for optical processing technology; optical interconnections within the individual circuit boards in the radio; and optical backplanes to allow the transfer of not only the Gigabit per second data rates and high speed clocks but other RF signals within the radio. True time delay using photonics in phased array antennas has been demonstrated and is an alternative to the conventional phase shifter designs used in phased array antennas, and remoting of phased array antennas from the terminal electronics in the Ku and Ka frequency bands using fiber optics as the carrier to minimize the RF losses, negate the use of the conventional waveguides, and allow the terminal equipment to be located with other electronic equipment in the aircraft suitable for controlled environment, ready access, and maintenance. The various photonics design alternatives will be discussed including specific photonic design approaches. Packaging

  12. New High Capacity Getter for Vacuum-Insulated Mobile Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    H. Londer; G. R. Myneni; P. Adderley; G. Bartlok; J. Setina; W. Knapp; D. Schleussner

    2006-05-01

    Current ''Non evaporable getters'' (NEGs), based on the principle of metallic surface sorption of gas molecules, are important tools for the improving the performance of many vacuum systems. High porosity alloys or powder mixtures of Zr, Ti, Al, V, Fe and other metals are the base materials for this type of getters. The continuous development of vacuum technologies has created new challenges for the field of getter materials. The main sorption parameters of the current NEGs, namely, pumping speed and sorption capacity, have reached certain upper limits. Chemically active metals are the basis of a new generation of NEGs. The introduction of these new materials with high sorption capacity at room temperature is a long-awaited development. These new materials enable the new generation of NEGs to reach faster pumping speeds, significantly higher sticking rates and sorption capacities up to 104 times higher during their lifetimes. Our development efforts focus on producing these chemically active metals with controlled insulation or protection. The main structural forms of our new getter materials are spherical powders, granules and porous multi-layers. The full pumping performance can take place at room temperature with activation temperatures ranging from room temperature to 650 C. In one of our first pilot projects, our proprietary getter solution was successfully introduced as a getter pump in a double-wall mobile LH2 tank system. Our getters were shown to have very high sorption capacity of all relevant residual gases, including H2. This new concept opens the opportunity for significant vacuum improvements, especially in the field of H2 pumping which is an important task in many different vacuum applications.

  13. Optical Storage Systems for Records and Information Management: Overview, Recommendations and Guidelines for Local Governments. Local Government Records Technical Information Series. Number 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stanley F.

    This publication discusses optical storage, a term encompassing technologies that use laser-produced light to record and store information in digital form. The booklet also discusses how optical storage systems relate to records management, in particular to the management of local government records in New York State. It describes components of…

  14. Halbach array type focusing actuator for small and thin optical data storage device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung Q.; Park, Kang-Ho; Paek, Mun Chul

    2004-09-01

    The small form factor optical data storage devices are developing rapidly nowadays. Since it is designed for portable and compatibility with flesh memory, its components such as disk, head, focusing actuator, and spindle motor should be assembled within 5 mm. The thickness of focusing actuator is within 2 mm and the total working range is +/-100um, with the resolution of less than 1μm. Since the thickness is limited tightly, it is hard to place the yoke that closes the magnetic circuit and hard to make strong flux density without yoke. Therefore, Halbach array is adopted to increase the magnetic flux of one side without yoke. The proposed Halbach array type focusing actuator has the advantage of thin actuation structure with sacrificing less flex density than conventional magnetic array. The optical head unit is moved on the swing arm type tracking actuator. Focusing coil is attached to swing arm, and Halbach magnet array is positioned at the bottom of deck along the tracking line, and focusing actuator exerts force by the Fleming's left hand rule. The dynamics, working range, control resolution of focusing actuator are analyzed and performed.

  15. Java-Library for the Access, Storage and Editing of Calibration Metadata of Optical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firlej, M.; Kresse, W.

    2016-06-01

    The standardization of the calibration of optical sensors in photogrammetry and remote sensing has been discussed for more than a decade. Projects of the German DGPF and the European EuroSDR led to the abstract International Technical Specification ISO/TS 19159-1:2014 "Calibration and validation of remote sensing imagery sensors and data - Part 1: Optical sensors". This article presents the first software interface for a read- and write-access to all metadata elements standardized in the ISO/TS 19159-1. This interface is based on an xml-schema that was automatically derived by ShapeChange from the UML-model of the Specification. The software interface serves two cases. First, the more than 300 standardized metadata elements are stored individually according to the xml-schema. Secondly, the camera manufacturers are using many administrative data that are not a part of the ISO/TS 19159-1. The new software interface provides a mechanism for input, storage, editing, and output of both types of data. Finally, an output channel towards a usual calibration protocol is provided. The interface is written in Java. The article also addresses observations made when analysing the ISO/TS 19159-1 and compiles a list of proposals for maturing the document, i.e. for an updated version of the Specification.

  16. Electron trapping data storage system and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brower, Daniel; Earman, Allen; Chaffin, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    The advent of digital information storage and retrieval has led to explosive growth in data transmission techniques, data compression alternatives, and the need for high capacity random access data storage. Advances in data storage technologies are limiting the utilization of digitally based systems. New storage technologies will be required which can provide higher data capacities and faster transfer rates in a more compact format. Magnetic disk/tape and current optical data storage technologies do not provide these higher performance requirements for all digital data applications. A new technology developed at the Optex Corporation out-performs all other existing data storage technologies. The Electron Trapping Optical Memory (ETOM) media is capable of storing as much as 14 gigabytes of uncompressed data on a single, double-sided 54 inch disk with a data transfer rate of up to 12 megabits per second. The disk is removable, compact, lightweight, environmentally stable, and robust. Since the Write/Read/Erase (W/R/E) processes are carried out 100 percent photonically, no heating of the recording media is required. Therefore, the storage media suffers no deleterious effects from repeated Write/Read/Erase cycling.

  17. Development of High Capacity Split Stirling Cryocooler for HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Kenta; Nakano, Kyosuke; Hiratsuka, Yoshikatsu

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) developed a high-power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler for cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and fault current limiters. The experimental results of a prototype pulse tube cryocooler were reported in September 2013. For a U-type expander, the cooling capacity was 151 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 4 kW. Correspondingly, the coefficient of performance (COP) was about 0.038. However, the efficiency of the cryocooler is required to be COP > 0.1 and it was found that, theoretically, it is difficult to further improve the efficiency of a pulse tube cryocooler because the workflow generated at the hot end of the pulse tube cannot be recovered. Therefore, it was decided to change the expander to a free-piston type from a pulse tube type. A prototype was developed and preliminary experiments were conducted. A cooling capacity of 120 W at 70 K with a compressor input power of 2.15 kW with corresponding COP of 0.056, was obtained. The detailed results are reported in this paper.

  18. High-capacity, high-strength trailer designs for the GA-4/GA-9 Casks

    SciTech Connect

    Kissinger, J.A.; Rickard, N.D.; Taylor, C.; Zimmer, A.

    1991-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing final designs for two dedicated legal-weight trailers to transport the GA-4 and GA-9 Spent-Fuel Casks. The basic designs for these high-capacity, high-strength trailers are essentially identical except for small modifications to account for the differences in cask geometry. We are designing both trailers to carry a 55,000 lb (24,900 kg) payload and to withstand a 2.5 g vertical design load. The GA-4 and GA-9 trailers are designed for significantly higher loads than are typical commercial semitrailers, which are designed to loads in the range of 1.7 to 2.0 g. To meet the federal gross vehicle weight limit for legal-weight trucks, GA has set a target design weight for the trailers of 9000 lb (4080 kg). This weight includes the personnel barrier, cask tiedowns, and impact limiter removal and storage system. Based on the preliminary trailer designs, the final design weight is expected to be very close to this target weight. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Enhanced Dissociation of Intact Proteins with High Capacity Electron Transfer Dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Nicholas M.; Mullen, Christopher; Weisbrod, Chad R.; Sharma, Seema; Senko, Michael W.; Zabrouskov, Vlad; Westphall, Michael S.; Syka, John E. P.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2016-03-01

    Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is a valuable tool for protein sequence analysis, especially for the fragmentation of intact proteins. However, low product ion signal-to-noise often requires some degree of signal averaging to achieve high quality MS/MS spectra of intact proteins. Here we describe a new implementation of ETD on the newest generation of quadrupole-Orbitrap-linear ion trap Tribrid, the Orbitrap Fusion Lumos, for improved product ion signal-to-noise via ETD reactions on larger precursor populations. In this new high precursor capacity ETD implementation, precursor cations are accumulated in the center section of the high pressure cell in the dual pressure linear ion trap prior to charge-sign independent trapping, rather than precursor ion sequestration in only the back section as is done for standard ETD. This new scheme increases the charge capacity of the precursor accumulation event, enabling storage of approximately 3-fold more precursor charges. High capacity ETD boosts the number of matching fragments identified in a single MS/MS event, reducing the need for spectral averaging. These improvements in intra-scan dynamic range via reaction of larger precursor populations, which have been previously demonstrated through custom modified hardware, are now available on a commercial platform, offering considerable benefits for intact protein analysis and top down proteomics. In this work, we characterize the advantages of high precursor capacity ETD through studies with myoglobin and carbonic anhydrase.

  20. Holographic storage system based on digital holography for recording a phase data page in a compact optical setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobukawa, Teruyoshi; Nomura, Takanori

    2016-03-01

    A holographic storage system based on digital holography is proposed for recording and retrieving a phase data page in a compact and simple optical setup. In the proposed recording system, complex amplitude distribution can be modulated using a single phase-only spatial light modulator. The complex amplitude distribution of a retrieved phase data page is detected with the Fourier fringe analysis. The use of digital holographic techniques enables realizing a compact and simple holographic recording system, which is independent of misalignment problem in conventional holographic storage systems. The capability of the proposed recording system is numerically and experimentally evaluated.

  1. Structural and optical properties of In doped Se-Te phase-change thin films: A material for optical data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, H. P.; Shukla, Nitesh; Kumar, Vipin; Dwivedi, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    Se75-xTe25Inx (x = 0, 3, 6, & 9) bulk glasses were obtained by melt quench technique. Thin films of thickness 400 nm were prepared by thermal evaporation technique at a base pressure of 10-6 Torr onto well cleaned glass substrate. a-Se75-xTe25Inx thin films were annealed at different temperatures for 2 h. As prepared and annealed films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction results show that the as-prepared films are of amorphous nature while it shows some poly-crystalline structure in amorphous phases after annealing. The optical absorption spectra of these films were measured in the wavelength range 400-1100 nm in order to derive the extinction and absorption coefficient of these films. It was found that the mechanism of optical absorption follows the rule of allowed non-direct transition. The optical band gap of as prepared and annealed films as a function of photon energy has been studied. The optical band gap is found to decrease with increase in annealing temperature in the present glassy system. It happens due to crystallization of amorphous films. The decrease in optical band gap due to annealing is an interesting behavior for a material to be used in optical storage. The optical band gap has been observed to decrease with the increase of In content in Se-Te glassy system.

  2. Impact of storage induced outgassing organic contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics at 351 nm.

    PubMed

    Bien-Aimé, K; Belin, C; Gallais, L; Grua, P; Fargin, E; Néauport, J; Tovena-Pecault, I

    2009-10-12

    The impact of storage conditions on laser induced damage density at 351 nm on bare fused polished silica samples has been studied. Intentionally outgassing of polypropylene pieces on silica samples was done. We evidenced an important increase of laser induced damage density on contaminated samples demonstrating that storage could limit optics lifetime performances. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Gas Chromatography -Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) have been used to identify the potential causes of this effect. It shows that a small quantity of organic contamination deposited on silica surface is responsible for this degradation. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. The more likely hypothesis is a coupling between surface defects of optics and organic contaminants.

  3. Final Report: DE- FC36-05GO15063, Fundamental Studies of Advanced High-Capacity, Reversible Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Craig; McGrady, Sean; Severa, Godwin; Eliseo, Jennifer; Chong, Marina

    2013-05-31

    The project was component of the US DOE, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The Sandia National Laboratory led center was established to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE/FreedomCAR 2010 and 2015 system targets for hydrogen storage materials. Our approach entailed a wide variety of activities ranging from synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of new candidate hydrogen storage materials; screening of catalysts for high capacity materials requiring kinetics enhancement; development of low temperature methods for nano-confinement of hydrides and determining its effects on the kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrides; and development of novel processes for the direct re-hydrogenation of materials. These efforts have resulted in several advancements the development of hydrogen storage materials. We have greatly extended the fundamental knowledge about the highly promising hydrogen storage carrier, alane (AlH3), by carrying out the first crystal structure determinations and the first determination of the heats of dehydrogenation of β–AlH3 and γ-AlD3. A low-temperature homogenous organometallic approach to incorporation of Al and Mg based hydrides into carbon aerogels has been developed that that allows high loadings without degradation of the nano-porous scaffold. Nano-confinement was found to significantly improve the dehydrogenation kinetics but not effect the enthalpy of dehydrogenation. We conceived, characterized, and synthesized a novel class of potential hydrogen storage materials, bimetallic borohydrides. These novel compounds were found to have many favorable properties including release of significant amounts of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (75-190 º C). However, in situ IR studies in tandem with thermal gravimetric analysis have shown that about 0.5 equivalents of diborane are released during the

  4. Optical cell for combinatorial in situ Raman spectroscopic measurements of hydrogen storage materials at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattrick-Simpers, Jason R.; Hurst, Wilbur S.; Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Maslar, James E.

    2011-03-01

    An optical cell is described for high-throughput backscattering Raman spectroscopic measurements of hydrogen storage materials at pressures up to 10 MPa and temperatures up to 823 K. High throughput is obtained by employing a 60 mm diameter × 9 mm thick sapphire window, with a corresponding 50 mm diameter unobstructed optical aperture. To reproducibly seal this relatively large window to the cell body at elevated temperatures and pressures, a gold o-ring is employed. The sample holder-to-window distance is adjustable, making this cell design compatible with optical measurement systems incorporating lenses of significantly different focal lengths, e.g., microscope objectives and single element lenses. For combinatorial investigations, up to 19 individual powder samples can be loaded into the optical cell at one time. This cell design is also compatible with thin-film samples. To demonstrate the capabilities of the cell, in situ measurements of the Ca(BH4)2 and nano-LiBH4-LiNH2-MgH2 hydrogen storage systems at elevated temperatures and pressures are reported.

  5. Use of optical storage for patent image retrieval: the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office's automated patent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Stephen R.

    1990-08-01

    The Automated Patent System (APS) was designed, among other things, to assist the patent examiner in performing the patent search. It is a fully distributed system that uses custom-built high-resolution dual-display intelligent workstations, optical file servers, mainframes, and support computers networked together using Ethernet technology. The system is composed of two parts which are highly integrated: a full text search system and a patent image retrieval system. When fully deployed, APS will have an image data base of up to 30 terabytes being accessed from over 1000 workstations. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) has had problems with their optical drives, and although they are fairly stable today, we still experience a moderately high hardware failure rate. The optical drive problems include media instability, hardware design errors, vendor problems, and configuration control failures. We intend to purchase additional drives in the future, and are re-evaluating the exclusive use of optical storage in light of recent advances in magnetic storage technology.

  6. Design, Installation and Post-Implementation Assessment of an Optical Disc Based Storage and Retrieval System for Images of Engineering Contract Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, J. H.; Masters, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an image storage system for contract documentation in the Engineering Directorate of Thames Water Utilities (England) which uses optical disc storage and a relational database for indexing and retrieval of nearly 500,000 pages in compressed image format, and provides end user access through 7 workstations. Requirements, feasibility…

  7. Response of standard and high-capacity HEPA filters to simulated tornado and explosive transients

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, W.S.; Smith, P.R.

    1982-03-01

    An investigation was performed to determine the response of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters to simulated tornado and explosive transients. Most of the tests were directed toward evaluating the structural response of high-capacity filters to explosive transients. Selected tests were performed to evaluate the effects of particulate loading on filtration efficiencies. Also, several of the high-capacity filters were subjected to simulated toronado transients. The results indicate that the upper structural limits of high-capacity filters for explosive loading is 6.89-kPa (1-psi) peak pressure and 100-kPa-ms (14.51-psi-ms) impulse. These limits are below the approximately 13.78-kPa (2-psi) peak pressure loadings found for standard HEPA filters. Tests of high-capacity filters preloaded with aerosol indicated that the structural limits were further degraded by approximately 40%. The filtration efficiencies were degraded to approximately 70% when the filters were subjected to aerosol entrained within the shock pulse. The effect of simulated tornado transients on high-capacity filters resulted in an upper structural limit of 11.02 kPa (1.6 psi) for peak pressure.

  8. An optical storage cavity-based, Compton-backscatter x-ray source using the MKV free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadmack, Michael R.

    A compact, high-brightness x-ray source is presently under development at the University of Hawai`i Free Electron Laser Laboratory. This source utilizes Compton backscattering of an infrared laser from a relativistic electron beam to produce a narrow beam of monochromatic x-rays. The scattering efficiency is greatly increased by tightly focusing the two beams at an interaction point within a near-concentric optical storage cavity, designed with high finesse to coherently stack the incident laser pulses and greatly enhance the number of photons available for scattering with the electron beam. This dissertation describes the effort and progress to integrate and characterize the most important and challenging aspects of the design of this system. A low-power, near-concentric, visible-light storage cavity has been constructed as a tool for the exploration of the performance, alignment procedures, and diagnostics required for the operation of a high power infrared storage cavity. The use of off-axis reflective focussing elements is essential to the design of the optical storage cavity, but requires exquisite alignment to minimize astigmatism and other optical aberrations. Experiments using a stabilized HeNe laser have revealed important performance characteristics, and allowed the development of critical alignment and calibration procedures, which can be directly applied to the high power infrared storage cavity. Integration of the optical and electron beams is similarly challenging. A scanning-wire beam profiler has been constructed and tested, which allows for high resolution measurement of the size and position of the laser and electron beams at the interaction point. This apparatus has demonstrated that the electron and laser beams can be co-aligned with a precision of less than 10 microm, as required to maximize the x-ray production rate. Equally important is the stabilization of the phase of the GHz repetition rate electron pulses arriving at the interaction point

  9. Optical disk uses in criminal identification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sypherd, Allen D.

    1990-08-01

    A significant advancement in law enforcement tools has been made possible by the rapid and innovative development of electronic imaging for criminal identification systems. In particular, development of optical disks capable of high-capacity and random-access storage has provided a unique marriage of application and technology. Fast random access to any record, non-destructive reading of stored images, electronic sorting and transmission of images and an accepted legal basis for evidence are a few of the advantages derived from optical disk technology. This paper discusses the application of optical disk technology to both Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) and Automated Mugshot Retrieval Systems (AMRS). The following topics are addressed in light of AFIS and AMRS user requirements and system capabilities: Write once vs. rewritable, gray level and storage requirements, multi-volume library systems, data organization and capacity trends.

  10. Carbon/Ternary Alloy/Carbon Optical Stack on Mylar as an Optical Data Storage Medium to Potentially Replace Magnetic Tape

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hao; Lunt, Barry M.; Gates, Richard J.; Asplund, Matthew C.; Shutthanandan, V.; Davis, Robert C.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2013-09-11

    A novel write-once-read-many (WORM) optical stack on Mylar tape is proposed as a replacement for magnetic tape for archival data storage. This optical tape contains a cosputtered bismuth–tellurium–selenium (BTS) alloy as the write layer sandwiched between thin, protective films of reactively sputtered carbon. The composition and thickness of the BTS layer were confirmed by Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The C/BTS/C stack on Mylar was written to/marked by 532 nm laser pulses. Under the same conditions, control Mylar films without the optical stack were unaffected. Marks, which showed craters/movement of the write material, were characterized by optical microscopy and AFM. The threshold laser powers for making marks on C/BTS/C stacks with different thicknesses were explored. Higher quality marks were made with a 60× objective compared to a 40× objective in our marking apparatus. Finally, the laser writing process was simulated with COMSOL.

  11. Charge-Storage-Type Optical Sensors with DOG-Function Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Yu-Ichi; Miyoshi, Yoshio

    The remarkable negative photo-induced current and negative differential characteristics according to the forward bias voltage have been observed successfully for GaAs/GaAlAs multi-quantum well structures with a storage layer of InAs/GaAs short period superlattice. The characteristics are dependent on the crystal quality of the storage layer and extremely enhanced by using the InAs/GaAs short period superlattice compared with InxGa1-xAs alloys.

  12. Self-storage: a novel family of stimuli-responsive polymer materials for optical and electrochemical switching.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yixiao; Zhang, Chaocan; Wu, Lili; Chen, Yanjun; Hu, Yuanyuan

    2014-11-01

    For most stimuli-responsive polymer materials (SRPMs), such as polymer gels, micelles, and brushes, the responsive mechanism is based on the solubility or compatibility with liquid media. That basis always results in distorting or collapsing the material's appearance and relies on external liquids. Here, a novel kind of SRPMs is proposed. Unlike most SRPMs, liquid is stored within special domains rather than expelled, so it is deforming-free and relying on no external liquid, which is referred to as self-storage SRPMs (SS-SRPMs). The facile and universal route to fabricate SS-SRPMs allows for another novel family of SRPMs. Furthermore, it is validated that SS-SRPMs can drastically respond to outside temperature like switchers, especially for optical and electrochemical responses. Those features hold prospects for applications in functional devices, such as smart optical lenses or anti-self-discharge electrolytes for energy devices.

  13. The SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS): Current Architecture and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Fargion, Giulietta S. (Editor); McClain, Charles R. (Editor); Bailey, Sean W.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite ocean color missions require an abundance of high-quality in situ measurements for bio-optical and atmospheric algorithm development and post-launch product validation and sensor calibration. To facilitate the assembly of a global data set, the NASA Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view (SeaWiFS) Project developed the Seafaring Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS), a local repository for in situ data regularly used in their scientific analyses. The system has since been expanded to contain data sets collected by the NASA Sensor Intercalibration and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project, as part of NASA Research Announcements NRA-96-MTPE-04 and NRA-99-OES-99. SeaBASS is a well moderated and documented hive for bio-optical data with a simple, secure mechanism for locating and extracting data based on user inputs. Its holdings are available to the general public with the exception of the most recently collected data sets. Extensive quality assurance protocols, comprehensive data and system documentation, and the continuation of an archive and relational database management system (RDBMS) suitable for bio-optical data all contribute to the continued success of SeaBASS. This document provides an overview of the current operational SeaBASS system.

  14. Evaluation of data storage layer thickness best fitted for digital data read-out procedure from hard x-ray optical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezirganyan, Hakob P.; Bezirganyan, Siranush E.; Bezirganyan, Petros H., Jr.; Bezirganyan, Hayk H., Jr.

    2009-08-01

    Paper is devoted to further evolution of the concept of ultra-high density hard x-ray storage media - a radically new x-ray- based optical data storage nanotechnology with terabit-scale digital data density per square centimeter of each storage layer of the memory disk. Forthcoming hard x-ray optical data read-out devices will use an ultra-high density information carrier named x-ray optical memory (X-ROM), which consists of crystalline wafer with the generated sub-surface amorphous nanometer-size reflecting speckles of x-ray high-reflectivity material. X-ROM is designed for long-term archiving of the large volumes of information and digital data handling via read-out systems operating on x-ray wavelength optics. Digital data read-out procedure from X-ROM is performed via grazing-angle incident x-ray micro beam. X-ray-based optical data storage system detects data by measuring changes in x-ray micro beam intensity reflected from the various surface points of data storage media. Grazing-angle incident x-ray configuration allows the handling of data from very large surface area of X-ROM disk and, consequently, the data read-out speed is much faster than in optical data read-out systems. Aim of paper is detailed evaluation of storage data-layer's effective thickness best fitted for a digital data read-out procedure. Penetration depths of non-homogeneous x-ray wave fields inside crystalline substrate and amorphous speckles of X-ROM are investigated theoretically in case of grazing-angle incidence x-ray backscattering diffraction (GIXB) applied in specular beam suppression mode. It is possible to reduce the effective thickness of data storage layer to a value of less than a single-bit linear size i.e. to reduce effective thickness up to 10 nm, according to performed evaluations.

  15. A nanonet-enabled Li ion battery cathode material with high power rate, high capacity, and long cycle lifetime.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sa; Yang, Xiaogang; Lin, Yongjing; Xie, Jin; Wang, Dunwei

    2012-01-24

    The performance of advanced energy conversion and storage devices, including solar cells and batteries, is intimately connected to the electrode designs at the nanoscale. Consider a rechargeable Li ion battery, a prevalent energy storage technology, as an example. Among other factors, the electrode material design at the nanoscale is key to realizing the goal of measuring fast ionic diffusion and high electronic conductivity, the inherent properties that determine power rates, and good stability upon repeated charge and discharge, which is critical to the sustainable high capacities. Here we show that such a goal can be achieved by forming heteronanostructures on a radically new platform we discovered, TiSi(2) nanonets. In addition to the benefits of high surface area, good electrical conductivity, and superb mechanical strength offered by the nanonet, the design also takes advantage of how TiSi(2) reacts with O(2) upon heating. The resulting TiSi(2)/V(2)O(5) nanostructures exhibit a specific capacity of 350 Ah/kg, a power rate up to 14.5 kW/kg, and 78.7% capacity retention after 9800 cycles of charge and discharge. These figures indicate that a cathode material significantly better than V(2)O(5) of other morphologies is produced.

  16. Development of a software interface for optical disk archival storage for a new life sciences flight experiments computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartram, Peter N.

    1989-01-01

    The current Life Sciences Laboratory Equipment (LSLE) microcomputer for life sciences experiment data acquisition is now obsolete. Among the weaknesses of the current microcomputer are small memory size, relatively slow analog data sampling rates, and the lack of a bulk data storage device. While life science investigators normally prefer data to be transmitted to Earth as it is taken, this is not always possible. No down-link exists for experiments performed in the Shuttle middeck region. One important aspect of a replacement microcomputer is provision for in-flight storage of experimental data. The Write Once, Read Many (WORM) optical disk was studied because of its high storage density, data integrity, and the availability of a space-qualified unit. In keeping with the goals for a replacement microcomputer based upon commercially available components and standard interfaces, the system studied includes a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) for interfacing the WORM drive. The system itself is designed around the STD bus, using readily available boards. Configurations examined were: (1) master processor board and slave processor board with the SCSI interface; (2) master processor with SCSI interface; (3) master processor with SCSI and Direct Memory Access (DMA); (4) master processor controlling a separate STD bus SCSI board; and (5) master processor controlling a separate STD bus SCSI board with DMA.

  17. Exciton storage in type-II quantum dots using the optical Aharonov-Bohm effect

    SciTech Connect

    Climente, Juan I.; Planelles, Josep

    2014-05-12

    We investigate the bright-to-dark exciton conversion efficiency in type-II quantum dots subject to a perpendicular magnetic field. To this end, we take the exciton storage protocol recently proposed by Simonin and co-workers [Phys. Rev. B 89, 075304 (2014)] and simulate its coherent dynamics. We confirm the storage is efficient in perfectly circular structures subject to weak external electric fields, where adiabatic evolution is dominant. In practice, however, the efficiency rapidly degrades with symmetry lowering. Besides, the use of excited states is likely unfeasible owing to the fast decay rates. We then propose an adaptation of the protocol which does not suffer from these limitations.

  18. VUV optical ring resonator for Duke storage ring free electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.H.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The conceptual design of the multifaceted-mirror ring resonator for Duke storage ring VUV FEL is presented. The expected performance of the OK-4 FEL with ring resonator is described. We discuss in this paper our plans to study reflectivity of VUV mirrors and their resistivity to soft X-ray spontaneous radiation from OK-4 undulator.

  19. Alkali slurry ozonation to produce a high capacity nickel battery material

    DOEpatents

    Jackovitz, John F.; Pantier, Earl A.

    1984-11-06

    A high capacity battery material is made, consisting essentially of hydrated Ni(II) hydroxide, and about 5 wt. % to about 40 wt. % of Ni(IV) hydrated oxide interlayer doped with alkali metal cations selected from potassium, sodium and lithium cations.

  20. Carbon-Confined SnO2-Electrodeposited Porous Carbon Nanofiber Composite as High-Capacity Sodium-Ion Battery Anode Material.

    PubMed

    Dirican, Mahmut; Lu, Yao; Ge, Yeqian; Yildiz, Ozkan; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-08-26

    Sodium resources are inexpensive and abundant, and hence, sodium-ion batteries are promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries. However, lower energy density and poor cycling stability of current sodium-ion batteries prevent their practical implementation for future smart power grid and stationary storage applications. Tin oxides (SnO2) can be potentially used as a high-capacity anode material for future sodium-ion batteries, and they have the advantages of high sodium storage capacity, high abundance, and low toxicity. However, SnO2-based anodes still cannot be used in practical sodium-ion batteries because they experience large volume changes during repetitive charge and discharge cycles. Such large volume changes lead to severe pulverization of the active material and loss of electrical contact between the SnO2 and carbon conductor, which in turn result in rapid capacity loss during cycling. Here, we introduce a new amorphous carbon-coated SnO2-electrodeposited porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF@SnO2@C) composite that not only has high sodium storage capability, but also maintains its structural integrity while ongoing repetitive cycles. Electrochemical results revealed that this SnO2-containing nanofiber composite anode had excellent electrochemical performance including high-capacity (374 mAh g(-1)), good capacity retention (82.7%), and large Coulombic efficiency (98.9% after 100th cycle). PMID:26252051

  1. Reversible conversion-alloying of Sb2O3 as a high-capacity, high-rate, and durable anode for sodium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meijuan; Jiang, Yinzhu; Sun, Wenping; Wang, Hongtao; Jin, Chuanhong; Yan, Mi

    2014-11-12

    Sodium ion batteries are attracting ever-increasing attention for the applications in large/grid scale energy storage systems. However, the research on novel Na-storage electrode materials is still in its infancy, and the cycling stability, specific capacity, and rate capability of the reported electrode materials cannot satisfy the demands of practical applications. Herein, a high performance Sb(2)O(3) anode electrochemically reacted via the reversible conversion-alloying mechanism is demonstrated for the first time. The Sb(2)O(3) anode exhibits a high capacity of 550 mAh g(-1) at 0.05 A g(-1) and 265 mAh g(-1) at 5 A g(-1). A reversible capacity of 414 mAh g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) is achieved after 200 stable cycles. The synergistic effect involving conversion and alloying reactions promotes stabilizing the structure of the active material and accelerating the kinetics of the reaction. The mechanism may offer a well-balanced approach for sodium storage to create high capacity and cycle-stable anode materials.

  2. Carbon-Confined SnO2-Electrodeposited Porous Carbon Nanofiber Composite as High-Capacity Sodium-Ion Battery Anode Material.

    PubMed

    Dirican, Mahmut; Lu, Yao; Ge, Yeqian; Yildiz, Ozkan; Zhang, Xiangwu

    2015-08-26

    Sodium resources are inexpensive and abundant, and hence, sodium-ion batteries are promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries. However, lower energy density and poor cycling stability of current sodium-ion batteries prevent their practical implementation for future smart power grid and stationary storage applications. Tin oxides (SnO2) can be potentially used as a high-capacity anode material for future sodium-ion batteries, and they have the advantages of high sodium storage capacity, high abundance, and low toxicity. However, SnO2-based anodes still cannot be used in practical sodium-ion batteries because they experience large volume changes during repetitive charge and discharge cycles. Such large volume changes lead to severe pulverization of the active material and loss of electrical contact between the SnO2 and carbon conductor, which in turn result in rapid capacity loss during cycling. Here, we introduce a new amorphous carbon-coated SnO2-electrodeposited porous carbon nanofiber (PCNF@SnO2@C) composite that not only has high sodium storage capability, but also maintains its structural integrity while ongoing repetitive cycles. Electrochemical results revealed that this SnO2-containing nanofiber composite anode had excellent electrochemical performance including high-capacity (374 mAh g(-1)), good capacity retention (82.7%), and large Coulombic efficiency (98.9% after 100th cycle).

  3. Expression of the high capacity calcium-binding domain of calreticulin increases bioavailable calcium stores in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Sarah E.; Tsou, Pei-Lan; Robertson, Dominique; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Modulation of cytosolic calcium levels in both plants and animals is achieved by a system of Ca2+-transport and storage pathways that include Ca2+ buffering proteins in the lumen of intracellular compartments. To date, most research has focused on the role of transporters in regulating cytosolic calcium. We used a reverse genetics approach to modulate calcium stores in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Our goals were two-fold: to use the low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ binding characteristics of the C-domain of calreticulin to selectively increase Ca2+ storage in the endoplasmic reticulum, and to determine if those alterations affected plant physiological responses to stress. The C-domain of calreticulin is a highly acidic region that binds 20-50 moles of Ca2+ per mole of protein and has been shown to be the major site of Ca2+ storage within the endoplasmic reticulum of plant cells. A 377-bp fragment encoding the C-domain and ER retention signal from the maize calreticulin gene was fused to a gene for the green fluorescent protein and expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of a heat shock promoter. Following induction on normal medium, the C-domain transformants showed delayed loss of chlorophyll after transfer to calcium depleted medium when compared to seedlings transformed with green fluorescent protein alone. Total calcium measurements showed a 9-35% increase for induced C-domain transformants compared to controls. The data suggest that ectopic expression of the calreticulin C-domain increases Ca2+ stores, and that this Ca2+ reserve can be used by the plant in times of stress.

  4. Optimized six-dimensional optical storage: a practicable way to large capacity and fast throughputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shangqing

    2015-08-01

    An optimized six-dimensional storage system has been investigated theoretically. The system uses multiple beams to create overlapped micro gratings as each storage cell. The cell capacity depends exponentially on the beam wavelength number. With two-photon absorption writing, coherence tomography reading and superresolving beam focusing, this system has extra-large capacity of >1 Pbyte per DVD sized disk (potential ~60 Pbytes per disk), extra-fast reading speed of >117 Gbits/s with high signal-to-noise ratio of >66 dB, large cell sizes (~0.3μm × 6μm) which greatly reduce data addressing difficulties and a standard drive like structure compatible with the CD and DVD disks.

  5. Encrypted Fourier holographic data storage with variable data reference wave for optical information security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheeja, M. K.; Ajith Kumar, P. T.; Nair, Achuthsankar S.

    2008-03-01

    In this work two liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LCSLMs) were applied to encode a reference beam and holographic storage of a set of encrypted data pages that formed the object beam. The SLMs were developed by converting two 84×48 pixels mobile phone displays and were set in transmissive mode. Fourier holograms were recorded in a red sensitive photopolymer emulsion (SM635C of POLYGRAMA, Brazil), coated on a glass substrate. While replay the reconstructed data page, recorded against a specific reference beam was captured by using a CCD camera and processed in a personal computer for decryption. The encoded reference beam forms a unique key to the individual hologram recorded through shift multiplexing. Diffraction efficiency of holograms was calculated and was found to be about 45%. The system offers a very cost effective solution for secure data storage and retrieval and can be used for storing valuable software, security documents etc.

  6. An evaluation of the financial impacts of optical disk storage for digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Stockburger, W T

    1987-01-01

    While the digitization of radiographic patient information and the use of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) have become a subject of increased interest and controversy, discussion of the methodology for archiving this information is not common. Optical disks have been proposed as one solution to the archival problem which faces most large radiology departments as the transition to digitization occurs. An in-depth financial analysis of the costs incurred by both traditional film archival and optical disk archival provides sufficient information to emphatically state that over a seven-year period, optical disk archival is more cost efficient than traditional radiographic film archival for radiology facilities with workloads greater than 25,000 procedures. For simplification purposes, however, only those cost directly associated with image archival were considered; all other factors relating to PACs, such as personnel costs and hardware required for image review and transfer, were ignored. PMID:10284737

  7. Command surface controlled liquid crystalline waveguide structures as optical information storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knobloch, Harald; Orendi, Horst; Buechel, Michael; Seki, Takahiro; Ito, Shinzaburo; Knoll, Wolfgang

    1994-12-01

    We report on optical waveguide structures in which light propagates within a liquid crystal (LC) thin film. In this configuration, the orientation, and therefore the optical properties of the LC waveguide structure are controlled by two photochromic command surfaces, consisting of an ultra thin film of a polymer with azobenzene side chains. When exposed to light of appropriate wavelength, the azobenzene side chains undergo a trans-cis photoisomerization process inducing a commensurate change in the LC alignment and therefore, in the set of refractive indices of the LC film. Using this effect we could reversibly write information into the LC cell. The size of our test structure was in the range of 50 micrometers. The stored information was read out by optical waveguide microscopy; the storing times were in the range of several hours.

  8. Eternal 5D data storage by ultrafast laser writing in glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; ČerkauskaitÄ--, A.; Drevinskas, R.; Patel, A.; Beresna, M.; Kazansky, P. G.

    2016-03-01

    Securely storing large amounts of information over relatively short timescales of 100 years, comparable to the span of the human memory, is a challenging problem. Conventional optical data storage technology used in CDs and DVDs has reached capacities of hundreds of gigabits per square inch, but its lifetime is limited to a decade. DNA based data storage can hold hundreds of terabytes per gram, but the durability is limited. The major challenge is the lack of appropriate combination of storage technology and medium possessing the advantages of both high capacity and long lifetime. The recording and retrieval of the digital data with a nearly unlimited lifetime was implemented by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of fused quartz. The storage allows unprecedented properties including hundreds of terabytes per disc data capacity, thermal stability up to 1000 °C, and virtually unlimited lifetime at room temperature opening a new era of eternal data archiving.

  9. Beam size measurement of the stored electron beam at the APS storage ring using zone plate optics and undulator radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Z.; Lai, B.; Yun, W.

    1997-10-01

    Beam sizes of the stored electron beam at the Advanced Photon Source storage ring were measured using zone-plate optics and undulator radiation. A gold Fresnel zone plate (3.5 {micro}m thick) located 33.9 meters from the x-ray source focused radiation of 18 keV, selected by a cryogenically cooled Si(111) crystal in horizontal deflection, and formed a source image in a transverse plane 2.41 m downstream. The sizes of the source image were determined from measured intensity profiles of x-ray fluorescence from a smooth nickel edge (1.5 {micro}m thick), fabricated using a lithographic technique, while the nickel edge was scanned across over the beam in the transverse plane. The measured vertical and horizontal sizes of the electron beam were 60 {+-} 4.3 {micro}m and 300 {+-} 13 {micro}m, respectively, in reasonable agreement with the expected values.

  10. Improved optical storage properties of NaAlSiO4: Tb3+ induced by Bi3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Junhe; Yu, Xue; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Dacheng; Qiu, Jianbei

    2016-07-01

    NaAlSiO4: Tb3+, Bi3+ phosphor was synthesized with green long persistent luminescence (LPL) and photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) observed. The influence of metal ion Bi3+ on the optical storage properties of NaAlSiO4: Tb3+ was investigated in detail. The emitter Tb3+ introduced two kinds of traps located at 350 K (TA) and 440 K (TB) in the thermoluminescence (TL) glow curve. Bi3+ as a codopant ion introduced a new trap peaking at 390 K (TC), which contributed to the improved LPL properties. Besides, owing to the existence of deep and stable trap TB, green PSL can still be observed after 72 h since the excitation was stopped. Accordingly, the mechanism of LPL and PSL process was discussed briefly.

  11. Integrated Optical and SAR Imagery with DEM to Quantify Glacier Water Storage Change in Upper Mekong River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G. T.; Chen, J. B.; Le, T. S.; Chang, C. P.; Shum, C. K.; Tseng, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    In the past few decades, regional increase in air temperature has accelerated the ice melting in polar, sub-polar, and major land glacial areas. The glaciers in Tibetan Plateau, the largest glaciers outside Polar Regions and the sources of several trans-boundary major rivers, are now showing aggravated terminus retreat and thinning. The variation of freshwater availability is crucial for the economic development in Mainland Southeast Asia, especially in hydroelectric generation and agriculture irrigation. These rives, including the Mekong River, is also subject to upstream-downstream conflict and transboundary issues. In this study, we propose to estimate the remaining glacier water storage in Mekong River basin, and further analyze the impact of glacier retreat on these dams/reservoirs for the next decade. By calculating the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MNDWI), the water surface area (WSA) can thus be extracted from optical satellite images. On the other hand, the ice surface area (ISA) can be derived from the Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (POLSAR) images. With different polarization states of electromagnetic wave reflected by earth surface, POLSAR image can effectively identify glacier/ice from snow. Combined WSA and ISA information with digital elevation model (DEM), the change of freshwater storage in glaciers can be estimated. In the end, the influence on dams/reservoirs in the Mekong River caused by glacier retreat can be forecasted. The result can also be applied to hydrology, water allocation, and economy/agriculture policy determination.

  12. Estimation of Parameters Obtained by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on Systems Containing High Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Stević, Zoran; Vujasinović, Mirjana Rajčić; Radunović, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical systems with high capacities demand devices for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with ultra-low frequencies (in order of mHz), that are almost impossible to accomplish with analogue techniques, but this becomes possible by using a computer technique and accompanying digital equipment. Recently, an original software and hardware for electrochemical measurements, intended for electrochemical systems exhibiting high capacities, such as supercapacitors, has been developed. One of the included methods is EIS. In this paper, the method of calculation of circuit parameters from an EIS curve is described. The results of testing on a physical model of an electrochemical system, constructed of known elements (including a 1.6 F capacitor) in a defined arrangement, proved the validity of the system and the method. PMID:22400000

  13. Transient response of a high-capacity heat pipe for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, J. H.; Holmes, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    High-capacity heat pipe radiator panels have been proposed as the primary means of heat rejection for Space Station Freedom. In this system, the heat pipe would interface with the thermal bus condensers. Changes in system heat load can produce large temperature and heat load variations in individual heat pipes. Heat pipes could be required to start from an initially cold state, with heat loads temporarily exceeding their low-temperature transport capacity. The present research was motivated by the need for accurate prediction of such transient operating conditions. In this work, the cold startup of a 6.7-meter long high-capacity heat pipe is investigated experimentally and analytically. A transient thermohydraulic model of the heat pipe was developed which allows simulation of partially-primed operation. The results of cold startup tests using both constant temperature and constant heat flux evaporator boundary conditions are shown to be in good agreement with predicted transient response.

  14. Estimation of parameters obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on systems containing high capacities.

    PubMed

    Stević, Zoran; Vujasinović, Mirjana Rajčić; Radunović, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical systems with high capacities demand devices for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with ultra-low frequencies (in order of mHz), that are almost impossible to accomplish with analogue techniques, but this becomes possible by using a computer technique and accompanying digital equipment. Recently, an original software and hardware for electrochemical measurements, intended for electrochemical systems exhibiting high capacities, such as supercapacitors, has been developed. One of the included methods is EIS. In this paper, the method of calculation of circuit parameters from an EIS curve is described. The results of testing on a physical model of an electrochemical system, constructed of known elements (including a 1.6 F capacitor) in a defined arrangement, proved the validity of the system and the method.

  15. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the CSTI high capacity power project will be presented in this paper: (1) Neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) Temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) Temperature effects on rare-earth permanent magnets.

  16. Radiation and temperature effects on electronic components investigated under the CSTI high capacity power project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Frasca, Albert J.; Wieserman, William R.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation and high temperature environments must be fully known and understood for the electronic components and materials used in both the Power Conditioning and Control subsystem and the reactor Instrumentation and Control subsystem of future high capacity nuclear space power systems. This knowledge is required by the designer of these subsystems in order to develop highly reliable, long-life power systems for future NASA missions. A review and summary of the experimental results obtained for the electronic components and materials investigated under the power management element of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) high capacity power project are presented: (1) neutron, gamma ray, and temperature effects on power semiconductor switches, (2) temperature and frequency effects on soft magnetic materials; and (3) temperature effects on rare earth permanent magnets.

  17. High-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hong; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Pieprzyk, Josef; Li, Jing; Luo, Mingxing; Xiao, Jinghua; Xiao, Fuyuan

    2016-08-01

    We propose an approach that achieves high-capacity quantum key distribution using Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers coding. In particular, we encode a key with the Chebyshev-map values corresponding to Lucas numbers and then use k-Chebyshev maps to achieve consecutive and flexible key expansion and apply the pre-shared classical information between Alice and Bob and fountain codes for privacy amplification to solve the security of the exchange of classical information via the classical channel. Consequently, our high-capacity protocol does not have the limitations imposed by orbital angular momentum and down-conversion bandwidths, and it meets the requirements for longer distances and lower error rates simultaneously.

  18. The development of a high-capacity instrument module heat transport system, appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Data sheets provide temperature requirements for 82 individual instruments that are under development or planned for grouping on a space platform or pallet. The scientific objectives of these instrument packages are related to solar physics, space plasma physics, astronomy, high energy astrophysics, resources observations, environmental observations, materials processing, and life sciences. System specifications are given for a high capacity instrument module heat transport system to be used with future payloads.

  19. The development of a high-capacity instrument module heat transport system, appendixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Data sheets provide temperature requirements for 82 individual instruments that are under development or planned for grouping on a space platform or pallet. The scientific objectives of these instrument packages are related to solar physics, space plasma physics, astronomy, high energy astrophysics, resources observations, environmental observations, materials processing, and life sciences. System specifications are given for a high capacity instrument module heat transport system to be used with future payloads.

  20. Joint synchronization and high capacity data hiding for 3D meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itier, Vincent; Puech, William; Gesquière, Gilles; Pedeboy, Jean-Pierre

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) meshes are already profusely used in lot of domains. In this paper, we propose a new high capacity data hiding scheme for vertex cloud. Our approach is based on very small displacements of vertices, that produce very low distortion of the mesh. Moreover this method can embed three bits per vertex relying only on the geometry of the mesh. As an application, we show how we embed a large binary logo for copyright purpose.

  1. Overview of space power electronic's technology under the CSTI High Capacity Power Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarze, Gene E.

    1994-01-01

    The Civilian Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) is a NASA Program targeted at the development of specific technologies in the areas of transportation, operations and science. Each of these three areas consists of major elements and one of the operation's elements is the High Capacity Power element. The goal of this element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA initiatives. The High Capacity Power element is broken down into several subelements that includes energy conversion in the areas of the free piston Stirling power converter and thermoelectrics, thermal management, power management, system diagnostics, and environmental compatibility and system's lifetime. A recent overview of the CSTI High capacity Power element and a description of each of the program's subelements is given by Winter (1989). The goals of the Power Management subelement are twofold. The first is to develop, test, and demonstrate high temperature, radiation-resistant power and control components and circuits that will be needed in the Power Conditioning, Control and Transmission (PCCT) subsystem of a space nuclear power system. The results obtained under this goal will also be applicable to the instrumentation and control subsystem of a space nuclear reactor. These components and circuits must perform reliably for lifetimes of 7-10 years. The second goal is to develop analytical models for use in computer simulations of candidate PCCT subsystems. Circuits which will be required for a specific PCCT subsystem will be designed and built to demonstrate their performance and, also, to validate the analytical models and simulations. The tasks under the Power Management subelement will now be described in terms of objectives, approach and present status of work.

  2. Development Of High Performance Head Positioner For An Optical Disk Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Tetsu; Yumura, Takashi; Shimegi, Hiroo

    1987-01-01

    Design of a high performance linear head positioner fitted for an optical disk drive is reported. First, a flat and small positioner structure with a linear motor consisting of one coil and two magnetic circuits is invented. Next, a new design method to make drive force large, motor size small, and resonant frequency high is discussed by combining motor design with vibration analysis. Finally, the flat and small head positioner with 4.8 N at 1.6 A and about 6 kHz resonant frequency is developed by this design method.

  3. Optical storage in azobenzene-containing epoxy polymers processed as Langmuir Blodgett films.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Raquel; Mondragon, Iñaki; Sanfelice, Rafaela C; Pavinatto, Felippe J; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Oyanguren, Patricia; Galante, María J

    2013-04-01

    In this study, azocopolymers containing different main-chain segments have been synthesized with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, DER 332, n=0.03) and the azochromophore Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) cured with two monoamines, viz. benzylamine (BA) and m-toluidine (MT). The photoinduced birefringence was investigated in films produced with these azopolymers using the spin coating (SC) and Langmuir Blodgett (LB) techniques. In the LB films, birefringence increased with the content of azochromophore and the film thickness, as expected. The nanostructured nature of the LB films led to an enhanced birefringence and faster dynamics in the writing process, compared to the SC films. In summary, the combination of azocopolymers and the LB method may allow materials with tuned properties for various optical applications, including in biological systems were photoisomerization may be used to trigger actions such as drug delivery. PMID:23827588

  4. Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, Raymond W.

    2012-07-30

    This project, Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine was established at the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT). The associated CRADA was established with Campbell Applied Physics (CAP) located in El Dorado Hills, California. This project extends an earlier project involving both CAP and KIPT conducted under a separate CRADA. The initial project developed the basic Plasma Chemical Reactor (PCR) for generation of ozone gas. This project built upon the technology developed in the first project, greatly enhancing the output of the PCR while also improving reliability and system control.

  5. High capacity image steganography method based on framelet and compressive sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Moyan; He, Zhibiao

    2015-12-01

    To improve the capacity and imperceptibility of image steganography, a novel high capacity and imperceptibility image steganography method based on a combination of framelet and compressive sensing (CS) is put forward. Firstly, SVD (Singular Value Decomposition) transform to measurement values obtained by compressive sensing technique to the secret data. Then the singular values in turn embed into the low frequency coarse subbands of framelet transform to the blocks of the cover image which is divided into non-overlapping blocks. Finally, use inverse framelet transforms and combine to obtain the stego image. The experimental results show that the proposed steganography method has a good performance in hiding capacity, security and imperceptibility.

  6. The Design of an Ultra High Capacity Long Range Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Bucci, Gregory; Hare, Angela; Szolwinski, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the design of a 650 passenger aircraft with 8000 nautical mile range to reduce seat mile cost and to reduce airport and airway congestion. This design effort involves the usual issues that require trades between technologies, but must also include consideration of: airport terminal facilities; passenger loading and unloading; and, defeating the 'square-cube' law to design large structures. This paper will review the long range ultra high capacity or megatransport design problem and the variety of solutions developed by senior student design teams at Purdue University.

  7. The Architecture and Utility of SeaBASS: the SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werdell, P.; Bailey, S. W.; Fargion, G.; McClain, C.

    2001-12-01

    The accumulation and evaluation of in situ data is a critical aspect of both satellite ocean color sensor validation and algorithm development. NASA's Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Projects designed the SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) to be a local repository of radiometric, phytoplankton pigment, and other oceanographic and atmospheric data, collected using well-defined and consistent measurement protocols. These data have been used by the SIMBIOS Project to validate SeaWiFS, Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS), and Modular Optoelectronic Scanner (MOS) data products, to develop and evaluate bio-optical algorithms used to generate such products, for data merger studies, and to characterize the calibration history and stability of the field instruments used to build validation data sets. Data archived in SeaBASS were collected using a number of instrument packages on a variety of different platforms. The archive consists of an organized directory structure where physical data files and documentation are stored and a relational database system for managing and controlling these data and metadata. A series of World Wide Web-based search engines provide the user community direct access to data files, metadata, and geophysical data products. Additionally, other online utilities are available for generating maps and plots of data archived in SeaBASS. Historically, to protect the publication rights of contributors' data and to limit user-support to active participants, access to SeaBASS has been limited to contributing researchers and to members of the SIMBIOS and other NASA-affiliated Science Teams. As of August 2001, however, data collected prior to December 31, 1999 are available to the public at large. These data are available online and via the National Oceanographic Data Center. This report elaborates on the architecture of SeaBASS and

  8. Hydrogen silsequioxane-derived Si/SiO(x) nanospheres for high-capacity lithium storage materials.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Sik; Park, Eunjun; Lee, Jaewoo; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Ki Jae; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu

    2014-06-25

    Si/SiOx composite materials have been explored for their commercial possibility as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries, but suffer from the complexity of and limited synthetic routes for their preparation. In this study, Si/SiOx nanospheres were developed using a nontoxic and precious-metal-free preparation method based on hydrogen silsesquioxane obtained from sol-gel reaction of triethoxysilane. The resulting Si/SiOx nanospheres with a uniform carbon coating layer show excellent cycle performance and rate capability with high-dimensional stability. This approach based on a scalable sol-gel reaction enables not only the development of Si/SiOx with various nanostructured forms, but also reduced production cost for mass production of nanostructured Si/SiOx.

  9. Conceptual design of tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional nanocarbon materials: electronic structures, topologies, optical properties, and methane storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Belosludov, Rodion V; Rhoda, Hannah M; Zhdanov, Ravil K; Belosludov, Vladimir R; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Nemykin, Victor N

    2016-05-11

    A large variety of conceptual three- and fourfold tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional 3D nanocage and nanobarrel structures have been proposed on the basis of in silico design. The designed structures differ in their sizes, topology, porosity, and conjugation properties. The stability of nanocages of Oh symmetry and nanobarrels of D4h symmetry was revealed on the basis of DFT and MD calculations, whereas their optical properties were assessed using a TDDFT approach and a long-range corrected LC-wPBE exchange-correlation functional. It was shown that the electronic structures and vertical excitation energies of the functional nanocage and nanobarrel structures could be easily tuned via their size, topology, and the presence of bridging sp(3) carbon atoms. TDDFT calculations suggest significantly lower excitation energies in fully conjugated nanocages and nanobarrels compared with systems with bridging sp(3) carbon fragments. Based on DFT and TDDFT calculations, the optical properties of the new materials can rival those of known quantum dots and are superior to those of monomeric phthalocyanines and their analogues. The methane gas adsorption properties of the new nanostructures and nanotubes generated by conversion from nanobarrels were studied using an MD simulation approach. The ability to store large quantities of methane (106-216 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3)) was observed in all cases with several compounds being close to or exceeding the DOE target of 180 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3) for material-based methane storage at a pressure of 3.5 MPa and room temperature.

  10. Conceptual design of tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional nanocarbon materials: electronic structures, topologies, optical properties, and methane storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Belosludov, Rodion V; Rhoda, Hannah M; Zhdanov, Ravil K; Belosludov, Vladimir R; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Nemykin, Victor N

    2016-05-11

    A large variety of conceptual three- and fourfold tetraazaporphyrin- and subtetraazaporphyrin-based functional 3D nanocage and nanobarrel structures have been proposed on the basis of in silico design. The designed structures differ in their sizes, topology, porosity, and conjugation properties. The stability of nanocages of Oh symmetry and nanobarrels of D4h symmetry was revealed on the basis of DFT and MD calculations, whereas their optical properties were assessed using a TDDFT approach and a long-range corrected LC-wPBE exchange-correlation functional. It was shown that the electronic structures and vertical excitation energies of the functional nanocage and nanobarrel structures could be easily tuned via their size, topology, and the presence of bridging sp(3) carbon atoms. TDDFT calculations suggest significantly lower excitation energies in fully conjugated nanocages and nanobarrels compared with systems with bridging sp(3) carbon fragments. Based on DFT and TDDFT calculations, the optical properties of the new materials can rival those of known quantum dots and are superior to those of monomeric phthalocyanines and their analogues. The methane gas adsorption properties of the new nanostructures and nanotubes generated by conversion from nanobarrels were studied using an MD simulation approach. The ability to store large quantities of methane (106-216 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3)) was observed in all cases with several compounds being close to or exceeding the DOE target of 180 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3) for material-based methane storage at a pressure of 3.5 MPa and room temperature. PMID:27128697

  11. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xi; Huang, Xiaobiao

    2016-08-01

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. The fitting results are used for lattice correction. The method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  12. Integration and flight demonstration of a high-capacity monogroove heat-pipe radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, J. G.

    1984-06-01

    The cancellation of the TDRS-B satellite as the payload for the eighth Space Shuttle mission provided a unique opportunity to demonstrate on-orbit operation of the high-capacity monogroove heat pipe used in the space constructible radiator subsystem. In less than 4 months, a flight experiment was conceived, designed, fabricated, tested, integrated with a payload carrier, installed in the Orbiter Challenger payload bay, and successfully operated in flight. Still color photographs and direct crew visual observation of color changes in a pattern of temperature-sensitive liquid-crystal tapes provided the temperature data necessary to verify successful on-orbit startup and orbital transient response of the heat pipe when subjected to a heat load from its attached electrical heaters. This successful on-orbit demonstration verified analytical design tools and provided confidence in the use of high-capacity heat pipes for future space applications. The flight experiment hardware and the integration and test activities that led to the flight are described, and the actual flight results are compared to analytical performance predictions.

  13. Integration and flight demonstration of a high-capacity monogroove heat-pipe radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    The cancellation of the TDRS-B satellite as the payload for the eighth Space Shuttle mission provided a unique opportunity to demonstrate on-orbit operation of the high-capacity monogroove heat pipe used in the space constructible radiator subsystem. In less than 4 months, a flight experiment was conceived, designed, fabricated, tested, integrated with a payload carrier, installed in the Orbiter Challenger payload bay, and successfully operated in flight. Still color photographs and direct crew visual observation of color changes in a pattern of temperature-sensitive liquid-crystal tapes provided the temperature data necessary to verify successful on-orbit startup and orbital transient response of the heat pipe when subjected to a heat load from its attached electrical heaters. This successful on-orbit demonstration verified analytical design tools and provided confidence in the use of high-capacity heat pipes for future space applications. The flight experiment hardware and the integration and test activities that led to the flight are described, and the actual flight results are compared to analytical performance predictions.

  14. High capacity embedding with indexed data recovery using adjunctive numerical relations in multimedia signal covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, James C.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2013-05-01

    We introduce a technique for covertly embedding data throughout an audio file using redundant number system decomposition across non-standard digital bit-lines. This bit-line implementation integrates an index recoverable embedded algorithm with an extended bit level representation that achieves a high capacity data channel within an audio multimedia file. It will be shown this new steganography method has minimal aural distortive affects while preserving both first and second order cover statistics, making it less susceptible to most steganalysis attacks. Our research approach involves reviewing the common numerical methods used in common binary-based algorithms. We then describe basic concepts and challenges when attempting to implement complex embedding algorithms that are based on redundant number systems. Finally, we introduce a novel class of numerical based multiple bit-line decomposition systems, which we define as Adjunctive Numerical Representations. The system is primarily described using basic PCM techniques in uncompressed audio files however extended applications for alternate multimedia is addressed. This new embedding system will not only provide the statistical stability required for effective steganography but will also give us an improvement in the embedding capacity in this class of multimedia carrier files. This novelty of our approach is demonstrated by an ability to embed high capacity covert data while simultaneously providing a means for rapid, indexed data recovery.

  15. Programmatic status of NASA's CSTI high capacity power Stirling space power converter program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Development Program. This work is being conducted under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. The status of test activities with the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE) is discussed. Design deficiencies are gradually being corrected and the power converter is now outputting 11.5 kWe at a temperature ratio of 2 (design output is 12.5 kWe). Detail designs were completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC). The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, gas bearings, superalloy joining technologies and high efficiency alternators. An update of progress in these technologies is provided.

  16. Programmatic status of NASA's CSTI High Capacity Power Stirling Space Power Converter Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Lewis Research Center Free-Piston Stirling Space Power Converter Technology Department Program. This work is being conducted under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The goal of the CSTI High Capacity Power element is to develop the technology base needed to meet the long duration, high capacity power requirements for future NASA space initiatives. Efforts are focused upon increasing system thermal and electric energy conversion efficiency at least fivefold over current SP-100 technology, and on achieving systems that are compatible with space nuclear reactors. The status of test activities with the Space Power Research Engine (SPRE) is discussed. Design deficiencies are gradually being corrected and the power converter is now outputting 11.5 kWe at a temperature ratio of 2 (design output is 12.5 kWe). Detail designs were completed for the 1050 K Component Test Power Converter (CTPC). The success of these and future designs is dependent upon supporting research and technology efforts including heat pipes, gas bearings, superalloy joining technologies and high efficiency alternators. An update of progress in these technologies is provided.

  17. On-bead antibody-small molecule conjugation using high-capacity magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Nath, Nidhi; Godat, Becky; Benink, Hélène; Urh, Marjeta

    2015-11-01

    Antibodies labeled with small molecules such as fluorophore, biotin or drugs play an important role in various areas of biological research, drug discovery and diagnostics. However, the majority of current methods for labeling antibodies is solution-based and has several limitations including the need for purified antibodies at high concentrations and multiple buffer exchange steps. In this study, a method (on-bead conjugation) is described that addresses these limitations by combining antibody purification and conjugation in a single workflow. This method uses high capacity-magnetic Protein A or Protein G beads to capture antibodies directly from cell media followed by conjugation with small molecules and elution of conjugated antibodies from the beads. High-capacity magnetic antibody capture beads are key to this method and were developed by combining porous and hydrophilic cellulose beads with oriented immobilization of Protein A and Protein G using HaloTag technology. With a variety of fluorophores it is shown that the on-bead conjugation method is compatible with both thiol- and amine-based chemistry. This method enables simple and rapid processing of multiple samples in parallel with high-efficiency antibody recovery. It is further shown that recovered antibodies are functional and compatible with downstream applications. PMID:26316179

  18. On-bead antibody-small molecule conjugation using high-capacity magnetic beads.

    PubMed

    Nath, Nidhi; Godat, Becky; Benink, Hélène; Urh, Marjeta

    2015-11-01

    Antibodies labeled with small molecules such as fluorophore, biotin or drugs play an important role in various areas of biological research, drug discovery and diagnostics. However, the majority of current methods for labeling antibodies is solution-based and has several limitations including the need for purified antibodies at high concentrations and multiple buffer exchange steps. In this study, a method (on-bead conjugation) is described that addresses these limitations by combining antibody purification and conjugation in a single workflow. This method uses high capacity-magnetic Protein A or Protein G beads to capture antibodies directly from cell media followed by conjugation with small molecules and elution of conjugated antibodies from the beads. High-capacity magnetic antibody capture beads are key to this method and were developed by combining porous and hydrophilic cellulose beads with oriented immobilization of Protein A and Protein G using HaloTag technology. With a variety of fluorophores it is shown that the on-bead conjugation method is compatible with both thiol- and amine-based chemistry. This method enables simple and rapid processing of multiple samples in parallel with high-efficiency antibody recovery. It is further shown that recovered antibodies are functional and compatible with downstream applications.

  19. Color-Coded Batteries - Electro-Photonic Inverse Opal Materials for Enhanced Electrochemical Energy Storage and Optically Encoded Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Colm

    2016-07-01

    For consumer electronic devices, long-life, stable, and reasonably fast charging Li-ion batteries with good stable capacities are a necessity. For exciting and important advances in the materials that drive innovations in electrochemical energy storage (EES), modular thin-film solar cells, and wearable, flexible technology of the future, real-time analysis and indication of battery performance and health is crucial. Here, developments in color-coded assessment of battery material performance and diagnostics are described, and a vision for using electro-photonic inverse opal materials and all-optical probes to assess, characterize, and monitor the processes non-destructively in real time are outlined. By structuring any cathode or anode material in the form of a photonic crystal or as a 3D macroporous inverse opal, color-coded "chameleon" battery-strip electrodes may provide an amenable way to distinguish the type of process, the voltage, material and chemical phase changes, remaining capacity, cycle health, and state of charge or discharge of either existing or new materials in Li-ion or emerging alternative battery types, simply by monitoring its color change. PMID:26784012

  20. Color-Coded Batteries - Electro-Photonic Inverse Opal Materials for Enhanced Electrochemical Energy Storage and Optically Encoded Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Colm

    2016-07-01

    For consumer electronic devices, long-life, stable, and reasonably fast charging Li-ion batteries with good stable capacities are a necessity. For exciting and important advances in the materials that drive innovations in electrochemical energy storage (EES), modular thin-film solar cells, and wearable, flexible technology of the future, real-time analysis and indication of battery performance and health is crucial. Here, developments in color-coded assessment of battery material performance and diagnostics are described, and a vision for using electro-photonic inverse opal materials and all-optical probes to assess, characterize, and monitor the processes non-destructively in real time are outlined. By structuring any cathode or anode material in the form of a photonic crystal or as a 3D macroporous inverse opal, color-coded "chameleon" battery-strip electrodes may provide an amenable way to distinguish the type of process, the voltage, material and chemical phase changes, remaining capacity, cycle health, and state of charge or discharge of either existing or new materials in Li-ion or emerging alternative battery types, simply by monitoring its color change.

  1. A highly efficient silole-containing dithienylethene with excellent thermal stability and fatigue resistance: a promising candidate for optical memory storage materials.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jacky Chi-Hung; Lam, Wai Han; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2014-12-10

    Diarylethene compounds are potential candidates for applications in optical memory storage systems and photoswitchable molecular devices; however, they usually show low photocycloreversion quantum yields, which result in ineffective erasure processes. Here, we present the first highly efficient photochromic silole-containing dithienylethene with excellent thermal stability and fatigue resistance. The photochemical quantum yields for photocyclization and photocycloreversion of the compound are found to be high and comparable to each other; the latter of which is rarely found in diarylethene compounds. These would give rise to highly efficient photoswitchable material with effective writing and erasure processes. Incorporation of the silole moiety as a photochromic dithienylethene backbone also was demonstrated to enhance the thermal stability of the closed form, in which the thermal backward reaction to the open form was found to be negligible even at 100 °C, which leads to a promising candidate for use as photoswitchable materials and optical memory storage.

  2. Bio-inspired 2-line ferrihydrite as a high-capacity and high-rate-capability anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Ukita, Masahiro; Sakuma, Ryo; Nakanishi, Makoto; Fujii, Tatsuo; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Takada, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A high-capacity and high-rate-capability anode material for lithium-ion batteries, silicon-doped iron oxyhydroxide or 2-line ferrihydrite (2Fh), was prepared by mixing iron nitrate powder, tetraethyl orthosilicate, 2-propanol, and ammonium hydrogen carbonate powder at room temperature. The design of this material was inspired by a bacteriogenic product, a nanometric amorphous iron-based oxide material containing small amounts of structural Si. The atomistic structure of the prepared Si-doped 2Fh was strongly affected by the Si molar ratio [x = Si/(Fe + Si)]. Its crystallinity gradually decreased as the Si molar ratio increased, with a structural variation from nanocrystalline to amorphous at x = 0.25. The sample with x = 0.20 demonstrated the best Li storage performance. The developed material exhibited a high capacity of ∼400 mAh g-1 at the 25th cycle in the voltage range of 0.3-3.0 V and at a current rate of 9 A g-1, which was three times greater than that of the Si-free 2Fh. This indicates that Si-doping into the 2Fh structure realizes good rate capability, which are presumably because of the specific nanocomposite structure of iron-based electrochemical centers embedded in the Si-based amorphous matrix, generated by reversible Li insertion/deinsertion process.

  3. A new method for high-capacity information hiding in video robust against temporal desynchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitekin, Vitaly; Fedoseev, Victor A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new method for high-capacity information hiding in digital video and algorithms of embedding and extraction of hidden information based on this method. These algorithms do not require temporal synchronization to provide robustness against both malicious and non-malicious frame dropping (temporal desynchronization). At the same time, due to randomized distribution of hidden information bits across the video frames, the proposed method allows to increase the hiding capacity proportionally to the number of frames used for information embedding. The proposed method is also robust against "watermark estimation" attack aimed at estimation of hidden information without knowing the embedding key or non-watermarked video. Presented experimental results demonstrate declared features of this method.

  4. Robust High-Capacity Audio Watermarking Based on FFT Amplitude Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallahpour, Mehdi; Megías, David

    This paper proposes a novel robust audio watermarking algorithm to embed data and extract it in a bit-exact manner based on changing the magnitudes of the FFT spectrum. The key point is selecting a frequency band for embedding based on the comparison between the original and the MP3 compressed/decompressed signal and on a suitable scaling factor. The experimental results show that the method has a very high capacity (about 5kbps), without significant perceptual distortion (ODG about -0.25) and provides robustness against common audio signal processing such as added noise, filtering and MPEG compression (MP3). Furthermore, the proposed method has a larger capacity (number of embedded bits to number of host bits rate) than recent image data hiding methods.

  5. Design of a Two-stage High-capacity Stirling Cryocooler Operating below 30K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaotao; Dai, Wei; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Shuai; Li, Haibing; Luo, Ercang

    The high capacity cryocooler working below 30K can find many applications such as superconducting motors, superconducting cables and cryopump. Compared to the GM cryocooler, the Stirling cryocooler can achieve higher efficiency and more compact structure. Because of these obvious advantages, we have designed a two stage free piston Stirling cryocooler system, which is driven by a moving magnet linear compressor with an operating frequency of 40 Hz and a maximum 5 kW input electric power. The first stage of the cryocooler is designed to operate in the liquid nitrogen temperature and output a cooling power of 100 W. And the second stage is expected to simultaneously provide a cooling power of 50 W below the temperature of 30 K. In order to achieve the best system efficiency, a numerical model based on the thermoacoustic model was developed to optimize the system operating and structure parameters.

  6. A high capacity multiple watermarking scheme based on Fourier descriptor and Sudoku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Zheng, Huimin

    2015-12-01

    Digital watermark is a type of technology to hide some significant information which is mainly used to protect digital data. A high capacity multiple watermarking method is proposed, which adapts the Fourier descriptor to pre-process the watermarks, while a Sudoku puzzle is used as a reference matrix in embedding process and a key in extraction process. It can dramatically reduce the required capacity by applying Fourier descriptor. Meanwhile, the security of watermarks can be guaranteed due to the Sudoku puzzle. Unlike previous algorithms applying Sudoku puzzle in spatial domain, the proposed algorithm works in transformed domain by applying LWT2.In addition, the proposed algorithm can detect the temper location accurately. The experimental results demonstrated that the goals mentioned above have been achieved.

  7. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficientlymore » accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.« less

  8. Self-assembled asymmetric membrane containing micron-size germanium for high capacity lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Ian; Chen, Hao; Webber, Theron; Li, Jianlin; Wu, Ji

    2015-10-23

    We report the formation of novel asymmetric membrane electrode containing micron-size (~5 μm) germanium powders through a self-assembly phase inversion method for high capacity lithium ion battery anode. 850 mA h g-1 capacity (70%) can be retained at a current density of 600 mA g-1 after 100 cycles with excellent rate performance. Such a high retention rate has rarely been seen for pristine micron-size germanium anodes. Moreover, scanning electron microscope studies reveal that germanium powders are uniformly embedded in a networking porous structure consisting of both nanopores and macropores. It is believed that such a unique porous structure can efficiently accommodate the ~260% volume change during germanium alloying and de-alloying process, resulting in an enhanced cycling performance. Finally, these porous membrane electrodes can be manufactured in large scale using a roll-to-roll processing method.

  9. A micro-structured Si-based electrodes for high capacity electrical double layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krikscikas, Valdas; Oguchi, Hiroyuki; Yanazawa, Hiroshi; Hara, Motoaki; Kuwano, Hiroki

    2014-11-01

    We challenged to make basis for Si electrodes of electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) used as a power source of micro-sensor nodes. Mcroelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processes were successfully introduced to fabricate micro-structured Si-based electrodes to obtain high surface area which leads to high capacity of EDLCs. Study of fundamental properties revealed that the microstructured electrodes benefit from good wettability to electrolytes, but suffer from electric resistance. We found that this problem can be solved by metal-coating of the electrode surface. Finally we build an EDLC consisting of Au-coated micro-structured Si electrodes. This EDLC showed capacity of 14.3 mF/cm2, which is about 530 times larger than that of an EDLC consisting of flat Au electrodes.

  10. Mono-layer BC2 a high capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardikar, Rahul; Samanta, Atanu; Han, Sang Soo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Singh, Abhishek

    2015-04-01

    Mono-layer of graphene with high surface area compared to the bulk graphite phase, shows less Li uptake. The Li activity or kinetics can be modified via defects and/or substitutional doping. Boron and Nitrogen are the best known dopants for carbonaceous anode materials. In particular, boron doped graphene shows higher capacity and better Li adsorption compared to Nitrogen doped graphene. Here, using first principles density functional theory calculations, we study the spectrum of boron carbide (BCx) mono-layer phases in order to estimate the maximum gravimetric capacity that can be achieved by substitutional doping in graphene. Our results show that uniformly boron doped BC2 phase shows a high capacity of? 1400 mAh/g, much higher than previously reported capacity of BC3. Supported by Korea Institute of Science and Technology.

  11. High capacity data hiding scheme based on (7, 4) Hamming code.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zekun; Yin, Zhaoxia; Hu, Honghe; Gao, Xiangping; Wang, Liangmin

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to embed large amount of data while minimize the sum of costs of all changed pixels, a novel high capacity data hiding scheme based on (7, 4) Hamming code is realized by a family of algorithms. Firstly, n (n = 1, 2, 3) cover pixels are assigned to one set according to the payload. Then, 128 binary strings of length seven are divided into eight sets according to the syndrome of every binary string. Binary strings that share the same syndrome are classified into one set. Finally, a binary string in a certain set determined by the data to be embedded is chosen to modify some of the least significant bits of the n cover pixels. The experimental results demonstrate that the image quality of the proposed method with high embedding payload is superior to those of the related schemes. PMID:27026872

  12. Durability testing of the high-capacity GA-4/GA-9 trailer

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, A.

    1993-08-01

    General Atomics (GA) is under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Idaho Field Office, to develop two legal-weight truck from-reactor spent-fuel shipping casks with trailers. GA is developing these high capacity transport systems to support the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management`s (OCRWM) mission to transport spent fuel from reactors to a permanent disposal site. GA`s goal is to maximize the number of fuel assemblies that the transport system can safely carry. The GA-4 Cask is being designed to transport four pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) spent-fuel assemblies, and the GA-9 Cask is being designed to transport nine boiling-water-reactor (BWR) spent-fuel assemblies. The use of these high-capacity transport systems will have a large benefit to-public safety since the number of legal-weight truck shipments will be reduced by at least a factor of four over existing spent-fuel shipping cask systems. Achieving these capacities requires that the weight of each component of the transport system. i.e., cask, trailer and tractor, be minimized. The weight of the trailer is of particular importance. With a high load-to-weight ratio, the durability and reliability of the trailer become significant factors in the success of the transport system. In order to verify that the trailer design will meet the durability and performance requirements to safely transport spent-fuel, GA has planned an extensive testing program. The testing program includes non-destructive examination (NDE) of the trailer welds, operational testing, a static load test, an over-the-road performance test, and a test to verify the durability of the trailer up to its 1,000,000-mile design life. Since a prototype cask will not be available for the testing, GA designed and built a dummy payload that simulates the correct weight distribution and approximates the dynamic response of the prototype cask.

  13. High-Capacity and Rapid Removal of Refractory NOM Using Nanoscale Anion Exchange Resin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Billy R; Eldred, Tim B; Nguyen, Andy T; Payne, William M; Schmidt, Emily E; Alansari, Amir Y; Amburgey, James E; Poler, Jordan C

    2016-07-20

    As human health concerns over disinfection byproducts (DBP) in drinking water increase, so does the need to develop new materials that remove them rapidly and at high capacity. Ion exchange (IEX) is an effective method for the removal of natural organic matter (NOM), especially anion exchange resins (AERs) with quaternary ammonium functional groups. However, capacity is limited in existing commercial resin materials because adsorbates can only interact with the outermost surface area, which makes these products inefficient on a mass basis. We have synthesized a novel "NanoResin" exploiting the enhanced NOM removal of the quaternary ammonium resin while utilizing the vast surface area of SWCNTs, which act as scaffolding for the resin. Our nanomaterials show increased adsorption capacity compared to commercially available adsorbents, in a fraction of the time. This NanoResin requires only about 10 s to reach ion-exchange equilibrium. Comparatively, commercial AERs only achieved partial removal after more than 30 min. High capacity adsorption of a low molecular weight (MW) surrogate has been measured. NOM removal was demonstrated in solutions of both low and high specific UV absorbance (SUVA) composition with these nanomaterials. Additionally, the NanoResin showed enhanced removal of a NOM concentrate sample taken from Myrtle Beach, SC, demonstrating NanoResin is an effective method of removal for refractory NOM in a natural aqueous environment. Synthesis and characterization of the polymers and nanomaterials are presented below. Adsorption capacity, adsorption kinetics, and the regeneration and reusability of these new materials for NOM removal are described. The open matrix microstructure precludes any intraparticle diffusion of adsorbates; thus, these nanomaterials act as a "contact resin". PMID:27348616

  14. Holography and Optical Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imlau, Mirco; Fally, Martin; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Sincerbox, Glenn T.

    The term holography is composed of the Greek words holos (= whole) and graphein (= to record, to write), and thus summarizes the key aspects of its underlying principle: recording the complete wavefront of an object, i.e., its intensity as well as its phase. Interference and diffraction phenomena are employed to record and retrieve the full information, a technique pioneered by Dennis Gabor in 1948. He was honored with the Nobel prize in Physics in 1971, reflecting the general impact of holography on modern physics.

  15. Storage Media for Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trautman, Rodes

    1983-01-01

    Reviews computer storage devices designed to provide additional memory for microcomputers--chips, floppy disks, hard disks, optical disks--and describes how secondary storage is used (file transfer, formatting, ingredients of incompatibility); disk/controller/software triplet; magnetic tape backup; storage volatility; disk emulator; and…

  16. Graphdiyne as a high-capacity lithium ion battery anode material

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Byungryul; Koo, Jahyun; Park, Minwoo; Kwon, Yongkyung; Lee, Hoonkyung; Lee, Hosik; Nam, Jaewook

    2013-12-23

    Using the first-principles calculations, we explored the feasibility of using graphdiyne, a 2D layer of sp and sp{sup 2} hybrid carbon networks, as lithium ion battery anodes. We found that the composite of the Li-intercalated multilayer α-graphdiyne was C{sub 6}Li{sub 7.31} and that the calculated voltage was suitable for the anode. The practical specific/volumetric capacities can reach up to 2719 mAh g{sup −1}/2032 mAh cm{sup −3}, much greater than the values of ∼372 mAh g{sup −1}/∼818 mAh cm{sup −3}, ∼1117 mAh g{sup −1}/∼1589 mAh cm{sup −3}, and ∼744 mAh g{sup −1} for graphite, graphynes, and γ-graphdiyne, respectively. Our calculations suggest that multilayer α-graphdiyne can serve as a promising high-capacity lithium ion battery anode.

  17. Li2C2, a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Tian, Na; Gao, Yurui; Li, Yurong; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Song, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liquan

    2016-01-11

    As a typical alkaline earth metal carbide, lithium carbide (Li2C2) has the highest theoretical specific capacity (1400 mA h g(-1)) among all the reported lithium-containing cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Herein, the feasibility of using Li2C2 as a cathode material was studied. The results show that at least half of the lithium can be extracted from Li2C2 and the reversible specific capacity reaches 700 mA h g(-1). The C≡C bond tends to rotate to form C4 (C≡C⋅⋅⋅C≡C) chains during lithium extraction, as indicated with the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulation. The low electronic and ionic conductivity are believed to be responsible for the potential gap between charge and discharge, as is supported with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Arrhenius fitting results. These findings illustrate the feasibility to use the alkali and alkaline earth metal carbides as high-capacity electrode materials for secondary batteries.

  18. Blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) show high capacity for wound healing and recovery following injury.

    PubMed

    Chin, Andrew; Mourier, Johann; Rummer, Jodie L

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is important for sharks from the earliest life stages, for example, as the 'umbilical scar' in viviparous species heals, and throughout adulthood, when sharks can incur a range of external injuries from natural and anthropogenic sources. Despite anecdotal accounts of rapid healing in elasmobranchs, data regarding recovery and survival of individuals from different wound or injury types has not been systematically collected. The present study documented: (i) 'umbilical scar' healing in wild-caught, neonatal blacktip reef sharks while being reared for 30 days in flow-through laboratory aquaria in French Polynesia; (ii) survival and recovery of free-swimming blacktip reef sharks in Australia and French Polynesia following a range of injuries; and (iii) long-term survival following suspected shark-finning activities. Laboratory monitoring, tag-recapture records, telemetry data and photo-identification records suggest that blacktip reef sharks have a high capacity to survive and recover from small or even large and severe wounds. Healing rates, recovery and survival are important factors to consider when assessing impacts of habitat degradation and fishing stress on shark populations. The present study suggests that individual survival may depend more on handling practices and physiological stress rather than the extent of physical injury. These observations also contribute to discussions regarding the ethics of tagging practices used in elasmobranch research and provide baseline healing rates that may increase the accuracy in estimating reproductive timing inferred from mating scars and birth dates for neonatal sharks based on umbilical scar healing status.

  19. MEO based secured, robust, high capacity and perceptual quality image watermarking in DWT-SVD domain.

    PubMed

    Gunjal, Baisa L; Mali, Suresh N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present multiobjective evolutionary optimizer (MEO) based highly secured and strongly robust image watermarking technique using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and singular value decomposition (SVD). Many researchers have failed to achieve optimization of perceptual quality and robustness with high capacity watermark embedding. Here, we achieved optimized peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and normalized correlation (NC) using MEO. Strong security is implemented through eight different security levels including watermark scrambling by Fibonacci-Lucas transformation (FLT). Haar wavelet is selected for DWT decomposition to compare practical performance of wavelets from different wavelet families. The technique is non-blind and tested with cover images of size 512x512 and grey scale watermark of size 256x256. The achieved perceptual quality in terms of PSNR is 79.8611dBs for Lena, 87.8446 dBs for peppers and 93.2853 dBs for lake images by varying scale factor K1 from 1 to 5. All candidate images used for testing namely Lena, peppers and lake images show exact recovery of watermark giving NC equals to 1. The robustness is tested against variety of attacks on watermarked image. The experimental demonstration proved that proposed method gives NC more than 0.96 for majority of attacks under consideration. The performance evaluation of this technique is found superior to all existing hybrid image watermarking techniques under consideration.

  20. The infectious BAC genomic DNA expression library: a high capacity vector system for functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Lufino, Michele M. P.; Edser, Pauline A. H.; Quail, Michael A.; Rice, Stephen; Adams, David J.; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Gene dosage plays a critical role in a range of cellular phenotypes, yet most cellular expression systems use heterologous cDNA-based vectors which express proteins well above physiological levels. In contrast, genomic DNA expression vectors generate physiologically-relevant levels of gene expression by carrying the whole genomic DNA locus of a gene including its regulatory elements. Here we describe the first genomic DNA expression library generated using the high-capacity herpes simplex virus-1 amplicon technology to deliver bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) into cells by viral transduction. The infectious BAC (iBAC) library contains 184,320 clones with an average insert size of 134.5 kb. We show in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) disease model cell line and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells that this library can be used for genetic rescue studies in a range of contexts including the physiological restoration of Ldlr deficiency, and viral receptor expression. The iBAC library represents an important new genetic analysis tool openly available to the research community. PMID:27353647

  1. A high-capacity steganography scheme for JPEG2000 baseline system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Haili; Wu, Renbiao

    2009-08-01

    Hiding capacity is very important for efficient covert communications. For JPEG2000 compressed images, it is necessary to enlarge the hiding capacity because the available redundancy is very limited. In addition, the bitstream truncation makes it difficult to hide information. In this paper, a high-capacity steganography scheme is proposed for the JPEG2000 baseline system, which uses bit-plane encoding procedure twice to solve the problem due to bitstream truncation. Moreover, embedding points and their intensity are determined in a well defined quantitative manner via redundancy evaluation to increase hiding capacity. The redundancy is measured by bit, which is different from conventional methods which adjust the embedding intensity by multiplying a visual masking factor. High volumetric data is embedded into bit-planes as low as possible to keep message integrality, but at the cost of an extra bit-plane encoding procedure and slightly changed compression ratio. The proposed method can be easily integrated into the JPEG2000 image coder, and the produced stego-bitstream can be decoded normally. Simulation shows that the proposed method is feasible, effective, and secure.

  2. Li2C2, a High-Capacity Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Tian, Na; Gao, Yurui; Li, Yurong; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Song, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liquan

    2016-01-11

    As a typical alkaline earth metal carbide, lithium carbide (Li2C2) has the highest theoretical specific capacity (1400 mA h g(-1)) among all the reported lithium-containing cathode materials for lithium ion batteries. Herein, the feasibility of using Li2C2 as a cathode material was studied. The results show that at least half of the lithium can be extracted from Li2C2 and the reversible specific capacity reaches 700 mA h g(-1). The C≡C bond tends to rotate to form C4 (C≡C⋅⋅⋅C≡C) chains during lithium extraction, as indicated with the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) simulation. The low electronic and ionic conductivity are believed to be responsible for the potential gap between charge and discharge, as is supported with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Arrhenius fitting results. These findings illustrate the feasibility to use the alkali and alkaline earth metal carbides as high-capacity electrode materials for secondary batteries. PMID:26609636

  3. MEO based secured, robust, high capacity and perceptual quality image watermarking in DWT-SVD domain.

    PubMed

    Gunjal, Baisa L; Mali, Suresh N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present multiobjective evolutionary optimizer (MEO) based highly secured and strongly robust image watermarking technique using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and singular value decomposition (SVD). Many researchers have failed to achieve optimization of perceptual quality and robustness with high capacity watermark embedding. Here, we achieved optimized peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and normalized correlation (NC) using MEO. Strong security is implemented through eight different security levels including watermark scrambling by Fibonacci-Lucas transformation (FLT). Haar wavelet is selected for DWT decomposition to compare practical performance of wavelets from different wavelet families. The technique is non-blind and tested with cover images of size 512x512 and grey scale watermark of size 256x256. The achieved perceptual quality in terms of PSNR is 79.8611dBs for Lena, 87.8446 dBs for peppers and 93.2853 dBs for lake images by varying scale factor K1 from 1 to 5. All candidate images used for testing namely Lena, peppers and lake images show exact recovery of watermark giving NC equals to 1. The robustness is tested against variety of attacks on watermarked image. The experimental demonstration proved that proposed method gives NC more than 0.96 for majority of attacks under consideration. The performance evaluation of this technique is found superior to all existing hybrid image watermarking techniques under consideration. PMID:25830081

  4. Nano-structured phosphorus composite as high-capacity anode materials for lithium batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; He, Xiangming; Li, Jianjun; Sun, Wenting; Gao, Jian; Guo, Jianwei; Jiang, Changyin

    2012-09-01

    More than LiP service: The adsorption of red phosphorus into porous carbon provides a composite anode material for lithium-ion batteries. The amorphous nano phosphorus, in the carbon matrix, shows highly reversible lithium storage with high coulombic efficiencies and stable cycling capacity of 750 mAh per gram composite.

  5. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 20: The SeaWiFS bio-optical archive and storage system (SeaBASS), part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Mcclain, Charles R.; Firestone, James K.; Westphal, Todd L.; Yeh, Eueng-Nan; Ge, Yuntao; Firestone, Elaine R.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS), which will serve as a repository for numerous data sets of interest to the SeaWiFS Science Team and other approved investigators in the oceanographic community. The data collected will be those data sets suitable for the development and evaluation of bio-optical algorithms which include results from SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiments (SIRREXs), prelaunch characterization of the SeaWiFS instrument by its manufacturer -- Hughes/Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC), Marine Optical Characterization Experiment (MOCE) cruises, Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) deployments and refurbishments, and field studies of other scientists outside of NASA. The primary goal of the data system is to provide a simple mechanism for querying the available archive and requesting specific items, while assuring that the data is made available only to authorized users. The design, construction, and maintenance of SeaBASS is the responsibility of the SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Team (CVT). This report is concerned with documenting the execution of this task by the CVT and consists of a series of chapters detailing the various data sets involved. The topics presented are as follows: 1) overview of the SeaBASS file architecture, 2) the bio-optical data system, 3) the historical pigment database, 4) the SIRREX database, and 5) the SBRC database.

  6. Self-Activated Photostimulated Luminescence Properties and Stable Storage Capacity of Un-Doped Sr3Al2O5Cl2 Material for Potential Applications in Optical Storage.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zehua; Duan, Mingxiao; Li, Huihui; Zhang, Jiachi; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-09-01

    Un-doped Sr3Al2OCl2 material is synthesized by conventional solid state method in reducing atmosphere. It shows intense photostimulated luminescence and the emission band of spectrum covers in 420-800 nm under infrared laser (980 nm) stimulation. Both the emission centers and traps are related to oxygen-deficient defects. Moreover, thermoluminescence indicates that there are at least five types of traps levels in this material. The weak long lasting phosphorescence (30 s) implies the lack of the shallow traps. The deep traps are rich and their storage capacity can be influenced by the releasing progress of the shallow traps. When the shallow traps are completely emptied after 6 h, the stable storage capacity of deep traps is still as large as 51.5%. Also, this material show good photostimulated luminescence under irradiation by infrared laser. Therefore, the un-doped Sr3Al2O5Cl2 material synthesized in reducing atmosphere can be considered as a potential photostimulated material for optical storage. Accordingly, the influence mechanism of traps on photostimulated luminescence is proposed.

  7. Self-Activated Photostimulated Luminescence Properties and Stable Storage Capacity of Un-Doped Sr3Al2O5Cl2 Material for Potential Applications in Optical Storage.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zehua; Duan, Mingxiao; Li, Huihui; Zhang, Jiachi; Wang, Yuhua

    2015-09-01

    Un-doped Sr3Al2OCl2 material is synthesized by conventional solid state method in reducing atmosphere. It shows intense photostimulated luminescence and the emission band of spectrum covers in 420-800 nm under infrared laser (980 nm) stimulation. Both the emission centers and traps are related to oxygen-deficient defects. Moreover, thermoluminescence indicates that there are at least five types of traps levels in this material. The weak long lasting phosphorescence (30 s) implies the lack of the shallow traps. The deep traps are rich and their storage capacity can be influenced by the releasing progress of the shallow traps. When the shallow traps are completely emptied after 6 h, the stable storage capacity of deep traps is still as large as 51.5%. Also, this material show good photostimulated luminescence under irradiation by infrared laser. Therefore, the un-doped Sr3Al2O5Cl2 material synthesized in reducing atmosphere can be considered as a potential photostimulated material for optical storage. Accordingly, the influence mechanism of traps on photostimulated luminescence is proposed. PMID:26716302

  8. High-Capacity Layered-Spinel Cathodes for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Prasant Kumar; Levi, Elena; Grinblat, Judith; Levi, Mikhael; Markovsky, Boris; Munichandraiah, N; Sun, Yang Kook; Aurbach, Doron

    2016-09-01

    Li and Mn-rich layered oxides with the general structure x Li2 MnO3 ⋅(1-x) LiMO2 (M=Ni, Mn, Co) are promising cathode materials for Li-ion batteries because of their high specific capacity, which may be greater than 250 mA h g(-1) . However, these materials suffer from high first-cycle irreversible capacity, gradual capacity fading, limited rate capability and discharge voltage decay upon cycling, which prevent their commercialization. The decrease in average discharge voltage is a major issue, which is ascribed to a structural layered-to-spinel transformation upon cycling of these oxide cathodes in wide potential ranges with an upper limit higher than 4.5 V and a lower limit below 3 V versus Li. By using four elements systems (Li, Mn, Ni, O) with appropriate stoichiometry, it is possible to prepare high capacity composite cathode materials that contain LiMn1.5 Ni0.5 O4 and Lix Mny Niz O2 components. The Li and Mn-rich layered-spinel cathode materials studied herein exhibit a high specific capacity (≥200 mA h g(-1) ) with good capacity retention upon cycling in a wide potential domain (2.4-4.9 V). The effect of constituent phases on their electrochemical performance, such as specific capacity, cycling stability, average discharge voltage, and rate capability, are explored here. This family of materials can provide high specific capacity, high rate capability, and promising cycle life. Using Co-free cathode materials is also an obvious advantage of these systems. PMID:27530465

  9. A Low Cost, High Capacity Regenerable Sorbent for Pre-combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2012-09-30

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop a low cost, high capacity CO{sub 2} sorbent and demonstrate its technical and economic viability for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The specific objectives supporting our research plan were to optimize the chemical structure and physical properties of the sorbent, scale-up its production using high throughput manufacturing equipment and bulk raw materials and then evaluate its performance, first in bench-scale experiments and then in slipstream tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas. One of the objectives of the laboratory-scale evaluations was to demonstrate the life and durability of the sorbent for over 10,000 cycles and to assess the impact of contaminants (such as sulfur) on its performance. In the field tests, our objective was to demonstrate the operation of the sorbent using actual coal-derived synthesis gas streams generated by air-blown and oxygen-blown commercial and pilot-scale coal gasifiers (the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in these gas streams is significantly different, which directly impacts the operating conditions hence the performance of the sorbent). To support the field demonstration work, TDA collaborated with Phillips 66 and Southern Company to carry out two separate field tests using actual coal-derived synthesis gas at the Wabash River IGCC Power Plant in Terre Haute, IN and the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. In collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), a detailed engineering and economic analysis for the new CO{sub 2} capture system was also proposed to be carried out using Aspen PlusTM simulation software, and estimate its effect on the plant efficiency.

  10. High capacity nanoporous silicon carrier for systemic delivery of gene silencing therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jianliang; Xu, Rong; Mai, Junhua; Kim, Han-Cheon; Guo, Xiaojing; Qin, Guoting; Yang, Yong; Wolfram, Joy; Mu, Chaofeng; Xia, Xiaojun; Gu, Jianhua; Liu, Xuewu; Mao, Zong-Wan; Ferrari, Mauro; Shen, Haifa

    2013-11-26

    Gene silencing agents such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA offer the promise to modulate expression of almost every gene for the treatment of human diseases including cancer. However, lack of vehicles for effective systemic delivery to the disease organs has greatly limited their in vivo applications. In this study, we developed a high capacity polycation-functionalized nanoporous silicon (PCPS) platform comprised of nanoporous silicon microparticles functionalized with arginine-polyethyleneimine inside the nanopores for effective delivery of gene silencing agents. Incubation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells with PCPS loaded with STAT3 siRNA (PCPS/STAT3) or GRP78 siRNA (PCPS/GRP78) resulted in 91 and 83% reduction of STAT3 and GRP78 gene expression in vitro. Treatment of cells with a microRNA-18a mimic in PCPS (PCPS/miR-18) knocked down 90% expression of the microRNA-18a target gene ATM. Systemic delivery of PCPS/STAT3 siRNA in murine model of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer enriched particles in tumor tissues and reduced STAT3 expression in cancer cells, causing significant reduction of cancer stem cells in the residual tumor tissue. At the therapeutic dosage, PCPS/STAT3 siRNA did not trigger acute immune response in FVB mice, including changes in serum cytokines, chemokines, and colony-stimulating factors. In addition, weekly dosing of PCPS/STAT3 siRNA for four weeks did not cause signs of subacute toxicity based on changes in body weight, hematology, blood chemistry, and major organ histology. Collectively, the results suggest that we have developed a safe vehicle for effective delivery of gene silencing agents.

  11. Blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) show high capacity for wound healing and recovery following injury

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Andrew; Mourier, Johann; Rummer, Jodie L.

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is important for sharks from the earliest life stages, for example, as the ‘umbilical scar’ in viviparous species heals, and throughout adulthood, when sharks can incur a range of external injuries from natural and anthropogenic sources. Despite anecdotal accounts of rapid healing in elasmobranchs, data regarding recovery and survival of individuals from different wound or injury types has not been systematically collected. The present study documented: (i) ‘umbilical scar’ healing in wild-caught, neonatal blacktip reef sharks while being reared for 30 days in flow-through laboratory aquaria in French Polynesia; (ii) survival and recovery of free-swimming blacktip reef sharks in Australia and French Polynesia following a range of injuries; and (iii) long-term survival following suspected shark-finning activities. Laboratory monitoring, tag-recapture records, telemetry data and photo-identification records suggest that blacktip reef sharks have a high capacity to survive and recover from small or even large and severe wounds. Healing rates, recovery and survival are important factors to consider when assessing impacts of habitat degradation and fishing stress on shark populations. The present study suggests that individual survival may depend more on handling practices and physiological stress rather than the extent of physical injury. These observations also contribute to discussions regarding the ethics of tagging practices used in elasmobranch research and provide baseline healing rates that may increase the accuracy in estimating reproductive timing inferred from mating scars and birth dates for neonatal sharks based on umbilical scar healing status. PMID:27293741

  12. First Clinical Experience with a High-Capacity Implantable Infusion Pump for Continuous Intravenous Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Damascelli, Bruno; Patelli, Gianluigi; Frigerio, Laura F.; Lanocita, Rodolfo; Di Tolla, Giuseppe; Marchiano, Alfonso; Spreafico, Carlo; Garbagnati, Francesco; Bonalumi, Maria G.; Monfardini, Lorenzo; Ticha, Vladimira; Prino, Aurelio

    1999-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of a new high-capacity pump for systemic venous chemotherapy and to verify the quality of implantation by interventional radiology staff. Methods: A total of 47 infusion pumps with a 60-ml reservoir and variable flow rates (2, 6, 8, or 12 ml/24 hr) were implanted by radiologists in 46 patients with solid tumor metastases requiring treatment with a single, continuously infused cytostatic agent. The reservoir was refilled transcutaneously, usually once weekly. The flow accuracy of the pump was assessed from actual drug delivery recorded on 34 patients over a minimum observation period of 180 days. Results: No early complications occurred in any of the 47 implants in 46 patients. A total of 12 (25.53%) complications occurred between 3 and 24 months after implantation. Seven (14.90%) of these were due to the external design of the pump, while five (10.63%) were related to the central venous catheter. In the 34 patients available for pump evaluation (follow-up of at least 180 days), the system was used for a total of 14,191 days (range 180-911 days, mean 417.38 days), giving an overall complication rate of 0.84 per 1000 days of operation. The mean flow rate accuracy was 90.26%. Conclusion: The new implantable pump showed good flow rate accuracy and reliable operation. The pump-related complications were related to its external design and have now been corrected by appropriate modifications. From a radiologic and surgical viewpoint, the venous implantation procedure is identical to that of conventional vascular access devices and can be performed by radiologists familiar with these techniques. The current limitations lie in the high cost of the pump and, for certain drugs, the short time between refills.

  13. High-Capacity Layered-Spinel Cathodes for Li-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Prasant Kumar; Levi, Elena; Grinblat, Judith; Levi, Mikhael; Markovsky, Boris; Munichandraiah, N; Sun, Yang Kook; Aurbach, Doron

    2016-09-01

    Li and Mn-rich layered oxides with the general structure x Li2 MnO3 ⋅(1-x) LiMO2 (M=Ni, Mn, Co) are promising cathode materials for Li-ion batteries because of their high specific capacity, which may be greater than 250 mA h g(-1) . However, these materials suffer from high first-cycle irreversible capacity, gradual capacity fading, limited rate capability and discharge voltage decay upon cycling, which prevent their commercialization. The decrease in average discharge voltage is a major issue, which is ascribed to a structural layered-to-spinel transformation upon cycling of these oxide cathodes in wide potential ranges with an upper limit higher than 4.5 V and a lower limit below 3 V versus Li. By using four elements systems (Li, Mn, Ni, O) with appropriate stoichiometry, it is possible to prepare high capacity composite cathode materials that contain LiMn1.5 Ni0.5 O4 and Lix Mny Niz O2 components. The Li and Mn-rich layered-spinel cathode materials studied herein exhibit a high specific capacity (≥200 mA h g(-1) ) with good capacity retention upon cycling in a wide potential domain (2.4-4.9 V). The effect of constituent phases on their electrochemical performance, such as specific capacity, cycling stability, average discharge voltage, and rate capability, are explored here. This family of materials can provide high specific capacity, high rate capability, and promising cycle life. Using Co-free cathode materials is also an obvious advantage of these systems.

  14. Blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) show high capacity for wound healing and recovery following injury.

    PubMed

    Chin, Andrew; Mourier, Johann; Rummer, Jodie L

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is important for sharks from the earliest life stages, for example, as the 'umbilical scar' in viviparous species heals, and throughout adulthood, when sharks can incur a range of external injuries from natural and anthropogenic sources. Despite anecdotal accounts of rapid healing in elasmobranchs, data regarding recovery and survival of individuals from different wound or injury types has not been systematically collected. The present study documented: (i) 'umbilical scar' healing in wild-caught, neonatal blacktip reef sharks while being reared for 30 days in flow-through laboratory aquaria in French Polynesia; (ii) survival and recovery of free-swimming blacktip reef sharks in Australia and French Polynesia following a range of injuries; and (iii) long-term survival following suspected shark-finning activities. Laboratory monitoring, tag-recapture records, telemetry data and photo-identification records suggest that blacktip reef sharks have a high capacity to survive and recover from small or even large and severe wounds. Healing rates, recovery and survival are important factors to consider when assessing impacts of habitat degradation and fishing stress on shark populations. The present study suggests that individual survival may depend more on handling practices and physiological stress rather than the extent of physical injury. These observations also contribute to discussions regarding the ethics of tagging practices used in elasmobranch research and provide baseline healing rates that may increase the accuracy in estimating reproductive timing inferred from mating scars and birth dates for neonatal sharks based on umbilical scar healing status. PMID:27293741

  15. Characterization of the orientational behavior of liquid-crystalline side-chain polymers for reversible optical data storage by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulinna, Ch.; Zebger, I.; Siesler, Heinz W.; Hvilsted, Soeren; Ramanujam, P. S.

    1994-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the photo-induced orientation or reorientation of dye-containing liquid-crystalline side-chain (LCSC) polymers can be used for reversible optical data storage. A method which enables the determination of this orientational behavior in addition to the order parameter is infrared dichroism. The present experimental approach uses Fourier- Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with polarized radiation to determine the orientation of the main chain and side chains in a LCSC polyester with a dodecamethylene spacing of the ester groups in the main chain and six methylene groups in the spacer, after irradiation with an Argon ion laser beam.

  16. Integrated optical buffers for packet-switched networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, Emily Frances

    Routers form the backbone of the Internet, directing data to the right locations with huge throughput capacity of terabits/second) and very few errors (1 error allowed in 1012 bits). However, as the Internet continues to grow rapidly, so must the capacity of electronic routers, thereby also growing in footprint and power consumption. The energy bill alone has developers looking for an alternate solution. Today's routers can only operate with electrical signals although Internet data is transmitted optically. This requires the data to be converted from the optical domain to the electrical domain and back again. Optical routers have the potential of saving in power by omitting these conversions, but have been held back in part by the lack of a practical optical memory device. This work presents the first integrated optical buffer for next generation optical packet-switched networks. Buffering is required in a router to move packets of data in order to avoid collisions between packets heading to the same destination at the same time. The device presented here uses an InP-based two-by-two switch with a silica waveguide delay to form a recirculating buffer. Packet storage was shown with 98% packet recovery for 5 circulations. Autonomous contention resolution was demonstrated with two buffered channels to show that the technology is a realistic solution for creating multiple element buffers on multiple router ports. This thesis proposes and demonstrates the first integrated optical random access memory, thereby making a great stride toward high capacity optical routers.

  17. Threshold effects for resistance to optical damage and nonvolatile holographic storage properties in In:Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen Xihe; Li Qiang; Xu Yuheng

    2005-07-20

    The threshold concentration for In2O3 was found in In:Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals by measurement of the infrared spectra of the crystals. The resistance of the In:Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals to optical damage is characterized by changes in photoinduced birefringence as well as by distortion of the transmitted beam pattern. The resistance increases remarkably when the concentration of In2O3 exceeds its threshold. The resistance to optical damage of a In(3.0 mol. %):Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystal is 2 orders of magnitude higher that of a Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystal. The dependence of defects on the resistance to optical damage of the In:Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystals is discussed in detail. Nonvolatile holographic storage was achieved for all crystals, and the sensitivity of the In(3.0 mol. %):Mn:Fe:LiNbO3 crystal is much higher than that of the others.

  18. Integration of high capacity materials into interdigitated mesostructured electrodes for high energy and high power density primary microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikul, James H.; Liu, Jinyun; Braun, Paul V.; King, William P.

    2016-05-01

    Microbatteries are increasingly important for powering electronic systems, however, the volumetric energy density of microbatteries lags behind that of conventional format batteries. This paper reports a primary microbattery with energy density 45.5 μWh cm-2 μm-1 and peak power 5300 μW cm-2 μm-1, enabled by the integration of large volume fractions of high capacity anode and cathode chemistry into porous micro-architectures. The interdigitated battery electrodes consist of a lithium metal anode and a mesoporous manganese oxide cathode. The key enabler of the high energy and power density is the integration of the high capacity manganese oxide conversion chemistry into a mesostructured high power interdigitated bicontinuous cathode architecture and an electrodeposited dense lithium metal anode. The resultant energy density is greater than previously reported three-dimensional microbatteries and is comparable to commercial conventional format lithium-based batteries.

  19. Rapid, in Situ Synthesis of High Capacity Battery Anodes through High Temperature Radiation-Based Thermal Shock.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanan; Li, Yiju; Wang, Yanbin; Fu, Kun; Danner, Valencia A; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven D; Yao, Yonggang; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-09-14

    High capacity battery electrodes require nanosized components to avoid pulverization associated with volume changes during the charge-discharge process. Additionally, these nanosized electrodes need an electronically conductive matrix to facilitate electron transport. Here, for the first time, we report a rapid thermal shock process using high-temperature radiative heating to fabricate a conductive reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite with silicon nanoparticles. Silicon (Si) particles on the order of a few micrometers are initially embedded in the RGO host and in situ transformed into 10-15 nm nanoparticles in less than a minute through radiative heating. The as-prepared composites of ultrafine Si nanoparticles embedded in a RGO matrix show great performance as a Li-ion battery (LIB) anode. The in situ nanoparticle synthesis method can also be adopted for other high capacity battery anode materials including tin (Sn) and aluminum (Al). This method for synthesizing high capacity anodes in a RGO matrix can be envisioned for roll-to-roll nanomanufacturing due to the ease and scalability of this high-temperature radiative heating process.

  20. A High-Capacity Adenoviral Hybrid Vector System Utilizing the Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase SB100X for Enhanced Integration.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Philip; Zhang, Wenli; Solanki, Manish; Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2016-07-19

    For efficient delivery of required genetic elements we utilized high-capacity adenoviral vectors in the past allowing high transgene capacities of up to 36 kb. Previously we explored the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase (HSB5) for somatic integration from the high-capacity adenoviral vectors genome. To further improve this hybrid vector system we hypothesized that the previously described hyperactive SB transposase SB100X will result in significantly improved efficacies after transduction of target cells. Plasmid based delivery of the SB100X system revealed significantly increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5. After optimizing experimental setups for high-capacity adenoviral vectors-based delivery of the SB100X system we observed up to eightfold and 100-fold increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5 and the inactive transposase mSB, respectively. Furthermore, transposon copy numbers per cell were doubled with SB100X compared with HSB5 when using the identical multiplicity of infection. We believe that this improved hybrid vector system represents a valuable tool for achieving stabilized transgene expression in cycling cells and for treatment of numerous genetic disorders. Especially for in vivo approaches this improved adenoviral hybrid vector system will be advantageous because it may potentially allow reduction of the applied viral dose.

  1. A High-Capacity Adenoviral Hybrid Vector System Utilizing the Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase SB100X for Enhanced Integration.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Philip; Zhang, Wenli; Solanki, Manish; Ehrke-Schulz, Eric; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2016-01-01

    For efficient delivery of required genetic elements we utilized high-capacity adenoviral vectors in the past allowing high transgene capacities of up to 36 kb. Previously we explored the hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase (HSB5) for somatic integration from the high-capacity adenoviral vectors genome. To further improve this hybrid vector system we hypothesized that the previously described hyperactive SB transposase SB100X will result in significantly improved efficacies after transduction of target cells. Plasmid based delivery of the SB100X system revealed significantly increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5. After optimizing experimental setups for high-capacity adenoviral vectors-based delivery of the SB100X system we observed up to eightfold and 100-fold increased integration efficiencies compared with the previously published hyperactive SB transposase HSB5 and the inactive transposase mSB, respectively. Furthermore, transposon copy numbers per cell were doubled with SB100X compared with HSB5 when using the identical multiplicity of infection. We believe that this improved hybrid vector system represents a valuable tool for achieving stabilized transgene expression in cycling cells and for treatment of numerous genetic disorders. Especially for in vivo approaches this improved adenoviral hybrid vector system will be advantageous because it may potentially allow reduction of the applied viral dose. PMID:27434682

  2. Fiber optical sensors for enhanced battery safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jan; Nedjalkov, Antonio; Doering, Alexander; Angelmahr, Martin; Schade, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Over the last years, battery safety becomes more and more important due to the wide spread of high-capacity lithium ion batteries applied in e.g. consumer electronics and electrical power storages for vehicles or stationary energy storage systems. However, for these types of batteries, malfunctions could be highly dangerous and all aspects of safety issues are not sufficiently considered, yet. Therefore, the improvement of the battery safety behavior is one of the most important issues discussed in actual research projects. In this paper the application of fiber optical sensors for enhanced battery safety is presented. The temperature is one of the most critical parameters indicating a failure of the cell, but even state-to-the-art battery management systems (BMS) are not able to monitor and interpret the distributed temperature field of a total battery storage system sufficiently. Furthermore, the volume expansion of the battery cell, which could be monitored by the strain on the cells' surfaces, is one additional parameter not considered up to now. Both parameters could be simultaneous monitored by fiber optical sensor arrays, consisting of discrete fiber Bragg grating (FBG) elements. The FBG sensors are directly attached on the surface of the cell, recording the temperature as well as the strain distribution highly accurate and close-meshed. Failures and malfunction such as overcharging, gassing, and thermal runaway can be early predicted and avoided to extend the battery lifetime and enhance the operational battery safety. Moreover, battery aging effects lead to variations in the volume change behavior which can be detected additionally. Hence, a battery fully equipped with fiber optical sensor arrays in combination with an appropriate BMS enables a safe and continuous utilization of the energy storage system even under harsh conditions like rapid charging.

  3. Crystalline-amorphous core-shell silicon nanowires for high capacity and high current battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li-Feng; Ruffo, Riccardo; Chan, Candace K; Peng, Hailin; Cui, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Silicon is an attractive alloy-type anode material for lithium ion batteries because of its highest known capacity (4200 mAh/g). However silicon's large volume change upon lithium insertion and extraction, which causes pulverization and capacity fading, has limited its applications. Designing nanoscale hierarchical structures is a novel approach to address the issues associated with the large volume changes. In this letter, we introduce a core-shell design of silicon nanowires for highpower and long-life lithium battery electrodes. Silicon crystalline-amorphous core-shell nanowires were grown directly on stainless steel current collectors by a simple one-step synthesis. Amorphous Si shells instead of crystalline Si cores can be selected to be electrochemically active due to the difference of their lithiation potentials. Therefore, crystalline Si cores function as a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway while amorphous shells store Li(+) ions. We demonstrate here that these core-shell nanowires have high charge storage capacity ( approximately 1000 mAh/g, 3 times of carbon) with approximately 90% capacity retention over 100 cycles. They also show excellent electrochemical performance at high rate charging and discharging (6.8 A/g, approximately 20 times of carbon at 1 h rate).

  4. Optimization of regenerator in high capacity Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imura, J.; Iwata, N.; Yamamoto, H.; Ohashi, Y.; Nomachi, H.; Okumura, N.; Nagaya, S.; Tamada, T.; Hirano, N.

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to obtain a cooling capacity of 200 W at 80 K under power consumption of 4 kW for a superconducting magnetic energy storage system. It was found that there existed large temperature distribution in a circumference of the regenerator. The temperature difference became larger as increasing the piston displacement. The maximum difference of temperature was 150 K. Such the inhomogeneous distribution of the regenerator temperature was caused from turbulent flow of helium gas. Then several hard copper meshes were inserted to prevent the distortion of the mesh. As the result, the difference of temperature decreased to 37 K and the high performance was obtained; the lowest temperature of 37 K and the cooling capacity of 158 W at 80 K. Conclusively %Carnot was improved up to 14%. Furthermore, when power consumption was increased to 3.8 kW and the piston displacement was 16 mm peak to peak, the higher performance was obtained; the cooling capacity of 180 W at 80 K.

  5. Fe3O4/carbon hybrid nanoparticle electrodes for high-capacity electrochemical capacitors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Seop; Shin, Dong Hoon; Jun, Jaemoon; Lee, Choonghyeon; Jang, Jyongsik

    2014-06-01

    Fe3O4/carbon hybrid nanoparticles (FeCHNPs) were fabricated using dual-nozzle electrospraying, vapor deposition polymerization (VDP), and carbonization. FeOOH nanoneedles decorated with polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles (FePNPs) were fabricated by electrospraying pristine PPy mixed with FeCl3 solution, followed by heating stirring reaction. A PPy coating was then formed on the FeOOH nanoneedles through a VDP process. FeCHNPs were produced through carbonization of PPy and FeOOH phase transitions. These hybrid carbon nanoparticles (NPs) were used to build electrodes of electrochemical capacitors. The specific capacitance of the FeCHNPs was 455 F g(-1), which is larger than that of pristine PPy NPs (105 F g(-1)) or other hybrid PPy NPs. Furthermore, the FeCHNP-based capacitors exhibited better cycle stability during charge-discharge cycling than other hybrid NP capacitors. This is because the carbon layer on the Fe3 O4 surface formed a protective coating, preventing damage to the electrode materials during the charge-discharge processes. This fabrication technique is an effective approach for forming stable carbon/metal oxide nanostructures for energy storage applications.

  6. External insulation systems for cryogenic storage systems. Volume 1: Optical properties of Kapton and report of process variable study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Investigations are conducted into the optical properties of the glass and Kapton substrate materials, and three variables were chosen: deposition rate, sputter gas pressure, and film contamination time. Substrate tests have shown that fabrication of an dielectric broadband reflector would require an extremely complex and expensive filter design.

  7. Synthesis of novel fluorene-based two-photon absorbing molecules and their applications in optical data storage, microfabrication, and stimulated emission depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanez, Ciceron

    2009-12-01

    Two-photon absorption (2PA) has been used for a number of scientific and technological applications, exploiting the fact that the 2PA probability is directly proportional to the square of the incident light intensity (while one-photon absorption bears a linear relation to the incident light intensity). This intrinsic property of 2PA leads to 3D spatial localization, important in fields such as optical data storage, fluorescence microscopy, and 3D microfabrication. The spatial confinement that 2PA enables has been used to induce photochemical and photophysical events in increasingly smaller volumes and allowed nonlinear, 2PA-based, technologies to reach sub-diffraction limit resolutions. The primary focus of this dissertation is the development of novel, efficient 2PA, fluorene-based molecules to be used either as photoacid generators (PAGs) or fluorophores. A second aim is to develop more effective methods of synthesizing these compounds. As a third and final objective, the new molecules were used to develop a write-once-read many (WORM) optical data storage system, and stimulated emission depletion probes for bioimaging. In Chapter I, the microwave-assisted synthesis of triarylsulfonium salt photoacid generators (PAGs) from their diphenyliodonium counterparts is reported. The microwave-assisted synthesis of these novel sulfonium salts afforded reaction times 90 to 420 times faster than conventional thermal conditions, with photoacid quantum yields of new sulfonium PAGs ranging from 0.01 to 0.4. These PAGs were used to develop a fluorescence readout-based, nonlinear three-dimensional (3D) optical data storage system (Chapter II). In this system, writing was achieved by acid generation upon two-photon absorption (2PA) of a PAG (at 710 or 730 nm). Readout was then performed by interrogating two-photon absorbing dyes, after protonation, at 860 nm. Two-photon recording and readout of voxels was demonstrated in five and eight consecutive, crosstalk-free layers within a

  8. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  9. GridOPTICS(TM) A Novel Software Framework for Integrating Power Grid Data Storage, Management and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gorton, Ian; Yin, Jian; Akyol, Bora A.; Ciraci, Selim; Critchlow, Terence; Liu, Yan; Gibson, Tara D.; Purohit, Sumit; Sharma, Poorva; Vlachopoulou, Maria

    2013-01-09

    This paper describes the architecture and design of GridOPTICSTM, a novel software framework to integrate a collection of software tools developed by PNNL’s Future Power Grid Initiative (FPGI) into a coherent, powerful operations and planning tool for the power grid of the future. GridOPTICSTM enables plug-and-play of various analysis, modeling and visualization software tools for fast and accurate control of the power grid. To bridge the data access for different control purposes, GridOPTICSTM provides a scalable and thin layer of event processing that hides the complexity of data storage and management. The initial prototype of GridOPTICSTM was demonstrated with several use cases from PNNL’s FPGI.

  10. Storage Technology: Present and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Charles M.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews terminology inherent in discussing microcomputer storage technologies and addresses aspects of magnetic storage and present and near-future technologies, including floppy disks, Winchester and removable hard disks, optical digital disks, optical video disks, (audio) compact disks, perpendicular magnetic recording, and erasable optical…

  11. piggyBac as a high-capacity transgenesis and gene-therapy vector in human cells and mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongbo; Zhuang, Yuan; Han, Min; Xu, Tian; Wu, Xiaohui

    2013-05-01

    The stable genomic integration and expression of a large transgene is a major hurdle in gene therapy. We show that the modified piggyBac (PB) transposon system can be used to introduce a 207 kb genomic DNA fragment containing the RORγ/γt locus into human cells and mice. PB-mediated transgenesis results in a single copy of a stably inherited and expressed transgene. These results indicate that PB could serve as an effective high-capacity vector for functional analysis of the mammalian genome and for gene therapy in human cells.

  12. Development of a new biofertilizer with a high capacity for N2 fixation, phosphate and potassium solubilization and auxin production.

    PubMed

    Leaungvutiviroj, Chaveevan; Ruangphisarn, Pimtida; Hansanimitkul, Pikul; Shinkawa, Hidenori; Sasaki, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Biofertilizers that possess a high capacity for N(2) fixation (Azotobacter tropicalis), and consist of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (Burkhoderia unamae), and potassium solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) and produce auxin (KJB9/2 strain), have a high potential for growth and yield enhancement of corn and vegetables (Chinese kale). For vegetables, the addition of biofertilizer alone enhanced growth 4 times. Moreover, an enhancement of growth by 7 times was observed due to the addition of rock phosphate and K-feldspar, natural mineral fertilizers, in combination with the biofertilizer.

  13. Simulation of the light emission properties of patterned metal-based nanostructures for ultra-high density optical storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weijun; Zhu, Yaping; Luo, Jun; Peng, Sha; Lei, Yu; Tong, Qing; Zhang, Xinyu; Xie, Changsheng

    2015-10-01

    Current researches show that the surface plasmon-polariton modes (SPPMs) in metallic nanostructures can lead to a powerful localization of guided light signals, which is generally as small as a few nanometers and thus far beyond the diffraction limit of electromagnetic waves in dielectric media. In this paper, our attention is paid to the modeling and simulation of particular kinds of patterned metal-based nanostructure fabricated over several common wafers such as typical silicon dioxide. The nanostructures are designed for concentrating and delivering incident light energy into nanoscale regions. In our research, the factors, for instance, optical materials, patterned nano-structures, the distance arrangement between adjacent single nanopattern, and the frequency of incident electromagnetic wave, are taken as variables, and further the CST microwave studio is used to simulate optical behaviors of the devices developed by us. By comparing the transmittance and electric field intensity distribution in small area, the nano-light-emission effects are analyzed, and the conditions for obtaining near-field nanospots have been chosen.

  14. Life cycle environmental impact of high-capacity lithium ion battery with silicon nanowires anode for electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Li, Bingbing; Gao, Xianfeng; Li, Jianyang; Yuan, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Although silicon nanowires (SiNW) have been widely studied as an ideal material for developing high-capacity lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for electric vehicles (EVs), little is known about the environmental impacts of such a new EV battery pack during its whole life cycle. This paper reports a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a high-capacity LIB pack using SiNW prepared via metal-assisted chemical etching as anode material. The LCA study is conducted based on the average U.S. driving and electricity supply conditions. Nanowastes and nanoparticle emissions from the SiNW synthesis are also characterized and reported. The LCA results show that over 50% of most characterized impacts are generated from the battery operations, while the battery anode with SiNW material contributes to around 15% of global warming potential and 10% of human toxicity potential. Overall the life cycle impacts of this new battery pack are moderately higher than those of conventional LIBs but could be actually comparable when considering the uncertainties and scale-up potential of the technology. These results are encouraging because they not only provide a solid base for sustainable development of next generation LIBs but also confirm that appropriate nanomanufacturing technologies could be used in sustainable product development.

  15. When High-Capacity Readers Slow Down and Low-Capacity Readers Speed Up: Working Memory and Locality Effects.

    PubMed

    Nicenboim, Bruno; Logačev, Pavel; Gattei, Carolina; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German), while taking into account readers' working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008) and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slowdown produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis and Vasishth, 2005). Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions. PMID:27014113

  16. When High-Capacity Readers Slow Down and Low-Capacity Readers Speed Up: Working Memory and Locality Effects

    PubMed Central

    Nicenboim, Bruno; Logačev, Pavel; Gattei, Carolina; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German), while taking into account readers' working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008) and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slowdown produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis and Vasishth, 2005). Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions. PMID:27014113

  17. When High-Capacity Readers Slow Down and Low-Capacity Readers Speed Up: Working Memory and Locality Effects.

    PubMed

    Nicenboim, Bruno; Logačev, Pavel; Gattei, Carolina; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German), while taking into account readers' working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008) and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slowdown produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis and Vasishth, 2005). Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions.

  18. Study of thermal effects and optical properties of an innovative absorber in integrated collector storage solar water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Yaser; Alimardani, Kazem; Ziapour, Behrooz M.

    2015-10-01

    Solar passive water heaters are potential candidates for enhanced heat transfer. Solar water heaters with an integrated water tank and with the low temperature energy resource are used as the simplest and cheapest recipient devices of the solar energy for heating and supplying hot water in the buildings. The solar thermal performances of one primitive absorber were determined by using both the experimental and the simulation model of it. All materials applied for absorber such as the cover glass, the black colored sands and the V shaped galvanized plate were submerged into the water. The water storage tank was manufactured from galvanized sheet of 0.0015 m in thickness and the effective area of the collector was 0.67 m2. The absorber was installed on a compact solar water heater. The constructed flat-plate collectors were tested outdoors. However the simulation results showed that the absorbers operated near to the gray materials and all experimental results showed that the thermal efficiencies of the collector are over than 70 %.

  19. Dynamic Head-Disk Interface Modeling and Adaptive Control of a Hybrid Actuator for Optical Data Storage Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhizheng; Li, Yang; Wang, Pei; Liu, Mei

    2015-01-01

    In the near-field recording (NFR) system, the gap between the lens and disk will drop down to 100 nm. However, the disk vibration and force disturbance make it difficult to maintain the desired flying height during disk operation, and the lens-disk collision can easily occur. It is proposed in this article to design a hybrid actuator system which combines both advantages of the flying slider used in hard disk drives and the voice coil actuator used in optical disk drives. The dynamic head-disk interface model of the hybrid actuator is first developed, then an adaptive regulation approach is proposed to control the flying height at its desired value despite the unknown disturbances. Simulation and experimental results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed flying height control approach.

  20. Optical Disks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, John C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This four-article section focuses on information storage capacity of the optical disk covering the information workstation (uses microcomputer, optical disk, compact disc to provide reference information, information content, work product support); use of laser videodisc technology for dissemination of agricultural information; encoding databases…

  1. Topology of genetic associations between regional gray matter volume and intellectual ability: Evidence for a high capacity network.

    PubMed

    Bohlken, Marc M; Brouwer, Rachel M; Mandl, René C W; Hedman, Anna M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Kahn, René S; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence is associated with a network of distributed gray matter areas including the frontal and parietal higher association cortices and primary processing areas of the temporal and occipital lobes. Efficient information transfer between gray matter regions implicated in intelligence is thought to be critical for this trait to emerge. Genetic factors implicated in intelligence and gray matter may promote a high capacity for information transfer. Whether these genetic factors act globally or on local gray matter areas separately is not known. Brain maps of phenotypic and genetic associations between gray matter volume and intelligence were made using structural equation modeling of 3T MRI T1-weighted scans acquired in 167 adult twins of the newly acquired U-TWIN cohort. Subsequently, structural connectivity analyses (DTI) were performed to test the hypothesis that gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability form a densely connected core. Gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability were situated in the right prefrontal, bilateral temporal, bilateral parietal, right occipital and subcortical regions. Regions implicated in intelligence had high structural connectivity density compared to 10,000 reference networks (p=0.031). The genetic association with intelligence was for 39% explained by a genetic source unique to these regions (independent of total brain volume), this source specifically implicated the right supramarginal gyrus. Using a twin design, we show that intelligence is genetically represented in a spatially distributed and densely connected network of gray matter regions providing a high capacity infrastructure. Although genes for intelligence have overlap with those for total brain volume, we present evidence that there are genes for intelligence that act specifically on the subset of brain areas that form an efficient brain network.

  2. Application of holographic optical techniques to bulk memory.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, L. K.

    1971-01-01

    Current efforts to exploit the spatial redundancy and built-in imaging of holographic optical techniques to provide high information densities without critical alignment and tight mechanical tolerances are reviewed. Read-write-erase in situ operation is possible but is presently impractical because of limitations in available recording media. As these are overcome, it should prove feasible to build holographic bulk memories with mechanically replaceable hologram plates featuring very fast (less than 2 microsec) random access to large (greater than 100 million bit) data blocks and very high throughput (greater than 500 Mbit/sec). Using volume holographic storage it may eventually be possible to realize random-access mass memories which require no mechanical motion and yet provide very high capacity.

  3. Investigation of the characteristics of the nickle oxide electrode under the conditions of operation of high-capacity storage batteries of the TNZhK type

    SciTech Connect

    Leshcheva, E.N.; Glazatova, T.N.; Aguf, I.A.

    1982-07-01

    There have been virtually no investigations of the behavior of laminated NOE at elevated temperatures. It was therefore desirable to study the joint influence of electrolyte temperature and addition of cobalt on the behavior of NOE at high discharge rates and in the course of charging; this was the purpose of the present work. Laminated NOE 36 x 14 x 3.5 mm in size were taken for the investigation. The content of active material in each electrode was 3 g. Cobalt was introduced into the prepared material in the form of sulfate solution in the ratio of 3% Co/Ni. The tests were conducted in a gastight cell made of transparent plastic and connected to a buret for collecting the gas. The electrolyte consisted of NaOH solution (d = 1.20 g/cm/sup 3/) + 5 g/liter LiOH. The auxiliary electrodes were made of Ni foil. The anode and cathode currents were chosen in accordance with the conditions of operation of TNZhK batteries. The potentials were measured against a mercury oxide reference electrode in the same solution. Two series of experiments were carried out. In the first series the electrodes were charged in the temperature range 25 to 70/sup 0/, with simultaneous collection of gas. The discharge temperature was 25/sup 0/. In the second series the electrodes were charged at 25/sup 0/ and discharged at temperatures in the range 25 to 70/sup 0/.

  4. High-Capacity and Self-Stabilized Manganese Carbonate Microspheres as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Liang; Wang, Shiyao; Wang, Yafei; Meng, Wen; Deng, Bohua; Qu, Deyu; Xie, Zhizhong; Liu, Jinping

    2016-09-28

    Manganese carbonate (MnCO3) is an attractive anode material with high capacity based on conversion reaction for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), but its application is mainly hindered by poor cycling performance. Building nanostructures/porous structures and nanocomposites has been demonstrated as an effective strategy to buffer the volume changes and maintain the electrode integrity for long-term cycling. It is widely believed that microsized MnCO3 is not suitable for use as anode material for LIBs because of its poor conductivity and the absence of nanostructure. Herein, different from previous reports, spherical MnCO3 with the mean diameters of 6.9 μm (MnCO3-B), 4.0 μm (MnCO3-M), and 2.6 μm (MnCO3-S) were prepared via controllable precipitation and utilized as anode materials for LIBs. It is interesting that the as-prepared MnCO3 microspheres demonstrate both high capacity and excellent cycling performance comparable to their reported nanosized counterparts. MnCO3-B, MnCO3-M, and MnCO3-S deliver reversible specific capacities of 487.3, 573.9, and 656.8 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles, respectively. All the MnCO3 microspheres show capacity retention more than 90% after the initial stage. The advantages of MnCO3 microspheres were investigated via constant-current charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicate that there should be substantial structure transformation from microsized particle to self-stabilized nanostructured matrix for MnCO3 at the initial charge/discharge stage. The evolution of EIS during charge/discharge clearly indicates the formation and stabilization of the nanostructured matrix. The self-stabilized porous matrix maintains the electrode structure to deliver excellent cycling performance, and contributes extra capacity beyond conversion reaction. PMID:27598035

  5. On the trapping of SOx on CaO-Al2O3-based novel high capacity sorbents.

    PubMed

    Dathe, Hendrik; Jentys, Andreas; Haider, Peter; Schreier, Ellen; Fricke, Rolf; Lercher, Johannes A

    2006-04-01

    Calcium-aluminum mixed oxide based materials doped with Na and Mn were explored as sulfur trapping materials. The materials showed a three times higher total storage capacity and a higher time on stream with complete SO2 removal compared to a second generation SOx trapping material which was mesoporous with calcium mainly present in oxidic form. Combining in situ XANES at the S K-edge and IR spectroscopy the key properties of the storage materials and the affiliated storage processes were identified. CaO-Al2O3 acts as the primary support and storage component, while Na+ cations adjust the base strength and enhances the storage capacity. Manganese cations provide the appropriate oxidation capacity in absence and presence of up to 10% water. The transport into the bulk phase, which is markedly influenced by a layer of sorbed water, is the rate-limiting step in presence of Mn cations. In the absence of manganese cations the oxidation step appears controlling the rate. The overall reaction network, identified by in situ IR spectroscopy and the 2D Correlation Analysis, is similar on all materials.

  6. Development of China's fiber optic technology discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Q.

    1986-04-01

    Fiber optic technology is a new transmission technology having the outstanding advantages of low loss, high capacity, no magnetic interference, all-dielectric transmission, small size, and light weight. Research into fiber optic technology began in the mid-1970's in China. The scope of applications for fiber optic communications systems is divided into three categories: junction lines, trunk lines, and subscriber lines. Each of the categories are briefly discussed. The advantages and economic suitability of fiber optics are discussed.

  7. Hard carbon nanoparticles as high-capacity, high-stability anodic materials for Na-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Lifen; Cao, Yuliang; Henderson, Wesley A.; Sushko, Maria L.; Shao, Yuyan; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Wei; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Hard carbon nanoparticles (HCNP) were synthesized by the pyrolysis of a polyaniline precursor. The measured Na+ cation diffusion coefficient (10-13-10-15cm2s-1) in the HCNP obtained at 1150 °C is two orders of magnitude lower than that of Li+ in graphite (10-10-13-15cm2s-1), indicating that reducing the carbon particle size is very important for improving electrochemical performance. These measurements also enable a clear visualization of the stepwise reaction phases and rate changes which occur throughout the insertion/extraction processes in HCNP, The electrochemical measurements also show that the nano-sized HCNP obtained at 1150 °C exhibited higher practical capacity at voltages lower than 1.2 V (vs. Na/Na⁺), as well as a prolonged cycling stability, which is attributed to an optimum spacing of 0.366 nm between the graphitic layers and the nano particular size resulting in a low-barrier Na+ cation insertion. These results suggest that HCNP is a very promising high-capacity/stability anode for low cost sodium-ion batteries (SIBs).

  8. Peptide immobilized monolith containing tentacle-type functionalized polymer chains for high-capacity binding of immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Du, Kaifeng

    2014-12-29

    A peptide immobilized tentacle-type monolith is developed here for high-performance IgG purification. In this work, the glucose-anchored GMA molecules serve as monomers to be grafted into the tentacle-type chains on highly porous monolith by a series of chemical reactions. While maintaining high column permeability, the tentacle grafting endows the monolith with lots of reactive handles to anchor more peptides. With that, the grafted monolith shows high peptide density of about 155μmolmL(-1), up to approximately 4.7 times higher over the ungrafted one (33μmolmL(-1)). As a result, the static adsorbing capacity and dynamic adsorption capacity at 50% breakthrough point reach 101.8 and 83.3mgmL(-1) for IgG adsorption, respectively. Regeneration, recycle and reuse of grafted monolith are highly successful for 25 runs without obvious capacity loss. By taking these advantages of high capacity and excellent structure stability, the affinity grafted monolith is evaluated by using cleared human blood supernatant. And the result shows the peptide immobilized tentacle type monolith displays excellent specificity and high effectiveness for IgG purification.

  9. Tissue-like Silicon Nanowires-Based Three-Dimensional Anodes for High-Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Peled, Emanuel; Patolsky, Fernando; Golodnitsky, Diana; Freedman, Kathrin; Davidi, Guy; Schneier, Dan

    2015-06-10

    Here, we report on the scalable synthesis and characterization of novel architecture three-dimensional (3D) high-capacity amorphous silicon nanowires (SiNWs)-based anodes with focus on studying their electrochemical degradation mechanisms. We achieved an unprecedented combination of remarkable performance characteristics, high loadings of 3-15 mAh/cm(2), a very low irreversible capacity (10% for the 3-4 mAh/cm(2) anodes), current efficiency greater than 99.5%, cycle stability (both in half cells and a LiFePO4 battery), a total capacity of 457 mAh/cm(2) over 204 cycles and fast charge-discharge rates (up to 2.7C at 20 mA/cm(2)). These SiNWs-based binder-free 3D anodes have been cycled for over 200 cycles, exhibiting a stable cycle life. Notably, it was found that the growth of the continuous SEI layer thickness, and its concomitant increase in resistivity, represents the major reason for the observed capacity loss of the SiNWs-based anodes. Importantly, these NWs-based anodes of novel architecture meet the requirements of lithium batteries for future portable, and electric-vehicle, applications.

  10. Porous mesocarbon microbeads with graphitic shells: constructing a high-rate, high-capacity cathode for hybrid supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yu; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Yang, Ying; Shen, Wanci; Zheng, Yongping; Sun, Hongyu; Kang, Feiyu

    2013-01-01

    Li₄Ti₅O₁₂/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor can combine the advantages of both lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor, which may meet the requirements for developing high-performance hybrid electric vehicles. Here we proposed a novel "core-shell" porous graphitic carbon (PGC) to replace conventional activated carbon for achieving excellent cell performance. In this PGC structure made from mesocarbon microbead (MCMB), the inner core is composed of porous amorphous carbon, while the outer shell is graphitic carbon. The abundant porosity and the high surface area not only offer sufficient reaction sites to store electrical charge physically, but also can accelerate the liquid electrolyte to penetrate the electrode and the ions to reach the reacting sites. Meanwhile, the outer graphitic shells of the porous carbon microbeads contribute to a conductive network which will remarkably facilitate the electron transportation, and thus can be used to construct a high-rate, high-capacity cathode for hybrid supercapacitor, especially at high current densities.

  11. Porous mesocarbon microbeads with graphitic shells: constructing a high-rate, high-capacity cathode for hybrid supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yu; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Yang, Ying; Shen, Wanci; Zheng, Yongping; Sun, Hongyu; Kang, Feiyu

    2013-08-01

    Li4Ti5O12/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor can combine the advantages of both lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor, which may meet the requirements for developing high-performance hybrid electric vehicles. Here we proposed a novel ``core-shell'' porous graphitic carbon (PGC) to replace conventional activated carbon for achieving excellent cell performance. In this PGC structure made from mesocarbon microbead (MCMB), the inner core is composed of porous amorphous carbon, while the outer shell is graphitic carbon. The abundant porosity and the high surface area not only offer sufficient reaction sites to store electrical charge physically, but also can accelerate the liquid electrolyte to penetrate the electrode and the ions to reach the reacting sites. Meanwhile, the outer graphitic shells of the porous carbon microbeads contribute to a conductive network which will remarkably facilitate the electron transportation, and thus can be used to construct a high-rate, high-capacity cathode for hybrid supercapacitor, especially at high current densities.

  12. Peptide immobilized monolith containing tentacle-type functionalized polymer chains for high-capacity binding of immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Du, Kaifeng

    2014-12-29

    A peptide immobilized tentacle-type monolith is developed here for high-performance IgG purification. In this work, the glucose-anchored GMA molecules serve as monomers to be grafted into the tentacle-type chains on highly porous monolith by a series of chemical reactions. While maintaining high column permeability, the tentacle grafting endows the monolith with lots of reactive handles to anchor more peptides. With that, the grafted monolith shows high peptide density of about 155μmolmL(-1), up to approximately 4.7 times higher over the ungrafted one (33μmolmL(-1)). As a result, the static adsorbing capacity and dynamic adsorption capacity at 50% breakthrough point reach 101.8 and 83.3mgmL(-1) for IgG adsorption, respectively. Regeneration, recycle and reuse of grafted monolith are highly successful for 25 runs without obvious capacity loss. By taking these advantages of high capacity and excellent structure stability, the affinity grafted monolith is evaluated by using cleared human blood supernatant. And the result shows the peptide immobilized tentacle type monolith displays excellent specificity and high effectiveness for IgG purification. PMID:25476688

  13. High-capacity antimony sulphide nanoparticle-decorated graphene composite as anode for sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Denis Y W; Prikhodchenko, Petr V; Mason, Chad W; Batabyal, Sudip K; Gun, Jenny; Sladkevich, Sergey; Medvedev, Alexander G; Lev, Ovadia

    2013-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are an alternative to lithium-ion batteries for large-scale applications. However, low capacity and poor rate capability of existing anodes are the main bottlenecks to future developments. Here we report a uniform coating of antimony sulphide (stibnite) on graphene, fabricated by a solution-based synthesis technique, as the anode material for sodium-ion batteries. It gives a high capacity of 730 mAh g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1), an excellent rate capability up to 6C and a good cycle performance. The promising performance is attributed to fast sodium ion diffusion from the small nanoparticles, and good electrical transport from the intimate contact between the active material and graphene, which also provides a template for anchoring the nanoparticles. We also demonstrate a battery with the stibnite-graphene composite that is free from sodium metal, having energy density up to 80 Wh kg(-1). The energy density could exceed that of some lithium-ion batteries with further optimization. PMID:24322450

  14. Porous mesocarbon microbeads with graphitic shells: constructing a high-rate, high-capacity cathode for hybrid supercapacitor

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yu; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Yang, Ying; Shen, Wanci; Zheng, Yongping; Sun, Hongyu; Kang, Feiyu

    2013-01-01

    Li4Ti5O12/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor can combine the advantages of both lithium-ion battery and supercapacitor, which may meet the requirements for developing high-performance hybrid electric vehicles. Here we proposed a novel “core-shell” porous graphitic carbon (PGC) to replace conventional activated carbon for achieving excellent cell performance. In this PGC structure made from mesocarbon microbead (MCMB), the inner core is composed of porous amorphous carbon, while the outer shell is graphitic carbon. The abundant porosity and the high surface area not only offer sufficient reaction sites to store electrical charge physically, but also can accelerate the liquid electrolyte to penetrate the electrode and the ions to reach the reacting sites. Meanwhile, the outer graphitic shells of the porous carbon microbeads contribute to a conductive network which will remarkably facilitate the electron transportation, and thus can be used to construct a high-rate, high-capacity cathode for hybrid supercapacitor, especially at high current densities. PMID:23963328

  15. Multimode intelligent data compressor/decompressor (MICE) optimized for speed and storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliavin, Michael A.; D'Adderio, Leo; Aye, Tin M.; Jannson, Joanna L.

    2002-12-01

    Proliferation of high speed, low cost computing systems has caused an explosion of data, leading to the need for higher and higher capacity storage systems and faster data transmission. The field of nuclear physics has felt this need acutely because data can be acquired at >100 Mbps, the data accumulated by a single collider can exceed hundreds of petabytes. Although much effort has gone into improving data storage, all approaches are severely limited by slow processing, high capacity memory requirements, and compression of heterogeneous data. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) has developed a preliminary prototype Multimode Intelligent Compression Engine (MICE) that overcomes many of the limitations of lossless data compression techniques for large scale data storage, retrieval, and processing. The MICE approach combines novel software/hardware. The key MICE innovation is a unique fuzzy logic artificial intelligence preprocessor that examines the incoming data in sections, on the fly, and applies optimum compression to each section. No a priori information is required about the data. The unique MICE hardware is based on POC's high speed, highly parallel processing technology. The hardware is compact and economical, and enables the system to compress data in real time.

  16. Trace H2 O2 -Assisted High-Capacity Tungsten Oxide Electrochromic Batteries with Ultrafast Charging in Seconds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinxiong; Tian, Yuyu; Wang, Zhen; Cong, Shan; Zhou, Di; Zhang, Qingzhu; Yang, Mei; Zhang, Weikun; Geng, Fengxia; Zhao, Zhigang

    2016-06-13

    A recent technological trend in the field of electrochemical energy storage is to integrate energy storage and electrochromism functions in one smart device, which can establish efficient user-device interactions based on a friendly human-readable output. This type of newly born energy storage technology has drawn tremendous attention. However, there is still plenty of room for technological and material innovation, which would allow advancement of the research field. A prototype Al-tungsten oxide electrochromic battery with interactive color-changing behavior is reported. With the assistance of trace amount of H2 O2 , the battery exhibits a specific capacity almost seven times that for the reported electrochromic batteries, up to 429 mAh g(-1) . Fast decoloration of the reduced tungsten oxide affords a very quick charging time of only eight seconds, which possibly comes from an intricate combination of structure and valence state changes of tungsten oxide. This unique combination of features may further advance the development of smart energy storage devices with suitability for user-device interactions.

  17. Trace H2 O2 -Assisted High-Capacity Tungsten Oxide Electrochromic Batteries with Ultrafast Charging in Seconds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinxiong; Tian, Yuyu; Wang, Zhen; Cong, Shan; Zhou, Di; Zhang, Qingzhu; Yang, Mei; Zhang, Weikun; Geng, Fengxia; Zhao, Zhigang

    2016-06-13

    A recent technological trend in the field of electrochemical energy storage is to integrate energy storage and electrochromism functions in one smart device, which can establish efficient user-device interactions based on a friendly human-readable output. This type of newly born energy storage technology has drawn tremendous attention. However, there is still plenty of room for technological and material innovation, which would allow advancement of the research field. A prototype Al-tungsten oxide electrochromic battery with interactive color-changing behavior is reported. With the assistance of trace amount of H2 O2 , the battery exhibits a specific capacity almost seven times that for the reported electrochromic batteries, up to 429 mAh g(-1) . Fast decoloration of the reduced tungsten oxide affords a very quick charging time of only eight seconds, which possibly comes from an intricate combination of structure and valence state changes of tungsten oxide. This unique combination of features may further advance the development of smart energy storage devices with suitability for user-device interactions. PMID:27159245

  18. High-capacity lithium-ion battery conversion cathodes based on iron fluoride nanowires and insights into the conversion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Linsen; Meng, Fei; Jin, Song

    2012-11-14

    The increasing demands from large-scale energy applications call for the development of lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode materials with high energy density. Earth abundant conversion cathode material iron trifluoride (FeF(3)) has a high theoretical capacity (712 mAh g(-1)) and the potential to double the energy density of the current cathode material based on lithium cobalt oxide. Such promise has not been fulfilled due to the nonoptimal material properties and poor kinetics of the electrochemical conversion reactions. Here, we report for the first time a high-capacity LIB cathode that is based on networks of FeF(3) nanowires (NWs) made via an inexpensive and scalable synthesis. The FeF(3) NW cathode yielded a discharge capacity as high as 543 mAh g(-1) at the first cycle and retained a capacity of 223 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles at room temperature under the current of 50 mA g(-1). Moreover, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of continuous networks of Fe in the lithiated FeF(3) NWs after discharging, which is likely an important factor for the observed improved electrochemical performance. The loss of active material (FeF(3)) caused by the increasingly ineffective reconversion process during charging was found to be a major factor responsible for the capacity loss upon cycling. With the advantages of low cost, large quantity, and ease of processing, these FeF(3) NWs are not only promising battery cathode materials but also provide a convenient platform for fundamental studies and further improving conversion cathodes in general.

  19. Y-doped Li8ZrO6: A Li-Ion Battery Cathode Material with High Capacity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuping; Wilson, Benjamin E; Wang, Bo; Fang, Yuan; Buffington, Keegan; Stein, Andreas; Truhlar, Donald G

    2015-09-01

    We study--experimentally and theoretically--the energetics, structural changes, and charge flows during the charging and discharging processes for a new high-capacity cathode material, Li8ZrO6 (LZO), which we study both pure and yttrium-doped. We quantum mechanically calculated the stable delithiated configurations, the delithiation energy, the charge flow during delithiation, and the stability of the delithiated materials. We find that Li atoms are easier to extract from tetrahedral sites than octahedral ones. We calculate a large average voltage of 4.04 eV vs Li/Li(+) for delithiation of the first Li atom in a primitive cell, which is confirmed by galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling data. Energy calculations indicate that topotactic delithiation is kinetically favored over decomposition into Li, ZrO2, and O2 during the charging process, although the thermodynamic energy of the topotactic reaction is less favorable. When one or two lithium atoms are extracted from a primitive cell of LZO, its volume and structure change little, whereas extraction of the third lithium greatly distorts the layered structure. The Li6ZrO6 and Li5ZrO6 delithiation products can be thermodynamically metastable to release of O2. Experimentally, materials with sufficiently small particle size for efficient delithiation and relithiation were achieved within an yttrium-doped LZO/carbon composite cathode that exhibited an initial discharge capacity of at least 200 mAh/g over the first 10 cycles, with 142 mAh/g maintained after 60 cycles. Computations predict that during the charging process, the oxygen ion near the Li vacancy is oxidized for both pure LZO and yttrium-doped LZO, which leads to a small-polaron hole. PMID:26264394

  20. Fetal muscle gene transfer is not enhanced by an RGD capsid modification to high-capacity adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, R; Reay, D P; Hughes, T; Biermann, V; Volpers, C; Goldberg, L; Bergelson, J; Kochanek, S; Clemens, P R

    2003-10-01

    High levels of alpha(v) integrin expression by fetal muscle suggested that vector re-targeting to integrins could enhance adenoviral vector-mediated transduction, thereby increasing safety and efficacy of muscle gene transfer in utero. High-capacity adenoviral (HC-Ad) vectors modified by an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide motif in the HI loop of the adenoviral fiber (RGD-HC-Ad) have demonstrated efficient gene transfer through binding to alpha(v) integrins. To test integrin targeting of HC-Ad vectors for fetal muscle gene transfer, we compared unmodified and RGD-modified HC-Ad vectors. In vivo, unmodified HC-Ad vector transduced fetal mouse muscle with four-fold higher efficiency compared to RGD-HC-Ad vector. Confirming that the difference was due to muscle cell autonomous factors and not mechanical barriers, transduction of primary myogenic cells isolated from murine fetal muscle in vitro demonstrated a three-fold better transduction by HC-Ad vector than by RGD-HC-Ad vector. We hypothesized that the high expression level of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), demonstrated in fetal muscle cells both in vitro and in vivo, was the crucial variable influencing the relative transduction efficiencies of HC-Ad and RGD-HC-Ad vectors. To explore this further, we studied transduction by HC-Ad and RGD-HC-Ad vectors in paired cell lines that expressed alpha(v) integrins and differed only by the presence or absence of CAR expression. The results increase our understanding of factors that will be important for retargeting HC-Ad vectors to enhance gene transfer to fetal muscle.

  1. Manganese hexacyanomanganate open framework as a high-capacity positive electrode material for sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Wang, Richard Y; Pasta, Mauro; Woo Lee, Seok; Liu, Nian; Cui, Yi

    2014-10-14

    Potential applications of sodium-ion batteries in grid-scale energy storage, portable electronics and electric vehicles have revitalized research interest in these batteries. However, the performance of sodium-ion electrode materials has not been competitive with that of lithium-ion electrode materials. Here we present sodium manganese hexacyanomanganate (Na2MnII[MnII(CN)6]), an open-framework crystal structure material, as a viable positive electrode for sodium-ion batteries. We demonstrate a high discharge capacity of 209 mAh g(-1) at C/5 (40 mA g(-1)) and excellent capacity retention at high rates in a propylene carbonate electrolyte. We provide chemical and structural evidence for the unprecedented storage of 50% more sodium cations than previously thought possible during electrochemical cycling. These results represent a step forward in the development of sodium-ion batteries.

  2. Morphologically robust NiFe2O4 nanofibers as high capacity Li-ion battery anode material.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Christie Thomas; Sundaramurthy, Jayaraman; Reddy, M V; Suresh Kumar, Palanisamy; Mani, Kalaivani; Pliszka, Damian; Sow, Chorng Haur; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Chowdari, B V R

    2013-10-23

    In this work, the electrochemical performance of NiFe2O4 nanofibers synthesized by an electrospinning approach have been discussed in detail. Lithium storage properties of nanofibers are evaluated and compared with NiFe2O4 nanoparticles by galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry studies, both in half-cell configurations. Nanofibers exhibit a higher charge-storage capacity of 1000 mAh g(-1) even after 100 cycles with high Coulmbic efficiency of 100% between 10 and 100 cycles. Ex situ microscopy studies confirmed that cycled nanofiber electrodes maintained the morphology and remained intact even after 100 charge-discharge cycles. The NiFe2O4 nanofiber electrode does not experience any structural stress and eventual pulverisation during lithium cycling and hence provides an efficient electron conducting pathway. The excellent electrochemical performance of NiFe2O4 nanofibers is due to the unique porous morphology of continuous nanofibers.

  3. High Density Methane Storage in Nanoporous Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Soo, Yuchoong; Maland, Brett; Doynov, Plamen; Lin, Yuyi; Pfeifer, Peter; Mriglobal Collaboration; All-Craft Team

    2014-03-01

    Development of low-pressure, high-capacity adsorbent based storage technology for natural gas (NG) as fuel for advanced transportation (flat-panel tank for NG vehicles) is necessary in order to address the temperature, pressure, weight, and volume constraints present in conventional storage methods (CNG & LNG.) Subcritical nitrogen adsorption experiments show that our nanoporous carbon hosts extended narrow channels which generate a high surface area and strong Van der Waals forces capable of increasing the density of NG into a high-density fluid. This improvement in storage density over compressed natural gas without an adsorbent occurs at ambient temperature and pressures ranging from 0-260 bar (3600 psi.) The temperature, pressure, and storage capacity of a 40 L flat-panel adsorbed NG tank filled with 20 kg of nanoporous carbon will be featured.

  4. Performance analysis of communication links based on VCSEL and silicon photonics technology for high-capacity data-intensive scenario.

    PubMed

    Boletti, A; Boffi, P; Martelli, P; Ferrario, M; Martinelli, M

    2015-01-26

    To face the increased demand for bandwidth, cost-effectiveness and simplicity of future Ethernet data communications, a comparison between two different solutions based on directly-modulated VCSEL sources and Silicon Photonics technologies is carried out. Also by exploiting 4-PAM modulation, the transmission of 50-Gb/s and beyond capacity per channel is analyzed by means of BER performance. Applications for optical backplane, very short reach and in case of client-optics networks and intra and inter massive data centers communications (up to 10 km) are taken into account. A comparative analysis based on the power consumption is also proposed.

  5. Theoretical and experimental aspects of optical storage of information via refreshing by inverse seeding in a photorefractive Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3 crystal (BCT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusevich, V.; Kiessling, A.; Kowarschik, R.

    2001-05-01

    We present a new experimental setup for the optical storage of information via refreshing by inverse seeding (OSIRIS), which allows a sixfold increase of the storage time of holograms in a Ba0.77Ca0.23TiO3 crystal (BCT). The setup consists of two four-wave mixing processes with common amplified signal waves and phase-conjugated (pc) waves. Temporal behaviours of the amplified and pc signal waves for the OSIRIS experiment as well as for the common four-wave mixing experiment are compared and discussed. The solutions of coupled equations under the depleted-pump approximation are obtained in order to estimate the pc reflectivities and coupling gains of gratings inside the crystal.

  6. Carbon-Rich Active Materials with Macrocyclic Nanochannels for High-Capacity Negative Electrodes in All-Solid-State Lithium Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sato, Sota; Unemoto, Atsushi; Ikeda, Takuji; Orimo, Shin-Ichi; Isobe, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    A high-capacity electrode active material with macrocyclic nanochannels is developed for a negative electrode of lithium batteries. With appropriate design of the molecular and crystal structures, a ubiquitous chemical commonly available in reagent stocks of any chemistry laboratories, naphthalene, was transformed into a high-performance electrode material for all-solid-state lithium batteries.

  7. Data storage technology comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1990-01-01

    The role of data storage and data storage technology is an integral, though conceptually often underestimated, portion of data processing technology. Data storage is important in the mass storage mode in which generated data is buffered for later use. But data storage technology is also important in the data flow mode when data are manipulated and hence required to flow between databases, datasets and processors. This latter mode is commonly associated with memory hierarchies which support computation. VLSI devices can reasonably be defined as electronic circuit devices such as channel and control electronics as well as highly integrated, solid-state devices that are fabricated using thin film deposition technology. VLSI devices in both capacities play an important role in data storage technology. In addition to random access memories (RAM), read-only memories (ROM), and other silicon-based variations such as PROM's, EPROM's, and EEPROM's, integrated devices find their way into a variety of memory technologies which offer significant performance advantages. These memory technologies include magnetic tape, magnetic disk, magneto-optic disk, and vertical Bloch line memory. In this paper, some comparison between selected technologies will be made to demonstrate why more than one memory technology exists today, based for example on access time and storage density at the active bit and system levels.

  8. Optical energy storage and reemission based weak localization of light and accompanying random lasing action in disordered Nd{sup 3+} doped (Pb, La)(Zr, Ti)O{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Long; Zhao, Hua; Xu, Caixia; Zhang, Siqi; Zhang, Jingwen

    2014-08-14

    Multi-mode random lasing action and weak localization of light were evidenced and studied in normally transparent but disordered Nd{sup 3+} doped (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} ceramics. Noticeable localized zone and multi-photon process were observed under strong pumping power. A tentative phenomenological physical picture was proposed by taking account of diffusive process, photo-induced scattering, and optical energy storage process as dominant factors in elucidating the weak localization of light observed. Both the decreased transmittance (increased reflectivity) of light and the observed long lasting fading-off phenomenon supported the physical picture proposed by us.

  9. Energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  10. Optical Addressing And Clocking Of RAM's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Alan R.; Nixon, Robert H.; Bergman, Larry A.; Esener, Sadik

    1989-01-01

    Proposed random-access-memory (RAM) addressing system, in which memory linked optically to read/write logic circuits, greatly increases computer operating speed. System - comprises addressing circuits including numerous lasers as signal sources, numerous optical gates including optical detectors associated with memory cells, and holographic element to direct light signals to desired memory-cell locations - applied to high-capacity digital systems, supercomputers, and complex microcircuits.

  11. A high-capacity and long-life aqueous rechargeable zinc battery using a metal oxide intercalation cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Dipan; Adams, Brian D.; Duffort, Victor; Vajargah, Shahrzad Hosseini; Nazar, Linda F.

    2016-10-01

    Although non-aqueous Li-ion batteries possess significantly higher energy density than their aqueous counterparts, the latter can be more feasible for grid-scale applications when cost, safety and cycle life are taken into consideration. Moreover, aqueous Zn-ion batteries have an energy storage advantage over alkali-based batteries as they can employ Zn metal as the negative electrode, dramatically increasing energy density. However, their development is plagued by a limited choice of positive electrodes, which often show poor rate capability and inadequate cycle life. Here we report a vanadium oxide bronze pillared by interlayer Zn2+ ions and water (Zn0.25V2O5.nH2O), as the positive electrode for a Zn cell. A reversible Zn2+ ion (de)intercalation storage process at fast rates, with more than one Zn2+ per formula unit (a capacity up to 300 mAh g‑1), is characterized. The Zn cell offers an energy density of ∼450 Wh l‑1 and exhibits a capacity retention of more than 80% over 1,000 cycles, with no dendrite formation at the Zn electrode.

  12. Volume server: A scalable high speed and high capacity magnetic tape archive architecture with concurrent multi-host access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybczynski, Fred

    1993-01-01

    A major challenge facing data processing centers today is data management. This includes the storage of large volumes of data and access to it. Current media storage for large data volumes is typically off line and frequently off site in warehouses. Access to data archived in this fashion can be subject to long delays, errors in media selection and retrieval, and even loss of data through misplacement or damage to the media. Similarly, designers responsible for architecting systems capable of continuous high-speed recording of large volumes of digital data are faced with the challenge of identifying technologies and configurations that meet their requirements. Past approaches have tended to evaluate the combination of the fastest tape recorders with the highest capacity tape media and then to compromise technology selection as a consequence of cost. This paper discusses an architecture that addresses both of these challenges and proposes a cost effective solution based on robots, high speed helical scan tape drives, and large-capacity media.

  13. Two dimensional layered Co0.85Se nanosheets as a high-capacity anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jisheng; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Tupei; Song, Huaihe; Yang, Hui Ying

    2016-08-11

    In recent years, two-dimensional (2D) layered transitional metal chalcogenides (TMCs) have received much attention as promising electrode materials in energy storage. Although recent reports on 2D TMC nanostructures have demonstrated promising electrochemical performances, the major scientific challenge is to develop a viable synthesis process to produce layered structures of chalcogenides (Co, Ni or Fe based TMCs) as anode materials. In this work, we propose the synthesis of layered Co0.85Se nanosheets in a solution based method by using a 2D oriented attachment strategy. The as-prepared Co0.85Se nanosheets exhibit specific capacities as high as 675 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1). When the current densities were further increased to 200, 500 and 1000 mA g(-1), the reversible capacities can still reach up to 645, 574 and 493 mA h g(-1) with excellent cycling life of 95, 85 and 73%, respectively. Li-ion storage performance of layered Co0.85Se nanosheets is higher than that of Co0.85Se microspheres as well as cobalt sulfide. The superior electrochemical performance of Co0.85Se nanosheets is attributed to their 2D layered structure which enhances electrical conductivity and improves diffusion pathways of the Li-ion within the host material. The synthesis method described in this work serves as a general route for the design and preparation of other 2D layered TMCs. PMID:27471135

  14. Energy storage and thermal control system design status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Stephen N.; Willhoite, Bryan C.; Vanommering, Gert

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) will initially rely on photovoltaics for power generation and Ni/H2 batteries for electrical energy storage. The current design for and the development status of two major subsystems in the PV Power Module is discussed. The energy storage subsystem comprised of high capacity Ni/H2 batteries and the single-phase thermal control system that rejects the excess heat generated by the batteries and other components associated with power generation and storage is described.

  15. Balloon-borne video cassette recorders for digital data storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Althouse, W. E.; Cook, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A high-speed, high-capacity digital data storage system has been developed for a new balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope. The system incorporates sophisticated, yet easy to use and economical consumer products: the portable video cassette recorder (VCR) and a relatively newer item - the digital audio processor. The in-flight recording system employs eight VCRs and will provide a continuous data storage rate of 1.4 megabits/sec throughout a 40 hour balloon flight. Data storage capacity is 25 gigabytes and power consumption is only 10 watts.

  16. Balloon-borne video cassette recorders for digital data storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Althouse, W. E.; Cook, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    A high speed, high capacity digital data storage system was developed for a new balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope. The system incorporates economical consumer products: the portable video cassette recorder (VCR) and a relatively newer item - the digital audio processor. The in-flight recording system employs eight VCRs and will provide a continuous data storage rate of 1.4 megabits/sec throughout a 40 hour balloon flight. Data storage capacity is 25 gigabytes and power consumption is only 10 watts.

  17. A lithium-sulfur cathode with high sulfur loading and high capacity per area: a binder-free carbon fiber cloth-sulfur material.

    PubMed

    Miao, Lixiao; Wang, Weikun; Yuan, Keguo; Yang, Yusheng; Wang, Anbang

    2014-11-11

    A sulfur cathode with high capacity per area (>7 mA h cm(-2)) and high sulfur loading (6.7 mg cm(-2)) was fabricated by synthesizing a carbon fiber cloth-sulfur composite via a simple method. It is worth noting that an ingenious method is adopted which can improve the performance of Li-S batteries by forming in situ polysulfide ions.

  18. Summary of efficiency testing of standard and high-capacity high-efficiency particulate air filters subjected to simulated tornado depressurization and explosive shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.R.; Gregory, W.S.

    1985-04-01

    Pressure transients in nuclear facility air cleaning systems can originate from natural phenomena such as tornadoes or from accident-induced explosive blast waves. This study was concerned with the effective efficiency of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters during pressure surges resulting from simulated tornado and explosion transients. The primary objective of the study was to examine filter efficiencies at pressure levels below the point of structural failure. Both standard and high-capacity 0.61-m by 0.61-m HEPA filters were evaluated, as were several 0.2-m by 0.2-m HEPA filters. For a particular manufacturer, the material release when subjected to tornado transients is the same (per unit area) for both the 0.2-m by 0.2-m and the 0.61-m by 0.61-m filters. For tornado transients, the material release was on the order of micrograms per square meter. When subjecting clean HEPA filters to simulated tornado transients with aerosol entrained in the pressure pulse, all filters tested showed a degradation of filter efficiency. For explosive transients, the material release from preloaded high-capacity filters was as much as 340 g. When preloaded high-capacity filters were subjected to shock waves approximately 50% of the structural limit level, 1 to 2 mg of particulate was released.

  19. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-08-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  20. Borophene as an extremely high capacity electrode material for Li-ion and Na-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Hu, Junping; Cheng, Yingchun; Yang, Hui Ying; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A

    2016-08-18

    "Two-dimensional (2D) materials as electrodes" is believed to be the trend for future Li-ion and Na-ion battery technologies. Here, by using first-principles methods, we predict that the recently reported borophene (2D boron sheets) can serve as an ideal electrode material with high electrochemical performance for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The calculations are performed on two experimentally stable borophene structures, namely β12 and χ3 structures. The optimized Li and Na adsorption sites are identified, and the host materials are found to maintain good electric conductivity before and after adsorption. Besides advantages including small diffusion barriers and low average open-circuit voltages, most remarkably, the storage capacity can be as high as 1984 mA h g(-1) in β12 borophene and 1240 mA h g(-1) in χ3 borophene for both Li and Na, which are several times higher than the commercial graphite electrode and are the highest among all the 2D materials discovered to date. Our results highly support that borophenes can be appealing anode materials for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries with extremely high power density. PMID:27502997

  1. A novel high capacity positive electrode material with tunnel-type structure for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Yuesheng; Mu, Linqin; Liu, Jue; Yang, Zhenzhong; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong -Sheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Chen, Liquan; et al

    2015-08-06

    In this study, aqueous sodium-ion batteries have shown desired properties of high safety characteristics and low-cost for large-scale energy storage applications such as smart grid, because of the abundant sodium resources as well as the inherently safer aqueous electrolytes. Among various Na insertion electrode materials, tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 has been widely investigated as a positive electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. However, the low achievable capacity hinders its practical applications. Here we report a novel sodium rich tunnel-type positive material with a nominal composition of Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2. The tunnel-type structure of Na0.44MnO2 obtained for this compound was confirmed by XRD and atomic-scale STEM/EELS.more » When cycled as positive electrode in full cells using NaTi2(PO4)3/C as negative electrode in 1M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, this material shows the highest capacity of 76 mAh g-1 among the Na insertion oxides with an average operating voltage of 1.2 V at a current rate of 2C. These results demonstrate that Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2 is a promising positive electrode material for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries.« less

  2. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  3. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of "closed" pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  4. Conception of PIPERADE: A high-capacity Penning-trap mass separator for high isobaric contamination at DESIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minaya Ramirez, E.; Alfaurt, P.; Aouadi, M.; Ascher, P.; Blank, B.; Blaum, K.; Cam, J.-F.; Chauveau, P.; Daudin, L.; Delahaye, P.; Delalee, F.; Dupré, P.; El Abbeir, S.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Guérin, H.; Lunney, D.; Metz, F.; Naimi, S.; Perrot, L.; de Roubin, A.; Serani, L.; Thomas, B.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2016-06-01

    The DESIR (decay, excitation and storage of radioactive ions) facility at GANIL-SPIRAL2 will receive a large variety of exotic nuclei at low energy (up to 60 keV) with high intensities. However, the production methods of radioactive beams are non selective, limiting the purity of the beams of interest. Moreover, the high precision needed for nuclear structure and astrophysics studies using beta decay spectroscopy, laser spectroscopy and trap-based experiments at DESIR requires highly pure samples of exotic nuclei. The aim of the double-Pennig-trap mass separator PIPERADE is to deliver large and very pure samples of exotic nuclei to the different experiments in DESIR. New excitation schemes and a large inner diameter of the first trap will mitigate space charge effects to attempt trapping of up to 105 ions per pulse. The purification cycle will be performed in a few milliseconds so that short-lived nuclei can be purified. To extract the nuclides of interest from the large amount of isobaric contaminants, a resolving power of 105 is mandatory. Afterwards the ions of interest will be accumulated in the second trap until they constitute a sufficiently pure sample for the measurements. The status of the project is presented.

  5. Holographic content addressable storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Lu, Thomas; Reyes, George

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a Holographic Content Addressable Storage (HCAS) architecture. The HCAS systems consists of a DMD (Digital Micromirror Array) as the input Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), a CMOS (Complementary Metal-oxide Semiconductor) sensor as the output photodetector and a photorefractive crystal as the recording media. The HCAS system is capable of performing optical correlation of an input image/feature against massive reference data set stored in the holographic memory. Detailed system analysis will be reported in this paper.

  6. DNA-LCEB: a high-capacity and mutation-resistant DNA data-hiding approach by employing encryption, error correcting codes, and hybrid twofold and fourfold codon-based strategy for synonymous substitution in amino acids.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Ibbad; Khan, Asifullah; Qadir, Abdul

    2014-11-01

    Data-hiding in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences can be used to develop an organic memory and to track parent genes in an offspring as well as in genetically modified organism. However, the main concerns regarding data-hiding in DNA sequences are the survival of organism and successful extraction of watermark from DNA. This implies that the organism should live and reproduce without any functional disorder even in the presence of the embedded data. Consequently, performing synonymous substitution in amino acids for watermarking becomes a primary option. In this regard, a hybrid watermark embedding strategy that employs synonymous substitution in both twofold and fourfold codons of amino acids is proposed. This work thus presents a high-capacity and mutation-resistant watermarking technique, DNA-LCEB, for hiding secret information in DNA of living organisms. By employing the different types of synonymous codons of amino acids, the data storage capacity has been significantly increased. It is further observed that the proposed DNA-LCEB employing a combination of synonymous substitution, lossless compression, encryption, and Bose-Chaudary-Hocquenghem coding is secure and performs better in terms of both capacity and robustness compared to existing DNA data-hiding schemes. The proposed DNA-LCEB is tested against different mutations, including silent, miss-sense, and non-sense mutations, and provides substantial improvement in terms of mutation detection/correction rate and bits per nucleotide. A web application for DNA-LCEB is available at http://111.68.99.218/DNA-LCEB.

  7. Potentials and challenges of using orbital angular momentum communications in optical interconnects.

    PubMed

    Yu, Siyuan

    2015-02-01

    Ultra-short- and short-reach optical interconnects are the new high growth applications for optical communications. High capacity density, high spectral efficiency, low cost, low power consumption, and fast configurability are some of the key requirements for potential optical transmission technology candidates. Based on recent progress in orbital angular momentum multiplexed optical transmission and optical device technologies, this paper discusses the potentials and challenges of using orbital angular momentum multiplexing in optical interconnect applications scenarios to meet above requirements.

  8. Thermal energy storage and transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausz, W.

    1980-01-01

    The extraction of thermal energy from large LWR and coal fired plants for long distance transport to industrial and residential/commercial users is analyzed. Transport of thermal energy as high temperature water is shown to be considerably cheaper than transport as steam, hot oil, or molten salt over a wide temperature range. The delivered heat is competitive with user-generated heat from oil, coal, or electrode boilers at distances well over 50 km when the pipeline operates at high capacity factor. Results indicate that thermal energy storage makes meeting of even very low capacity factor heat demands economic and feasible and gives the utility flexibility to meet coincident electricity and heat demands effectively.

  9. A novel high capacity positive electrode material with tunnel-type structure for aqueous sodium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuesheng; Mu, Linqin; Liu, Jue; Yang, Zhenzhong; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong -Sheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Chen, Liquan; Huang, Xuejie

    2015-08-06

    In this study, aqueous sodium-ion batteries have shown desired properties of high safety characteristics and low-cost for large-scale energy storage applications such as smart grid, because of the abundant sodium resources as well as the inherently safer aqueous electrolytes. Among various Na insertion electrode materials, tunnel-type Na0.44MnO2 has been widely investigated as a positive electrode for aqueous sodium-ion batteries. However, the low achievable capacity hinders its practical applications. Here we report a novel sodium rich tunnel-type positive material with a nominal composition of Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2. The tunnel-type structure of Na0.44MnO2 obtained for this compound was confirmed by XRD and atomic-scale STEM/EELS. When cycled as positive electrode in full cells using NaTi2(PO4)3/C as negative electrode in 1M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte, this material shows the highest capacity of 76 mAh g-1 among the Na insertion oxides with an average operating voltage of 1.2 V at a current rate of 2C. These results demonstrate that Na0.66[Mn0.66Ti0.34]O2 is a promising positive electrode material for rechargeable aqueous sodium-ion batteries.

  10. Research Studies on Advanced Optical Module/Head Designs for Optical Disk Recording Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, James J.; Seery, Bernard D.

    1993-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Optical Data Storage Center of the University of Arizona is presented. Summary reports on continuing projects are presented. Research areas include: magneto-optic media, optical heads, and signal processing.

  11. The role of activator concentration and precipitate formation on optical and dosimetric properties of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} storage phosphor detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hansel, Rachael A.; Xiao, Zhiyan; Hu, Yanle; Green, Olga; Yang, Deshan; Harold Li, H.

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: The activator ion (Eu{sup 2+} in KCl:Eu{sup 2+}) plays an important role in the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) mechanism of storage phosphor radiation detectors. In order to design an accurate, effective, and robust detector, it is important to understand how the activator ion concentration affects the structure and, consequently, radiation detection properties of KCl:Eu{sup 2+}.Methods: Potassium chloride pellets were fabricated with various amounts of europium dopant (0.01–5.0 mol.% Eu{sup 2+}). Clinical radiation doses were given with a 6 MV linear accelerator. Radiation doses larger than 100 Gy were given with a {sup 137}Cs irradiator. Dose response curves, radiation hardness, and temporal signal stability were measured using a laboratory PSL readout system. The crystal structure of the material was studied using x ray diffraction and luminescence spectroscopy.Results: The most intense PSL signal was from samples with 1.0 mol.% Eu. However, samples with concentrations higher than 0.05 mol.% Eu exhibited significant degradation in PSL intensity for cumulated doses larger than 3000 Gy. Structural and luminescence spectroscopy showed clear evidence of precipitate phases within the KCl lattice, especially for high activator concentrations. Analysis of PL emission spectra showed that interactions between Eu-V{sub c} dipoles and Eu-V{sub c} trimers could explain trends in PSL sensitivity and radiation hardness observations.Conclusions: The concentration of the activator ion (Eu{sup 2+}) significantly affects radiation detection properties of the storage phosphor KCl:Eu{sup 2+}. An activator concentration between 0.01 and 0.05 mol.% Eu in KCl:Eu{sup 2+} storage phosphor detectors is recommended for linear dose response, good PSL sensitivity, predictable temporal stability, and high reusability for megavoltage radiation detection.

  12. High-capacity electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries: Li3NbO4-based system with cation-disordered rocksalt structure

    PubMed Central

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Nakayama, Masanobu; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakayama, Keisuke; Ohta, Toshiaki; Endo, Daisuke; Ozaki, Tetsuya; Inamasu, Tokuo; Sato, Kei; Komaba, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have rapidly risen to prominence as fundamental devices for green and sustainable energy development. Lithium batteries are now used as power sources for electric vehicles. However, materials innovations are still needed to satisfy the growing demand for increasing energy density of lithium batteries. In the past decade, lithium-excess compounds, Li2MeO3 (Me = Mn4+, Ru4+, etc.), have been extensively studied as high-capacity positive electrode materials. Although the origin as the high reversible capacity has been a debatable subject for a long time, recently it has been confirmed that charge compensation is partly achieved by solid-state redox of nonmetal anions (i.e., oxide ions), coupled with solid-state redox of transition metals, which is the basic theory used for classic lithium insertion materials, such as LiMeO2 (Me = Co3+, Ni3+, etc.). Herein, as a compound with further excess lithium contents, a cation-ordered rocksalt phase with lithium and pentavalent niobium ions, Li3NbO4, is first examined as the host structure of a new series of high-capacity positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Approximately 300 mAh⋅g−1 of high-reversible capacity at 50 °C is experimentally observed, which partly originates from charge compensation by solid-state redox of oxide ions. It is proposed that such a charge compensation process by oxide ions is effectively stabilized by the presence of electrochemically inactive niobium ions. These results will contribute to the development of a new class of high-capacity electrode materials, potentially with further lithium enrichment (and fewer transition metals) in the close-packed framework structure with oxide ions. PMID:26056288

  13. High-capacity electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries: Li3NbO4-based system with cation-disordered rocksalt structure.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Nakayama, Masanobu; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Ogawa, Masahiro; Nakayama, Keisuke; Ohta, Toshiaki; Endo, Daisuke; Ozaki, Tetsuya; Inamasu, Tokuo; Sato, Kei; Komaba, Shinichi

    2015-06-23

    Rechargeable lithium batteries have rapidly risen to prominence as fundamental devices for green and sustainable energy development. Lithium batteries are now used as power sources for electric vehicles. However, materials innovations are still needed to satisfy the growing demand for increasing energy density of lithium batteries. In the past decade, lithium-excess compounds, Li2MeO3 (Me = Mn(4+), Ru(4+), etc.), have been extensively studied as high-capacity positive electrode materials. Although the origin as the high reversible capacity has been a debatable subject for a long time, recently it has been confirmed that charge compensation is partly achieved by solid-state redox of nonmetal anions (i.e., oxide ions), coupled with solid-state redox of transition metals, which is the basic theory used for classic lithium insertion materials, such as LiMeO2 (Me = Co(3+), Ni(3+), etc.). Herein, as a compound with further excess lithium contents, a cation-ordered rocksalt phase with lithium and pentavalent niobium ions, Li3NbO4, is first examined as the host structure of a new series of high-capacity positive electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries. Approximately 300 mAh ⋅ g(-1) of high-reversible capacity at 50 °C is experimentally observed, which partly originates from charge compensation by solid-state redox of oxide ions. It is proposed that such a charge compensation process by oxide ions is effectively stabilized by the presence of electrochemically inactive niobium ions. These results will contribute to the development of a new class of high-capacity electrode materials, potentially with further lithium enrichment (and fewer transition metals) in the close-packed framework structure with oxide ions. PMID:26056288

  14. Diabrotica flight in time and space as monitored with a high capacity trap placed in Zea mays fields of Illinois, USA.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Shaw, J T

    2006-01-01

    Monitoring of insects by trapping is one of the prime tools of field entomologists. The leaf beetle Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) is no exception. Since its numbers (and consequently its mass) in a field population can be enormous, tools must be adapted to hold this many insects for later counting, sexing, biomass determinations, and additional investigations to follow. Since counting the high numbers during the flight peak may not be feasible at all, weighing and extrapolating to numbers by the correlation factor 1g = 160 to 170 beetles of mixed female and male sex was the method of choice. Around the perimeter of a hybrid maize (Z. mays) field of 0.6 ha, 16 high capacity traps were established at elevations ranging from 0 to 2 m above ground level. Optimal trapping is possible between 0.5 to 2m which field entomologists intuitively knew from experience and tradition. Below and above that level, the number of beetles is not zero but significantly below the optimum. High capacity traps can be left in the field with one loading of lure for four to seven days. Lures were the D. v. virgifera beetle sex pheromone 8-methyl-decane-2-ol propanoate (0.1 mg, collecting mainly male beetles) and the plant kairomone 4-methoxy-trans-cinnamaldehyde (10 mg, collecting both male and female beetles). The specific kairomone action (being much weaker than the pheromone) can be increased by simultaneously offering a feeding arrestant powder (e.g. prepared from ground Cucurbita texana or C. okeechobeensis) which keeps the beetles attracted by the kairomone lure close to the trapping site. There they can be immobilized and knocked down by a tiny source of carbaryl or dichlorvos fixed inside or at the surface of a plastic pellet or sheet. The high capacity traps are commercially available and can be reused for several flight seasons.

  15. The Optical Disc Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbreath, Jeremy

    1993-01-01

    Provides an update on optical disk technology as a means of digital media storage and explains why it may become a standard storage technology for telemedia technology. Topics discussed include read-only formats; write-once formats, including WORM and CD-WORM; rewritable formats; videodiscs; and future possibilities. (LRW)

  16. Compact flocculation system with sludge and separators and thickeners at the Langenau Waterworks. Development and construction of a high-capacity flocculation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, G.

    1983-04-01

    A high-capacity flocculation method for processing river water into high grade drinking water is presented. Each step of the flocculation process is related to an exactly measured reaction space fitted with an agitator with adjustable speed. The sludge blanket is separated by lamellar separators. The two-way compact flocculation system ensures optimum purification even of extremely impure untreated water, with a flow-through time of 20 min. The amount of solids in the effluent is 0,5 ppm. The possibility of operating the former flocculation systems as bioreactors allows two stage biological NH4 elimination, and thus chlorine-free treatment even during cold months.

  17. Recent Advances in Photonic Devices for Optical Computing and the Role of Nonlinear Optics-Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Frazier, Donald O.; Witherow, William K.; Banks, Curtis E.; Paley, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    The twentieth century has been the era of semiconductor materials and electronic technology while this millennium is expected to be the age of photonic materials and all-optical technology. Optical technology has led to countless optical devices that have become indispensable in our daily lives in storage area networks, parallel processing, optical switches, all-optical data networks, holographic storage devices, and biometric devices at airports. This chapters intends to bring some awareness to the state-of-the-art of optical technologies, which have potential for optical computing and demonstrate the role of nonlinear optics in many of these components. Our intent, in this Chapter, is to present an overview of the current status of optical computing, and a brief evaluation of the recent advances and performance of the following key components necessary to build an optical computing system: all-optical logic gates, adders, optical processors, optical storage, holographic storage, optical interconnects, spatial light modulators and optical materials.

  18. Research studies on advanced optical module/head designs for optical devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, James J.

    1991-01-01

    A summary is presented of research in optical data storage materials and of research at the center. The first section contains summary reports under the general headings of: (1) Magnetooptic media: modeling, design, fabrication, characterization, and testing; (2) Optical heads: holographic optical elements; and (3) Optical heads: integrated optics. The second section consist of a proposal entitled, Signal Processing Techniques for Optical Data Storage. And section three presents various publications prepared by the center.

  19. NaBH4 in "Graphene Wrapper:" Significantly Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity and Regenerability through Nanoencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Chong, Lina; Zeng, Xiaoqin; Ding, Wenjiang; Liu, Di-Jia; Zou, Jianxin

    2015-09-01

    A new high-capacity reversible hydrogen-storage material synthesized by the encapsulation of NaBH4 nanoparticles in graphene is reported. This approach effectively prevents phase agglomeration or separation during successive H2 discharge/recharge processes and enables rapid H2 uptake and release in NaBH4 under mild conditions. The strategy advanced here paves a new way for application in energy generation and storage.

  20. Cathodochromic storage device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosomworth, D. R.; Moles, W. H.

    1969-01-01

    A memory and display device has been developed by combing a fast phosphor layer with a cathodochromic layer in a cathode ray tube. Images are stored as patterns of electron beam induced optical density in the cathodo-chromic material. The stored information is recovered by exciting the backing, fast phosphor layer with a constant current electron beam and detecting the emitted radiation which is modulated by absorption in the cathodochromic layer. The storage can be accomplished in one or more TV frames (1/30 sec each). More than 500 TV line resolution and close to 2:1 contrast ratio are possible. The information storage time in a dark environment is approximately 24 hours. A reconstituted (readout) electronic video signal can be generated continuously for times in excess of 10 minutes or periodically for several hours.

  1. First principles study of hydrogen storage material NaBH4 and LiAlH4 compounds: electronic structure and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghellab, T.; Charifi, Z.; Baaziz, H.; Uğur, Ş.; Uğur, G.; Soyalp, F.

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive study of structure, phase stability, optical and electronic properties of LiAlH4 and NaBH4 light-metal hydrides is presented. The calculations are carried out within density functional theory using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method. The exchange-correlation potential is treated within the local density approximation and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to calculate the total energy. Furthermore, the Engel-Vosko GGA approach is employed to compute electronic and optical properties such as reflectivity spectra. The phases α, β and γ of LiAlH4 and NaBH4 hydrides are investigated, the phase transition from the β to the high-pressure γ phase is determined for NaBH4 and is accompanied by a 1% volume decrease. For LiAlH4, no phase transition is detected. The materials under consideration are classified as wide band gap compounds. From the analysis of the structures at different phases, it is deduced that the hydrides show strong covalent interaction between B (Al) and H in the [BH4]- ([AlH4]-) anions and ionic bonding character between [BH4]- and Na+ for NaBH4, and [AlH4]- and Li+ for LiAlH4. The complex dielectric function, absorption coefficient and the reflectivity spectra are also computed and analyzed in different phases.

  2. Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Mukundan, Rangachary

    2014-09-30

    Energy storage technology is critical if the U.S. is to achieve more than 25% penetration of renewable electrical energy, given the intermittency of wind and solar. Energy density is a critical parameter in the economic viability of any energy storage system with liquid fuels being 10 to 100 times better than batteries. However, the economical conversion of electricity to fuel still presents significant technical challenges. This project addressed these challenges by focusing on a specific approach: efficient processes to convert electricity, water and nitrogen to ammonia. Ammonia has many attributes that make it the ideal energy storage compound. The feed stocks are plentiful, ammonia is easily liquefied and routinely stored in large volumes in cheap containers, and it has exceptional energy density for grid scale electrical energy storage. Ammonia can be oxidized efficiently in fuel cells or advanced Carnot cycle engines yielding water and nitrogen as end products. Because of the high energy density and low reactivity of ammonia, the capital cost for grid storage will be lower than any other storage application. This project developed the theoretical foundations of N2 catalysis on specific catalysts and provided for the first time experimental evidence for activation of Mo 2N based catalysts. Theory also revealed that the N atom adsorbed in the bridging position between two metal atoms is the critical step for catalysis. Simple electrochemical ammonia production reactors were designed and built in this project using two novel electrolyte systems. The first one demonstrated the use of ionic liquid electrolytes at room temperature and the second the use of pyrophosphate based electrolytes at intermediate temperatures (200 – 300 ºC). The mechanism of high proton conduction in the pyrophosphate materials was found to be associated with a polyphosphate second phase contrary to literature claims and ammonia production rates as high as 5X 10

  3. Optical Recording Media Primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, Tom

    1987-01-01

    This presentation is intended to provide the listener with a general overview of the optical media market. It deals with the basic questions and concerns expressed by those who are about to become involved in optical storage. Areas touched upon include the various types of optical media available, their storage capacities, how they're made, how they are used, life expectancy of media, states of various standards efforts, current and projected pricing and availability, market trends, and growth projecting for the next five years.

  4. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires on HOPG as precursor of new carbon-based anode for high-capacity lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Angelucci, Marco; Frau, Eleonora; Betti, Maria Grazia; Mura, Francesco; Mariani, Carlo

    2014-06-19

    Iron Oxides nanostructures are very promising systems for new generation of anode material for Lithium-Ion batteries because of their high capacity associated to their surface area. A core-level photoemission study of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanowires deposited on highly-oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) under Li exposure is presented. The Fe-2p, Fe-3p, and Li-1s core-level lineshape evolution upon Li exposure in ultra-high-vacuum conditions clearly brings to light the Fe ion reduction from fully trivalent to prevalently divalent at saturation. Furthermore, the graphite substrate allows allocation of a large amount of Li ions surrounding the iron-oxide nanowires, opening a new scenario towards the use of graphene for improving the ionic charge exchange.

  5. A Biodegradable Polydopamine-Derived Electrode Material for High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Li, Zong-Jun; Wang, Heng-Guo; Bao, Di; Meng, Fan-Lu; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2016-08-26

    Polydopamine (PDA), which is biodegradable and is derived from naturally occurring products, can be employed as an electrode material, wherein controllable partial oxidization plays a key role in balancing the proportion of redox-active carbonyl groups and the structural stability and conductivity. Unexpectedly, the optimized PDA derivative endows lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) or sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) with superior electrochemical performances, including high capacities (1818 mAh g(-1) for LIBs and 500 mAh g(-1) for SIBs) and good stable cyclabilities (93 % capacity retention after 580 cycles for LIBs; 100 % capacity retention after 1024 cycles for SIBs), which are much better than those of their counterparts with conventional binders.

  6. Alternate high capacity heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, F. E.

    1986-01-01

    The performance predictions for a fifty foot heat pipe (4 foot evaporator - 46 foot condensor) are discussed. These performance predictions are supported by experimental data for a four foot heat pipe. Both heat pipes have evaporators with axial groove wick structures and condensers with powder metal external artery wick structures. The predicted performance of a rectangular axial groove/external artery heat pipe operating in space is given. Heat transport versus groove width is plotted for 100, 200 and 300 grooves in the evaporator. The curves show that maximum power is achieved for groove widths from 0.040 to 0.053 as the number of grooves varies from 300 to 100. The corresponding range of maximum power is 3150 to 2400 watts. The relationships between groove width and heat pipe evaporate diameter for 100, 200 and 300 grooves in the evaporator are given. A four foot heat pipe having a three foot condenser and one foot evaporator was built and tested. The evaporator wick structure used axial grooves with rectangular cross sections, and the condenser wick structure used powder metal with an external artery configuration. Fabrication drawings are enclosed. The predicted and measured performance for this heat pipe is shown. The agreement between predicted and measured performance is good and therefore substantiates the predicted performance for a fifty foot heat pipe.

  7. High capacity carbon dioxide sorbent

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Steven Dean; Alptekin, Gokhan; Jayaraman, Ambalavanan

    2015-09-01

    The present invention provides a sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a CO.sub.2 capacity of at least 9 weight percent when measured at 22.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; an H.sub.2O capacity of at most 15 weight percent when measured at 25.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere; and an isosteric heat of adsorption of from 5 to 8.5 kilocalories per mole of CO.sub.2. The invention also provides a carbon sorbent in a powder, a granular or a pellet form for the removal of carbon dioxide from gas streams, comprising: a carbon content of at least 90 weight percent; a nitrogen content of at least 1 weight percent; an oxygen content of at most 3 weight percent; a BET surface area from 50 to 2600 m.sup.2/g; and a DFT micropore volume from 0.04 to 0.8 cc/g.

  8. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Filburn, Thomas

    2007-10-30

    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  9. Nanotechnology for Data Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror; McCarthy, Brendan; Jabbour, Ghassan E.

    This chapter considers atomic force microscopy (AFM) as an enabling technology for data storage applications, considering already existing technologies such as hard disk drives (HDD), optical disk drives (ODD) and Flash Memories that currently dominate the nonvolatile data storage market, together with future devices based on magnetoresistive and phase change effects. The issue at hand is the question of whether the novel AFM-based storage, dubbed "Probe Storage", can offer a competing approach to the currently available technologies by playing the role of a disruptive technology. Probe Storage will be contrasted to HDD and ODD who are purely mechanical, as they are based on a rotating disk that uses just a single probe to address billions of bits of data, and nonvolatile RAM that has no moving parts yet requires billions of interconnects. In particular, capacity, areal density, transfer rate, form factor and cost of various data storage devices will be discussed and the unique opportunity offered by Probe Storage in employing massive parallelism will be outlined. It will be shown that Probe Storage bridges the gap between HDD, ODD and other nonvolatile RAM, drawing from the strength of each one of these and adding a significant attribute neither of these has; namely, the possibility of addressing a very large number of nanoscale bits of data in parallel. This chapter differs from the other chapters in this book in that it addresses the important issue of whether a given scientific effort, namely, Probe Storage, is mature enough to evolve into a commercially viable technology. The answer seems to indicate that there indeed is a huge niche in the data storage arena that such a technology is uniquely qualified to fill, which is large enough to justify a major investment in research and development. Indeed, as other chapters indicate, such an effort is developing at a rapid pace, with hopes of having a viable product within a few years.

  10. Nanotechnology for Data Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror; McCarthy, Brendan; Jabbour, Ghassan

    This chapter considers atomic force microscopy (AFM) as an enabling technology for data storage applications, considering already existing technologies such as hard disk drives (HDD), optical disk drives (ODD) and flash memories that currently dominate the nonvolatile data storage market, together with future devices based on magnetoresistive and phase change effects. The issue at hand is the question of whether the novel AFM-based storage, dubbed probe storage, can offer a competing approach to the currently available technologies by playing the role of a disruptive technology. Probe storage will be contrasted to HDD and ODD, which are purely mechanical as they are based on a rotating disk that uses just a single probe to address billions of bits of data, and nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) that has no moving parts yet requires billions of interconnects. In particular, capacity, areal density, transfer rate, form factor and the cost of various data storage devices will be discussed and the unique opportunity offered by probe storage in employing massive parallelism will be outlined. It will be shown that probe storage bridges the gap between HDD, ODD and other nonvolatile RAM, drawing from the strength of each one of these and adding a significant attribute neither of these has; namely, the possibility of addressing a very large number of nanoscale bits of data in parallel. This chapter differs from the other chapters in this book in that it addresses the important issue of whether a given scientific effort, namely, probe storage, is mature enough to evolve into a commercially viable technology. The answer seems to indicate that there is indeed a huge niche in the data storage arena that such a technology is uniquely qualified to fill, which is large enough to justify a major investment in research and development. Indeed, as other chapters indicate, such an effort is developing at a rapid pace, with hopes of having a viable product within a few years.

  11. Optical Circuit Switched Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.

  12. Lithium Batteries: Carbon-Rich Active Materials with Macrocyclic Nanochannels for High-Capacity Negative Electrodes in All-Solid-State Lithium Rechargeable Batteries (Small 25/2016).

    PubMed

    Sato, Sota; Unemoto, Atsushi; Ikeda, Takuji; Orimo, Shin-Ichi; Isobe, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    On page 3381, S. Sato, S. Orimo, H. Isobe, and co-workers present the first macrocyclic material to be utilized in negative electrodes of all-solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries. Assembled to align the molecular openings, the macrocycle paves paths for lithium to migrate to the π-stack intercalation sites for the storage. The macrocyclic nanochannel of a nanometer-scale diameter further provides extra spaces for the lithium storage to surpass conventional graphitic electrodes in the capacity.

  13. Diffractive optics: Design, fabrication, and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, G. Michael

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: features, applications, surface relief diffractive optics, optical data storage, waveguide lenses, diffractive lense imaging, phase grating synthesis, sub-wavelength structured surfaces, etc.

  14. Mass storage at NSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Michael F.

    1993-01-01

    The need to manage large amounts of data on robotically controlled devices has been critical to the mission of this Agency for many years. In many respects this Agency has helped pioneer, with their industry counterparts, the development of a number of products long before these systems became commercially available. Numerous attempts have been made to field both robotically controlled tape and optical disk technology and systems to satisfy our tertiary storage needs. Custom developed products were architected, designed, and developed without vendor partners over the past two decades to field workable systems to handle our ever increasing storage requirements. Many of the attendees of this symposium are familiar with some of the older products, such as: the Braegen Automated Tape Libraries (ATL's), the IBM 3850, the Ampex TeraStore, just to name a few. In addition, we embarked on an in-house development of a shared disk input/output support processor to manage our every increasing tape storage needs. For all intents and purposes, this system was a file server by current definitions which used CDC Cyber computers as the control processors. It served us well and was just recently removed from production usage.

  15. Lipid Storage Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Lipid Storage Diseases Information Page Condensed from Lipid Storage ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What are Lipid Storage Diseases? Lipid storage diseases are a group ...

  16. Planning for optical disk technology with digital cartography.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    A major shortfall that still exists in digital systems is the need for very large mass storage capacity. The decade of the 1980s has introduced laser optical disk storage technology, which may be the breakthrough needed for mass storage. This paper addresses system concepts for digital cartography during the transition period. Emphasis will be placed on determining USGS mass storage requirements and introducing laser optical disk technology for handling storage problems for digital data in this decade.-from Author

  17. Full-mesh optical backplane with standard MM fiber ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, M.; Coviello, D.; Boffi, P.; Martinelli, M.; Basile, V.; Fassi, I.; Falcucci, M.; Renghini, C.; Scalmati, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    A new optical backplane solution is proposed for high-capacity ICT apparatus. A modular, scalable and full-mesh bandwidth-upgradable optical interconnection between optoelectronic boards is guaranteed thanks to an optimized layout of standard MM 12-fiber ribbons which divides the overall backplane into several independent optical sub-circuits. The novel automated assembly procedure of fiber ribbons inside sub-circuits with a robotic work-cell is described. System validation of the optical backplane performed with commercially available MM 12-fiber transceivers @10Gb/s proved the feasibility of the proposed solution for future optical interconnections with terabit overall capacity.

  18. Multiwalled carbon nanotube@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposites: a high-capacity and long-life anode material for advanced lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanli; Yan, Dong; Xu, Huayun; Liu, Shuo; Yang, Jian; Qian, Yitai

    2015-02-01

    A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries.A one-dimensional MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite has been prepared via a facile solvothermal reaction followed by a calcination process. The amorphous carbon layer between Co9S8 and MWCNT acts as a linker to increase the loading of sulfides on MWCNT. When evaluated as anode materials for lithium ion batteries, the MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 nanocomposite shows the advantages of high capacity and long life, superior to Co9S8 nanoparticles and MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites. The reversible capacity could be retained at 662 mA h g-1 after 120 cycles at 1 A g-1. The efficient synthesis and excellent performances of this nanocomposite offer numerous opportunities for other sulfides as a new anode for lithium ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Infrared spectrogram (IR) of glucose treated MWCNT; TEM images of MWCNT@a-C treated by different concentrations of glucose; SEM and TEM images of the intermediate product obtained from the solvothermal reaction between thiourea and Co(Ac)2; EDS spectrum of MWCNT@a-C@Co9S8 composites; SEM and TEM images of MWCNT@Co9S8 nanocomposites obtained without the hydrothermal treatment by glucose; SEM and TEM images of Co9S8 nanoparticles; Galvanostatic discharge-charge profiles and cycling performance of MWCNT@a-C; TEM images

  19. Prelithiation Activates Li(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2 for High Capacity and Excellent Cycling Stability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Ji, Shunping; Zheng, Jiaxin; Hu, Zongxiang; Xiao, Shu; Wei, Yi; Zhuo, Zengqing; Lin, Yuan; Yang, Wanli; Xu, Kang; Amine, Khalil; Pan, Feng

    2015-08-12

    Transition metal oxide materials Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 (NMC) based on layered structures are expected to replace LiFePO4 in automotive Li-ion batteries because of their higher specific capacity and operating potential. However, the actual usable capacity is much lower than the promised theoretical value [Uchaker, E.; Cao, G. Nano Today 2014, 9, 499-524; Tarascon, J.-M.; Armand, M. Nature 2001, 414, 359-367], in addition to the often poor cycling performance and the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency, for which Mn(II)-dissolution, its immobilization in solid electrolyte interface (SEI), oxidation of electrolytes by Ni, and other parasitic process thereat have been held responsible [Zhan, C., et al. Nat. Commun. 2013, 4, 2437; Wang, L., et al. J. Solid State Electrochem. 2009, 13, 1157-1164; Lin, F., et al. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 4529]. Previously, we reported a composite Li(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2 (NMC532) depolarized by the embedded carbon nanotube (CNT) and achieved capacity close to the theoretical limit [Wu, Z., et al. Nano. Lett. 2014, 14, 4700-4706]; unfortunately, this high capacity failed to be maintained in long-term cycling due to the degrading contacts between the active ingredient and CNT network. On the basis of that NMC532/CNT composite, the present work proposes a unique "prelithiation process", which brought the cathode to low potentials before regular cycling and led to an interphase that is normally formed only on anode surfaces. The complete coverage of cathode surface by this ∼40 nm thick interphase effectively prevented Mn(II) dissolution and minimized the side reactions of Ni, Co, and Mn at the NMC interface during the subsequent cycling process. More importantly, such a "prelithiation" process activated a structure containing two Li layers near the surface of NMC532 particles, as verified by XRD and first principle calculation. Hence, a new cathode material of both high capacity with depolarized structure and excellent cycling performance was generated

  20. Prelithiation Activates Li(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2 for High Capacity and Excellent Cycling Stability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Ji, Shunping; Zheng, Jiaxin; Hu, Zongxiang; Xiao, Shu; Wei, Yi; Zhuo, Zengqing; Lin, Yuan; Yang, Wanli; Xu, Kang; Amine, Khalil; Pan, Feng

    2015-08-12

    Transition metal oxide materials Li(NixMnyCoz)O2 (NMC) based on layered structures are expected to replace LiFePO4 in automotive Li-ion batteries because of their higher specific capacity and operating potential. However, the actual usable capacity is much lower than the promised theoretical value [Uchaker, E.; Cao, G. Nano Today 2014, 9, 499-524; Tarascon, J.-M.; Armand, M. Nature 2001, 414, 359-367], in addition to the often poor cycling performance and the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency, for which Mn(II)-dissolution, its immobilization in solid electrolyte interface (SEI), oxidation of electrolytes by Ni, and other parasitic process thereat have been held responsible [Zhan, C., et al. Nat. Commun. 2013, 4, 2437; Wang, L., et al. J. Solid State Electrochem. 2009, 13, 1157-1164; Lin, F., et al. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 4529]. Previously, we reported a composite Li(Ni0.5Mn0.3Co0.2)O2 (NMC532) depolarized by the embedded carbon nanotube (CNT) and achieved capacity close to the theoretical limit [Wu, Z., et al. Nano. Lett. 2014, 14, 4700-4706]; unfortunately, this high capacity failed to be maintained in long-term cycling due to the degrading contacts between the active ingredient and CNT network. On the basis of that NMC532/CNT composite, the present work proposes a unique "prelithiation process", which brought the cathode to low potentials before regular cycling and led to an interphase that is normally formed only on anode surfaces. The complete coverage of cathode surface by this ∼40 nm thick interphase effectively prevented Mn(II) dissolution and minimized the side reactions of Ni, Co, and Mn at the NMC interface during the subsequent cycling process. More importantly, such a "prelithiation" process activated a structure containing two Li layers near the surface of NMC532 particles, as verified by XRD and first principle calculation. Hence, a new cathode material of both high capacity with depolarized structure and excellent cycling performance was generated

  1. Roadmap of optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrell, Erik; Karlsson, Magnus; Chraplyvy, A. R.; Richardson, David J.; Krummrich, Peter M.; Winzer, Peter; Roberts, Kim; Fischer, Johannes Karl; Savory, Seb J.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Secondini, Marco; Kschischang, Frank R.; Lord, Andrew; Prat, Josep; Tomkos, Ioannis; Bowers, John E.; Srinivasan, Sudha; Brandt-Pearce, Maïté; Gisin, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    Lightwave communications is a necessity for the information age. Optical links provide enormous bandwidth, and the optical fiber is the only medium that can meet the modern society's needs for transporting massive amounts of data over long distances. Applications range from global high-capacity networks, which constitute the backbone of the internet, to the massively parallel interconnects that provide data connectivity inside datacenters and supercomputers. Optical communications is a diverse and rapidly changing field, where experts in photonics, communications, electronics, and signal processing work side by side to meet the ever-increasing demands for higher capacity, lower cost, and lower energy consumption, while adapting the system design to novel services and technologies. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of this rich research field, Journal of Optics has invited 16 researchers, each a world-leading expert in their respective subfields, to contribute a section to this invited review article, summarizing their views on state-of-the-art and future developments in optical communications.

  2. Hybrid RF / Optical Communication Terminal with Spherical Primary Optics for Optical Reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Jeffrey R.; Hoppe, Daniel H.; Sehic, Asim

    2011-01-01

    Future deep space communications are likely to employ not only the existing RF uplink and downlink, but also a high capacity optical downlink. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is currently investigating the benefits of a ground based hybrid RF and deep space optical terminal based on limited modification of existing 34 meter antenna designs. The ideal design would include as large an optical aperture as technically practical and cost effective, cause minimal impact to RF performance, and remain cost effective even when compared to a separate optical terminal of comparable size. Numerous trades and architectures have been considered, including shared RF and optical apertures having aspheric optics and means to separate RF and optical signals, plus, partitioned apertures in which various zones of the primary are dedicated to optical reception. A design based on the latter is emphasized in this paper, employing spherical primary optics and a new version of a "clamshell" corrector that is optimized to fit within the limited space between the antenna sub-reflector and the existing apex structure that supports the subreflector. The mechanical design of the hybrid accommodates multiple spherical primary mirror panels in the central 11 meters of the antenna, and integrates the clamshell corrector and optical receiver modules with antenna hardware using existing attach points to the maximum extent practical. When an optical collection area is implemented on a new antenna, it is possible to design the antenna structure to accommodate the additional weight of optical mirrors providing an equivalent aperture of several meters diameter. The focus of our near term effort is to use optics with the 34 meter DSS-13 antenna at Goldstone to demonstrate spatial optical acquisition and tracking capability using an optical system that is temporarily integrated into the antenna.

  3. Self-Assembled Sandwich-like Vanadium Oxide/Graphene Mesoporous Composite as High-Capacity Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingchao; Huang, Yudai; Jia, Dianzeng; Pang, Wei Kong; Guo, Zaiping; Du, Yaping; Tang, Xincun; Cao, Yali

    2015-12-21

    Sandwich-like V2O5/graphene mesoporous composite has been synthesized by a facile solvothermal approach. The crystalline structure, morphology, and electrochemical performance of the as-prepared materials have been investigated in detail. The results demonstrate that the 30-50 nm V2O5 particles are homogeneously anchored on conducting graphene sheets, which allow the V2O5 nanoparticles to be wired up to a current collector through the underlying conducting graphene layers. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the composite exhibits a high reversible capacity of 1006 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1) after 300 cycles. It also exhibits excellent rate performance with a discharge capacity of 500 mAh g(-1) at the current density of 3.0 A g(-1), which is superior to the performance of the vanadium-based materials reported previously. The electrochemical properties demonstrate that the sandwich-like V2O5/graphene mesoporous composite could be a promising candidate material for high-capacity anode in lithium ion batteries.

  4. Marmosets as a preclinical model for testing “off-label” use of doxycycline to turn on Flt3L expression from high-capacity adenovirus vectors

    PubMed Central

    VanderVeen, Nathan; Paran, Christopher; Appelhans, Ashley; Krasinkiewicz, Johnny; Lemons, Rosemary; Appelman, Henry; Doherty, Robert; Palmer, Donna; Ng, Philip; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2014-01-01

    We developed a combined conditional cytotoxic, i.e., herpes simplex type 1-thymidine kinase (TK), plus immune-stimulatory, i.e., fms-like tyrosine kinase ligand-3–mediated gene therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Therapeutic transgenes were encoded within high-capacity adenoviral vectors (HC-Ad); TK was expressed constitutively, while Flt3L was under the control of the TetOn regulatable promoter. We previously assessed efficacy and safety in intracranial GBM rodent models. But, since this approach involves expression of a cytokine within the brain, we chose the nonhuman primate, i.e., Callithrix jaccus (marmoset) as it has been established that its immune response shares similarities with man. We characterized the safety, cell-type specific expression, and doxycycline (DOX)-inducibility of HC-Ad-TetOn-Flt3L delivered within the striatum. We used allometrically scaled DOX doses delivered orally, twice daily for one month, mimicking the route and duration of DOX administration planned for the GBM trial. Flt3L was effectively expressed within astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and neurons. No evidence of brain or systemic toxicities due to the treatment was encountered. Our data indicate that DOX doses equivalent to those used in humans to treat infections can be safely used “off-label” to turn “on” therapeutic gene expression from HC-Ad-TetOn-Flt3L; providing evidence for the safety of this approach in the clinic. PMID:25068145

  5. High capacity and superlong cycle life of Li3VO4/N-C hybrids as anode for high performance Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jicheng; Ni, Shibing; Ma, Jianjun; Yang, Xuelin; Zhang, Lulu

    2016-01-01

    High capacity and superlong cycle life of Li3VO4 have been actualized via carbon hybridization and N doping. The Li3VO4/N doped C (Li3VO4/N-C) that fabricated via an in situ carbonization method based on an intermedial solution phase delivers initial discharge and charge capacities of 686 and 540 mAh g-1 at a specific current of 0.15 A g-1, which maintain of 538 and 536 mAh g-1 after 800 cycles, showing excellent cycle stability. Meanwhile, the Li3VO4/N-C exhibits superior rate performance and long life performance. After 150 cycles at various specific currents from 0.1 to 2.0 A g-1, the discharge and charge capacities can restore 100% when reverting the specific current to 0.1 A g-1. After 1100 cycles at a specific current of 2.0 A g-1, the discharge and charge capacities can maintain of 340 and 337 mAh g-1, showing no capacity attenuation in cycling.

  6. Electrospun TiO2/C Nanofibers As a High-Capacity and Cycle-Stable Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ya; Qian, Jiangfeng; Cao, Yuliang; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi

    2016-07-01

    Nanosized TiO2 is now actively developed as a low-cost and potentially high capacity anode material of Na-ion batteries, but its poor capacity utilization and insufficient cyclability remains an obstacle for battery applications. To overcome these drawbacks, we synthesized electrospun TiO2/C nanofibers, where anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with a diameter of ∼12 nm were densely embedded in the conductive carbon fibers, thus preventing them from aggregating and attacking by electrolyte. Due to its abundant active surfaces of well-dispersed TiO2 nanocrytals and high electronic conductivity of the carbon matrix, the TiO2/C anode shows a high redox capacity of ∼302.4 mA h g(-1) and a high-rate capability of 164.9 mAh g(-1) at a very high current of 2000 mA g(-1). More significantly, this TiO2/C anode can be cycled with nearly 100% capacity retention over 1000 cycles, showing a sufficiently long cycle life for battery applications. The nanofibrous architecture of the TiO2/C composite and its superior electrochemical performance may provide new insights for development of better host materials for practical Na-ion batteries.

  7. Reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotubes sponge: A new high capacity and long life anode material for sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dong; Xu, Xingtao; Lu, Ting; Hu, Bingwen; Chua, Daniel H. C.; Pan, Likun

    2016-06-01

    Reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) sponge (GCNTS) is fabricated via a simple freeze drying of graphene oxide/CNTs mixed solution and subsequent thermal treatment in nitrogen atmosphere, and used as anodes for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) for the first time. The morphology, structure and electrochemical performance of GCNTS are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, galvanostatic charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that GCNTS with 20 wt % CNTs has a highest charge capacity of 436 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g-1 and even at a high current density of 10 A g-1, a capacity of 195 mA h g-1 is maintained after 7440 cycles. The high capacity, excellent rate performance and long life cycling enable the GCNTS to be a promising candidate for practical SIBs.

  8. Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Nanocrystal/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites as Lithium Ion Battery Anode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiping; Shi, Liyi; Wang, Zhuyi; Liu, Jia; Zhu, Jiefang; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Yuan, Shuai

    2015-12-16

    Tin oxide (SnO2) is a kind of anode material with high theoretical capacity. However, the volume expansion and fast capability fading during cycling have prevented its practical application in lithium ion batteries. Herein, we report that the nanocomposite of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an ideal anode material with high capacity, high rate capability, and high stability. The FTO conductive nanocrystals were successfully anchored on RGO nanosheets from an FTO nanocrystals colloid and RGO suspension by hydrothermal treatment. As the anode material, the FTO/RGO composite showed high structural stability during the lithiation and delithiation processes. The conductive FTO nanocrystals favor the formation of stable and thin solid electrolyte interface films. Significantly, the FTO/RGO composite retains a discharge capacity as high as 1439 mAhg(-1) after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mAg(-1). Moreover, its rate capacity displays 1148 mAhg(-1) at a current density of 1000 mAg(-1). PMID:26606370

  9. Preparation of high-capacity, weak anion-exchange membranes by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) and subsequent derivatization with diethylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiaolei; Fan, Hua; Wang, Chaozhan; Wei, Yinmao

    2013-04-01

    Ion-exchange membrane is of importance for the development of membrane chromatography. In this work, a high-capacity anion-exchange membrane was prepared by grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto the surface of regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and subsequent derivatization with diethylamine. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize changes in the chemical functionality, surface topography and pore morphology of the modified membranes. The static capacity of the prepared anion-exchange membrane was evaluated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. The results indicated that the anion-exchange membrane which could reach a maximum capacity of 96 mg/mL for static adsorption possesses a higher adsorption capacity, and the adsorption capacity increases with the polymerization time. The effect of pH and salt concentration confirmed that the adsorption of BSA followed ion-exchange mechanism. The established method would have potential application in the preparation of anion-exchange membrane.

  10. Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Nanocrystal/Reduced Graphene Oxide Composites as Lithium Ion Battery Anode Material with High Capacity and Cycling Stability.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haiping; Shi, Liyi; Wang, Zhuyi; Liu, Jia; Zhu, Jiefang; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Yuan, Shuai

    2015-12-16

    Tin oxide (SnO2) is a kind of anode material with high theoretical capacity. However, the volume expansion and fast capability fading during cycling have prevented its practical application in lithium ion batteries. Herein, we report that the nanocomposite of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an ideal anode material with high capacity, high rate capability, and high stability. The FTO conductive nanocrystals were successfully anchored on RGO nanosheets from an FTO nanocrystals colloid and RGO suspension by hydrothermal treatment. As the anode material, the FTO/RGO composite showed high structural stability during the lithiation and delithiation processes. The conductive FTO nanocrystals favor the formation of stable and thin solid electrolyte interface films. Significantly, the FTO/RGO composite retains a discharge capacity as high as 1439 mAhg(-1) after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mAg(-1). Moreover, its rate capacity displays 1148 mAhg(-1) at a current density of 1000 mAg(-1).

  11. Catalyst-free synthesis of Si-SiOx core-shell nanowire anodes for high-rate and high-capacity lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kwan Woo; Lee, Jung-In; Yang, Jieun; Kim, Young-Ki; Jeong, Hu Young; Park, Soojin; Shin, Hyeon Suk

    2014-05-14

    Si-SiOx core-shell nanowires (NWs) ranging from 10 to 30 nm in diameter are prepared by a simple evaporation of silicon monoxide and control of substrate temperatures without any catalyst. The Si-SiOx NWs grown at 735 and 955 °C are strongly anchored to the Cu current collector by forming copper silicide at the interface between Si and Cu, and subsequently used as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, in which no binder or conducting materials are used. The Si-SiOx NWs anodes show excellent electrochemical performances in terms of capacity retention and rate capability. In particular, the Si-SiOx NW anode grown at 955 °C shows a reversible capacity of ∼1000 mAh g(-1) even at a high-rate of 50 C. This catalyst-free synthetic route of Si-SiOx NWs that are strongly anchored to the Cu current collector opens up an effective process for fabricating other high-capacity anodes in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). PMID:24754908

  12. Methoxy-modified kaolinite as a novel carrier for high-capacity loading and controlled-release of the herbicide amitrole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Daoyong; Yuan, Peng; Annabi-Bergaya, Faïza; Liu, Dong; He, Hongping

    2015-03-01

    Methoxy-modified kaolinite was used as a novel carrier for loading and release of the herbicide 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, known as amitrole (abbreviated here as AMT). The methoxy modification made the interlayer space of the kaolinite available for AMT intercalation. The AMT loading content in methoxy-modified kaolinite reached up to 20.8 mass% (twice the loading content by unmodified kaolinite). About 48% of this amount is located in the interlayer space. The release profiles of the AMT fit with the modified Korsmeyer-Peppas model. Due to the diffusional restriction of the intercalated AMT by the lamellar structure of the kaolinite and the strong electrostatic attraction between the intercalated AMT and the kaolinite, a slow release of AMT from the methoxy-modified kaolinite was achieved. These results show that the methoxy-modification is a facile method to make the interlayer space of kaolinite available for hosting other guest molecules. The methoxy-modified kaolinite is a promising candidate for high-capacity loading and controlled-release of other molecules such as drugs, agrochemicals, and biochemicals.

  13. Selective depletion or blockade of Kupffer cells leads to enhanced and prolonged hepatic transgene expression using high-capacity adenoviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Schiedner, Gudrun; Hertel, Sabine; Johnston, Marion; Dries, Volker; van Rooijen, Nico; Kochanek, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Tissue macrophages, in particular hepatic Kupffer cells (KCs), contribute to early inflammatory responses following adenoviral vector administration. This study evaluates the effect of selective and transient (3 days) depletion of KCs by a single injection of clodronate liposomes on the in vivo performance of high-capacity adenoviral (HC-Ad) vectors. In KC-depleted C57BL/6 and C3H mice increased and stabilized hAAT levels were observed following intravenous injection of HC-Ad vectors expressing human alpha-1 anti-trypsin (hAAT) either from the hAAT promoter or from the human cytomegalovirus promoter. Comparable increases in hAAT levels were obtained in mice preinjected with a transcriptionally silent HC-Ad vector. Interestingly, in the majority of animals of both strains depletion of KCs was sufficient to prevent the generation of anti-hAAT antibodies, resulting in prolonged transgene expression. Thus, short-term and selective depletion of hepatic macrophages at the same time significantly increased hepatic transgene expression and reduced the humoral immune response to the transgenic protein.

  14. Sepiolite-sulfur as a high-capacity, high-rate performance, and low-cost cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Junan; Wu, Cheng; Cheng, Juanjuan; Pan, Yong; Ma, Zengsheng; Xie, Shuhong; Li, Jiangyu

    2015-10-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries have the theoretical energy density of up to 2600 Wh/kg, though its commercialization is limited by high material cost and poor cyclic performance. In this work, we show that sepiolite-sulfur is a high-capacity, high-rate performance, and low-cost cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. Sepiolite is a porous mineral with specific structure, outstanding physical and chemical adsorption characteristics, and excellent ion exchange capability, making it an ideal matrix material for lithium-sulfur batteries. It is shown that the first specific discharge capacity of sepiolite-sulfur cathode is about 1436 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C current rate, and it remains as high as 901 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles. Under 1 C current density, the first discharge capacity is 1206 mAh g-1, and maintains a high value of 601 mAh g-1 after 500 cycles. The raw materials are abundant and low cost, and the manufacturing process is simple and scalable, making it promising for the commercialization of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  15. Electrospun TiO2/C Nanofibers As a High-Capacity and Cycle-Stable Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ya; Qian, Jiangfeng; Cao, Yuliang; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi

    2016-07-01

    Nanosized TiO2 is now actively developed as a low-cost and potentially high capacity anode material of Na-ion batteries, but its poor capacity utilization and insufficient cyclability remains an obstacle for battery applications. To overcome these drawbacks, we synthesized electrospun TiO2/C nanofibers, where anatase TiO2 nanocrystals with a diameter of ∼12 nm were densely embedded in the conductive carbon fibers, thus preventing them from aggregating and attacking by electrolyte. Due to its abundant active surfaces of well-dispersed TiO2 nanocrytals and high electronic conductivity of the carbon matrix, the TiO2/C anode shows a high redox capacity of ∼302.4 mA h g(-1) and a high-rate capability of 164.9 mAh g(-1) at a very high current of 2000 mA g(-1). More significantly, this TiO2/C anode can be cycled with nearly 100% capacity retention over 1000 cycles, showing a sufficiently long cycle life for battery applications. The nanofibrous architecture of the TiO2/C composite and its superior electrochemical performance may provide new insights for development of better host materials for practical Na-ion batteries. PMID:27311835

  16. A high-capacity, capsid-modified hybrid adenovirus/adeno-associated virus vector for stable transduction of human hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Shayakhmetov, Dmitry M; Carlson, Cheryl A; Stecher, Hartmut; Li, Qiliang; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Lieber, André

    2002-02-01

    To achieve stable gene transfer into human hematopoietic cells, we constructed a new vector, DeltaAd5/35.AAV. This vector has a chimeric capsid containing adenovirus type 35 fibers, which conferred efficient infection of human hematopoietic cells. The DeltaAd5/35.AAV vector genome is deleted for all viral genes, allowing for infection without virus-associated toxicity. To generate high-capacity DeltaAd5/35.AAV vectors, we employed a new technique based on recombination between two first-generation adenovirus vectors. The resultant vector genome contained an 11.6-kb expression cassette including the human gamma-globin gene and the HS2 and HS3 elements of the beta-globin locus control region. The expression cassette was flanked by adeno-associated virus (AAV) inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). Infection with DeltaAd5/35.AAV allowed for stable transgene expression in a hematopoietic cell line after integration into the host genome through the AAV ITR(s). This new vector exhibits advantages over existing integrating vectors, including an increased insert capacity and tropism for hematopoietic cells. It has the potential for stable ex vivo transduction of hematopoietic stem cells in order to treat sickle cell disease.

  17. Preparation, structure study and electrochemistry of layered H2V3O8 materials: High capacity lithium-ion battery cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Sudeep; Bhowmik, Arghya; Pan, Jaysree; Bharadwaj, Mridula Dixit; Mitra, Sagar

    2016-10-01

    The present study explores H2V3O8 as high capacity cathode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIB's). Despite having high discharge capacity, H2V3O8 material suffers from poor electrochemical stability for prolonged cycle life. Ultra-long H2V3O8 nanobelts with ordered crystallographic patterns are synthesized via a hydrothermal process to mitigate this problem. The growth of the crystal is facile along [001] direction, and the most common surface is (001) as suggested by Wulff construction study. Electrochemical performance of H2V3O8 cathode is tested against Li/Li+ at various current rates. At 50 mA g-1current rate, it delivers a discharge capacity of 308 mAh g-1, whereas, at 3000 mA g-1, an initial discharge capacity of 144 mAh g-1 is observed and stabilized at 100 mAh g-1 till 500 cycles. Further, the density functional theory (DFT) based simulations study of both the pristine and lithiated phase of H2V3O8 cathode materials is undertaken. DFT study reveals the presence of hydrogen as hydroxyl unit in the framework of the host. In correlation, the magnetic property of vanadium atoms is examined in detail with through partial density of states (PDOS) calculation during three stage lithiation processes and evaluating various potential steps involved in lithium insertion.

  18. Characterization of the cloned full-length and a truncated human target of rapamycin: Activity, specificity, and enzyme inhibition as studied by a high capacity assay

    SciTech Connect

    Toral-Barza, Lourdes; Zhang Weiguo; Lamison, Craig; LaRocque, James; Gibbons, James; Yu, Ker . E-mail: yuk@wyeth.com

    2005-06-24

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR/TOR) is implicated in cancer and other human disorders and thus an important target for therapeutic intervention. To study human TOR in vitro, we have produced in large scale both the full-length TOR (289 kDa) and a truncated TOR (132 kDa) from HEK293 cells. Both enzymes demonstrated a robust and specific catalytic activity towards the physiological substrate proteins, p70 S6 ribosomal protein kinase 1 (p70S6K1) and eIF4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1), as measured by phosphor-specific antibodies in Western blotting. We developed a high capacity dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) for analysis of kinetic parameters. The Michaelis constant (K {sub m}) values of TOR for ATP and the His6-S6K substrate were shown to be 50 and 0.8 {mu}M, respectively. Dose-response and inhibition mechanisms of several known inhibitors, the rapamycin-FKBP12 complex, wortmannin and LY294002, were also studied in DELFIA. Our data indicate that TOR exhibits kinetic features of those shared by traditional serine/threonine kinases and demonstrate the feasibility for TOR enzyme screen in searching for new inhibitors.

  19. Methoxy-modified kaolinite as a novel carrier for high-capacity loading and controlled-release of the herbicide amitrole

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Daoyong; Yuan, Peng; Annabi-Bergaya, Faïza; Liu, Dong; He, Hongping

    2015-01-01

    Methoxy-modified kaolinite was used as a novel carrier for loading and release of the herbicide 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, known as amitrole (abbreviated here as AMT). The methoxy modification made the interlayer space of the kaolinite available for AMT intercalation. The AMT loading content in methoxy-modified kaolinite reached up to 20.8 mass% (twice the loading content by unmodified kaolinite). About 48% of this amount is located in the interlayer space. The release profiles of the AMT fit with the modified Korsmeyer-Peppas model. Due to the diffusional restriction of the intercalated AMT by the lamellar structure of the kaolinite and the strong electrostatic attraction between the intercalated AMT and the kaolinite, a slow release of AMT from the methoxy-modified kaolinite was achieved. These results show that the methoxy-modification is a facile method to make the interlayer space of kaolinite available for hosting other guest molecules. The methoxy-modified kaolinite is a promising candidate for high-capacity loading and controlled-release of other molecules such as drugs, agrochemicals, and biochemicals. PMID:25747124

  20. Methoxy-modified kaolinite as a novel carrier for high-capacity loading and controlled-release of the herbicide amitrole.

    PubMed

    Tan, Daoyong; Yuan, Peng; Annabi-Bergaya, Faïza; Liu, Dong; He, Hongping

    2015-01-01

    Methoxy-modified kaolinite was used as a novel carrier for loading and release of the herbicide 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, known as amitrole (abbreviated here as AMT). The methoxy modification made the interlayer space of the kaolinite available for AMT intercalation. The AMT loading content in methoxy-modified kaolinite reached up to 20.8 mass% (twice the loading content by unmodified kaolinite). About 48% of this amount is located in the interlayer space. The release profiles of the AMT fit with the modified Korsmeyer-Peppas model. Due to the diffusional restriction of the intercalated AMT by the lamellar structure of the kaolinite and the strong electrostatic attraction between the intercalated AMT and the kaolinite, a slow release of AMT from the methoxy-modified kaolinite was achieved. These results show that the methoxy-modification is a facile method to make the interlayer space of kaolinite available for hosting other guest molecules. The methoxy-modified kaolinite is a promising candidate for high-capacity loading and controlled-release of other molecules such as drugs, agrochemicals, and biochemicals.

  1. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) binds to guinea pig peritoneal eosinophils: A single class of binding sites with low affinity and high capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Sakakibara, H.; Shima, K. Takamatsu, J.; Said, S.I. )

    1990-02-26

    VIP binds to specific receptors on lymphocytes and mononuclear cells and exhibits antiinflammatory properties. Eosinophils (Eos) contribute to inflammatory reactions but the regulation of Eos function is incompletely understood. The authors examined the binding of monoradioiodinated VIP, (Tyr({sup 125}I){sup 10}) VIP ({sup 125}I-VIP), to Eos in guinea pigs. The interaction of {sup 125}i-VIP with Eos was rapid, reversible, saturable and linearly dependent on the number of cells. At equilibrium the binding was competitively inhibited by native peptide or by the related peptide helodermin. Scatchard analysis suggested the presence of a single class of VIP binding sites with a low affinity and a high capacity. In the presence of isobutyl-methylxanthine, VIP, PHI or helodermin did not stimulate cyclic AMP accumulation in intact Eos, while PGE{sub 2} or 1-isoproterenol did. VIP also did not inhibit superoxide anion generation from Eos stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate. The authors conclude that: (1) VIP binds to low-affinity, specific sites on guinea pig peritoneal eosinophils; (2) this binding is not coupled to stimulation of adenylate cyclase; and (3) the possible function of these binding sites is at present unknown.

  2. A highly resilient mesoporous SiOx lithium storage material engineered by oil-water templating.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjun; Park, Min-Sik; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Ki Jae; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu

    2015-02-01

    Mesoporous silicon-based materials gained considerable attention as high-capacity lithium-storage materials. However, the practical use is still limited by the complexity and limited number of available synthetic routes. Here, we report carbon-coated porous SiOx as high capacity lithium storage material prepared by using a sol-gel reaction of hydrogen silsesquioxane and oil-water templating. A hydrophobic oil is employed as a pore former inside the SiOx matrix and a precursor for carbon coating on the SiOx . The anode exhibits a high capacity of 730 mAh g(-1) and outstanding cycling performance over 100 cycles without significant dimensional changes. Carbon-coated porous SiOx also showed highly stable thermal reliability comparable to that of graphite. These promising properties come from the mesopores in the SiOx matrix, which ensures reliable operation of lithium storage in SiOx . The scalable sol-gel process presented here can open up a new avenue for the versatile preparation of porous SiOx lithium storage materials.

  3. Impacts of Geological Variability on Carbon Storage Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, Jordan Kaelin

    The changes to the environment caused by anthropogenic climate change pose major challenges for energy production in the next century. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a group of technologies that would permit the continued use of carbon-intense fuels such as coal for energy production while avoiding further impact on the global climate system. The mechanism most often proposed for storage is injection of CO2 below the surface of the Earth in geological media, with the most promising option for CO2 reservoirs being deep saline aquifers (DSA's). Unlike oil and gas reservoirs, deep saline aquifers are poorly characterized and the variability in their properties is large enough to have a high impact on the overall physical and economic viability of CCS. Storage in saline aquifers is likely to be a very high-capacity resource, but its economic viability is almost unknown. We consider the impact of geological variability on the total viability of the CO 2 storage system from several perspectives. First, we examine the theoretical range of costs of storage by coupling a physical and economic model of CO 2 storage with a range of possible geological settings. With the relevant properties of rock extending over several orders of magnitude, it is not surprising that we find costs and storage potential ranging over several orders of magnitude. Second, we use georeferenced data to evaluate the spatial distribution of cost and capacity. When paired together to build a marginal abatement cost curve (MACC), this cost and capacity data indicates that low cost and high capacity are collocated; storage in these promising areas is likely to be quite viable but may not be available to all CO2 sources. However, when we continue to explore the impact of geological variability on realistic, commercial-scale site sizes by invoking capacity and pressure management constraints, we find that the distribution costs and footprints of these sites may be prohibitively high. The combination

  4. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  5. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2014-11-25

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material, such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  6. Optical Circuitry Cooperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, H. M.; Gibson, U.; Peyghambarian, N.; Sarid, D.; Stegeman, G.

    1985-01-01

    An Optical Circuitry Cooperative (OCC) has been formed as an NSF cooperative research center in which six or more companies contribute financial support; NSF provides support which declines to zero in five years. Companies benefit from a center by early access to research results, leverage for their research dollars, participation in research selection, and improved relations with faculty and students. The university receives support for a major research program that increases its research capability, provides reasonably stable funding, and opens more opportunities for graduate students. The potential of optical circuitry has been discussed for many years, but the excitement is growing rapidly on the strength of the success of optical fibers for optical transmission, the generation of subpicosecond opitcal pulses, and the development of promising optical logic elements, such as optical bistable devices. And yet, much research remains to be done to discover the best nonlinear optical materials and fabrication techniques. OCC will perform research to provide a data base to allow the development of optical circuitry devices. The areas encompassed by OCC include all-optical logic, picosecond decision-making, guided-wave preprocessors, opti-cal interconnects within computers (both fiber and whole-array imaging), optical storage, and optical computer architecture and devices.

  7. Charging Graphene for Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

  8. Hazmat storage

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    RCRA regulations governing hazardous materials storage, as well as potential long-term liabilities under CERCLA for soil and groundwater contamination, make daily management of industrial chemicals and wastes a precarious enterprise. Container corrosion, potential leaks and spills, possibilities of chemical reactions and fires, and health threats to employees and community members--not to mention the prospect of visits from regulatory agencies-comprise a persistent backdrop for environmental managers' decisions and actions. RCRA's Subtitle C, the hazardous waste management program, establishes cradle-to-grave liability for hazardous waste generators, rather loosely defined in practice as anyone whose actions bring a waste under RCRA's regulatory authority. Thus, someone who digs up a long-forgotten drum of hazardous chemicals, then stores or disposes it is a generator.

  9. High Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity Protects against Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Injury and Metabolic Dysfunction: Study Using High Capacity Runner Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Szary, Nicholas; Rector, R Scott; Uptergrove, Grace M; Ridenhour, Suzanne E; Shukla, Shivendra D; Thyfault, John P; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2015-01-01

    Rats artificially selected over several generations for high intrinsic endurance/aerobic capacity resulting in high capacity runners (HCR) has been developed to study the links between high aerobic fitness and protection from metabolic diseases (Wisloff et al., Science, 2005). We have previously shown that the HCR strain have elevated hepatic mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity. In this study, we tested if the elevated hepatic mitochondrial content in the HCR rat would provide "metabolic protection" from chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and injury. The Leiber-Decarli liquid diet with ethanol (7% v/v; HCR-E) and without (HCR-C) was given to HCR rats (n = 8 per group) from 14 to 20 weeks of age that were weight matched and pair-fed to assure isocaloric intake. Hepatic triglyceride (TG) content and macro- and microvesicular steatosis were significantly greater in HCR-E compared with HCR-C (p < 0.05). In addition, hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the HCR-E rats. This hepatic phenotype also was associated with reduced total hepatic fatty acid oxidation (p = 0.03) and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity (p = 0.01), and reductions in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and apoB-100 protein content (p = 0.01) in HCR-E animals. However, despite these documented hepatic alterations, ethanol ingestion failed to induce significant hepatic liver injury, including no changes in hepatic inflammation, or serum alanine amino transferase (ALTs), free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides (TGs), insulin, or glucose. High intrinsic aerobic fitness did not reduce ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis, but protected against ethanol-induced hepatic injury and systemic metabolic dysfunction in a high aerobic capacity rat model. PMID:26610588

  10. Quantification of High-Capacity Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vector Genomes In Vitro and In Vivo, Using Quantitative TaqMan Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    PUNTEL, M.; CURTIN, J.F.; ZIRGER, J.M.; MUHAMMAD, A.K.M.; XIONG, W.; LIU, C.; HU, J.; KROEGER, K.M.; CZER, P.; SCIASCIA, S.; MONDKAR, S.; LOWENSTEIN, P.R.; CASTRO, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    First-generation adenoviral (Ad) and high-capacity adenoviral (HC-Ad) vectors are efficient delivery vehicles for transferring therapeutic transgenes in vivo into tissues/organs. The initial successes reported with adenoviral vectors in preclinical trials have been limited by immune-related adverse side effects. This has been, in part, attributed to the use of poorly characterized preparations of adenoviral vectors and also to the untoward immune adverse side effects elicited when high doses of these vectors were used. HC-Ads have several advantages over Ads, including the lack of viral coding sequences, which after infection and uncoating, makes them invisible to the host’s immune system. Another advantage is their large cloning capacity (up to ~35 kb). However, accurate characterization of HC-Ad vectors, and of contaminating replication-competent adenovirus (RCA) or helper virus, is necessary before these preparations can be used safely in clinical trials. Consequently, the development of accurate, simple, and reproducible methods to standardize and validate adenoviral preparations for the presence of contaminant genomes is required. By using a molecular method that allows accurate, reproducible, and simultaneous determination of HC-Ad, contaminating helper virus, and RCA genome copy numbers based on real-time quantitative PCR, we demonstrate accurate detection of these three genomic entities, within CsCl-purified vector stocks, total DNA isolated from cells transduced in vitro, and from brain tissue infected in vivo. This approach will allow accurate assessment of the levels and biodistribution of HC-Ad and improve the safety and efficacy of clinical trials. PMID:16716110

  11. Standard free droplet digital polymerase chain reaction as a new tool for the quality control of high-capacity adenoviral vectors in small-scale preparations.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Philip; Stellberger, Thorsten; Solanki, Manish; Zhang, Wenli; Schulz, Eric; Bergmann, Thorsten; Liu, Jing; Doerner, Johannes; Baiker, Armin E; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2015-02-01

    High-capacity adenoviral vectors (HCAdVs) are promising tools for gene therapy as well as for genetic engineering. However, one limitation of the HCAdV vector system is the complex, time-consuming, and labor-intensive production process and the following quality control procedure. Since HCAdVs are deleted for all viral coding sequences, a helper virus (HV) is needed in the production process to provide the sequences for all viral proteins in trans. For the purification procedure of HCAdV, cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation is usually performed followed by buffer exchange using dialysis or comparable methods. However, performing these steps is technically difficult, potentially error-prone, and not scalable. Here, we establish a new protocol for small-scale production of HCAdV based on commercially available adenovirus purification systems and a standard method for the quality control of final HCAdV preparations. For titration of final vector preparations, we established a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) that uses a standard free-end-point PCR in small droplets of defined volume. By using different probes, this method is capable of detecting and quantifying HCAdV and HV in one reaction independent of reference material, rendering this method attractive for accurately comparing viral titers between different laboratories. In summary, we demonstrate that it is possible to produce HCAdV in a small scale of sufficient quality and quantity to perform experiments in cell culture, and we established a reliable protocol for vector titration based on ddPCR. Our method significantly reduces time and required equipment to perform HCAdV production. In the future the ddPCR technology could be advantageous for titration of other viral vectors commonly used in gene therapy.

  12. Simultaneous Measurements of Eight Oxyanions Using High-Capacity Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (Zr-Oxide DGT) with a High-Efficiency Elution Procedure.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiming; Xu, Di; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Yan; Li, Yangyang; Gong, Mengdan; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2016-07-19

    A zirconium oxide binding gel-based diffusive gradients in thin films (Zr-oxide DGT) was developed for simultaneous measurements of P(V), As(V), Cr(VI), Mo(VI), Sb(V), Se(VI), V(V), and W(VI). All of the oxyanions were rapidly bound to Zr-oxide gel with differences in binding affinity. The eight bound oxyanions were successfully recovered by one-step elution using a mild reagent of 0.2 M NaOH-0.5 M H2O2 by overcoming the problems in analyses of the oxyanions. The optimized elution time was reduced to 3-5 h from 24-48 h required by other DGTs. DGT uptakes of all the oxyanions were independent of pH (4.42-8.45) and ionic strength (0.1-500 mM). The DGT capacities for six oxyanions detected in multioxyanion solution were only 0.19 to 0.35 times of those detected in single-oxyanion solution, reflecting a strong competition among the oxyanions during DGT uptake. Except for Se(VI) in seawater, Zr-oxide DGT accurately measured all of the oxyanions in synthetic freshwater and seawater, with the capacities ∼29 to >2397 times and ∼7.5 to 232 times those of two commonly used DGTs (Metsorb and precipitated ferrihydrite (PF) DGTs) in freshwater and seawater, respectively. Measurements by Zr-oxide DGT in contaminated sediments were in agreement with only two oxyanions with the two commonly used DGTs; the two DGTs accumulated less or no mass of other oxyanions. This study demonstrates significant advantage of Zr-oxide DGT over the other DGTs in simultaneous measurements of the eight oxyanions due to the former's high capacity and a wide tolerance to environmental interferences, together with a high efficiency in elution. PMID:27303914

  13. Optic glioma

    MedlinePlus

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  14. Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers and viewgraphs from the conference are presented. Discussion topics include the IEEE Mass Storage System Reference Model, data archiving standards, high-performance storage devices, magnetic and magneto-optic storage systems, magnetic and optical recording technologies, high-performance helical scan recording systems, and low end helical scan tape drives. Additional discussion topics addressed the evolution of the identifiable unit for processing (file, granule, data set, or some similar object) as data ingestion rates increase dramatically, and the present state of the art in mass storage technology.

  15. Multichannel optical sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Selkowitz, Stephen E.

    1990-01-01

    A multichannel optical sensing device is disclosed, for measuring the outr sky luminance or illuminance or the luminance or illuminance distribution in a room, comprising a plurality of light receptors, an optical shutter matrix including a plurality of liquid crystal optical shutter elements operable by electrical control signals between light transmitting and light stopping conditions, fiber optic elements connected between the receptors and the shutter elements, a microprocessor based programmable control unit for selectively supplying control signals to the optical shutter elements in a programmable sequence, a photodetector including an optical integrating spherical chamber having an input port for receiving the light from the shutter matrix and at least one detector element in the spherical chamber for producing output signals corresponding to the light, and output units for utilizing the output signals including a storage unit having a control connection to the microprocessor based programmable control unit for storing the output signals under the sequence control of the programmable control unit.

  16. Multichannel optical sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Selkowitz, S.E.

    1985-08-16

    A multichannel optical sensing device is disclosed, for measuring the outdoor sky luminance or illuminance or the luminance or illuminance distribution in a room, comprising a plurality of light receptors, an optical shutter matrix including a plurality of liquid crystal optical shutter elements operable by electrical control signals between light transmitting and light stopping conditions, fiber optical elements connected between the receptors and the shutter elements, a microprocessor based programmable control unit for selectively supplying control signals to the optical shutter elements in a programmable sequence, a photodetector including an optical integrating spherical chamber having an input port for receiving the light from the shutter matrix and at least one detector element in the spherical chamber for producing output signals corresponding to the light, and output units for utilizing the output signals including a storage unit having a control connection to the microprocessor based programmable control unit for storing the output signals under the sequence control of the programmable control unit.

  17. Optical memory system technology. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zollars, G. F.

    1980-01-01

    Approximately 213 citations from the international literature which concern the development of the optical data storage system technology are presented. Topics covered include holographic computer storage devices, crystal, magneto, and electro-optics, imaging techniques, in addition to optical data processing and storage.

  18. Hydrogen storage materials. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the manufacture of hydrogen storage materials for use in batteries and elecrochemical cells. Citations present the design and production of high capacity, rechargeable metal hydride batteries and cells. Hydrogen-storing characteristics, charging and discharging performance, cost reduction, and battery life are discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Mass Storage and Retrieval at Rome Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kann, Joshua L.; Canfield, Brady W.; Jamberdino, Albert A.; Clarke, Bernard J.; Daniszewski, Ed; Sunada, Gary

    1996-01-01

    As the speed and power of modern digital computers continues to advance, the demands on secondary mass storage systems grow. In many cases, the limitations of existing mass storage reduce the overall effectiveness of the computing system. Image storage and retrieval is one important area where improved storage technologies are required. Three dimensional optical memories offer the advantage of large data density, on the order of 1 Tb/cm(exp 3), and faster transfer rates because of the parallel nature of optical recording. Such a system allows for the storage of multiple-Gbit sized images, which can be recorded and accessed at reasonable rates. Rome Laboratory is currently investigating several techniques to perform three-dimensional optical storage including holographic recording, two-photon recording, persistent spectral-hole burning, multi-wavelength DNA recording, and the use of bacteriorhodopsin as a recording material. In this paper, the current status of each of these on-going efforts is discussed. In particular, the potential payoffs as well as possible limitations are addressed.

  20. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-25

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  1. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  2. New Ti-decorated B40 fullerene as a promising hydrogen storage material.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huilong; Hou, Tingjun; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Li, Youyong

    2015-05-06

    The newly found B40 is the first experimentally observed all-boron fullerene and has potential applications in hydrogen storage. Here we investigate the binding ability and hydrogen storage capacity of Ti-decorated B40 fullerene based on DFT calculations. Our results indicate that Ti shows excellent binding capability to B40 compared with other transition metals. The B40 fullerene coated by 6 Ti atoms (Ti6B40) can store up to 34 H2 molecules, corresponding to a maximum gravimetric density of 8.7 wt%. It takes 0.2-0.4 eV/H2 to add one H2 molecule, which assures reversible storage of H2 molecules under ambient conditions. The evaluated reversible storage capacity is 6.1 wt%. Our results demonstrate that the new Ti-decorated B40 fullerene is a promising hydrogen storage material with high capacity.

  3. A microporous Cu-MOF with optimized open metal sites and pore spaces for high gas storage and active chemical fixation of CO2.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao-Ying; Tian, Hong-Rui; Ai, Jing; Li, Lei-Jiao; Dang, Song; Lan, Ya-Qian; Sun, Zhong-Ming

    2016-09-25

    A microporous Cu-MOF with optimized open metal sites and pore space was constructed based on a designed bent ligand; it exhibits high-capacity multiple gas storage under atmospheric pressure and efficient catalytic activity for chemical fixation of CO2 under mild conditions.

  4. A microporous Cu-MOF with optimized open metal sites and pore spaces for high gas storage and active chemical fixation of CO2.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao-Ying; Tian, Hong-Rui; Ai, Jing; Li, Lei-Jiao; Dang, Song; Lan, Ya-Qian; Sun, Zhong-Ming

    2016-09-25

    A microporous Cu-MOF with optimized open metal sites and pore space was constructed based on a designed bent ligand; it exhibits high-capacity multiple gas storage under atmospheric pressure and efficient catalytic activity for chemical fixation of CO2 under mild conditions. PMID:27550833

  5. Mass Storage: Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Dan; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Focusing primarily on hard disks, this report describes the choices currently available; explains the inner workings of hard-disk technology; lists 70 leading hard-disk products with their costs and capabilities; describes a new type of high-capacity drive; and compares speed, cost, and reliability of a number of widely used hard-disk backup…

  6. Durable High-Density Data Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamartine, Bruce C.; Stutz, Roger A.

    1996-01-01

    The focus ion beam (FIB) micromilling process for data storage provides a new non-magnetic storage method for archiving large amounts of data. The process stores data on robust materials such as steel, silicon, and gold coated silicon. The storage process was developed to provide a method to insure the long term storage life of data. We estimate that the useful life of data written on silicon or gold-coated silicon to be on the order of a few thousand years without the need to rewrite the data every few years. The process uses an ion beam to carve material from the surface, much like stone cutters in ancient civilizations removed material from stone. The deeper the information is carved into the media, the longer the expected life of the information. The process can record information in three formats: (1) binary at densities of 23 Gbits/square inch, (2) alphanumeric at optical or non-optical density, and (3) graphical at optical and non-optical density. The formats can be mixed on the same media; and thus, it is possible to record, in a human-viewable format, instructions that can be read using an optical microscope. These instructions provide guidance on reading the remaining higher density information.

  7. Durable high-density data storage

    SciTech Connect

    Stutz, R.A.; Lamartine, B.C.

    1996-09-01

    This paper will discuss the Focus Ion Beam (FIB) milling process, media life considerations, and methods of reading the micromilled data. The FIB process for data storage provides a new non-magnetic storage method for archiving large amounts of data. The process stores data on robust materials such as steel, silicon, and gold coated silicon. The storage process was developed to provide a method to insure the long term storage life of data. We estimate the useful life of data written on silicon or gold coated silicon to be a few thousand years. The process uses an ion beam to carve material from the surface much like stone cutting. The deeper information is carved into the media the longer the expected life of the information. The process can read information in three formats: (1) binary at densities of 3.5 Gbits/cm{sup 2}, (2) alphanumeric at optical or non-optical density, and (3) graphical at optical and non-optical density. The formats can be mixed on the same media; and thus it is possible to record, in a human readable format, instructions that can be read using an optical microscope. These instructions provide guidance on reading the higher density information.

  8. TWDM-PON-AN optical backhaul solution for hybrid optical wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqshbandi, Fayiqa; Jha, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-10-01

    To improve the performance of broadband access networks Full Service Access Network selected Time and wavelength division multiplexed Passive Optical Network (TWDM-PON) as the primary solution for next-generation optical access (Next-Generation Passive Optical Networks 2 (NGPON2)). This paper reviews the recent progress in this access technology. Different possible solutions for the-next generation access are explained. Comparison of the different TWDM architectures experimentally demonstrated so far is made considering the large split, long reach and high capacity requirements of NGPON2. Major technical challenges in implementing the TWDM networks are discussed. Possible options for designing hybrid wireless-wireline architectures are explained taking care of the high bandwidth provided by the optical networks and high mobility of wireless networks. Also an integrated optical wireless architecture is suggested using TWDM-PON as an optical backhaul.

  9. Improved metal hydride technology for the storage of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Sapru, K.; Ming, L.; Ramachandran, S.

    1995-09-01

    Low cost, high density storage of hydrogen will remove the most serious barrier to large-scale utilization of hydrogen as a non-polluting, zero-emission fuel. An important challenge for the practical use of Mg-based, high capacity hydrogen storage alloys has been the development of a low-cost, bulk production technique. Two difficulties in preparation of Mg-based alloys are the immiscibility of Mg with many transition metals and the relatively high volatility of Mg compared to many transition metals. These factors preclude the use of conventional induction melting techniques for the Mg-based alloy preparation. A mechanical alloying technique, in which Mg immiscibility and volatility do not present a problem, was developed and shows great promise for production of Mg-based alloys. A number of Mg-based alloys were prepared via modified induction melting and mechanical alloying methods. The alloys were tested for gas phase hydrogen storage properties, composition, structure and morphology. The mechanically alloyed samples are multi-component, multi-phase, highly disordered materials in their as-prepared state. These unoptimized alloys have shown reversible H-storage capacity of more than 5 wt.% hydrogen. After 2000 absorption/desorption cycles, the alloys show no decline in storage capacity or desorption kinetics. The alloys have also demonstrated resistance to CH{sub 4} and CO poisoning in preliminary testing. Upon annealing, with an increase in crystallinity, the H-storage capacity decreases, indicating the importance of disorder.

  10. Optical disk technology and information.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, C M

    1982-02-12

    The optical video disk, spawned by the home entertainment industry, and its counterpart, the optical digital disk, both hold great promise for information storage and retrieval and the scientific enterprise. Optical digital disks for computer mass storage are currently under development by many firms. In addition, efforts are under way to allow encoding of digital information on video disks. This is desirable as an inexpensive publication medium for machine-readable data as well as a means of obtaining both video and digital information on one disk. Potential applications of this technology include inexpensive on-line storage, random access graphics to complement on-line information systems, hybrid network architectures, office automation systems, and archival storage.

  11. High speed optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Michael Y.; Livas, Jeff

    2005-02-01

    This overview will discuss core network technology and cost trade-offs inherent in choosing between "analog" architectures with high optical transparency, and ones heavily dependent on frequent "digital" signal regeneration. The exact balance will be related to the specific technology choices in each area outlined above, as well as the network needs such as node geographic spread, physical connectivity patterns, and demand loading. Over the course of a decade, optical networks have evolved from simple single-channel SONET regenerator-based links to multi-span multi-channel optically amplified ultra-long haul systems, fueled by high demand for bandwidth at reduced cost. In general, the cost of a well-designed high capacity system is dominated by the number of optical to electrical (OE) and electrical to optical (EO) conversions required. As the reach and channel capacity of the transport systems continued to increase, it became necessary to improve the granularity of the demand connections by introducing (optical add/drop multiplexers) OADMs. Thus, if a node requires only small demand connectivity, most of the optical channels are expressed through without regeneration (OEO). The network costs are correspondingly reduced, partially balanced by the increased cost of the OADM nodes. Lately, the industry has been aggressively pursuing a natural extension of this philosophy towards all-optical "analog" core networks, with each demand touching electrical digital circuitry only at the in/egress nodes. This is expected to produce a substantial elimination of OEO costs, increase in network capacity, and a notionally simpler operation and service turn-up. At the same time, such optical "analog" network requires a large amount of complicated hardware and software for monitoring and manipulating high bit rate optical signals. New and more complex modulation formats that provide resiliency to both optical noise and nonlinear propagation effects are important for extended

  12. Active holographic interconnects for interfacing volume storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domash, Lawrence H.; Schwartz, Jay R.; Nelson, Arthur R.; Levin, Philip S.

    1992-04-01

    In order to achieve the promise of terabit/cm3 data storage capacity for volume holographic optical memory, two technological challenges must be met. Satisfactory storage materials must be developed and the input/output architectures able to match their capacity with corresponding data access rates must also be designed. To date the materials problem has received more attention than devices and architectures for access and addressing. Two philosophies of parallel data access to 3-D storage have been discussed. The bit-oriented approach, represented by recent work on two-photon memories, attempts to store bits at local sites within a volume without affecting neighboring bits. High speed acousto-optic or electro- optic scanners together with dynamically focused lenses not presently available would be required. The second philosophy is that volume optical storage is essentially holographic in nature, and that each data write or read is to be distributed throughout the material volume on the basis of angle multiplexing or other schemes consistent with the principles of holography. The requirements for free space optical interconnects for digital computers and fiber optic network switching interfaces are also closely related to this class of devices. Interconnects, beamlet generators, angle multiplexers, scanners, fiber optic switches, and dynamic lenses are all devices which may be implemented by holographic or microdiffractive devices of various kinds, which we shall refer to collectively as holographic interconnect devices. At present, holographic interconnect devices are either fixed holograms or spatial light modulators. Optically or computer generated holograms (submicron resolution, 2-D or 3-D, encoding 1013 bits, nearly 100 diffraction efficiency) can implement sophisticated mathematical design principles, but of course once fabricated they cannot be changed. Spatial light modulators offer high speed programmability but have limited resolution (512 X 512 pixels

  13. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-01

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g(-1) after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g(-1) at 0.9 A g(-1), 128 mA h g(-1) at 1.5 A g(-1), 91 mA h g(-1) at 3 A g(-1) and 59 mA h g(-1) at 6 A g(-1), respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage. PMID:26817818

  14. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-01

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g−1 after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g−1 at 0.9 A g−1, 128 mA h g−1 at 1.5 A g−1, 91 mA h g−1 at 3 A g−1 and 59 mA h g−1 at 6 A g−1, respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage. PMID:26817818

  15. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-01

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g-1 at 0.9 A g-1, 128 mA h g-1 at 1.5 A g-1, 91 mA h g-1 at 3 A g-1 and 59 mA h g-1 at 6 A g-1, respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage.

  16. Ultradispersed Nanoarchitecture of LiV3O8 Nanoparticle/Reduced Graphene Oxide with High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes.

    PubMed

    Mo, Runwei; Du, Ying; Rooney, David; Ding, Guqiao; Sun, Kening

    2016-01-28

    Lack of high-performance cathode materials has become the major barriers to lithium-ion battery applications in advanced communication equipment and electric vehicles. In this paper, we report a versatile interfacial reaction strategy, which is based on the idea of space confinement, for the synthesis of ultradispersed LiV3O8 nanoparticles (~10 nm) on graphene (denoted as LVO NPs-GNs) with an unprecedented degree of control on the separation and manipulation of the nucleation, growth, anchoring, and crystallization of nanoparticles in a water-in-oil emulsion system over free growth in solution. The prepared LVO NPs-GNs composites displayed high performance as an cathode material for lithium-ion battery, including high reversible lithium storage capacity (237 mA h g(-1) after 200 cycles), high Coulombic efficiency (about 98%), excellent cycling stability and high rate capability (as high as 176 mA h g(-1) at 0.9 A g(-1), 128 mA h g(-1) at 1.5 A g(-1), 91 mA h g(-1) at 3 A g(-1) and 59 mA h g(-1) at 6 A g(-1), respectively). Very significantly, the preparation method employed can be easily adapted and may opens the door to complex hybrid materials design and engineering with graphene for advanced energy storage.

  17. Optic neuritis

    MedlinePlus

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  18. Ultra-stable optical amplifier technologies for dynamic optical switching networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraiwa, M.; Tsang, K. S.; Man, R.; Puttnam, B. J.; Awaji, Y.; Wada, N.

    2015-01-01

    High-capacity fiber-optic communications are promising technologies to satisfy people's continuously growing demands for bandwidth hungry data services. Multi-wavelength optical circuit switching (OCS) technology is already widely deployed, however, with the limited number of transceivers equipped at each optical node and other constraints, the number of lightpaths which can be established and employed simultaneously in an optical network is restricted. This reduces the utilization efficiency of wavelength resources. Comparing to OCS, dynamic optical switching systems such as optical packet switching (OPS) offer higher efficiency in terms of wavelength resource utilization and have the potential to share more of the wavelength resources on fiber-links between larger numbers of users simultaneously. In such networks, bursty input signals or changes in traffic density may cause optical power surges that can damage optical components or impose gain transients on the signals that impair signal quality. A common approach for reducing gain transients is to employ electrical automatic gain control (AGC) or optical gain-clamping by optical feedback (OFB). AGC may be limited by the speed of the feedback circuit and result in additional transients. Meanwhile OFB can clamp the gain of power varying optical signals without transient but can introduce amplitude fluctuations caused by relaxation oscillations in the lasing cavity for large input power fluctuations. We propose and demonstrate a novel scheme for suppressing the power transients and the relaxation oscillations. This scheme can be utilized in optical amplifiers even if the optical feedback is employed.

  19. Hollow Li20B60 Cage: Stability and Hydrogen Storage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Wei, Zhi-Jing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    A stable hollow Li20B60 cage with D2 symmetry has been identified using first-principles density functional theory studies. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that this Li20B60 cage is exceptionally stable. The feasibility of functionalizing Li20B60 cage for hydrogen storage was explored theoretically. Our calculated results show that the Li20B60 molecule can adsorb a maximum of 28 hydrogen molecules. With a hydrogen uptake of 8.190 wt% and an average binding energy of 0.336 eV/H2, Li20B60 is a remarkable high-capacity storage medium. PMID:27076264

  20. Hollow Li20B60 Cage: Stability and Hydrogen Storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wei, Zhi-Jing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Ying

    2016-04-14

    A stable hollow Li20B60 cage with D2 symmetry has been identified using first-principles density functional theory studies. The results of vibrational frequency analysis and molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that this Li20B60 cage is exceptionally stable. The feasibility of functionalizing Li20B60 cage for hydrogen storage was explored theoretically. Our calculated results show that the Li20B60 molecule can adsorb a maximum of 28 hydrogen molecules. With a hydrogen uptake of 8.190 wt% and an average binding energy of 0.336 eV/H2, Li20B60 is a remarkable high-capacity storage medium.

  1. Optimization of a Brayton cryocooler for ZBO liquid hydrogen storage in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deserranno, D.; Zagarola, M.; Li, X.; Mustafi, S.

    2014-11-01

    NASA is evaluating and developing technology for long-term storage of cryogenic propellant in space. A key technology is a cryogenic refrigerator which intercepts heat loads to the storage tank, resulting in a reduced- or zero-boil-off condition. Turbo-Brayton cryocoolers are particularly well suited for cryogen storage applications because the technology scales well to high capacities and low temperatures. In addition, the continuous-flow nature of the cycle allows direct cooling of the cryogen storage tank without mass and power penalties associated with a cryogenic heat transport system. To quantify the benefits and mature the cryocooler technology, Creare Inc. performed a design study and technology demonstration effort for NASA on a 20 W, 20 K cryocooler for liquid hydrogen storage. During the design study, we optimized these key components: three centrifugal compressors, a modular high-capacity plate-fin recuperator, and a single-stage turboalternator. The optimization of the compressors and turboalternator were supported by component testing. The optimized cryocooler has an overall flight mass of 88 kg and a specific power of 61 W/W. The coefficient of performance of the cryocooler is 23% of the Carnot cycle. This is significantly better performance than any 20 K space cryocooler existing or under development.

  2. Novel silicon and tin alloy nano-particulate materials via spark erosion for high performance and high capacity anodes in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Emma Marie Hamilton

    The advent and popularity of portable electronics, as well as the need to reduce carbon-based fuel dependence for environmental and economic reasons, has led to the search for higher energy density portable power storage methods. Lithium ion batteries offer the highest energy density of any portable energy storage technology, but their potential is limited by the currently used materials. Theoretical capacities of silicon (3580 mAh/g) and tin (990 mAh/g) are significantly higher than existing graphitic anodes (372 mAh/g). However, silicon and tin must be scaled down to the nano-level to mitigate the pulverization from drastic volume changes in the anode structure during lithium ion insertion/extraction. The available synthesis techniques for silicon and tin nano-particles are complicated and scale-up is costly. A unique one-step process for synthesizing Si-Sn alloy and Sn nano-particles via spark plasma erosion has been developed to achieve the ideal nano-particulate size and carbon coating architecture. Spark erosion produces crystalline and amorphous spherical nano-particles, averaging 5-500nm in diameter. Several tin and silicon alloys have been spark eroded and thoroughly characterized using SEM, TEM, EDS, XPS, Auger spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy and TGA. The resulting nano-particles show improved performance as anodes over commercialized materials. In particular, pure sparked Sn particles show stable reversible capacity at ˜460 mAh/g with >99.5% coulombic efficiency for over 100 cycles. These particles are drop-in ready for existing commercial anode processing techniques and by only adding 10% of the sparked Sn particles the total current cell capacity will increase by ˜13%.

  3. Optomechanical light storage in a silica microresonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Victor; Dong, Chunhua; Kuzyk, Mark C.; Wang, Hailin

    2013-02-01

    Coherent interconversion between an optical and a mechanical excitation in an optomechanical resonator can be used for the storage of an optical pulse as an excitation in a mechanical oscillator. This optomechanical light storage is enabled by external writing and readout pulses at one mechanical frequency below the optical resonance. In this paper, we expand an earlier experimental study [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.133601 107, 133601 (2011)] on storing an optical pulse as a radial breathing mode in a silica microsphere. We show that the heterodyne beating between a readout pulse and the corresponding retrieved pulse features a periodic oscillation with a well-defined phase and with the beating period given by the mechanical frequency, demonstrating directly the coherent nature of the light storage process. The coherent interconversion accelerates with increasing optomechanical coupling rates, providing an effective mechanism for tailoring the temporal profile of the retrieved pulse. Experimental studies on both light storage and optomechanically induced transparency under nearly the same conditions also illustrate the connections between these two closely related processes.

  4. In-home networks integrating high-capacity DMT data and DVB-T over large-core GI-POF.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Marta; Shi, Yan; Okonkwo, Chigo; Llorente, Roberto; Tangdiongga, Eduward; Koonen, Ton

    2012-12-31

    The low-cost in-home distribution of full-standard digital TV jointly with high-bitrate data using 50 m long 1 mm core diameter graded-index plastic optical fiber (GI-POF) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Discrete multitone (DMT) modulation is demonstrated to provide an adaptive bitrate which can spectrally coexist with digital video broadcasting-terrestrial (DVB-T) signals in 470-862 MHz. A 3 Gb/s DMT signal and two DVB-T channels are generated, transmitted and received exhibiting excellent performance.

  5. Optical Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

  6. Smart Optical RAM for Fast Information Management and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1998-01-01

    Statement of Problem Instruments for high speed and high capacity in-situ data identification, classification and storage capabilities are needed by NASA for the information management and analysis of extremely large volume of data sets in future space exploration, space habitation and utilization, in addition to the various missions to planet-earth programs. Parameters such as communication delays, limited resources, and inaccessibility of human manipulation require more intelligent, compact, low power, and light weight information management and data storage techniques. New and innovative algorithms and architecture using photonics will enable us to meet these challenges. The technology has applications for other government and public agencies.

  7. MEMS/MOEMS application to optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2001-09-01

    The paper describes brief summary of current MEMS technology and its application to optics. The optical application is one of the most important applications of MEMS because of two reasons; one is that the micromachine technology can provide high performances and new functionalities for optical systems and the other is that those optical microsystems can satisfy market demands for optical communication networks, displays, data storage and sensors. Opportunities for MEMS-based devices in optical communication networks are discussed. Some specific examples of MEMS optical switches are described.

  8. Optical mass memory investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The MASTER 1 optical mass storage system advanced working model (AWM) was designed to demonstrate recording and playback of imagery data and to enable quantitative data to be derived as to the statistical distribution of raw errors experienced through the system. The AWM consists of two subsystems, the recorder and storage and retrieval. The recorder subsystem utilizes key technologies such as an acoustic travelling wave lens to achieve recording of digital data on fiche at a rate of 30 Mbits/sec, whereas the storage and retrieval reproducer subsystem utilizes a less complex optical system that employs an acousto-optical beam deflector to achieve data readout at a 5 Mbits/sec rate. The system has the built in capability for detecting and collecting error statistics. The recorder and storage and retrieval subsystems operate independent of one another and are each constructed in modular form with each module performing independent functions. The operation of each module and its interface to other modules is controlled by one controller for both subsystems.

  9. Optical mass memory investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-05-01

    The MASTER 1 optical mass storage system advanced working model (AWM) was designed to demonstrate recording and playback of imagery data and to enable quantitative data to be derived as to the statistical distribution of raw errors experienced through the system. The AWM consists of two subsystems, the recorder and storage and retrieval. The recorder subsystem utilizes key technologies such as an acoustic travelling wave lens to achieve recording of digital data on fiche at a rate of 30 Mbits/sec, whereas the storage and retrieval reproducer subsystem utilizes a less complex optical system that employs an acousto-optical beam deflector to achieve data readout at a 5 Mbits/sec rate. The system has the built in capability for detecting and collecting error statistics. The recorder and storage and retrieval subsystems operate independent of one another and are each constructed in modular form with each module performing independent functions. The operation of each module and its interface to other modules is controlled by one controller for both subsystems.

  10. DVD-RAM-based network storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ura, Tetsuya; Tanabe, Takaya; Yamamoto, Manabu

    2000-04-01

    A network storage system with a high transfer rate and high capacity has been developed. This system, DVD-RAIL (Digital Versatile Disk-Redundant Array of Inexpensive Libraries), consists of six small DVD-RAM libraries and a RAILcontroller, which uses the RAID4 algorithm. Each library has two DVD-RAM drives, a robotic changer and a slot for storing up to 150 DVD-RAM disks. The system can handle up to 900 disks, corresponding to about 2 TB of storage. Data transfer is done in parallel from and to each library, so the transfer rate is over 6 MB/sec. The redundant architecture of RAIL provides high reliability, enabling the system to continue working even if an error occurs in one of the libraries. The RAILcontroller controls all the allocation and parallel transmission processes, so the system behaves as a large single library. Evaluation of the system showed that it can distribute high- definition moving pictures at over 20 Mbps and that a transfer rate of over 50 Mbps may be feasible.

  11. New Trends of Digital Data Storage in DNA

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    With the exponential growth in the capacity of information generated and the emerging need for data to be stored for prolonged period of time, there emerges a need for a storage medium with high capacity, high storage density, and possibility to withstand extreme environmental conditions. DNA emerges as the prospective medium for data storage with its striking features. Diverse encoding models for reading and writing data onto DNA, codes for encrypting data which addresses issues of error generation, and approaches for developing codons and storage styles have been developed over the recent past. DNA has been identified as a potential medium for secret writing, which achieves the way towards DNA cryptography and stenography. DNA utilized as an organic memory device along with big data storage and analytics in DNA has paved the way towards DNA computing for solving computational problems. This paper critically analyzes the various methods used for encoding and encrypting data onto DNA while identifying the advantages and capability of every scheme to overcome the drawbacks identified priorly. Cryptography and stenography techniques have been analyzed in a critical approach while identifying the limitations of each method. This paper also identifies the advantages and limitations of DNA as a memory device and memory applications. PMID:27689089

  12. New Trends of Digital Data Storage in DNA

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    With the exponential growth in the capacity of information generated and the emerging need for data to be stored for prolonged period of time, there emerges a need for a storage medium with high capacity, high storage density, and possibility to withstand extreme environmental conditions. DNA emerges as the prospective medium for data storage with its striking features. Diverse encoding models for reading and writing data onto DNA, codes for encrypting data which addresses issues of error generation, and approaches for developing codons and storage styles have been developed over the recent past. DNA has been identified as a potential medium for secret writing, which achieves the way towards DNA cryptography and stenography. DNA utilized as an organic memory device along with big data storage and analytics in DNA has paved the way towards DNA computing for solving computational problems. This paper critically analyzes the various methods used for encoding and encrypting data onto DNA while identifying the advantages and capability of every scheme to overcome the drawbacks identified priorly. Cryptography and stenography techniques have been analyzed in a critical approach while identifying the limitations of each method. This paper also identifies the advantages and limitations of DNA as a memory device and memory applications.

  13. Metal-functionalized silicene for efficient hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tanveer; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2013-10-21

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory are used to investigate the electronic structure along with the stability, bonding mechanism, band gap, and charge transfer of metal-functionalized silicene to envisage its hydrogen-storage capacity. Various metal atoms including Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, and Ca are doped into the most stable configuration of silicene. The corresponding binding energies and charge-transfer mechanisms are discussed from the perspective of hydrogen-storage compatibility. The Li and Na metal dopants are found to be ideally suitable, not only for strong metal-to-substrate binding and uniform distribution over the substrate, but also for the high-capacity storage of hydrogen. The stabilities of both Li- and Na-functionalized silicene are also confirmed through molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that both of the alkali metals, Li(+) and Na(+), can adsorb five hydrogen molecules, attaining reasonably high storage capacities of 7.75 and 6.9 wt %, respectively, with average adsorption energies within the range suitable for practical hydrogen-storage applications.

  14. Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Storage Technology: Fundamental Research for Optimization of Hydrogen Storage and Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Perret, Bob; Heske, Clemens; Nadavalath, Balakrishnan; Cornelius, Andrew; Hatchett, David; Bae, Chusung; Pang, Tao; Kim, Eunja; Hemmers, Oliver

    2011-03-28

    Design and development of improved low-cost hydrogen fuel cell catalytic materials and high-capacity hydrogenn storage media are paramount to enabling the hydrogen economy. Presently, effective and durable catalysts are mostly precious metals in pure or alloyed form and their high cost inhibits fuel cell applications. Similarly, materials that meet on-board hydrogen storage targets within total mass and volumetric constraints are yet to be found. Both hydrogen storage performance and cost-effective fuel cell designs are intimately linked to the electronic structure, morphology and cost of the chosen materials. The FCAST Project combined theoretical and experimental studies of electronic structure, chemical bonding, and hydrogen adsorption/desorption characteristics of a number of different nanomaterials and metal clusters to develop better fundamental understanding of hydrogen storage in solid state matrices. Additional experimental studies quantified the hydrogen storage properties of synthesized polyaniline(PANI)/Pd composites. Such conducting polymers are especially interesting because of their high intrinsic electron density and the ability to dope the materials with protons, anions, and metal species. Earlier work produced contradictory results: one study reported 7% to 8% hydrogen uptake while a second study reported zero hydrogen uptake. Cost and durability of fuel cell systems are crucial factors in their affordability. Limits on operating temperature, loss of catalytic reactivity and degradation of proton exchange membranes are factors that affect system durability and contribute to operational costs. More cost effective fuel cell components were sought through studies of the physical and chemical nature of catalyst performance, characterization of oxidation and reduction processes on system surfaces. Additional development effort resulted in a new hydrocarbon-based high-performance sulfonated proton exchange membrane (PEM) that can be manufactured at low

  15. TiO2-V2O5 nanocomposites as alternative energy storage substances for photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Ngaotrakanwiwat, Pailin; Meeyoo, Vissanu

    2012-01-01

    TiO2-V2O5 was prepared and evaluated as an energy storage material for photocatalysts with high capacity and initial charging rate. The compound was successfully obtained by sol-gel technique and effects of compound composition and calcination temperature on the energy storage ability were investigated. The synthesized compounds were characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results reveals that the compound of Ti:V molar ratio equal to 1:0.11 calcined at 550 degrees C exhibited superior energy storage ability than parent substances and 1.7-times higher capacity and 2.3-times higher initial charging rate compared to WO3, indicating that the compound is a remarkable alternative to conventional energy storage substances.

  16. Efficient hydrogen storage with the combination of lightweight Mg/MgH2 and nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fangyi; Tao, Zhanliang; Liang, Jing; Chen, Jun

    2012-07-28

    Efficient hydrogen storage plays a key role in realizing the incoming hydrogen economy. However, it still remains a great challenge to develop hydrogen storage media with high capacity, favourable thermodynamics, fast kinetics, controllable reversibility, long cycle life, low cost and high safety. To achieve this goal, the combination of lightweight materials and nanostructures should offer great opportunities. In this article, we review recent advances in the field of chemical hydrogen storage that couples lightweight materials and nanostructures, focusing on Mg/MgH(2)-based systems. Selective theoretical and experimental studies on Mg/MgH(2) nanostructures are overviewed, with the emphasis on illustrating the influences of nanostructures on the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation mechanisms and hydrogen storage properties such as capacity, thermodynamics and kinetics. In particular, theoretical studies have shown that the thermodynamics of Mg/MgH(2) clusters below 2 nm change more prominently as particle size decreases. PMID:22715459

  17. Hydrogen Storage Materials for Mobile and Stationary Applications: Current State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Lai, Qiwen; Paskevicius, Mark; Sheppard, Drew A; Buckley, Craig E; Thornton, Aaron W; Hill, Matthew R; Gu, Qinfen; Mao, Jianfeng; Huang, Zhenguo; Liu, Hua Kun; Guo, Zaiping; Banerjee, Amitava; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-Francois

    2015-09-01

    One of the limitations to the widespread use of hydrogen as an energy carrier is its storage in a safe and compact form. Herein, recent developments in effective high-capacity hydrogen storage materials are reviewed, with a special emphasis on light compounds, including those based on organic porous structures, boron, nitrogen, and aluminum. These elements and their related compounds hold the promise of high, reversible, and practical hydrogen storage capacity for mobile applications, including vehicles and portable power equipment, but also for the large scale and distributed storage of energy for stationary applications. Current understanding of the fundamental principles that govern the interaction of hydrogen with these light compounds is summarized, as well as basic strategies to meet practical targets of hydrogen uptake and release. The limitation of these strategies and current understanding is also discussed and new directions proposed.

  18. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  19. Microemulsions based on a sunflower lecithin-Tween 20 blend have high capacity for dissolving peppermint oil and stabilizing coenzyme Q10.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Guan, Yongguang; Zhong, Qixin

    2015-01-28

    The objectives of the present study were to improve the capability of microemulsions to dissolve peppermint oil by blending sunflower lecithin with Tween 20 and to study the possibility of codelivering lipophilic bioactive compounds. The oil loading in microemulsions with 20% (w/w) Tween 20 increased from 3% (w/w) to 20% (w/w) upon gradual supplementation of 6% (w/w) lecithin. All microemulsions had particles of <12 nm that did not change over 70 d of storage at 21 °C. They had relatively low Newtonian viscosities and were physically and chemically stable after 50-200-fold dilution in water, resulting from similar hydrophile-lipophile-balance values of the surfactant mixture and peppermint oil. Furthermore, the microemulsions were capable of dissolving coenzyme Q10 and preventing its degradation at UV 302 nm, more significant for the microemulsion with lecithin. Therefore, natural surfactant lecithin can reduce the use of synthetic Tween 20 to dissolve peppermint oil and protect the degradation of dissolved lipophilic bioactive components in transparent products.

  20. A three-dimensional porous MoP@C hybrid as a high-capacity, long-cycle life anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Pingping; Qin, Jinwen; Wang, Jianqiang; Xiao, Ying; Cao, Minhua

    2016-05-21

    Metal phosphides are great promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with a high gravimetric capacity. However, significant challenges such as low capacity, fast capacity fading and poor cycle stability must be addressed for their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate a versatile strategy for the synthesis of a novel three-dimensional porous molybdenum phosphide@carbon hybrid (3D porous MoP@C hybrid) by a template sol-gel method followed by an annealing treatment. The resultant hybrid exhibits a 3D interconnected ordered porous structure with a relatively high surface area. Benefiting from its advantages of microstructure and composition, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid displays excellent lithium storage performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability and long-cycle life. It presents stable cycling performance with a high reversible capacity up to 1028 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 100 mA g(-1) after 100 cycles. By ex situ XRD, HRTEM, SAED and XPS analyses, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid was found to follow the Li-intercalation reaction mechanism (MoP + xLi(+) + e(-)↔ LixMoP), which was further confirmed by ab initio calculations based on density functional theory.

  1. Facile synthesis of nickel-foam-based nano-architectural composites as binder-free anodes for high capacity Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Shudi; Zhao, Chongjun; Ju, Peiwen; Zhou, Tengfei; Gao, Hong; Zheng, Yang; Wang, Hongqiang; Chen, Guorong; Qian, Xiuzhen; Guo, Zaiping

    2016-02-01

    A series of nickel foam (NF)-based composites of MxOy/RGO/Ni(OH)2 [MxOy = Co3O4, MnO2, and Ni(OH)2] with diverse multilayer nano-architectures were designed and grown in situ on NF through a one-pot hydrothermal process. Based on the redox reaction between the active NF substrate and graphene oxide (GO), along with electrostatic forces between the Mn+ ions and GO in the solution, strong interactions take place at the interfaces of MxOy/RGO, RGO/Ni(OH)2, and Ni(OH)2/Ni, and thus, there is good contact for electron transfer. These MxOy/RGO/Ni(OH)2 samples were directly used as conductive-agent- and binder-free anodes for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), and the Ni(OH)2/RGO/Ni(OH)2/NF composite electrode showed a high specific capacity, good rate capability, and excellent cycling stability, especially, it had a high reversible capacity of about 1330 mAh g-1 even after 200 cycles at 100 mA g-1. This general strategy presents a promising route for the design and synthesis of various multilayer nano-architectural transition metal oxides (hydroxide)/RGO composites on NF as energy storage materials.

  2. Multiplexed image storage by electromagnetically induced transparency in a solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, G.; Rentzsch, N.; Halfmann, T.

    2012-11-01

    We report on frequency- and angle-multiplexed image storage by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. Frequency multiplexing by EIT relies on simultaneous storage of light pulses in atomic coherences, driven in different frequency ensembles of the inhomogeneously broadened solid medium. Angular multiplexing by EIT relies on phase matching of the driving laser beams, which permits simultaneous storage of light pulses propagating under different angles into the crystal. We apply the multiplexing techniques to increase the storage capacity of the EIT-driven optical memory, in particular to implement multiplexed storage of larger two-dimensional amounts of data (images). We demonstrate selective storage and readout of images by frequency-multiplexed EIT and angular-multiplexed EIT, as well as the potential to combine both multiplexing approaches towards further enhanced storage capacities.

  3. A three-dimensional porous MoP@C hybrid as a high-capacity, long-cycle life anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Pingping; Qin, Jinwen; Wang, Jianqiang; Xiao, Ying; Cao, Minhua

    2016-05-01

    Metal phosphides are great promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with a high gravimetric capacity. However, significant challenges such as low capacity, fast capacity fading and poor cycle stability must be addressed for their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate a versatile strategy for the synthesis of a novel three-dimensional porous molybdenum phosphide@carbon hybrid (3D porous MoP@C hybrid) by a template sol-gel method followed by an annealing treatment. The resultant hybrid exhibits a 3D interconnected ordered porous structure with a relatively high surface area. Benefiting from its advantages of microstructure and composition, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid displays excellent lithium storage performance as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries in terms of specific capacity, cycling stability and long-cycle life. It presents stable cycling performance with a high reversible capacity up to 1028 mA h g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 after 100 cycles. By ex situ XRD, HRTEM, SAED and XPS analyses, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid was found to follow the Li-intercalation reaction mechanism (MoP + xLi+ + e- <--> LixMoP), which was further confirmed by ab initio calculations based on density functional theory.Metal phosphides are great promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with a high gravimetric capacity. However, significant challenges such as low capacity, fast capacity fading and poor cycle stability must be addressed for their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate a versatile strategy for the synthesis of a novel three-dimensional porous molybdenum phosphide@carbon hybrid (3D porous MoP@C hybrid) by a template sol-gel method followed by an annealing treatment. The resultant hybrid exhibits a 3D interconnected ordered porous structure with a relatively high surface area. Benefiting from its advantages of microstructure and composition, the 3D porous MoP@C hybrid displays excellent lithium storage performance as an

  4. Hierarchical micron-sized mesoporous/macroporous graphene with well-tuned surface oxygen chemistry for high capacity and cycling stability Li-O2 battery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Hongzhang; Nie, Hongjiao; Ma, Yiwen; Zhang, Yining; Zhang, Huamin

    2015-02-11

    Nonaqueous Li-O2 battery is recognized as one of the most promising energy storage devices for electric vehicles due to its super-high energy density. At present, carbon or catalyst-supporting carbon materials are widely used for cathode materials of Li-O2 battery. However, the unique electrode reaction and complex side reactions lead to numerous hurdles that have to be overcome. The pore blocking caused by the solid products and the byproducts generated from the side reactions severely limit the capacity performance and cycling stability. Thus, there is a great need to develop carbon materials with optimized pore structure and tunable surface chemistry to meet the special requirement of Li-O2 battery. Here, we propose a strategy of vacuum-promoted thermal expansion to fabricate one micron-sized graphene matrix with a hierarchical meso-/macroporous structure, combining with a following deoxygenation treatment to adjust the surface chemistry by reducing the amount of oxygen and selectively removing partial unstable groups. The as-made graphene demonstrates dramatically tailored pore characteristics and a well-tuned surface chemical environment. When applied in Li-O2 battery as cathode, it exhibits an outstanding capacity up to 19 800 mA h g(-1) and is capable of enduring over 50 cycles with a curtaining capacity of 1000 mA h g(-1) at a current density of 1000 mA g(-1). This will provide a novel pathway for the design of cathodes for Li-O2 battery.

  5. Parallel optical memories for very large databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitkas, Pericles A.; Berra, P. B.

    1993-02-01

    The steady increase in volume of current and future databases dictates the development of massive secondary storage devices that allow parallel access and exhibit high I/O data rates. Optical memories, such as parallel optical disks and holograms, can satisfy these requirements because they combine high recording density and parallel one- or two-dimensional output. Several configurations for database storage involving different types of optical memory devices are investigated. All these approaches include some level of optical preprocessing in the form of data filtering in an attempt to reduce the amount of data per transaction that reach the electronic front-end.

  6. Nonlinear optical signal processing for high-speed, spectrally efficient fiber optic systems and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo

    The past decade has witnessed astounding boom in telecommunication network traffic. With the emergence of multimedia over Internet, the high-capacity optical transport systems have started to shift focus from the core network towards the end users. This trend leads to diverse optical networks with transparency and reconfigurability requirement. As single channel data rate continues to increase and channel spacing continues to shrink for high capacity, high spectral efficiency, the workload on conventional electronic signal processing elements in the router nodes continues to build up. Performing signal processing functions in the optical domain can potentially alleviate the speed bottleneck if the unique optical properties are efficiently leveraged to assist electronic processing methodologies. Ultra-high bandwidth capability along with the promise for multi-channel and format-transparent operation make optical signal processing an attractive technology which is expected to have great impact on future optical networks. For optical signal processing applications in fiber-optic network and systems, a laudable goal would be to explore the unique nonlinear optical processes in novel photonic devices. This dissertation investigates novel optical signal processing techniques through simulations and experimental demonstrations, analyzes limitations of these nonlinear processing elements and proposes techniques to enhance the system performance or designs for functional photonic modules. Two key signal-processing building blocks for future optical networks, namely slow-light-based tunable optical delay lines and SOA-based high-speed wavelength converters, are presented in the first part of the dissertation. Phase preserving and spectrally efficient slow light are experimentally demonstrated using advanced modulation formats. Functional and novel photonic modules, such as multi-channel synchronizer and variable-bit-rate optical time division multiplexer are designed and

  7. Thermal energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The planning and implementation of activities associated with lead center management role and the technical accomplishments pertaining to high temperature thermal energy storage subsystems are described. Major elements reported are: (1) program definition and assessment; (2) research and technology development; (3) industrial storage applications; (4) solar thermal power storage applications; and (5) building heating and cooling applications.

  8. Multiplexed Holographic Data Storage in Bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrl, David J.; Krile, Thomas F.

    1997-01-01

    High density optical data storage, driven by the information revolution, remains at the forefront of current research areas. Much of the current research has focused on photorefractive materials (SBN and LiNbO3) and polymers, despite various problems with expense, durability, response time and retention periods. Photon echo techniques, though promising, are questionable due to the need for cryogenic conditions. Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films are an attractive alternative recording medium. Great strides have been made in refining BR, and materials with storage lifetimes as long as 100 days have recently become available. The ability to deposit this robust polycrystalline material as high quality optical films suggests the use of BR as a recording medium for commercial optical disks. Our own recent research has demonstrated the suitability of BR films for real time spatial filtering and holography. We propose to fully investigate the feasibility of performing holographic mass data storage in BR. Important aspects of the problem to be investigated include various data multiplexing techniques (e.g. angle- amplitude- and phase-encoded multiplexing, and in particular shift-multiplexing), multilayer recording techniques, SLM selection and data readout using crossed polarizers for noise rejection. Systems evaluations of storage parameters, including access times, memory refresh constraints, erasure, signal-to-noise ratios and bit error rates, will be included in our investigations.

  9. Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies held in Sep. 1992 are included. The conference served as an informational exchange forum for topics primarily relating to the ingestion and management of massive amounts of data and the attendant problems (data ingestion rates now approach the order of terabytes per day). Discussion topics include the IEEE Mass Storage System Reference Model, data archiving standards, high-performance storage devices, magnetic and magneto-optic storage systems, magnetic and optical recording technologies, high-performance helical scan recording systems, and low end helical scan tape drives. Additional topics addressed the evolution of the identifiable unit for processing purposes as data ingestion rates increase dramatically, and the present state of the art in mass storage technology.

  10. Ultra-high-density phase-change storage and memory.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Hendrik F; O'Boyle, Martin; Martin, Yves C; Rooks, Michael; Wickramasinghe, H Kumar

    2006-05-01

    Phase-change storage is widely used in optical information technologies (DVD, CD-ROM and so on), and recently it has also been considered for non-volatile memory applications. This work reports advances in thermal data recording of phase-change materials. Specifically, we show erasable thermal phase-change recording at a storage density of 3.3 Tb inch(-2), which is three orders of magnitude denser than that currently achievable with commercial optical storage technologies. We demonstrate the concept of a thin-film nanoheater to realize ultra-small heat spots with dimensions of less than 50 nm. Finally, we show in a proof-of-concept demonstration that an individual thin-film heater can write, erase and read the phase of these storage materials at competitive speeds. This work provides important stepping stones for a very-high-density storage or memory technology based on phase-change materials. PMID:16604077

  11. Ultra-high-density phase-change storage and memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; O'Boyle, Martin; Martin, Yves C.; Rooks, Michael; Wickramasinghe, H. Kumar

    2006-05-01

    Phase-change storage is widely used in optical information technologies (DVD, CD-ROM and so on), and recently it has also been considered for non-volatile memory applications. This work reports advances in thermal data recording of phase-change materials. Specifically, we show erasable thermal phase-change recording at a storage density of 3.3 Tb inch-2, which is three orders of magnitude denser than that currently achievable with commercial optical storage technologies. We demonstrate the concept of a thin-film nanoheater to realize ultra-small heat spots with dimensions of less than 50 nm. Finally, we show in a proof-of-concept demonstration that an individual thin-film heater can write, erase and read the phase of these storage materials at competitive speeds. This work provides important stepping stones for a very-high-density storage or memory technology based on phase-change materials.

  12. Ultra-high-density phase-change storage and memory.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Hendrik F; O'Boyle, Martin; Martin, Yves C; Rooks, Michael; Wickramasinghe, H Kumar

    2006-05-01

    Phase-change storage is widely used in optical information technologies (DVD, CD-ROM and so on), and recently it has also been considered for non-volatile memory applications. This work reports advances in thermal data recording of phase-change materials. Specifically, we show erasable thermal phase-change recording at a storage density of 3.3 Tb inch(-2), which is three orders of magnitude denser than that currently achievable with commercial optical storage technologies. We demonstrate the concept of a thin-film nanoheater to realize ultra-small heat spots with dimensions of less than 50 nm. Finally, we show in a proof-of-concept demonstration that an individual thin-film heater can write, erase and read the phase of these storage materials at competitive speeds. This work provides important stepping stones for a very-high-density storage or memory technology based on phase-change materials.

  13. Optical computing and image processing using photorefractive gallium arsenide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Liu, Duncan T. H.

    1990-01-01

    Recent experimental results on matrix-vector multiplication and multiple four-wave mixing using GaAs are presented. Attention is given to a simple concept of using two overlapping holograms in GaAs to do two matrix-vector multiplication processes operating in parallel with a common input vector. This concept can be used to construct high-speed, high-capacity, reconfigurable interconnection and multiplexing modules, important for optical computing and neural-network applications.

  14. Fluorous Metal Organic Frameworks as Superhydrophobic Adsorbents for Oil Spill Cleanup and Hydrocarbons Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chi; Mather, Qian; Wang, Xiaoping; Kaipa, Ushasree; Nesterov, Vladimir; Venero, Augustin; Omary, Mohammad A

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fluorous metal-organic frameworks (FMOFs) are highly hydrophobic porous materials with a high capacity and affinity to C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} hydrocarbons of oil components. FMOF-1 exhibits reversible adsorption with a high capacity for n-hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, toluene, and p-xylene, with no detectable water adsorption even at near 100% relative humidity, drastically outperforming activated carbon and zeolite porous materials. FMOF-2, obtained from annealing FMOF-1, shows enlarged cages and channels with double toluene adsorption vs FMOF-1 based on crystal structures. The results suggest great promise for FMOFs in applications such as removal of organic pollutants from oil spills or ambient humid air, hydrocarbon storage and transportation, water purification, etc. under practical working conditions.

  15. A media maniac's guide to removable mass storage media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempster, Linda S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses at a high level, the many individual technologies available today in the removable storage arena including removable magnetic tapes, magnetic floppies, optical disks and optical tape. Tape recorders represented below discuss logitudinal, serpantine, logitudinal serpantine,and helical scan technologies. The magnetic floppies discussed will be used for personal electronic in-box applications.Optical disks still fill the role for dense long-term storage. The media capacities quoted are for native data. In some cases, 2 KB ASC2 pages or 50 KB document images will be referenced.

  16. Electronic nose to detect volatile compound profile and quality changes in 'spring Belle' peach (Prunus persica L.) during cold storage in relation to fruit optical properties measured by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rizzolo, Anna; Bianchi, Giulia; Vanoli, Maristella; Lurie, Susan; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2013-02-27

    The aim of this research was to study the relationships between electronic nose (E-nose) pattern, maturity class of peaches assessed at harvest by means of absorption coefficient at 670 nm (μ(a)670) measured in fruit pulp by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS), and quality evolution during a 4 week cold storage. 'Spring Belle' peaches were measured for μ(a)670 by TRS, ranked according to decreasing μ(a)670 value, divided into three TRS maturity classes (less (LeM), medium (MeM), and more (MoM) mature), and randomized into 9 samples of 30 fruit each, so that fruits from the whole μ(a)670 range were present in each sample. At harvest and after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of storage at 0 and 4 °C, fruits of each sample were evaluated for firmness, expressible juice, μ(a)670, and ethylene production. LeM and MoM peaches of each sample were analyzed for aroma pattern by a commercial electronic nose and by static HS-GC and for sugar (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol) and organic acid (quinic, malic, and citric acids) compositions by HPLC. Principal component analysis (PCA) of electronic nose data emphasized the ability of the E-nose to assess the ripening stage of fruit associated with maturity class, storage time, and storage temperature. The sensors having the highest influence on the pattern were W5S in PC-1, W1S in PC-2, and W2S in PC-3. From linear correlation analysis between PCs and firmness, flavor, and volatile compounds, it was found that PC-1 was related to ethylene production and volatile compounds (mainly acetate esters and ethanol); the highest PC-1 scores were found for fruit belonging to the MoM class after 2 weeks of storage at 4 °C, which showed the rise in ethylene production coupled with the highest total volatile production and sugar and acid composition of ripe peach fruits. PC-2 correlated with hexanal, ethyl acetate, and sugar composition, and PC-3 was mainly related to flavor compounds; both functions significantly changed with

  17. Efficiency optimization for atomic frequency comb storage

    SciTech Connect

    Bonarota, M.; Ruggiero, J.; Le Goueet, J.-L.; Chaneliere, T.

    2010-03-15

    We study the efficiency of the atomic frequency comb storage protocol. We show that for a given optical depth, the preparation procedure can be optimize to significantly improve the retrieval. Our prediction is well supported by the experimental implementation of the protocol in a Tm{sup 3+}:YAG crystal. We observe a net gain in efficiency from 10 to 17% by applying the optimized preparation procedure. In the perspective of high bandwidth storage, we investigate the protocol under different magnetic fields. We analyze the effect of the Zeeman and superhyperfine interaction.

  18. Nanoscale tubular vessels for storage of methane at ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Solarz, Lech; Do, D D; Samborski, Adam; MacElroy, J M D

    2006-10-10

    Novel carbon nanostructures can serve as effective storage media for methane, a source of "clean energy" for the future. We have used Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Simulation for the modeling of methane storage at 293 K and pressures up to 80 MPa in idealized bundles of (10,10) armchair-type single-walled carbon nanotubes and wormlike carbon pores. We have found that these carbon nanomaterials can be treated as the world's smallest high-capacity methane storage vessels. Our simulation results indicate that such novel carbon nanostructures can reach a high volumetric energy storage, exceeding the US FreedomCAR Partnership target of 2010 (5.4 MJ dm(-3)), at low to moderate pressures ranging from 1 to 7 MPa at 293 K. On the contrary, in the absence of these nanomaterials, methane needs to be compressed to approximately 13 MPa at 293 K to achieve the same target. The light carbon membranes composed of bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes or wormlike pores efficiently physisorb methane at low to moderate pressures at 293 K, which we believe should be particularly important for automobiles and stationary devices. However, above 15-20 MPa at 293 K, all investigated samples of novel carbon nanomaterials are not as effective when compared with compression alone since the stored volumetric energy and power saturate at values below those of the bulk, compressed fluid.

  19. Nanoscale tubular vessels for storage of methane at ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Piotr; Solarz, Lech; Do, D D; Samborski, Adam; MacElroy, J M D

    2006-10-10

    Novel carbon nanostructures can serve as effective storage media for methane, a source of "clean energy" for the future. We have used Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Simulation for the modeling of methane storage at 293 K and pressures up to 80 MPa in idealized bundles of (10,10) armchair-type single-walled carbon nanotubes and wormlike carbon pores. We have found that these carbon nanomaterials can be treated as the world's smallest high-capacity methane storage vessels. Our simulation results indicate that such novel carbon nanostructures can reach a high volumetric energy storage, exceeding the US FreedomCAR Partnership target of 2010 (5.4 MJ dm(-3)), at low to moderate pressures ranging from 1 to 7 MPa at 293 K. On the contrary, in the absence of these nanomaterials, methane needs to be compressed to approximately 13 MPa at 293 K to achieve the same target. The light carbon membranes composed of bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes or wormlike pores efficiently physisorb methane at low to moderate pressures at 293 K, which we believe should be particularly important for automobiles and stationary devices. However, above 15-20 MPa at 293 K, all investigated samples of novel carbon nanomaterials are not as effective when compared with compression alone since the stored volumetric energy and power saturate at values below those of the bulk, compressed fluid. PMID:17014151

  20. PLANNING FOR OPTICAL DISK TECHNOLOGY WITH DIGITAL CARTOGRAPHY.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, Donald L.

    1984-01-01

    Progress in the computer field continues to suggest that the transition from traditional analog mapping systems to digital systems has become a practical possibility. A major shortfall that still exists in digital systems is the need for very large mass storage capacity. The decade of the 1980's has introduced laser optical disk storage technology, which may be the breakthrough needed for mass storage. This paper addresses system concepts for digital cartography during the transition period. Emphasis is placed on determining U. S. Geological Survey mass storage requirements and introducing laser optical disk technology for handling storage problems for digital data in this decade.