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Sample records for high-dose intravenous metronidazole

  1. Meta-analysis: High-dose vs. low-dose metronidazole-containing therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yingjie

    2018-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high dose of metronidazole in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Methods Studies were identified from databases (Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov) searched from January 1990 to September 2017 using a battery of keywords. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of H. pylori treatment comparing the high-dose and low-dose metronidazole-containing therapies (high-dose and low-dose therapies). Two reviewers independently selected studies, extracted relevant data and assessed study quality. A meta-analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.3. Dichotomous data were pooled to obtain the relative risk (RR) of the eradication rate, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Four randomized controlled trials, a total of 612 patients with a diagnosis of H. pylori infection were included. Overall the meta-analysis showed that both high-dose and low-dose therapies achieved similar efficacy of intention-to-treat (ITT) eradication rate 82% vs. 76%, RR 1.12 (95%CI: 0.96 to 1.30), P = 0.15, and adherence 94% vs. 94%, RR 1.00 (95%CI: 0.97 to 1.04), P = 0.81, but side effects were more likely in high-dose therapies [32% vs. 17%, RR 1.84 (95%CI: 1.17 to 2.88), P = 0.008]. In subgroup analysis, increasing the dose of metronidazole enhanced eradication rates in areas with high metronidazole resistance [74% vs 52%, RR 1.40 (95%CI: 1.08 to 1.82), P = 0.01] and in individuals with metronidazole-resistant strains [71% vs. 46%, RR 1.50 (95%CI: 1.02 to 2.19), P = 0.04]. Conclusions Both high-dose and low-dose therapies can achieve similar eradication rates and adherence and generally low-dose therapies cause fewer side effects. In populations with high metronidazole resistance, high dose of metronidazole can increase the eradication rates of H. pylori infection. PMID:29370199

  2. Fourteen-day high-dose esomeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole as third-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Puig, Ignasi; González-Santiago, Jesús M; Molina-Infante, Javier; Barrio, Jesús; Herranz, Maria Teresa; Algaba, Alicia; Castro, Manuel; Gisbert, Javier P; Calvet, Xavier

    2017-09-01

    The efficacy of currently recommended third-line therapies for Helicobacter pylori is suboptimal, even that of culture-guided treatments. Resistance to multiple antibiotics is the major factor related to treatment failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a 14-day therapy using high-dose of amoxicillin, metronidazole and esomeprazole. Multicenter open-label study as a register in routine clinical practice in patients with two previous failures of eradication therapy. A triple therapy with esomeprazole 40 mg b.d., amoxicillin 1 g t.d.s and metronidazole 500 mg t.d.s for 2 weeks was administered as a third-line therapy after a first treatment including clarithromycin and a second treatment including a quinolone. Helicobacter pylori status was determined by either histology or 13 C-UBT both before and after treatment. A total of 68 patients were included in this study. An interim analysis showed that only three out of eight patients who had received metronidazole in previous eradication regimens were cured (37%, 95% CI 8-75); as a result, after this interim analysis only metronidazole-naïve patients were included. The ITT eradication rate in metronidazole-naive patients was 64% (95% CI 51-76). Adverse events occurred in 58% of patients, all of them mild-to-moderate. Two patients (3%) did not complete >90% of the treatment because of side effects. No severe adverse events occurred. Cure rates of this 14-day schedule using high-dose esomeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole as a third-line eradication regimen were suboptimal, especially in patients who had received metronidazole in previous failed eradication regimens. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Controlled trial of intravenous metronidazole as an adjunct to corticosteroids in severe ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, R W; Selby, W S; Jewell, D P

    1986-01-01

    A prospective double blind controlled trial was undertaken to examine the role of metronidazole as an adjunct to corticosteroids in the management of severe ulcerative colitis. Thirty nine patients with severe ulcerative colitis were randomised on admission to hospital to receive either intravenous metronidazole 500 mg eight hourly (19 patients) or an identical intravenous placebo (20 patients). The two groups were similar with respect to age, sex, and the extent of colitis. In addition all patients received a standard intravenous regimen consisting of methyl prednisolone 16 mg six hourly and parenteral nutrition together with a twice daily hydrocortisone 100 mg enema. Treatment was continued for five days when the patients were formally assessed. Fourteen of 19 patients (74%) receiving metronidazole and 14/20 (70%) receiving placebo were substantially improved, or in remission at the end of five days. Five patients treated with metronidazole and six with placebo had no improvement and all proceeded to urgent colectomy with no operative mortality. There were three late deaths, one in the metronidazole and two in the placebo group. These results do not support the routine use of intravenous metronidazole in the treatment of severe ulcerative colitis. PMID:3536677

  4. Metronidazole

    MedlinePlus

    ... by too much of certain types of harmful bacteria in the vagina) in women. Metronidazole is in ... antimicrobials. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or ...

  5. High-dose versus low-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitor treatment for bleeding peptic ulcers.

    PubMed

    Leontiadis, Grigorios I; Howden, Colin W; Barkun, Alan N

    2012-12-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding is a common medical emergency associated with significant mortality and healthcare costs. All recent guidelines agree on the beneficial role of proton pump inhibitor treatment, but there is still controversy regarding the optimal dose and route of administration of proton pump inhibitors. The evaluated article reports on a large, single-center randomized controlled trial that compared the clinical efficacy of a low-dose twice-daily intravenous bolus regimen with a high-dose continuous intravenous infusion regimen in 875 patients with acute bleeding from peptic ulcers. The high-dose regimen was associated with significant reductions in rebleeding, blood transfusion requirements and length of hospital stay. There was no demonstrable difference in mortality or the need for endoscopic hemostatic treatment or surgery. We discuss the strengths and limitations of the evaluated article, as well as the implications for clinical practice.

  6. Reverse Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in the setting of anaphylaxis treated with high-dose intravenous epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Khoueiry, Georges; Abi Rafeh, Nidal; Azab, Basem; Markman, Evelina; Waked, Alain; AbouRjaili, Georges; Shariff, Masood; Costantino, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is seen, though rarely, in anaphylaxis treated with epinephrine. Stress cardiomyopathy is most likely to occur in middle-aged women. The underlying etiology is believed to be related to catecholamine release in periods of intense stress. Catecholamines administered exogenously, and those secreted by neuroendocrine tumors (e.g., pheochromocytoma) or during anaphylaxis have been reported to cause apical ballooning syndrome, or takotsubo syndrome. However, reverse takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy is rarely seen or reported in anaphylaxis treated with epinephrine. To report a case illustrating that high-dose intravenous epinephrine can trigger stress cardiomyopathy, and that the risk is heightened with inappropriate dosing in the treatment of anaphylaxis. We report a rare case of iatrogenic reverse takotsubo syndrome in a young woman who was inappropriately treated with high-dose intravenous epinephrine for mild anaphylaxis. Inappropriately high doses of intravenous epinephrine can trigger stress cardiomyopathy. Emergency physicians should be familiar with the diagnosis, grading, and appropriate treatments of anaphylaxis to avoid this unnecessary complication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Population pharmacokinetic modeling and Monte Carlo simulation of varying doses of intravenous metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Sprandel, Kelly A; Drusano, George L; Hecht, David W; Rotschafer, John C; Danziger, Larry H; Rodvold, Keith A

    2006-08-01

    Population pharmacokinetic modeling and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) are approaches used to determine probability of target attainment (PTA) of antimicrobial therapy. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine a population pharmacokinetic model (PPM) using metronidazole and hydroxy-metronidazole concentrations from healthy subjects and critically ill patients, and 2) to determine the probability of attaining the pharmacodynamic target area under the plasma concentration (AUC)/MIC ratio >or=70 against 218 clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis using MCS. Eighteen healthy subjects were randomized to 3 dosages of intravenous metronidazole (500 mg every 8 h, 1000 mg day(-1), 1500 mg day(-1)) in an open-label 3-way crossover fashion. Serial blood samples were collected over 25.5 h on the 3rd day of each study period. An additional of 8 critically ill patients received intravenous metronidazole 500 mg every 8 h. Serial blood samples were collected over 8 h after the 2nd day of dosing. Plasma metronidazole and hydroxy-metronidazole concentrations were analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay. The 834 plasma concentrations from 62 data sets were simultaneously modeled with Non-Parametric Adaptive Grid population modeling program. A 4-compartment model with a metabolite and zero-order infusion into the central compartment was used. The mean parameter vector and covariance matrix from PPM were inserted into the simulation module of ADAPT II. A 10,000-subject MCS was performed to determine the probability of PTA for a total drug AUC to MIC ratio >or=70 against 218 isolates of B. fragilis (MIC range, 0.125-2.0 mg L(-1)). Mean parameter values were CL(non-OH), 3.08 L h(-1); Vc, 35.4 L; K(OH), 0.04 h(-1); CL(OH), 2.78 L h(-1); and V(OH), 9.66 L. The regression values of the observed versus predicted concentrations (r2) of metronidazole and hydroxy-metronidazole were 0.972 and 0.980, respectively. The PTA for metronidazole 1500 mg day(-1) or 500 mg

  8. Review of high-dose intravenous vitamin C as an anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michelle K; Baguley, Bruce C; Wall, Clare; Jameson, Michael B; Findlay, Michael P

    2014-03-01

    In the 1970s, Pauling and Cameron reported increased survival of patients with advanced cancer treated with high-dose intravenous (IV) vitamin C (L-ascorbate, ascorbic acid). These studies were criticized for their retrospective nature and lack of standardization of key prognostic factors including performance status. Subsequently, several well-designed randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate a significant survival benefit, although these trials used high-dose oral vitamin C. Marked differences are now recognized in the pharmacokinetics of vitamin C with oral and IV administration, opening the issue of therapeutic efficacy to question. In vitro evidence suggests that vitamin C functions at low concentrations as an antioxidant but may have pro-oxidant activity at high concentrations. The mechanism of its pro-oxidant action is not fully understood, and both intra- and extracellular mechanisms that generate hydrogen peroxide have been proposed. It remains to be proven whether vitamin C-induced reactive oxygen species occur in vivo and, if so, whether this will translate to a clinical benefit. Current clinical evidence for a therapeutic effect of high-dose IV vitamin C is ambiguous, being based on case series. The interpretation and validation of these studies is hindered by limited correlation of plasma vitamin C concentrations with response. The methodology exists to determine if there is a role for high-dose IV vitamin C in the treatment of cancer, but the limited understanding of its pharmacodynamic properties makes this challenging. Currently, the use of high-dose IV vitamin C cannot be recommended outside of a clinical trial. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. High-dose, ten-day esomeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole triple therapy achieves high Helicobacter pylori eradication rates.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Delgado, J; García-Iglesias, P; Castro-Fernández, M; Bory, F; Barenys, M; Bujanda, L; Lisozain, J; Calvo, M M; Torra, S; Gisbert, J P; Calvet, X

    2012-07-01

    Strong acid inhibition using esomeprazole increases cure rates with triple therapy and 10-day treatments are more effective than 7-day ones. The combination of amoxicillin plus metronidazole at full doses, and using a physiologically-correct schedule three times a day, and has been shown to overcome metronidazole resistance and to achieve good eradication rates. To assess the eradication rate of a new first-line treatment regimen associating strong acid inhibition, amoxicillin and metronidazole and to evaluate tolerance. Patients from eight hospitals were included. Helicobacter pylori status was assessed by at least one of the following: histology, culture, rapid urease test or urea breath test (UBT). Ten-day treatment was prescribed comprising esomeprazole 40 mg twice a day plus amoxicillin 1 g and metronidazol 500 mg both three times a day. Helicobacter pylori cure was assessed by UBT. A hundred and thirty-six patients were enrolled. Mean age was 52.6 ± 16 years and 59.6% of patients were men. Main indications for treatment were: uninvestigated dyspepsia (13.6%); functional dyspepsia (18.2%); gastric ulcer (21.8%); and duodenal ulcer (39.8%). Helicobacter pylori eradication was achieved in 112 of the 127 patients who returned for follow-up. Eradication rates were 82.4% (95% CI: 74.7-88.1) by intention-to-treat analysis and 88.2% (95% CI: 81.2-92.8) by per protocol. Treatment was well tolerated and no major side effects were reported. Nine patients complained of mild side effects. Cure rates of the combination of esomeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole are high and the treatment was well tolerated. This pilot study warrants the comparison of this schedule with current standards. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Usefulness of high-dose intravenous human immunoglobulins treatment for refractory recurrent pericarditis.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Michele; Buiatti, Alessandra; Merlo, Marco; Massa, Laura; Fabris, Enrico; Pinamonti, Bruno; Sinagra, Gianfranco

    2013-11-01

    The management of refractory recurrent pericarditis is challenging. Previous clinical reports have noted a beneficial effect of high-dose intravenous human immunoglobulins (IvIgs) in isolated and systemic inflammatory disease-related forms. In this article, we analyzed retrospectively our clinical experience with IvIg therapy in a series of clinical cases of pericarditis refractory to conventional treatment. We retrospectively analyzed 9 patients (1994 to 2010) with refractory recurrent pericarditis, who received high-dose IvIg as a part of their medical treatment. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, or colchicine treatment was not discontinued during IvIg treatment. No patients had a history of autoimmune or connective tissue diseases. During an average period of 11 months from the first recurrence, patients had experienced a mean of 5 relapses before the first IvIg treatment. In 4 cases, patients showed complete clinical remission with no further relapse after the first IvIg cycle. Two patients experienced a single minor relapse, responsive to short-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In 2 patients, we performed a second cycle of IvIg after a recurrence of pericarditis, with subsequent complete remission. One patient did not respond to 3 cycles of IvIg and subsequently underwent pericardial window and long-term immunosuppressive treatment. No major adverse effect was observed in consequence of IvIg administration in all the cases. In conclusion, although IvIg mode of action is still poorly understood in this setting, this treatment can be considered as an option in patients with recurrent pericarditis refractory to conventional medical treatment and, in our small series, has proved to be effective in 8 of 9 cases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of hemolysis with high dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in pediatric patients: An open-label prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Akman, Alkim Oden; Kara, Fatma Karaca; Koksal, Tulin; Cakir, Bahar Cuhaci; Karagol, Cuneyt; Sayli, Tulin

    2017-08-01

    Immunoglobulin therapy can be used to treat a wide variety of diseases. However, intravenous immunoglobin products can cause several adverse reactions, including hemolysis. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of anemia and hemolysis after high dose intravenous immunoglobin (2g/kg) and its relationship to the ABO blood type system and hemolytic anemia blood parameters in pediatric patients. Incidence of 'Intravenous immunoglobulin related hemolysis' was %19 (6/31) after high dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. The blood parameters were measured before IVIG infusion (1-24h before infusion) and 3-10 days after the first day of infusion. In terms of decrease in Hb levels; decline of <1g/dL was detected in 25 patients (80.6%), ≥1g/dL in 2 patients (6.5%) and >2g/dL (severe hemolysis) in 4 patients (12.9%) after infusion. The decrease in hemoglobin, haptoglobin levels, the increase of reticulocyte count or direct bilirubin were statistically significant after infusion. Five of 6 hemolysis patients had non-O blood group, however statistically significant difference was not noted between these two groups. Also, intravenous immunoglobulin-related hemolysis was determined significantly higher in female than male patients. Mild to moderate hemolysis may be undetected after infusion and the true incidence of such reactions is difficult to document without careful clinical and laboratory follow-up. A careful risk assessment analysis should be performed before intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous levofloxacin at 750 milligrams and various doses of metronidazole in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Sprandel, Kelly A; Schriever, Christopher A; Pendland, Susan L; Quinn, John P; Gotfried, Mark H; Hackett, Suzanne; Graham, Mary Beth; Danziger, Larry H; Rodvold, Keith A

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intravenous levofloxacin at 750 mg administered once daily combined with three different dosages of intravenous metronidazole (500 mg every 8 h [q8h], 1,000 mg q24h, and 1,500 mg q24h). Eighteen healthy adult subjects received all three combinations in a randomized, crossover fashion. Serial blood and urine samples were collected on the third day of each study period. The 24-h areas under the inhibitory (AUIC(0-24)) and bactericidal (AUBC(0-24)) curves of these three combination regimens were determined against clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, and Escherichia coli. The mean concentrations of levofloxacin were not different between study periods and were similar to those previously published. The mean (+/- standard deviation) areas under the metronidazole plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-24)) for 1,500-mg q24h (338 +/- 105 mg.h/liter) and 500-mg q8h (356 +/- 68 mg.h/liter) regimens were not different (P > 0.05), but both were significantly higher than the 1,000-mg q24h AUC(0-24) (P < 0.05, 227 +/- 57 mg.h/liter). Mean (+/- standard deviation) total body clearance and renal clearance values were similar among the 500-mg q8h, 1,000-mg q24, and 1,500-mg q24h regimens (62 +/- 7, 67 +/- 13, and 67 +/- 14 and 11 +/- 3, 12 +/- 2, and 12 +/- 5 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively). Levofloxacin at 750 mg q24h plus metronidazole at 500 mg q8h or 1,500 mg q24h resulted in similar AUIC(0-24) and AUBC(0-24) values with one exception: the AUIC(0-24) for the 1,500-mg q24h regimen against B. thetaiotamicron was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the other regimens. Overall, the combination of levofloxacin at 750 mg once daily and metronidazole at 500 mg q8h or 1,500 mg q24h appeared to have greater AUIC(0-24) and AUBC(0-24) values than did the 1,000-mg q24h regimen. All combination

  13. Efficacy of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins in two patients with idiopathic recurrent pericarditis refractory to previous immunosuppressive treatment.

    PubMed

    Tona, Francesco; Bellotto, Fabio; Laveder, Francesco; Meneghin, Alessia; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Marcolongo, Renzo

    2003-01-01

    Although idiopathic acute pericarditis is usually a self-limiting disease, in many patients it may recur over a period of months or years. Even if some evidence seems to suggest the possible role of a deranged immune reactivity in the pathogenesis of idiopathic recurrent pericarditis, the etiology of the disease is still unknown. Furthermore, while some trial data confirm the usefulness of colchicine, its medical treatment is not yet clearly established. We here report the clinical history of 2 patients with idiopathic recurrent pericarditis resistant to prednisone, colchicine and other immunosuppressive drugs, who have been successfully treated with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Intravenous Levofloxacin at 750 Milligrams and Various Doses of Metronidazole in Healthy Adult Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sprandel, Kelly A.; Schriever, Christopher A.; Pendland, Susan L.; Quinn, John P.; Gotfried, Mark H.; Hackett, Suzanne; Graham, Mary Beth; Danziger, Larry H.; Rodvold, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the steady-state pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intravenous levofloxacin at 750 mg administered once daily combined with three different dosages of intravenous metronidazole (500 mg every 8 h [q8h], 1,000 mg q24h, and 1,500 mg q24h). Eighteen healthy adult subjects received all three combinations in a randomized, crossover fashion. Serial blood and urine samples were collected on the third day of each study period. The 24-h areas under the inhibitory (AUIC0-24) and bactericidal (AUBC0-24) curves of these three combination regimens were determined against clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, and Escherichia coli. The mean concentrations of levofloxacin were not different between study periods and were similar to those previously published. The mean (± standard deviation) areas under the metronidazole plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-24) for 1,500-mg q24h (338 ± 105 mg · h/liter) and 500-mg q8h (356 ± 68 mg · h/liter) regimens were not different (P > 0.05), but both were significantly higher than the 1,000-mg q24h AUC0-24 (P < 0.05, 227 ± 57 mg · h/liter). Mean (± standard deviation) total body clearance and renal clearance values were similar among the 500-mg q8h, 1,000-mg q24, and 1,500-mg q24h regimens (62 ± 7, 67 ± 13, and 67 ± 14 and 11 ± 3, 12 ± 2, and 12 ± 5 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively). Levofloxacin at 750 mg q24h plus metronidazole at 500 mg q8h or 1,500 mg q24h resulted in similar AUIC0-24 and AUBC0-24 values with one exception: the AUIC0-24 for the 1,500-mg q24h regimen against B. thetaiotamicron was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the other regimens. Overall, the combination of levofloxacin at 750 mg once daily and metronidazole at 500 mg q8h or 1,500 mg q24h appeared to have greater AUIC0-24 and AUBC0-24 values than did the 1,000-mg q24h regimen. All combination

  15. Four-times-daily Dosing of Rabeprazole with Sitafloxacin, High-Dose Amoxicillin, or Both for Metronidazole-Resistant Infection with Helicobacter pylori in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Sahara, Shu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Kagami, Takuma; Ban, Hiromitsu; Otsuka, Taketo; Andoh, Akira; Furuta, Takahisa

    2017-02-01

    The bacterial resistance of Helicobacter pylori to antimicrobial agents such as clarithromycin and metronidazole has been increasing worldwide, leading to the failure of eradication treatment. Here, we present an eradication regimen consisting of four-times-daily dosing (q.i.d.) of rabeprazole with potent acid inhibition. To investigate the efficacy of eradication therapy with rabeprazole q.i.d. and amoxicillin or sitafloxacin in Japanese infected with a metronidazole-resistant strain. We retrospectively investigated the efficacy of eradication regimens with rabeprazole q.i.d. for 7 days in 111 Japanese pooled patients infected with a metronidazole-resistant strain of H. pylori at Hamamatsu University School of Medicine Hospital or the Shiga University of Medical Science Hospital: 1, with sitafloxacin 100 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) (n = 82); 2, with amoxicillin 500 mg q.i.d. (n = 15); and 3, with amoxicillin q.i.d. and sitafloxacin b.i.d.-combined regimen (n = 14). Eradication status was assessed at 8 weeks via a 13 C-urea breath test. Eradication rate on intention-to-treat analysis was 93.7% (95% confidence interval: 87.4-97.4%, 104/111), irrespective of the high prevalence of strains resistant to clarithromycin (81.1%, 90/111) and levofloxacin (42.3%, 47/111). No significant differences in eradication rates were observed among the different treatment regimens (p = .408), eradication history (p = .096) and different CYP2C19 genotypes (p = .789). On multivariate analysis, no significant risk factor for eradication failure by therapy with potent acid inhibition was seen. In Japanese patients infected with metronidazole-resistant strains of H. pylori, eradication rates exceeding 90% can be achieved using appropriate dosing of antibiotic agents with strain susceptibility (amoxicillin q.i.d. and/or sitafloxacin b.i.d.) together with acid inhibition for a full 24 h and rabeprazole 10 mg q.i.d. These findings may be further evidence for dual therapy with rabeprazole q

  16. Therapeutic Equivalence Requires Pharmaceutical, Pharmacokinetic, and Pharmacodynamic Identities: True Bioequivalence of a Generic Product of Intravenous Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of infection have been used to demonstrate the therapeutic failure of “bioequivalent” generic products, but their applicability for this purpose requires the accurate identification of those products that are truly bioequivalent. Here, we present data comparing one intravenous generic product of metronidazole with the innovator product in a neutropenic mouse thigh anaerobic infection model. Simultaneous experiments allowed comparisons (generic versus innovator) of potency and the concentration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), analytical chemistry (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry [LC/MS]), in vitro susceptibility testing, single-dose serum pharmacokinetics (PK) in infected mice, and in vivo pharmacodynamics (PD) against Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25825 in synergy with Escherichia coli SIG-1 in the neutropenic mouse thigh anaerobic infection model. The Hill dose-response model followed by curve-fitting analysis was used to calculate and compare primary and secondary PD parameters. The generic and the innovator products were identical in terms of the concentration and potency of the API, chromatographic and spectrographic profiles, MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) (2.0 mg/liter), and mouse PK. We found no differences between products in bacteriostatic doses (BD) (15 to 22 mg/kg of body weight per day) or the doses needed to kill 1 log (1LKD) (21 to 29 mg/kg per day) or 2 logs (2LKD) (28 to 54 mg/kg per day) of B. fragilis under dosing schedules of every 12 h (q12h), q8h, or q6h. The area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC/MIC ratio) was the best PD index to predict the antibacterial efficacy of metronidazole (adjusted coefficient of determination [AdjR2] = 84.6%), and its magnitude to reach bacteriostasis in vivo (56.6 ± 5.17 h) or to kill the first (90.8 ± 9.78 h) and second (155.5 ± 22.2 h) logs was the same for both products. Animal models of infection

  17. Therapeutic equivalence requires pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic identities: true bioequivalence of a generic product of intravenous metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, M; Vesga, O

    2012-05-01

    Animal models of infection have been used to demonstrate the therapeutic failure of "bioequivalent" generic products, but their applicability for this purpose requires the accurate identification of those products that are truly bioequivalent. Here, we present data comparing one intravenous generic product of metronidazole with the innovator product in a neutropenic mouse thigh anaerobic infection model. Simultaneous experiments allowed comparisons (generic versus innovator) of potency and the concentration of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), analytical chemistry (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry [LC/MS]), in vitro susceptibility testing, single-dose serum pharmacokinetics (PK) in infected mice, and in vivo pharmacodynamics (PD) against Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25825 in synergy with Escherichia coli SIG-1 in the neutropenic mouse thigh anaerobic infection model. The Hill dose-response model followed by curve-fitting analysis was used to calculate and compare primary and secondary PD parameters. The generic and the innovator products were identical in terms of the concentration and potency of the API, chromatographic and spectrographic profiles, MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) (2.0 mg/liter), and mouse PK. We found no differences between products in bacteriostatic doses (BD) (15 to 22 mg/kg of body weight per day) or the doses needed to kill 1 log (1LKD) (21 to 29 mg/kg per day) or 2 logs (2LKD) (28 to 54 mg/kg per day) of B. fragilis under dosing schedules of every 12 h (q12h), q8h, or q6h. The area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC/MIC ratio) was the best PD index to predict the antibacterial efficacy of metronidazole (adjusted coefficient of determination [AdjR(2)] = 84.6%), and its magnitude to reach bacteriostasis in vivo (56.6 ± 5.17 h) or to kill the first (90.8 ± 9.78 h) and second (155.5 ± 22.2 h) logs was the same for both products. Animal models of infection

  18. Influence of high-dose intraoperative remifentanil with intravenous ibuprofen on postoperative morphine consumption in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Koo, Chang-Hoon; Cho, Youn Joung; Hong, Deok Man; Jeon, Yunseok; Kim, Tae Kyong

    2016-12-01

    High-dose remifentanil during surgery paradoxically increases postoperative pain intensity and morphine consumption. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors decrease prostaglandin synthesis, thereby antagonizing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor activation, and may reduce hyperalgesia. This study was performed to evaluate whether postoperative morphine consumption increased following intraoperative continuous remifentanil infusion and whether this could be prevented by intravenous ibuprofen pretreatment. A randomized controlled study. Single university hospital, study period from September 2014 to March 2015. One hundred and twenty patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. After induction of anesthesia, patients received remifentanil target-controlled infusion (effect site concentration of 4 ng/mL or 1 ng/mL) with or without intravenous ibuprofen (800 mg). Postoperative cumulative total morphine consumption and pain intensity were assessed. Intraoperative remifentanil use in patients receiving high-dose remifentanil was more than 3-fold higher than that in patients receiving low-dose remifentanil (2666.8 ± 858.4 vs 872.0 ± 233.3 μg, respectively; P< .001). However, cumulative total morphine consumption at postoperative 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours did not differ among the groups. There were no differences among the groups in the self-administered analgesic dose by the patients using a controlled analgesia device, number of self-administration attempts, numerical rating scale for pain, or analgesic side effects. We found no influence on postoperative pain after high-dose remifentanil in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. Addition of intravenous ibuprofen did not reduce postoperative morphine consumption or pain intensity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a haemophiliac associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection, responding to high dose intravenous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Panicker, R.; Bloom, A. L.; Compston, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    We describe what we believe to be the first case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) occurring in a haemophiliac infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the first patient to show a clinical response to treatment with high dose i.v. immunoglobulin. A 55 year old, severe haemophiliac, known to be positive for HIV antibody, presented with a short history of motor weakness and variable sensory loss in both lower limbs. Clinical examination, electrophysiology and sural nerve biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of CIDP. He was treated with a 4-day course of high dose i.v. immunoglobulin, given as a daily infusion. This resulted in dramatic improvement in his neurological status which was evident both clinically and functionally. We conclude that CIDP can occur in HIV-positive haemophiliacs as it does in homosexuals and drug abusers infected with the virus. We also suggest that high dose i.v. immunoglobulin may be effective in the treatment of this condition, especially when practical difficulties preclude the use of plasmapheresis and the use of immunosuppressive drugs is considered hazardous. PMID:3251225

  20. Assessment of interindividual variability of plasma concentrations after administrazion of high doses of intravenous amoxicillin or cloxacillin in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Verdier, M C; Tribut, O; Tattevin, P; Michelet, C; Bentué-Ferrer, D

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present retrospective observational clinical study was to assess the interindividual pharmacokinetic variability of plasma concentrations of amoxicillin or cloxacillin administered in high doses intravenously in critically ill patients, related to renal function or administration method.Four hundred and two plasma concentrations were measured at steady-state with a high performance liquid chromatography technique in 162 patients treated with 100 - 300 mg/kg/day of intravenous amoxicillin or cloxacillin.For both drugs and administration methods, plasma concentrations were significantly higher for patients with creatinine clearance below 60 ml/min, even though doses were adapted for renal impairment. the correlations calculated between plasma concentrations and creatinine level, creatinine clearance or doses were all low. There were fewer outlying drug concentrations in patients receiving continuous rather than intermittent regimens.Our results are in favor of adapting dosages of these beta-lactam antibiotics based on plasma concentrations, especially in cases of renal impairment.

  1. High-dose steroids, ursodeoxycholic acid, and chronic intravenous antibiotics improve bile flow after Kasai procedure in infants with biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Rebecka L; Book, Linda S; O'Gorman, Molly A; Jackson, W Daniel; Black, Richard E; Johnson, Dale G; Matlak, Michael E

    2003-03-01

    Early reports suggest that the use of steroids after Kasai portoenterostomy may improve bile flow and outcome in infants with biliary atresia. Of 28 infants with biliary atresia, half received adjuvant high-dose steroids, and half received standard therapy. Infants in the steroid group (n = 14) received intravenous solumedrol (taper of 10, 8, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2 mg/kg/d), followed by 8 to 12 weeks of prednisone (2 mg/kg/d). The steroid protocol also included ursodeoxycholic acid indefinitely and intravenous antibiotics for 8 to 12 weeks followed by oral antibiotic prophylaxis. Infants in the standard therapy group (n = 14) received no steroids, occasional ursodeoxycholic acid, and perioperative intravenous antibiotics followed by oral antibiotic prophylaxis. The infants were not assigned randomly, but rather received standard therapy or adjuvant steroid therapy according to individual surgeon preference. Eleven of 14 (79%) in the steroid group and 3 of 14 (21%) in the standard therapy group had a conjugated bilirubin level less than 1.0 within 3 to 4 months of surgery (P <.001). Fewer patients in the steroid group (21% v 85%) required liver transplantation or died during the first year of life (P <.001). Infants in the steroid group did better despite the fact that this group included 5 infants with biliary atresia-polysplenia-heterotaxia syndrome, a subgroup that might have been expected to have a poor prognosis. Neither bile duct size nor liver histology was a reliable predictor of success or failure in either group. Adjuvant therapy using high-dose steroids, ursodeoxycholic acid, and intravenous antibiotics may accelerate the clearance of jaundice and decrease the need for early liver transplantation after Kasai portoenterostomy. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  2. Incidence and risk factors of acute kidney injury associated with continuous intravenous high-dose vancomycin in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Lacave, Guillaume; Caille, Vincent; Bruneel, Fabrice; Palette, Catherine; Legriel, Stéphane; Grimaldi, David; Eurin, Mathilde; Bedos, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Abstract For vancomycin therapy of severe infections, the Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends high vancomycin trough levels, whose potential for inducing nephrotoxicity is controversial. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients given continuous intravenous vancomycin with target serum vancomycin levels of 20 to 30 mg/L. We retrospectively studied 107 continuous intravenous vancomycin treatments of ≥48 hours’ duration with at least 2 serum vancomycin levels ≥20 mg/L in critically ill patients. Nephrotoxicity was defined according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Clinical Practice Guideline for AKI (ie, serum creatinine elevation by ≥26.5 μmoL/L or to ≥1.5 times baseline). Risk factors for AKI were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. AKI developed in 31 (29%) courses. Higher serum vancomycin levels were associated with AKI (P < 0.01). Factors independently associated with AKI were highest serum vancomycin ≥40 mg/L (odds ratio [OR], 3.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40–10.37; P < 0.01), higher cumulative number of organ failures (OR, 2.63 95%CI, 1.42–5.31; P < 0.01), and cirrhosis of the liver (OR, 5.58; 95%CI, 1.08–31.59; P = 0.04). In this study, 29% of critically ill patients had AKI develop during continuous intravenous vancomycin therapy targeting serum levels of 20 to 30 mg/L. Serum vancomycin level ≥40 mg/L was independently associated with AKI. PMID:28207512

  3. A pilot study of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin 5% for autism: Impact on autism spectrum and markers of neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Isaac R; Heffron, Melinda; Testori, Alessandro; Lipe, Kellie

    2018-03-01

    Research has shown that a subset of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population presents with immune dysregulation. To explore this topic further, we investigated the efficacy and tolerability of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion in children with ASD. In this study, participants were recruited based on a diagnosis of autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. Participants also showed evidence of immune dysfunction based on abnormal levels of specific biomarkers, including CD40 ligand (CD154), lymphocyte stimulation, and T or B cell dysfunction. Of 17 screened patients, 14 completed the trial and received IVIG treatment (1 g/kg dose) for ten 21-day treatment cycles. The primary endpoint was disease improvement assessed using standardized cognitive and behavioral tests (Children's Communication Checklist [CCC-2], Social Responsiveness Scale [SRS], Aberrant Behavior Checklist [ABC], Clinical Global Impressions-Severity [CGI-S] and -Improvement [CGI-I], Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule [ADOS], and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test [PPVT]). Secondary endpoints included experimental biomarkers such as CD154, toll-like receptor-4, memory B cells, FOXP3, and lymphocyte stimulation. Significant improvements from baseline to study endpoint were observed in several subscales of the CCC-2, SRS, CGI-I, CGI-S, and ADOS, including Associated Maladaptive Behaviors (P ≤ .043), Reciprocal Social Interaction (P = .015), Communication (P < .001), and Stereotyped Behaviors and Repetitive Interests (P ≤ .013). Statistically significant reductions were also seen in numerous secondary outcomes of immunological biomarkers indicative of neuroinflammation. IVIG was well tolerated; no subjects withdrew due to an adverse event, and clinical data showed no evidence of thromboembolic events. Autism Res 2018, 11: 421-433. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Since

  4. Cognitive and Affective Symptoms Experienced by Cancer Patients Receiving High-Dose Intravenous Interleukin-2 Therapy: An Integrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Tara K.; Dail, Robin B.; Bailey, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alterations in cognitive/affective functioning are among the most challenging side effects experienced by 80% of patients with metastatic melanoma and metastatic renal cell carcinoma undergoing high-dose Interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy. Objective The purpose of this literature review is to describe what is known about IL-2—induced cognitive/affective symptoms, their prevalence and level of severity, and synthesize findings to determine areas for future research to address symptom management challenges. This review describes the IL-2 patient experience, and the pathophysiology leading to these changes. Methods An online electronic search using PubMed was performed to identify relevant literature published between 1992 and 2015. Of the original 113 manuscripts, information was extracted from nine articles regarding cognitive symptoms, affective symptoms, sample size, research design, reliability and validity. Results Our review suggests that the trajectories, breadth and depth of cognitive/affective symptoms have yet to be described. Despite intervention studies designed to address the psychosocial complications of IL-2, an understanding of the level of altered cognitive/affective symptoms experienced by IL-2 patients remains unclear. Conclusion Our literature review reveals a lack of standardization when assessing, reporting and managing cognitive/affective symptoms. Patients/family members have reported cognitive/affective symptoms to be the most alarming and difficult symptoms, yet these symptoms are not adequately screened for and patients were not informed about potential changes. Implications for Practice Assessing patients for cognitive/affective alterations is important to reduce anxiety while improving outcomes. Education about the illness trajectory (what to expect during/after treatment) can help care partners/patients set realistic shared expectations, and increase coping. PMID:26632878

  5. Treatment of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated systemic vasculitis with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, C; Schnabel, A; Csernok, E; De Groot, K; Reinhold-Keller, E; Gross, W L

    1995-01-01

    In this uncontrolled study 15 patients with ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis, who were poor responders to conventional therapy, were treated with single or multiple courses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), 30 g/day over 5 days. Clinical and serological evaluation was performed before and 4 weeks after IVIG. Six of the 15 patients experienced clinically significant benefit from IVIG. Improvement was confined to single organ manifestations (skin, ENT findings), no improvement was seen with conjunctivitis and scleritis, pericarditis or nephritis. No patient experienced complete remission after IVIG. Repeated courses of IVIG at 4-week intervals were no more effective than single courses. In six anti-proteinase 3 (PR3)-positive patients pretreatment sera were incubated with F(ab')2 fragments of the IVIG preparation in vitro to measure the inhibitory effect of IVIG on anti-PR3 activity. An inhibition of anti-PR3 activity by 25-70% was observed; this did not correlate with clinical effects. Approximately 40% of patients benefited from IVIG treatment, though complete remission of disease activity did not occur. Neither clinical characteristics nor the inhibitory effect of the IVIG preparation on serum anti-PR3 activity in vitro predicted clinical response to this treatment modality. PMID:7621588

  6. Treatment of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated systemic vasculitis with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Richter, C; Schnabel, A; Csernok, E; De Groot, K; Reinhold-Keller, E; Gross, W L

    1995-07-01

    In this uncontrolled study 15 patients with ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis, who were poor responders to conventional therapy, were treated with single or multiple courses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), 30 g/day over 5 days. Clinical and serological evaluation was performed before and 4 weeks after IVIG. Six of the 15 patients experienced clinically significant benefit from IVIG. Improvement was confined to single organ manifestations (skin, ENT findings), no improvement was seen with conjunctivitis and scleritis, pericarditis or nephritis. No patient experienced complete remission after IVIG. Repeated courses of IVIG at 4-week intervals were no more effective than single courses. In six anti-proteinase 3 (PR3)-positive patients pretreatment sera were incubated with F(ab')2 fragments of the IVIG preparation in vitro to measure the inhibitory effect of IVIG on anti-PR3 activity. An inhibition of anti-PR3 activity by 25-70% was observed; this did not correlate with clinical effects. Approximately 40% of patients benefited from IVIG treatment, though complete remission of disease activity did not occur. Neither clinical characteristics nor the inhibitory effect of the IVIG preparation on serum anti-PR3 activity in vitro predicted clinical response to this treatment modality.

  7. High-dose intravenous methylprednisolone for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in Chile: a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Vial, Pablo A; Valdivieso, Francisca; Ferres, Marcela; Riquelme, Raul; Rioseco, M Luisa; Calvo, Mario; Castillo, Constanza; Díaz, Ricardo; Scholz, Luis; Cuiza, Analia; Belmar, Edith; Hernandez, Carla; Martinez, Jessica; Lee, Sang-Joon; Mertz, Gregory J

    2013-10-01

    Andes virus (ANDV)-related hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) has a 35% case fatality rate in Chile and no specific treatment. In an immunomodulatory approach, we evaluated the efficacy of intravenous methylprednisolone for HCPS treatment, through a parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Patients aged >2 years, with confirmed or suspected HCPS in cardiopulmonary stage, admitted to any of 13 study sites in Chile, were randomized by study center in blocks of 4 with a 1:1 allocation and assigned through sequentially numbered envelopes to receive placebo or methylprednisolone 16 mg/kg/day (≤1000 mg) for 3 days. All personnel remained blinded except the local pharmacist. Infection was confirmed by immunoglobulin M antibodies or ANDV RNA in blood. The composite primary endpoint was death, partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio ≤55, cardiac index ≤2.2, or ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation within 28 days. Safety endpoints included the number of serious adverse events (SAEs) and quantification of viral RNA in blood. Analysis was by intention to treat. Infection was confirmed in 60 of 66 (91%) enrollees. Fifteen of 30 placebo-treated patients and 11 of 30 methylprednisolone-treated patients progressed to the primary endpoint (P = .43). We observed no significant difference in mortality between treatment groups (P = .41). There was a trend toward more severe disease in placebo recipients at entry. More subjects in the placebo group experienced SAEs (P = .02). There were no SAEs clearly related to methylprednisolone administration, and methylprednisolone did not increase viral load. Although methylprednisolone appears to be safe, it did not provide significant clinical benefit to patients. Our results do not support the use of methylprednisolone for HCPS. NCT00128180.

  8. High-Dose Intravenous Methylprednisolone for Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome in Chile: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Pablo A.; Valdivieso, Francisca; Ferres, Marcela; Riquelme, Raul; Rioseco, M. Luisa; Calvo, Mario; Castillo, Constanza; Díaz, Ricardo; Scholz, Luis; Cuiza, Analia; Belmar, Edith; Hernandez, Carla; Martinez, Jessica; Lee, Sang-Joon; Mertz, Gregory J.; Abarca, Juan; Tomicic, Vinko; Aracena, M. Eugenia; Rehbein, Ana Maria; Velásquez, Soledad; Lavin, Victoria; Garrido, Felipe; Godoy, Paula; Martinez, Constanza; Chamorro, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Jorge; Hernandez, Jury; Pino, Marcelo; Villegas, Paola; Zapata, Viviana; León, Marisol; Vega, Ivonne; Otarola, Irisol; Ortega, Carlos; Daube, Elizabeth; Huecha, Doris; Neira, Alda; Ruiz, Ines; Nuñez, M. Antonieta; Monsalve, Luz; Chabouty, Henriette; Riquelme, Lorena; Palma, Samia; Bustos, Raul; Miranda, Ruben; Mardones, Jovita; Hernandez, Nora; Betancur, Yasna; Sanhueza, Ligia; Inostroza, Jaime; Donoso, Solange; Navarrete, Maritza; Acuña, Lily; Manriquez, Paulina; Castillo, Fabiola; Unzueta, Paola; Aguilera, Teresa; Osorio, Carola; Yobanolo, Veronica; Mardones, Jorge; Aranda, Sandra; Carvajal, Soledad; Sandoval, Moisés; Daza, Soraya; Vargas, Felipe; Diaz, Violeta; Riquelme, Mauricio; Muñoz, Miriam; Carriel, Andrea; Lanino, Paola; Hernandez, Susana; Schumacher, Patricia; Yañez, Lia; Marco, Claudia; Ehrenfeld, Mildred; Delgado, Iris; Rios, Susana; Vial, Cecilia; Bedrick, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background. Andes virus (ANDV)–related hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) has a 35% case fatality rate in Chile and no specific treatment. In an immunomodulatory approach, we evaluated the efficacy of intravenous methylprednisolone for HCPS treatment, through a parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods. Patients aged >2 years, with confirmed or suspected HCPS in cardiopulmonary stage, admitted to any of 13 study sites in Chile, were randomized by study center in blocks of 4 with a 1:1 allocation and assigned through sequentially numbered envelopes to receive placebo or methylprednisolone 16 mg/kg/day (≤1000 mg) for 3 days. All personnel remained blinded except the local pharmacist. Infection was confirmed by immunoglobulin M antibodies or ANDV RNA in blood. The composite primary endpoint was death, partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio ≤55, cardiac index ≤2.2, or ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation within 28 days. Safety endpoints included the number of serious adverse events (SAEs) and quantification of viral RNA in blood. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results. Infection was confirmed in 60 of 66 (91%) enrollees. Fifteen of 30 placebo-treated patients and 11 of 30 methylprednisolone-treated patients progressed to the primary endpoint (P = .43). We observed no significant difference in mortality between treatment groups (P = .41). There was a trend toward more severe disease in placebo recipients at entry. More subjects in the placebo group experienced SAEs (P = .02). There were no SAEs clearly related to methylprednisolone administration, and methylprednisolone did not increase viral load. Conclusions. Although methylprednisolone appears to be safe, it did not provide significant clinical benefit to patients. Our results do not support the use of methylprednisolone for HCPS. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00128180. PMID:23784924

  9. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonitis accompanied by anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibody-positive amyopathic dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Hamada-Ode, Kazu; Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Kimata, Takahito; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Shimamura, Yoshiko; Kuwana, Masataka; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Terada, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibody-positive amyopathic dermatomyositis (ADM) associated with rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonitis (RPIP) frequently has a poor prognosis and optimal treatment is not well defined. Here, we report a 62-year-old Japanese man with anti-MDA5 antibody-positive ADM associated with RPIP presented with progressive shortness of breath, Heliotrope rash, Gottron’s papules, arthralgia, and fatigue but no sign of muscle weakness. Laboratory investigation revealed serum levels of the following biomarkers: ferritin, 1393 ng/mL; Krebs von der Lungen-6, 1880 U/mL; and creatine kinase, 85 U/L. Computed tomography (CT) images showed diffuse ground-glass opacity in both lung fields. Because anti-MDA5 was positive, we made a diagnosis of ADM associated with RPIP and initiated treatment. Following five courses of combination therapy with prednisolone, cyclosporine A, and intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCY), IVCY treatment was switched to high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg) because of the reactivation of interstitial pneumonia with an increased serum ferritin level. Additional treatment with IVIg improved RPIP, with normalization of anti-ADM antibody levels. Therefore, IVIg mayt be a new candidate treatment for anti-MDA5 antibody-positive ADM associated with RPIP. PMID:27708934

  10. Effects of intravenous administration of high dose-diethylstilbestrol diphosphate on serum hormonal levels in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, S; Umeda, H; Yano, M; Koga, F; Sumi, S; Moriguchi, H; Hosoya, Y; Honda, M; Yoshida, K

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying the further suppression of serum testosterone (T) by diethylstilbestrol diphosphate (DES-DP) in patients with prostate cancer refractory to hormonal treatment. These patients received an LHRH agonist with or without a non-steroidal androgen-receptor blocker or a gestagen before DES-DP. We measured serum levels of total and free T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol (E2), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, cortisol, aldosterone before and during intravenous administration of high doses of DES-DP (500 or 1000 mg/day). DES-DP administration suppressed the serum levels of FSH (p=0.04) and total T (p=0.02), and eliminated free T (p=0.04) and E2 (p=0.04) from serum, while reducing serum DHEA-S to approximately two-thirds of the pretreatment level (p=0.03). In contrast, serum levels of SHBG (p=0.02) and cortisol (p=0.02) were markedly increased after DES-DP administration. The latter had no significant effect on serum levels of LH, DHT, ACTH, 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA, androstenedione, or aldosterone. The results suggest that the potent suppression of circulating total T by DES-DP is caused, in part, by the inhibitory effect of DES-DP on serum DHEA-S level. In most patients, high-dose DES-DP treatment completely suppressed the serum level of free T, while possibly elevating serum SHBG and decreasing serum total T. The mechanisms that maintain the serum level of serum DHT during DES-DP treatment require further elucidation.

  11. Intravenous administration of high-dose Paclitaxel reduces gut-associated lymphoid tissue cell number and respiratory immunoglobulin A concentrations in mice.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Tomoyuki; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Noguchi, Midori; Okamoto, Koichi; Murakoshi, Satoshi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Miyazaki, Masaru; Hase, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Junji

    2014-02-01

    Chemotherapy remains a mainstay of treatment for cancer patients. However, anti-cancer drugs frequently cause a wide range of side effects, including leukopenia and gastrointestinal toxicity. These adverse effects can lead to treatment delays or necessitate temporary dose reductions. Although chemotherapy-related changes in gut morphology have been demonstrated, the influences of chemotherapeutic regimens on gut immunity are understood poorly. This study aimed to examine whether the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) impairs gut immunity in mice. Male ICR mice were randomized into three groups: Control, low-dose PTX (low PTX; 2 mg/kg), or high-dose PTX (high PTX; 4 mg/kg). A single intravenous dose was given. On day seven after the injection, lymphocytes from Peyer patches (PP), intraepithelial (IE) spaces, and the lamina propria (LP) were counted and analyzed by flow cytometry (CD4(+), CD8(+), αβTCR(+), γδTCR(+), B220(+)). Immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentrations were measured in small intestinal and respiratory tract washings. Total, CD4(+) and γδTCR(+) lymphocyte numbers in PPs were significantly lower in the high PTX than in the control group. The CD4(+) lymphocyte numbers in the IE spaces were significantly lower in both PTX groups than in the control group. Respiratory tract IgA concentrations were lower in the high PTX than in the control group. The present data suggest high-dose PTX impairs mucosal immunity, possibly rendering patients more vulnerable to infection. Careful dose selection and new therapies may be important for maintaining mucosal immunity during PTX chemotherapy.

  12. Severe Toxicity in Nonhuman Primates and Piglets Following High-Dose Intravenous Administration of an Adeno-Associated Virus Vector Expressing Human SMN.

    PubMed

    Hinderer, Christian; Katz, Nathan; Buza, Elizabeth L; Dyer, Cecilia; Goode, Tamara; Bell, Peter; Richman, Laura K; Wilson, James M

    2018-03-01

    Neurotropic adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes such as AAV9 have been demonstrated to transduce spinal alpha motor neurons when administered intravenously (i.v.) at high doses. This observation led to the recent successful application of i.v. AAV9 delivery to treat infants with spinal muscular atrophy, an inherited deficiency of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein characterized by selective death of lower motor neurons. To evaluate the efficiency of motor neuron transduction with an AAV9 variant (AAVhu68) using this approach, three juvenile nonhuman primates (NHPs; aged 14 months) and three piglets (aged 7-30 days) were treated with an i.v. injection of an AAVhu68 vector carrying a human SMN transgene at a dose similar to that employed in the spinal muscular atrophy clinical trial. Administration of 2 × 10 14 genome copies per kilogram of body weight resulted in widespread transduction of spinal motor neurons in both species. However, severe toxicity occurred in both NHPs and piglets. All three NHPs exhibited marked transaminase elevations. In two NHPs, the transaminase elevations resolved without clinical sequelae, while one NHP developed acute liver failure and shock and was euthanized 4 days after vector injection. Degeneration of dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons was also observed, although NHPs exhibited no clinically apparent sensory deficits. There was no correlation between clinical findings and T-cell responses to the vector capsid or transgene product in NHPs. Piglets demonstrated no evidence of hepatic toxicity, but within 14 days of vector injection, all three animals exhibited proprioceptive deficits and ataxia, which profoundly impaired ambulation and necessitated euthanasia. These clinical findings correlated with more severe dorsal root ganglia sensory neuron lesions than those observed in NHPs. The liver and sensory neuron findings appear to be a direct consequence of AAV transduction independent of an immune response to the

  13. Before and After Study of Pharmacists' and Students' Knowledge of Two Novel Antidotes: High-Dose Insulin Euglycemia and Intravenous Fatty Acid Emulsion 20.

    PubMed

    Jellinek-Cohen, Samantha P; Tolento, Amanda; Howland, Mary Ann

    2015-07-01

    To assess pharmacists' and students' knowledge of high-dose insulin euglycemia (HIE) and intravenous fatty acid emulsion 20% (IFE) and to see whether it improved after an educational intervention. A survey to assess the knowledge about the use of HIE and IFE as antidotes was e-mailed to practicing pharmacists, pharmacy residents, and students prior to and following an educational intervention. Fact sheets on the antidotes were developed in conjunction with the New York City Poison Control Center and were used as the educational intervention in this study. The impact of exposure to the intervention was measured by comparing the number of correct responses per question on the pre- and posttests and the mean pre- and posttest scores using chi-square and t tests, respectively. Most respondents felt either not at all or only somewhat comfortable with managing a toxicologic emergency. There was a statistically significant difference in mean scores on the pretest and posttest (2.9 vs 5.45; P = .001) and for the number of participants giving correct responses for each question before and after education: 52.4% of respondents answered "I don't know" to the questions prior to education versus 21.2% after education (P < .001). Fewer respondents felt not at all comfortable managing a toxicologic emergency after the educational intervention (42.4 vs 50.3%; P < .001). Pharmacists and students reported little comfort in managing toxicological emergencies in general and have limited baseline knowledge about these agents. Educational interventions can significantly improve knowledge. Prior familiarity with these newer antidotes should reduce delays in their administration in an emergency.

  14. Metronidazole Vaginal

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat vaginal infections such as bacterial vaginosis (an infection caused from too much of certain bacteria in the vagina). Metronidazole is in a class of medications called nitroimidazole antimicrobials. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.

  15. Metronidazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... be using metronidazole injection at home, your health care provider will show you how to infuse the ... if you are have taken or are taking disulfiram (Antabuse). Your doctor will probably tell you not ...

  16. Dual therapy with high doses of rabeprazole and amoxicillin versus triple therapy with rabeprazole, amoxicillin, and metronidazole as a rescue regimen for Helicobacter pylori infection after the standard triple therapy.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Naohito; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Kodaira, Chise; Nishino, Masafumi; Ikuma, Mutsuhiro; Kajimura, Masayoshi; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Ishizaki, Takashi; Hishida, Akira; Furuta, Takahisa

    2007-08-01

    Development of safe and effective rescue regimens for eradication failure of Helicobacter pylori infection by standard regimens is an urgent task. We designed the prospective study to compare the efficacy of two rescue regimens after eradication failure by the standard triple therapy. One hundred and thirty-two patients in whom eradication of H. pylori infection failed initial triple therapy with lansoprazole 30 mg b.i.d, amoxicillin 750 mg b.i.d. and clarithromycin 400 mg b.i.d. for 1 week were randomized to either the 1-week triple therapy with rabeprazole 10 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 750 mg b.i.d., and metronidazole 250 mg b.i.d. (RAM) or the 2-week dual therapy with rabeprazole 10 mg q.i.d. and amoxicillin 500 mg q.i.d. (RA). Eradication of H. pylori was judged by (13)C-urea breath test 1 month later. The intention-to-treat and per-protocol-based eradication rates were 92.4% (95% CI: 83.2-97.5) and 95.3% (95% CI: 86.9-99.0) for the RAM therapy and 90.9% (95% CI: 81.2-96.6) and 93.8% (95% CI: 84.8-98.3), respectively, for the RA therapy (P > 0.2 for both). No clinically recognizable adverse events were observed with either regimen. RA as well as RAM therapy are safe and effective rescue regimens for H. pylori infection after eradication failure by the standard triple therapy.

  17. High-dose intravenous treatment in iron deficiency anaemia in inflammatory bowel disease: early efficacy and impact on quality of life.

    PubMed

    García-López, Santiago; Bocos, Judith Millastre; Gisbert, Javier P; Bajador, Eduardo; Chaparro, María; Castaño, Carlos; García-Erce, José A; Gomollón, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Anaemia and iron deficiency are very common in inflammatory bowel disease. Clinical trials have shown intravenous iron to be effective and well tolerated. However, published experience in clinical practice with specific evaluation of the effect on quality of life is limited. We carried out a prospective, multicentre, observational study on the effects of ferric carboxymaltose in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in inflammatory bowel disease. Anaemia and iron deficiency were defined according to World Health Organization criteria. Efficacy and safety were evaluated at infusion, at 2 weeks and at 12 weeks. Quality of life was evaluated according to the SIBDQ-9 index. Complete response was defined as anaemia correction or more tan 2 g/dL increase in haemoglobin. A total of 88 courses of ferric carboxymaltose in 72 patients were evaluated. Complete response was observed in 46% of patients at week 2, and 81.2% at week 12. Quality of life improved significatively at week 2 in both complete responders and partial responders (p<0.0005); complete responders showed siginficantly better response (p=0.016). No predictive factor was identified. Only one transient adverse effect was observed; however, this was severe. Ferric carboxymaltose showed comparable efficacy to that demonstrated in clinical trials. After only two weeks of treatment, there was a significant improvement in quality of life, with a greater effect observed in those patients with a complete haematologic response. Intravenous iron can very quickly improve quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. Treatment with high-dose recombinant human hyaluronidase-facilitated subcutaneous immune globulins in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis who are intolerant to intravenous immune globulins: a report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Speth, Fabian; Haas, Johannes-Peter; Hinze, Claas H

    2016-09-13

    High-dose intravenous immune globulins (IVIg) are frequently used in refractory juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) but are often poorly tolerated. High-dose recombinant human hyaluronidase-facilitated subcutaneous immune globulins (fSCIg) allow the administration of much higher doses of immune globulins than conventional subcutaneous immune globulin therapy and may be an alternative to IVIg. The safety and efficacy of fSCIg therapy in JDM is unknown. In this retrospective case series, five patients with steroid-refractory severe JDM were treated with high-dose fSCIg due to IVIg adverse effects (severe headaches, nausea, vomiting, difficult venous access). Peak serum IgG levels, muscle enzymes, the childhood myositis assessment scale and adverse effects were retrieved for at least 6 months following intiation of fSCIg. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Patients initially received fSCIg 1 g/kg every 14 days, resulting in median IgG peak levels of 1901 mg/dl (1606-2719 mg/dl), compared to median IgG peak and trough levels while previously receiving IVIg of 2741 mg/dl (2429-2849 mg/dl) and 1351 mg/dl (1156-1710 mg/dl). Additional antirheumatic therapies consisted of low-dose glucocorticoid therapy, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil and/or rituximab. Two patients maintained clinically inactive disease and three patients had only a partial treatment response. In the three patients with partial treatment response, fSCIg 1 g/kg was then given on days 1 and 6 of every 28-day cycle resulting in IgG peak levels of between 2300-2846 mg/dl (previously 1606-1901 mg/dl on the biweekly regimen), resulting in clinically inactive disease in two of the three patients. There were no relevant adverse effects that limited continuation of fSCIg treatment. High-dose fSCIg is well-tolerated in patients with JDM and high peak serum IgG levels can be achieved which may be important for treatment success. High-dose fSCIg may therefore be an alternative to high-dose IVIg

  19. Metronidazole. A therapeutic review and update.

    PubMed

    Freeman, C D; Klutman, N E; Lamp, K C

    1997-11-01

    The nitroimidazole antibiotic metronidazole has a limited spectrum of activity that encompasses various protozoans and most Gram-negative and Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. Metronidazole has activity against protozoans like Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis, for which the drug was first approved as an effective treatment. Anaerobic bacteria which are typically sensitive are primarily Gram-negative anaerobes belonging to the Bacteroides and Fusobacterium spp. Gram-positive anaerobes such as peptostreptococci and Clostridia spp. are likely to test sensitive to metronidazole, but resistant isolates are probably encountered with greater frequency than with the Gram-negative anaerobes. Gardnerella vaginalis is a pleomorphic Gram-variable bacterial bacillus that is also susceptible to metronidazole. Helicobacter pylori has been strongly associated with gastritis and duodenal ulcers. Classic regimens for eradicating this pathogen have included metronidazole, usually with acid suppression medication plus bismuth and amoxicillin. The activity of metronidazole against anaerobic bowel flora has been used for prophylaxis and treatment of patients with Crohn's disease who might develop an infectious complication. Treatment of Clostridium difficile-induced pseudomembraneous colitis has usually been with oral metronidazole or vancomycin, but the lower cost and similar efficacy of metronidazole, coupled with the increased concern about imprudent use of vancomycin leading to increased resistance in enterococci, have made metronidazole the preferred agent here. Metronidazole has played an important role in anaerobic-related infections. Advantages to using metronidazole are the percentage of sensitive Gram-negative anaerobes, its availability as oral and intravenous dosage forms, its rapid bacterial killing, its good tissue penetration, its considerably lower chance of inducing C. difficile colitis, and expense. Metronidazole has notable

  20. High dose Intravenous Anti-D Immune Globulin is More Effective and Safe in Indian Paediatric Patients of Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Rabindra Kumar; Swain, Kali Prasanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) is characterised by an autoimmune antibody-mediated destruction of platelets and impaired platelet production. Few controlled trials exist to guide management of patients with ITP in Indian scenario for which patients require an individualized approach. Anti-D (Rho (D) immune globulin) at a higher dose can prove to be a cost effective and safe alternative for Indian patients with ITP. Aim To compare the safety and efficacy of higher dose (75μg/kg) intravenous Anti-D immune globulin against the standard dose of 50μg/kg for the management of ITP in Indian patients. Materials and Methods One hundred and sixty four children with newly diagnosed ITP between 4-14 years were randomly selected for inclusion and were treated with 50μg/kg (standard dose) or 75μg /kg (higher dose) of Anti-D to compare the efficacy and safety of higher dose intravenous anti-D immune globulin. Efficacy of Anti-D was measured in terms of rate of response and median time to response for increase in platelet counts. Any adverse event was noted. A decrease in haemoglobin concentration suggested accompanying haemolysis. Results Seventy one out of 84 patients treated with Anti-D at 75μg/kg produced complete response (85%) with median time of response being 2.5 days. On the contrary, 45 patients (70%) patients treated with 50μg/kg had complete response. However, there was no significant increase in haemolysis with higher dose. A significant correlation was found between dose and peak increase in platelet count measured at 7th day following administration. However, there was no relationship between the decrease in haemoglobin and the dose given, or between the increase in platelet count and fall in haemoglobin. Conclusion A 75μg/kg dose of Anti-D is more effective with acceptable side effect in comparison to 50μg dose for treatment of newly diagnosed Indian patients of ITP. PMID:28208873

  1. High dose Intravenous Anti-D Immune Globulin is More Effective and Safe in Indian Paediatric Patients of Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

    PubMed

    Swain, Trupti Rekha; Jena, Rabindra Kumar; Swain, Kali Prasanna

    2016-12-01

    Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP) is characterised by an autoimmune antibody-mediated destruction of platelets and impaired platelet production. Few controlled trials exist to guide management of patients with ITP in Indian scenario for which patients require an individualized approach. Anti-D (Rho (D) immune globulin) at a higher dose can prove to be a cost effective and safe alternative for Indian patients with ITP. To compare the safety and efficacy of higher dose (75μg/kg) intravenous Anti-D immune globulin against the standard dose of 50μg/kg for the management of ITP in Indian patients. One hundred and sixty four children with newly diagnosed ITP between 4-14 years were randomly selected for inclusion and were treated with 50μg/kg (standard dose) or 75μg /kg (higher dose) of Anti-D to compare the efficacy and safety of higher dose intravenous anti-D immune globulin. Efficacy of Anti-D was measured in terms of rate of response and median time to response for increase in platelet counts. Any adverse event was noted. A decrease in haemoglobin concentration suggested accompanying haemolysis. Seventy one out of 84 patients treated with Anti-D at 75μg/kg produced complete response (85%) with median time of response being 2.5 days. On the contrary, 45 patients (70%) patients treated with 50μg/kg had complete response. However, there was no significant increase in haemolysis with higher dose. A significant correlation was found between dose and peak increase in platelet count measured at 7 th day following administration. However, there was no relationship between the decrease in haemoglobin and the dose given, or between the increase in platelet count and fall in haemoglobin. A 75μg/kg dose of Anti-D is more effective with acceptable side effect in comparison to 50μg dose for treatment of newly diagnosed Indian patients of ITP.

  2. Long-term outcome of treatment with dacarbazine, cisplatin, interferon-alpha and intravenous high dose interleukin-2 in poor risk melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Proebstle, T M; Fuchs, T; Scheibenbogen, C; Sterry, W; Keilholz, U

    1998-12-01

    Melanoma patients with very advanced disease are usually excluded from chemoimmunotherapy trials; however, the efficacy of intensive treatment regimens needs to be established for this patient population. This study aimed to evaluate the response rate and survival achieved with chemoimmunotherapy in very advanced melanoma patients. Forty-two patients received dacarbazine (250 mg/m2, days 1-3), cisplatin (30mg/m2, days 1-3), interferon-alpha (10 Mio IU/m2 subcutaneously, days 1-5) and intravenous interleukin-2 (18 Mio IU/m2 over 6 h, 12 h then 24 h, followed by 13.5 MioIU/m2 in 72 h). In cases of brain metastases (n = 12) radiation therapy was added. Ten patients (24%) achieved a partial response, 11 (26%) had stable disease and 21 (50%) had disease progression in an intention-to-treat analysis. The median overall survival of patients with a partial response or stable disease was 9 months in contrast to 3.5 months in patients with disease progression. Normal serum lactate dehydrogenase before the start of treatment was a strong favourable prognostic marker for survival (P< 0.002). We conclude that the described treatment schedule offers safe palliation in patients with very advanced metastatic melanoma.

  3. Metronidazole (Flagyl) and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... al. 1995. Safety of metronidazole in pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 172(21):525-529. ... T, et al. 1997. Is metronidazole teratogenic? A meta-analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol 44:(2)179-182. ...

  4. Neurologic complications of metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Sarna, Justyna R; Furtado, Sarah; Brownell, A Keith W

    2013-11-01

    Metronidazole (Flagyl®) is an antimicrobial agent commonly used in clinical practice. Although it is generally well tolerated with minimal side effects, there are a host of still under-recognized neurologic complications of metronidazole treatment. The following review is aimed at summarizing current literature pertaining to metronidazole-induced neurotoxicity including clinical syndromes, neuroradiological findings, prognosis and proposed pathophysiology. Recognition of the neurotoxic effects of metronidazole is critical as prompt discontinuation is generally associated with full clinical recovery and radiological resolution. Complications neurologiques du métronidazole. Le métronidazole (Flagyl®) est un agent antimicrobien utilisé couramment en pratique clinique. Bien qu'il soit généralement bien toléré et que ses effets secondaires soient minimes, il existe une myriade de complications neurologiques du traitement par le métronidazole qui ne sont pas toujours reconnues. Le but de cette revue constitue un sommaire de la littérature actuelle concernant la neurotoxicité induite par le métronidazole dont les syndromes cliniques, les constatations neuroradiologiques, le pronostic et l'hypothèse physiopathologique expliquant cette neurotoxicité. Il est important d'identifier ces effets neurotoxiques du métronidazole étant donné que l'arrět immédiat du traitement est généralement associé à une guérison clinique complète et à la disparition des signes radiologiques.

  5. [Tetracyclines, sulfonamides and metronidazole].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Iglesias, Luis

    2003-11-01

    Tetracyclines form a group of natural and semisynthetic products that acts inhibiting the bacterial protein synthesis. They are bacteriostatic agents, exhibiting activity against a wide range of organisms, but they are at the present of limited use because of their acquired resistance. Doxycycline is currently the most frequently used tetracycline in human medicine and it is included in the List of Essential Medicines of the World Health Organization. Sulfonamides are synthetic, broad-spectrum bacteriostatic antibiotics. They were the first effective systemic antimicrobial agents. Their mode of action is based on the inhibition of DNA synthesis. Due to their toxicity and high adquired resistance their use is currently very low. Metronidazole is the main compound of 5-nitroimidazole family. It is a very active bactericidal antibiotic against anaerobic and some microaerophilic bacteria and it is still very useful in the treatment of bacterian and parasitic infections.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of metronidazole, tetracycline and bismuth in healthy volunteers after oral administration of compound tablets containing a combination of metronidazole, tetracycline hydrochloride and bismuth oxide.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y; Ding, L; Huang, N-Y; Wen, A-D; Liu, B; Li, W-B

    2015-02-01

    To eradicate Helicobacter pylori in human pylorus and to heal duodenal ulcers, recently, a new formulation of combination tablets containing metronidazole 125 mg, tetracycline hydrochloride 125 mg and bismuth oxide 40 mg has been developed. To investigate the pharmacokinetics of metronidazole, tetracycline and bismuth in healthy Chinese volunteers after oral administration of the test formulation. A one-sequence, 3-period study was conducted in 12 Chinese healthy volunteers (6 male, 6 female). Volunteers each received single low dose (1 tablet) under fed condition in period 1, single high dose (3 tablets) under fasted condition in period 2, and single high dose (3 tablets) and multiple doses (3 tablets at once, 4 times daily for 7 consecutive days) under fed condition in period 3. Blood samples were collected and determined over 48 h in every period. After single high dose administration under fed condition, the C max of metronidazole, tetracycline and bismuth were 6.833 ± 0.742 μg/mL, 0.8513 ± 0.1253 μg/mL and 3.32 ± 1.89 ng/mL, respectively. The C max and AUC 0-48 of metronidazole increased in proportion to the doses within the tested dose range, but tetracycline and bismuth did not. Food caused 10% and 80% decrease of the C max for metronidazole and bismuth, respectively, but did not affect tetracycline. No gender effect was found on the pharmacokinetics of the 3 ingredients. In the steady state, the C av of metronidazole, tetracycline and bismuth were 20.75 ± 3.52 μg/mL, 1.900 ± 0.243 μg/mL and 5.61 ± 1.34 ng/mL, respectively. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Randomised clinical trial: vancomycin or metronidazole in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tabibian, J H; Weeding, E; Jorgensen, R A; Petz, J L; Keach, J C; Talwalkar, J A; Lindor, K D

    2013-03-01

    Emerging data suggest that oral antibiotics may have therapeutic effects in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), but published studies are limited. To investigate the safety and efficacy of oral vancomycin and metronidazole in patients with PSC. Thirty-five patients with PSC were randomised in a double-blind manner into four groups: vancomycin 125 mg or 250 mg four times/day, or metronidazole 250 mg or 500 mg three times/day for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ALK) at 12 weeks. Secondary end points included serum bilirubin and Mayo PSC risk score; pruritus; and adverse effects (AEs). Nonparametric tests were used for analysis. The primary endpoint was reached in the low-dose (-43% change in ALK, P = 0.03) and high-dose (-40%, P = 0.02) vancomycin groups, with two patients in the former experiencing ALK normalisation. Bilirubin decreased significantly in the low-dose metronidazole group (-20%, P = 0.03) and trended towards significance in the low-dose vancomycin group (-33%, P = 0.06). Mayo PSC risk score decreased significantly in the low-dose vancomycin (-0.55, P = 0.02) and low-dose metronidazole group (-0.16, P = 0.03). Pruritus decreased significantly in the high-dose metronidazole group (-3.4, P = 0.03). AEs led to medication discontinuation in six patients, four of whom were receiving metronidazole. Both vancomycin and metronidazole demonstrated efficacy; however, only patients in the vancomycin groups reached the primary endpoint, and with less adverse effects. Larger, longer-term studies are needed to further examine the safety and efficacy of antibiotics as a potential treatment for patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01085760). © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Induced liver injury after high-dose methylprednisolone in a patient with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Torres; Lopes, Sandra; Cipriano, Maria Augusta; Sofia, Carlos

    2015-07-21

    A 33-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis, medicated with high doses of methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide and glatiramer acetate, was referred to our department due to acute liver injury. The laboratory investigation was normal except for weakly positive antinuclear antibodies. Cyclophosphamide and glatiramer acetate were suspended, and intravenous immunoglobulin with maintenance of high doses of methylprednisolone was initiated. The patient developed another episode of acute hepatitis so the immunoglobulin was stopped. After that, she had three more episodes of elevation of liver enzymes with no hepatic insufficiency while medicated only with high doses of methylprednisolone. At this time, liver biopsy showed focal centrilobubar hepatocyte necrosis with minimal interface hepatitis. After the high doses of methylprednisolone were suspended, the patient remained asymptomatic, with normal hepatic enzymes. This case emphasises that, although rare, induced liver injury after high doses of methylprednisolone can occur. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Pharmacokinetic modelling of microencapsulated metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mahmood; Pervaiz, Khalid; Murtaza, Ghulam; Ramzan, Munaza

    2009-06-01

    The aim of present study is to develop a pharmacokinetic model for microencapsulated metronidazole to predict drug absorption pattern in healthy human and validate this model internally. Metronidazole was microencapsulated into ethylcellulose shells followed by the conversion of these microcapsules into tablets. Dissolution study of tablets was conducted in 450 mL double distilled water, 0.1 mol L(-1) HCl and phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) maintained at (37+/-0.5) degrees C using USP apparatus II at 50, 100 and 150 r min(-1). Three metronidazole tablets (T1: fast release, T2: moderate release, T3: slow release and reference) were administered to twenty four healthy human volunteers and serial blood samples were collected for 12 hours followed by their analysis using RP-HPLC. Drug release data were analyzed by various model dependent and independent approaches. Drug absorbed (%) was determined by Wagner-Nelson method from plasma concentration profile. Internal predictability was checked from Cmax and AUC. Optimum dissolution profile was observed in double distilled water and 50 r min(-1). A good level A correlation was observed between drug dissolution and absorption profiles (correlation coefficient, R2 = 0.9009, 0.9426, 0.9015 and 0.932 for T1, T2, T3 and reference, respectively). Internal predictability was found less than 10%. Good correlation coefficients and low prediction errors elaborate the validity of this mathematical in-vitro in-vivo correlation model as a predictive tool for the determination of pharmacokinetics from dissolution data.

  10. Metronidazole population pharmacokinetics in preterm neonates using dried blood-spot sampling.

    PubMed

    Suyagh, Maysa; Collier, Paul S; Millership, Jeffrey S; Iheagwaram, Godwill; Millar, Muriel; Halliday, Henry L; McElnay, James C

    2011-02-01

    To characterize the population pharmacokinetics of metronidazole in preterm neonates. Data were collected prospectively from 32 preterm neonates who received intravenous metronidazole for the treatment of or prophylaxis against necrotizing enterocolitis. Dried blood spots (n = 203) on filter paper were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the data were subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis performed by using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling. A 1-compartment model best described the data. Significant covariates were weight (WT) and postmenstrual age (PMA). The final population models for metronidazole clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (V) were: CL = 0.0247 × (WT/1.00)(0.75) × (1 + 0.107 × [PMA - 30]) and V = 0.726 × WT, where CL is in liters per hour, WT is in kilograms, PMA is in weeks, and V is in liters. This model predicts that the half-life of metronidazole decreases rapidly from ∼40 hours at 25 weeks' PMA to 19 hours at 32 weeks' PMA, after which it starts to plateau. This decrease in half-life is the result of a 5-fold increase in CL compared with only a 2.5-fold increase in V during the same period. Currently, there are no specific dose recommendations for metronidazole in preterm neonates. However, a dosing scheme for preterm neonates that takes into consideration both the weight and PMA has been suggested and should avoid administration of doses that are excessive or more frequent than necessary.

  11. Treatment of trichomoniasis with metronidazole rectal suppositories

    PubMed Central

    Panja, S K

    1982-01-01

    Since a single dose of metronidazole in suppository form is very effective in the prevention of postoperative Gram-negative anaerobic infections, 84 patients with vaginal trichomoniasis were treated with metronidazole suppositories (two 1-g suppositories in a single dose). The cure rate in this series was 94%. PMID:7104657

  12. Metronidazole Therapy in Mice Infected with Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Jason V.; Furney, Synthia K.; Orme, Ian M.

    1999-01-01

    The capacity of metronidazole to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was tested in in vitro and in vivo mouse models. In vitro addition of metronidazole to cultures of infected bone marrow-derived macrophages had no effect, nor did it increase the reduction in bacterial load due to isoniazid. In vivo, metronidazole did not reduce bacterial numbers in the lungs of aerosol-infected mice during the active stage of the disease, during a phase of containment, or after prolonged isoniazid therapy (Cornell model). A small but significant reduction was seen if metronidazole therapy was given during an established chronic disease state 100 days after aerosol administration. These data indicate that under most conditions M. tuberculosis organisms are not in a metabolic state in which they are susceptible to the action of metronidazole and, hence, that this drug would be of limited clinical value. PMID:10223954

  13. Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas Enzymes Activate Metronidazole (Nitroreductases) and Inactivate Metronidazole (Nitroimidazole Reductases) ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Dibyarupa; Banerjee, Sulagna; Cui, Jike; Schwartz, Aaron; Ghosh, Sudip K.; Samuelson, John

    2009-01-01

    Infections with Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, and Trichomonas vaginalis, which cause diarrhea, dysentery, and vaginitis, respectively, are each treated with metronidazole. Here we show that Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas have oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase (ntr) genes which are homologous to those genes that have nonsense mutations in metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori isolates. Entamoeba and Trichomonas also have nim genes which are homologous to those genes expressed in metronidazole-resistant Bacteroides fragilis isolates. Recombinant Giardia, Entamoeba, and Trichomonas nitroreductases used NADH rather than the NADPH used by Helicobacter, and two recombinant Entamoeba nitroreductases increased the metronidazole sensitivity of transformed Escherichia coli strains. Conversely, the recombinant nitroimidazole reductases (NIMs) of Entamoeba and Trichmonas conferred very strong metronidazole resistance to transformed bacteria. The Ehntr1 gene of the genome project HM-1:IMSS strain of Entamoeba histolytica had a nonsense mutation, and the same nonsense mutation was present in 3 of 22 clinical isolates of Entamoeba. While ntr and nim mRNAs were variably expressed by cultured Entamoeba and Trichomonas isolates, there was no relationship to metronidazole sensitivity. We conclude that microaerophilic protists have bacterium-like enzymes capable of activating metronidazole (nitroreductases) and inactivating metronidazole (NIMs). While Entamoeba and Trichomonas displayed some of the changes (nonsense mutations and gene overexpression) associated with metronidazole resistance in bacteria, these changes did not confer metronidazole resistance to the microaerophilic protists examined here. PMID:19015349

  14. Fluzone High-Dose Seasonal Influenza Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Fluzone High-Dose Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend ...

  15. Synergistic effects between amoxicillin, metronidazole, and the hydroxymetabolite of metronidazole against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed Central

    Pavicić, M J; van Winkelhoff, A J; de Graaff, J

    1991-01-01

    Interactions between metronidazole and amoxicillin, metronidazole and its hydroxymetabolite, and amoxicillin and the hydroxymetabolite of metronidazole were investigated with checkerboard titrations in combination with accurately determined MICs and MBCs. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was used as the test organism. Synergism was found for all three combinations. Fractional inhibitory concentration indices and fractional bactericidal concentration indices varied from 0.3 to 0.7. These synergistic interactions between these antibiotics may explain the efficacy of the combination of metronidazole and amoxicillin in various bacterial infections, including periodontal disease. PMID:1854177

  16. Case Report of Metronidazole-Induced Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Clements, Adam

    2017-12-01

    This report describes the case of an 83-year-old woman who was admitted to a hospitalist service with weakness and falls. She was transferred from an outside facility where she was treated with 3 courses of metronidazole for diagnosed Clostridium difficile colitis and presumed reoccurrences. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated T2 enhancement of the dorsal pons and dentate nuclei consistent with metronidazole-induced encephalopathy. Her metronidazole was stopped and her symptoms resolved. This condition is rare, poorly understood, and causes reversible changes in the brain that are detectable through T2-weighted MRI. It will need ongoing study with current widespread use of metronidazole. Copyright© Wisconsin Medical Society.

  17. Characterization of various deformable liposomes with metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Vanić, Željka; Hafner, Anita; Bego, Margareta; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate various deformable liposomes for their potential application for the vaginal administration of metronidazole. Deformable liposomes composed of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) and various surfactants [sodium deoxycholate (SDCh), Tween 80 or Span 80] and conventional liposomes consisting of EPC and egg phosphatidylglycerol-sodium (EPG-Na) were prepared with and without metronidazole. Additionally, a freeze-thaw method was applied to both classes of vesicles (liposomes) containing the drug to improve its trapping capacity. All of the liposomes prepared were characterized and compared in terms of size, polydispersity, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and their permeability on a Caco-2 cell monolayer. Conventional liposomes, both with and without metronidazole, were larger than the deformable vesicles. The presence of ethanol in the preparations of the elastic EPC/SDCh and EPC/Tween 80 liposomes was found to affect the particle size in terms of reducing this parameter. Different types of vesicles were compared for their trapping efficiency of metronidazole and the highest entrapment was observed with conventional liposomes. However, deformable EPC/SDCh liposomes were found to enhance the permeability of metronidazole more effectively than the conventional liposomes based on the in vitro model of the epithelial barrier. These preliminary data indicate that EPC/SDCh liposomes may have a promising future in vaginal delivery of metronidazole. Therefore, additional investigations on elastic vesicles and their incorporation in a suitable vehicle should be considered to further evaluate their applicability in vaginal drug delivery.

  18. Distribution of metronidazole in muscle tissue of patients with septic shock and its efficacy against Bacteroides fragilis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Karjagin, Juri; Pähkla, Rein; Karki, Tõnis; Starkopf, Joel

    2005-03-01

    Studies investigating the target site concentration of antibiotics, such as beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones, have demonstrated differences between the drug concentrations in healthy volunteers and septic patients. The aims of this study were (i) to evaluate the muscle tissue concentration of metronidazole in patients with septic shock and (ii) to test the efficacy of metronidazole in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model at different single doses. Six patients admitted to the ICU of Tartu University Clinics with a diagnosis of septic shock were studied. Patients receiving metronidazole treatment within 48 h before the study or with a BMI > 35 were excluded. Metronidazole muscle tissue concentration was assessed by a microdialysis technique. Based on the microdialysis data, similar kinetics were simulated in in vitro experiments using Bacillus fragilis strains with MIC(90)s of 0.125 mg/L (BF125) and 1.0 mg/L (BF1). Metronidazole concentrations in plasma achieved a mean (s.d.) value of 11.4+/-2.0 mg/L at 30 min after administration of a single 500 mg intravenous dose, while in the muscle tissue, maximum concentrations of 8.2+/-4.5 mg/L were achieved at 140+/-92.3 min after the dose. When this metronidazole time course was simulated in vitro, the time to 99.9% kill ranged from 1.0 to 1.4 h for BF125 and from 1.8 to 3.5 h for BF1, while the eradication time ranged from 1.7 to 2.5 h and from 3.4 to 6.5 h, respectively. No regrowth was detected. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic simulation of metronidazole interstitial concentrations shows a high efficacy of the drug in septic patients.

  19. High-dose neutron detector project update

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, Howard Olsen; Henzlova, Daniela

    2016-08-10

    These are the slides for a progress review meeting by the sponsor. This is an update on the high-dose neutron detector project. In summary, improvements in both boron coating and signal amplification have been achieved; improved boron coating materials and procedures have increased efficiency by ~ 30-40% without the corresponding increase in the detector plate area; low dead-time via thin cell design (~ 4 mm gas gaps) and fast amplifiers; prototype PDT 8” pod has been received and testing is in progress; significant improvements in efficiency and stability have been verified; use commercial PDT 10B design and fabrication to obtainmore » a faster path from the research to practical high-dose neutron detector.« less

  20. Intravenous Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliart, Barbara

    Intended for teaching licensed practical nurses, this curriculum guide provides information related to the equipment and skills required for nursing care of patients needing intravenous (IV) therapy. It also explains the roles and responsibilities of the licensed practical nurse with regard to intravenous therapy. Each of the 15 instructional…

  1. Treatment of infantile spasms with very high dose prednisolone before high dose adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shaun A; Shinnar, Shlomo; Kwong, Grace; Lerner, Jason T; Matsumoto, Joyce H; Wu, Joyce Y; Shields, W Donald; Sankar, Raman

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the short-term response to a standardized hormonal therapy protocol for treatment of infantile spasms. Twenty-seven children with video electroencephalography (EEG)-confirmed infantile spasms received very high dose (8 mg/kg/day, max 60 mg/day) oral prednisolone for 2 weeks. Response (absence of both hypsarrhythmia and spasms) to prednisolone was ascertained by repeat overnight video-EEG. Responders were tapered over 2 weeks and nonresponders were immediately transitioned to high dose (150 IU/m(2)/day) intramuscular adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) for two additional weeks. Response was again determined by overnight video-EEG after ACTH therapy. Sixty-three percent (17/27) of patients responded completely to prednisolone. Subsequently, 40% (4/10) of prednisolone nonresponders exhibited a complete response after an additional 2-week course with ACTH. Among 27 subjects with median follow-up of 13.5 months (interquartile range [IQR] 4.8-25.9), 12% (2/17) of prednisolone responders and 50% (2/4) of ACTH responders experienced a relapse between 2 and 9 months after initial response. Very high dose prednisolone demonstrated significantly higher efficacy than previously reported for lower doses in prior studies. High dose ACTH may be superior to very high dose prednisolone, and in lieu of a definitive clinical trial, the choice between prednisolone and ACTH for initial treatment of infantile spasms remains controversial. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. [High-dose buprenorphine substitution during incarceration.

    PubMed

    Reynaud-Maurupt, Catherine; Caer, Yves; Escaffre, Noëlle; Gagneau, Murielle; Galinier, Anne; Marzo, Jean-Noël; Meroueh, Fadi

    2005-04-01

    MANAGEMENT OF OPIATE ADDICTS: OBJECTIVE: To describe the social and medical profiles of incarcerated (in detention or after sentencing) opiate addicts, whether or not they had already begun substitution treatment at arrival, and assess the impact of high-dose buprenorphine substitution therapy on the health of prisoners and the course of their incarceration. METHODS: A prospective survey was conducted on opiate addicts on admission to prison and after 2 months of incarceration, from December 2001 to February 2003, in 6 prison centres in the South East of France. RESULTS: During incarceration, no significant difference (other than in medical follow-up) appeared between the prisoners receiving substitution treatment and those who went through withdrawal on arrival. The first group differed from the second in several respects: their occupational history before incarceration was less stable, their history of drug addiction and incarceration was more serious (injection, psychotropic use, number of prior incarcerations, early age at first incarceration). The buprenorphine patients also differed in their more intense use of medical follow-up before incarceration. CONCLUSION: The impact of buprenorphine substitution therapy during incarceration could not be demonstrated, but prisoners receiving this treatment had a substantially different profile than those who were not receiving treatment when they arrived in prison.

  3. Urolithiasis in patients on high dose felbamate.

    PubMed

    Ghousheh, Anas I; Groth, Travis W; Fryjoff, Kathy M; Wille, David F; Mandel, Neil S; Roddy, John T; Durkee, Charles T

    2013-05-01

    We report 4 cases of felbamate urolithiasis. We identified only 1 prior case report of a felbamate stone. Felbamate is an antiepileptic drug used to treat refractory seizures and has minor side effects when given in recommended doses. We analyzed the characteristics, evaluation, treatment and outcomes in this challenging group of patients. Following institutional review board approval, we conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients who presented with a diagnosis of urolithiasis, were on felbamate and had stone analysis consistent with a felbamate origin. All 4 patients had refractory seizures and 3 had severe developmental delay. Presentation ranged from an incidental finding to gross hematuria to agitation and pain. Stones were not visible on plain x-ray except in 1 case involving mixed stone composition. Decrease or cessation of the drug has not been feasible in 2 patients, and 3 patients have had recurrent stones. Initial stone analysis did not correctly identify the stone composition as felbamate in 2 cases, suggesting that the origin of these stones may not always be recognized. We report the occurrence of felbamate stones in a series of patients on high dose felbamate therapy. Accurate diagnosis is made more difficult by the clinical complexity of the patient population (including severe developmental delay), the radiolucent nature of the stones and the possibility of inaccurate analysis of stone composition. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Life-threatening hypokalemia in an asthmatic patient treated with high-dose hydrocortisone.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Weng-Sheng; Wu, Chien-Ping; Hsu, Yu-Juei; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2004-03-01

    Although modest hypokalemia is frequently observed in asthmatic patients being treated with bronchodilators, profound hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis are rarely reported in patients receiving high-dose hydrocortisone (HC). We describe a 66-year-old man who complained of generalized muscle weakness, shallow respiration, and palpitations after receiving high-dose intravenous HC (total dose, 2400 mg over 4 days) to treat a severe asthma attack. During this therapy, there was a weight gain of 1.0 kg. An electrocardiogram revealed ventricular arrhythmia with frequent premature ventricular contractions. Hypokalemia was profound, with plasma potassium (K+) concentration of 1.7 mEq/L, and associated with renal potassium wasting, as evidenced by a transtubular potassium concentration gradient of 12; metabolic alkalosis (plasma HCO3-, 37 mEq/L) was also present. When treated with spironolactone, KCl supplementation, and substitution of HC with prednisolone, his plasma K+ concentration rapidly normalized, metabolic alkalosis was corrected, and arrhythmia disappeared within 3 days. Because of unwanted mineralocorticoid side-effects, high-dose HC may cause life-threatening hypokalemia in asthmatic patients. Because of these potential risks, plasma acid-base and electrolyte concentrations should be monitored frequently in any patient treated with high-dose HC.

  5. Continuous spinal anesthesia with high dose of local anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Imbelloni, Luiz Eduardo; Neto, Savino Gasparini; Ganem, Eliana Marisa

    2010-01-01

    Better control of the level, intensity, and duration of spinal analgesia represents the greatest advantages of continuous spinal anesthesia. With the advent of intermediate catheters (over-the-needle catheter) and its low incidence of headaches and neurological symptoms, the technique has been gaining credibility. The objective of this paper is to report the possible safety of the new catheter with a large dose of hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine with 1.6% glucose associated with hyperbaric 2% lidocaine with 1.6% glucose. Male patient, 78 years old, 85 kg, 168 cm, physical status ASA III, with hypertension, coronary artery disease, and chronic renal failure. The patient was candidate for surgery for huge bilateral inguinal and umbilical hernias, being submitted to preoperative pneumoperitoneum for one week to stretch abdominal cavity. After venoclysis with an 18G catheter, he was monitored with cardioscope, non-invasive blood pressure, and pulse oximetry; he was sedated with 1 mg of midazolam and 100 μg of fentanyl intravenously, and placed in left lateral decubitus. He underwent continuous spinal anesthesia by a median puncture in L₃-L₄ with a set with a 27G cut-bevel needle and 22G catheter. The total dose of anesthetic used was 25mg of 0.5% bupivacaine (hyperbaric, with 1.6% glucose), 160 mg of 2% lidocaine (hyperbaric, with 1.6% glucose), and morphine (100 μg). The patient was followed-up until the 30th postoperative day without neurological complaints. Recently, the poor distribution of the local anesthetic through the microcatheter was attributed as the cause of cauda equina syndrome. This case report showed that, with the administration of high doses of hyperbaric anesthetics through the new catheter, poor distribution or risk of cauda equina syndrome were not observed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Metronidazole affects breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, A; Prokopiuk, S; Miltyk, W; Surażyński, A; Konończuk, J; Sawicka, D; Car, H

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of metronidazole (MTZ) on cytotoxicity and DNA synthesis in MCF-7 (estrogen receptor positive) and MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor negative) breast cancer cell lines. Toxicity of MTZ was determined by MTT test. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were incubated with metronidazole used in different concentrations for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The effect of MTZ on DNA synthesis was measured as [3H]-thymidine incorporation. We showed that MTZ in concentration 250 μg/ml significantly increases the growth of MCF-7 cell lines after 24 hours of incubation, but it reduces cell viability in concentrations 1 and 10 μg/ml 72 hours after the drug application. Significant increase of MDA-MB-231 cell viability was obtained in MTZ concentration of 250 μg/ml after 24 and 72 hours. The increase of [3H]-thymidine incorporation in MCF-7 cell line treated with MTZ in concentration 250 μg/ml was statistically significant after 24 hours. Great suppression of cell proliferation was obtained in MDA-MB-231 breast cell line after application of the following concentrations of MTZ: 0.1 μg/ml (after 24 hours) and 0.1, 10, 50, 250 μg/ml (after 72h). We found that metronidazole exerts different dose- and time- dependent effects on human breast cancer cell lines characterized by presence or absence of estrogen receptors. We suggest that these discrepancies may be influenced by the estrogen signaling.

  7. Metronidazole resistance in Bacteroides spp. carrying nim genes and the selection of slow-growing metronidazole-resistant mutants.

    PubMed

    Gal, Micaela; Brazier, J S

    2004-07-01

    Human clinical isolates of Bacteroides spp. originating from patients in the UK were investigated for the presence of metronidazole resistance determinants (nim genes) and their presence was related to the MIC of metronidazole for the isolates. Isolates were screened for susceptibility to a metronidazole disc and had their MIC determined by the Etest method. They were investigated for the presence of nim genes by PCR. An experiment to determine the effect of prolonged exposure to metronidazole was applied to nim-positive isolates with MICs below the therapeutic breakpoint. Fifty of 206 isolates (24%) were found to possess nim genes and these had MICs of metronidazole ranging from 1.5 to >256 mg/L with 24 (11.6%) above the therapeutic breakpoint of 16 mg/L. The remaining 26 nim-gene-positive isolates had MICs that were still below the therapeutic breakpoint, ranging from 1.5 to 6.0 mg/L. nim genes were not found in 156 (76%) isolates, and all but seven of these were susceptible to a 5 microg disc of metronidazole. Ten members of the group for which the MICs were below the therapeutic level were found to have slow-growing sub-populations with metronidazole MICs ranging from 8.0 to >256 mg/L that became evident after prolonged exposure to metronidazole in vitro. This resistance selection process was sometimes reversible after passage in the absence of metronidazole; however, seven of the 10 slow-growing mutants converted to stable high-level resistance (MIC >256 mg/L). Although the presence of nim genes per se does not always equate to therapeutic resistance, and other metronidazole resistance mechanisms may exist, this study has shown that prolonged exposure of nim-gene-carrying Bacteroides spp. to metronidazole can select for therapeutic resistance.

  8. Metronidazole-induced Encephalopathy: Case Report and Review Literature.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying-Ting; Chen, Lu-An; Cheng, Shin-Jung

    2012-06-01

    Neurotoxicities resulting from various medications are under diagnosed; Metronidazole-induced encephalopathy is one of them. Here we present two patients with a history of metronidazole use and discuss neuroimaging findings. We report two patients suffering from acute neurological symptoms associated with metronidazole use. A 70-year-old female who received a cumulative dose of 41.25g of metronidazole within one month, developed seizure. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed T2 hyperintensity over bilateral dentate nuclei and dorsal midbrain. A 56-year-old female suffering from acute onset of central vertigo with metronidazole use, took a total dose of 24g. The brain MRI showed T2 hyperintensity over dorsal midbrain and dorsal medulla, which disappeared in the following neuroimaging 50 days later. Metronidazole-induced encephalopathy (MIE) was suspected in both patients. Metronidazole-induced encephalopathy is an uncommon but potentially reversible disease in patients with acute neurological deficits from the use of metronidazole. Nonalcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy may share a similar metabolic pathway with MIE, resulting in difficulties in diagnosis.

  9. Metronidazole induces gametocytogenesis in gregarine associations maintained in vitro.

    PubMed

    Trout, Kate; Clopton, Richard E

    2012-06-01

    Gametocytogenesis was induced in mature associations of Protomagalhaensia wolfi and Protomagalhaensia blaberae maintained in vitro by inclusion of metronidazole in the culture medium. The response was neither strictly dosage dependent nor uniform across gregarine species. We hypothesize that metronidazole induces gregarine gametocytogenesis by disrupting PUF2 proteins responsible for the translational control of sexual development and gametocytogenesis in apicomplexans.

  10. Influence of metronidazole particle properties on granules prepared in a high-shear mixer-granulator.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Piera; Censi, Roberta; Malaj, Ledjan; Martelli, Sante; Joiris, Etienne; Barthélémy, Christine

    2007-02-01

    Metronidazole is a good example of high-dose drug substance with poor granulating and tableting properties. Tablets are generally produced by liquid granulation; however, the technological process failure is quite frequent. In order to verify how the metronidazole particle characteristics can influence granule properties, three metronidazole batches differing for crystal habit, mean particle size, BET surface area and wettability were selected, primarily designed according to their different elongation ratio: needle-shaped, stick-shaped, and isodimensional. In the presence of lactose monohydrate and pregelatinized maize starch, respectively as diluent and binder, they were included in a formula for wet granulation in a high-shear mixer-granulator. In order to render the process comparable as far as possible, all parameters and experimental conditions were maintained constant. Four granule batches were obtained: granules from placebo (G-placebo), granules from needle-shaped crystals (G-needle-shaped), granules from stick-shaped crystals (G-stick-shaped), and granules from isodimensional crystals (G-isodimensional). Different granule properties were considered, in particular concerning porosity, friability, loss on drying (LOD), and flowability. In order to study their tabletability and compressibility, the different granules obtained were then compressed in a rotary press. The best tabletability was obtained with the isodimensional batch, while the poorest was exhibited by the stick-shaped one. Differences in tabletability are in good accordance with compressibility results: to a better tabletability corresponds an important granule ability to undergo a volume reduction as a result of an applied pressure. In particular, it was proposed that the greatest compressibility of the G-isodimensional must be related to the greatest granule porosity percentage.

  11. Management of metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis--a new approach.

    PubMed

    Mammen-Tobin, A; Wilson, J D

    2005-07-01

    Metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis is an infrequent but challenging problem with no universally successful treatment. Since 1994, we have been using a combination regimen consisting of high-dose tinidazole plus a broad-spectrum antibiotic, i.e. doxycycline or ampicillin, and clotrimazole pessaries, for 7--14 days in this condition. A retrospective case review identified 11 cases of resistant trichomonas between 1994 and 2002. In the absence of resistance testing, resistance was defined clinically. Nine of the 11 patients were cured; one patient did not attend follow-up. In the women who attended for follow-up, the cure rate was 90%. We have found the combination of tinidazole, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, and clotrimazole pessaries to be a tolerable and effective treatment for metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis. Although a variety of total doses of tinidazole were used in our patients, based on our findings, and those of others, we would recommend giving tinidazole 2 g twice daily for 14 days (total dose 56 g).

  12. Metronidazole with Lactacyd vaginal gel in bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Decena, Ditas Cristina D; Co, Jennifer T; Manalastas, Ricardo M; Palaypayon, Evelyn P; Padolina, Christia S; Sison, Judith M; Dancel, Louella A; Lelis, Marievi A

    2006-04-01

    To assess the efficacy and tolerability of lactic acid (Lactacyd vaginal gel; LVG) when given as an adjunct to metronidazole in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) among Filipino patients. A multicenter, open-labeled, controlled, randomized, three-arm comparative study on 90 women aged 18 years or over with clinically and microbiologically proven BV. The lactobacilli colony count significantly increased over time in all three arms. At day 14, growth of lactobacilli was significantly higher among patients in the lactic acid gel and combination treatment arms. Significant reduction of malodorous vaginal discharge (whiff test) and lowest recurrence of BV were noted in the metronidazole plus lactic acid gel arm. Regarding disappearance of signs of BV, there was significant decrease in the pH level and frequency of clue cell positive patients across time but was not significantly different across treatment groups. Only one patient (3%, 1/60) among those who received lactic acid gel complained of increased curd-like discharge. Six patients (10%, 6/60) who received metronidazole complained of epigastric pain/discomfort, dizziness and dyspnea. Lactic acid gel (LVG) is safe and as efficacious as metronidazole in the treatment of BV. There is evidence that LVG when combined with metronidazole is superior to metronidazole alone in promoting lactobacilli colonization. LVG as an adjunct to metronidazole, having the least number of recurrent BV, appears to result in better long-term treatment effect on bacterial vaginosis.

  13. High-dose immunosuppressant alters the immunological status of New Zealand white rabbits following skin transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peilun; Zhong, Liming; Jiang, Zesheng; Wang, Yan; Pan, Mingxin; Gao, Y I

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an immunosuppressant on the immunological status of New Zealand white rabbits after skin grafting, and to evaluate a method for monitoring the immunological status of subjects with skin transplants. The rabbits were randomly divided into allograft rejection, autograft tolerance, nontransplant, allograft low-dose immunosuppressant and allograft high-dose immunosuppressant groups. The rabbits in the low- and high-dose immunosuppressant groups were treated with cyclosporine A intravenously 8 h prior to skin transplantation and once daily following transplantation at doses of 2 and 25 mg/kg, respectively. At 12 days after skin transplantation, the spleens of donor (female) rabbits and recipient (male) rabbits were harvested for the preparation of single-cell suspensions. The splenocytes from recipient and donor rabbits were labeled with 0.3 or 6 µM carboxy fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester, respectively, and a mixed cell suspension was prepared. The final preparation was intravenously injected into recipient New Zealand white rabbits. The ratio of the two fluorescently labeled cell populations in the peripheral blood was measured using flow cytometry at 1, 2, 4 and 8 h after the injection, and the cell death rate was calculated. Histological analysis was also performed on samples collected at the time of splenectomy. The cell death rates of the allograft rejection and low-dose immunosuppressant groups reached their highest levels 8 h after the injection of spleen cell suspension. Allogeneic spleen cells from donor male rabbits were almost completely removed within 8 h of injection. The cell death rate increased slowly in the nontransplant, autograft and high-dose immunosuppressant groups without specificity. This study provides a specific method for the in vivo monitoring of the immunological status of patients after skin grafting. This method can quickly and accurately detect the immunological status of

  14. Accelerated Irradiations for High Dose Microstructures in Fast Reactor Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Zhijie

    2017-03-31

    The objective of this project is to determine the extent to which high dose rate, self-ion irradiation can be used as an accelerated irradiation tool to understand microstructure evolution at high doses and temperatures relevant to advanced fast reactors. We will accomplish the goal by evaluating phase stability and swelling of F-M alloys relevant to SFR systems at very high dose by combining experiment and modeling in an effort to obtain a quantitative description of the processes at high and low damage rates.

  15. Intravenous/oral ciprofloxacin therapy versus intravenous ceftazidime therapy for selected bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Gaut, P L; Carron, W C; Ching, W T; Meyer, R D

    1989-11-30

    The efficacy and toxicity of sequential intravenous and oral ciprofloxacin therapy was compared with intravenously administered ceftazidime in a prospective, randomized, controlled, non-blinded trial. Thirty-two patients (16 patients receiving ciprofloxacin and 16 patients receiving ceftazidime) with 38 infections caused by susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enteric gram-negative rods, Salmonella group B, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Xanthomonas maltophilia at various sites were evaluable for determination of efficacy. Length of therapy varied from seven to 25 days. Concomitant antimicrobials included intravenously administered beta-lactams for gram-positive organisms, intravenous/oral metronidazole and clindamycin for anaerobes, and intravenous/local amphotericin B for Candida albicans. Intravenous administration of 200 mg ciprofloxacin every 12 hours to 11 patients produced peak serum levels between 1.15 and 3.12 micrograms/ml; trough levels ranged between 0.08 and 0.86 micrograms/ml. Overall response rates were similar for patients receiving ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime. Emergence of resistance was similar in both groups--one Enterobacter cloacae and two P. aeruginosa became resistant after ciprofloxacin therapy and two P. aeruginosa became resistant after ceftazidime therapy. The frequency of superinfection with a variety of organisms was also similar in both groups. Adverse events related to ciprofloxacin included transient pruritus at the infusion site and generalized rash leading to drug discontinuation (one patient each), and with ceftazidime adverse effects included pain at the site of infusion and the development of allergic interstitial nephritis (one patient each). Overall, intravenous/oral ciprofloxin therapy appears to be as safe and effective as intravenous ceftazidime therapy in the treatment of a variety of infections due to susceptible aerobic gram-negative organisms.

  16. Treatment of Infections Caused by Metronidazole-Resistant Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Cudmore, Sarah L.; Delgaty, Kiera L.; Hayward-McClelland, Shannon F.; Petrin, Dino P.; Garber, Gary E.

    2004-01-01

    Infections with the sexually transmitted protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis are usually treated with metronidazole, a 5-nitroimidazole drug derived from the antibiotic azomycin. Metronidazole treatment is generally efficient in eliminating T. vaginalis infection and has a low risk of serious side effects. However, studies have shown that at least 5% of clinical cases of trichomoniasis are caused by parasites resistant to the drug. The lack of approved alternative therapies for T. vaginalis treatment means that higher and sometimes toxic doses of metronidazole are the only option for patients with resistant disease. Clearly, studies of the treatment and prevention of refractory trichomoniasis are essential. This review describes the mechanisms of metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis and provides a summary of trichomonicidal and vaccine candidate drugs. PMID:15489348

  17. Tinidazole versus Metronidazole for the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    SCHWEBKE, Jane R.; DESMOND, Renee A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of two different doses of tinidazole with metronidazole for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and compare side effects of the drugs. Study design Women were randomized to metronidazole 500 mg BID, tinidazole 500 mg BID, or tinidazole 1 gm BID all for 7 days. Follow-up visits were conducted at day 14 and day 28. Results 593 women were enrolled. There were no significant differences between the treatment arms. Overall cure rates were 76.8% at 14 days and 64.5% at one month. Women who admitted to engaging in sexual intercourse during the study were significantly more likely to have BV at follow-up. There were no significant differences in adverse events across treatment arms. Conclusions There were no differences in cure rates between metronidazole and either of the tinidazole dosing regimens studied. In addition, there were no important differences in the side effect profiles of metronidazole and tinidazole. PMID:21167471

  18. Effect of Post–Cesarean Delivery Oral Cephalexin and Metronidazole on Surgical Site Infection Among Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Valent, Amy M.; DeArmond, Chris; Houston, Judy M.; Reddy, Srinidhi; Masters, Heather R.; Gold, Alison; Boldt, Michael; DeFranco, Emily; Evans, Arthur T.

    2017-01-01

    Importance The rate of obesity among US women has been increasing, and obesity is associated with increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean delivery. The optimal perioperative antibiotic prophylactic regimen in this high-risk population undergoing cesarean delivery is unknown. Objective To determine rates of SSI among obese women who receive prophylactic oral cephalexin and metronidazole vs placebo for 48 hours following cesarean delivery. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing oral cephalexin and metronidazole vs placebo for 48 hours following cesarean delivery for the prevention of SSI in obese women (prepregnancy BMI ≥30) who had received standard intravenous preoperative cephalosporin prophylaxis. Randomization was stratified by intact vs rupture of membranes prior to delivery. The study was conducted at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, an academic and urban setting, between October 2010 and December 2015, with final follow-up through February 2016. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to receive oral cephalexin, 500 mg, and metronidazole, 500 mg (n = 202 participants), vs identical-appearing placebo (n = 201 participants) every 8 hours for a total of 48 hours following cesarean delivery. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was SSI, defined as any superficial incisional, deep incisional, or organ/space infections within 30 days after cesarean delivery. Results Among 403 randomized participants who were included (mean age, 28 [SD, 6] years; mean BMI, 39.7 [SD, 7.8]), 382 (94.6%) completed the trial. The overall rate of SSI was 10.9% (95% CI, 7.9%-14.0%). Surgical site infection was diagnosed in 13 women (6.4%) in the cephalexin-metronidazole group vs 31 women (15.4%) in the placebo group (difference, 9.0% [95% CI, 2.9%-15.0%]; relative risk, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.22-0.77]; P = .01). There were no serious adverse events, including

  19. Indirect electroreduction as pretreatment to enhance biodegradability of metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Saidi, I; Soutrel, I; Floner, D; Fourcade, F; Bellakhal, N; Amrane, A; Geneste, F

    2014-08-15

    The removal of metronidazole, a biorecalcitrant antibiotic, by coupling an electrochemical reduction with a biological treatment was examined. Electroreduction was performed in a home-made flow cell at -1.2V/SCE on graphite felt. After only one pass through the cell, analysis of the electrolyzed solution showed a total degradation of metronidazole. The biodegradability estimated from the BOD5/COD ratio increased from 0.07 to 0.2, namely below the value usually considered as the limit of biodegradability (0.4). In order to improve these results, indirect electrolysis of metronidazole was performed with a titanium complex known to reduce selectively nitro compounds into amine. The catalytic activity of the titanium complex towards electroreduction of metronidazole was shown by cyclic voltammetry analyses. Indirect electrolysis led to an improvement of the biodegradability from 0.07 to 0.42. To confirm the interest of indirect electroreduction to improve the electrochemical pretreatment, biological treatment was then carried out on activated sludge after direct and indirect electrolyses; different parameters were followed during the culture such as pH, TOC and metronidazole concentration. Both electrochemical processes led to a more efficient biodegradation of metronidazole compared with the single biological treatment, leading to an overall mineralization yield for the coupling process of 85%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lack of disulfiram-like reaction with metronidazole and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Visapää, Jukka-Pekka; Tillonen, Jyrki S; Kaihovaara, Pertti S; Salaspuro, Mikko P

    2002-06-01

    Metronidazole, an effective antianaerobic agent, has been reported to have aversive properties when ingested with ethanol. This is thought to be due to the blocking of hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzyme followed by the accumulation of acetaldehyde in the blood. However, based on animal studies and on only 10 human case reports, the existence of metronidazole-related disulfiram-like reaction has recently been questioned. To investigate the possible disulfiram-like properties of metronidazole and ethanol in human volunteers. Of 12 healthy male volunteers in this double-blind study, one-half received metronidazole for 5 days and the other half received placebo. All volunteers received ethanol 0.4 g/kg at the beginning of the study. Repeated blood samples were taken every 20 minutes for 4 hours, and blood acetaldehyde and ethanol concentrations were determined. Blood pressure, heart rate, and skin temperature were also measured every 20 minutes for objective signs of a possible disulfiram-like reaction. Volunteers also completed a questionnaire focusing on the subjective signs of disulfiram-like reaction. Metronidazole did not raise blood acetaldehyde or have any objective or subjective adverse effects when used together with ethanol. This study shows that metronidazole does not have an effect on blood acetaldehyde concentrations when ingested with ethanol and does not have any objective or subjective disulfiram-like properties. However, it is possible that disulfiram-like reaction can occur in some subgroups and by other mechanisms than the inhibition of hepatic ALDH.

  1. Intravenous immunoglobulin in treatment of Clostridium difficile colitis

    PubMed Central

    Shahani, Lokesh; Koirala, Janak

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection is the most common infectious cause of healthcare-acquired diarrhoea. Severe infections cause therapeutic challenges for healthcare providers. Various novel treatment modalities are currently being explored for treatment of severe disease. The authors report a 70-year-old female who presented to the emergency room with 1 week history of fever, watery diarrhoea, diffuse abdominal pain and weakness. C difficile toxin was detected in the stool and abdominal CAT scan showed extensive colonic wall thickening. The patient was started on intravenous metronidazole along with oral vancomycin. Due to the severity of the infection the patient was given intravenous immunoglobin for 4 consecutive days. The patient had vast improvement in her clinical symptoms with resolution of the multi-organ system failure. It is currently considered that the predominant intravenous immunoglobin’s mechanism of action is through binding and neutralisation of toxin A by IgG antitoxin A antibodies. PMID:22605853

  2. Acute Changes in Mentation in a Patient with Hepatic Cirrhosis Treated with High Doses of Dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Dabul, Luis; Droney, Andrew; Oms, Juan; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A

    2017-09-10

    Despite the anti-inflammatory benefits of steroids in the management of multiple medical conditions, they are associated with undesired metabolic and psychiatric side effects. We present a case of a 57-year-old Hispanic man with hepatic cirrhosis due to hepatitis C and no past medical history of psychiatric illnesses who became delirious after treatment with high doses of intravenous Dexamethasone. The patient presented to Larkin Community Hospital, USA with complaints of lower back pain requiring treatment with steroids for severe lumbar central canal stenosis. After three days of treatment, the patient became disoriented to time and place, grossly psychotic with auditory hallucinations and disorganized behavior, manic, aggressive, combative, restless, hard to redirect, and unable to follow commands. He met the criteria for a diagnosis of substance-induced psychotic disorder according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) V. Furthermore, the patient had worsening hepatic profile, a high ammonia level of 125 umol/L, and clinical findings consistent with West Haven classification grade 2 encephalopathy. Head computed tomography (CT) scan was normal. He was treated with discontinuation of steroids, lactulose, and Haloperidol returning to baseline mental status after 48 hours. The patient's hospitalization was complicated with a prolonged hospital stay after lumbar surgery. This case illustrates that treatment with high doses of Dexamethasone in a patient with hepatic cirrhosis can cause acute changes in mental status by (i) inducing delirium, and (ii) precipitating hepatic encephalopathy.

  3. Acute Changes in Mentation in a Patient with Hepatic Cirrhosis Treated with High Doses of Dexamethasone

    PubMed Central

    Droney, Andrew; Oms, Juan; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A

    2017-01-01

    Despite the anti-inflammatory benefits of steroids in the management of multiple medical conditions, they are associated with undesired metabolic and psychiatric side effects. We present a case of a 57-year-old Hispanic man with hepatic cirrhosis due to hepatitis C and no past medical history of psychiatric illnesses who became delirious after treatment with high doses of intravenous Dexamethasone. The patient presented to Larkin Community Hospital, USA with complaints of lower back pain requiring treatment with steroids for severe lumbar central canal stenosis. After three days of treatment, the patient became disoriented to time and place, grossly psychotic with auditory hallucinations and disorganized behavior, manic, aggressive, combative, restless, hard to redirect, and unable to follow commands. He met the criteria for a diagnosis of substance-induced psychotic disorder according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) V. Furthermore, the patient had worsening hepatic profile, a high ammonia level of 125 umol/L, and clinical findings consistent with West Haven classification grade 2 encephalopathy. Head computed tomography (CT) scan was normal. He was treated with discontinuation of steroids, lactulose, and Haloperidol returning to baseline mental status after 48 hours. The patient's hospitalization was complicated with a prolonged hospital stay after lumbar surgery. This case illustrates that treatment with high doses of Dexamethasone in a patient with hepatic cirrhosis can cause acute changes in mental status by (i) inducing delirium, and (ii) precipitating hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:29152432

  4. Metronidazole-Induced Bullous Pemphigoid: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Moitra, Saibal; Banerjee, Indranil; Sikder, Ayan; Das, Prasanta

    2015-01-01

    Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune cutaneous blistering disorder, the exact pathogenesis of which is still not fully elucidated. Drug-induced bullous pemphigoid eruptions are rare but have been reported earlier with the use of frusemide, psoralens, ibuprofen, galantamine hydrobromide, ACE inhibitors like captopril, spironolactone, penicillin, ampicillin, levofloxacin, penicillamine. We hereby report a case of metronidazole induced bullous pemphigoid (BP) in a 52-year-old male patient suffering from liver abscess following 4 days of drug administration. The skin biopsy findings obtained from the patient were consistent with the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid (BP). Metronidazole was discontinued and symptomatic treatment was offered to the patient. Following withdrawal of metronidazole, the bullae subsided in the next 7-10 days without any significant residual scarring. The causality assessment performed as per the Naranjo algorithm revealed the case to be probable (Naranjo score 7). PMID:26816913

  5. Metronidazole-Induced Bullous Pemphigoid: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Saibal; Sen, Sukanta; Banerjee, Indranil; Sikder, Ayan; Das, Prasanta

    2015-12-01

    Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune cutaneous blistering disorder, the exact pathogenesis of which is still not fully elucidated. Drug-induced bullous pemphigoid eruptions are rare but have been reported earlier with the use of frusemide, psoralens, ibuprofen, galantamine hydrobromide, ACE inhibitors like captopril, spironolactone, penicillin, ampicillin, levofloxacin, penicillamine. We hereby report a case of metronidazole induced bullous pemphigoid (BP) in a 52-year-old male patient suffering from liver abscess following 4 days of drug administration. The skin biopsy findings obtained from the patient were consistent with the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid (BP). Metronidazole was discontinued and symptomatic treatment was offered to the patient. Following withdrawal of metronidazole, the bullae subsided in the next 7-10 days without any significant residual scarring. The causality assessment performed as per the Naranjo algorithm revealed the case to be probable (Naranjo score 7).

  6. Bioencapsulation of metronidazole in adult brine shrimp (Artemia sp.).

    PubMed

    Allender, Matthew C; Kastura, Mike; George, Robert; Bulman, Frank; Yarbrough, Jason; Cox, Sherry

    2011-06-01

    A description of bioencapsulation of metronidazole in adult brine shrimp (Artemia) for 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L, and 10 g/L treatment baths is presented. Metronidazole was detected in adult brine shrimp tissue after enrichment periods of 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 2 hr, 4 hr, 8 hr, 12 hr, and 24 hr. The assays were performed using high performance liquid chromatography. There was a positive relationship in both dose and time. When evaluating percent uptake, all three baths demonstrated a similar pattern. All three bath concentrations had a high initial concentration that fell at 30 min and slowly began to increase through the end of the study. Survival of shrimp was not affected by bath concentration but decreased over time in all treatment baths comparatively. It can be concluded that metronidazole can be successfully bioencapsulated in adult Artemia.

  7. High-dose levofloxacin in community-acquired pneumonia: a randomized, open-label study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Seo Woo; Kim, Ji Hye; Ryu, Yon Ju; Chang, Jung Hyun

    2012-09-01

    The conventional treatment for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) involves combination therapy consisting of a β-lactam penicillin or a cephalosporin with a macrolide. Alternatively, high-dose levofloxacin treatment has been used as single-agent therapy for treating CAP, covering atypical pathogens. This study compared the clinical efficacy and safety of high-dose levofloxacin with combined ceftriaxone and azithromycin for the treatment of CAP. This phase IV, prospective, randomized, open-label trial enrolled patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital for CAP treatment from 2010 to 2011. Hospital admission was decided based on clinical judgement and the pneumonia severity index. Forty subjects were enrolled and assigned to two treatment arms using a random numbers table. The 20 subjects in the experimental group were given levofloxacin 750 mg intravenously once daily, followed by the same dose of oral levofloxacin at discharge when clinically improved and the 20 subjects in the control group were given ceftriaxone 2.0 g intravenously once daily plus oral azithromycin 500 mg for 3 consecutive days, followed by oral cefpodoxime 200 mg per day at discharge after clinical improvement. The primary outcome was the clinical success rate. Secondary outcomes were the microbiological success rate and adverse events during the study. Of the 40 subjects enrolled, 36 completed the study: 17 in the experimental group and 19 in the control group. The groups did not differ in terms of demographic factors or clinical findings at baseline. The clinical success rate (cured + improved) was 94% in the experimental (levofloxacin) group and 84% in the control group (p > 0.05). The microbiological success rate and overall adverse events were also similar in both groups. Single-agent, high-dose levofloxacin treatment exhibited excellent clinical and microbiological efficacy with a safety profile comparable to that of ceftriaxone plus azithromycin therapy. Large-scale clinical

  8. [Controlling wound odor with metronidazole: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Castro, Diana Lima Villela de; Santos, Vera Lúcia Conceição de Gouveia

    2015-10-01

    Verifying the evidence of therapeutic efficacy in the topical application of metronidazole for controlling wound odor. A systematic literature review, according to the Cochrane Collaboration recommendations. 329 articles were identified in the Cochrane, LILACS, SciELO, CINAHL and PubMed databases, with 14 of them being included in the final sample. Two of the studies were double-blind randomized clinical trial studies. The actual effectiveness of metronidazole in controlling wound odor cannot yet be evidenced due to the absence of strong evidence from studies on the subject, despite clinical practice recommending its benefits.

  9. Effect of high-dose paracetamol on needle procedures in children with cancer--an RCT.

    PubMed

    Hedén, L; von Essen, L; Ljungman, G

    2014-03-01

    The aim was to investigate whether children experience less pain, fear and/or distress when they receive high-dose paracetamol compared with placebo, using a needle insertion in a subcutaneously implanted intravenous port as a model. Fifty-one children ranging from 1 to 18 years of age being treated in a paediatric oncology setting were included consecutively when undergoing routine needle insertion into a subcutaneously implanted intravenous port. All children were subjected to one needle insertion following topical anaesthetic (EMLA) application in this double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT, comparing orally administered paracetamol (n = 24) 40 mg/kg body weight (max 2000 mg) with placebo (n = 27). The patients' pain, fear and distress were reported by parents, nurses and children (≥7 years of age) using 0- to 100-mm visual analogue scales (VAS). In addition, pain observation, procedure time and cortisol reduction were assessed. No differences between the paracetamol and the placebo group were found with respect to demographic characteristics. According to VAS reports, paracetamol did not reduce pain, fear and distress compared with placebo. Pain observation, cortisol reduction and procedure time did not differ between the study groups. Paracetamol provides no additive effect in reducing pain, fear and distress when combined with topical anaesthesia in children undergoing port needle insertion. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of High Doses of Vitamin C on Cancer Patients in Singapore: Nine Cases.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Yuen Chuen Fong; Glenda, Chong Sze Ling; Meng, Lim Kah

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Intravenous high-dose vitamin C therapy is widely used in naturopathic and integrative oncology; however, a study reviewing its effects has never been performed in Singapore. This article serves to document administration of supportive vitamin C therapy for cancer patients in Singapore. The clinical response of 9 cancer patients of differing stages to the regular administration of large doses (25-100 g/d) of intravenous vitamin C (IVC; ascorbic acid) is outlined. Tumor pathology and patient health were verified by doctors who do not practice vitamin C treatment. Cases suggesting survival beyond prognosis, improvement in quality of life, safe coadministration with and improved tolerance of conventional therapy, and deterioration in clinical condition following withdrawal of vitamin C therapy are documented clinically. Some patients experience the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction-the release of endotoxin from microorganism death resulting in pimples, fever, and body odor-for a few hours after the therapy, but these are resolved quickly with no lasting effects. Randomized trials of IVC therapy are recommended because it has minimal side effects and has shown promising results. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The efficacy of combined therapy with metronidazole and broad-spectrum antibiotics on postoperative outcomes for pediatric patients with perforated appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Qingjuan; Geng, Qiankun; Zhang, Xuebing; Guo, Chunbao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined therapy with metronidazole and broad-spectrum antibiotics for patients with perforated appendicitis who underwent surgical intervention. Broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is warranted in the treatment of perforated appendicitis. Metronidazole has been used as anaerobic antimicrobial therapy. However, few studies about the use of metronidazole in perforated appendicitis have been reported. The medical records of 249 patients treated with metronidazole combined with broad-spectrum antibiotics following perforated appendicitis surgery were reviewed retrospectively and compared with the medical records of 149 patients treated only with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Propensity score matching was performed to adjust for selected baseline variables. Clinical outcomes, including postoperative complications and length of hospital stay, were compared between the 2 groups. No differences were found between the use of combined therapy with metronidazole and the use of solely broad-spectrum antibiotic agents with regard to postoperative duration of intravenous antibiotic treatment (6.8 ± 1.3 vs 7.9 ± 2.1 days, respectively, P = .18), inflammation variables at POD 5 (white blood cell [WBC] [risk ratio [RR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67–1.93, P = .15] and C-reactive protein [CRP] [RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.73–2.25, P = .36]) (Table 2), and the mean postoperative length of hospital stay (LOS) (RR, 0.68, 95% CI, 0.41–0.94, P = .41). There were also no differences in the incidence of postoperative complications, including the intra-abdominal or pelvic abscess rate (7[7.1%] vs 9[9.2%], respectively, P = .40), the incidence of wound infection (14[14.3%] vs 15[15.3%], respectively, P = .50), and the 30-day readmission rate (9[9.2%] vs 12[12.2%], respectively, P = .32). Regarding overall postoperative outcomes and complications, our study demonstrated no beneficial

  12. Finnish spectrolite as high-dose gamma detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonio, Patrícia L.; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2015-11-01

    A natural material called spectrolite, from Finland, was studied in this work. The purpose was to test it in gamma radiation beams to verify its performance as a high-dose detector. From this material, pellets were manufactured with two different concentrations of Teflon and spectrolite, and their responses were verified using two luminescent techniques: thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The TL and OSL signals were evaluated by means of characterization tests of the material response, after exposure to a nominal absorbed dose interval of 5 Gy to 10 kGy. The results obtained, for both concentrations, showed a good performance of this material in beams of high-dose gamma radiation. Both techniques were utilized in order to investigate the properties of the spectrolite+Teflon samples for different applications.

  13. Anticoagulation and high dose liver radiation. A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Lightdale, C.J.; Wasser, J.; Coleman, M.

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of patients were observed for evidence of acute radiation hepatitis during high dose radiation to the liver. The first group of 18 patients with metastatic liver disease received an average of 4,050 rad to the whole liver. Half received anticoagulation with warfarin. One patient on anticoagulation developed evidence of acute radiation hepatitis while 2 patients did so without anticoagulation. Eleven patients with Hodgkin's disease received 4,000 rad to the left lobe of the liver during extended field radiation. Four of these 11 patients were anticoagulated to therapeutic range. Only one of the fully anticoagulated patients showed changes onmore » liver scan consistent with radiation hepatitis whereas three did so without anticoagulation. No serious sequelae from anticoagulation occurred in either group. These preliminary data suggest that anticoagulation may be safely administered with high dose hepatic radiation and that further trials with anticoagulation are warranted.« less

  14. Alternative Pathway of Metronidazole Activation in Trichomonas vaginalis Hydrogenosomes

    PubMed Central

    Hrdý, Ivan; Cammack, Richard; Stopka, Pavel; Kulda, Jaroslav; Tachezy, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Metronidazole and related 5-nitroimidazoles are the only available drugs in the treatment of human urogenital trichomoniasis caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. The drugs are activated to cytotoxic anion radicals by their reduction within the hydrogenosomes. It has been established that electrons required for metronidazole activation are released from pyruvate by the activity of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and transferred to the drug by a low-redox-potential carrier, ferredoxin. Here we describe a novel pathway involved in the drug activation within the hydrogenosome. The source of electrons is malate, another major hydrogenosomal substrate, which is oxidatively decarboxylated to pyruvate and CO2 by NAD-dependent malic enzyme. The electrons released during this reaction are transferred from NADH to ferredoxin by NADH dehydrogenase homologous to the catalytic module of mitochondrial complex I, which uses ferredoxin as electron acceptor. Trichomonads acquire high-level metronidazole resistance only after both pyruvate- and malate-dependent pathways of metronidazole activation are eliminated from the hydrogenosomes. PMID:16304169

  15. Metronidazole in the treatment of non-specific vaginitis (NSV).

    PubMed Central

    Jerve, F; Berdal, T B; Bohman, P; Smith, C C; Evjen, O K; Gjønnaess, H; Gaasemyr, M; Hausken, L; Hesla, K; Hoftvedt, E

    1984-01-01

    In a large multicentre study of 429 patients with the usual signs and symptoms of non-specific vaginitis (NSV), we studied the effect of different doses of metronidazole. The patients were divided into five treatment groups as follows: group A was given 400 mg metronidazole three times daily for seven days, group B 2000 mg as a single dose, group C 2000 mg on days 1 and 2, group D 2000 mg on days 1 and 3, and group E was given 1200 mg metronidazole once daily for five days. At follow up examination four weeks from the start of treatment, patients in groups D and E showed the best clinical results with cure rates of 94.0% and 93.6% respectively. In addition the rate of reisolation of Gardnerella vaginalis was lowest in group D. We therefore recommend metronidazole 2000 mg on days 1 and 3 as routine treatment for non-specific or vaginitis associated with gardnerella. PMID:6375804

  16. Investigation of Metronidazole Use during Pregnancy and Adverse Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Koss, Catherine A.; Baras, Dana C.; Lane, Sandra D.; Aubry, Richard; Marcus, Michele; Markowitz, Lauri E.

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether treatment with metronidazole during pregnancy is associated with preterm birth, low birth weight, or major congenital anomalies, we conducted chart reviews and an analysis of electronic data from a cohort of women delivering at an urban New York State hospital. Of 2,829 singleton/mother pairs, 922 (32.6%) mothers were treated with metronidazole for clinical indications, 348 (12.3%) during the first trimester of pregnancy and 553 (19.5%) in the second or third trimester. There were 333 (11.8%) preterm births, 262 (9.3%) infants of low birth weight, and 52 infants (1.8%) with congenital anomalies. In multivariable analysis, no association was found between metronidazole treatment and preterm birth (odds ratio [OR], 1.02 [95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.32]), low birth weight (OR, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.77 to 1.43]), or treatment in the first trimester and congenital anomalies (OR, 0.86 [0.30 to 2.45]). We found no association between metronidazole treatment during the first or later trimesters of pregnancy and preterm birth, low birth weight, or congenital anomalies. PMID:22751543

  17. Empirical modified sequential therapy containing levofloxacin and high-dose esomeprazole in second-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: a multicentre clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Liou, Jyh-Ming; Chen, Chieh-Chang; Chen, Mei-Jyh; Chang, Chi-Yang; Fang, Yu-Jen; Lee, Ji-Yuh; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2011-08-01

    Sequential therapy appears to achieve a higher Helicobacter pylori eradication rate than triple therapy. We assessed the efficacy and tolerability of modified sequential therapy containing levofloxacin and high-dose esomeprazole in second-line therapy. Patients who failed first-line triple therapy with clarithromycin, amoxicillin and a proton pump inhibitor were eligible in this multicentre trial. Eligible patients were treated with esomeprazole 40 mg and amoxicillin 1 g for the first 5 days, followed by esomeprazole 40 mg, levofloxacin 250 mg and metronidazole 500 mg for another 5 days (all given twice daily). Eradication was confirmed with a (13)C-urea breath test 6 weeks after therapy. Drug susceptibility, presence/absence of gyrA mutation and CYP2C19 genotype were also determined. A total of 142 patients were enrolled. The eradication rate was 95.1% [135/142, 95% confidence interval (CI) 91.5%-98.6%] in the intention-to-treat analysis and 96.4% (133/138, 95% CI 93.3%-99.5%) in the per protocol analysis. Four patients (2.8%) failed to take at least 80% of the drugs due to adverse effects. The eradication rates were 50% (4/8) and 97.7% (43/44) in patients with and without metronidazole resistance, respectively (P = 0.001). The eradication rates were 84.6% (11/13) and 95.1% (58/61) in patients with and without gyrA mutation, respectively (P = 0.210). The eradication rates were not affected by the CYP2C19 polymorphism (P = 0.421). This modified sequential therapy achieved an excellent eradication rate (>95%) in second-line treatment and the eradication rate appeared to be affected by metronidazole resistance.

  18. Pregnancy outcome following high doses of Vitamin E supplementation.

    PubMed

    Boskovic, Rada; Gargaun, Liubov; Oren, Dana; Djulus, Josephine; Koren, Gideon

    2005-01-01

    The recommended dose of Vitamin E in human pregnancy is 22-30 mg/day. High doses of Vitamin E (>or=400 IU/day) have been shown to attenuate or even prevent the damaging effect of ethanol and diabetes on the fetus in experimental animal models. The Motherisk program prospectively enrolled, and followed-up on, 82 pregnant women exposed to high doses (>or=400 IU/day) of Vitamin E during the first trimester of pregnancy. Pregnancy outcome was compared to a matched control group. The study group (n=82) was exposed to Vitamin E at doses ranging from 400-1200 IU/day. There was one pregnancy with major malformation (omphalocele) in study group. There was an apparent decrease in mean birth weight (3173+/-467 g) in Vitamin E group as compare to control (3417+/-565 g; P=0.0015); however, there were no significant differences in rates of live births, preterm deliveries, miscarriages and stillbirths. Therefore, it is concluded that consumption of high doses of Vitamin E during the first trimester of pregnancy does not appear to be associated with an increased risk for major malformations, but may be associated with decrease in birth weight.

  19. Determination and characterization of metronidazole-kaolin interaction.

    PubMed

    Aleanizy, Fadilah Sfouq; Alqahtani, Fulwah; Al Gohary, Omaimah; El Tahir, Eram; Al Shalabi, Rania

    2015-04-01

    The needs for safe, therapeutically effective antidiarrheal combination continuously lead to effective treatment. When administered simultaneously, metronidazole-kaolin interactions have been reported by FDA but not studied. This paper is the first to study metronidazole-kaolin interactions. Adsorption isotherms of a metronidazole-kaolin antidiarrheal combination from aqueous solutions at an in vivo simulated pH conditions were obtained at 37 ± 0.5 °C. Langmuir constants for the adsorption are 10.8225, 41.3223 mg g(-1) and 11.60, 2.56 l g(-1) aimed at the monolayer capacity, and the equilibrium constant at pH 1.2 and 6.8, respectively. pH effect on adsorption of known concentration of metronidazole by kaolin was also studied over the range 1.2-8. A gradual increase in the adsorbed amount was noted with increasing the pH. Elution studies by different eluents showed that drug recovery from adsorbent surface was pH-dependent via competitive mechanism. The elution followed the sequence: 0.1 M HCl > 0.1 M NaCl > H2O. Adsorption-desorption studies revealed physical adsorption. The equilibrium concentration of metronidazole decreased as the adsorbent concentration was increased in the systems. The dissolution profiles (USP) of commercially available tablets (Riazole® 500 mg) were obtained alone and in the presence of either (ORS®) rehydration salts and 9 or 18 g of kaolin powder. The percentage drug released versus time: 95.01% in 25 min, 101.02% in 30 min, 67.63% in 60 min, 60.59% in 60 min, respectively. The percentage drug released versus time was increased with ORS® due to common ion effect [Cl(-)], while, it was decreased with kaolin due to adsorption. The mechanism of reaction of Riazole® (500 mg) tablets in the different dissolution media, confirms with Korsmeyer-Peppas model. The interaction between metronidazole and kaolin was characterized by melting point determinations, differential scanning calorimetry analysis and infrared

  20. Efficacy of New 5-Nitroimidazoles against Metronidazole-Susceptible and -Resistant Giardia, Trichomonas, and Entamoeba spp.

    PubMed Central

    Upcroft, Jacqueline A.; Campbell, Raymond W.; Benakli, Kamel; Upcroft, Peter; Vanelle, Patrice

    1999-01-01

    The efficacies of 12 5-nitroimidazole compounds and 1 previously described lactam-substituted nitroimidazole with antiparasitic activity, synthesized via SRN1 and subsequent reactions, were assayed against the protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. Two metronidazole-sensitive lines and two metronidazole-resistant lines of Giardia and one line each of metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant Trichomonas were tested. All except one of the compounds were as effective or more effective than metronidazole against Giardia and Trichomonas, but none was as effective overall as the previously described 2-lactam-substituted 5-nitroimidazole. None of the compounds was markedly more effective than metronidazole against Entamoeba. Significant cross-resistance between most of the drugs tested and metronidazole was evident among metronidazole-resistant lines of Giardia and Trichomonas. However, some drugs were lethal to metronidazole-resistant Giardia and had minimum lethal concentrations similar to that of metronidazole for drug-susceptible parasites. This study emphasizes the potential in developing new nitroimidazole drugs which are more effective than metronidazole and which may prove to be useful clinical alternatives to metronidazole. PMID:9869568

  1. Perioperative penetration of metronidazole into muscle tissue: a microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Karjagin, Juri; Pähkla, Rein; Starkopf, Joel

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the concentration of metronidazole in muscle tissue using microdialysis and to compare it with plasma concentration and in vitro-defined MIC(90) (minimal inhibiting concentration) for the most frequent anaerobic bacteria isolated in our hospital. Six female patients scheduled for elective gynaecological surgery were included. Exclusion criteria were active inflammatory process and being overweight (BMI more than 30). Microdialysis catheters (CMA 60 catheters with 20 kDa cut-off membrane) were placed into the m. vastus lateralis. The microdialysis perfusion rate was 2 microl/min. To assess in vivo recovery of the drug, retrodialysis with a 5-mg/l solution of metronidazole was performed. Microdialysis and blood samples were collected simultaneously 10 h after metronidazole administration. MIC(90) data were obtained from the database of the microbiology laboratory of the local hospital. Data from five patients were included in analysis. The metronidazole concentration in blood achieved a value of 16.5+/-4.6 mg/l at 30 min (first available data), while in muscle a maximum level of 7.8+/-1.5 mg/l was achieved at 114 min. The mean MIC(90) for the Bacteroides fragilis group was 0.25+/-0.26 mg/l. Data from mean plasma concentrations were fitted into the two-compartmental model and time over MIC(90) and time over four times MIC(90) were calculated, which were 52.1+/-13.5 h and 33.2+/-8.7 h, respectively. The C(max)/MIC(90) ratio was 65.8+/-18.5 for plasma and 31.1+/-6.2 for muscle. The present data demonstrate that metronidazole penetrates well into muscle tissue. Muscle tissue concentrations reach values far greater than MIC(90) for the Bacteroides fragilis group and persist at such high levels for at least 10 h.

  2. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for refractory recurrent pericarditis.

    PubMed

    del Fresno, M Rosa; Peralta, Julio E; Granados, Miguel Ángel; Enríquez, Eugenia; Domínguez-Pinilla, Nerea; de Inocencio, Jaime

    2014-11-01

    Recurrent pericarditis is a troublesome complication of idiopathic acute pericarditis and occurs more frequently in pediatric patients after cardiac surgery (postpericardiotomy syndrome). Conventional treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and colchicine is not always effective or may cause serious adverse effects. There is no consensus, however, on how to proceed in those patients whose disease is refractory to conventional therapy. In such cases, human intravenous immunoglobulin, immunosuppressive drugs, and biological agents have been used. In this report we describe 2 patients with refractory recurrent pericarditis after cardiac surgery who were successfully treated with 3 and 5 monthly high-dose (2 g/kg) intravenous immunoglobulin until resolution of the effusion. Our experience supports the effectiveness and safety of this therapy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Continuous high-dose vancomycin combination therapy for methicillin-resistant staphylococcal prosthetic hip infection: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dubée, V; Zeller, V; Lhotellier, L; Kitzis, M-D; Ziza, J-M; Mamoudy, P; Desplaces, N

    2013-02-01

    Few data are available on treatment and outcome of methicillin-resistant (MR) staphylococcal prosthetic joint infections. Vancomycin remains the treatment of choice for these infections, but its efficacy and safety in bone-and-joint infections are insufficiently documented. We conducted a prospective cohort study on 60 patients treated between November 2002 and December 2008 for chronic MR staphylococcal (44 S. epidermidis, nine other coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and seven S. aureus) prosthetic hip infections (PHIs). Twenty-two patients had previously undergone surgery for their PHI and 21 had previously received antibiotics. All patients had surgery (exchange arthroplasty for 58 patients, resection arthroplasty for two) and received an antibiotic regimen combining high-dose continuous intravenous vancomycin infusion (target serum concentration 30-40 mg/L) with another antibiotic for 6 weeks, followed by an additional 6 weeks of oral intake. Two years after surgery, infection was considered cured in 41 (68%) patients and only two relapses occurred after one-stage exchange arthroplasty. Nineteen (32%) patients experienced nephrotoxicity that was generally mild (RIFLE class R for 14 patients, class I for four patients and class F for one patient) and most often reversible. Continuous high-dose intravenous vancomycin combination therapy is an effective, feasible and reasonably safe treatment of chronic MR staphylococcal PHI. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  4. High-dose aldesleukin in renal cell carcinoma: long-term survival update.

    PubMed

    Fisher, R I; Rosenberg, S A; Sznol, M; Parkinson, D R; Fyfe, G

    1997-12-01

    This article updates response duration and survival data for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma receiving high-dose recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2). Two hundred fifty-five assessable renal cell carcinoma patients were entered into seven phase II clinical trials. They were administered 600,000 or 720,000 IU/kg rIL-2 by 15-minute intravenous infusion every 8 hours for up to 14 consecutive doses over 5 days as clinically tolerated with maximal support. A second identical cycle of treatment was scheduled following 5 to 9 days of rest, and courses could be repeated every 6 to 12 weeks in stable or responding patients. All data have been updated as of June 1996 with report forms completed by the clinical investigators. Objective overall responses have now been achieved in 37 of 255 patients (15%) with 17 complete (7%) and 20 partial (8%) responses. Median response duration for all objective responders is 54 months with a range of 3 to 107+ months. Median response duration for all complete responses has not been reached, with a range of 7 to 107+ months. Median response duration for all partial responses is 20 months, with a range of 3 to 97+ months. Median survival for all 255 patients was 16.3 months, and 10% to 20% of patients were estimated to be alive 5 to 10 years following treatment. Treatment with high-dose rIL-2 is extremely effective for a subset of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  5. Effects of total parental nutrition (TPN) during high-dose interleukin-2 treatment for metastatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Samlowski, W E; Wiebke, G; McMurry, M; Mori, M; Ward, J H

    1998-01-01

    Patients treated with high doses of interleukin-2 (IL-2) develop profound anorexia, malaise, loss of energy, mucositis, nausea, and vomiting, which may contribute to poor nutrition. We hypothesized that total parenteral nutrition (TPN) administration would ameliorate these changes and could improve fluid and electrolyte balance. A retrospective analysis of protein and energy intake was performed in 21 sequential patients who received a normal diet (controls) and 16 subsequent patients who received TPN during IL-2 treatment. The effect of TPN on laboratory abnormalities induced by IL-2 was also evaluated. Within 24 h of starting IL-2, mean energy intake declined to 2.5-2.8 kcal/kg in controls in contrast to the energy intake of 25-29 kcal/kg in patients receiving TPN. Protein nutrition was affected in a similar fashion, with a markedly lower protein intake in controls (0.08-0.12 g/kg) than in the TPN group (1.02-1.10 g/kg). TPN improved serum calcium and potassium concentrations, particularly during spontaneous diuresis after completion of IL-2 treatment. Unexpectedly, TPN decreased the frequency and severity of cholestatic jaundice caused by IL-2. Patients receiving TPN had an increased propensity for hyperglycemia and hypophosphatemia. High-dose intravenous bolus IL-2 therapy resulted in a markedly negative nutritional balance in control patients. A brief period of TPN during IL-2 treatment was well tolerated and corrected calorie and protein malnutrition. TPN administration also improved control of serum electrolytes. TPN did not adversely affect tumor progression or patient survival.

  6. High-dose immunoglobulin therapy in renal transplant recipients with hemophagocytic histiocytic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Asci, Gulay; Toz, Huseyin; Ozkahya, Mehmet; Cagirgan, Seckin; Duman, Soner; Sezis, Meltem; Ok, Ercan

    2006-01-01

    Hemophagocytic histiocytic syndrome (HHS) generally occurs in immunocompromised patients and often has a rapidly fatal course. HHS may be cured by treatment of the underlying disorder, especially when it is triggered by an infection. If no cause has been found, no therapy is known and outcome is poor. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical course and response to intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in renal transplant patients diagnosed with HHS. Thirteen patients who were diagnosed with HHS between 1995 and 2003 were retrospectively assessed. The mean age of HHS patients was 38.6 +/- 10 years (5 women, 8 men). Median time to onset of symptoms after renal transplantation was 15.1 +/- 12.1 months (range 0.5-30 months). The first 2 patients in whom no etiologic factor was found were seen before 1998 and died due to multiorgan failure. HHS was related to an infectious etiology in 6 of 13 patients: tuberculosis (n=3), cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (n=2), Escherichia coli (E. coli)-associated septicemia (n=1), but HHS was cured by antimicrobial therapy in only 2 of them (1 with tuberculosis, the other with E. coli-associated septicemia). After June 1998, high-dose immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy was used in 6 patients. HHS was related to an infectious etiology in 2 patients unresponsive to antimicrobial treatment, and of unknown etiology in 4 patients. All of them completely recovered. Before 1998, 2 patients unresponsive to antimicrobial therapy (1 with tuberculosis, the other with CMV) died. They were not given IVIg. We concluded that when HHS does not respond to treatment of the underlying infection, or is of unknown etiology in immunocompromised patients, high-dose IVIg therapy should be administered.

  7. Cooperative binding mitigates the high-dose hook effect.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ranjita Dutta; Rosenmund, Christian; Stefan, Melanie I

    2017-08-14

    The high-dose hook effect (also called prozone effect) refers to the observation that if a multivalent protein acts as a linker between two parts of a protein complex, then increasing the amount of linker protein in the mixture does not always increase the amount of fully formed complex. On the contrary, at a high enough concentration range the amount of fully formed complex actually decreases. It has been observed that allosterically regulated proteins seem less susceptible to this effect. The aim of this study was two-fold: First, to investigate the mathematical basis of how allostery mitigates the prozone effect. And second, to explore the consequences of allostery and the high-dose hook effect using the example of calmodulin, a calcium-sensing protein that regulates the switch between long-term potentiation and long-term depression in neurons. We use a combinatorial model of a "perfect linker protein" (with infinite binding affinity) to mathematically describe the hook effect and its behaviour under allosteric conditions. We show that allosteric regulation does indeed mitigate the high-dose hook effect. We then turn to calmodulin as a real-life example of an allosteric protein. Using kinetic simulations, we show that calmodulin is indeed subject to a hook effect. We also show that this effect is stronger in the presence of the allosteric activator Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), because it reduces the overall cooperativity of the calcium-calmodulin system. It follows that, surprisingly, there are conditions where increased amounts of allosteric activator actually decrease the activity of a protein. We show that cooperative binding can indeed act as a protective mechanism against the hook effect. This will have implications in vivo where the extent of cooperativity of a protein can be modulated, for instance, by allosteric activators or inhibitors. This can result in counterintuitive effects of decreased activity with increased concentrations of

  8. High-dose irradiated food: Current progress, applications, and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feliciano, Chitho P.

    2018-03-01

    Food irradiation as an established and mature technology has gained more attention in the food industry for ensuring food safety and quality. Primarily used for phytosanitary applications, its use has been expanded for developing various food products for varied purposes (e.g. ready-to-eat & ready-to-cook foods, hospital diets, etc.). This paper summarized and analyzed the recent progress and application of high-dose irradiation and discussed its prospects in the field of food product development, its safety and quality.

  9. On carbon nitride synthesis at high-dose ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovsky, E. A.; Bespalova, O. V.; Borisov, A. M.; Goryaga, N. G.; Kulikauskas, V. S.; Sukharev, V. G.; Zatekin, V. V.

    1998-04-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry was used for the study of high dose 35 keV nitrogen ions implantation into graphites and glassy carbon. Quantitative data on depth profiles and its dependencies on irradiation fluence and ion beam density were obtained. The stationary dome-shaped depth profile with maximum nitrogen concentration 22-27 at.% and half-width more than twice exceeding projected range of ions is reached at fluence Φ ˜10 18 cm -2. The dependence of the maximum concentration in the profile on ion current density was studied. The largest concentration was obtained at reduced ion current density.

  10. [Neurological disturbances in patient who ingested high doses of simvastatin].

    PubMed

    Schetz, Daria; Sein Anand, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    We presented a case of 54-year old man, with dyslipidemia who, during his work, was exposed to prolonged electromagnetic radiation. Because of his concerns about the development of atherosclerosis, higher doses of simvastatin than recommended by the doctor, were used by him. After five weeks of such therapy the central nervous system symptoms such as: memory loss, cognitive disorders, sleeplessness, nervousness were presented. It is probable that the mentioned above symptoms were caused by high doses of drug took by the patient, and increased in blood-brain barrier permeability caused by electromagnetic radiation which lasted for about eight years.

  11. High-dose hydroxocobalamin administered after H2S exposure counteracts sulfide-poisoning-induced cardiac depression in sheep.

    PubMed

    Haouzi, Philippe; Chenuel, Bruno; Sonobe, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Severe H2S poisoning leads to death by rapid respiratory and cardiac arrest, the latter can occur within seconds or minutes in severe forms of intoxication. To determine the time course and the nature of H2S-induced cardiac arrest and the effects of high-dose hydroxocobalamin administered after the end of sulfide exposure. NaHS was infused in 16 sedated mechanically ventilated sheep to reach concentrations of H2S in the blood, which was previously found to lead to cardiac arrest within minutes following the cessation of H2S exposure. High-dose hydroxocobalamin (5 g) or saline solution was administered intravenously, 1 min after the cessation of NaHS infusion. All animals were still alive at the cessation of H2S exposure. Three animals (18%) presented a cardiac arrest within 90 s and were unable to receive any antidote or vehicle. In the animals that survived long enough to receive either hydroxocobalamin or saline, 71% (5/7) died in the control group by cardiac arrest within 10 min. In all instances, cardiac arrest was the result of a pulseless electrical activity (PEA). In the group that received the antidote, intravenous injection of 5 g of hydroxocobalamin provoked an abrupt increase in blood pressure and blood flow; PEA was prevented in all instances. However, we could not find any evidence for a recovery in oxidative metabolism in the group receiving hydroxocobalamin, as blood lactate remained elevated and even continued to rise after 1 h, despite restored hemodynamics. This, along with an unaltered recovery of H2S kinetics, suggests that hydroxocobalamin did not act through a mechanism of H2S trapping. In this sheep model, there was a high risk for cardiac arrest, by PEA, persisting up to 10 min after H2S exposure. Very high dose of hydroxocobalamin (5 g), injected very early after the cessation of H2S exposure, improved cardiac contractility and prevented PEA.

  12. Effect of high dose of steroid on plateletcount in acute stage of dengue Fever with thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Shashidhara, K C; Murthy, K A Sudharshan; Gowdappa, H Basavana; Bhograj, Abhijith

    2013-07-01

    Dengue infection is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world and an estimated 50 million dengue infections reported annually. The pathogenesis of Thrombocytopenia in dengue fever (DF) is not clearly understood. Increased peripheral destruction of antibody coated platelets and acute bone marrow suppression were strongly suspected as the possible mechanism. This often leads to life threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and Dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Steroids are used in the treatment of Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura to increase the platelet count which is mediated by auto antibodies .This hypothesis would support the use of steroids in dengue fever. The objective of this study was to test whether an intravenous high dose dexamethasone was efficacious in increasing the platelet count in acute stage of dengue fever with thrombocytopenia. During the study period between June 2010 - 2011 in JSS Hospital Mysore, 127 patients were screened for dengue fever with thrombocytopenia (<50000/cumm) and 61patients were randomly allocated, 30 to the study group and 31 to the control group, in an open labeled study. The study group received intravenous dexamethasone 8mg initially followed by 4 mg every 8 h thereafter for 4 days and IV fluids whenever required. The control Group received only IV fluids and antipyretics whenever it was indicated. The daily measurement of platelet count was carried out in all patients from the day of enrolment to the fourth day of post treatment. The baseline data (age, sex, and the mean duration of the illness, Hb%, haematocrit, and platelets) were similar in both the groups. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistics showed a significant linear association of the mean platelet counts with the days in either group. The mean platelet counts increased steadily in both the groups from days 1 to 4: day1 (0.687), day2 (0.34), day3 (0.530) and day4 (0.844). There was no significant difference between the two groups

  13. Retinal toxicity associated with high dose of meclofenamic acid.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hui; Wen, Ying; Ning, Nannan; An, Jie; Li, Jingxin

    2013-10-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used medications because they provide effective relief of chronic pain and inflammation through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX). However, visual side effects also have been reported, such as temporary blindness, visual field defect, blurred vision, scotomata, and color vision changes subsequent to short- or long-term use. Our aim was to investigate the effect of a high dose of meclofenamic acid (MFA) on the retina. In our study, we applied electroretinography (ERG) and histologic examination to study functional and morphological damage of the retina in rabbits after MFA treatment. We reveal that MFA markedly decreased the amplitudes of b-wave of Rod-response and a- and b-wave of the scotopic standard combined ERG, respectively, and induced morphological destruction of the retina, especially photoreceptor cells. We conclude that a high dose of MFA causes retinal toxicity and impairs visual transduction. These findings may explain, at least partially, the vision problems of certain clinically used NSAIDs.

  14. Multifocal Electroretinography after High Dose Chloroquine Therapy for Malaria

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Aline Correa; Schwarz, Martin; Souza, Givago da Silva; Gomes, Bruno Duarte; Rosa, Alexandre Antônio Marques; Ventura, Ana Maria Revoredo da Silva; de Souza, José Maria; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Kremers, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate changes in multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) parameters associated with high dose chloroquine therapy for treatment of malaria in the Amazonia region of Brazil. Methods Forty-eight subjects who had received chloroquine treatment for single or multiple malaria infections with a cumulative dose ranging from 1,050 to 27,000mg were included. The control group consisted of 37 healthy aged-matched subjects. Data was collected on amplitude and implicit time of the N1, P1 and N2 waves in the central macular hexagon (R1) and in five concentric rings at different retinal eccentricities (R2-R6). Results No significant difference was observed in any mfERG parameter between chloroquine treated patients and control subjects. A comparison with previous data obtained from patients with rheumatologic disorders in the same region of Brazil who had received larger cumulative doses of chloroquine and had displayed mfERG changes, indicated that retinal toxicity seems to be dependent on cumulative dose. Conclusion Lack of mfERG changes in the current study suggests that intensive high dose chloroquine therapy for treatment of malaria is not associated with retinal toxicity. PMID:24349661

  15. Effect of Post-Cesarean Delivery Oral Cephalexin and Metronidazole on Surgical Site Infection Among Obese Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Valent, Amy M; DeArmond, Chris; Houston, Judy M; Reddy, Srinidhi; Masters, Heather R; Gold, Alison; Boldt, Michael; DeFranco, Emily; Evans, Arthur T; Warshak, Carri R

    2017-09-19

    The rate of obesity among US women has been increasing, and obesity is associated with increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean delivery. The optimal perioperative antibiotic prophylactic regimen in this high-risk population undergoing cesarean delivery is unknown. To determine rates of SSI among obese women who receive prophylactic oral cephalexin and metronidazole vs placebo for 48 hours following cesarean delivery. Randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing oral cephalexin and metronidazole vs placebo for 48 hours following cesarean delivery for the prevention of SSI in obese women (prepregnancy BMI ≥30) who had received standard intravenous preoperative cephalosporin prophylaxis. Randomization was stratified by intact vs rupture of membranes prior to delivery. The study was conducted at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, an academic and urban setting, between October 2010 and December 2015, with final follow-up through February 2016. Participants were randomly assigned to receive oral cephalexin, 500 mg, and metronidazole, 500 mg (n = 202 participants), vs identical-appearing placebo (n = 201 participants) every 8 hours for a total of 48 hours following cesarean delivery. The primary outcome was SSI, defined as any superficial incisional, deep incisional, or organ/space infections within 30 days after cesarean delivery. Among 403 randomized participants who were included (mean age, 28 [SD, 6] years; mean BMI, 39.7 [SD, 7.8]), 382 (94.6%) completed the trial. The overall rate of SSI was 10.9% (95% CI, 7.9%-14.0%). Surgical site infection was diagnosed in 13 women (6.4%) in the cephalexin-metronidazole group vs 31 women (15.4%) in the placebo group (difference, 9.0% [95% CI, 2.9%-15.0%]; relative risk, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.22-0.77]; P = .01). There were no serious adverse events, including allergic reaction, reported in either the antibiotic group or the placebo group. Among obese women

  16. High dose deferoxamine in intracerebral hemorrhage (HI-DEF) trial: rationale, design, and methods.

    PubMed

    Yeatts, Sharon D; Palesch, Yuko Y; Moy, Claudia S; Selim, Magdy

    2013-10-01

    Hemoglobin degradation products, in particular iron, have been implicated in secondary neuronal injury following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The iron chelator Deferoxamine Mesylate (DFO) exerts diverse neuroprotective effects, reduces perihematoma edema (PHE) and neuronal damage, and improves functional recovery after experimental ICH. We hypothesize that treatment with DFO could minimize neuronal injury and improve outcome in ICH patients. As a prelude to test this hypothesis, we conducted a Phase I, open-label study to determine the tolerability, safety, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of DFO in patients with ICH. Intravenous infusions of DFO in doses up to 62 mg/kg/day (up to a maximum of 6000 mg/day) were well-tolerated and did not seem to increase serious adverse events (SAEs) or mortality. We have initiated a multi-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase II clinical trial (High Dose Deferoxamine [HI-DEF] in Intracerebral Hemorrhage) to determine if it is futile to move DFO forward to Phase III efficacy evaluation. We will randomize 324 subjects with spontaneous ICH to either DFO at 62 mg/kg/day (up to a maximum daily dose of 6000 mg/day) or saline placebo, given by intravenous infusion for 5 consecutive days. Treatment will be initiated within 24 hours after ICH symptom onset. All subjects will be followed for 3 months and will receive standard of care therapy while participating in the study. At 3 months, the proportion of DFO-treated subjects with a good clinical outcome, assessed by modified Rankin Scale, will be compared to the placebo proportion in a futility analysis. The Hi-Def trial is expected to advance our understanding of the pathopgysiology of secondary neuronal injury in ICH and will provide a crucial "Go/No Go" signal as to whether a Phase III trial to investigate the efficacy of DFO is warranted.

  17. Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome following treatment with high-dose methotrexate or high-dose cytarabine.

    PubMed

    Karol, Seth E; Yang, Wenjian; Smith, Colton; Cheng, Cheng; Stewart, Clinton F; Baker, Sharyn D; Sandlund, John T; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E; Bishop, Michael W; Pappo, Alberto S; Jeha, Sima; Pui, Ching-Hon; Relling, Mary V

    2017-09-15

    Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (PPES) is an uncommon side effect of high-dose cytarabine or methotrexate. Prior case reports of PPES have been limited, and the predisposing factors for the development of PPES remain unknown. A review of databases identified 22 patients (1.3%) who developed 39 episodes of PPES among 1720 patients after treatment with high-dose cytarabine or methotrexate. Symptoms lasted a mean of 6.4 days. Hands and feet were both involved in 68% of the initial episodes. Parenteral opioids were required for pain control by 27% of the patients. In comparison with the 1698 children treated with similar therapy, the children who developed PPES were older (mean age at diagnosis, 14.3 vs 7.7 years; P = 7.5 × 10 -7 ). The frequency of PPES was less common in patients receiving methotrexate alone (7 of 946 or 0.7%) versus cytarabine (7 of 205 or 3.4%; P = .005) but was not different for those receiving both high-dose methotrexate and cytarabine (8 of 569 or 1.4%; P = .32). Prolonged infusions of methotrexate were associated with less frequent PPES in comparison with rapid infusions (P = 1.5 × 10 -5 ), as was the co-administration of dexamethasone with cytarabine (P = 2.5 × 10 -6 ). Self-described race and sex were not associated with PPES. In a multivariate analysis, older age and high-dose cytarabine administration without dexamethasone remained associated with PPES (P = 1.1 × 10 -4 and P = .038, respectively). A genome-wide association study did not identify any associations with PPES meeting the genome-wide significance threshold, but top variants were enriched for skin expression quantitative trait loci, including rs11764092 in AUTS2 (P = 6.45 × 10 -5 ). These data provide new insight into the incidence of PPES as well as its risk factors. Cancer 2017;123:3602-8. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  18. Avian high-dose toxicity of cyanobacterial biomass.

    PubMed

    Kral, Jiri; Pikula, Jiri; Bandouchova, Hana; Damkova, Veronika; Hilscherova, Klara; Misik, Jan; Novotny, Ladislav; Ondracek, Karel; Osickova, Jitka; Mlcakova, Veronika; Pohanka, Miroslav; Skochova, Hana; Vitula, Frantisek; Treml, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies using oral administration of environmentally relevant doses of cyanobacterial biomass containing microcystins (MCs) induced only sub-lethal effects in experimental birds. Therefore, the objective of this study was to obtain data on avian high-dose toxicity of MCs and compute LD50, if possible, following the natural oral route of administration. Responses of birds to single high-dose exposure to MCs were evaluated in fourteen-day old Japanese quail males (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with average body weight of 50 g which were randomly divided into five groups. Birds from four experimental groups were administered 7.5 ml of cyanobacterial biomass suspension containing increasing MCs quantities of 2500, 5000, 10000, and 20000 µg/kg using oral gavage. Controls received an equal dose of drinking water instead of the test substance. Birds were observed for clinical signs of acute toxicity. Survivors were killed on day 5 to obtain body and liver weights. A five-grade semi-quantitative system for histopathological liver damage scoring was used to compare cyanobacterial-biomass-exposed birds against controls. No mortality occurred during the period of five days post exposure in both control and MCs-exposed groups and this high-dose experiment failed to provide data to compute the LD50. Nevertheless, marked sub-lethal effects were recognised in the damage of liver that included dose-dependent changes in the body/liver ratios and morphological changes ranging from mild vacuolar dystrophy to focal liver necroses in the highest exposure group. Hepatic lesions were mainly observed in the pericentral area of the liver. Though maximum cyanobacterial biomass dose rates that could be administered to birds of the size were used in the present experiment and more pronounced hepatic lesions than after exposure to environmentally relevant doses were observed, birds would probably have survived unless killed for histopathology on day 5 of exposure. These results provide

  19. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for severe Clostridium difficile colitis

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo, J; Keates, S; Pothoulakis, C; Warny, M; Castagliuolo, I; LaMont, J; Kelly, C

    1997-01-01

    Background—Many individuals have serum antibodies against Clostridium difficile toxins. Those with an impaired antitoxin response may be susceptible to recurrent, prolonged, or severe C difficile diarrhoea and colitis. 
Aims—To examine whether treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin might be effective in patients with severe pseudomembranous colitis unresponsive to standard antimicrobial therapy. 
Patients—Two patients with pseudomembranous colitis not responding to metronidazole and vancomycin were given normal pooled human immunoglobulin intravenously (200-300 mg/kg). 
Methods—Antibodies against C difficile toxins were measured in nine immunoglobulin preparations by ELISA and by cytotoxin neutralisation assay. 
Results—Both patients responded quickly as shown by resolution of diarrhoea, abdominal tenderness, and distension. All immunoglobulin preparations tested contained IgG against C difficile toxins A and B by ELISA and neutralised the cytotoxic activity of C difficile toxins in vitro at IgG concentrations of 0.4-1.6 mg/ml. 
Conclusion—Passive immunotherapy with intravenous immunoglobulin may be a useful addition to antibiotic therapy for severe, refractory C difficile colitis. IgG antitoxin is present in standard immunoglobulin preparations and C difficile toxin neutralising activity is evident at IgG concentrations which are readily achieved in the serum by intravenous immunoglobulin administration. 

 Keywords: Clostridium difficile; toxin; diarrhoea; IgG; immunotherapy; antibiotic PMID:9378393

  20. Intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen).

    PubMed

    Duggan, Sean T; Scott, Lesley J

    2009-01-01

    Intravenous paracetamol (rINN)/intravenous acetaminophen (USAN) is an analgesic and antipyretic agent, recommended worldwide as a first-line agent for the treatment of pain and fever in adults and children. In double-blind clinical trials, single or multiple doses of intravenous paracetamol 1 g generally provided significantly better analgesic efficacy than placebo treatment (as determined by primary efficacy endpoints) in adult patients who had undergone dental, orthopaedic or gynaecological surgery. Furthermore, where evaluated, intravenous paracetamol 1 g generally showed similar analgesic efficacy to a bioequivalent dose of propacetamol, and a reduced need for opioid rescue medication. In paediatric surgical patients, recommended doses of intravenous paracetamol 15 mg/kg were not significantly different from propacetamol 30 mg/kg for the treatment of pain, and showed equivocal analgesic efficacy compared with intramuscular pethidine 1 mg/kg in several randomized, active comparator-controlled studies. In a randomized, noninferiority study in paediatric patients with an infection-induced fever, intravenous paracetamol 15 mg/kg treatment was shown to be no less effective than propacetamol 30 mg/kg in terms of antipyretic efficacy. Intravenous paracetamol was well tolerated in clinical trials, having a tolerability profile similar to placebo. Additionally, adverse reactions emerging from the use of the intravenous formulation of paracetamol are extremely rare (<1/10 000). [table: see text].

  1. High-dose thiamine improves the symptoms of fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Antonio; Pala, Maria Immacolata; Tundo, Silvia; Matteucci, Pietro

    2013-05-20

    Living with fibromyalgia means living with chronic pain, fatigue, sleep disorders and other associated key symptoms. To date, pharmacotherapy generally produces modest benefits. Some observations indicate that the large majority of symptoms of fibromyalgia could be the clinical manifestation of a mild thiamine deficiency due to a dysfunction of the active transport of thiamine from the blood to the mitochondria or to enzymatic abnormalities. Between June and July 2011, we recruited three female patients affected by fibromyalgia. We proceeded with the study of the patients' history, a physical examination, an evaluation of chronic widespread pain using the Visual Numeric Scale and an evaluation of the fatigue using the Fatigue Severity Scale were also performed. The levels of thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate in the blood were determined. After the therapy with high doses of thiamine, in the patients, there was an appreciable improvement of the symptoms.

  2. High dose bystander effects in spatially fractionated radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Asur, Rajalakshmi; Butterworth, Karl T.; Penagaricano, Jose A.; Prise, Kevin M.; Griffin, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional radiotherapy of bulky tumors has certain limitations. Spatially fractionated radiation therapy (GRID) and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) are examples of advanced modulated beam therapies that help in significant reductions in normal tissue damage. GRID refers to the delivery of a single high dose of radiation to a large treatment area that is divided into several smaller fields, while IMRT allows improved dose conformity to the tumor target compared to conventional three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. In this review, we consider spatially fractionated radiotherapy approaches focusing on GRID and IMRT, and present complementary evidence from different studies which support the role of radiation induced signaling effects in the overall radiobiological rationale for these treatments. PMID:24246848

  3. Bioadhesive Controlled Metronidazole Release Matrix Based on Chitosan and Xanthan Gum

    PubMed Central

    Eftaiha, Ala’a F.; Qinna, Nidal; Rashid, Iyad S.; Al Remawi, Mayyas M.; Al Shami, Munther R.; Arafat, Tawfiq A.; Badwan, Adnan A.

    2010-01-01

    Metronidazole, a common antibacterial drug, was incorporated into a hydrophilic polymer matrix composed of chitosan xanthan gum mixture. Hydrogel formation of this binary chitosan-xanthan gum combination was tested for its ability to control the release of metronidazole as a drug model. This preparation (MZ-CR) was characterized by in vitro, ex vivo bioadhesion and in vivo bioavailability study. For comparison purposes a commercial extended release formulation of metronidazole (CMZ) was used as a reference. The in vitro drug-release profiles of metronidazole preparation and CMZ were similar in 0.1 M HCl and phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Moreover, metronidazole preparation and CMZ showed a similar detachment force to sheep stomach mucosa, while the bioadhesion of the metronidazole preparation was higher three times than CMZ to sheep duodenum. The results of in vivo study indicated that the absorption of metronidazole from the preparation was faster than that of CMZ. Also, MZ-CR leads to higher metronidazole Cmax and AUC relative to that of the CMZ. This increase in bioavailability might be explained by the bioadhesion of the preparation at the upper part of the small intestine that could result in an increase in the overall intestinal transit time. As a conclusion, formulating chitosan-xanthan gum mixture as a hydrophilic polymer matrix resulted in a superior pharmacokinetic parameters translated by better rate and extent of absorption of metronidazole. PMID:20559494

  4. Bioadhesive controlled metronidazole release matrix based on chitosan and xanthan gum.

    PubMed

    Eftaiha, Ala'a F; Qinna, Nidal; Rashid, Iyad S; Al Remawi, Mayyas M; Al Shami, Munther R; Arafat, Tawfiq A; Badwan, Adnan A

    2010-05-25

    Metronidazole, a common antibacterial drug, was incorporated into a hydrophilic polymer matrix composed of chitosan xanthan gum mixture. Hydrogel formation of this binary chitosan-xanthan gum combination was tested for its ability to control the release of metronidazole as a drug model. This preparation (MZ-CR) was characterized by in vitro, ex vivo bioadhesion and in vivo bioavailability study. For comparison purposes a commercial extended release formulation of metronidazole (CMZ) was used as a reference. The in vitro drug-release profiles of metronidazole preparation and CMZ were similar in 0.1 M HCl and phosphate buffer pH 6.8. Moreover, metronidazole preparation and CMZ showed a similar detachment force to sheep stomach mucosa, while the bioadhesion of the metronidazole preparation was higher three times than CMZ to sheep duodenum. The results of in vivo study indicated that the absorption of metronidazole from the preparation was faster than that of CMZ. Also, MZ-CR leads to higher metronidazole C(max) and AUC relative to that of the CMZ. This increase in bioavailability might be explained by the bioadhesion of the preparation at the upper part of the small intestine that could result in an increase in the overall intestinal transit time. As a conclusion, formulating chitosan-xanthan gum mixture as a hydrophilic polymer matrix resulted in a superior pharmacokinetic parameters translated by better rate and extent of absorption of metronidazole.

  5. Formulation development and stability studies of aqueous metronidazole benzoate suspensions containing various suspending agents.

    PubMed

    Zietsman, Sharon; Kilian, Gareth; Worthington, Matthew; Stubbs, Chris

    2007-02-01

    Metronidazole is a synthetic antibacterial and antiprotozoan agent. Crystallization occurs in aqueous metronidazole benzoate suspensions caused by an anhydrate to monohydrate conversion. This study aimed to develop an aqueous metronidazole benzoate suspension that does not exhibit this hydration and the accompanying crystal growth. Four suspending agent systems were evaluated. Xanthan gum and Avicel RC-591 (a combination of microcrystalline cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium) were found to be the suspending agents that resulted in optimal formulation properties. Monohydrate formation did not occur in product containing Avicel RC-591, indicating that suspending agents may exert a positive effect on metronidazole benzoate suspension stability.

  6. High-dose MeV electron irradiation of Si-SiO2 structures implanted with high doses Si+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaschieva, S.; Angelov, Ch; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2018-03-01

    The influence was studied of 22-MeV electron irradiation on Si-SiO2 structures implanted with high-fluence Si+ ions. Our earlier works demonstrated that Si redistribution is observed in Si+-ion-implanted Si-SiO2 structures (after MeV electron irradiation) only in the case when ion implantation is carried out with a higher fluence (1016 cm-2). We focused our attention on the interaction of high-dose MeV electron irradiation (6.0×1016 cm-2) with n-Si-SiO2 structures implanted with Si+ ions (fluence 5.4×1016 cm-2 of the same order magnitude). The redistribution of both oxygen and silicon atoms in the implanted Si-SiO2 samples after MeV electron irradiation was studied by Rutherford back-scattering (RBS) spectroscopy in combination with a channeling technique (RBS/C). Our results demonstrated that the redistribution of oxygen and silicon atoms in the implanted samples reaches saturation after these high doses of MeV electron irradiation. The transformation of amorphous SiO2 surface into crystalline Si nanostructures (after MeV electron irradiation) was evidenced by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Silicon nanocrystals are formed on the SiO2 surface after MeV electron irradiation. The shape and number of the Si nanocrystals on the SiO2 surface depend on the MeV electron irradiation, while their size increases with the dose. The mean Si nanocrystals height is 16-20 nm after irradiation with MeV electrons at the dose of 6.0×1016 cm-2.

  7. High dose rate brachytherapy for superficial cancer of the esophagus.

    PubMed

    Maingon, P; d'Hombres, A; Truc, G; Barillot, I; Michiels, C; Bedenne, L; Horiot, J C

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed our experience with external radiotherapy, combined modality treatment, or HDR brachytherapy alone to limited esophageal cancers. From 1991 to 1996, 25 patients with limited superficial esophagus carcinomas were treated by high dose rate brachytherapy. The mean age was 63 years (43-86 years). Five patients showed superficial local recurrence after external radiotherapy. Eleven patients without invasion of the basal membrane were staged as Tis. Fourteen patients with tumors involving the submucosa without spreading to the muscle were staged as T1. Treatment consisted of HDR brachytherapy alone in 13 patients, external radiotherapy and brachytherapy in 8 cases, and concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy in 4 cases. External beam radiation was administered to a total dose of 50 Gy using 2 Gy daily fractions in 5 weeks. In cases of HDR brachytherapy alone (13 patients), 6 applications were performed once a week. The mean follow-up is 31 months (range 24-96 months). Twelve patients received 2 applications and 13 patients received 6 applications. Twelve patients experienced a failure (48%), 11/12 located in the esophagus, all of them in the treated volume. One patient presented an isolated distant metastasis. In the patients treated for superficial recurrence, 4/5 were locally controlled (80%) by brachytherapy alone. After brachytherapy alone, 8/13 patients were controlled (61%). The mean disease-free survival is 14 months (1-36 months). Overall survival is 76% at 1 year, 37% at 2 years, and 14% at 3 years. Overall survival for Tis patients is 24% vs. 20% for T1 (p = 0.83). Overall survival for patients treated by HDR brachytherapy alone is 43%. One patient presented with a fistula with local failure after external radiotherapy and brachytherapy. Four stenosis were registered, two were diagnosed on barium swallowing without symptoms, and two required dilatations. High dose rate brachytherapy permits the treating of patients with superficial esophageal cancer

  8. High-Dose Vitamin C Injection to Cancer Patients May Promote Thrombosis Through Procoagulant Activation of Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keunyoung; Bae, Ok-Nam; Koh, Sung-Hee; Kang, Seojin; Lim, Kyung-Min; Noh, Ji-Yoon; Shin, Sue; Kim, Inho; Chung, Jin-Ho

    2015-10-01

    Potential risk of high-dose vitamin C consumption is often ignored. Recently, gram-dose vitamin C is being intravenously injected for the treatment of cancer, which can expose circulating blood cells to extremely high concentrations of vitamin C. As well as platelets, red blood cells (RBCs) can actively participate in thrombosis through procoagulant activation. Here, we examined the procoagulant and prothrombotic risks associated with the intravenous injection of gram-dose vitamin C. Vitamin C (0.5-5 mM) increased procoagulant activity of freshly isolated human RBCs via the externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) to outer cellular membrane and the formation of PS-bearing microvesicles. PS exposure was induced by the dysregulation of key enzymes for the maintenance of membrane phospholipid asymmetry, which was from vitamin C-induced oxidative stress, and resultant disruption of calcium and thiol homeostasis. Indeed, the intravenous injection of vitamin C (0.5-1.0 g/kg) in rats in vivo significantly increased thrombosis. Notably, the prothrombotic effects of vitamin C were more prominent in RBCs isolated from cancer patients, who are at increased risks of thrombotic events. Vitamin C-induced procoagulant and prothrombotic activation of RBCs, and increased thrombosis in vivo. RBCs from cancer patients exhibited increased sensitivity to the prothrombotic effects of vitamin C, reflecting that intravenous gram-dose vitamin C therapy needs to be carefully revisited. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. [Highly dosed St. John's wort extract improves quality of life].

    PubMed

    Rudolf, G A E; Zeller, K

    2004-08-05

    Aim of the post-marketing surveillance was to investigate if the single-dose-administration of highlydosed St. John's Wort extract improves quality of life of patients with depressive symptoms. During a twelve week treatment 4337 patients with depression were observed. Mental and physical state of health were documented using the SF-12-sumscore as a measure for quality of life. Further efficacy and tolerability was rated by physician and patient. Adverse drug reactions were documented as well. During therapy the mental and the physical SF-12-sumscore had improved significantly. At the end ofthe observation the values rise up to the norm. About 80 percent of the physicians and patients marked the drug's efficacy as good or very good. Tolerability was assessed as good or very good in more than 95%. A post-marketing surveillance including 4337 depressive patients shows that a single-dose therapy with highly dosed St. John's Wort extract causes to improve significantly the quality of life. The patients suffered from mild to moderate depression.

  10. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaček, V.; Svobodová, V.; Bartoníček, B.; Rosmus, J.; Čamra, M.

    2004-09-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75°C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30°C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Řež 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO x-containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested.

  11. The Acute Gastrointestinal Syndrome in High-Dose Irradiated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Catherine; Tudor, Gregory; Tudor, Julie; Katz, Barry P; MacVittie, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The most detailed reports of the response of the gastrointestinal system to high dose acute radiation have focused mainly on understanding the histopathology. However, to enable medical countermeasure assessment under the animal rule criteria, it is necessary to have a robust model in which the relationship between radiation dose and intestinal radiation syndrome incidence, timing and severity are established and correlated with histopathology. Although many mortality studies have been published, they have used a variety of mouse strains, ages, radiation sources and husbandry conditions, all of which influence the dose response. Further, it is clear that the level of bone marrow irradiation and supportive care can influence endpoints. In order to create robust baseline data we have generated dose response data in adult male mice, maintained under identical conditions, and exposed to either total or partial-body irradiation. Partial-body irradiation includes both extensive (40%) and minimal (5%) bone marrow sparing models, the latter designed to correlate with an established primate model and allow assessment of effects of any medical countermeasure on all three major radiation syndromes (intestinal, bone marrow and lung) in the surviving mice. Lethal dose (LD30, LD50 and LD70) data are described in the various models, along with the impact of enteric flora and response to supportive care. Correlation with diarrhea severity and histopathology are also described. This data can be used to aid the design of good laboratory practice (GLP) compliant Animal Rule studies that are reflective of the conditions following accidental radiation exposure. PMID:23091876

  12. Survival After Shock Requiring High-Dose Vasopressor Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lanspa, Michael J.; Jones, Jason P.; Kuttler, Kathryn G.; Li, Yao; Carlson, Rick; Miller, Russell R.; Hirshberg, Eliotte L.; Grissom, Colin K.; Morris, Alan H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some patients with hypotensive shock do not respond to usual doses of vasopressor therapy. Very little is known about outcomes after high-dose vasopressor therapy (HDV). We sought to characterize survival among patients with shock requiring HDV. We also evaluated the possible utility of stress-dose corticosteroid therapy in these patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with shock requiring HDV in the ICUs of five hospitals from 2005 through 2010. We defined HDV as receipt at any point of ≥ 1 μg/kg/min of norepinephrine equivalent (calculated by summing norepinephrine-equivalent infusion rates of all vasopressors). We report survival 90 days after hospital admission. We evaluated receipt of stress-dose corticosteroids, cause of shock, receipt of CPR, and withdrawal or withholding of life support therapy. Results: We identified 443 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Seventy-six (17%) survived. Survival was similar (20%) among the 241 patients with septic shock. Among the 367 nonsurvivors, 254 (69%) experienced withholding/withdrawal of care, and 115 (31%) underwent CPR. Stress-dose corticosteroid therapy was associated with increased survival (P = .01). Conclusions: One in six patients with shock survived to 90 days after HDV. The majority of nonsurvivors died after withdrawal or withholding of life support therapy. A minority of patients underwent CPR. Additionally, stress-dose corticosteroid therapy appears reasonable in patients with shock requiring HDV. PMID:22911566

  13. High-dose processing and application to Korean space foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Park, Jae-Nam; Han, In-Jun; Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kang, Sang-Wook; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Nutrition bar, Ramen (ready-to-cook noodle), and two Korean traditional foods ( Kimchi, fermented vegetable; Sujeonggwa, cinnamon beverage) have been developed as space foods using high-dose gamma irradiation. Addition of calcium lactate and vitamin C, a mild heating, deep-freezing, and gamma irradiation at 25 kGy were conducted to prepare Kimchi as a ready-to-eat space food. Sterilization of Space Kimchi (SK) was confirmed by a microbiological test. The hardness of the Space Kimchi was lower than the untreated Kimchi (CON), but higher than the irradiated only Kimchi. Sensory attributes of the SK were similar to CON, and maintained during preservation at 35 °C for 30 days. The optimal doses for eliminating the contaminated microbes and maintaining the qualities of the Nutrition bars, Ramen, and Sujeonggwa were determined at 15, 10 and 6 kGy, respectively. All the Korean space food were certificated for use in space flight conditions of 30 days by the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems.

  14. Effects of high dose transdermal nicotine replacement in cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Hatsukami, Dorothy; Mooney, Marc; Murphy, Sharon; LeSage, Mark; Babb, David; Hecht, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) have been evaluated to facilitate cigarette smoking reduction in smokers unwilling or unable to quit. In most of these studies, only conventional doses of NRT have been tested and higher doses may be required to result in significant reductions in smoking and in biomarkers of exposure. To determine if higher NRT doses in conjunction with smoking are safe and may promote significant reductions in cigarette smoking and biomarkers of exposure. A dose-ranging, within-subject design was implemented to evaluate the effects of 15, 30 and 45 mg nicotine-patch treatment on measures of safety and the extent of smoking reduction and biomarker exposure per cigarette in smokers (N=20 completers) not immediately interested in quitting. Concurrent smoking and NRT were generally tolerated and resulted in no changes in blood pressure or heart rate. Slightly less than 10% of the study sample was not given the highest dose of NRT due to side effects. Self-reported cigarette smoking decreased with increasing doses of nicotine replacement and significant reductions were observed for total NNAL (a carcinogen biomarker) and carbon monoxide. However, even at the 45 mg dose, increased carbon monoxide and total NNAL per cigarette occurred, even though cotinine levels increased on average, 69.3% from baseline. The present results suggest that the use of high dose NRT is safe, leads to significant reductions in smoking (-49%), significant but less reductions in total NNAL (-24%) and carbon monoxide (-37%) due to compensatory smoking.

  15. Characterization of Thymol blue Radiochromic dosimeters for high dose applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldweri, Feras M.; Abuzayed, Manar H.; Al-Ajaleen, Musab S.; Rabaeh, Khalid A.

    2018-03-01

    Thymol blue (TB) solutions and Thymol blue Polyvinyl Alcohol (TB-PVA) films have been introduced as Radiochromic dosimeter for high dose applications. The dosimeters were irradiated with gamma ray (60Co source) from 5 to 30 kGy for film, and from 0.150 kGy to 4 kGy for solution. The optical density of unirradiated and irradiated TB solution as well as TB-PVA film dosimeters were studied in terms of absorbance at 434 nm using UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The effects of scan temperature, light pre-gamma irradiation, dose rate, relative humidity and stability of the absorbance of solutions and films after irradiation were investigated. We found the dose sensitivity of TB solution and TB-PVA film dosimeters increases significantly with increases of the absorbed dose as well as with the increases of TB dye concentrations. The useful dose range of developed TB solutions and TB-PVA films dosimeters is in the range 0.125-1 kGy and of 5-20 kGy, respectively.

  16. High doses of recombinant erythropoietin stimulate platelet production in mice

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.P.; Cottrell, M.B.; Clift, R.E.

    1987-07-01

    Previously, recombinant erythropoietin (rEpo) was shown to increase the number and size of megakaryocytic colonies in vitro, and in vivo it elevates the number of megakaryocytes in mouse spleens. To test the hypothesis that rEpo would stimulate platelet production in mice, both normal mice and mice in rebound-thrombocytosis were injected with rEpo and the %35S incorporation into platelets was measured. A thrombocytopoiesis-stimulating factor (TSF or thrombopoietin) was used as a positive control. rEpo increased isotopic incorporation into platelets of both normal mice and mice in rebound-thrombocytosis, as did TSF, but required large doses (15 U rEpo/mouse). In other mice, hematocrits,more » platelet counts, platelet sizes, and 24-hr %35S incorporation into platelets were measured 2 days after injection of two equally divided doses of either rEpo or TSF. Significant increases in both platelet sizes and %35S incorporation into platelets were found after injections of 15 U rEpo/mouse or 2.3 U TSF/mouse. These data indicate that rEpo, at high doses, will stimulate platelet production in mice, and may suggest molecular similarities between rEpo and TSF and their ability to compete for common receptor sites on megakaryocytes and their progenitor cells.« less

  17. High dose tetrabromobisphenol A impairs hippocampal neurogenesis and memory retention.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Hyun; Chun, Hye Jeong; Lee, Seulah; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jaewon

    2017-08-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a brominated flame retardant that is commonly used in commercial and household products, such as, computers, televisions, mobile phones, and electronic boards. TBBPA can accumulate in human body fluids, and it has been reported that TBBPA possesses endocrine disruptive activity. However, the neurotoxic effect of TBBPA on hippocampal neurogenesis has not yet been investigated. Accordingly, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of TBBPA on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive function. Male C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated vehicle or TBBPA (20 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, or 500 mg/kg daily) for two weeks. TBBPA was observed to significantly and dose-dependently reduce the survival of newly generated cells in the hippocampus but not to affect the proliferation of newly generated cells. Numbers of hippocampal BrdU and NeuN positive cells were dose-dependently reduced by TBBPA, indicating impaired neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Interestingly, glial activation without neuronal death was observed in hippocampi exposed to TBBPA. Furthermore, memory retention was found to be adversely affected by TBBPA exposure by a mechanism involving suppression of the BDNF-CREB signaling pathway. The study suggests high dose TBBPA disrupts hippocampal neurogenesis and induces associated memory deficits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The efficacy of low and high dose (99m)Tc-MIBI protocols for intraoperative identification of hyperplastic parathyroid glands in secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Gencoglu, Esra Arzu; Aktas, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of low- and high-dose (99m)Tc-MIBI protocols for intraoperative identification of hyperplastic parathyroid glands via gamma probe in secondary hyperparathyroidism. This retrospective study was conducted using a prospective database of 59 patients who had undergone radioguided subtotal parathyroidectomy between 2004-2012. The patients were studied in 2 groups. Group 1 (n=31) received 37 MBq (99m)Tc-MIBI intravenously in the surgical room approximately 10 min before the beginning of the intervention and surgery was performed under gamma probe guidance. Group 2 (n=28) received 555 MBq (99m)Tc- MIBI intravenously 2h before surgery, which was also performed under gamma probe guidance. Intraoperative gamma probe findings, laboratory findings, and histopathological findings were evaluated together. Using acceptance of the histopathological findings as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative gamma probe for identifying hyperplastic parathyroid glands was 98% and 100%, respectively, in both groups. In the light of these findings, it is concluded that the low-dose (99m)Tc-MIBI protocol might be preferable for intraoperative identification of hyperplastic parathyroid glands in secondary hyperparathyroidism patients because it was observed to be as effective as the high-dose (99m)Tc-MIBI protocol. Furthermore, the low-dose protocol does not have the disadvantages that are associated with the high-dose protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  19. Peripheral intravenous line - infants

    MedlinePlus

    PIV - infants; Peripheral IV - infants; Peripheral line - infants; Peripheral line - neonatal ... A peripheral intravenous line (PIV) is a small, short, plastic tube, called a catheter. A health care provider puts the PIV through the skin into ...

  20. Release and diffusional modeling of metronidazole lipid matrices.

    PubMed

    Ozyazici, Mine; Gökçe, Evren H; Ertan, Gökhan

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the first aim was to investigate the swelling and relaxation properties of lipid matrix on diffusional exponent (n). The second aim was to determine the desired release profile of metronidazole lipid matrix tablets. We prepared metronidazole lipid matrix granules using Carnauba wax, Beeswax, Stearic acid, Cutina HR, Precirol ATO 5, and Compritol ATO 888 by hot fusion method and pressed the tablets of these granules. In vitro release test was performed using a standard USP dissolution apparatus I (basket method) with a stirring rate of 100 rpm at 37 degrees C in 900 ml of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid, adjusted to pH 1.2, as medium for the formulations' screening. Hardness, diameter-height ratio, friability, and swelling ratio were determined. Target release profile of metronidazole was also drawn. Stearic acid showed the highest and Carnauba wax showed the lowest release rates in all formulations used. Swelling ratios were calculated after the dissolution of tablets as 9.24%, 6.03%, 1.74%, and 1.07% for Cutina HR, Beeswax, Precirol ATO 5, and Compritol ATO 888, respectively. There was erosion in Stearic acid, but neither erosion nor swelling in Carnauba wax, was detected. According to the power law analysis, the diffusion mechanism was expressed as pure Fickian for Stearic acid and Carnauba wax and the coupling of Fickian and relaxation contributions for other Cutina HR, Beeswax, Compritol ATO 888, and Precirol ATO 5 tablets. It was found that Beeswax (kd=2.13) has a very close drug release rate with the target profile (kt=1.95). Our results suggested that swelling and relaxation properties of lipid matrices should be examined together for a correct evaluation on drug diffusion mechanism of insoluble matrices.

  1. Treatment of advanced colorectal and gastric adenocarcinomas with 5-fluorouracil and high-dose folinic acid.

    PubMed

    Machover, D; Goldschmidt, E; Chollet, P; Metzger, G; Zittoun, J; Marquet, J; Vandenbulcke, J M; Misset, J L; Schwarzenberg, L; Fourtillan, J B

    1986-05-01

    We report the results of an expanded trial of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) combined with high-dose folinic acid for treatment of patients with advanced colorectal or advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. In each treatment course, the patients received both 5-FU (340 to 400 mg/m2/d by intravenous (IV) infusion for a period of 15 minutes) and folinic acid (200 mg/m2/d by IV bolus) for 5 consecutive days, with a 21-day interval between courses. Eighty-six patients with colorectal carcinoma were evaluated. The combined complete and partial response rates were 39% for 54 patients who did not receive prior chemotherapy and 22% for 32 patients who had previously received chemotherapy. Four patients who were previously resistant to 5-FU attained objective responses. The median time to disease progression for the 28 responders was 10 months. The median survival time of responders was 19.5 months, and the probability of their being alive at 2 years was 40%. Of 27 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, 13 (48%) responded to therapy. Their median time to disease progression was 5.5 months. The median survival time of responders was 11 months, and their probability of being alive at 15 months was 30%. Toxicity was within acceptable limits. Toxic effects included stomatitis, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, skin rash, and mild myeloid hypoplasia. In a separate study, plasma concentrations of L-folates greater than 10(-5) mol/L were achieved after a rapid single IV injection of 200 mg/m2 of folinic acid. Comparisons of our results with those reported in previous studies on 5-FU administered as a single agent suggest that, in advanced colorectal and gastric adenocarcinoma, folinic acid administered in high doses enhances the effectiveness of 5-FU administered concomitantly. Furthermore, some colorectal tumors that were previously resistant to 5-FU become sensitive to this drug. The survival of the patients who responded to therapy was markedly improved over that observed in reported series of

  2. Multidisciplinary Analysis of a Nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile Strain with Stable Resistance to Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Ines; Monot, Marc; Tani, Chiara; Barbanti, Fabrizio; Norais, Nathalie; Dupuy, Bruno; Bouza, Emilio; Mastrantonio, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Stable resistance to metronidazole in a nontoxigenic Clostridium difficile strain was investigated at both the genomic and proteomic levels. Alterations in the metabolic pathway involving the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase were found, suggesting that reduction of metronidazole, required for its activity, may be less efficient in this strain. Proteomic studies also showed a cellular response to oxidative stress. PMID:24913157

  3. Supplementation with high-dose docosahexaenoic acid increases the Omega-3 Index more than high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Allaire, Janie; Harris, William S; Vors, Cécile; Charest, Amélie; Marin, Johanne; Jackson, Kristina Harris; Tchernof, André; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids have distinct effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. The Omega-3 Index (O3I), which is calculated as the proportion of EPA and DHA in red blood cell (RBC) membranes, has been inversely associated with the risk of coronary heart diseases and coronary mortality. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of EPA and DHA supplementation on the O3I in men and women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation. In a double-blind controlled crossover study, 48 men and 106 women with abdominal obesity and subclinical inflammation were randomized to a sequence of three treatment phases: 1-2.7g/d of EPA, 2-2.7g/d of DHA, and 3-3g/d of corn oil (0g of EPA+DHA). All supplements were provided as 3×1g capsules for a total of 3g/d. The 10-week treatment phases were separated by nine-week washouts. RBC membrane fatty acid composition and O3I were assessed at baseline and the end of each phase. Differences in O3I between treatments were assessed using mixed models for repeated measures. The increase in the O3I after supplementation with DHA (+5.6% compared with control, P<0.0001) was significantly greater than after EPA (+3.3% compared with control, P<0.0001; DHA vs. EPA, P<0.0001). Compared to control, DHA supplementation decreased (-0.8%, P<0.0001) while EPA increased (+2.5%, P<0.0001) proportion of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in RBCs (DHA vs. EPA, P<0.0001). The baseline O3I was higher in women than in men (6.3% vs. 5.8%, P=0.011). The difference between DHA and EPA in increasing the O3I tended to be higher in men than in women (+2.6% vs. +2.2% respectively, P for the treatment by sex interaction=0.0537). The increase in the O3I is greater with high dose DHA supplementation than with high dose EPA, which is consistent with the greater potency of DHA to modulate cardiometabolic risk factors. The extent to which such differences between EPA and DHA in increasing the O3I relates

  4. Outcomes of high-dose levofloxacin therapy remain bound to the levofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration in complicated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Eliana S; Mikulca, Janelle A; Cloutier, Daniel J; Bliss, Caleb A; Steenbergen, Judith N

    2016-11-25

    Fluoroquinolones are a guideline-recommended therapy for complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis. Elevated drug concentrations of fluoroquinolones in the urine and therapy with high-dose levofloxacin are believed to overcome resistance and effectively treat infections caused by resistant bacteria. The ASPECT-cUTI phase 3 clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01345929 and NCT01345955 , both registered April 28, 2011) provided an opportunity to test this hypothesis by examining the clinical and microbiological outcomes of high-dose levofloxacin treatment by levofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to ceftolozane/tazobactam (1.5 g intravenous every 8 h) or levofloxacin (750 mg intravenous once daily) for 7 days of therapy. The ASPECT-cUTI study provided data on 370 patients with at least one isolate of Enterobacteriaceae at baseline who were treated with levofloxacin. Outcomes were assessed at the test-of-cure (5-9 days after treatment) and late follow-up (21-42 days after treatment) visits in the microbiologically evaluable population (N = 327). Test-of-cure clinical cure rates above 90% were observed at minimum inhibitory concentrations ≤4 μg/mL. Microbiological eradication rates were consistently >90% at levofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations ≤0.06 μg/mL. Lack of eradication of causative pathogens at the test-of-cure visit increased the likelihood of relapse by the late follow-up visit. Results from this study do not support levofloxacin therapy for complicated urinary tract infections caused by organisms with levofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations ≥4 μg/mL. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01345929 and NCT01345955.

  5. A novel metronidazole fluorescent nanosensor based on graphene quantum dots embedded silica molecularly imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Mehrzad-Samarin, Mina; Faridbod, Farnoush; Dezfuli, Amin Shiralizadeh; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2017-06-15

    A novel optical nanosensor for detection of Metronidazole in biological samples was reported. Graphene quantum dots embedded silica molecular imprinted polymer (GQDs-embedded SMIP) was synthesized and used as a selective fluorescent probe for Metronidazole detection. The new synthesized GQDs-embedded SMIP showed strong fluorescent emission at 450nm excited at 365nm which quenched in presence of Metronidazole as a template molecule.. The quenching was proportional to the concentration of Metronidazole in a linear range of at least 0.2μM to 15μM. The limit of detection for metronidazole determination was obtained 0.15μM. The nanosensor successfully worked in plasma matrixes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of high-dose lidocaine treatment on superoxide dismutase and malon dialdehyde levels in seven diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Celebi, H; Bozkirli, F; Günaydin, B; Bilgihan, A

    2000-01-01

    We report on the use of intravenous (IV) high-dose lidocaine to relieve diabetic neuropathic pain, and the technique's effects on clinical measures of lipid peroxidation. Under continuous electrocardiogram monitoring, IV lidocaine (5 mg kg(-1) in 100 mL saline) was administered over 30 minutes to 7 non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients suffering from neuropathic pain who reported increased pain within the preceding 6 months. This treatment was performed once a week for 1 month. Blood samples were collected from the contralateral limb to determine plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels on admission and following the final lidocaine administration. Plasma MDA concentrations significantly decreased after the final IV lidocaine treatment (P < .05, paired t-test), whereas SOD levels did not show a statistically significant difference compared with baseline levels. High-dose lidocaine treatment lessens MDA levels, a marker of free-radical-mediated cell damage. This suggests that one of lidocaine's mechanism of action may be its effect on oxygen free radicals, which in turn impacts lipid peroxidation.

  7. High-dose neutron irradiation performance of dielectric mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Nimishakavi Anantha Phani Kiran Kumar; Leonard, Keith J.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald Earle

    2015-05-01

    The study presents the high-dose behavior of dielectric mirrors specifically engineered for radiation-tolerance: alternating layers of Al 2O 3/SiO 2 and HfO 2/SiO 2 were grown on sapphire substrates and exposed to neutron doses of 1 and 4 dpa at 458 10K in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). In comparison to previously reported results, these higher doses of 1 and 4 dpa results in a drastic drop in optical reflectance, caused by a failure of the multilayer coating. HfO 2/SiO 2 mirrors failed completely when exposed to 1 dpa, whereas the reflectance of Al 2O 3/SiO 2 mirrors reducedmore » to 44%, eventually failing at 4 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of the Al 2O 3/SiO 2 specimens showed SiO 2 layer defects which increases size with irradiation dose. The typical size of each defect was 8 nm in 1 dpa and 42 nm in 4 dpa specimens. Buckling type delamination of the interface between the substrate and first layer was typically observed in both 1 and 4 dpa HfO 2/SiO 2 specimens. Composition changes across the layers were measured in high resolution scanning-TEM mode using energy dispersive spectroscopy. A significant interdiffusion between the film layers was observed in Al 2O 3/SiO 2 mirror, though less evident in HfO 2/SiO 2 system. Lastly, the ultimate goal of this work is the provide insight into the radiation-induced failure mechanisms of these mirrors.« less

  8. A prospective study of risk factors and historical trends in metronidazole failure for Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Mary Y.; Maroo, Seema; Kyne, Lorraine; Cloud, Jeffrey; Tummala, Sanjeev; Katchar, Kianoosh; Dreisbach, Valley; Noddin, Laura; Kelly, Ciarán P.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Recent studies of C. difficile infection (CDI) indicate a dramatic increase in metronidazole failure. The aims of this study were to compare current and historical rates of metronidazole failure and identify risk factors for metronidazole failure. Methods 89 patients with CDI in 2004–2006 were followed for 60 days. Data were compared to a historical cohort of 63 CDI patients studied prospectively in 1998. Metronidazole failure was defined as persistent diarrhea after 10 days of therapy or a change of therapy to vancomycin. Stool samples were analyzed for the presence of NAP-1 strain. Results Metronidazole failure rates were 35% in both the 1998 and 2004–2006 cohorts. There was no difference in the median time to resolution of diarrhea (8 vs. 5 days, p = 0.52) or the proportion with more than 10 days of diarrhea (35% vs. 29%, p = 0.51). Risk factors for metronidazole failure included recent cephalosporin use (OR 32, 95% CI 5–219), CDI on admission (OR 23, 95% CI 3–156), and transfer from another hospital (OR 11, 95% CI 2–72). The frequency of NAP-1 infection in patients with and without metronidazole failure was similar (26% vs. 21%, p = 0.67). Conclusions We found no difference in metronidazole failure rates in 1998 and 2004–2006. Patients with recent cephalosporin use, CDI on admission, and transfer from another hospital were more likely to fail metronidazole and may benefit from early aggressive therapy. Infection with the epidemic NAP-1 strain was not associated with metronidazole failure in endemic CDI. PMID:19081526

  9. [High-dose buprenorphine for outpatient palliative pain therapy].

    PubMed

    Gastmeier, K; Freye, E

    2009-04-01

    The case of a 78-year-old patient with cancer-related pain and additionally mixed-pain syndrome is presented. Pain therapy with buprenorphine TTS 210 microg/h every 3 days was sufficient in the beginning, later the therapy was changed because of increasing problems of tape fixing during fever periods under chemotherapy to a continuous infusion of buprenorphine intravenously via an external medication pump. During the course of therapy it became necessary to increase the dose to 99.9 mg/day buprenorphine. Under this medication a sufficient pain reduction (median NRS 2-3) over a period of 135 days could be achieved. At the same time the patient was vigilant and cooperative without signs of intoxication until the end of life at home in the presence of his family.If no signs of intoxication occur under extreme opioid therapy and a sufficient pain therapy can be achieved, a rotation to another opioid is not necessary. However, outpatient palliative care requires a frequent adaptation to the individually varying opioid demand of the patient and time-consuming nursing care.

  10. A comparison between intravenous and subcutmaneous immunogobulin.

    PubMed

    Braine, Mary E; Woodall, Amanda

    Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is a rare immune-mediated disease that presents with predominantly distal motor weakness in one or more limbs without sensory loss. Symptoms may give riseto functional impairment and consequently may affect quality of life. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin's therapy (IVIg) is the current mainstay treatment, however, subcutaneous immunoglobuli(SCIg) is emerging as a viable alternative. The purpose of this study was to explore the patients' experience of SCIg and ascertain if those receiving it had an improved quality of life and treatmentsatisfaction compared to those receiving IVIg. Using a mixed method approach this paper will present its findings and key implications for clinical and research practice are considered. The results from this study suggest that home SCIg therapy may prove a more desirable treatment option than IVIg for a proportion of MMN patients.

  11. High-Dose Rifapentine with Moxifloxacin for Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Jindani, Amina; Harrison, Thomas S.; Nunn, Andrew J.; Phillips, Patrick P.J.; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Charalambous, Salome; Hatherill, Mark; Geldenhuys, Hennie; McIlleron, Helen M.; Zvada, Simbarashe P.; Mungofa, Stanley; Shah, Nasir A.; Zizhou, Simukai; Magweta, Lloyd; Shepherd, James; Nyirenda, Sambayawo; van Dijk, Janneke H.; Clouting, Heather E.; Coleman, David; Bateson, Anna L.E.; McHugh, Timothy D.; Butcher, Philip D.; Mitchison, Denny A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tuberculosis regimens that are shorter and simpler than the current 6-month daily regimen are needed. METHODS We randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed, smear-positive, drug-sensitive tuberculosis to one of three regimens: a control regimen that included 2 months of ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide administered daily followed by 4 months of daily isoniazid and rifampicin; a 4-month regimen in which the isoniazid in the control regimen was replaced by moxifloxacin administered daily for 2 months followed by moxifloxacin and 900 mg of rifapentine administered twice weekly for 2 months; or a 6-month regimen in which isoniazid was replaced by daily moxifloxacin for 2 months followed by one weekly dose of both moxifloxacin and 1200 mg of rifapentine for 4 months. Sputum specimens were examined on microscopy and after culture at regular intervals. The primary end point was a composite treatment failure and relapse, with noninferiority based on a margin of 6 percentage points and 90% confidence intervals. RESULTS We enrolled a total of 827 patients from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Zambia; 28% of patients were coinfected with the human immunodefiency virus. In the per-protocol analysis, the proportion of patients with an unfavorable response was 4.9% in the control group, 3.2% in the 6-month group (adjusted difference from control, −1.8 percentage points; 90% confidence interval [CI], −6.1 to 2.4), and 18.2% in the 4-month group (adjusted difference from control, 13.6 percentage points; 90% CI, 8.1 to 19.1). In the modified intention-to-treat analysis these proportions were 14.4% in the control group, 13.7% in the 6-month group (adjusted difference from control, 0.4 percentage points; 90% CI, −4.7 to 5.6), and 26.9% in the 4-month group (adjusted difference from control, 13.1 percentage points; 90% CI, 6.8 to 19.4). CONCLUSIONS The 6-month regimen that included weekly administration of high-dose rifapentine and

  12. Tolerance of the Brachial Plexus to High-Dose Reirradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: achen5@kumc.edu; Yoshizaki, Taeko; Velez, Maria A.

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: To study the tolerance of the brachial plexus to high doses of radiation exceeding historically accepted limits by analyzing human subjects treated with reirradiation for recurrent tumors of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Data from 43 patients who were confirmed to have received overlapping dose to the brachial plexus after review of radiation treatment plans from the initial and reirradiation courses were used to model the tolerance of this normal tissue structure. A standardized instrument for symptoms of neuropathy believed to be related to brachial plexus injury was utilized to screen for toxicity. Cumulative dose was calculatedmore » by fusing the initial dose distributions onto the reirradiation plan, thereby creating a composite plan via deformable image registration. The median elapsed time from the initial course of radiation therapy to reirradiation was 24 months (range, 3-144 months). Results: The dominant complaints among patients with symptoms were ipsilateral pain (54%), numbness/tingling (31%), and motor weakness and/or difficulty with manual dexterity (15%). The cumulative maximum dose (Dmax) received by the brachial plexus ranged from 60.5 Gy to 150.1 Gy (median, 95.0 Gy). The cumulative mean (Dmean) dose ranged from 20.2 Gy to 111.5 Gy (median, 63.8 Gy). The 1-year freedom from brachial plexus–related neuropathy was 67% and 86% for subjects with a cumulative Dmax greater than and less than 95.0 Gy, respectively (P=.05). The 1-year complication-free rate was 66% and 87%, for those reirradiated within and after 2 years from the initial course, respectively (P=.06). Conclusion: The development of brachial plexus–related symptoms was less than expected owing to repair kinetics and to the relatively short survival of the subject population. Time-dose factors were demonstrated to be predictive of complications.« less

  13. High-dose rifapentine with moxifloxacin for pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Jindani, Amina; Harrison, Thomas S; Nunn, Andrew J; Phillips, Patrick P J; Churchyard, Gavin J; Charalambous, Salome; Hatherill, Mark; Geldenhuys, Hennie; McIlleron, Helen M; Zvada, Simbarashe P; Mungofa, Stanley; Shah, Nasir A; Zizhou, Simukai; Magweta, Lloyd; Shepherd, James; Nyirenda, Sambayawo; van Dijk, Janneke H; Clouting, Heather E; Coleman, David; Bateson, Anna L E; McHugh, Timothy D; Butcher, Philip D; Mitchison, Denny A

    2014-10-23

    Tuberculosis regimens that are shorter and simpler than the current 6-month daily regimen are needed. We randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed, smear-positive, drug-sensitive tuberculosis to one of three regimens: a control regimen that included 2 months of ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide administered daily followed by 4 months of daily isoniazid and rifampicin; a 4-month regimen in which the isoniazid in the control regimen was replaced by moxifloxacin administered daily for 2 months followed by moxifloxacin and 900 mg of rifapentine administered twice weekly for 2 months; or a 6-month regimen in which isoniazid was replaced by daily moxifloxacin for 2 months followed by one weekly dose of both moxifloxacin and 1200 mg of rifapentine for 4 months. Sputum specimens were examined on microscopy and after culture at regular intervals. The primary end point was a composite treatment failure and relapse, with noninferiority based on a margin of 6 percentage points and 90% confidence intervals. We enrolled a total of 827 patients from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Zambia; 28% of patients were coinfected with the human immunodefiency virus. In the per-protocol analysis, the proportion of patients with an unfavorable response was 4.9% in the control group, 3.2% in the 6-month group (adjusted difference from control, -1.8 percentage points; 90% confidence interval [CI], -6.1 to 2.4), and 18.2% in the 4-month group (adjusted difference from control, 13.6 percentage points; 90% CI, 8.1 to 19.1). In the modified intention-to-treat analysis these proportions were 14.4% in the control group, 13.7% in the 6-month group (adjusted difference from control, 0.4 percentage points; 90% CI, -4.7 to 5.6), and 26.9% in the 4-month group (adjusted difference from control, 13.1 percentage points; 90% CI, 6.8 to 19.4). The 6-month regimen that included weekly administration of high-dose rifapentine and moxifloxacin was as effective as the control regimen

  14. Intentional intravenous mercury injection.

    PubMed

    Yudelowitz, G

    2017-01-30

    Mercury toxicity is commonly associated with vapour inhalation or oral ingestion, for which there exist definite treatment options.Intravenous mercury injection is rarely seen, with few documented cases. Treatment strategies are not clearly defined for such cases,although a few options do show benefit. This case report describes a 29-year-old man suffering from bipolar disorder, who presentedfollowing self-inflicted intravenous injection of mercury. Clinical and radiographic features, possible adverse clinical sequelae in preexistingmental illness and further complications are discussed, as well as possible treatment strategies in light of relevant literature.

  15. Characterization of a Stable, Metronidazole-Resistant Clostridium difficile Clinical Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Tarah; Chong, Patrick; Zhang, Jason; Hizon, Romeo; Du, Tim; Graham, Morag R.; Beniac, Daniel R.; Booth, Timothy F.; Kibsey, Pamela; Miller, Mark; Gravel, Denise; Mulvey, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile are Gram-positive, spore forming anaerobic bacteria that are the leading cause of healthcare-associated diarrhea, usually associated with antibiotic usage. Metronidazole is currently the first-line treatment for mild to moderate C. difficile diarrhea however recurrence occurs at rates of 15–35%. There are few reports of C. difficile metronidazole resistance in the literature, and when observed, the phenotype has been transient and lost after storage or exposure of the bacteria to freeze/thaw cycles. Owing to the unstable nature of the resistance phenotype in the laboratory, clinical significance and understanding of the resistance mechanisms is lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Genotypic and phenotypic characterization was performed on a metronidazole resistant clinical isolate of C. difficile. Whole-genome sequencing was used to identify potential genetic contributions to the phenotypic variation observed with molecular and bacteriological techniques. Phenotypic observations of the metronidazole resistant strain revealed aberrant growth in broth and elongated cell morphology relative to a metronidazole-susceptible, wild type NAP1 strain. Comparative genomic analysis revealed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level variation within genes affecting core metabolic pathways such as electron transport, iron utilization and energy production. Conclusions/Significance This is the first characterization of stable, metronidazole resistance in a C. difficile isolate. The study provides an in-depth genomic and phenotypic analysis of this strain and provides a foundation for future studies to elucidate mechanisms conferring metronidazole resistance in C. difficile that have not been previously described. PMID:23349739

  16. Percutaneous absorption kinetics of topical metronidazole formulations in vitro in the human cadaver skin model.

    PubMed

    Elewski, Boni E

    2007-01-01

    Topical formulations containing identical active agents are available in various vehicles and concentrations, which may affect percutaneous absorption. This study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro percutaneous absorption pharmacokinetics of metronidazole in different vehicles and concentrations as the active agent in 6 topical formulations. Formulations were applied to sections from 3 cadaver skin donors, and percutaneous absorption of metronidazole was measured over a 48-h test period through the finite dose technique and the use of Franz diffusion cells. Metronidazole penetrates into and through human cadaver skin. Data show the general ranking of delivery of similar concentrations of metronidazole according to vehicle as cream > lotion > gel. The 48-h penetration of metronidazole in the human cadaver skin model was greatest with cream formulations and lowest with gel formulations. These results reveal the importance of the vehicle selected for penetration of metronidazole into the skin. The relevant target zone in rosacea is the dermis because this is the area where inflammation takes place. Additional studies are warranted to examine absorption of metronidazole into the relevant target zone and the correlation of absorption with efficacy.

  17. Levofloxacin : a review of its use as a high-dose, short-course treatment for bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Vanessa R; Perry, Caroline M

    2008-01-01

    Levofloxacin (Levaquin) is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial that is the L-isomer of ofloxacin. A high-dose (750 mg) short-course (5 days) of once-daily levofloxacin is approved for use in the US in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), acute bacterial sinusitis (ABS), complicated urinary tract infections (UTI) and acute pyelonephritis (AP). The broad spectrum antibacterial profile of levofloxacin means that monotherapy is often a possibility in patients with CAP at times when other agents may require combination therapy, although levofloxacin can be used in combination therapy when necessary. The high-dose, short-course levofloxacin regimen maximizes its concentration-dependent bactericidal activity and may reduce the potential for resistance to emerge. In addition, this regimen lends itself to better compliance because of the shorter duration of treatment and the convenient once-daily administration schedule. Oral levofloxacin is rapidly absorbed and is bioequivalent to the intravenous formulation; importantly, patients can transition between the formulations, which results in more options in regards to the treatment regimen and the potential for patients with varying degrees of illness to be treated. Levofloxacin has good tissue penetration and an adequate concentration can be maintained in the urinary tract to treat uropathogens. Levofloxacin is generally well tolerated and has good efficacy in the treatment of patients with CAP, ABS, complicated UTI and AP. The efficacy and tolerability of levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 10 days in patients with CAP, ABS and UTIs is well established, and the high-dose, short-course levofloxacin regimen has been shown to be noninferior to the 10-day regimen in CAP and ABS, and to have a similar tolerability profile. Similarly, the high-dose, short-course levofloxacin regimen is noninferior to ciprofloxacin in patients with complicated UTI or AP. Thus, levofloxacin is a valuable antimicrobial agent that has

  18. Association of Metronidazole with Cancer: A Potential Risk Factor or Inconsistent Deductions?

    PubMed

    Adil, Muhammad; Iqbal, Waheed; Adnan, Fazal; Wazir, Shabnam; Khan, Imran; Khayam, Mohammad Umar; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Ahmad, Shafiq; Ahmad, Jawad; Khan, Ishaq N

    2018-03-29

    Metronidazole is a synthetic derivative of nitroimidazole that has been widely used for the treatment of several bacterial and protozoal parasitic infections including trichomoniasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, liver abscess, acute ulcerative gingivitis, syphilis and tropical phagedena. In addition to its toxicity in the gastrointestinal tract and central/peripheral nervous system, metronidazole has been reported to cause mucosal imbalance by affecting the expression of mucin (Muc2 gene), which is responsible to form an insoluble mucous barrier that protects the gut lumen from microbial colonization. Since metronidazole is a nitro-group containing compound and used significantly for therapeutic purposes, scientists evaluated its carcinogenicity in different preclinical in-vitro and in-vivo studies. In addition to the preclinical in-vitro validation of DNA damage, metronidazole has been reported to induce cancer in the variety of animal models including lung cancer, malignant lymphomas, breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, pituitary tumors, testicular neoplasms and uterine cancer. Several retrospective cohort studies have reported metronidazole as a potential risk factor for lung cancer (n = 771), cervical cancer (n = 2500), breast cancer (n = 2), cholangiocarcinoma (n = 1), and neuroblastoma (n = 28). So far, all the reported data have confirmed metronidazole carcinogenicity in animals; however, it is still controversial in humans. Based on previous observations, the oxidative metabolites from metronidazole metabolism are shown to have more carcinogenic effects than the parent drug itself. Since ~40% of drug metabolism is reliant on cytochromes, the inter-patient' differences in metronidazole metabolism potentially indicate the individual susceptibility to developing cancer. Due to these potent carcinogenic behaviors, use of metronidazole for animals treatment and its uses in animal food products are barred in the USA and European countries; however, its clinical

  19. Evaluation of Nitrofurantoin Combination Therapy of Metronidazole-Sensitive and -Resistant Helicobacter pylori Infections in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jenks, Peter J.; Ferrero, Richard L.; Tankovic, Jacques; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Labigne, Agnès

    2000-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to determine whether the nitroreductase enzyme encoded by the rdxA gene of Helicobacter pylori was responsible for reductive activation of nitrofurantoin and whether a triple-therapy regimen with nitrofurantoin was able to eradicate metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant H. pylori infections from mice. The susceptibilities to nitrofurantoin of parent and isogenic rdxA mutant strains (three pairs), as well as a series of matched metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant strains isolated from mice (30) and patients (20), were assessed by agar dilution determination of the MIC. Groups of mice colonized with the metronidazole-sensitive H. pylori SS1 strain or a metronidazole-resistant rdxA SS1 mutant were treated with either metronidazole or nitrofurantoin as part of a triple-therapy regimen. One month after the completion of treatment the mice were sacrificed and their stomachs were cultured for H. pylori. The nitrofurantoin MICs for all strains tested were between 0.5 and 4.0 μg/ml. There was no significant difference between the susceptibility to nitrofurantoin of the parental strains and those of respective rdxA mutants or between those of matched metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant H. pylori isolates. The regimen with metronidazole eradicated infection from all eight SS1-infected mice and from one of eight mice inoculated with the rdxA mutant (P ≤ 0.001). The regimen with nitrofurantoin failed to eradicate infection from any of the six SS1-infected mice (P ≤ 0.001) and cleared infection from one of seven mice inoculated with the rdxA mutant. These results demonstrate that, despite the good in vitro activity of nitrofurantoin against H. pylori and the lack of cross-resistance between metronidazole and nitrofurantoin, eradication regimens involving nitrofurantoin are unable to eradicate either metronidazole-sensitive or -resistant H. pylori infections from mice. PMID:10991835

  20. Anti-emetic effect of high-dose metoclopramide vs alizapride--a randomised crossover study.

    PubMed Central

    Seng, K T; Tiong, C E; Hiang, T C

    1994-01-01

    A randomised double-blind crossover study was undertaken to compare the anti-emetic efficacy of alizapride against high dose metoclopramide. A total of 32 patients on cisplatin were randomised to receive either high dose metoclopramide (7 mg kg-1 day-1) or alizapride (5 mg kg-1 day-1). Anti-emetic responses in terms of control of vomiting episodes were similar in both regimens (59%). However, patients showed a statistically significant preference for high dose metoclopramide (P = 0.02). Side effects of both regimens were minimal. We conclude that alizapride is not superior to high dose metoclopramide in controlling cisplatin induced vomiting. PMID:7826833

  1. Regional Differences in Metronidazole Resistance and Increasing Clarithromycin Resistance among Helicobacter pylori Isolates from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Mototsugu; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Kim, Jae J.; Reddy, Rita; Asaka, Masahiro; Kashima, Kei; Osato, Michael S.; El-Zaatari, Fouad A. K.; Graham, David Y.; Kwon, Dong H.

    2000-01-01

    The patterns of antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori were assessed in two different regions in Japan. Overall, prevalences of resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin were 12.4 and 12.9%, respectively. While there was no difference in clarithromycin resistance, the prevalence of metronidazole resistance was significantly higher in Kyoto (23.8%) than in Sapporo (8.1%). From 1996 to 1999, the prevalence of metronidazole resistance did not change but the prevalence of clarithromycin resistance doubled (from 9.1 to 18.7%). PMID:10898707

  2. Metronidazole-induced alterations in murine spermatozoa morphology.

    PubMed

    Mudry, Marta D; Palermo, Ana M; Merani, María S; Carballo, Marta A

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the effect of metronidazole (MTZ) on the stages of the seminiferous epithelial cycle and spermatozoa morphology when the drug is administered in human therapeutic doses to 60-day-old CFW male mice. The frequency of the stages was established by counting spermatocytes in pachytene and spermatids. Abnormalities in the flagellum or the head, lack of maturity and multiple malformations, were considered in the morphological analysis. Murine control strain was compared with MTZ treated group (v.ip 130 mg/kg/bw) both kept in standard captivity conditions. Cellular composition or number of stages in the seminiferous tubules were not altered in MTZ exposed animals, though the number of cells in stages I, V and XII was increased. The sperm cell morphology was severely affected by the treatment with potentially serious consequences on the normal fertilization process. Thus, the MTZ has to be considered as a conceivable thread regarding male fertility.

  3. Discriminative Dissolution Method for Benzoyl Metronidazole Oral Suspension.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Aline Santos; da Rosa Silva, Carlos Eduardo; Paula, Fávero Reisdorfer; da Silva, Fabiana Ernestina Barcellos

    2016-06-01

    A dissolution method for benzoyl metronidazole (BMZ) oral suspensions was developed and validated using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. After determination of sink conditions, dissolution profiles were evaluated using different dissolution media and agitation speeds. The sample insertion mode in dissolution media was also evaluated. The best conditions were obtained using a paddle, 50 rpm stirring speed, simulated gastric fluid (without pepsin) as the dissolution medium, and sample insertion by a syringe. These conditions were suitable for providing sink conditions and discriminatory power between different formulations. Through the tested conditions, the results can be considered specific, linear, precise, accurate, and robust. The dissolution profiles of five samples were compared using the similarity factor (f 2) and dissolution efficiency. The dissolution kinetics were evaluated and described by the Weibull model. Whereas there is no monograph for this pharmaceutical formulation, the dissolution method proposed can be considered suitable for quality control and dissolution profile comparison of different commercial formulations.

  4. Metronidazole thiosalicylate conjugates: synthesis, crystal structure, docking studies and antiamoebic activity.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, Attar; Agarwal, Subhash M; Avecilla, Fernando; Azam, Amir

    2012-09-01

    Metronidazole thiosalicylate conjugates were synthesized and crystallised in order to discover new molecules having better efficacy than therapeutically administered drug metronidazole, used against Entamoeba histolytica. The three compounds (4-6) showed lower IC(50) values than metronidazole on HM1:IMSS strain of E. histolytica and displayed low cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cell line. In order to get an insight into the mechanisms of action of these compounds, a homology model of E. histolytica thioredoxin reductase (EhTHRase) was constructed and molecular docking was performed into the binding pocket to identify the nature of interactions. The docking studies suggest that the improved inhibitory activity of the newly synthesised metronidazole analogues could be due to involvement of the additional hydrophobic interactions in the binding mode. The result of the present study indicates the molecular fragments that play an essential role in improving the antiamoebic activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EVALUATION OF ALGINATE MICROSPHERES WITH METRONIDAZOLE OBTAINED BY THE SPRAY DRYING TECHNIQUE.

    PubMed

    Szekalska, Marta; Winnicka, Katarzyna; Czajkowska-Kośnik, Anna; Sosnowska, Katarzyna; Amelian, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, nine formulations (F1-F9) of alginate microspheres with metronidazole were prepared by the spray drying technique with using different drug:polymer ratio (1:2, 1:1, 2:1) and different sodium alginate concentration (1, 2, 3%). The obtained microspheres were characterized for size, morphology, drug loading, (potential and swelling degree. Mucoadhesive properties were examined using texture analyzer and three different models of adhesive layers--gelatin discs, mucin gel and porcine vaginal mucosa. In vitro drug release, mathematical release profile and physical state of microspheres were also evaluated. The obtained results indicate that sodium alginate is a suitable polymer for developing mucoadhesive dosage forms of metronidazole. The optimal formulation F3 (drug:polymer ratio 1:2 and 1% alginate solution) was characterized by the highest metronidazole loading and sustained drug release. The results of this study indicate promising potential of ALG microspheres as alternative dosage forms for metronidazole delivery.

  6. One-Gram, Single-Dose Metronidazole (Flagyl) for Trichomonal Vaginitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jennifer R.

    1979-01-01

    Effective single-dose treatment of trichomonal vaginitis is reported. Large single-dose treatment with metronidazole was found to be effective and avoided the side effects occurring with multidose treatment. (MJB)

  7. Anti-anaerobic activity of levofloxacin alone and combined with clindamycin and metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Credito, K L; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    2000-11-01

    Microdilution MICs of levofloxacin against twelve anaerobes ranged between 0.5-8.0 microg/ml and those of clindamycin and metronidazole between 0.008-2.0 and 0.25->16.0 microg/ml, respectively. Combination of levofloxacin with clindamycin and/or metronidazole in time-kill tests led to synergy at levofloxacin concentrations at or below the MIC in 7/12 strains.

  8. Clinical relevance of metronidazole and peripheral neuropathy: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Goolsby, Tiffany A; Jakeman, Bernadette; Gaynes, Robert P

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this paper was to review and evaluate the literature on metronidazole-associated peripheral neuropathy and determine the relevance in clinical practice. MEDLINE/PubMed, EBSCO, and Google Scholar were searched through February 2017 using the search terms metronidazole and peripheral neuropathy, or polyneuropathy, or paresthesia, or neurotoxicity. Relevant case reports, retrospective studies, surveys, and review articles were included. Bibliographies of all relevant articles were reviewed for additional sources. Overall, metronidazole is generally well tolerated, but serious neurotoxicity, including peripheral neuropathy, has been reported. The overall incidence of peripheral neuropathy associated with metronidazole is unknown. Our review found 36 case reports (40 unique patients) of metronidazole-associated peripheral neuropathy, with most cases (31/40) receiving a >42 g total (>4 weeks) of therapy. In addition, we reviewed 13 clinical studies and found varying rates of peripheral neuropathy from 0 to 50%. Within these clinical studies, we found a higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy in patients receiving >42 g total (>4 weeks) of metronidazole compared with those patients receiving ≤42 g total (17.9% vs. 1.7%). Nearly all patients had complete resolution of symptoms. In conclusion, peripheral neuropathy is rare in patients who receive ≤42 g total of metronidazole. Patients who receive higher total doses may be at higher risk of peripheral neuropathy, but symptoms resolve after discontinuation of therapy in most patients. Antimicrobial stewardship programs may consider use of antibiotic combinations that include metronidazole over broad-spectrum alternatives when treating with ≤42 g total of the drug (≤4 weeks). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Efficacy and Safety of Metronidazole for Pulmonary Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Matthew W.; Jeon, Doosoo; Mountz, James M.; Lee, Jong Doo; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Zia, Nadeem; Lee, Myungsun; Lee, Jongseok; Via, Laura E.; Lee, Soyoung; Eum, Seok-Yong; Lee, Sung-Joong; Goldfeder, Lisa C.; Cai, Ying; Jin, Boyoung; Kim, Youngran; Oh, Taegwon; Chen, Ray Y.; Dodd, Lori E.; Gu, Wenjuan; Dartois, Veronique; Park, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Cheon Tae

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary lesions from active tuberculosis patients are thought to contain persistent, nonreplicating bacilli that arise from hypoxic stress. Metronidazole, approved for anaerobic infections, has antituberculosis activity against anoxic bacilli in vitro and in some animal models and may target persistent, nonreplicating bacilli. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis subjects were randomly assigned to receive metronidazole (500 mg thrice daily) or placebo for 8 weeks in addition to an individualized background regimen. Outcomes were measured radiologically (change on high-resolution computed tomography [HRCT]), microbiologically (time to sputum smear and culture conversion), and clinically (status 6 months after stopping therapy). Enrollment was stopped early due to excessive peripheral neuropathies in the metronidazole arm. Among 35 randomized subjects, 31 (15 metronidazole, 16 placebo) were included in the modified intent-to-treat analysis. There were no significant differences by arm in improvement of HRCT lesions from baseline to 2 or 6 months. More subjects in the metronidazole arm converted their sputum smear (P = 0.04) and liquid culture (P = 0.04) to negative at 1 month, but these differences were lost by 2 months. Overall, 81% showed clinical success 6 months after stopping therapy, with no differences by arm. However, 8/16 (50%) of subjects in the metronidazole group and 2/17 (12%) of those in the placebo group developed peripheral neuropathy. Subjects who received metronidazole were 4.3-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 17.1) more likely to develop peripheral neuropathies than subjects who received placebo. Metronidazole may have increased early sputum smear and culture conversion but was too neurotoxic to use over the longer term. Newer nitroimidazoles with both aerobic and anaerobic activity, now in clinical trials, may increase the sterilizing potency of future treatment regimens. PMID

  10. Meta-analysis of local metronidazole in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Pavia, Maria; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Bianco, Aida; Angelillo, Italo F

    2004-06-01

    Meta-analysis was used to assess the effectiveness of local delivery of metronidazole alone or as an adjunct to mechanical therapy in patients with chronic periodontitis. Studies were identified using MEDLINE and other sources. Meta-analyses were performed on the basis of probing depth (PD) at baseline and experimental and control regimens studied (i.e., metronidazole plus scaling and root planing [SRP] versus SRP and metronidazole versus SRP); the effect of local metronidazole on PD and attachment level (AL) was evaluated for follow-up times of 4, 8, 12, 24, and 36 weeks. The DerSimonian & Laird random effects model was used. Twelve studies that met inclusion criteria were entered into the meta-analysis. A significant mean reduction in PD for the combined metronidazole and SRP was observed in all comparisons with initial PD > or = 4 mm (0.38 mm at 8 weeks to 0.6 mm at 12 weeks); whereas, with initial PD > or = 5 mm a significant mean reduction was observed from 12 weeks (0.29 to 0.48 mm at 24 and 36 weeks, respectively). Meta-analysis could be performed for AL to test the effectiveness of metronidazole as an adjunct to SRP and a significant AL improvement was found in all analyses (0.2 mm at 4 weeks to 0.29 mm at 24 and 36 weeks). Meta-analyses were performed including two to four studies. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness of metronidazole as an adjunct to SRP in the treatment of chronic adult periodontitis, but clinical significance and dissemination of antibiotics should be taken into account in the evaluation of metronidazole as an alternative to SRP.

  11. Comparative Study of Intravaginal Metronidazole and Triple-Sulfa Therapy for Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Chaim, Walter; Thomason, Jessica; Livengood, Charles; Sweet, Richard; McGregor, James A.; Eschenbach, David; Hillier, Sharon; Galask, Rudolph; Faro, Sebastian; Shangle, Elizabeth; Baker, David

    1996-01-01

    Objective: We sought to compare the efficacy of metronidazole gel vs. triple-sulfa cream in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Methods: In a double-blinded study, 247 women with symptomatic BV were randomly assigned to receive either 5 g of 0.75% metronidazole gel twice daily for 5 days or triple-sulfa cream twice daily for 5 days. There were 205 (96 treated with metronidazole and 109 treated with triple-sulfa) evaluable patients to compare efficacy at the final visit. Approximately 60% of these patients had been previously treated for BV, reflecting the recurrent nature of the disease in this patient population. Results: At the first (12–16 days) return visit, 81/103 (79%) patients in the metronidazole group were cured compared with 80/113 (71%) patients in the triple-sulfa cream group (P = 0.333). At the final (28–35 days) return visit, 63/96 (66%) in the 96 metronidazole group remained cured compared with only 51/109 (47%) in the triple-sulfa group (P = 0.02). An intent-to-treat analysis similarly showed that the cure rate with metronidazole was superior to triple-sulfa (P ≤ 0.02). The clinical diagnosis demonstrated a high correlation (88%) with the diagnosis made by an independent assessment by Gram's stain. The side effects reported by the patients using metronidazole gel were infrequent and mild and were similar to those reported with triple-sulfa. Conclusions: Metronidazole gel is a safe, effective, and well-tolerated treatment for BV. PMID:18476069

  12. PHARMACOKINETICS OF A SINGLE DOSE OF METRONIDAZOLE AFTER RECTAL ADMINISTRATION IN CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS).

    PubMed

    Sander, Samantha J; Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Ziegler, Jessie; Lee, Elizabeth; Tell, Lisa; Murray, Suzan

    2016-03-01

    Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole antibacterial and antiprotozoal drug with bacteriocidal activity against a broad range of anaerobic bacteria. It is a recognized treatment for elephants diagnosed with anaerobic bacterial infection or protozoal disease or exhibiting signs of colonic impaction, diarrhea, and colic. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of rectally administered metronidazole (15 mg/kg) in five adult female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Serum samples were collected from each animal for 96 hr after rectal administration of metronidazole. Serum concentrations of metronidazole and its primary metabolite, hydroxymetronidazole, were measured via ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed via a noncompartmental pharmacokinetic approach. Results indicated that serum levels of metronidazole were quantifiable at the 0.25 hr time point and absent in all elephants by the 96 hr time point. The serum peak concentration (mean ± SD, 13.15 ± 2.59 μg/ml) and area under the curve from time 0 to infinity (mean ± SD, 108.79 ± 24.77 hr × μg/ml) were higher than that reported in domestic horses after similar usage. Concurrently, the time of maximum serum concentration (mean ± SD, 1.2 ± 0.45 hr) and terminal elimination half-life (harmonic mean ± pseudo-SD, 7.85 ± 0.93 hr) were longer when compared to equine reports. Rectal administration of metronidazole was well tolerated and rapidly absorbed in all study elephants. Based on the findings in this study, metronidazole administered at a single dose of 15 mg/kg per rectum in the Asian elephant is likely to result in serum concentrations above 4 μg/ml for 8 hr and above 2 μg/ml for 24 hr after treatment is administered. Dosing recommendations should reflect the mean inhibitory concentration of metronidazole for each pathogen.

  13. Potential of bisbenzimidazole-analogs toward metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis isolates.

    PubMed

    Korosh, Travis; Bujans, Emmanuel; Morada, Mary; Karaalioglu, Canan; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Mayence, Annie; Huang, Tien L; Yarlett, Nigel

    2017-10-01

    A bisoxyphenylene-bisbenzimidazole series with increasing aliphatic chain length (CH 2 to C 10 H 20 ) containing a meta- (m) or para (p)-benzimidazole linkage to the phenylene ring was tested for ability to inhibit the growth of metronidazole-susceptible (C1) and metronidazole-refractory (085) Trichomonas vaginalis isolates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Compound 3m, 2,2'-[α,ω-propanediylbis(oxy-1,3-phenylene)]bis-1H-benzimidazole, displayed a 5.5-fold lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) toward T. vaginalis isolate 085 than metronidazole under aerobic growth conditions, (26 μm compared to 145 μm). A dose of 25 mg/kg per day for four days of compound 3m cured a subcutaneous mouse model infection using T. vaginalis isolates 286 (metronidazole susceptible) and 085 (metronidazole refractory). Compound 3m was weakly reduced by pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, but unlike metronidazole was not dependent upon added ferredoxin. It is concluded from structure-activity relationships that there was no obvious trend based on the length of the central aliphatic chain, or the steric position of the bisbenzimidazole enabling prediction of biological activity. The compounds generally fulfill Lipinski's rile of five, indicating their potential as drug leads. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. High Helicobacter pylori resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin in Brazilian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Silvio K; Godoy, Anita P Ortiz; da Silva Patricio, Francy R; Kawakami, Elisabete

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the primary and secondary resistance of Helicobacter pylori strains to clarithromycin, amoxicillin, furazolidone, tetracycline, and metronidazole, the conventional antibiotics presently used in Brazilian children and adolescents. Seventy-seven consecutive H pylori strains, 71 of 77 strains obtained from patients without previous eradication treatment for H pylori infection, and 6 strains from patients in whom previous eradication treatment had failed. Global rate of resistance was 49.3% (38/77): 40% of strains were resistant to metronidazole, 19.5% to clarithromycin, and 10.4% to amoxicillin. All of the tested H pylori strains were susceptible to furazolidone and tetracycline. Multiple resistance were detected in 18.2% (14/77 patients) of the strains: 6 of 14 (43%) simultaneously resistant to clarithromycin and metronidazole; 5 of 14 (36%) to amoxicillin and metronidazole; 2 of 14 (14%) to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and metronidazole; and 1 of 14 (7%) to clarithromycin and amoxicillin. The high resistance rate to metronidazole and clarithromycin observed in clinical H pylori isolates can exclude these antimicrobials in empirical eradication treatment in Brazil. Otherwise, furazolidone and tetracycline presented no resistance. Properly assessing the risks and benefits, these 2 antimicrobials and their derivatives could be used in empirical eradication schedules, both associated with amoxicillin, which showed a low resistance rate despite its wide use in pediatric patients.

  15. Resistance of Helicobacter pylori to tetracycline, amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole in Israeli children and adults.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Avi; Paritsky, Maya; Nasser, Omar; Brodsky, Diana; Glyatman, Tatyana; Segal, Sofia; On, Avi

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine Helicobacter pylori-resistance rate to different antibiotics: tetracycline, amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole, and to compare eradication rates in adults and children in Israel. The study was based on the hypothesis of high-resistance rates to clarithromycin and metronidazole especially in adults and overall low-resistance rates to tetracycline and amoxicillin. One seventy six biopsies from patients with dyspeptic symptoms were cultured of which 100 were from adults (19-79 years) and 76 from children (7-17 years). All positive cultures were examined by Epsilometer test for MIC determination against tetracycline, amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole. 48.3% (85 out of 176) were H. pylori positive, of which 44% were from adults and 54% from children. Antibiotic resistance was seen in 31 out of 44 (70.5%) for metronidazole, 1 out of 44 (2.3%) for amoxicillin, 10 out of 44 (22.3%) for clarithromycin and 1 out of 44 (2.3%) for tetracycline among adults. Antibiotic resistance was seen in 10 out of 41 (24.4%) for metronidazole, 5 out of 41 (12.2%) for amoxicillin, 10 out of 41 (24.4%) for clarithromycin and 1 out of 41 (2.4%) for tetracycline among children. High rates of H. pylori resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin was found especially among adults. Therefore, to increase the success rate of anti-H. pylori treatment, other classes of antibiotics need to be considered.

  16. Desensitization Using Bortezomib and High-dose Immunoglobulin Increases Rate of Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong Cheol; Jambaldorj, Enkthuya; Kwon, Hyuk Yong; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Im, Hye Jin; Jeon, Hee Jung; In, Ji Won; Han, Miyeun; Koo, Tai Yeon; Chung, Junho; Song, Eun Young; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Combination therapy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and rituximab showed a good transplant rate in highly sensitized wait-listed patients for deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT), but carried the risk of antibody-mediated rejection. The authors investigated the impact of a new combination therapy of bortezomib, IVIG, and rituximab on transplantation rate. This study was a prospective, open-labeled clinical trial. The desensitization regimen consisted of 2 doses of IVIG (2 g/kg), a single dose of rituximab (375 mg/m2), and 4 doses of bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2). The transplant rate was analyzed. Anti-Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB antibodies were determined by a Luminex solid-phase bead assay at baseline and after 2, 3, and 6 months in the desensitized patients. There were 19 highly sensitized patients who received desensitization and 17 patients in the control group. Baseline values of class I and II panel reactive antibody (%, peak mean fluorescence intensity) were 83 ± 16.0 (14952 ± 5820) and 63 ± 36.0 (10321 ± 7421), respectively. Deceased donor kidney transplantation was successfully performed in 8 patients (42.1%) in the desensitization group versus 4 (23.5%) in the control group. Multivariate time-varying covariate Cox regression analysis showed that desensitization increased the probability of DDKT (hazard ratio, 46.895; 95% confidence interval, 3.468–634.132; P = 0.004). Desensitization decreased mean fluorescence intensity values of class I panel reactive antibody by 15.5% (20.8%) at 2 months. In addition, a liberal mismatch strategy in post hoc analysis increased the benefit of desensitization in donor-specific antibody reduction. Desensitization was well tolerated, and acute rejection occurred only in the control group. In conclusion, a desensitization protocol using bortezomib, high-dose IVIG, and rituximab increased the DDKT rate in highly sensitized, wait-listed patients. PMID:26844479

  17. Safety of an ED High-Dose Opioid Protocol for Sickle Cell Disease Pain.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Paula; Martinovich, Zoran; Buckley, Barbara; Schmelzer, Annie; Paice, Judith A

    2015-05-01

    A nurse-initiated high dose, opioid protocol for vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) was implemented. Total intravenous morphine sulfate equivalents (IVMSE) in mgs] and safety was evaluated. A medical record review was conducted for all ED visits in adult patients with VOC post protocol implementation. Opioids doses and routes administered during the ED stay, and six hours into the hospital admission were abstracted and total IVMSE administered calculated. Oxygen saturation (SPO2), respiratory rate (RR), administration of naloxone or vasoactive medications, evidence of respiratory arrest, or any other types of resuscitation effort were abstracted. A RR of <10 or SPO2 <92% were coded as abnormal. Descriptive statistics report the total dose. Logistic regression was used to predict abnormal events. Predictors were age, gender, ED dose (10 mg increments) administered, and time from 1st dose to discharge from ED. 72 patients, 603 visits, 276 admitted. The total (ED & hospital dose) mean (95% CI) mg IVMSE administered for all visits was 93 mg (CI 86, 100), ED visit 63 mg (CI 59, 67) and hospital 66 mg (CI 59, 72). The mean (SD) time from administration of 1st analgesic dose to discharge from the ED was 203 (143) minutes, (range = 30-1396 minutes). During two visits, patients experienced a RR <10; while 61 visits were associated with a SPO2 <92%. No medications were administered, or resuscitative measures required. Controlling for demographics and evaluated at the average total ED dose, the longer patients were in the ED, patients were 1.359 times more likely to experience an abnormal vital sign. Controlling for demographics and evaluated at the average total time in the ED, for every 10 mg increase in IVMSE, patients were 1.057 times more likely to experience an abnormal vital sign. The effect of ED dose on the odds of experiencing an abnormal vital sign decreased by a multiplicative factor of 0.0970 for every 1 hour increase in time until discharge. The larger the dose

  18. High-Dose Micafungin for Preterm Neonates and Infants with Invasive and Central Nervous System Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Auriti, Cinzia; Falcone, Marco; Ronchetti, Maria Paola; Goffredo, Bianca Maria; Cairoli, Sara; Crisafulli, Rosamaria; Piersigilli, Fiammetta; Corsetti, Tiziana; Dotta, Andrea; Pai, Manjunath P

    2016-12-01

    High doses of micafungin are advocated in neonates with systemic candidiasis, but limited pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety data are available to support their use. Eighteen preterm neonates and infants with systemic candidiasis, three of whom had meningitis, were treated for at least 14 days with 8 to 15 mg/kg of body weight/day of intravenous micafungin. Plasma micafungin concentrations (four measurements for each patient) were determined after the third dose, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) micafungin concentrations in three patients were also obtained. Population PK analyses were used to identify the optimal model, and the model was further validated using external data (n = 5). The safety of micafungin was assessed by measurement of the levels of liver and kidney function biomarkers. The mean age and weight at the initiation of treatment were 2.33 months (standard deviation [SD], 1.98 months) and 3.24 kg (SD, 1.61 kg), respectively. The optimal PK model was one that scaled plasma clearance to weight and the transaminase concentration ratio. The CSF of three patients was sampled, and the observed concentrations were between 0.80 and 1.80 mg/liter. The model-predicted mean micafungin area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h was 336 mg · h/liter (SD, 165 mg · h/liter) with the 10-mg/kg/day dosage. Eighteen of the 23 subjects (78.2%) had clinical resolution of their infection, but 5 had neurologic impairments. Among the transaminases, alkaline phosphatase measurements were significantly higher posttreatment, with a geometric mean ratio of 1.17 (90% confidence interval, 1.01, 1.37). Furthermore, marked elevations in the gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level were observed in three patients treated with 10- to 15-mg/kg/day doses, and improvement of the GGT level was noted after a dose reduction. Higher weight-based doses of micafungin were generally well tolerated in neonates and infants and achieved pharmacokinetic profiles predictive of an effect

  19. Desensitization Using Bortezomib and High-dose Immunoglobulin Increases Rate of Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong Cheol; Jambaldorj, Enkthuya; Kwon, Hyuk Yong; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Im, Hye Jin; Jeon, Hee Jung; In, Ji Won; Han, Miyeun; Koo, Tai Yeon; Chung, Junho; Song, Eun Young; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-02-01

    Combination therapy of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and rituximab showed a good transplant rate in highly sensitized wait-listed patients for deceased donor kidney transplantation (DDKT), but carried the risk of antibody-mediated rejection. The authors investigated the impact of a new combination therapy of bortezomib, IVIG, and rituximab on transplantation rate.This study was a prospective, open-labeled clinical trial. The desensitization regimen consisted of 2 doses of IVIG (2  g/kg), a single dose of rituximab (375  mg/m), and 4 doses of bortezomib (1.3  mg/m). The transplant rate was analyzed. Anti-Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB antibodies were determined by a Luminex solid-phase bead assay at baseline and after 2, 3, and 6 months in the desensitized patients.There were 19 highly sensitized patients who received desensitization and 17 patients in the control group. Baseline values of class I and II panel reactive antibody (%, peak mean fluorescence intensity) were 83  ±  16.0 (14952  ±  5820) and 63  ±  36.0 (10321  ±  7421), respectively. Deceased donor kidney transplantation was successfully performed in 8 patients (42.1%) in the desensitization group versus 4 (23.5%) in the control group. Multivariate time-varying covariate Cox regression analysis showed that desensitization increased the probability of DDKT (hazard ratio, 46.895; 95% confidence interval, 3.468-634.132; P = 0.004). Desensitization decreased mean fluorescence intensity values of class I panel reactive antibody by 15.5% (20.8%) at 2 months. In addition, a liberal mismatch strategy in post hoc analysis increased the benefit of desensitization in donor-specific antibody reduction. Desensitization was well tolerated, and acute rejection occurred only in the control group.In conclusion, a desensitization protocol using bortezomib, high-dose IVIG, and rituximab increased the DDKT rate in highly sensitized, wait-listed patients.

  20. Abuse liability of intravenous buprenorphine/naloxone and buprenorphine alone in buprenorphine-maintained intravenous heroin abusers

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Sandra D.; Sullivan, Maria A.; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Manubay, Jeanne; Amass, Leslie; Cooper, Ziva D.; Saccone, Phillip; Kleber, Herbert D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sublingual buprenorphine is an effective maintenance treatment for opioid dependence, yet intravenous buprenorphine misuse occurs. A buprenorphine/naloxone formulation was developed to mitigate this misuse risk. This randomized, double-blind, crossover study was conducted to assess the intravenous abuse potential of buprenorphine/naloxone compared with buprenorphine in buprenorphine-maintained injection drug users (IDUs). METHODS Intravenous heroin users (n=12) lived in the hospital for 8–9 weeks and were maintained on each of 3 different sublingual buprenorphine doses (2 mg, 8 mg, 24 mg). Under each maintenance dose, participants completed laboratory sessions during which the reinforcing and subjective effects of intravenous placebo, naloxone, heroin, and low and high doses of buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone were examined. Every participant received each test dose under the 3 buprenorphine maintenance dose conditions. RESULTS Intravenous buprenorphine/naloxone was self-administered less frequently than buprenorphine or heroin (P < 0.0005). Participants were most likely to self-administer drug intravenously when maintained on the lowest sublingual buprenorphine dose. Subjective ratings of “drug liking” and “desire to take the drug again” were lower for buprenorphine/naloxone than for buprenorphine or heroin (P = 0.0001). Participants reported that they would pay significantly less money for buprenorphine/naloxone than for buprenorphine or heroin (P < 0.05). Seven adverse events were reported; most were mild and transient. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that although the buprenorphine/naloxone combination has intravenous abuse potential, it is lower than for buprenorphine alone, particularly when participants received higher maintenance dosages and lower buprenorphine/naloxone challenge doses. Buprenorphine/naloxone may be a reasonable option for managing the risk for buprenorphine misuse during opioid dependence treatment. PMID

  1. Is high-dose misoprostol able to lower the incidence of cesarean section? A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, S; Gilson, G J; Flores, S; Curet, L B; Qualls, C E; Rayburn, W F

    2001-04-01

    To determine whether high-dose (100 microg) misoprostol was able to increase the rate of successful labor induction and lower the incidence of Cesarean section without adverse fetal effects. A total of 360 women were randomized to receive either oxytocin (n = 192) by intravenous infusion, or misoprostol (n = 168) 100 microg intravaginally every 4 h. The Cesarean section rate was the primary end-point. Incidences of uterine and fetal heart rate abnormalities during labor and adverse neonatal outcomes were assessed as secondary end-points. Compared with those women receiving oxytocin, patients given misoprostol had a significantly shortened labor (10.7+/-6.0 vs. 15.4+/-10.4 h, p < 0.001). The Cesarean section rate did not differ between patients receiving misoprostol or oxytocin (36 (21.4%) vs. 38 (19.8%), p = 0.79) despite a sample size adequate to detect a 13 percentage point difference in this outcome. Patients receiving misoprostol had a higher incidence of the hyperstimulation syndrome (27 (16.1%) vs. 9 (4.7%), p < 0.001), and of fetal intolerance of labor as an indication for Cesarean delivery (23 (63.9%) vs. 15 (39.5%), p = 0.06), and had a greater number of umbilical artery cord blood pH findings of< 7.20 (20 (43.5%) vs. 6 (17.1%), p = 0.02). These worrisome trends on interim analysis resulted in our prematurely terminating the study. High-dose intravaginal misoprostol did not reduce the Cesarean section rate and was associated with a greater hazard of fetal intolerance of labor.

  2. High-Dose Vincristine Sulfate Liposome Injection for Advanced, Relapsed, and Refractory Adult Philadelphia Chromosome–Negative Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Susan; Schiller, Gary; Lister, John; Damon, Lloyd; Goldberg, Stuart; Aulitzky, Walter; Ben-Yehuda, Dina; Stock, Wendy; Coutre, Steven; Douer, Dan; Heffner, Leonard T.; Larson, Melissa; Seiter, Karen; Smith, Scott; Assouline, Sarit; Kuriakose, Philip; Maness, Lori; Nagler, Arnon; Rowe, Jacob; Schaich, Markus; Shpilberg, Ofer; Yee, Karen; Schmieder, Guenter; Silverman, Jeffrey A.; Thomas, Deborah; Deitcher, Steven R.; Kantarjian, Hagop

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Relapsed adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is associated with high reinduction mortality, chemotherapy resistance, and rapid progression leading to death. Vincristine sulfate liposome injection (VSLI), sphingomyelin and cholesterol nanoparticle vincristine (VCR), facilitates VCR dose-intensification and densification plus enhances target tissue delivery. We evaluated high-dose VSLI monotherapy in adults with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) –negative ALL that was multiply relapsed, relapsed and refractory to reinduction, and/or relapsed after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Patients and Methods Sixty-five adults with Ph-negative ALL in second or greater relapse or whose disease had progressed following two or more leukemia therapies were treated in this pivotal phase II, multinational trial. Intravenous VSLI 2.25 mg/m2, without dose capping, was administered once per week until response, progression, toxicity, or pursuit of HCT. The primary end point was achievement of complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete hematologic recovery (CRi). Results The CR/CRi rate was 20% and overall response rate was 35%. VSLI monotherapy was effective as third-, fourth-, and fifth-line therapy and in patients refractory to other single- and multiagent reinduction therapies. Median CR/CRi duration was 23 weeks (range, 5 to 66 weeks); 12 patients bridged to a post-VSLI HCT, and five patients were long-term survivors. VSLI was generally well tolerated and associated with a low 30-day mortality rate (12%). Conclusion High-dose VSLI monotherapy resulted in meaningful clinical outcomes including durable responses and bridging to HCT in advanced ALL settings. The toxicity profile of VSLI was predictable, manageable, and comparable to standard VCR despite the delivery of large, normally unachievable, individual and cumulative doses of VCR. PMID:23169518

  3. High Dose Vaginal Misoprostol Versus Concentrated Oxytocin + Low Dose Vaginal Misoprostol for Mid-Trimester Labor Induction: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nuthalapaty, Francis S.; Ramsey, Patrick S.; Biggio, Joseph R.; Owen, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and side effects of a high-dose vaginal misoprostol regimen to concentrated intravenous oxytocin plus low-dose vaginal misoprostol for mid-trimester labor induction. Study Design Women at 14-24 weeks, with obstetric or fetal indications for delivery and no prior cesarean, were randomly assigned to receive either vaginal misoprostol 600 μg ×1, then 400 μg q 4 hr × 5 (Group 1) or escalating-dose concentrated oxytocin infusions (277-1667 mU/min) plus vaginal misoprostol 400 μg × 1, then 200 μg q 6 hr × 2, then 100 μg × 1 (Group 2). Analysis was by intent to treat. Primary outcomes were live birth rate and induction-to-delivery interval. Results The intended sample size was 70 women per group; however, the trial was terminated at the initial interim analysis due to a highly significant difference in one of the primary study outcomes. Twenty women were assigned to Group 1 and 18 were assigned to the Group 2. Median induction-to-delivery interval was significantly shorter in Group 1 (12 hr, range 4 - 44 hr) versus Group 2 (18 hr, range 7 - 36 hr; p=0.01). Induction success rate at 12 hours was significantly higher in the Group 1 (60%), compared to Group 2 (22%, p=.02). No significant difference was noted in the live birth rate between Group 1 and 2 (13%, 0%, p = 0.16). The incidence of retained placenta requiring curettage, chorioamnionitis, intrapartum fever, nausea, emesis, and diarrhea were similar between both groups. Conclusion Compared to concentrated oxytocin plus low-dose vaginal misoprostol, high-dose vaginal misoprostol significantly shortens mid-trimester labor inductions. PMID:16157113

  4. Metronidazole-but not IL-10 or prednisolone-rescues Trichuris muris infected C57BL/6 IL-10 deficient mice from severe disease.

    PubMed

    Kopper, Jamie J; Patterson, Jon S; Mansfield, Linda S

    2015-09-15

    Trichuris muris infected C57BL/6 mice are a frequently studied model of immune mediated resistance to helminths. Our objective was to characterize dose-dependent gastrointestinal (GI) disease and pathology due to Trichuris in C57BL/6 mice with varying degrees of IL-10 sufficiency. These mice can serve as a model for other animals (dogs, cattle) and humans where IL-10 polymorphisms have been associated with disease susceptibility and may affect susceptibility to whipworm. C57BL/6 IL-10(+/+), IL-10(+/-) and IL-10(-/-) mice were infected with T. muris (J strain) in a dose response study. T. muris produced dose-dependent disease in IL-10(-/-) mice. Ninety percent of mice receiving the high dose (75 ova) had severe disease necessitating early euthanasia, while the medium dose (50 ova) resulted in 100% early euthanasia of males/75% of females, and the low dose (25 ova) in 100% early euthanasia of males/25% of females. Having some IL-10 as in heterozygotes did not rescue all infected mice from effects of the high dose. 2/21 IL-10(-/-), 1/17 IL-10(+/-), and 0/17 IL-10(+/+) mice in the high dose group had severe peritonitis and extra-intestinal bacteria confirmed by fluorescent 16S rDNA analysis of peritoneal organ surfaces. Three of twenty one IL-10(-/-) had demonstrable extra-intestinal T. muris adults. Although free from viral pathogens, 12/21 IL-10(-/-), 6/17 IL-10(+/-), and 4/17 IL-10(+/+) infected mice had hepatitis, while control mice of all genotypes did not. Mice had evidence of inflammation of serosal surfaces of liver, spleen and GI tract even when extraintestinal Trichuris were not found. Blinded histopathology scoring revealed that even when infected IL-10(-/-) mice displayed few, if any, clinical signs, levels of gut inflammation did not vary significantly from those mice euthanized early due to severe disease. To examine whether antibiotics or corticosteroids could reverse severe disease and lesions, IL-10(-/-) mice infected with T. muris were treated with

  5. A blinded, randomized controlled trial of high-dose vitamin D supplementation to reduce recurrence of bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Turner, Abigail Norris; Carr Reese, Patricia; Fields, Karen S; Anderson, Julie; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A; Fichorova, Raina N; Roberts, Mysheika Williams; Klebanoff, Mark A; Jackson, Rebecca D

    2014-11-01

    Low serum vitamin D levels have been associated with increased prevalence of the reproductive tract condition bacterial vaginosis (BV). The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on BV recurrence. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial enrolled 118 women with symptomatic BV from an urban sexually transmitted disease clinic (clinicaltrials.gov registration NCT01450462). All participants received 500 mg of oral metronidazole twice daily for 7 days. Intervention participants (n = 59) also received 9 doses of 50,000 IU of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) over 24 weeks; control women (n = 59) received matching placebo. Recurrent BV was assessed via Nugent scoring after 4, 12, and 24 weeks. We assessed the effect of the intervention using an intention-to-treat approach, fitting Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate recurrent BV over the follow-up period. Most participants (74%) were black, with a median age of 26 years. Median presupplementation serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was similar across randomization arms: 16.6 ng/mL in the vitamin D arm and 15.8 ng/mL in the control arm. At trial completion, median 25(OH)D among women receiving vitamin D was 30.5 ng/mL, vs 17.8 ng/mL in control women; 16% of women receiving vitamin D and 57% receiving placebo remained vitamin D deficient (<20 ng/mL). BV prevalence among women randomized to vitamin D was very similar to those randomized to placebo at the 4- and 12-week visits, but by the 24-week visit, BV prevalence was 65% among women in the vitamin D arm and 48% among control women. BV recurrence was not reduced by vitamin D supplementation (intention-to-treat hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.81). Among women experiencing recurrent BV, median time to recurrence was 13.7 weeks in the vitamin D arm and 14.3 weeks in the control arm. Women receiving vitamin D experienced significant increases in serum 25(OH)D, but this increase was not

  6. Metronidazole and Hydroxymetronidazole Central Nervous System Distribution: 2. Cerebrospinal Fluid Concentration Measurements in Patients with External Ventricular Drain

    PubMed Central

    Frasca, Denis; Dahyot-Fizelier, Claire; Adier, Christophe; Mimoz, Olivier; Debaene, Bertrand; Couet, William

    2014-01-01

    This study explored metronidazole and hydroxymetronidazole distribution in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of brain-injured patients. Four brain-injured patients with external ventricular drain received 500 mg of metronidazole over 0.5 h every 8 h. CSF and blood samples were collected at steady state over 8 h, and the metronidazole and hydroxymetronidazole concentrations were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatograph. A noncompartmental analysis was performed. Metronidazole is distributed extensively within CSF, with a mean CSF to unbound plasma AUC0–τ ratio of 86% ± 16%. However, the concentration profiles in CSF were mostly flat compared to the plasma profiles. Hydroxymetronidazole concentrations were much lower than those of metronidazole both in plasma and in CSF, with a corresponding CSF/unbound plasma AUC0–τ ratio of 79% ± 16%. We describe here for the first time in detail the pharmacokinetics of metronidazole and hydroxymetronidazole in CSF. PMID:24277050

  7. Scurvy in an alcoholic patient treated with intravenous vitamins.

    PubMed

    Ong, John; Randhawa, Rabinder

    2014-04-11

    Vitamin C deficiency is rare in developed countries but there is an increased prevalence in chronic alcohol abusers. In the UK, it is common practice to treat patients with chronic alcoholism who are admitted to hospital with intravenous vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and C for 2-3 days, followed by oral thiamine and vitamin B-compound tablets. This is a case of a 57-year-old man with a history of chronic alcoholism and chronic obstructive lung disease who was admitted to the intensive care unit for pneumonia requiring ventilatory support. He was given high doses of intravenous vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and C for 3 days then oral thiamine and vitamin B compound tablets but developed scurvy 4 days later. He was restarted on oral vitamin C supplementation and showed signs of improvement within 3 days of treatment.

  8. Scurvy in an alcoholic patient treated with intravenous vitamins

    PubMed Central

    Ong, John; Randhawa, Rabinder

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C deficiency is rare in developed countries but there is an increased prevalence in chronic alcohol abusers. In the UK, it is common practice to treat patients with chronic alcoholism who are admitted to hospital with intravenous vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and C for 2–3 days, followed by oral thiamine and vitamin B-compound tablets. This is a case of a 57-year-old man with a history of chronic alcoholism and chronic obstructive lung disease who was admitted to the intensive care unit for pneumonia requiring ventilatory support. He was given high doses of intravenous vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and C for 3 days then oral thiamine and vitamin B compound tablets but developed scurvy 4 days later. He was restarted on oral vitamin C supplementation and showed signs of improvement within 3 days of treatment. PMID:24728889

  9. Potential intravenous drug incompatibilities in a pediatric unit.

    PubMed

    Leal, Karla Dalliane Batista; Leopoldino, Ramon Weyler Duarte; Martins, Rand Randall; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra

    2016-01-01

    To investigate potential intravenous drug incompatibilities and related risk factors in a pediatric unit. A cross-sectional analytical study conducted in the pediatric unit of a university hospital in Brazil. Data on prescriptions given to children aged 0-15 years from June to October 2014 were collected. Prescriptions that did not include intravenous drugs and prescriptions with incomplete dosage regimen or written in poor handwriting were excluded. Associations between variables and the risk of potential incompatibility were investigated using the Student's t test and ANOVA; the level of significance was set at 5% (p<0.05). Relative risks were calculated for each drug involved in potential incompatibility with 95% confidence interval. A total of 222 children participated in the study; 132 (59.5%) children were male and 118 (53.2%) were aged between 0 and 2 years. The mean length of stay was 7.7±2.3 days. Dipyrone, penicillin G and ceftriaxona were the most commonly prescribed drugs. At least one potential incompatibility was detected in about 85% of children (1.2 incompatibility/patient ratio). Most incompatibilities detected fell into the non-tested (93.4%), precipitation (5.5%), turbidity (0.7%) or chemical decomposition (0.4%) categories. The number of drugs and prescription of diazepam, phenytoin, phenobarbital or metronidazole were risk factors for potential incompatibility. Most pediatric prescriptions involved potential incompatibilities, with higher prevalence of non-tested incompatibilities. The number of drugs and prescription of diazepam, phenobarbital, phenytoin or metronidazole were risk factors for potential incompatibilities. Avaliar o potencial de incompatibilidade dos medicamentos intravenosos, identificando possíveis fatores de risco em uma unidade pediátrica. Trata-se de um estudo observacional analítico do tipo transversal realizado na unidade de pediatria de um hospital de ensino no Brasil. Os dados foram coletados de junho a outubro de

  10. Lessons learned from administration of high-dose methylprednisolone sodium succinate for acute pediatric spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Michelle C; Daugherty, Margot C; Moody, Suzanne M; Falcone, Richard A; Bierbrauer, Karin S; Geis, Gary L

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) has been studied as a pharmacological adjunct that may be given to patients with acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) to improve neurological recovery. MPSS treatment became the standard of care in adults despite a lack of evidence supporting clinical benefit. More recently, new guidelines from neurological surgeon groups recommended no longer using MPSS for ASCI, due to questionable clinical benefit and known complications. However, little information exists in the pediatric population regarding MPSS use in the setting of ASCI. The aim of this paper was to describe steroid use and side effects in patients with ASCI at the authors' Level 1 pediatric trauma center in order to inform other hospitals that may still use this therapy. METHODS A retrospective chart review was conducted to determine adherence in ordering and delivery according to the guideline of the authors' institution and to determine types and frequency of complications. Inclusion criteria included age < 17 years, blunt trauma, physician concern for ASCI, and admission for ≥ 24 hours or treatment with high-dose intravenous MPSS. Exclusion criteria included penetrating trauma, no documentation of ASCI, and incomplete medical records. Charts were reviewed for a predetermined list of complications. RESULTS A total of 602 patient charts were reviewed; 354 patients were included in the study. MPSS was administered in 59 cases. In 34 (57.5%) the order was placed correctly. In 13 (38.2%) of these 34 cases, MPSS was administered according to the recommended timeline protocol. Overall, only 13 (22%) of 59 patients received the therapy according to protocol with regard to accurate ordering and administration. Among the patients with ASCI, 20 (55.6%) of the 36 who received steroids had complications, which was a significantly higher rate than in those who did not receive steroids (8 [24.2%] of 33, p = 0.008). Among the patients without ASCI, 10 (43.5%) of the 23

  11. Scavenging properties of metronidazole on free oxygen radicals in a skin lipid model system.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sabrina; Hünerbein, Andreas; Getie, Melkamu; Jäckel, Andreas; Neubert, Reinhard H H

    2007-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a vital role in the pathophysiology of the skin disease rosacea, a chronic, genetically-determined and UV-triggered disease, leading to facial redness and blemishes and exhibiting a deep impact on a patient's self-esteem and quality of life. ROS can cause oxidative damage to nucleic acids, sugars, proteins and lipids, thereby contributing to adverse effects on the skin. Metronidazole has been the first-line topical agent therapy for many years; nevertheless the mechanism of action is still not well understood. The therapeutic efficacy of metronidazole has been attributed to its antioxidant effects, which can involve two pathways: decreased generation of ROS within tissues or scavenging and inactivation of existing ROS. Previous investigations have shown that metronidazole reduces ROS by decreasing ROS production in cellular in-vitro systems. The aim of the following study was to demonstrate that metronidazole additionally exhibits antioxidative properties in a cell-free system, by acting as an antioxidant scavenger. A simple skin lipid model (oxidative) system and a complex skin adapted lipid system in conjunction with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test, a quantitative assay for the detection of malondialdehyde (MDA) and therefore lipid peroxidation, were used to determine the antioxidative properties of metronidazole after UV irradiation. Results clearly show that metronidazole has antioxidative properties in a cell-free environment, acting as a free radical scavenger. Simple skin lipid model: in the presence of 10, 100 and 500 microg mL(-1)metronidazole the MDA concentration was reduced by 25, 36 and 49%, respectively. Complex skin lipid system: in the presence of 100 and 500 microg mL(-1)metronidazole the MDA concentration was reduced by 19 and 34%, respectively. The results obtained in this study and from previous publications strongly suggest that metronidazole exhibits antioxidative effects via two mechanisms: decrease in ROS

  12. [Adult-onset Still's disease with pulmonary and cardiac involvement and response to intravenous immunoglobulin].

    PubMed

    Neto, Nilton Salles Rosa; Waldrich, Leandro; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary manifestations of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) include pericarditis, pleural effusion, transient pulmonary infiltrates, pulmonary interstitial disease and myocarditis. Serositis are common but pneumonitis and myocarditis are not and bring elevated risk of mortality. They may manifest on disease onset or flares. Previously reported cases were treated with high-dose glucocorticoids and immunosupressants and, when refractory, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). We report an AOSD patient whose flare presented with severe pleupneumonitis and myopericarditis and, following nonresponse to a methylprednisolone pulse, high dose of prednisone and cyclosporine A, recovered after a 2-day 1g/kg/day IVIG infusion.

  13. [Antimicrobial therapy with nitroheterocyclic compounds, for example, metronidazole and nitrofurantoin].

    PubMed

    Hof, H

    1988-12-01

    Nitroheterocyclic compounds, such as metronidazole and nitrofurantoin, are widely used in medical practice for the treatment of infectious diseases. Indeed, they exhibit a strong antimicrobial effect, which is directed not only against several groups of bacteria but also against certain protozoa and even worms. The nitrogroup coupled onto a heterocyclic structure, for example an imidazole, a thiazole or a furan ring, represents the proper site of effect. A priori the nitrogroup is, however, inactive. It has to be activated by microbial nitroreductases after penetration into the microbial cell. Those microorganisms which possess an anaerobic metabolism exhibit marked nitroreductase activity. The intracellularly produced intermediate products attack the chromosomal DNA of the target cell. Consequently, diverse mutations may occur. Partially, these chromosomal damages can be compensated by an SOS repair mechanism, which is under the control of the uvrB, lexA and polA genes. SOS repair-deficient mutants are much more susceptible to nitrocompounds than repair-proficient strains. Principally, the genotoxic activity of nitrocontaining compounds can also be expressed in eukaryotic cells of human or animal origin. This virtual property does not, however, prohibit clinical use, since until now no evidence of increased cancer incidence has been observed after rational therapy with nitrocompounds.

  14. Metronidazole Decreases Viability of DLD-1 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Sadowska, Anna; Krętowski, Rafał; Szynaka, Beata; Cechowska-Pasko, Marzanna

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of metronidazole (MTZ) on DLD-1 colorectal cancer cell (CRC) line. Toxicity of MTZ was determined by MTT test. Cells were incubated with MTZ used in different concentrations for 24, 48, and 72 hours. The effect of MTZ on DNA synthesis was measured as [3H]-thymidine incorporation. The morphological changes in human DLD-1 cell line were defined by transmission electron microscope OPTON 900. The influence of MTZ on the apoptosis of DLD-1 cell lines was detected by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy, while cell concentration, volume, and diameter were displayed by Scepter Cell Counter from Millipore. Our results show that cell viability was diminished in all experimental groups in comparison with the control, and the differences were statistically significant. We did not find any significant differences in [3H]-thymidine incorporation in all experimental groups and times of observation. Cytofluorimetric assays demonstrated a statistically significant increase of apoptotic rate in MTZ concentrations 10 and 50 μg/mL after 24 hours; 0.1, 10, 50, and 250 μg/mL after 48 hours; and in all concentrations after 72 hours compared with control groups. In the ultrastructural studies, necrotic or apoptotic cells were occasionally seen. In conclusion, MTZ affects human CRC cell line viability. The reduction of cell viability was consistent with the apoptotic test. PMID:23777253

  15. Metronidazole prevents reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in macaques.

    PubMed

    Lin, Philana Ling; Dartois, Veronique; Johnston, Paul J; Janssen, Christopher; Via, Laura; Goodwin, Michael B; Klein, Edwin; Barry, Clifton E; Flynn, Joanne L

    2012-08-28

    Targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli in low-oxygen microenvironments, such as caseous granulomas, has been hypothesized to have the potential to shorten therapy for active tuberculosis (TB) and prevent reactivation of latent infection. We previously reported that upon low-dose M. tuberculosis infection, equal proportions of cynomolgus macaques develop active disease or latent infection and that latently infected animals reactivated upon neutralization of TNF. Using this model we now show that chemoprophylaxis of latently infected cynomolgus macaques with 6 mo of isoniazid (INH) effectively prevented anti-TNF antibody-induced reactivation. Similarly, 2-mo treatment of latent animals with a combination of INH and rifampicin (RIF) was highly effective at preventing reactivation disease in this model. Metronidazole (MTZ), which has activity only against anaerobic, nonreplicating bacteria, was as effective as either of these treatments in preventing reactivation of latent infection. Because hypoxic lesions also occur during active TB, we further showed that addition of MTZ to INH/RIF effectively treated animals with active TB within 2 mo. Healing lesions were associated with distinct changes in cellular pathology, with a shift toward increasingly fibrotic and calcified lesions. Our data in the nonhuman primate model of active and latent TB supports targeting bacteria in hypoxic environments for preventing reactivation of latent infection and possibly shortening the duration of therapy in active TB.

  16. Models describing metronidazole pharmacokinetics in relation to hemodynamics in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Tomasz; Pasławska, Urszula; Poźniak, Błażej; Świtała, Marcin

    2017-06-01

    Linking haemodynamic (HD) and pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters provides much insight into interrelations between circulatory system and drug disposition. This effect is particularly pronounced in rapidly growing animals. Heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) are tightly linked with the animal's age and correlate with the increasing body weight (BW). The aim of this study was to establish and validate the relations between BW, HD and chosen PK parameters of metronidazole (MTZ) and its metabolite - hydroxymetronidazole (MTZ-OH) in growing turkeys. The study was carried out on broiler turkeys (BUT-9, n=26). All individuals were subjected to single dose PK studies four times, that is when the mean BW in the group reached: 1.4 (group A); 2.7 (group B); 5.5 (group C); 10.7kg (group D). Some PK parameters normalized with regard to HR were found to take constant values in all the age groups under investigation. CO↔1/MRT, SV↔1/MRT and SV↔MRT model was validated with regard to both metabolite and drug PK. This study proposed a model for the analysis of the relations HD↔BW and HD↔PK. Models developed in this study provide empirical evidence that HD affect the PK of MTZ and MTZ-OH in a different fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of metronidazole on proopiomelanocortin a gene expression in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoxia; Chen, Xiaowen; Li, Dongliang; Jin, Xia; He, Jiangyan; Yin, Zhan

    2015-04-01

    The Metronidazole (MTZ), a widely used antibiotic for treating variations of infections, recently is applied in a powerful tool for specifically ablating cells or tissues when combined with E. coli nitroreductase (NTR). Although some undesired biological effects on eukaryote cells have been reported previously, the toxicological mechanism of MTZ has not been uncovered yet. In current study, we found that MTZ can induce proopiomelanocortin a (pomca) expression in zebrafish larvae. The effect of MTZ is in stage-sensitive and dose-dependent manner. A pro-proliferation activity of MTZ on pomca-expressing cells in the pituitary at larval stage was also observed. Furthermore, up-regulated levels of prolactin (prl) and glycoprotein hormone subunit α (gsuα) were also observed after the MTZ treatment. Therefore, utilizing our zebrafish as in vivo model, we concluded that MTZ can interfere the endocrine signals in the pituitary hormone genes expression. Our current results raised the cautions to the intensively application of MTZ in clinical practices and biomedical researches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High-dose colistin for microbiologically documented serious respiratory infections associated with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baummannii in critically ill cancer patients: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nazer, Lama H; Rihani, Sweilem; Hawari, Feras I; Le, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggested that high doses of colistin are necessary in the treatment of serious infections. However, few studies have evaluated such treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and nephrotoxicity of high-dose colistin in critically ill patients with respiratory infections associated with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB). This was a retrospective cohort study of critically ill cancer patients who received high-dose intravenous colistin for treatment of CRAB-related respiratory infections. Patients received colistimethate sodium 9 million IU/day or an equivalent dose, adjusted for renal function. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated by determining the microbiological clearance, recurrent and new CRAB-related infections, and mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). Nephrotoxicity was defined according to the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, and end-stage kidney disease) criteria. A total of 89 patients met the inclusion criteria. Microbiological clearance was observed in 51 (66.2%) subjects who had at least 2 follow-up cultures (n = 77). In patients who achieved microbiological clearance, recurrent and new CRAB-related infections occurred in 3 (5.9%) and 9 (17.6%) subjects, respectively. Fifty-seven patients (64%) died in the ICU. Thirty-five (39.3%) subjects developed nephrotoxicity according to the RIFLE criteria, which was classified as risk in 4 (11.4%) subjects, injury in 8 (22.8%) subjects, and failure in 21 (60%) subjects. In critically ill cancer patients, high-dose colistin was associated with microbiological clearance in about two-thirds of the subjects with CRAB-related respiratory infections but mortality was high. A significant portion of patients developed nephrotoxicity while receiving colistin therapy.

  19. Lon protease affects the RdxA nitroreductase activity and metronidazole susceptibility in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tu, I-Fan; Liao, Jiahn-Haur; Yang, Feng-Ling; Lin, Nien-Tsung; Chan, Hong-Lin; Wu, Shih-Hsiung

    2014-10-01

    The lon gene of Helicobacter pylori strains is constitutively expressed during growth. However, virtually nothing is understood concerning the role of Lon in H. pylori. This study examined the function and physiological role of Lon in H. pylori (HpLon) using a trapping approach to identify putative Lon binding partners in the bacterium. Protease-deficient Lon was expressed and served as the bait in trapping approach to capture the interacting partners in H. pylori. The antibiotic susceptibility of wild-type and lon derivative mutants was determined by the E test trips and the disc diffusion assay. The effect of HpLon on RdxA activity was detected the change in NADPH oxidation and metronidazole reduction by spectrophotometer. Lon in Helicobacter pylori (HpLon) interacting partners are mostly associated with metronidazole activation. lon mutant presents more susceptible to metronidazole than that of the wild type, and this phenotype is recovered by complementation of the wild-type Lon. We found that the ATPases associated with a variety of cellular activities (AAA(+) ) module of HpLon causes a decrease in both NADPH oxidase and Mtz reductase activity in RdxA, a major Mtz-activating enzyme in H. pylori. Metronidazole resistance of H. pylori causes the serious medical problem worldwide. In this study, HpLon is involved in metronidazole susceptibility among H. pylori strains. We provide the evidence that HpLon alters RdxA activity in vitro. The decrease in metronidazole activation caused by HpLon is possibly prior to accumulate mutation in rdxA gene before the metronidazole-resistant strains to be occurred. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Intravenous insertion site protection: moisture accumulation in intravenous site protectors.

    PubMed

    Lee, W E; Vallino, L M

    1996-01-01

    Stabilizing the intravenous catheter after insertion is a significant part of intravenous therapy. Dislodgments of the cannula from its optimal position in the vein can lead to complications such as phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, infiltration, and infection. Intravenous site protector shields are designed to protect the catheter from impact and tissue trauma at the insertion site. Nurses have requested ventilation in these shields to avoid moisture build up that may increase the risk of infections. To address this issue, experimental laboratory testing was performed to determine if moisture accumulation as evidenced by increased weight of the shield and visible evidence of condensation occurred. No moisture condensation problems with the ventilated intravenous site protectors were found.

  1. Cyclophosphamide priming reduces intestinal damage in man following high dose melphalan chemotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Selby, P. J.; Lopes, N.; Mundy, J.; Crofts, M.; Millar, J. L.; McElwain, T. J.

    1987-01-01

    A small pre-treatment 'priming' dose of cyclophosphamide will reduce gut damage due to high dose i.v. melphalan in mice and sheep but efforts to demonstrate this effect in man have been hampered by difficulty in the measurement of gut damage. We have evaluated the 51CR EDTA absorption test, a new method for measuring intestinal permeability, as a means of assessing damage due to high dose melphalan. The test was reliable, with a narrow normal range, easy to use and well tolerated. It detected an increase in intestinal permeability after high dose melphalan with a maximum occurring between 9 and 15 days after treatment and subsequently returning to normal. It was shown in 19 patients that a pre-treatment dose of cyclophosphamide was capable of significantly reducing the abnormalities in intestinal permeability which resulted from high dose melphalan. PMID:3111515

  2. An Alternative to the Use of High-Dose Estrogens for Postcoital Contraception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Lee H.

    1979-01-01

    Research is reported on the use of ethinyl estradiol and norgestrel for contraception after intercourse. This treatment is offered as an alternative to high doses of estrogen and appears to be successful in preventing unwanted pregnancies. (JMF)

  3. Intravenous lidocaine infusion.

    PubMed

    Soto, G; Naranjo González, M; Calero, F

    2018-02-26

    Systemic lidocaine used in continuous infusion during the peri-operative period has analgesic, anti-hyperalgesic, as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This makes it capable of reducing the use of opioids and inhalational anaesthetics, and the early return of bowel function, and patient hospital stay. The aim of this narrative review was to highlight the pharmacology and indications for clinical application, along with new and interesting research areas. The clinical applications of peri-operative lidocaine infusion have been reviewed in several recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses in patients undergoing open and laparoscopic abdominal procedures, ambulatory procedures, and other types of surgery. Peri-operative lidocaine infusion may be a useful analgesic adjunct in enhanced recovery protocols. Potential benefits of intravenous lidocaine in chronic post-surgical pain, post-operative cognitive dysfunction, and cancer recurrence are under investigation. Due to its immunomodulation properties over surgical stress, current evidence suggests that intravenous lidocaine could be used in the context of multimodal analgesia. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Successful management of chronic high-output ileostomy with high dose loperamide.

    PubMed

    Mackowski, Alicia; Chen, Han-Kuang; Levitt, Michael

    2015-04-22

    High-stoma output is a common problem that can lead to dehydration and electrolyte disturbance. The following report describes three patients with end ileostomy who had high-stoma outputs where conventional medical management was unsuccessful in controlling stoma output. All three patients responded to high-dose loperamide, resulting in significant clinical improvement. High-dose loperamide therapy should be considered in patients with high-stoma output who have failed conventional medical management. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Successful management of chronic high-output ileostomy with high dose loperamide

    PubMed Central

    Mackowski, Alicia; Chen, Han-Kuang; Levitt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    High-stoma output is a common problem that can lead to dehydration and electrolyte disturbance. The following report describes three patients with end ileostomy who had high-stoma outputs where conventional medical management was unsuccessful in controlling stoma output. All three patients responded to high-dose loperamide, resulting in significant clinical improvement. High-dose loperamide therapy should be considered in patients with high-stoma output who have failed conventional medical management. PMID:25903209

  6. Very High Dose-Rate Radiobiology and Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    Grand Ouest, The Future of Radiation Oncology: Imaging, Dosimetry , Biology & Therapy Workshop; 09/2013 (Oral Presentation). Impact of Very Rapid...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0014 TITLE: Very High Dose-Rate Radiobiology and Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Peter Maxim...TITLE AND SUBTITLE ery High Dose-Rate Radiobiology and Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0014 5c

  7. Effect of high-dose dexamethasone on the outcome of acute encephalitis due to Japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Hoke, C H; Vaughn, D W; Nisalak, A; Intralawan, P; Poolsuppasit, S; Jongsawas, V; Titsyakorn, U; Johnson, R T

    1992-04-01

    Death due to Japanese encephalitis usually occurs in the first 5 days of hospitalization as a result of deepening coma with respiratory arrest. Death may result from edema-induced increases in intracranial pressure that might be reduced by the administration of steroids. Sixty-five patients presenting in Thailand to four hospitals with a diagnosis of acute Japanese encephalitis were randomized in a double-masked fashion and stratified by initial mental status into a placebo group (saline) or a treatment group (dexamethasone 0.6 mg/kg intravenously as a loading dose followed by 0.2 mg/kg every 6 h for 5 days). Fifty-five of the 65 had confirmed Japanese encephalitis as demonstrated by detection of virus or by Japanese encephalitis virus-specific IgM antibody. Important outcome measures included mortality (24%, treatment group; 27%, control group), days to alert mental status (3.9 vs. 6.2), and neurologic status 3 months after discharge (45% abnormal in each group). No statistically significant benefit of high-dose dexamethasone could be detected.

  8. Severe aquaporin 4-IgG-positive neuromyelitis optica with disseminated herpes zoster in a pregnant woman successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yuki; Tsuchiya, Mario; Norshalena, Shakespear; Kaneko, Chikako; Kubo, Jin; Yamamoto, Teiji; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Fujihara, Kazuo

    2018-01-01

    A 26-year-old, 17-week pregnant woman developed aquaporin-4-IgG-positive severe longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis during the course of disseminated herpes zoster and became quadriparetic. She was unresponsive to high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone but became able to walk without assistance after intravenous immunoglobulin. One and a half months later, left optic neuritis developed but her vision improved with intravenous immunoglobulin. The only sequela was left T5 girdle sensation, and she delivered a healthy baby. Intravenous immunoglobulin may be a rescue therapy in aquaporin-4-IgG-positive neuromyelitis optica attacks in pregnant women, especially those with severe infections.

  9. Binding of 3H-metronidazole in olfactory, respiratory and alimentary epithelia in rats.

    PubMed

    Larsson, P; Cybulski, W; Tjälve, H

    1997-08-01

    Whole-body autoradiography of 3H-metronidazole in rats showed retention of bound metabolites in the epithelia lining the olfactory part of the nose, the tongue, the gingiva, the palate, the pharynx, the oesophagus and the forestomach. In vitro microautoradiography in O2- and N2-atmosphere with some of these tissues indicated reductive formation of bound metabolites in specific cells of the epithelia. Studies with subcellular fractions of the nasal olfactory mucosa showed formation of DNA- and protein-bound metronidazole metabolites. A lower bioactivating capacity was found in experiments with the liver. The bioactivation was dependent on N2-atmosphere, and presence of the P450-inhibitor metyrapone or GSH in the incubation media depressed the protein-binding of metronidazole both in the nasal olfactory mucosa and the liver. These data indicate that the bioactivation is partly P450-dependent and GSH may play an important role in scavaging the bioactivated drug. The epithelial cells with a capacity to bioactivate metronidazole may be potential targets for negative effects of the drug. Whole-body autoradiography also showed a strong binding of radioactivity in the contents of caecum and colon. This can be considered to be due to reductive bioactivation of metronidazole by the intestinal microorganisms and reflects the principal site of action of the drug.

  10. The influence of norfloxacin and metronidazole on the disposition of mycophenolate mofetil.

    PubMed

    Naderer, Odin J; Dupuis, Robert E; Heinzen, Erin L; Wiwattanawongsa, Kamonthip; Johnson, Mark W; Smith, Philip C

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of concurrent antibiotic administration on the disposition of mycophenolic acid (MPA) and mycophenolic acid glucuronide (MPAG) after oral administration of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in healthy subjects. Eleven healthy subjects were enrolled. The study was divided into 4 treatment periods. Subjects received MMF as a single oral 1-g dose alone and were then randomized to 3 antibiotic treatment periods. The 3 periods included norfloxacin, metronidazole, and a combination of norfloxacin and metronidazole. Antibiotic treatment was started 3 days prior to each MMF pharmacokinetic study day and was given for a total of 5 days. On day 4 of each antibiotic phase, subjects received a single 1-g oral dose of MMF. Plasma and urine samples were obtained over 48 hours after the MMF dose in all treatment periods and were quantitatively measured for MPA and MPAG. Pharmacokinetic parameters for MPA and MPAG were determined for all periods. Compared to MMF alone, the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) of MPA was reduced by an average of 10%, 19%, and 33% when given with norfloxacin, metronidazole, and norfloxacin plus metronidazole, respectively. The AUC of MPAG was also reduced on average by 10%, 27%, and 41% in the corresponding periods. The combination of norfloxacin and metronidazole significantly reduced the AUC of MPA and MPAG in healthy subjects. This likely occurs as a result of reduced enterohepatic recirculation.

  11. Combinatorial effects of amoxicillin and metronidazole on selected periodontal bacteria and whole plaque samples.

    PubMed

    Kulik Kunz, Eva M; Lenkeit, Krystyna; Waltimo, Tuomas; Weiger, Roland; Walter, Clemens

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze in vitro the combinatorial effects of the antibiotic combination of amoxicillin plus metronidazole on subgingival bacterial isolates. Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Eikenella corrodens from our strain collection and subgingival bacteria isolated from patients with periodontitis were tested for their susceptibility to amoxicillin and metronidazole using the Etest. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI), which is commonly used to describe drug interactions, was calculated. Synergy, i.e. FICI values ≤ 0.5, between amoxicillin and metronidazole was shown for two A. actinomycetemcomitans (FICI: 0.3), two F. nucleatum (FICI: 0.3 and 0.5, respectively) and one E. corrodens (FICI: 0.4) isolates. Indifference, i.e. FIC indices of >0.5 but ≤4, occurred for other isolates and the 14 P. intermedia/nigrescens strains tested. Microorganisms resistant to either amoxicillin or metronidazole were detected in all samples by Etest. Combinatorial effects occur between amoxicillin and metronidazole on some strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans, F. nucleatum and E. corrodens. Synergy was shown for a few strains only. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PAMAM dendrimer generation 5-pluronic F127 nanofilm as a matrix for local metronidazole release.

    PubMed

    Dung, Tran Huu; Do, Le Thanh; Yoo, Hoon

    2013-07-01

    A series of dendrimer G5-pluronic F127 nanofilms (at 1:10, 1:20 and 1:30 mole ratios), loaded with various percent of metronidazole hydrochloride, were prepared by the drug deposition with/without gelatin coating. The nanostructural feature of dendrimer G5-pluronic F127 as a matrix for a sustained drug release was investigated by choosing metronidazole, an antibacterial and antiprotozoal drug as a model drug. The studies on surface morphology, polymer erosion and metronidazole release of the prepared nanofilms revealed unique surface morphology, low film erosion rate and long drug release time. The drug release and the erosion rate of nanofilm were slowed in acidic pH condition and the presence of saliva in medium. The nanofilm of G5-PF127 (1:30 mole ratio) coated with gelatin further prolonged metronidazole release showing G5-PF127 coated with 20% gelatin to be the best suited for a metronidazole release. The nanofilms were stable for up to 9 months at dried condition, while those stored at room temperature with 30% relative humidity were less stable. Our results show that PAMAM dendrimer G5-pluronic F127 nanofilm has a potential to serve as a matrix for the local drug delivery.

  13. Differential effects of Bifidobacterium pseudolongum strain Patronus and metronidazole in the rat gut.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Nadia; Suau, Antonia; Magne, Fabien; Pochart, Philippe; Pélissier, Marie-Agnès

    2009-01-01

    In the luminal contents of metronidazole-treated rats, there was a dominant Bifidobacterium species. A strain has been isolated, its 16S rRNA gene has been sequenced, and the strain has been named Bifidobacterium pseudolongum strain Patronus. In this study, using an experimental model of healthy rats, the effects of metronidazole treatment and B. pseudolongum strain Patronus administration on the luminal and mucosa-associated microbiota and on gut oxidation processes were investigated. Metronidazole treatment and the daily gavage of rats with B. pseudolongum strain Patronus increased the numbers of bifidobacteria in cecal contents and in cecal mucosa-associated microbiota compared with those in control rats. Metronidazole reduced the colonic oxidative damage to proteins. This is the first evidence that B. pseudolongum strain Patronus exerts an effect on a biomarker of oxidative damage by reducing the susceptibility to oxidation of proteins in the colon and the small bowel. Antioxidant effects of metronidazole could be linked to the bifidobacterial increase but also to other bacterial modifications.

  14. Dosing of ceftriaxone and metronidazole for children with severe acute malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Standing, Joseph F; Ongas, Martin O; Ogwang, Caroline; Kagwanja, Nancy; Murunga, Sheila; Mwaringa, Shalton; Ali, Rehema; Mturi, Neema; Timbwa, Moline; Manyasi, Christine; Mwalekwa, Laura; Bandika, Victor L; Ogutu, Bernhards; Waichungo, Joseph; Kipper, Karin; Berkley, James A

    2018-03-25

    Infants and young children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are treated with empiric broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Parenteral ceftriaxone is currently a second-line agent for invasive infection. Oral metronidazole principally targets small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Children with SAM may have altered drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. Population pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone and metronidazole were studied, with the aim of recommending optimal dosing. Eighty-one patients with SAM (aged 2-45 months) provided 234 post-dose pharmacokinetic samples for total ceftriaxone, metronidazole and hydroxymetronidazole. Ceftriaxone protein binding was also measured in 190 of these samples. A 3-compartment model adequately described free ceftriaxone, with a Michaelis-Menten model for concentration and albumin dependent protein binding. A 1-compartment model was used for both metronidazole and hydroxymetronidazole, with only 1% of hydroxymetronidazole predicted to be formed during first-pass. Simulations showed 80 mg/kg once daily of ceftriaxone and 12.5 mg/kg twice daily of metronidazole were sufficient to reach therapeutic targets. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  15. Exposure to Metronidazole In Vivo Readily Induces Resistance in Helicobacter pylori and Reduces the Efficacy of Eradication Therapy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jenks, Peter J.; Labigne, Agnes; Ferrero, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    The Helicobacter pylori SS1 mouse model was used to characterize the development of resistance in H. pylori after treatment with metronidazole monotherapy and to examine the effect of prior exposure to metronidazole on the efficacy of a metronidazole-containing eradication regimen. Mice colonized with the metronidazole-sensitive H. pylori SS1 strain were treated for 7 days with either peptone trypsin broth or the mouse equivalent of 400 mg of metronidazole once a day or three times per day (TID). In a separate experiment, H. pylori-infected mice were administered either peptone trypsin broth or the mouse equivalent of 400 mg of metronidazole TID for 7 days, followed 1 month later by either peptone trypsin broth or the mouse equivalent of 20 mg of omeprazole, 250 mg of clarithromycin, and 400 mg of metronidazole twice a day for 7 days. At least 1 month after the completion of treatment, the mice were sacrificed and their stomachs were cultured for H. pylori. The susceptibilities of isolates to metronidazole were assessed by agar dilution determination of the MICs. Mixed populations of metronidazole-resistant and -sensitive strains were isolated from 70% of mice treated with 400 mg of metronidazole TID. The ratio of resistant to sensitive strains was 1:100, and the MICs for the resistant strains varied from 8 to 64 μg/ml. In the second experiment, H. pylori was eradicated from 70% of mice treated with eradication therapy alone, compared to 25% of mice pretreated with metronidazole (P < 0.01). Mice still infected after treatment with metronidazole and eradication therapy contained mixed populations of metronidazole-resistant and -sensitive isolates in a ratio of 1:25. These results demonstrate that H. pylori readily acquires resistance to metronidazole in vivo and that prior exposure of the organism to metronidazole is associated with failure of eradication therapy. H. pylori-infected mice provide a suitable model for the study of resistance mechanisms in H. pylori

  16. Intravenous immunoglobulin in treatment of cardiac tamponade in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Grenader, Tal; Shavit, Linda

    2004-12-01

    We describe a 23-year-old female patient with a history of systemic lupus erythematosus and pulmonary hypertension who developed a large pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade. Invasive interventions such as pericardial window or pericardiectomy were ruled out because of the posterior localization of the effusion and high risk of general anesthesia in a patient with severe pulmonary hypertension. The patient received high-dose steroids intravenously with no response. A 5-day course of intravenous immunoglobulin resulted in gradual decrease of the pericardial effusion and resolution of cardiac tamponade within 2 weeks.

  17. Intravenous fluids: balancing solutions.

    PubMed

    Hoorn, Ewout J

    2017-08-01

    The topic of intravenous (IV) fluids may be regarded as "reverse nephrology", because nephrologists usually treat to remove fluids rather than to infuse them. However, because nephrology is deeply rooted in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance, IV fluids belong in the realm of our specialty. The field of IV fluid therapy is in motion due to the increasing use of balanced crystalloids, partly fueled by the advent of new solutions. This review aims to capture these recent developments by critically evaluating the current evidence base. It will review both indications and complications of IV fluid therapy, including the characteristics of the currently available solutions. It will also cover the use of IV fluids in specific settings such as kidney transplantation and pediatrics. Finally, this review will address the pathogenesis of saline-induced hyperchloremic acidosis, its potential effect on outcomes, and the question if this should lead to a definitive switch to balanced solutions.

  18. Intravenous Fluid Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John

    2013-01-01

    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in

  19. In-vitro evaluation and vaginal absorption of metronidazole suppositories in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ozyazici, Mine; Turgut, Evren H; Taner, Memduh S; Köseoglu, Kamil; Ertan, Gökhan

    2003-04-01

    Vaginal suppository formulations of metronidazole were prepared using six different bases as Witepsol H15, Cremao, Ovucire WL2944, Ovucire WL3264, PEG 1500, PEG 6000. Three different dissolution methods were used to evaluate the in vitro drug release from the suppositories. The diffusion studies were performed through synthetic (cellophane) and natural membrane (rabbit vagina), but the drug did not show good permeation characteristics from natural membrane. Ovucire WL3264 suppositories of metronidazole labeled with 99mTc (Tecnetium-99m) were used for the vaginal absorption and biodistribution studies in the rabbits. Scintigraphic images were collected after vaginal administration of the labeled suppositories using SPECT gamma fitted with a low energy, high-resolution parallel hole collimator. The labeled drug showed high biodistribution in urine beside vaginal site. The results of this study suggested that the Ovucire WL3264 suppository of metronidazole prepared for vaginal infections could also be effective in the urinary infections.

  20. Development and evaluation of transdermal formulations containing metronidazole and norfloxacin for the treatment of burn wound.

    PubMed

    Pandey, S; Basheer, M; Roy, S; Udupa, N

    1999-05-01

    In an attempt for better treatment of partial thickness burn wounds topical ointments containing metronidazole and norfloxacin in different bases were prepared and in vitro release was conducted in phosphate buffer pH 6. It was found that, diffusion of the metronidazole and norfloxacin from the lanolin petrolatum base with 0.25% w/w dimethyl sulfoxide was maximum through hairless rat abdominal skin. Antimicrobial activity of different prepared formulations was found to be more effective both against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria than marketed formulation (1% silver sulfadiazine cream USP). Formulations were significantly effective as compared to that of marketed formulation in wound contraction of the partial thickness burn wound. Histopathological reports supported effectiveness of formulations. It was found that 1% metronidazole and 1% norfloxacin ointments are suitable for treating the partial thickness burn wound.

  1. A simple reagent-free spectrophotometric assay for monitoring metronidazole therapy in aquarium water.

    PubMed

    Webb, D Harry; Marrero, Cynthia; Ellis, Helen; Merriwether, Lea; Dove, Alistair D M

    2013-09-01

    A reagent-free spectrophotometric assay was developed to measure the concentration of metronidazole (a 5-nitroimidazole) in both freshwater and seawater matrices. This assay is simple, repeatable, sensitive, and precise and is ideal for use when a rapid, selective test to determine metronidazole concentration in aqueous matrices is necessary. The assay was practically tested on a South American fishes display during treatment with metronidazole for an outbreak of the flagellated parasite Spironucleus in a mixed cichlid (family Cichlidae) and tetra (family Characidae) community. The assay clearly illustrated the course of treatment for the system during a real clinical application. The assay is not without limitations, as interferences can occur from other drugs in the matrix with similar absorbance spectra. Nonetheless, this type of assay illustrates the potential for use of native absorbance assays in aqueous matrices for this and other therapeutic compounds.

  2. Evaluation of three different proton pump inhibitors with amoxicillin and metronidazole in retreatment for Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kazunari; Okimoto, Tadayoshi; Kodama, Masaaki; Sato, Ryugo; Watanabe, Koichiro; Fujioka, Toshio

    2008-02-01

    We compared the eradication results of retreatment of eradication with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) plus amoxicillin and metronidazole for patients with Helicobacter pylori infection not eradicated by initial treatment with PPI plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin. In Japan, the guideline proposes that the use of metronidazole in a triple therapy containing PPI, PPI plus amoxicillin and metronidazole is desirable in retreatment. However, there are no reports comparing various retreatment using different PPIs. After initial treatment failure with a PPI plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin, 169 patients were randomized to a PPI (rabeprazole, lansoprazole, or omeprazole) plus amoxicillin and metronidazole given b.i.d. for 7 days. Pretreatment susceptibility testing showed a high level of clarithromycin resistance (78%). The over all eradication rates were similar with the 3 PPIs, 91.1% range 90.1 to 91.4 with intention-to-treat analysis. The presence of metronidazole resistance reduced the eradication rate by approximately 40% (from 96.6% to 57.1%, P<0.05). In Japan, the combination of a PPI plus amoxicillin and metronidazole provide excellent eradication rates after initial treatment failure with a PPI plus amoxicillin and clarithromycin. The results with metronidazole resistant strains are less satisfactory and pretreatment susceptibility testing may become needed if the prevalence of metronidazole resistant H. pylori increase.

  3. Effects of Azithromycin, Metronidazole, Amoxicillin, and Metronidazole plus Amoxicillin on an In Vitro Polymicrobial Subgingival Biofilm Model

    PubMed Central

    Teles, Flavia; Starr, Jacqueline R.; Feres, Magda; Patel, Michele; Martin, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Chronic periodontitis is one of the most prevalent human diseases and is caused by dysbiosis of the subgingival microbiota. Treatment involves primarily mechanical disruption of subgingival biofilms and, in certain cases, adjunctive use of systemic antibiotic therapy. In vitro biofilm models have been developed to study antimicrobial agents targeting subgingival species. However, these models accommodate a limited number of taxa, lack reproducibility, and have low throughput. We aimed to develop an in vitro multispecies biofilm model that mimics subgingival plaque, to test antimicrobial agents. Biofilms were cultivated using the Calgary Biofilm Device and were exposed to amoxicillin (AMX), metronidazole (MTZ), azithromycin (AZM), and AMX-MTZ at four different concentrations for 12, 24, or 36 h. Chlorhexidine (CHX) (0.12%) was used as the positive control. The compositions of the biofilms were analyzed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization, and the percent reduction in biofilm metabolic activity was determined using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and spectrophotometry. Thirty-five of the 40 species used in the inoculum were consistently recovered from the resulting in vitro biofilms. After 36 h of exposure at the 1:27 dilution, AMX-MTZ reduced metabolic activity 11% less than CHX (q = 0.0207) but 54% more than AMX (q = 0.0031), 72% more than MTZ (q = 0.0031), and 67% more than AZM (q = 0.0008). Preliminary evidence of a synergistic interaction between AMX and MTZ was also observed. In summary, we developed reproducible biofilms with 35 subgingival bacterial species, and our results suggested that the combination of AMX and MTZ had greater antimicrobial effects on these in vitro multispecies biofilms than expected on the basis of the independent effects of the drugs. PMID:25733510

  4. Effects of azithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin, and metronidazole plus amoxicillin on an in vitro polymicrobial subgingival biofilm model.

    PubMed

    Soares, Geisla M S; Teles, Flavia; Starr, Jacqueline R; Feres, Magda; Patel, Michele; Martin, Lynn; Teles, Ricardo

    2015-05-01

    Chronic periodontitis is one of the most prevalent human diseases and is caused by dysbiosis of the subgingival microbiota. Treatment involves primarily mechanical disruption of subgingival biofilms and, in certain cases, adjunctive use of systemic antibiotic therapy. In vitro biofilm models have been developed to study antimicrobial agents targeting subgingival species. However, these models accommodate a limited number of taxa, lack reproducibility, and have low throughput. We aimed to develop an in vitro multispecies biofilm model that mimics subgingival plaque, to test antimicrobial agents. Biofilms were cultivated using the Calgary Biofilm Device and were exposed to amoxicillin (AMX), metronidazole (MTZ), azithromycin (AZM), and AMX-MTZ at four different concentrations for 12, 24, or 36 h. Chlorhexidine (CHX) (0.12%) was used as the positive control. The compositions of the biofilms were analyzed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization, and the percent reduction in biofilm metabolic activity was determined using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and spectrophotometry. Thirty-five of the 40 species used in the inoculum were consistently recovered from the resulting in vitro biofilms. After 36 h of exposure at the 1:27 dilution, AMX-MTZ reduced metabolic activity 11% less than CHX (q = 0.0207) but 54% more than AMX (q = 0.0031), 72% more than MTZ (q = 0.0031), and 67% more than AZM (q = 0.0008). Preliminary evidence of a synergistic interaction between AMX and MTZ was also observed. In summary, we developed reproducible biofilms with 35 subgingival bacterial species, and our results suggested that the combination of AMX and MTZ had greater antimicrobial effects on these in vitro multispecies biofilms than expected on the basis of the independent effects of the drugs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. The cocarcinogenic effect of intrarectal deoxycholate in rats is reduced by oral metronidazole.

    PubMed Central

    Rainey, J. B.; Maeda, M.; Williams, C.; Williamson, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Bile acids enhance colorectal carcinogenesis in animals and man, perhaps after degradation by faecal anaerobes. The promotional effect of sodium deoxycholate (SDC) and its relationship to bacteria was examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 115) which had received a 6-week course of azoxymethane (total dose 90 mg kg-1 s.c.) Two groups received 3 X weekly intrarectal (i.r.) instillations of N saline or 0.12 M SDC for 18 weeks. Another group received SDC i.r. plus metronidazole (22.5 mg kg-1) daily in the drinking water. Controls had no instillations or metronidazole alone. By 28 weeks SDC had increased mean colonic crypt depth by 9% (P less than 0.001), and had almost trebled colorectal tumour yields from 2.4 +/- 0.4 per rat (mean +/- s.e.) in controls to 6.4 +/- 0.5 (P less than 0.001). Tumour yields after SDC + metronidazole (4.2 +/- 0.5) remained 75% higher than in controls (P less than 0.01) but were 33% less than after SDC alone (P less than 0.01), and the increase in crypt depth was maintained at 7% (P less than 0.001). Neither metronidazole alone nor saline i.r. had any effect on tumour yield, but metronidazole alone reduced crypt depth by 9% (P less than 0.001). Deoxycholate is a potent cocarcinogen and also stimulates mucosal hyperplasia. Metronidazole reduces its tumour-promoting effect, suggesting that faecal anaerobes are important in bile acid cocarcinogenesis. PMID:6722011

  6. Exploratory Investigation of Bacteroides fragilis Transcriptional Response during In vitro Exposure to Subinhibitory Concentration of Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Michele C. R.; Resende, Juliana A.; Ferreira-Machado, Alessandra B.; Saji, Guadalupe D. R. Q.; de Vasconcelos, Ana T. R.; da Silva, Vânia L.; Nicolás, Marisa F.; Diniz, Cláudio G.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis, member from commensal gut microbiota, is an important pathogen associated to endogenous infections and metronidazole remains a valuable antibiotic for the treatment of these infections, although bacterial resistance is widely reported. Considering the need of a better understanding on the global mechanisms by which B. fragilis survive upon metronidazole exposure, we performed a RNA-seq transcriptomic approach with validation of gene expression results by qPCR. Bacteria strains were selected after in vitro subcultures with subinhibitory concentration (SIC) of the drug. From a wild type B. fragilis ATCC 43859 four derivative strains were selected: first and fourth subcultures under metronidazole exposure and first and fourth subcultures after drug removal. According to global gene expression analysis, 2,146 protein coding genes were identified, of which a total of 1,618 (77%) were assigned to a Gene Ontology term (GO), indicating that most known cellular functions were taken. Among these 2,146 protein coding genes, 377 were shared among all strains, suggesting that they are critical for B. fragilis survival. In order to identify distinct expression patterns, we also performed a K-means clustering analysis set to 15 groups. This analysis allowed us to detect the major activated or repressed genes encoding for enzymes which act in several metabolic pathways involved in metronidazole response such as drug activation, defense mechanisms against superoxide ions, high expression level of multidrug efflux pumps, and DNA repair. The strains collected after metronidazole removal were functionally more similar to those cultured under drug pressure, reinforcing that drug-exposure lead to drastic persistent changes in the B. fragilis gene expression patterns. These results may help to elucidate B. fragilis response during metronidazole exposure, mainly at SIC, contributing with information about bacterial survival strategies under stress conditions in their

  7. Low antibiotic resistance among anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria in periodontitis 5 years following metronidazole therapy.

    PubMed

    Dahlen, G; Preus, H R

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess antibiotic susceptibility among predominant Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontitis patients who 5 years prior had been subject to mechanical therapy with or without adjunctive metronidazole. One pooled sample was taken from the 5 deepest sites of each of 161 patients that completed the 5 year follow-up after therapy. The samples were analyzed by culture. A total number of 85 anaerobic strains were isolated from the predominant subgingival flora of 65/161 patient samples, identified, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility by MIC determination. E-tests against metronidazole, penicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and clindamycin were employed. The 73/85 strains were Gram-negative rods (21 Porphyromonas spp., 22 Prevotella/Bacteroides spp., 23 Fusobacterium/Filifactor spp., 3 Campylobacter spp. and 4 Tannerella forsythia). These were all isolated from the treated patients irrespective of therapy procedures (+/-metronidazole) 5 years prior. Three strains (Bifidobacterium spp., Propionibacterium propionicum, Parvimonas micra) showed MIC values for metronidazole over the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing break point of >4 μg/mL. All Porphyromonas and Tannerella strains were highly susceptible. Metronidazole resistant Gram-negative strains were not found, while a few showed resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics. In this population of 161 patients who had been subject to mechanical periodontal therapy with or without adjunct metronidazole 5 years prior, no cultivable antibiotic resistant anaerobes were found in the predominant subgingival microbiota. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization of metronidazole sustained-release films using D-optimal design.

    PubMed

    Peerapattana, Jomjai; Ngamsupsiri, Teeraphat; Cheucharoenvasuchai, Nopadol; Saikaew, Charnnarong

    2015-04-30

    The aim of this study was to develop sustained-release metronidazole films for periodontal pockets using a computer-aided statistical approach. The studied independent variables were the amount of polycaprolactone, metronidazole, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose and glyceryl monostearate. The response of interest was the cumulative percentage release of metronidazole at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days. The films were prepared using a melt method. The physicochemical properties and release profiles of the films were investigated. Model validation was also performed. The produced films were thin white sheets with a smooth and glossy surface. Each sheet had an average weight of 9.31 ± 0.10mg. The metronidazole was uniformly dispersed in the film, and the percentage of drug loading was 100.12 ± 4.38%. The thickness of the film was 325 ± 5.27 μm. The puncture strength, % elongation and Young's modulus were 11.58 ± 0.51 N/mm(2), 33.51 ± 3.61%, and 0.347 ± 0.02 1N/mm(2), respectively. The actual drug release profiles of the optimal formulation films were close to the predicted responses. Metronidazole was slowly released from the matrices over a period of at least 5 days. The release mechanism of the films followed Fickian diffusion. This study demonstrates that appropriate D-optimal design and optimization techniques can be successfully used in the development of metronidazole sustained-release films. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploratory Investigation of Bacteroides fragilis Transcriptional Response during In vitro Exposure to Subinhibitory Concentration of Metronidazole.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Michele C R; Resende, Juliana A; Ferreira-Machado, Alessandra B; Saji, Guadalupe D R Q; de Vasconcelos, Ana T R; da Silva, Vânia L; Nicolás, Marisa F; Diniz, Cláudio G

    2016-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis , member from commensal gut microbiota, is an important pathogen associated to endogenous infections and metronidazole remains a valuable antibiotic for the treatment of these infections, although bacterial resistance is widely reported. Considering the need of a better understanding on the global mechanisms by which B. fragilis survive upon metronidazole exposure, we performed a RNA-seq transcriptomic approach with validation of gene expression results by qPCR. Bacteria strains were selected after in vitro subcultures with subinhibitory concentration (SIC) of the drug. From a wild type B. fragilis ATCC 43859 four derivative strains were selected: first and fourth subcultures under metronidazole exposure and first and fourth subcultures after drug removal. According to global gene expression analysis, 2,146 protein coding genes were identified, of which a total of 1,618 (77%) were assigned to a Gene Ontology term (GO), indicating that most known cellular functions were taken. Among these 2,146 protein coding genes, 377 were shared among all strains, suggesting that they are critical for B. fragilis survival. In order to identify distinct expression patterns, we also performed a K-means clustering analysis set to 15 groups. This analysis allowed us to detect the major activated or repressed genes encoding for enzymes which act in several metabolic pathways involved in metronidazole response such as drug activation, defense mechanisms against superoxide ions, high expression level of multidrug efflux pumps, and DNA repair. The strains collected after metronidazole removal were functionally more similar to those cultured under drug pressure, reinforcing that drug-exposure lead to drastic persistent changes in the B. fragilis gene expression patterns. These results may help to elucidate B. fragilis response during metronidazole exposure, mainly at SIC, contributing with information about bacterial survival strategies under stress conditions in

  10. A Simple Low-dose X-ray CT Simulation from High-dose Scan.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Dong; Huang, Jing; Bian, Zhaoying; Niu, Shanzhou; Zhang, Hua; Feng, Qianjin; Liang, Zhengrong; Ma, Jianhua

    2015-10-01

    Low-dose X-ray computed tomography (CT) simulation from high-dose scan is required in optimizing radiation dose to patients. In this study, we propose a simple low-dose CT simulation strategy in sinogram domain using the raw data from high-dose scan. Specially, a relationship between the incident fluxes of low- and high- dose scans is first determined according to the repeated projection measurements and analysis. Second, the incident flux level of the simulated low-dose scan is generated by properly scaling the incident flux level of high-dose scan via the determined relationship in the first step. Third, the low-dose CT transmission data by energy integrating detection is simulated by adding a statistically independent Poisson noise distribution plus a statistically independent Gaussian noise distribution. Finally, a filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm is implemented to reconstruct the resultant low-dose CT images. The present low-dose simulation strategy is verified on the simulations and real scans by comparing it with the existing low-dose CT simulation tool. Experimental results demonstrated that the present low-dose CT simulation strategy can generate accurate low-dose CT sinogram data from high-dose scan in terms of qualitative and quantitative measurements.

  11. A Meta-Analysis of High Dose, Intermittent Vitamin D Supplementation among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ya Ting; Cui, Qi Qi; Hong, Yi Min; Yao, Wei Guang

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of intermittent, high dose vitamin D treatment in older adults have not been documented. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of the efficiency of intermittent, high dose vitamin D treatment on falls, fractures, and mortality among older adults. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on high dose, intermittent vitamin D supplementation among older adults. Two researchers independently screened the literature according to specified inclusive and exclusive criteria to extract the data. Meta-analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.1.0 software. Results Nine trials were included in this meta-analysis. High dose, intermittent vitamin D therapy did not decrease all-cause mortality among older adults. The risk ratio (95% CI) was 1.04 (0.91–1.17). No benefit was seen in fracture or fall prevention. The risk ratio for hip fractures (95% CI) was 1.17 (0.97–1.41) while for non-vertebral fractures (95% CI) it was 1.06 (0.91–1.22), and the risk ratio for falls (95% CI) was 1.02 (0.96–1.08). Results remained robust after sensitivity analysis. Conclusion Supplementation of intermittent, high dose vitamin D may not be effective in preventing overall mortality, fractures, or falls among older adults. The route of administration of vitamin D supplements may well change the physiological effects. PMID:25602255

  12. A pilot randomized trial of high-dose caffeine therapy in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Christopher; Neil, Jeffrey J.; Tjoeng, Tiong Han; Pineda, Roberta; Inder, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Standard-dose caffeine improves white matter microstructural development assessed by diffusion MRI. We hypothesized that early high-dose caffeine would result in further improvement in white matter microstructural development. Methods Seventy-four preterm infants (≤30 weeks gestational age) were randomly assigned to either a high (80 mg/kg IV) or standard (20 mg/kg IV) loading dose of caffeine citrate in the first 24 hours of life. MRI and neurobehavioral testing were undertaken at term equivalent age. Infants returned at 2 years of age for developmental testing. Results Clinical characteristics were similar between groups, with the exception of higher maternal age in the high-dose caffeine group. There was an increased incidence of cerebellar hemorrhage in infants randomized to high-dose caffeine (36% vs. 10%, p=0.03). Infants in the high-dose caffeine group also demonstrated more hypertonicity (p=0.02) and more deviant neurologic signs (p=0.04) at term equivalent age. Diffusion measures at term equivalent age and developmental outcomes at two years of age did not differ between groups. Conclusions Preterm infants randomized to early high-dose caffeine had a higher incidence of cerebellar injury with subsequent alterations in early motor performance. The results of this pilot trial discourage a larger randomized controlled trial. PMID:25856169

  13. Influence of high-dose methotrexate therapy on the primordial follicles of the mouse ovary.

    PubMed

    Gol, Mert; Saygili, Ugur; Koyuncuoglu, Meral; Uslu, Turhan

    2009-06-01

    High-dose methotrexate (MTX) is one of the most prescribed agents in many malignant diseases affecting girls and young women of reproductive ages. This animal study directly measures the primordial follicle loss following exposure to high-dose MTX. Nine inbred Balb/c mice aged 7-8 weeks in the study group were administered 5 gr/m(2) MTX as a single agent intraperitoneally, whereas nine mice in the control group received saline. Seven days later the mice were killed and total numbers of the primordial follicles remaining in both ovaries were counted. In the high-dose MTX group, the mean number of primordial follicles (mean +/- standard deviation) was significantly different (202 +/- 38) versus the control group (327 +/- 81.7; P = 0.002). Our study shows that high-dose MTX causes damage to the primordial follicles of the ovaries of mice. This result may be important because young women taking high-dose MTX may suffer diminished reproductive performance and premature cessation of menses in the years following therapy.

  14. High dose vitamin D may improve lower urinary tract symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Johanna; Verelst, Margareta; Jorde, Rolf; Cashman, Kevin; Grimnes, Guri

    2017-10-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common in postmenopausal women, and have been reported inversely associated with vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. The aim of this study was to investigate if high dose vitamin D supplementation would affect LUTS in comparison to standard dose. In a randomized controlled study including 297 postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density, the participants were allocated to receive capsules of 20 000IU of vitamin D 3 twice a week (high dose group) or similar looking placebo (standard dose group). In addition, all the participants received 1g of calcium and 800IU of vitamin D daily. A validated questionnaire regarding LUTS was filled in at baseline and after 12 months. At baseline, 76 women in the high dose group and 82 in the standard dose group reported any LUTS. Levels of serum 25(OH)D increased significantly more in the high dose group (from 64.7 to 164.1nmol/l compared to from 64.1 to 81.8nmol/l, p<0.01). No differences between the groups were seen regarding change in LUTS except for a statistically significant reduction in the reported severity of urine incontinence in the high dose group as compared to the standard dose group after one year (p<0.05). The results need confirmation in a study specifically designed for this purpose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bismuth, lansoprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole or clarithromycin as first-line Helicobacter pylori therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qi; Liang, Xiao; Liu, Wenzhong; Xiao, Shudong; Graham, David Y; Lu, Hong

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of replacing tetracycline with amoxicillin in bismuth quadruple therapy. Subjects who were infected with Helicobacter pylori and naïve to treatment were randomly (1:1) assigned to receive a 14-day modified bismuth quadruple therapy: lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin 1 g, bismuth potassium citrate 220 mg (elemental bismuth), twice a day with metronidazole 400 mg four times a day (metronidazole group) or clarithromycin 500 mg twice a day (clarithromycin group). Six weeks after treatment, H. pylori eradication was assessed by 13C-urea breath test. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by the twofold agar dilution method. This was a non-inferiority trial. Two hundred and fifteen subjects were randomised. Metronidazole and clarithromycin containing regimens achieved high cure rates: 94 of 97 (96.9%, 95% CI 93.5% to 100%) and 93 of 98 (94.9%, 95% CI 90.5% to 99.3%) by per-protocol and 88.9% (95% CI 83.0% to 94.8%) and 88.8% (95% CI 82.8% to 94.8%) by intention-to-treat, respectively. Amoxicillin, metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance rates were 1.5%, 45.5% and 26.5%, respectively. Only clarithromycin resistance reduced treatment success (e.g., susceptible 98.6%, resistant 76.9%, p=0.001). Adverse events were more common in the metronidazole group. These results suggest that amoxicillin can substitute for tetracycline in modified 14 day bismuth quadruple therapy as first-line treatment and still overcome metronidazole resistance in areas with high prevalence of metronidazole and clarithromycin resistance. Using clarithromycin instead of metronidazole was only effective in the presence of susceptible strains. NCT02175901. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Deficiency of the ferrous iron transporter FeoAB is linked with metronidazole resistance in Bacteroides fragilis.

    PubMed

    Veeranagouda, Yaligara; Husain, Fasahath; Boente, Renata; Moore, Jane; Smith, C Jeffrey; Rocha, Edson R; Patrick, Sheila; Wexler, Hannah M

    2014-10-01

    Metronidazole is the most commonly used antimicrobial for Bacteroides fragilis infections and is recommended for prophylaxis of colorectal surgery. Metronidazole resistance is increasing and the mechanisms of resistance are not clear. A transposon mutant library was generated in B. fragilis 638R (BF638R) to identify the genetic loci associated with resistance to metronidazole. Thirty-two independently isolated metronidazole-resistant mutants had a transposon insertion in BF638R_1421 that encodes the ferrous transport fusion protein (feoAB). Deletion of feoAB resulted in a 10-fold increased MIC of metronidazole for the strain. The metronidazole MIC for the feoAB mutant was similar to that for the parent strain when grown on media supplemented with excess iron, suggesting that the increase seen in the MIC of metronidazole was due to reduced cellular iron transport in the feoAB mutant. The furA gene repressed feoAB transcription in an iron-dependent manner and disruption of furA resulted in constitutive transcription of feoAB, regardless of whether or not iron was present. However, disruption of feoAB also diminished the capacity of BF638R to grow in a mouse intraperitoneal abscess model, suggesting that inorganic ferrous iron assimilation is essential for B. fragilis survival in vivo. Selection for feoAB mutations as a result of metronidazole treatment will disable the pathogenic potential of B. fragilis and could contribute to the clinical efficacy of metronidazole. While mutations in feoAB are probably not a direct cause of clinical resistance, this study provides a key insight into intracellular metronidazole activity and the link with intracellular iron homeostasis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Deficiency of the ferrous iron transporter FeoAB is linked with metronidazole resistance in Bacteroides fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Veeranagouda, Yaligara; Husain, Fasahath; Boente, Renata; Moore, Jane; Smith, C. Jeffrey; Rocha, Edson R.; Patrick, Sheila; Wexler, Hannah M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Metronidazole is the most commonly used antimicrobial for Bacteroides fragilis infections and is recommended for prophylaxis of colorectal surgery. Metronidazole resistance is increasing and the mechanisms of resistance are not clear. Methods A transposon mutant library was generated in B. fragilis 638R (BF638R) to identify the genetic loci associated with resistance to metronidazole. Results Thirty-two independently isolated metronidazole-resistant mutants had a transposon insertion in BF638R_1421 that encodes the ferrous transport fusion protein (feoAB). Deletion of feoAB resulted in a 10-fold increased MIC of metronidazole for the strain. The metronidazole MIC for the feoAB mutant was similar to that for the parent strain when grown on media supplemented with excess iron, suggesting that the increase seen in the MIC of metronidazole was due to reduced cellular iron transport in the feoAB mutant. The furA gene repressed feoAB transcription in an iron-dependent manner and disruption of furA resulted in constitutive transcription of feoAB, regardless of whether or not iron was present. However, disruption of feoAB also diminished the capacity of BF638R to grow in a mouse intraperitoneal abscess model, suggesting that inorganic ferrous iron assimilation is essential for B. fragilis survival in vivo. Conclusions Selection for feoAB mutations as a result of metronidazole treatment will disable the pathogenic potential of B. fragilis and could contribute to the clinical efficacy of metronidazole. While mutations in feoAB are probably not a direct cause of clinical resistance, this study provides a key insight into intracellular metronidazole activity and the link with intracellular iron homeostasis. PMID:25028451

  18. Intermittent high-dose treatment with erlotinib enhances therapeutic efficacy in EGFR-mutant lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schöttle, Jakob; Chatterjee, Sampurna; Volz, Caroline; Siobal, Maike; Florin, Alexandra; Rokitta, Dennis; Hinze, Yvonne; Dietlein, Felix; Plenker, Dennis; König, Katharina; Albus, Kerstin; Heuckmann, Johannes M.; Rauh, Daniel; Franz, Thomas; Neumaier, Bernd; Fuhr, Uwe; Heukamp, Lukas C.; Ullrich, Roland T.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with EGFR kinase inhibitors improves progression-free survival of patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancer. However, all patients with initial response will eventually acquire resistance and die from tumor recurrence. We found that intermittent high-dose treatment with erlotinib induced apoptosis more potently and improved tumor shrinkage significantly than the established low doses. In mice carrying EGFR-mutant xenografts intermittent high-dose treatment (200 mg/kg every other day) was tolerable and prolonged progression-free survival and reduced the frequency of acquired resistance. Intermittent EGFR-targeted high-dose schedules induce more profound as well as sustained target inhibition and may afford enhanced therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26540572

  19. Plasma Doping—Enabling Technology for High Dose Logic and Memory Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, T.; Godet, L.; Papasouliotis, G. D.; Singh, V.

    2008-11-01

    As logic and memory device dimensions shrink with each generation, there are more high dose implants at lower energies. Examples include dual poly gate (also referred to as counter-doped poly), elevated source drain and contact plug implants. Plasma Doping technology throughput and dopant profile benefits at these ultra high dose and lower energy conditions have been well established [1,2,3]. For the first time a production-worthy plasma doping implanter, the VIISta PLAD tool, has been developed with unique architecture suited for precise and repeatable dopant placement. Critical elements of the architecture include pulsed DC wafer bias, closed-loop dosimetry and a uniform low energy, high density plasma source. In this paper key performance metrics such as dose uniformity, dose repeatability and dopant profile control will be presented that demonstrate the production-worthiness of the VIISta PLAD tool for several high dose applications.

  20. Surgically (laparotomy/laparoscopy) guided placement of high dose rate interstitial irradiation catheters (LG-HDRT): technique and outcome.

    PubMed

    Orr, James W; Dosoretz, Daniel D; Mahoney, Denyse; Roland, Phillip Y; Kelly, F Joseph; Blitzer, Peter; Nakfoor, Bruce; Katin, Michael; Rubenstein, James; Boothby, R Rusty

    2006-01-01

    To describe and evaluate the technique and the clinical outcome of a new modality for the treatment of women with persistent or recurrent pelvic malignancies utilizing surgically (laparotomy or laparoscopic) guided high dose rate (HDR) catheters to complete high dose rate interstitial irradiation therapy (LG-HDRT). Between 6/2000 and 6/2004, 14 women with histologic evidence of postradiation persistent (3 patients) or recurrent (11 patients) pelvic disease underwent LG-HDRT. Five patients (36%) received treatment for a 2nd, 3rd or 4th recurrence. Preoperative clinical and radiologic evaluation to exclude evidence of extrapelvic disease was routine. Initial intraoperative evaluation included intraabdominal inspection and or biopsy to determine the extent of disease. A two "team" approach was used to place the 100 cm Teflon after loading HDR catheters. Each catheter had its open ends closed with bone wax prior to placement. Using a 14 gauge intravenous catheter as a guide, each HDR catheter was individually placed transvaginally. The tumor bed (treatment volume) was marked circumferentially with clips to facilitate treatment planning. Dosimetry was typically completed on the day of surgery and HDR therapy was started within the initial 24 postoperative hours. The catheters were removed transvaginally, without anesthesia following completion of therapy. Mean patient age was 63.1 years and weight was 138.2 lb. Squamous cell cancer of the vagina or cervix was the most common (64%) diagnosis. The mean time from initial diagnosis to LG-HDRT was 67.9 months. The procedure was completed laparoscopically in 71% of patients, with 4 patients requiring laparotomy (3 conversions from laparoscopy). The mean duration of surgery was 94.9 min and the mean hospital stay was 4.8 days. Only 2 patients (14%) were discharged prior to the completion of therapy. The mean number of catheters placed was 6.1 and the mean dose delivered was 20 Gy over a mean of 5 fractions. There were no major

  1. No Salvage Using High-Dose Chemotherapy Plus/Minus Reirradiation for Relapsing Previously Irradiated Medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Massimino, Maura; Gandola, Lorenza; Spreafico, Filippo

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: Myeloablative regimens were frequently used for medulloblastoma relapsing after craniospinal irradiation (CSI): in 1997-2002, we used repeated surgery, standard-dose and myeloablative chemotherapy, and reirradiation. Methods and Materials: In 10 patients, reinduction included sequential high-dose etoposide, high-dose cyclophosphamide/vincristine, and high-dose carboplatin/vincristine, then two myeloablative courses with high-dose thiotepa ({+-} carboplatin); 6 other patients received two of four courses of cisplatin/etoposide. Hematopoietic precursor mobilization followed high-dose etoposide or high-dose cyclophosphamide or cisplatin/etoposide therapy. After the overall chemotherapy program, reirradiation was prescribed when possible. Results: Seventeen patients were treated: previous treatment included CSI of 19.5-36 Gy with posterior fossa/tumor boost and chemotherapymore » in 16 patients. Fifteen patients were in their first and 2 in their second and third relapses, respectively. First progression-free survival had lasted a median of 26 months. Relapse sites included leptomeninges in 9 patients, spine in 4 patients, posterior fossa in 3 patients, and brain in 1 patient. Three patients underwent complete resection of recurrence, and 10 underwent reirradiation. Twelve of 14 patients with assessable tumor had an objective response after reinduction; 2 experienced progression and were not given the myeloablative courses. Remission lasted a median of 16 months. Additional relapses appeared in 13 patients continuing the treatment. Fifteen patients died of progression and 1 died of pneumonia 13 months after relapse. The only survivor at 93 months had a single spinal metastasis that was excised and irradiated. Survival for the series as a whole was 11-93 months, with a median of 41 months. Conclusions: Despite responses being obtained and ample use of surgery and reirradiation, second-line therapy with myeloablative schedules was not curative, barring a few

  2. In type 1 diabetics, high-dose biotin may compensate for low hepatic insulin exposure, promoting a more normal expression of glycolytic and gluconeogenic enyzymes and thereby aiding glycemic control.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2016-10-01

    In type 1 diabetics, hepatic exposure to insulin is chronically subnormal even in the context of insulin therapy; as a result, expression of glycolytic enzymes is decreased, and that of gluconeogenic enzymes is enhanced, resulting in a physiologically inappropriate elevation of hepatic glucose output. Subnormal expression of glucokinase (GK) is of particular importance in this regard. Possible strategies for correcting this perturbation of hepatic enzyme expression include administration of small molecule allosteric activators of GK, as well as a procedure known as chronic intermittent intravenous insulin therapy (CIIIT); however, side effects accompany the use of GK activators, and CIIIT is time and labor intensive. Alternatively, administration of high-dose biotin has potential for modulating hepatic enzyme expression in a favorable way. Studies in rodents and in cultured hepatocytes demonstrate that, in the context of low insulin exposure, supra-physiological levels of biotin induce increased expression of GK while suppressing that of the key gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. These effects may be a downstream consequence of the fact that biotin down-regulates mRNA expression of FOXO1; insulin's antagonism of the activity of this transcription factor is largely responsible for its modulatory impact on hepatic glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Hence, high-dose biotin may compensate for subnormal insulin exposure by suppressing FOXO1 levels. High-dose biotin also has the potential to oppose hepatic steatosis by down-regulating SREBP-1 expression. Two pilot trials of high-dose biotin (16 or 2mg per day) in type 1 diabetics have yielded promising results. There is also some reason to suspect that high-dose biotin could aid control of diabetic neuropathy and nephropathy via its stimulatory effect on cGMP production. Owing to the safety, good tolerance, moderate expense, and current availability of high-dose biotin, this strategy merits more

  3. High-dose atorvastatin pretreatment could diminishes microvascular impairment in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    He, Gui-Xin; Tan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Objectives High-dose statins pretreatment is reasonable before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to reduce the risk of periprocedural myocardial injury. However, the mechanism underlying this protective effect has not been elucidated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of high-dose atorvastatin pretreatment on microvascular function and myocardial injury after elective PCI. Methods Eighty four patients underwent elective PCI were randomly assigned to high-dose atorvastatin (40 mg/d) and low-dose atorvastatin (20 mg/d) treatment for 7 days before PCI. The index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) was measured by an intracoronary ressure/temperature sensor-tipped guidewire at maximal hyperemia after PCI. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) was measured before and after procedure. Troponin I levels were obtained at baseline and 20–24 h after procedure. Results IMR values were significantly lower in high-dose group when compared to low-dose group (16.5 ± 6.1 vs. 31.2 ± 16.0, P < 0.001). Pre-PCI troponin I levels between the two groups were similar (0.028 ± 0.05 vs. 0.022 ± 0.04, P = 0.55). However, post-PCI troponin I levels in high-dose group were significantly lower than low-dose group (0.11 ± 0.02 vs. 0.16 ± 0.09, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified maximum inflation pressure > 20 atm as an independent predictor of IMR > 32 (Odds ratio (OR): 3.3, 95% confidence intervals (95%CI): 1.3–8.5, P = 0.02). High-dose atorvastatin was the only independent protective factor of IMR > 32 (OR: 0.29, 95%CI: 0.11–0.74, P = 0.01). Conclusions The present study confirmed that diminishing microvascular impairment is one of the mechanism underlying protecting effect of high-dose statins pretreatment from myocardial injury during PCI. These suggest that high-dose statin pretreatment is reasonable in patients undergoing elective PCI. PMID:24454329

  4. Triple therapy with high-dose proton-pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, and doxycycline is useless for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Nuno; Romãozinho, José M; Donato, Maria M; Luxo, Cristina; Cardoso, Olga; Cipriano, Maria A; Marinho, Carol; Sofia, Carlos

    2014-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori resistance to antibiotics is steadily increasing and multidrug-resistant strains are common and difficult to eliminate, mainly in countries where bismuth, tetracycline, furazolidone, and rifabutin are unavailable. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a triple therapy with proton-pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin, and doxycycline in patients with multidrug-resistant H. pylori. This prospective study involved 16 patients (13 females; mean age - 50 ± 11.3 years) infected by H. pylori with known resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin, but susceptibility to amoxicillin and tetracycline. All patients were previously submitted to upper endoscopy with gastric biopsies for H. pylori culture and susceptibility testing by Etest. Mutations in 23S rRNA and gyrA genes were determined by real-time PCR. A 10-day eradication regimen with PPI (double-standard dose b.i.d.), amoxicillin (1000 mg b.i.d.), and doxycycline (100 mg b.i.d.) was prescribed after pretreatment with PPI during 3 days. Eradication success was assessed by (13) C-urea breath test 6-10 weeks after treatment. Compliance and adverse events were determined through phone contact immediately after treatment and specific written questionnaires. Only one patient did not complete treatment due to adverse events. Another four patients experienced mild side effects not affecting compliance. The control (13) C-urea breath test was positive in all patients. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 0%. Although safe, a triple-therapy protocol with high-dose PPI, amoxicillin, and doxycycline is useless for multidrug-resistant H. pylori eradication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Slow subcutaneous infusion of flumazenil for the treatment of long-term, high-dose benzodiazepine users: a review of 214 cases.

    PubMed

    Faccini, Marco; Leone, Roberto; Opri, Sibilla; Casari, Rebecca; Resentera, Chiara; Morbioli, Laura; Conforti, Anita; Lugoboni, Fabio

    2016-10-01

    Despite the first reports concerning benzodiazepine dependence being published in the early 1960s literature, the risk of benzodiazepine addiction is still greatly debated. The severe discomfort and life threatening complications usually experienced by long-term benzodiazepine users who suddenly interrupt benzodiazepine intake have led to the development of several detoxification protocols. A successful strategy used by our Addiction Unit is abrupt benzodiazepine cessation by administering flumazenil slow subcutaneous infusion (FLU-SSI) with an elastomeric pump. Although some studies proved the efficacy of flumazenil infusion more than 20 years ago, only a few centres in the world offer this method to their patients. This paper reports the data related to 214 subjects addicted to high doses of benzodiazepine and treated with the FLU-SSI method between 2012 and 2014. This technique is less invasive and requires less nursing intervention than intravenous infusion. Our data support FLU-SSI as a possible efficient strategy for the treatment of patients with long-term, high-dose benzodiazepine addiction, and could become a routine therapy as long as the necessary further studies on dose, duration of infusion and safety issues are carried out. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. High dose subcutaneous immunoglobulin for idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and dysimmune peripheral chronic neuropathies treatment: observational study of quality of life and tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hachulla, E; Benveniste, O; Hamidou, M; Mouthon, L; Schleinitz, N; Lozeron, P; Léger, J M; Vial, C; Viala, K

    2017-06-01

    In patients with autoimmune diseases who still derive benefit from high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) treatment, some physicians resort to subcutaneous (SC) Ig as a replacement therapy. To collect quality of life (QoL) and tolerance data on SCIg in patients for whom the switch from IVIg to SCIg is essential to maintain treatment. This observational study included patients with either idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) or chronic dysimmune peripheral neuropathies (CDPN) treated with IVIg, who had been switched to SCIg administration for at least three months. The main objective was to describe the impact of SCIg on QoL after six months, using the generic Short-Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36). The secondary objectives were to evaluate SCIg tolerance and clinical efficiency. Eight centres recruited 12 IIM patients and two centres recruited 11 CDPN patients. Neither the physical nor the mental health SF-36 component summaries showed any QoL deterioration during the six-month study period and all IIM and CDPN patients remained clinically stable during the same period. The most frequent adverse effects were injection site reactions (50%), cutaneous tissue disorders (18.2%), and nervous system disorders (13.6%). Two serious adverse events (myocarditis and cerebrovascular accident) occurred in two patients. In these rare inflammatory diseases, high dose SCIg administration (which can be home based) has no deleterious effect on patient QoL. It appears to be a safe and efficient alternative to hospital-based IVIg.

  7. High-dose omeprazole infusion compared with scheduled second-look endoscopy for prevention of peptic ulcer rebleeding: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Philip Wai Yan; Joeng, Henry Kin Ming; Choi, Catherine Lai Yin; Tsoi, Kelvin Kam Fai; Kwong, Kwok Hung; Lam, Siu Ho; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that both scheduled second-look endoscopy and high-dose continuous omeprazole infusion are effective in preventing peptic ulcer rebleeding. The aim of this noninferiority trial was to compare the efficacy of these two strategies for the prevention of rebleeding following primary endoscopic hemostasis. Consecutive patients who received endoscopic treatment for bleeding peptic ulcers (actively bleeding, with nonbleeding visible vessels) were randomized to two treatment groups following hemostasis. One group (second-look endoscopy group) received the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole as an intravenous bolus every 12 hours for 72 hours and a second endoscopy within 16 - 24 hours with retreatment for persistent stigmata of bleeding. The other group (PPI infusion group) received continuous high-dose omeprazole infusion for 72 hours. Patients who developed rebleeding underwent surgery if repeat endoscopic therapy failed. The primary outcome was the rebleeding rate within 30 days after initial hemostasis. The margin for noninferiority was set at 5 %. A total of 153 patients were randomized to the PPI infusion group and 152 to the second-look endoscopy group. Rebleeding occurred within 30 days in 10 patients (6.5 %) in the PPI infusion group and in 12 patients (7.9 %) in the second-look endoscopy group (P = 0.646). Surgery was required for rebleeding in six patients from the PPI infusion group and three patients in the second-look endoscopy group (P = 0.32). Intensive care unit stay, transfusion requirements, and mortality were not different between the groups. Patients in the second-look endoscopy group were discharged 1 day earlier than those in the PPI infusion group (P < 0.001). After endoscopic hemostasis, high-dose PPI infusion was not inferior to second-look endoscopy with bolus PPI in preventing peptic ulcer rebleeding. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT: 00164931). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Randomised clinical trial: high-dose vs. standard-dose proton pump inhibitors for the prevention of recurrent haemorrhage after combined endoscopic haemostasis of bleeding peptic ulcers.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-C; Lee, J-Y; Fang, Y-J; Hsu, S-J; Han, M-L; Tseng, P-H; Liou, J-M; Hu, F-C; Lin, T-l; Wu, M-S; Wang, H-P; Lin, J-T

    2012-04-01

    The optimal dosage of intravenous proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for the prevention of peptic ulcer rebleeding remains unclear. To compare the rebleeding rate of high-dose and standard-dose PPI use after endoscopic haemostasis. A total of 201 patients with bleeding ulcers undergoing endoscopic treatment with epinephrine injection and heater probe thermocoagulation were randomised to receive a high-dose regimen (80 mg bolus, followed by pantoprazole 8 mg/h infusion, n = 100) or a standard-dose regimen (pantoprazole 40 mg bolus daily, n = 101). After 72 h, all patients were given 40 mg pantoprazole daily orally for 27 days. There were no statistical differences in mean units of blood transfused, length of hospitalisation ≦5 days, surgical or radiological interventions and mortality within 30 days between two groups. Bleeding recurred within 30 days in six patients [6.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-11.1%] in the high-dose group, as compared to five patients (5.2%, 95% CI 0.6-9.7%) in the standard-dose group (P = 0.77). The stepwise Cox regression analysis showed end-stage renal disease, haematemesis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (hazard ratio: 37.15, 10.07, 9.12, 95% CI: 6.76-204.14, 2.07-49.01, 1.66-50.00 respectively) were independent risk factors for rebleeding and Helicobacter pylori infection was associated with lower risk of rebleeding (hazard ratio: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.04-0.94). Following combined endoscopic haemostasis of bleeding ulcers, co-morbidities, haematemesis and H. pylori Status, but not PPI dosage, are associated with rebleeding (http://www.Clinical Trials.gov.ID: NCT00709046). © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Blastocystis hominis and the evaluation of efficacy of metronidazole and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Davood Dorostkar; Ghadirian, E; Azami, M

    2005-06-01

    Blastocystis hominis is commonly found in the intestinal tract of humans. Although the pathogenicity of this unicellular parasite is controversial, anti-protozoan agents are usually administered to infected individuals. At present, the first choice of chemotherapeutic agent is Metronidazole as described in the literature. In this study, we evaluated the effects of metronidazole and Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) on persons infected with B.hominis. A total of 104 subjects infected with B. hominis were admitted to the laboratory from 2002 to 2003. All individuals were non-immunocompromised and subjects were monitored for 1 year after treatment. All stool samples were microscopically examined after staining with iodine and by culturing in an egg slant medium. Of the 104 infected individuals (52+/-16 years of age, M:F=60:44) with B. hominis infection, 28 were discharging large numbers of parasites before treatment. Of 28 severely infected individuals, 12 were treated with metronidazole/250-750 mg at a regimen of 3 x/day/10 days and 4 of the 12 were eradicated. Nine individuals were treated with TMP/SMX/1 tab at a regimen of 3 x/day/10 days and 2 of the 9 were eradicated. For severe B. hominis infections, it appears that metronidazole and TMP/SMX are effective in some individuals, but not all.

  10. 78 FR 19271 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Metronidazole Vaginal Gel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... recommendations on the design of bioequivalence (BE) studies to support abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2007-D-0369... Metronidazole Vaginal Gel; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  11. Risk of Development of In Vitro Resistance to Amoxicillin, Clarithromycin, and Metronidazole in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Sörberg, Mikael; Hanberger, Håkan; Nilsson, Maud; Björkman, Anders; Nilsson, Lennart E.

    1998-01-01

    We have studied initial killing, morphological alterations, the frequency of occurrence, and the selective growth of resistant subpopulations of Helicobacter pylori during exposure to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, or metronidazole by bioluminescence assay of intracellular ATP levels, microscopy, and a viable count assay. We found an induction of spheroplasts and a decrease in intracellular ATP levels after 21 h of exposure to high concentrations of amoxicillin. During clarithromycin exposure the onset of a decrease in intracellular ATP levels started after prolonged incubation, and with the highest concentration of clarithromycin an induction of coccoid forms was seen after 68 h. Metronidazole exposure resulted in the strongest initial decrease in intracellular ATP levels, and coccoid forms were seen after 21 h of exposure to high concentrations of metronidazole. Amoxicillin caused a low-level increase in resistant subpopulations, which indicates a need for surveillance of the amoxicillin susceptibility of H. pylori in order to detect decreasing susceptibility. No increase in the numbers of resistant subpopulations was demonstrated during clarithromycin exposure. Metronidazole selected resistant subpopulations, which caused high-level resistance in H. pylori. PMID:9593154

  12. The effect of methylcellulose on metronidazole release from polyacrylic acid hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Musial, Witold

    2007-08-01

    Topical treatment of acne rosacea, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent course for many years, is primarily based on metronidazole preparations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of various acrylic acid polymers, in composition with methylcellulose on metronidazole release rate from hydrogels proposed for the treatment of acne rosacea. Viscosity and release studies using "Paddle over Disk" system with semipermeable membrane of MWCO 3500 were performed. Compositions of Carbopol 971P and methylcellulose revealed an increase in viscosity with increasing concentration of methylcellulose in the range of 17200-26166 mPa.s. In all the examined formulations, the release process was characterized by a two-stage course. Among bipolymeric formulations, the highest first-stage release rate of 9.18 x 10(-3) min(-1) was determined for the gel consisting of 2.00% Carbopol 980NF with 1.00% methylcellulose. The second-stage release rates ranged between 2.88 x 10(-3) and 8.00 x 10(-3) min(-1). Two-stage release course can thus be attributed to metronidazole distribution into two compartments of hydrogel matrix. Proposed gels, with similar rheological properties, may be used for ex vivo and in vivo studies to obtain a suitable drug activity of metronidazole in the treatment of acne rosacea.

  13. Biomimetic sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer with nitroreductase-like activity for metronidazole detection.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yue; Yan, Xiaoyi; Li, Cong; Zheng, Bo; Li, Yaru; Liu, Weilu; Zhang, Zhiquan; Yang, Ming

    2016-03-15

    The utility of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as electrochemical sensor often suffers from its limited catalytic efficiency. Here, we proposed an alternative approach by combining the concept of MIP with the use of mimetic enzyme. A metronidazole imprinted polymer with nitroreductase-like activity was successfully achieved via an electrochemical method, where melamine served two purposes: functional monomer of MIP and component of mimetic enzyme. During the imprinting process, the redox-active center, which is responsible for catalysis, was introduced into the imprinted cavities. Accordingly, the imprinted polymer, having both catalysis centers and recognition sites, exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity and selectivity. The sensing performances of this metronidazole imprinted biomimetic sensor were evaluated in detail. Results revealed that the response to metronidazole was linear in the concentration range of 0.5-1000 μM, and the detection limit was 0.12 μM (S/N=3). In addition, we applied the proposed sensor to detect metronidazole in an injection solution and the results implied its feasibility for practical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A RANDOMIZED TRIAL OF METRONIDAZOLE IN ASYMPTOMATIC BV TO PREVENT ACQUISITION OF STDS

    PubMed Central

    Schwebke, Jane R.; Desmond, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine if treatment of BV decrease the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases. Study Design Women with asymptomatic BV were studied prospectively to determine the effect of treatment of BV for the prevention of STD. Women were randomized to observation or treatment and prophylaxis with intravaginal metronidazole gel. Women were screened monthly for STDs. Results Women randomized to metronidazole gel had a significantly longer time to development of STD compared to women in the observation group (p=0.02). The 6-month STD rate was 1.58/person-year (95% CI 1.29, 1.87) for women in the metronidazole gel group versus 2.29/person-year (95% CI 1.95, 2.63) for women in the observational group. The difference in STD rates was driven by a significant difference in the number of chlamydial infections (0.013). Conclusion Treatment and twice-weekly prophylactic use of intravaginal metronidazole gel resulted in significantly fewer cases of chlamydia. PMID:17547876

  15. A Reprofiled Drug, Auranofin, Is Effective against Metronidazole-Resistant Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Tejman-Yarden, Noa; Miyamoto, Yukiko; Leitsch, David; Santini, Jennifer; Debnath, Anjan; Gut, Jiri; McKerrow, James H.; Reed, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    Giardiasis is one of the most common causes of diarrheal disease worldwide. Treatment is primarily with 5-nitro antimicrobials, particularly metronidazole. Resistance to metronidazole has been described, and treatment failures can occur in up to 20% of cases, making development of alternative antigiardials an important goal. To this end, we have screened a chemical library of 746 approved human drugs and 164 additional bioactive compounds for activity against Giardia lamblia. We identified 56 compounds that caused significant inhibition of G. lamblia growth and attachment. Of these, 15 were previously reported to have antigiardial activity, 20 were bioactive but not approved for human use, and 21 were drugs approved for human use for other indications. One notable compound of the last group was the antirheumatic drug auranofin. Further testing revealed that auranofin was active in the low (4 to 6)-micromolar range against a range of divergent G. lamblia isolates representing both human-pathogenic assemblages A and B. Most importantly, auranofin was active against multiple metronidazole-resistant strains. Mechanistically, auranofin blocked the activity of giardial thioredoxin oxidoreductase, a critical enzyme involved in maintaining normal protein function and combating oxidative damage, suggesting that this inhibition contributes to the antigiardial activity. Furthermore, auranofin was efficacious in vivo, as it eradicated infection with different G. lamblia isolates in different rodent models. These results indicate that the approved human drug auranofin could be developed as a novel agent in the armamentarium of antigiardial drugs, particularly against metronidazole-resistant strains. PMID:23403423

  16. Radiosynthesis and Biodistribution of99mTc-Metronidazole as an Escherichia coli Infection Imaging Radiopharmaceutical.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Anam; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Rasheed, Rashid; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad

    2017-11-02

    Bacterial infection poses life-threatening challenge to humanity and stimulates to the researchers for developing better diagnostic and therapeutic agents complying with existing theranostic techniques. Nuclear medicine technique helps to visualize hard-to-diagnose deep-seated bacterial infections using radionuclide-labeled tracer agents. Metronidazole is an antiprotozoal antibiotic that serves as a preeminent anaerobic chemotherapeutic agent. The aim of this study was to develop technetium-99m-labeled metronidazole radiotracer for the detection of deep-seated bacterial infections. Radiosynthesis of 99m Tc-metronidazole was carried by reacting reduced technetium-99m and metronidazole at neutral pH for 30 min. The stannous chloride dihydrate was used as the reducing agent. At optimum radiolabeling conditions, ~ 94% radiochemical was obtained. Quality control analysis was carried out with a chromatographic paper and instant thin-layer chromatographic analysis. The biodistribution study of radiochemical was performed using Escherichia coli bacterial infection-induced rat model. The scintigraphic study was performed using E. coli bacterial infection-induced rabbit model. The results showed promising accumulation at the site of infection and its rapid clearance from the body. The tracer showed target-to-non-target ratio 5.57 ± 0.04 at 1 h post-injection. The results showed that 99m Tc-MNZ has promising potential to accumulate at E. coli bacterial infection that can be used for E. coli infection imaging.

  17. Comparison of local metronidazole and a local antiseptic in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Novakov Mikic, Aleksandra; Budakov, Dragan

    2010-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a mixed flora of pathogenic anaerobic bacteria and associated with risks of pathologic conditions. In the present study, therapy with a local antiseptic spray (octenidine hydrochloride/phenoxyethanol, OHP) for 7 or 14 days is compared against the standard local therapy of BV (metronidazole) in a Serbian patient population. As much as 450 women were treated in groups with either 7 days metronidazole vaginal tablets, 7 days OHP, or 14 days OHP. Control smears were taken after each treatment period. In total, 63.2% of the women were without indications of BV after therapy (metronidazole: 61.0%, OHP 7 days: 57.6%, and OHP 14 days: 71.0%). Significantly fewer women were affected from infections after treatment with 14 days OHP compared to OHP for 7 days. Octenidine hydrochloride/phenoxyethanol spray was as effective as the standard therapy with metronidazole. Patients stated that OHP was more comfortable, easier to apply, and side effects were lesser.

  18. [A case of acute leukoencephalopathy induced by a combination of 5-fluorouracil and metronidazole].

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Tatsuya; Katada, Fumiaki; Sato, Susumu; Shibayama, Hidehiro; Murayama, Shigeo; Fukutake, Toshio

    2018-02-28

    We describe a 66-year-old woman who received folinic acid, leucovorin, fluorouracil and oxaliplatin for advanced rectal carcinoma. These drugs were initiated on day 1, and a pelvic abscess was identified on day 7. Piperacillin-tazobactam was initially administered, but was changed to ceftriaxone and metronidazole on day 14 on the basis of antimicrobial susceptibility testing. On the following day, the patient reported blindness, and MRI of the brain showed signal abnormalities in the splenium of the corpus callosum on DWI, suggestive of metronidazole encephalopathy. Although the total body exposure was 2 g, metronidazole was discontinued. The patient developed coma a few days later, and MRI of the brain on day 26 showed high signal intensity extensively involving the white matter in the cerebrum as well as the brainstem and cerebellum. She died 37 days after the initial administration of the chemotherapy. Pathological studies demonstrated decreased staining intensity in the myelin sheath and multiple vacuolar alterations, consistent with toxicity induced by metronidazole and fluorouracil. Care should be taken when administering a combination of these drugs, even if the total body exposure to each drug is limited.

  19. Effects of oral administration of metronidazole and doxycycline on olfactory capabilities of explosives detection dogs.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Eileen K; Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Angle, T Craig; Behrend, Ellen N; Moore, George E

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of oral administration of metronidazole or doxycycline on olfactory function in explosives detection (ED) dogs. ANIMALS 18 ED dogs. PROCEDURES Metronidazole was administered (25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 10 days); the day prior to drug administration was designated day 0. Odor detection threshold was measured with a standard scent wheel and 3 explosives (ammonium nitrate, trinitrotoluene, and smokeless powder; weight, 1 to 500 mg) on days 0, 5, and 10. Lowest repeatable weight detected was recorded as the detection threshold. There was a 10-day washout period, and doxycycline was administered (5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 10 days) and the testing protocol repeated. Degradation changes in the detection threshold for dogs were assessed. RESULTS Metronidazole administration resulted in degradation of the detection threshold for 2 of 3 explosives (ammonium nitrate and trinitrotoluene). Nine of 18 dogs had a degradation of performance in response to 1 or more explosives (5 dogs had degradation on day 5 or 10 and 4 dogs had degradation on both days 5 and 10). There was no significant degradation during doxycycline administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Degradation in the ability to detect odors of explosives during metronidazole administration at 25 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours, indicated a potential risk for use of this drug in ED dogs. Additional studies will be needed to determine whether lower doses would have the same effect. Doxycycline administered at the tested dose appeared to be safe for use in ED dogs.

  20. Systemic moxifloxacin vs amoxicillin/metronidazole adjunct to non-surgical treatment in generalized aggressive periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Gurgan, Cem-Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this randomized clinical study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of moxifloxacin compared to amoxicillin and metronidazole, combined with non-surgical treatment in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) in a 6-month follow-up. Material and Methods A total of 39 systemically healthy patients with GAgP were evaluated in this randomized clinical trial. Periodontal parameters were recorded at the baseline during the 1st, 3rd and 6th month. Patients received either 400 mg of moxifloxacin per os once daily or 500 mg of metronidazole and 500 mg amoxicillin per os three times daily for 7 days consecutively. Results No significant differences between groups were found in any parameters at the baseline. Both groups led to a statistically significant decrease in all clinical periodontal parameters compared to the baseline (PI, p<0.001 and GI, PD, BOP, CAL, p<0.01). There were no differences between the 1st and 3rd months or the 3rd and 6th months for clinical parameters in the groups. Also, no intergroup difference was observed in any parameters at any time, except the gingival index at 6th months. Conclusions Systemic administration of moxifloxacin as an adjunct to non-surgical treatment significantly improves clinical outcomes and provides comparable clinical improvement with less adverse events to that of combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole in the treatment of GAgP. Key words: Aggressive periodontitis, amoxicillin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin, nonsurgical periodontal debridement. PMID:26034931

  1. Systemic Metronidazole May Not Reduce Posthemorrhoidectomy Pain: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Wanis, Kerollos Nashat; Emmerton-Coughlin, Heather M; Coughlin, Shaun; Foley, Norine; Vinden, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    Hemorrhoidectomy is associated with significant postoperative pain. Oral metronidazole has been recommended as an adjunct to improve posthemorrhoidectomy analgesia. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of oral metronidazole on patient-reported pain following hemorrhoidectomy. We conducted a systematic search in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. Randomized controlled trials examining adults who underwent surgical hemorrhoidectomy were included. Participants in an active intervention group received oral metronidazole postoperatively, and those in a control group received placebo or usual care. Postoperative pain was assessed for at least 3 days postoperatively. A random-effects model was used. The primary outcome was pain during the first 2 postoperative weeks, measured on a visual analogue scale. The secondary outcome was time to return to normal activities. Patients who received oral metronidazole had significantly lower reported pain scores on postoperative day 1 (standardized mean difference, -0.87 ± 0.44; 95% CI, -1.73 to -0.015; p = 0.046; n = 4) and day 4 (standardized mean difference, -1.43 ± 0.71; 95% CI, -2.83 to -0.037; p = 0.044; n = 3). Metronidazole use was associated with a significantly shorter time to return to normal activities (standardized mean difference, -0.76 ± 0.34; 95% CI, -1.43 to -0.088, p = 0.027). The improvements disappeared in a sensitivity analysis excluding the largest trial with a high risk of bias, and no significance was observed during the remaining postoperative days. The meta-analysis was limited by lack of double blinding, absence of a placebo, and unclear or high risk of bias in a proportion of the included trials. Although a favorable adverse effect profile supports consideration of oral metronidazole to reduce posthemorrhoidectomy pain, pooled analysis reveals inconsistent results with no pain reduction on most postoperative days. The

  2. Reducing surgical site infections after hysterectomy: metronidazole plus cefazolin compared with cephalosporin alone.

    PubMed

    Till, Sara R; Morgan, Daniel M; Bazzi, Ali A; Pearlman, Mark D; Abdelsattar, Zaid; Campbell, Darrell A; Uppal, Shitanshu

    2017-08-01

    Organisms that are isolated from vaginal cuff infections and pelvic abscesses after hysterectomy frequently include anaerobic vaginal flora. Metronidazole has outstanding coverage against nearly all anaerobic species, which is superior to both cefazolin and second-generation cephalosporins. Cefazolin plus metronidazole has been demonstrated to reduce infectious morbidity compared with either cefazolin or second-generation cephalosporins in other clean-contaminated procedures, which include both as colorectal surgery and cesarean delivery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the combination of cefazolin plus metronidazole before hysterectomy was more effective in the prevention of surgical site infection than existing recommendations of cefazolin or second-generation cephalosporin. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients in the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative from July 2012 through February 2015. The primary outcome was surgical site infection. Patients who were >18 years old and who underwent abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic, or robotic hysterectomy for benign or malignant indications were included if they received 1 of the following prophylactic antibiotic regimens: cefazolin, second-generation cephalosporin, or cefazolin plus metronidazole. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was performed to evaluate the independent effect of an antibiotic regimen, and propensity score matching was used to validate the findings. The study included 18,255 hysterectomies. The overall rate of surgical site infection was 1.8% (n=329). The unadjusted rate of surgical site infection was 1.8% (n=267) for cefazolin, 2.1% (n=49) for second-generation cephalosporin, and 1.4% (n=13) for cefazolin plus metronidazole. After adjustment for differences in patient and operative factors among the antibiotic cohorts, compared with cefazolin plus metronidazole, we found the risk of surgical site infection was significantly higher for patients who received

  3. Administration of high-dose interleukin-2 in a 2-year-old with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, M Brooke; Hicks, M John; Pappo, Alberto S

    2009-12-15

    Malignant melanoma is rare in pediatrics, and therapies for patients with disseminated disease have not been well studied. This report describes our experience with the use of high-dose interleukin 2 (aldesleukin, IL-2) in a 2-year-old child with metastatic melanoma and describes our approach for the administration of this agent to young patients. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. High Dose Ascorbate Causes Both Genotoxic and Metabolic Stress in Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Maria Leticia; Carson, Georgia M.; McConnell, Melanie J.; Herst, Patries M.

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that exposure to high dose ascorbate causes double stranded breaks (DSBs) and a build-up in S-phase in glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines. Here we investigated whether or not this was due to genotoxic stress as well as metabolic stress generated by exposure to high dose ascorbate, radiation, ascorbate plus radiation and H2O2 in established and primary GBM cell lines. Genotoxic stress was measured as phosphorylation of the variant histone protein, H2AX, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8OH-dG) positive cells and cells with comet tails. Metabolic stress was measured as a decrease in NADH flux, mitochondrial membrane potential (by CMXRos), ATP levels (by ATP luminescence) and mitochondrial superoxide production (by mitoSOX). High dose ascorbate, ascorbate plus radiation, and H2O2 treatments induced both genotoxic and metabolic stress. Exposure to high dose ascorbate blocked DNA synthesis in both DNA damaged and undamaged cell of ascorbate sensitive GBM cell lines. H2O2 treatment blocked DNA synthesis in all cell lines with and without DNA damage. DNA synthesis arrest in cells with damaged DNA is likely due to both genotoxic and metabolic stress. However, arrest in DNA synthesis in cells with undamaged DNA is likely due to oxidative damage to components of the mitochondrial energy metabolism pathway. PMID:28737676

  5. Effects of high-dose ethanol intoxication and hangover on cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nicole; Gussek, Philipp; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The effects of high-dose ethanol intoxication on cognitive flexibility processes are not well understood, and processes related to hangover after intoxication have remained even more elusive. Similarly, it is unknown in how far the complexity of cognitive flexibility processes is affected by intoxication and hangover effects. We performed a neurophysiological study applying high density electroencephalography (EEG) recording to analyze event-related potentials (ERPs) and perform source localization in a task switching paradigm which varied the complexity of task switching by means of memory demands. The results show that high-dose ethanol intoxication only affects task switching (i.e. cognitive flexibility processes) when memory processes are required to control task switching mechanisms, suggesting that even high doses of ethanol compromise cognitive processes when they are highly demanding. The EEG and source localization data show that these effects unfold by modulating response selection processes in the anterior cingulate cortex. Perceptual and attentional selection processes as well as working memory processes were only unspecifically modulated. In all subprocesses examined, there were no differences between the sober and hangover states, thus suggesting a fast recovery of cognitive flexibility after high-dose ethanol intoxication. We assume that the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) system accounts for the observed effects, while they can hardly be explained by the dopaminergic system. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. [High-dose chemotherapy as a strategy to overcome drug resistance in solid tumors].

    PubMed

    Selle, Frédéric; Gligorov, Joseph; Soares, Daniele G; Lotz, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    The concept of high-doses chemotherapy was developed in the 1980s based on in vitro scientific observations. Exposure of tumor cells to increasing concentrations of alkylating agents resulted in increased cell death in a strong dose-response manner. Moreover, the acquired resistance of tumor cells could be overcome by dose intensification. In clinic, dose intensification of alkylating agents resulted in increased therapeutic responses, however associated with significant hematological toxicity. Following the development of autologous stem cells transplantation harvesting from peripheral blood, the high-doses of chemotherapy, initially associated with marked toxic effects, could be more easily tolerated. As a result, the approach was evaluated in different types of solid tumors, including breast, ovarian and germ cell tumors, small cell lung carcinoma, soft tissue sarcomas and Ewing sarcoma. To date, high-doses chemotherapy with hematopoietic stem cells support is only used as a salvage therapy to treat poor prognosis germ cell tumors patients with chemo-sensitive disease. Regarding breast and ovarian cancer, high-doses chemotherapy should be considered only in the context of clinical trials. However, intensive therapy as an approach to overcome resistance to standard treatments is still relevant. Numerous efforts are still ongoing to identify novel therapeutic combinations and active treatments to improve patients' responses. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential sensitivity of long-sleep and short-sleep mice to high doses of cocaine.

    PubMed

    de Fiebre, C M; Ruth, J A; Collins, A C

    1989-12-01

    The cocaine sensitivity of male and female long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice, which have been selectively bred for differential ethanol-induced "sleep-time," was examined in a battery of behavioral and physiological tests. Differences between these two mouse lines were subtle and were seen primarily at high doses. At high doses, SS mice were more sensitive than LS mice, particularly to cocaine-induced hypothermia; however, significant hypothermia was not seen except at doses which were very near to the seizure threshold. During a 60-min test of locomotor activity, LS mice showed greater stimulation of Y-maze activity by 20 mg/kg cocaine than SS mice. Consistent with the finding of subtle differences in sensitivity to low doses of cocaine. LS and SS mice did not differ in sensitivity to cocaine inhibition of synaptosomal uptake of [3H]-dopamine, [3H]-norepinephrine or [3H]-5-hydroxytryptamine. However, consistent with the finding of differential sensitivity to high doses of cocaine, SS mice were more sensitive to the seizure-producing effects of the cocaine and lidocaine, a local anesthetic. It is hypothesized that the differential sensitivity of these mouse lines to high doses of cocaine is due to differential sensitivity to cocaine's actions on systems that regulate local anesthetic effects. Selective breeding for differential duration of alcohol-induced "sleep-time" may have resulted in differential ion channel structure or function in these mice.

  8. Monthly high dose vitamin D treatment for the prevention of functional decline: a randomized clinical trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Importance: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with poor physical performance. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of high dose vitamin D in lowering the risk of functional decline. Design, Setting, and Participants: One-year double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted in Zurich,...

  9. High doses of systemic corticosteroids in patients hospitalised for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rueda-Camino, J A; Bernal-Bello, D; Canora-Lebrato, J; Velázquez-Ríos, L; García de Viedma-García, V; Guerrero-Santillán, M; Duarte-Millán, M A; Cristóbal-Bilbao, R; Zapatero-Gaviria, A

    2017-12-01

    To assess the effect of high doses of corticosteroids in patients hospitalised for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A prospective cohort study was conducted on patients hospitalized with COPD between January and March 2015, grouped according to the glucocorticoid dosage administered (cutoff, 40mg of prednisone/day). We compared the results of hospital stay, readmission and mortality at 3 months of discharge. We analysed 87 patients. The median daily dose was 60mg of prednisone (interquartile range, 46.67-82.33mg/day), and the administration route was intravenous in 96.6% of the cases. We established a relative risk (RR) for hospital stays longer than 8 days of 1.095 (95% CI 0.597-2.007; P=.765) when steroid dosages greater than 40mg/day were employed. In these patients, the hazard ratio (HR) for readmission in the 3 months after discharge was 0.903 (95% CI 0.392-2.082; P=.811), and the mortality was 1.832 (95% CI 0.229-16.645; P=.568). Neither the RR nor the HR varied in a statistically significant manner after adjusting for confounding factors. A daily dose greater than 40mg of prednisone in patients hospitalised for COPD exacerbation was not associated with a shorter hospital stay or a reduction in readmissions or mortality at 3 months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  10. High-dose Humanin analogue applied during ischemia exerts cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury by reducing mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Thummasorn, Savitree; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2017-10-01

    Although the gold standard treatment for acute myocardial infarction is reperfusion therapy, reperfusion itself can cause myocardial damage via induction of cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. This can lead to increased myocardial infarct size, arrhythmias, and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Recently, a newly discovered peptide, Humanin, has been shown to exert several beneficial effects including antioxidative and antiapoptosis effects. We recently reported that a Humanin analogue (HNG, 84 μg/kg) given prior to cardiac ischemia exerted cardioprotection against I/R injury, but failed to do so when it was given after ischemia was induced. However, in a clinical setting, patients can only be treated after the onset of ischemia. In this study, we investigated the potential benefit of various doses of HNG therapy (84, 168, 252 μg/kg) against myocardial I/R injury when applied during ischemia on cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial infarct size, cardiac mitochondrial function, and LV function. Myocardial I/R injury was induced in rats by 30-minute left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, followed by 120-minute of reperfusion. HNG at the different doses were given intravenously at 15 minutes after ischemic onset and also at the onset of reperfusion. HNG (252 μg/kg) applied during the ischemic period not only increased HN levels in the damaged myocardium, but also significantly decreased cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial infarct size, cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction, and left ventricular dysfunction. These benefits were mediated through the attenuation of cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. High-dose HN applied during ischemia in rats could exert cardioprotection against I/R injury-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The financial impact of increasing home-based high dose haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Frank Xiaoqing; Treharne, Catrin; Culleton, Bruce; Crowe, Lydia; Arici, Murat

    2014-10-02

    Evidence suggests that high dose haemodialysis (HD) may be associated with better health outcomes and even cost savings (if conducted at home) versus conventional in-centre HD (ICHD). Home-based regimens such as peritoneal dialysis (PD) are also associated with significant cost reductions and are more convenient for patients. However, the financial impact of increasing the use of high dose HD at home with an increased tariff is uncertain. A budget impact analysis was performed to investigate the financial impact of increasing the proportion of patients receiving home-based dialysis modalities from the perspective of the England National Health Service (NHS) payer. A Markov model was constructed to investigate the 5 year budget impact of increasing the proportion of dialysis patients receiving home-based dialysis, including both high dose HD at home and PD, under the current reimbursement tariff and a hypothetically increased tariff for home HD (£575/week). Five scenarios were compared with the current England dialysis modality distribution (prevalent patients, 14.1% PD, 82.0% ICHD, 3.9% conventional home HD; incident patients, 22.9% PD, 77.1% ICHD) with all increases coming from the ICHD population. Under the current tariff of £456/week, increasing the proportion of dialysis patients receiving high dose HD at home resulted in a saving of £19.6 million. Conducting high dose HD at home under a hypothetical tariff of £575/week was associated with a budget increase (£19.9 million). The costs of high dose HD at home were totally offset by increasing the usage of PD to 20-25%, generating savings of £40.0 million - £94.5 million over 5 years under the increased tariff. Conversely, having all patients treated in-centre resulted in a £172.6 million increase in dialysis costs over 5 years. This analysis shows that performing high dose HD at home could allow the UK healthcare system to capture the clinical and humanistic benefits associated with this therapy while

  12. Synergic activity, for anaerobes, of trovafloxacin with clindamycin or metronidazole: chequerboard and time-kill methods.

    PubMed

    Ednie, L M; Credito, K L; Khantipong, M; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    2000-05-01

    Chequerboard titrations were used to test the activity of trovafloxacin, alone and in combination with clindamycin or metronidazole, against 156 Gram-positive or Gram-negative anaerobes, including 47 Bacteroides fragilis group, 36 Prevotella spp., 26 fusobacteria, 21 peptostreptococci and 26 clostridia. MIC50/MIC90 values (mg/L) of each drug alone against all 156 strains were: trovafloxacin, 0.5/1; clindamycin, 0.25/2; metronidazole, 1/2. Synergy (FIC indices metronidazole. All other combinations were additive (FIC indices >0. 5-2.0); no antagonism (FIC indices >4.0) was seen. In addition, synergy was tested by time-kill methodology for each of the above combinations against 12 Gram-positive or Gram-negative strains. Results indicated that synergy (defined as a >/= 2 log(10) decrease in cfu/mL at 48 h compared with the more active drug alone) was found between trovafloxacin at or below the MIC and both clindamycin and metronidazole at or below the MIC in one strain each of Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium varium, Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus and Clostridium bifermentans. Synergy between trovafloxacin (metronidazole alone was seen in one strain each of Bacteroides distasonis, Prevotella bivia, Fusobacterium mortiferum, P. asaccharolyticus and C. bifermentans. In many cases of synergy, including those at the trovafloxacin MIC, regrowth after 48 h, which was commonly seen with trovafloxacin alone, was inhibited, and 99.9% killing was observed with the combination after 48 h, but not with trovafloxacin alone.

  13. Effect of Oral Administration of Metronidazole or Prednisolone on Fecal Microbiota in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Koichi; Horigome, Ayako; Odamaki, Toshitaka; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal microbiota have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal disorders in dogs, including acute diarrhea and chronic enteropathy. Metronidazole and prednisolone are commonly prescribed for the treatment of these diseases; however, their effects on gastrointestinal microbiota have not been investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of these drugs on the gastrointestinal microbiota of dogs. Metronidazole was administered twice daily at 12.5 mg/kg to a group of five healthy dogs, and prednisolone at 1.0 mg/kg daily to a second group of five healthy dogs for 14 days. Fecal samples were collected before and after administration (day 0 and 14), and 14 and 28 days after cessation (day 28 and 42). DNA was extracted, and the bacterial diversity and composition of each sample were determined based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences using next-generation sequencing (Illumina MiSeq). In the group administered metronidazole, bacterial diversity indices significantly decreased at day 14, and recovered after the cessation. Principal coordinates analysis and hierarchical dendrogram construction based on unweighted and weighted UniFrac distance matrices revealed that bacterial composition was also significantly altered by metronidazole at day 14 compared with the other time points. The proportions of Bacteroidaceae, Clostridiaceae, Fusobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Turicibacteraceae, and Veillonellaceae decreased, while Bifidobacteriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, and Streptococcaceae increased at day 14 and returned to their initial proportions by day 42. Conversely, no effect of prednisolone was observed on either the bacterial diversity or composition. Reducing pathogenic bacteria such as Fusobacteria and increasing beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium through the administration of metronidazole may be beneficial for promoting gastrointestinal health; however, further

  14. Effect of metronidazole ophthalmic solution on corneal neovascularization in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Claros-Chacaltana, Flor Diana Yokoay; Aldrovani, Marcela; Kobashigawa, Karina Kamachi; Padua, Ivan Ricardo Martinez; Valdetaro, Gisele Pereira; de Barros Sobrinho, Alexandre Augusto Franchi; Abreu, Thaís Guimarães Morato; Laus, José Luiz

    2018-04-26

    To evaluate the effect of metronidazole ophthalmic solutions on corneal neovascularization (CNV) in a rat model. A chemical burn was created in the right central cornea of 40 rats. Animals were randomized and distributed into four study groups (n = 10 rats per group) designated Met_0.1%, Met_0.5%, sham, and untreated groups. Chemical-burned corneas in the Met_0.1% and Met_0.5% groups received ophthalmic solutions of 0.1 and 0.5% metronidazole, respectively. Corneas in the sham group received phosphate-buffered saline (metronidazole diluent). All treated eyes received ophthalmic solution at intervals of 6 h, for up to 30 days. Untreated corneas received no treatment. CNV was evaluated postinjury using corneal photographs at different evaluation time points. The main CNV outcome measures were: burn intensity, index of CNV, and percentage of vascularized corneal area. Five rats from each group were euthanized, on days 15 and 30; the samples were collected for histological analyses. Differences with P < 0.05 were considered significant. CNV was observed in the eyes from day 7 postinjury. However, the indices of CNV for the Met_0.1% and Met_0.5% groups were smaller than those for the sham and untreated groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, corneas treated with 0.1 or 0.5% metronidazole had smaller vascularized areas compared to control corneas. On histological study, the presence of blood vessels confirmed clinical outcomes. Regular instillation of 0.1 or 0.5% metronidazole had a significant inhibitory effect for CNV on chemical burns induced in a rat model.

  15. Primary and secondary clarithromycin, metronidazole, amoxicillin and levofloxacin resistance to Helicobacter pylori in southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Karczewska, Elżbieta; Wojtas-Bonior, Izabela; Sito, Edward; Zwolińska-Wcisło, Małgorzata; Budak, Alicja

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the primary and secondary resistance of H. pylori strains cultured from adult patients of the Małopolska region of Poland, mainly of Kraków and the surrounding areas, to antibacterial agents (amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin). In total, 115 H. pylori strains were isolated, of which 90 strains originated from patients who had never been treated for H. pylori infection, while the remaining 25 were isolated from patients in whom eradication of the infection failed after treatment. All tested H. pylori strains were susceptible to amoxicillin. Forty-four percent of strains isolated were resistant to metronidazole. The primary and secondary resistance to this antimicrobial chemotherapeutic reached 37% and 72% (p = 0.002), respectively. In total, 34% of strains were resistant to clarithromycin, and the ratio of strains with secondary resistance was significantly greater than that of the strains with primary resistance (80% vs. 21%, p < 0.001). The double resistance to both metronidazole and clarithromycin was confirmed in 23% of H. pylori strains. Five percent of H. pylori strains were resistant to levofloxacin, while primary and secondary resistance to this drug accounted for 2% and 16% (p = 0.006), respectively. In total, 4% of H. pylori strains were simultaneously resistant to metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Thus, the high resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin excludes the possibility of using these drugs for treatment of H. pylori infection without earlier antibiogramming. Levofloxacin, as a drug of high efficacy against H. pylori, should be reserved for an "emergency" therapy and used in a limited capacity in order to preserve its potent antimicrobial activity. The Polish Society of Gastroenterology recommends levofloxacin as a third-line therapy.

  16. Impact of therapeutic and high doses of florfenicol on kidney and liver functional indicators in goat.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jan Muhammad; Qureshi, Toufique Ahmed; Shah, Tahmina; Shah, Qurban Ali; Arain, Muhammad Asif; Bhutto, Zohaib Ahmed; Saeed, Muhammad; Siyal, Farman Ali

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of therapeutic and high doses of florfenicol on kidney and liver functional indicators in goat species. Six mature, healthy goats (combine breed and sex) with average weight 25 kg were selected for this study. The therapeutic (20 mg/kg b.w.) and high doses (40 and 60 mg) of florfenicol were administered for 3 days with 24 h interval. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h following the each administered dose. The results showed that the therapeutic dose of florfenicol produced nonsignificant effect on serum urea, creatinine, total protein (TP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and bilirubin on all timings, and increased (p<0.05) the serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) levels for 48 h. Whereas the high doses of florfenicol (40 and 60 mg) significantly altered the kidney and liver functional indicators in the blood. In contrast with control, the serum urea level was (p<0.01) increased at all timing points. Creatinine values were altered (p<0.01, <0.05) in increasing manner from 24 to 96 h. The high dose of 40 mg decreased the TP (p<0.05) for 72 h and 60 mg persisted same effect (p<0.01) up to 120 h. The indices of ALP, GGT, SGOT, and SGPT were raised (p<0.01, <0.05) at all timings. The bilirubin indexes also (p<0.05) elevated from 48 to 72. It was concluded that the high doses of florfenicol produced reversible dose-dependent effects on functional indicators of kidney and liver such as urea, creatinine, TP, ALP, SGOT, SGPT, GGT, and bilirubin.

  17. Impact of therapeutic and high doses of florfenicol on kidney and liver functional indicators in goat

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jan Muhammad; Qureshi, Toufique Ahmed; Shah, Tahmina; Shah, Qurban Ali; Arain, Muhammad Asif; Bhutto, Zohaib Ahmed; Saeed, Muhammad; Siyal, Farman Ali

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of therapeutic and high doses of florfenicol on kidney and liver functional indicators in goat species. Materials and Methods: Six mature, healthy goats (combine breed and sex) with average weight 25 kg were selected for this study. The therapeutic (20 mg/kg b.w.) and high doses (40 and 60 mg) of florfenicol were administered for 3 days with 24 h interval. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h following the each administered dose. Results: The results showed that the therapeutic dose of florfenicol produced nonsignificant effect on serum urea, creatinine, total protein (TP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and bilirubin on all timings, and increased (p<0.05) the serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) levels for 48 h. Whereas the high doses of florfenicol (40 and 60 mg) significantly altered the kidney and liver functional indicators in the blood. In contrast with control, the serum urea level was (p<0.01) increased at all timing points. Creatinine values were altered (p<0.01, <0.05) in increasing manner from 24 to 96 h. The high dose of 40 mg decreased the TP (p<0.05) for 72 h and 60 mg persisted same effect (p<0.01) up to 120 h. The indices of ALP, GGT, SGOT, and SGPT were raised (p<0.01, <0.05) at all timings. The bilirubin indexes also (p<0.05) elevated from 48 to 72. Conclusion: It was concluded that the high doses of florfenicol produced reversible dose-dependent effects on functional indicators of kidney and liver such as urea, creatinine, TP, ALP, SGOT, SGPT, GGT, and bilirubin. PMID:27847425

  18. Adverse reactions to intravenous N-acetylcysteine in Chinese patients with paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chan, T Y; Critchley, J A

    1994-08-01

    The incidence of adverse reactions to intravenous N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was studied in 56 Chinese patients with paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning. Eight (14%) patients developed a skin rash (n = 7) or fever (n = 1) mostly during the initial high dose infusion of the antidote. In four subjects (three with toxic plasma paracetamol levels), the infusion was continued without a worsening of the adverse reaction. NAC was discontinued in the remaining four subjects in whom the paracetamol levels were subsequently found to be non-toxic. Intravenous chlorpheniramine was given to six subjects. All eight subjects completely recovered. In the dose that is recommended for the treatment of acute paracetamol poisoning, intravenous NAC is generally safe in Chinese but mild side effects are common. We recommend that the initial loading dose is given over 60 rather than 15 min.

  19. Mutations of the Helicobacter pylori Genes rdxA and pbp1 Cause Resistance against Metronidazole and Amoxicillin

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Ralf; Postius, Stefan; Melchers, Klaus; Schäfer, Klaus P.

    2001-01-01

    To investigate amoxicillin and metronidazole resistance of Helicobacter pylori, we compared putative resistance genes between resistant strains obtained in vitro and their sensitive parent strain. All metronidazole-resistant strains had rdxA mutations, and an amoxicillin-resistant strain had pbp1 and pbp2 mutations. By transforming PCR products of these mutated genes into antibiotic-sensitive strains, we showed that rdxA null mutations were sufficient for metronidazole resistance, while pbp1 mutations contributed to amoxicillin resistance of H. pylori. PMID:11181392

  20. Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Megan L.; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this “off-label” application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended. PMID:24955100

  1. Novel oxytocin receptor variants in laboring women requiring high doses of oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Reinl, Erin L; Goodwin, Zane A; Raghuraman, Nandini; Lee, Grace Y; Jo, Erin Y; Gezahegn, Beakal M; Pillai, Meghan K; Cahill, Alison G; de Guzman Strong, Cristina; England, Sarah K

    2017-08-01

    Although oxytocin commonly is used to augment or induce labor, it is difficult to predict its effectiveness because oxytocin dose requirements vary significantly among women. One possibility is that women requiring high or low doses of oxytocin have variations in the oxytocin receptor gene. To identify oxytocin receptor gene variants in laboring women with low and high oxytocin dosage requirements. Term, nulliparous women requiring oxytocin doses of ≤4 mU/min (low-dose-requiring, n = 83) or ≥20 mU/min (high-dose-requiring, n = 104) for labor augmentation or induction provided consent to a postpartum blood draw as a source of genomic DNA. Targeted-amplicon sequencing (coverage >30×) with MiSeq (Illumina) was performed to discover variants in the coding exons of the oxytocin receptor gene. Baseline relevant clinical history, outcomes, demographics, and oxytocin receptor gene sequence variants and their allele frequencies were compared between low-dose-requiring and high-dose-requiring women. The Scale-Invariant Feature Transform algorithm was used to predict the effect of variants on oxytocin receptor function. The Fisher exact or χ 2 tests were used for categorical variables, and Student t tests or Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used for continuous variables. A P value < .05 was considered statistically significant. The high-dose-requiring women had greater rates of obesity and diabetes and were more likely to have undergone labor induction and required prostaglandins. High-dose-requiring women were more likely to undergo cesarean delivery for first-stage arrest and less likely to undergo cesarean delivery for nonreassuring fetal status. Targeted sequencing of the oxytocin receptor gene in the total cohort (n = 187) revealed 30 distinct coding variants: 17 nonsynonymous, 11 synonymous, and 2 small structural variants. One novel variant (A243T) was found in both the low- and high-dose-requiring groups. Three novel variants (Y106H, A240_A249del, and P197

  2. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in therapy-resistant epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

    PubMed

    Kofler, H; Wambacher-Gasser, B; Topar, G; Weinlich, G; Schuler, G; Hintner, H; Romani, N; Fritsch, P

    1997-02-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita is an uncommon autoimmune bullous disease of the skin and mucous membranes. It is chronic, disabling, and difficult to treat. We describe a case of severe epidermolysis bullosa acquisita of 7 years' duration that had been treated with azathioprine, corticosteroids, chlorambucil, plasma exchanges, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, and colchicine without any lasting effect. Seven cycles of treatment were administered with immunoglobulin given intravenously at a low dose, 40 mg/kg body weight daily for 5 days. The patient was free of disease for 10 months after the initiation of therapy. We suggest that low-dose regimens of immunoglobulins may be as effective in this disease as the high-dose regimens suggested in the literature, and at much lower cost.

  3. High-dose vitamin C management in dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Sin-Youl; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Kang, Tae-Sin

    2014-06-01

    Methylene blue is the first-choice treatment of methemoglobinemia, but it is not readily available in most Korean emergency departments because of an import suspension. An 84-year-old woman with dapsone-induced massive methemoglobinemia visited our emergency department for unclear mentality and cyanosis. Because methylene blue was not available, we intravenously administrated vitamin C (VC) for symptomatic methemoglobinemia, although VC is not a universally accepted treatment. Vitamin C (10 g intravenously) administered 6 hourly successfully treated the dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia and did not adversely affect renal functions. Thus,we recommend that if methylene blue is unavailable, 6 hourly intravenous administrations of 10 g of VC should be considered for dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia.

  4. [In vitro susceptibility of Trichomonas vaginalis to metronidazole, ornidazole and proton pump inhibitors pantoprazole and esomeprazole].

    PubMed

    Aksoy Gökmen, Ayşegül; Girginkardeşler, Nogay; Kilimcioğlu, Ali Ahmet; Şirin, Mümtaz Cem; Özbilgin, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The current treatment of trichomoniasis is based on the use of 5-nitroimidazole derivatives. Although metronidazole is reliable, inexpensive and highly effective against anaerobic microorganisms and protozoa, the development of metronidazole-resistant T.vaginalis strains pose to an increasing problem. Nitroimidazoles are compounds having azomycin (2-nitroimidazole) chemical structure and are obtained from Streptomyces strains. Benzimidazole, which is found in the structure of proton pump inhibitors, is also present in the other components that have antiprotozoal activity. In this study, the in vitro susceptibility of T.vaginalis against metronidazole, ornidazole, and the proton pump inhibitors which are tested recently as antiprotozoal agents; pantoprazole and esomeprazole was investigated. For this purpose a clinical T.vaginalis strain which was formerly isolated and stored after cryopreservation process in our laboratory was used. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum lethal concentration (MLC) values of those agents against to this strain were determined in vitro by dilution method in 24-well cell culture plates. Trypticase yeast extract maltose medium, horse serum and antibiotic (penicillin + streptomycin) were distributed to each well of cell culture plates and after metronidazole, ornidazole, pantoprazole and esomeprazole solutions were added to two wells for each as 800, 400, 200, 100, 50 and 25 µg/ml, followed by the addition of 1 ml 5x10(3) T.vaginalis trophozoites into each well. Plates were incubated at 37°C, and viability and motility of the trophozoites were evaluated under light microscope at 24, 48 and 72 hours after incubation. MIC and MLC values of metronidazole/ornidazole in the 72(th) hour were found as 50 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml, respectively. MIC and MLC values for pantoprazole in the 72th hour were 200 µg/ml and 400 µg/ml, while the values for esomeprazole were 400 µg/ml ve 800 µg/ml, respectively. As a result, T

  5. High dose of prokinetics for refractory hiccups after chemotherapy or the return to a simple drug.

    PubMed

    Uña, Esther; Alonso, Pilar

    2013-10-29

    Hiccups in patients with cancer might be difficult to treat, impacting negatively on the quality of life. Many therapies are available, but they are usually started empirically, and often they are unsuccessful. We report a case of a man with metastatic colon cancer who after the first cycle of chemotherapy developed persistent hiccups refractory to neuroleptics and low dose of metoclopramide. After searching for the potential cause, a high dose of prokinetics was initiated in the hospital and his symptoms disappeared. This case shows how searching for potential causes helps start the right treatment immediately, and therefore it is relevant for the prompt relief from this bothersome symptom. So far, no cases reporting high doses of prokinetics to treat persistent hiccups after chemotherapy have been published. This option should be taken into account when developing hiccups and gastro-oesophageal reflux after chemotherapy, especially if low doses of prokinetics have already been tried.

  6. High dose of prokinetics for refractory hiccups after chemotherapy or the return to a simple drug

    PubMed Central

    Uña, Esther; Alonso, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Hiccups in patients with cancer might be difficult to treat, impacting negatively on the quality of life. Many therapies are available, but they are usually started empirically, and often they are unsuccessful. We report a case of a man with metastatic colon cancer who after the first cycle of chemotherapy developed persistent hiccups refractory to neuroleptics and low dose of metoclopramide. After searching for the potential cause, a high dose of prokinetics was initiated in the hospital and his symptoms disappeared. This case shows how searching for potential causes helps start the right treatment immediately, and therefore it is relevant for the prompt relief from this bothersome symptom. So far, no cases reporting high doses of prokinetics to treat persistent hiccups after chemotherapy have been published. This option should be taken into account when developing hiccups and gastro-oesophageal reflux after chemotherapy, especially if low doses of prokinetics have already been tried. PMID:24169870

  7. Recurrent palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia following high-dose cytarabine treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Julie H; Eikelboom, John W; McQuillan, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Palmar-plantar erythrodysaesthesia (PPE) is an uncommon cutaneous complication of cytotoxic chemotherapy which generally presents as a painful erythema involving the palms and soles. It has been suggested that PPE caused by cytarabine does not recur with subsequent cytarabine re-challenge. We report a patient with recurrent, increasingly severe episodes of PPE, ultimately complicated by a severe bullous eruption, following successive cycles of high-dose cytarabine for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Contrary to previous recommendations, our experience cautions against the further use of high-dose cytarabine in patients who develop PPE, and is a timely reminder of the potential toxicity of this agent, which is now increasingly being used as first-line treatment in the management of haematologic malignancies.

  8. Synergies Between ' and Cavity Formation in HT-9 Following High Dose Neutron Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G.; Parish, Chad M.; Saleh, Tarik A.

    2017-06-01

    Candidate cladding materials for advanced nuclear power reactors including fast reactor designs require materials capable of withstanding high dose neutron irradiation at elevated temperatures. One candidate material, HT-9, through various research programs have demonstrated the ability to withstand significant swelling and other radiation-induced degradation mechanisms in the high dose regime (>50 displacements per atom, dpa) at elevated temperatures (>300 C). Here, high efficiency multi-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) acquisition with the aid of a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and modeling technique is used to probe the microstructural features that contribute to the exceptional swelling resistance of HT-9. In particular, themore » synergies between ' and fine-scale and moderate-scale cavity formation is investigated.« less

  9. Pharmacokinetics of escin Ia in rats after intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiu-Jun; Cui, Xiang-Yong; Tian, Lian-tian; Gao, Feng; Guan, Xin; Gu, Jing-Kai

    2014-10-28

    Escin, a natural mixture of triterpene saponins, is commonly utilized for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, hemorrhoids, inflammation and edema. Escin Ia is the chief active ingredient in escin and plays key role in mediating its pharmacological effects. Adequate pharmacokinetic data are essential for proper application of escin agent in clinical practice. However, pharmacokinetic properties of escin Ia are still poorly understood and this conflicts with the growing use of escin agent over the years. The goal of this study is to investigate the pharmacokinetic behavior of escin Ia in rats after low, medium and high-dose intravenous administration. Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group) and escin Ia was administered via the caudal vein at doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg, respectively. Subsequently, the concentrations of escin Ia and its metabolite isoescin Ia, a positional isomer of escin Ia, in rats׳ plasma were measured by an established liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method at various time points following the administration of the drug. Main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis using the TopFit 2.0 software package (Thomae GmbH, Germany). After intravenous administration, the Cmax and AUC of escin Ia increased in a dose-proportional manner at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg, while increased in a more than dose-proportional manner at the doses of 1.0 mg/kg and 2.0 mg/kg. The t₁/₂ was significantly longer with increased intravenous doses, while other parameters such as CL and Vd also exhibit disagreement among three doses. Taken together, our data showed dose-dependent pharmacokinetic profile of escin Ia in rats after intravenous administration at the doses of 0.5-2.0 mg/kg. After intravenous administration, escin Ia was rapidly and extensively converted to isoescin Ia. The results suggested dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of escin Ia at the doses of 0.5-2.0 mg

  10. High dose compressive loads attenuate bone mineral loss in humans with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Dudley-Javoroski, S; Saha, P K; Liang, G; Li, C; Gao, Z; Shields, R K

    2012-09-01

    People with spinal cord injury (SCI) lose bone and muscle integrity after their injury. Early doses of stress, applied through electrically induced muscle contractions, preserved bone density at high-risk sites. Appropriately prescribed stress early after the injury may be an important consideration to prevent bone loss after SCI. Skeletal muscle force can deliver high compressive loads to bones of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). The effective osteogenic dose of load for the distal femur, a chief site of fracture, is unknown. The purpose of this study is to compare three doses of bone compressive loads at the distal femur in individuals with complete SCI who receive a novel stand training intervention. Seven participants performed unilateral quadriceps stimulation in supported stance [150% body weight (BW) compressive load-"High Dose" while opposite leg received 40% BW-"Low Dose"]. Five participants stood passively without applying quadriceps electrical stimulation to either leg (40% BW load-"Low Dose"). Fifteen participants performed no standing (0% BW load-"Untrained") and 14 individuals without SCI provided normative data. Participants underwent bone mineral density (BMD) assessment between one and six times over a 3-year training protocol. BMD for the High Dose group significantly exceeded BMD for both the Low Dose and the Untrained groups (p < 0.05). No significant difference existed between the Low Dose and Untrained groups (p > 0.05), indicating that BMD for participants performing passive stance did not differ from individuals who performed no standing. High-resolution CT imaging of one High Dose participant revealed 86% higher BMD and 67% higher trabecular width in the High Dose limb. Over 3 years of training, 150% BW compressive load in upright stance significantly attenuated BMD decline when compared to passive standing or to no standing. High-resolution CT indicated that trabecular architecture was preserved by the 150% BW dose of load.

  11. Rapid Onset of Retinal Toxicity From High-Dose Hydroxychloroquine Given for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Leung, Loh-Shan B; Neal, Joel W; Wakelee, Heather A; Sequist, Lecia V; Marmor, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    To report rapid onset of retinal toxicity in a series of patients followed on high-dose (1000 mg daily) hydroxychloroquine during an oncologic clinical trial studying hydroxychloroquine with erlotinib for non-small cell lung cancer. Retrospective observational case series. Ophthalmic surveillance was performed on patients in a multicenter clinical trial testing high-dose (1000 mg daily) hydroxychloroquine for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The US Food & Drug Administration-recommended screening protocol included only visual acuity testing, dilated fundus examination, Amsler grid testing, and color vision testing. In patients seen at Stanford, additional sensitive screening procedures were added at the discretion of the retinal physician: high-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF) imaging, Humphrey visual field (HVF) testing, and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Out of the 7 patients having exposure of at least 6 months, 2 developed retinal toxicity (at 11 and 17 months of exposure). Damage was identified by OCT imaging, mfERG testing, and, in 1 case, visual field testing. Fundus autofluorescence imaging remained normal. Neither patient had symptomatic visual acuity loss. These cases show that high doses of hydroxychloroquine can initiate the development of retinal toxicity within 1-2 years. Although synergy with erlotinib is theoretically possible, there are no prior reports of erlotinib-associated retinal toxicity despite over a decade of use in oncology. These results also suggest that sensitive retinal screening tests should be added to ongoing and future clinical trials involving high-dose hydroxychloroquine to improve safety monitoring and preservation of vision. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Implementation and Evaluation 
of a High-Dose Cytarabine Neurologic Assessment Tool.

    PubMed

    Szoch, Stephanie; Snow Kaiser, Karen

    2015-06-01

    Patients receiving high-dose cytarabine as part of their chemotherapy regimen have a chance of experiencing neurotoxicities. Prompt identification of signs and symptoms can greatly reduce the chance of patients sustaining permanent neurologic damage. This article describes the development and successful implementation of an evidence-based, standardized neurologic assessment and documentation tool that was evaluated using a clinical utility questionnaire and an adherence audit.

  13. The efficacy and toxicity of bendamustine in recurrent multiple myeloma after high-dose chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Knop, Stefan; Straka, Christian; Haen, Michael; Schwedes, Renate; Hebart, Holger; Einsele, Hermann

    2005-09-01

    We performed a dose-escalation study of bendamustine in 31 patients with multiple myeloma that had progressed after high-dose chemotherapy. Bendamustine 100 mg/m2 on days 1 and 2 per cycle was found to be the maximal tolerated dose. The overall response rate was 55% with a median progression-free survival of 26 (0-61) weeks. Toxicity was mild and mainly hematologic.

  14. Enhanced lipid accumulation of photoautotrophic microalgae by high-dose CO2 mimics a heterotrophic characterization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhilan; Dou, Xiao; Wu, Jun; He, Bing; Wang, Yuancong; Chen, Yi-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae possess higher photosynthetic efficiency and accumulate more neutral lipids when supplied with high-dose CO2. However, the nature of lipid accumulation under conditions of elevated CO2 has not been fully elucidated so far. We now revealed that the enhanced lipid accumulation of Chlorella in high-dose CO2 was as efficient as under heterotrophic conditions and this may be attributed to the driving of enlarged carbon source. Both photoautotrophic and heterotrophic cultures were established by using Chlorella sorokiniana CS-1. A series of changes in the carbon fixation, lipid accumulation, energy conversion, and carbon-lipid conversion under high-dose CO2 (1-10%) treatment were characterized subsequently. The daily carbon fixation rate of C. sorokiniana LS-2 in 10% CO2 aeration was significantly increased compared with air CO2. Correspondingly, double oil content (28%) was observed in 10% CO2 aeration, close to 32.3% produced under heterotrophic conditions. In addition, with 10% CO2 aeration, the overall energy yield (Ψ) in Chlorella reached 12.4 from 7.3% (with air aeration) because of the enhanced daily carbon fixation rates. This treatment also improved the energetic lipid yield (Ylipid/Es) with 4.7-fold, tending to the heterotrophic parameters. More significantly, 2.2 times of carbon-lipid conversion efficiency (ηClipid/Ctotal, 42.4%) was observed in 10% CO2 aeration, towards to 53.7% in heterotrophic cultures, suggesting that more fixed carbon might flow into lipid synthesis under both 10% CO2 aeration and heterotrophic conditions. Taken together, all our evidence showed that 10% CO2 may push photoautotrophic Chlorella to display heterotrophic-like efficiency at least in lipid production. It might bring us an efficient model of lipid production based on microalgal cells with high-dose CO2, which is essential to sustain biodiesel production at large scales.

  15. Salvage high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Pellizzon, Antônio Cássio Assis

    2016-01-01

    For tumors of the lower third of the rectum, the only safe surgical procedure is abdominal-perineal resection. High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy is a promising treatment for local recurrence of previously irradiated lower rectal cancer, due to the extremely high concentrated dose delivered to the tumor and the sparing of normal tissue, when compared with a course of external beam radiation therapy. PMID:27403021

  16. DNA Sequence Analysis of rdxA and frxA from 12 Pairs of Metronidazole-Sensitive and -Resistant Clinical Helicobacter pylori Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, D. H.; Hulten, K.; Kato, M.; Kim, J. J.; Lee, M.; El-Zaatari, F. A. K.; Osato, M. S.; Graham, D. Y.

    2001-01-01

    We previously reported that inactivation of rdxA and/or frxA converted Helicobacter pylori from metronidazole sensitive to metronidazole resistant. To examine the individual roles of rdxA and frxA in the development of metronidazole resistance in H. pylori, we examined the status of rdxA and frxA from 12 pairs of metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant H. pylori isolates obtained following unsuccessful therapy containing metronidazole. Arbitrary primed fingerprinting analyses revealed that the genotypes of 11 sensitive and resistant pairs of strains were essentially identical. Amino acid sequence identities of RdxA and FrxA from the 14 metronidazole-sensitive isolates ranged from 92 to 98% and 95 to 98%, respectively, compared to that of H. pylori J99 (MIC, 1 μg/ml). All strains with high-level metronidazole resistance (MICs, 128 μg/ml) contained premature truncation of both RdxA and FrxA caused by nonsense and/or frameshift mutations. Strains with intermediate resistance to metronidazole (MICs, 32 to 64 μg/ml) contained a single premature truncation and/or altered RdxA and FrxA caused by nonsense, frameshift, and unique missense mutations. The low-level metronidazole-resistant strains (MICs, 8 μg/ml) contained unique missense mutations in FrxA but no specific changes in RdxA. The results demonstrate that alterations in both the rdxA and frxA genes are required for moderate and high-level metronidazole resistance and that metronidazole resistance that develops during anti-H. pylori therapy containing metronidazole is most likely to involve a single sensitive strain infection rather than a coinfection with a metronidazole-resistant strain. PMID:11502537

  17. Multifocal cognitive dysfunction in high-dose benzodiazepine users: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Federico, Angela; Tamburin, Stefano; Maier, Alice; Faccini, Marco; Casari, Rebecca; Morbioli, Laura; Lugoboni, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the most widely prescribed drug class in developed countries, but they have high potential for tolerance, dependence and abuse. Cognitive deficits in long-term BZD users have long been known, but previous results might have been biased by patients' old age, coexisting neurological or psychiatric conditions or concurrent alcohol or psychotropic drug dependence. The study was aimed to explore the neuropsychological effect of high-dose BZD dependence, which represents an emerging addiction phenomenon. We recruited a group of high-dose BZD users with neither neurological or psychiatric comorbidity except anxiety or depression nor concurrent alcohol or psychotropic drug dependence. They underwent a battery of cognitive tests to explore verbal, visuospatial memory, working memory, attention, and executive functions. All the neuropsychological measures were significantly worse in patients than controls, and some of them were influenced by the BZD cumulative dose. The severity of depression and anxiety had a minimal influence on cognitive tests. Patients with high-dose BZD intake show profound changes in cognitive function. The impact of cognition should be considered in this population of patients, who may be involved in risky activities or have high work responsibilities.

  18. In vivo switch to IL-10-secreting T regulatory cells in high dose allergen exposure.

    PubMed

    Meiler, Flurina; Zumkehr, Judith; Klunker, Sven; Rückert, Beate; Akdis, Cezmi A; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2008-11-24

    High dose bee venom exposure in beekeepers by natural bee stings represents a model to understand mechanisms of T cell tolerance to allergens in healthy individuals. Continuous exposure of nonallergic beekeepers to high doses of bee venom antigens induces diminished T cell-related cutaneous late-phase swelling to bee stings in parallel with suppressed allergen-specific T cell proliferation and T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine secretion. After multiple bee stings, venom antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 cells show a switch toward interleukin (IL) 10-secreting type 1 T regulatory (Tr1) cells. T cell regulation continues as long as antigen exposure persists and returns to initial levels within 2 to 3 mo after bee stings. Histamine receptor 2 up-regulated on specific Th2 cells displays a dual effect by directly suppressing allergen-stimulated T cells and increasing IL-10 production. In addition, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 and programmed death 1 play roles in allergen-specific T cell suppression. In contrast to its role in mucosal allergen tolerance, transforming growth factor beta does not seem to be an essential player in skin-related allergen tolerance. Thus, rapid switch and expansion of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells and the use of multiple suppressive factors represent essential mechanisms in immune tolerance to a high dose of allergens in nonallergic individuals.

  19. Polybutadiene and Styrene-Butadiene rubbers for high-dose dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Lucas N.; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares -IPEN, Sao Paulo-SP; Vieira, Silvio L.

    2015-07-01

    Polybutadiene and Styrene-Butadiene are synthetical rubbers used widely for pneumatic tires manufacturing. In this research, the dosimeter characteristics of those rubbers were studied for application in high-dose dosimetry. The rubber samples were irradiated with doses of 10 Gy up to 10 kGy, using a {sup 60}Co Gamma Cell-220 system (dose rate of 1.089 kGy/h) and their readings were taken on a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy-FTIR system (model Frontier/Perkin Elmer). The ratios of two absorbance peaks were taken for each kind of rubber spectrum, Polybutadiene (1306/1130 cm{sup -1}) and Styrene-Butadiene (1449/1306 cm{sup -1}). The ratio calculated was used as the responsemore » to the irradiation, and is not uniform across the sample. From the results, it can be concluded for both rubbers: a) the dose-response curves may be useful for high-dose dosimetry (greater than 250 Gy); b) their response for reproducibility presented standard deviations lower than 2.5%; c) the relative sensitivity was higher for Styrene-Butadiene (1.86 kGy{sup -1}) than for Polybutadiene (1.81 kGy{sup -1}), d) for doses of 10 kGy to 200 kGy, there was no variation in the dosimetric response. Both types of rubber samples showed usefulness as high-dose dosimeters. (authors)« less

  20. Clonazepam for seizure prophylaxis in adult patients treated with high dose busulfan.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Carrasco, Maria Sacramento; Olmos, Raquel; Blanquer, Miguel; Velasco, Javier; Sánchez-Salinas, Andrés; Moraleda, José María

    2013-06-01

    Due to their favorable toxicity profile and lack of interactions, benzodiazepines have been proposed as prophylaxis of busulfan induced seizures. Although they are broadly used in pediatric patients, the experience in adults is limited. To describe the effectivity for seizure prophylaxis of the fixed 1 mg every 8 h (q8h) i.v. clonazepam dosing in adult patients receiving high dose i.v busulfan, as part of the hematopoietic progenitors transplant conditioning regimen. Retrospective, observational study, from January 2008 to June 2012. Patients over 15 years old that had received high dose busulfan and prophylaxis with 1 mg q8h i.v. clonazepam from 12 h before the first dose of busulfan to 24 h after the last one were selected. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of seizures until 72 h after finishing conditioning. Thirty-three patients, 13 female and 20 male, median age 48, were included. Autologous transplant was performed in 17 patients and allogeneic in 16. Busulfan dose was 3.2 mg/kg every 24 h with a variable duration of 2-4 days. No seizures were recorded. The 1 mg q8h i.v. clonazepam fixed schedule is easily administered and is effective for the prevention of high dose busulfan induced seizures in adult patients.

  1. Monitoring performance of the cameras under the high dose-rate gamma ray environments.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Jeong, Kyung Min

    2014-05-01

    CCD/CMOS cameras, loaded on a robot system, are generally used as the eye of the robot and monitoring unit. A major problem that arises when dealing with images provided by CCD/CMOS cameras under severe accident situations of a nuclear power plant is the presence of speckles owing to the high dose-rate gamma irradiation fields. To use a CCD/CMOS camera as a monitoring unit in a high radiation area, the legibility of the camera image in such intense gamma-radiation fields should therefore be defined. In this paper, the authors describe the monitoring index as a figure of merit of the camera's legibleness under a high dose-rate gamma ray irradiation environment. From a low dose-rate (10 Gy h) to a high dose-rate (200 Gy h) level, the legible performances of the cameras owing to the speckles are evaluated. The numbers of speckles generated by gamma ray irradiation in the camera image are calculated by an image processing technique. The legibility of the sensor indicator (thermo/hygrometer) owing to the number of speckles is also presented.

  2. False-positive buprenorphine EIA urine toxicology results due to high dose morphine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Peter L

    2012-01-01

    In monitoring a patient with chronic pain who was taking high-dose morphine and oxycodone with weekly urine enzymatic immunoassay (EIA) toxicology testing, the authors noted consistent positives for buprenorphine. The patient was not taking buprenorphine, and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GCMS) testing on multiple samples revealed no buprenorphine, indicating a case of false-positive buprenorphine EIAs in a high-dose opiate case. The authors discontinued oxycodone for a period of time and then discontinued morphine. Urine monitoring with EIAs and GCMS revealed false-positive buprenorphine EIAs, which remained only when the patient was taking morphine. When taking only oxycodone and no morphine, urine samples became buprenorphine negative. When morphine was reintroduced, false-positive buprenorphine results resumed. Medical practitioners should be aware that high-dose morphine (with morphine urine levels turning positive within the 15,000 to 28,000 mg/mL range) may produce false-positive buprenorphine EIAs with standard urine EIA toxicology testing.

  3. Radiation bronchitis and stenosis secondary to high dose rate endobronchial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Speiser, B.L.; Spratling, L.

    1993-03-15

    The purpose of the study was to describe a new clinical entity observed in follow-up bronchoscopies in patients who were treated with high dose rate and medium dose rate remote afterloading brachytherapy of the tracheobronchial tree. Patients were treated by protocol with medium dose rate, 47 patients receiving 1000 cGy at a 5 mm depth times three fractions, high dose rate 144 patients receiving 1000 cGy at a 10 mm depth for three fractions and high dose rate 151 patients receiving cGy at a 10 mm depth for three fractions followed by bronchoscopy. Incidence of this entity was 9% formore » the first group, 12% for the second, and 13% for the third group. Reactions were grade 1 consisting of mild inflammatory response with a partial whitish circumferential membrane in an asymptomatic patient; grade 2, thicker complete white circumferential membrane with cough and/or obstructive problems requiring intervention; grade 3, severe inflammatory response with marked membranous exudate and mild fibrotic reaction; and grade 4 a predominant fibrotic reaction with progressive stenosis. Variables associated with a slightly increased incidence of radiation bronchitis and stenosis included: large cell carcinoma histology, curative intent, prior laser photoresection, and/or concurrent external radiation. Survival was the strongest predictor of the reaction. Radiation bronchitis and stenosis is a new clinical entity that must be identified in bronchial brachytherapy patients and treated appropriately. 23 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.« less

  4. Effect of high-dose vocal fold injection of cidofovir and bevacizumab in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mostafa M; Connor, Matthew P; Palazzolo, Mitzi; Thompson, Michelle E; Lospinoso, Josh; O'Connor, Peter; Howard, N Scott; Maturo, Stephen C

    2017-03-01

    Perform a follow-up study to investigate the histologic impact of high-dose intralaryngeal cidofovir injections in porcine vocal cords, either alone or in combination with bevacizumab, and compared to saline controls. This was an in vivo study involving 24 pigs with blinded pathologist review of specimens. Six groups were created, with four subjects in each group. Each subject received 10 or 20 mg of either cidofovir or bevacizumab alone, or in combination, injected into the right vocal cord. The left vocal fold was used as a saline control. Three separate injections were made at 2-week intervals. Larynges were harvested at 8 and 12 weeks, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and trichrome stain, and reviewed for histologic changes by two blinded pathologists. Minimal inflammation, edema, and atypia were noted with all treatments. Increased glandular inflammation was noted with 10 mg bevacizumab (P < 0.05), which decreased when combined with 10 mg cidofovir (P < 0.05). No lamina propria or muscle fibrosis was observed. Drug duration had no statistically significant histologic impact. High-dose cidofovir and bevacizumab do not induce detrimental vocal fold changes. Combination cidofovir and bevacizumab do not cause vocal fold scarring. Further work is needed to assess systemic concentration with this high-dose combination in humans. N/A. Laryngoscope, 127:671-675, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Effectiveness of once-daily high-dose ACTH for infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Hodgeman, Ryan M; Kapur, Kush; Paris, Ann; Marti, Candice; Can, Afra; Kimia, Amir; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Bergin, Ann; Poduri, Annapurna; Libenson, Mark; Lamb, Nathan; Jafarpour, Saba; Harini, Chellamani

    2016-06-01

    There is insufficient evidence to recommend a specific protocol for treatment of infantile spasms (IS) and a lack of standardization among, and even within, institutions. Twice-daily dosing (for the first two weeks) of high-dose natural ACTH for IS is used by many centers and recommended by the National Infantile Spasms Consortium (NISC). Conversely, it is our practice to use once-daily dosing of high-dose natural ACTH for IS. In order to determine the effectiveness of our center's practice, we retrospectively reviewed 57 cases over the past four years at Boston Children's Hospital (BCH). We found that 70% of infants were spasm-free at 14days from ACTH initiation and 54% continued to be spasm-free at 3-month follow-up. Electroencephalogram showed resolution of hypsarrhythmia (when present on the pretreatment EEG) in all responders. Additionally, once-daily dosing of ACTH was well tolerated. We performed a meta-analysis to compare our results against the reports of published literature using twice-daily high-dose ACTH for treatment of IS. The meta-analysis revealed that our results were comparable to previously published outcomes using twice-daily ACTH administration for IS treatment. Our experience shows that once-daily dosing of ACTH is effective for treatment of IS. If larger prospective trials can confirm our findings, it would obviate the need for additional painful injections, simplify the schedule, and support a universal standardized protocol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Does High-Dose Antimicrobial Chemotherapy Prevent the Evolution of Resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Day, Troy; Read, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    High-dose chemotherapy has long been advocated as a means of controlling drug resistance in infectious diseases but recent empirical studies have begun to challenge this view. We develop a very general framework for modeling and understanding resistance emergence based on principles from evolutionary biology. We use this framework to show how high-dose chemotherapy engenders opposing evolutionary processes involving the mutational input of resistant strains and their release from ecological competition. Whether such therapy provides the best approach for controlling resistance therefore depends on the relative strengths of these processes. These opposing processes typically lead to a unimodal relationship between drug pressure and resistance emergence. As a result, the optimal drug dose lies at either end of the therapeutic window of clinically acceptable concentrations. We illustrate our findings with a simple model that shows how a seemingly minor change in parameter values can alter the outcome from one where high-dose chemotherapy is optimal to one where using the smallest clinically effective dose is best. A review of the available empirical evidence provides broad support for these general conclusions. Our analysis opens up treatment options not currently considered as resistance management strategies, and it also simplifies the experiments required to determine the drug doses which best retard resistance emergence in patients. PMID:26820986

  7. Myocardial protection induced by fentanyl in pigs exposed to high-dose adrenaline.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Vinicius Fernando; Otsuki, Denise Aya; Gonzalez, Maria Margarita Castro; Negri, Elnara Marcia; Caldini, Elia Garcia; Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Malbouisson, Luiz Marcelo Sá; Viana, Bruno Gonçalves; Vane, Matheus Fachini; Carmona, Maria Jose Carvalho

    2015-10-01

    The use of high doses of adrenaline is common in critical patients, especially during cardiac arrest. During these situations, myocardial dysfunction can be a result of multiple factors, including adrenaline use. In addition, opioids have been shown to have anti-arrhythmic and anti-ischemic mechanisms that may confer cardiac protection. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of fentanyl on myocardial function in pigs exposed to high-dose adrenaline. After institutional ethics committee approval, 26 pigs were randomly allocated to receive either 20 μg/kg fentanyl (n = 10; fentanyl group) administered 5 min before five doses of adrenaline (20 μg/kg), equivalent-volume saline (n = 10; saline group) using the same adrenaline dosing protocol, or neither fentanyl nor adrenaline (n = 6; sham group). The fentanyl group showed lower levels of troponin at the end of the sixth hour compared with the saline group (1.91 ± 1.47 vs 5.44 ± 5.35 ng/mL, P = 0.019). Transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry also showed less myocardial injury in the fentanyl group. The conclusion was reached that fentanyl attenuates myocardial injury caused by high-dose adrenaline without blunting the hemodynamic effect of adrenaline. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. The use of high-dose estrogens for the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Coelingh Bennink, Herjan J T; Verhoeven, Carole; Dutman, Alice E; Thijssen, Jos

    2017-01-01

    Estrogens are known to stimulate the growth of breast cancer but they are also an effective treatment for this disease (this has been termed the 'estrogen paradox'). The fact that estrogens can be an effective treatment for breast cancer is something that has almost been forgotten, whereas the fear for estrogens remains. This paper reviews the use of estrogens for the treatment of breast cancer and identifies possible applications. The data summarised in this review demonstrate that high-dose estrogens are effective for the treatment of advanced breast cancer, both as first-line treatment as well as for treatment after occurrence of endocrine resistance to TAM and AIs. Essential for efficacy is an extended period of estrogen deprivation before the tumour is subject to estrogen treatment (the gap hypothesis). Research on the mechanism of action has shown that apoptosis induced by estrogens is regulated via the estrogen receptor and growth factor signalling pathways. High-dose estrogens have a negative safety image, especially in terms of side-effects and increased rates of cardiovascular disease, but the safety data reviewed in this paper do not give rise to major concerns. Taking into account their side-effect profile together with their observed clinical efficacy, high-dose estrogens should be considered a valuable alternative to chemotherapy in selected patients. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Sustained hypotension following intravenous metoclopramide.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tammy T; Petzel Gimbar, Renee M

    2013-11-01

    To report a case of sustained hypotension associated with the use of intravenous metoclopramide. A 50-year-old woman developed a hypotensive episode lasting approximately 90 minutes after the administration intravenous metoclopramide for the treatment of a migraine. The patient presented to the emergency department after she woke up with a severe headache that was much worse than her normal migraine headaches. Her past medical history included migraines, diabetes type 2, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Fifteen minutes after the administration of intravenous metoclopramide 10 mg, the patient's systolic blood pressure decreased from 138 to 84 mmHg (a mean arterial pressure decrease of 40.7 mmHg). The patient was given 1 L of intravenous NaCl 0.9% that had minimal effect on blood pressure. The patient did not reapproach her baseline systolic blood pressure until 90 minutes after the metoclopramide administration when it was measured at 138 mmHg. Subsequent contrast tomography of the head was negative and the patient's headache was successfully treated with butalbital/acetaminophen/caffeine. The patient was discharged home the same day. There are few published case reports of metoclopramide-induced hypotension in the current literature. Of those published, all showed transient hypotension with metoclopramide, lasting seconds to minutes. An objective causality assessment for drug-associated adverse drug reaction showed metoclopramide as a probable cause of the patient's hypotension (Naranjo score of 5). In this case, several indicators of metoclopramide induced hypotension were evident, including the timing of the hypotension after drug administration and the lack of any other possible causes of hypotension. This is the first published case report of sustained hypotension due to intravenous metoclopramide. Intravenous metoclopramide may cause sustained episodes of hypotension.

  10. Effect of lactic acid suppositories compared with oral metronidazole and placebo in bacterial vaginosis: a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, A J; Dekker, J H; van Eijk, J T; Kostense, P J; Bezemer, P D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the effect of lactic acid locally, metronidazole orally and placebo in women with bacterial vaginosis. DESIGN--Randomised clinical trial. SETTING--30 general practices in the Netherlands. PATIENTS--125 women consulting the general practitioner for symptomatic bacterial vaginosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Duration of subjective symptoms, recurrence of symptoms, clinically diagnosed cure, adverse events. RESULTS--Survival analysis showed a significantly faster disappearance of symptoms in the metronidazole category compared with both lactic acid and placebo (p = 0.0005 metronidazole v placebo, p = 0.0002 metronidazole v lactic acid p = 0.6521 lactic acid v placebo [The stratified Mantel Cox test]). The median duration until absence of symptoms was 21 days for metronidazole and 80 days for placebo. Disappearance of symptoms did not occur in 50% of the lactic acid group in 90 days. Recurrence rates of symptoms were similar over the treatment categories (p = 0.13 metronidazole v placebo and p = 0.12 lactic acid v placebo). After 2 weeks cure rates (cure defined as less than three of four clinical criteria present) were 83%, 49% and 47% for metronidazole, lactic acid and placebo category respectively. At that time cure rates (cure defined as none of three clinical criteria present) were 10%, 0% and 3%. After four weeks and three months these figures were: 55%, 20%, 20% and 64%, 28%, 28%. No differences in adverse events were found between the three interventions. CONCLUSIONS--Lactic acid suppositories are ineffective, metronidazole capsules are effective on signs and symptoms in bacterial vaginosis. A considerable proportion of the patients recover without active medication. PMID:8244360

  11. Overexpression of the rhamnose catabolism regulatory protein, RhaR: a novel mechanism for metronidazole resistance in Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ekta H.; Paul, Lynthia V.; Casanueva, Ana I.; Patrick, Sheila; Abratt, Valerie R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the investigation was to use in vitro transposon mutagenesis to generate metronidazole resistance in the obligately anaerobic pathogenic bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and to identify the genes involved to enable investigation of potential mechanisms for the generation of metronidazole resistance. Methods The genes affected by the transposon insertion were identified by plasmid rescue and sequencing. Expression levels of the relevant genes were determined by semi-quantitative RNA hybridization and catabolic activity by lactate dehydrogenase/pyruvate oxidoreductase assays. Results A metronidazole-resistant mutant was isolated and the transposon insertion site was identified in an intergenic region between the rhaO and rhaR genes of the gene cluster involved in the uptake and catabolism of rhamnose. Metronidazole resistance was observed during growth in defined medium containing either rhamnose or glucose. The metronidazole-resistant mutant showed improved growth in the presence of rhamnose as compared with the wild-type parent. There was increased transcription of all genes of the rhamnose gene cluster in the presence of rhamnose and glucose, likely due to the transposon providing an additional promoter for the rhaR gene, encoding the positive transcriptional regulator of the rhamnose operon. The B. thetaiotaomicron metronidazole resistance phenotype was recreated by overexpressing the rhaR gene in the B. thetaiotaomicron wild-type parent. Both the metronidazole-resistant transposon mutant and RhaR overexpression strains displayed a phenotype of higher lactate dehydrogenase and lower pyruvate oxidoreductase activity in comparison with the parent strain during growth in rhamnose. Conclusions These data indicate that overexpression of the rhaR gene generates metronidazole resistance in B. thetaiotaomicron PMID:19525515

  12. A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of albendazole compared with metronidazole as treatments for infections with Giardia duodenalis.

    PubMed

    Solaymani-Mohammadi, Shahram; Genkinger, Jeanine M; Loffredo, Christopher A; Singer, Steven M

    2010-05-11

    Metronidazole is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of giardiasis in humans. In spite of its therapeutic efficacy for giardiasis, low patient compliance, especially in children, side effects, and the emergence of metronidazole-resistant strains may restrict its use. Albendazole has been used to treat Giardia duodenalis infections in recent years. However, efficacy studies in vivo and in vitro have produced diverse results as to its effectiveness. A moderately benign side effect profile, combined with established efficacy against many helminths, renders it promising for treatment of giardiasis in humans. We performed a search in the PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, the ISI Web of Science, LILIACS, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register for trials published before February 2010 as well as in references of relevant research and review articles. Eight randomized clinical trials (including 900 patients) comparing the effectiveness of albendazole with that of metronidazole were included in meta-analysis. After extracting and validating the data, the pooled risk ratio (RR) was calculated using an inverse-variance random-effects model. Albendazole was found to be equally as effective as metronidazole in the treatment of giardiasis in humans (RR 0.97; 95% CI, 0.93, 1.01). In addition, safety analysis suggested that patients treated with albendazole had a lower risk of adverse effects compared with those who received metronidazole (RR 0.36; 95% CI, 0.10, 1.34), but limitations of the sample size precluded a definite conclusion. The effectiveness of albendazole, when given as a single dose of 400 mg/day for 5 days, was comparable to that of metronidazole. Patients treated with albendazole tended to have fewer side effects compared with those who took metronidazole. Given the safety, effectiveness, and low costs of albendazole, this drug could be potentially used as an alternative and/or a replacement for the existing metronidazole therapy protocols in the treatment of

  13. Multicenter, Double-Blind, Randomized, Phase II Trial To Assess the Safety and Efficacy of Ceftolozane-Tazobactam plus Metronidazole Compared with Meropenem in Adult Patients with Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Hershberger, Ellie; Miller, Benjamin; Yankelev, Sara; Steenbergen, Judith; Friedland, Ian; Solomkin, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Ceftolozane-tazobactam (TOL-TAZ) is a novel antibacterial with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other common Gram-negative pathogens, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, that are associated with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs). This prospective, double-blind, randomized, multicenter, phase II trial assessed patient clinical and microbiological responses to and the safety of TOL-TAZ plus metronidazole compared with those of meropenem. Hospitalized adults with cIAIs that required surgical intervention were randomized (2:1) to receive intravenous (i.v.) TOL-TAZ (1.5 g [containing 1,000 mg TOL and 500 mg TAZ] every 8 h [q8h]) with or without i.v. metronidazole (500 mg q8h) or i.v. meropenem (1 g q8h) for 4 to 7 days. The primary endpoint was the clinical response at the test-of-cure visit in the microbiologically modified intent-to-treat (mMITT) and microbiologically evaluable (ME) populations. Secondary measures included the patients' microbiological response and safety. In total, 82 patients received TOL-TAZ (90.2% with metronidazole), and 39 received meropenem. For the mMITT population, clinical cure was seen in 83.6% of the patients (51/61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9 to 91.8) who received TOL-TAZ and 96.0% of the patients (24/25; 95% CI, 79.6 to 99.9) who received meropenem (difference, −12.4%; 95% CI, −34.9% to 11.1%); in the ME population, clinical cure was seen in 88.7% and 95.8% of the patients (difference, −7.1%; 95% CI, −30.7% to 16.9%) who received TOL-TAZ and meropenem, respectively. TOL-TAZ demonstrated microbiological success against Escherichia coli (89.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (100%), and P. aeruginosa (100%). The adverse event rates were similar in the groups (50.0% with TOL-TAZ and 48.8% with meropenem). TOL-TAZ in combination with metronidazole was well tolerated and resulted in clinical and microbiological success rates supportive of further clinical development in

  14. Safety of high-dose daptomycin in patients with severe renal impairment.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chih-Hsun; Shao, Chi-Hao; Chen, Chen-You; Lin, Shu-Wen; Wu, Chien-Chih

    2018-01-01

    Treatment options are limited for infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens. Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic with concentration-dependent killing characteristic and dose-dependent post-antibiotic effect. To achieve optimized pharma-codynamic effect, some experts advocated using a high dose of daptomycin (≥9 mg/kg) for severe infections. However, the safety of high-dose therapy in patients with renal impairment remains unknown. This study was aimed to evaluate the safety of daptomycin in patients with severe renal impairment. This was a retrospective study performed by reviewing electronic medical records. Patients with severe renal impairment who were treated with daptomycin in a tertiary teaching hospital between January 1, 2013, and June 30, 2016, were included for evaluation. The incidence rates of creatine kinase (CK) elevation between high-dose (≥9 mg/kg) and standard-dose (<9 mg/kg) groups were compared. Overall, 164 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 114 (69.5%) of them were on renal replacement therapy. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci were the most common pathogens (61.3%) of the patients with documented pathogens. The treatment success rate was 51.6% in the 91 patients with bacteremia. The average dose of daptomycin was 8.0±2.3 mg/kg, and 37 (22.6%) patients received ≥9 mg/kg. CK levels were followed in 108 (65.9%) patients. Significantly higher incidence of CK elevation was found in the high-dose group compared with that in the standard-dose group (10.8% vs 1.6%, P <0.05). Moreover, patients with elevated CK received a higher dose of daptomycin than those without (9.3±1.2 vs 7.9±2.3 mg/kg, P <0.05). There was no significant difference in the rate of CK elevation between patients treated with different dosing frequency or with the concurrent use of statins, fibrate, or colchicine. In patients with severe renal impairment, high-dose (≥9 mg/kg) daptomycin therapy may result in a significantly higher incidence of

  15. Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis: trophozoite growth inhibition by metronidazole electro-transferred water.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Rojas, J Antonio; Torres-Flores, Antonio Cayetano; Rodríguez-De la Fuente, Abraham O; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Rodríguez-Flores, Laura E; Barrón-González, María Porfiria; Torres-Pantoja, Antonio Cayetano; Alcocer-González, Juan M

    2011-01-01

    The influence of low-frequency electromagnetic (LF-EM) waves on microorganisms has been a subject of experimental investigations for more than two decades and the results are promising. In parallel, an interesting procedure known as biophysical-information-therapy or bioresonance therapy (BRT) which in principle is based on LF-EM stimulation, has emerged. BRT was discovered in the late 1980's but it is still poorly studied. This paper demonstrates that by transferring metronidazole information to water samples by an electronic amplifier (BRT device), the growth of axenically cultured trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonasvaginalis is significantly inhibited, compared with those cultures treated with non and sham electro-transferred water samples. A positive control of metronidazole, a well-known cytotoxic drug against parasites, was used as a reference. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Controlling systematic perioperative anaerobic contamination during sinus-lift procedures by using metronidazole: an innovative approach.

    PubMed

    Choukroun, Joseph; Simonpieri, Alain; Del Corso, Marco; Mazor, Ziv; Sammartino, Gilberto; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M

    2008-09-01

    Analysis of tomodensitometric controls following sinus grafts clearly demonstrates a quite systematic lack of homogeneity. Sinus contamination by anaerobic bacteria seems almost unavoidable during bone graft surgery, and this problem may jeopardize the healing process. The aim of this study was to characterize in a systematic way the nonhomogeneities observed at 1, 2, or 3 months postsurgery within allogenous sinus grafts, and to assess the possible influence of a 0.5% sterile solution of metronidazole incorporated in the sinus bone graft. This clinical study was conducted on 72 patients treated with single or bilateral sinus-lifts: 94 sinus elevations performed with freeze-dried bone allograft (Phoenix, TBF, Mions, France), with (test group) or without (control group) metronidazole. In the test group, each bone graft was hydrated with 2 mL of a 0.5% metronidazole solution, i.e., only 10 mg of metronidazole. All the patients went through a first presurgical computerized tomography (CT)-scan followed by a second scan performed at 1, 2, or 3 months postsurgery (which was used as the preimplant reference scan). For 11 patients, 2 postsurgical CT-scans were performed respectively at 10 days and 2 months. Using an arbitrary gray scale (Arbitrary Densitometric Unit) which functions according to the Hounsfield unit principle, the degree of radiographic homogeneity of the grafts was established. Density scattering provides some information on the homogeneity or nonhomogeneity of the bone graft. The 12 grafts performed without metronidazole show significant nonhomogeneities at 1, 2, or 3 months. Moreover, when a CT-scan is performed during the first postoperative days (at 10 days), the presence of air bubbles in the graft is confirmed. The tomodensitometric aspects of all grafts treated with metronidazole in this series are absolutely identical: they show a high degree of homogeneity. Sixty-three cases (76.8%) are homogeneous, and 19 cases (23.2%) are significantly

  17. Metronidazole lacks activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an in vivo hypoxic granuloma model of latency

    PubMed Central

    Klinkenberg, Lee G.; Sutherland, Lesley A.; Bishai, William R.; Karakousis, Petros C.

    2009-01-01

    During human latent tuberculosis (TB) infection, dormant bacilli putatively reside within the hypoxic environment of caseating lung granulomas. The anaerobic drug metronidazole has antituberculous activity under hypoxic conditions in vitro, but lacks activity against murine TB. In this study, we used the hypoxia marker pimonidazole to demonstrate the presence of tissue hypoxia in a novel in vivo granuloma model of M. tuberculosis latency. We also used a high-throughput, microarray-based technique to identify hypoxia-essential mycobacterial genes, and showed that this in vivo model correctly identified 51% of hypoxia-attenuated mutants, a significantly larger percentage than that identified by the mouse (29%) and guinea pig (29%) aerosol models of TB. Although isoniazid showed activity during the first 28 days of therapy, and rifampin was active against dormant bacilli after the establishment of tissue hypoxia, metronidazole showed no antituberculous activity in this in vivo hypoxic granuloma model of M. tuberculosis dormancy. PMID:18491971

  18. Metronidazole lacks activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in an in vivo hypoxic granuloma model of latency.

    PubMed

    Klinkenberg, Lee G; Sutherland, Lesley A; Bishai, William R; Karakousis, Petros C

    2008-07-15

    During human latent tuberculosis (TB) infection, dormant bacilli putatively reside within the hypoxic environment of caseating lung granulomas. The anaerobic drug metronidazole has antituberculous activity under hypoxic conditions in vitro but lacks activity against murine TB. In the present study, we used the hypoxia marker pimonidazole to demonstrate the presence of hypoxia in a novel in vivo granuloma model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis latency. We also used a high-throughput, microarray-based technique to identify mycobacterial genes essential to hypoxia and showed that this in vivo model correctly identified 51% of hypoxia-attenuated mutants, a significantly larger percentage than that identified by the mouse (29%) and guinea pig (29%) aerosol models of TB. Although isoniazid showed activity during the first 28 days of therapy and rifampin was active against dormant bacilli after the establishment of hypoxia, metronidazole showed no antituberculous activity in this in vivo hypoxic granuloma model of M. tuberculosis dormancy.

  19. Amoxicillin/metronidazole or scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Bono, Alejandra; Brunotto, Mabel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the treatment with amoxicillin or metronidazole in comparison to scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Randomised clinical trials were searched in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, SciELO, Cochrane and Scopus from 1989 to 2010. The search started with 2895 articles. From this initial number of articles, 10 publications were selected and included in the study according to fixed criteria. Studies included adult patients of both sexes aged between 21 and 80, diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and treated with amoxicillin and/or metronidazole or scaling and root planning. From each article, details were abstracted relating to sample size, design, sex, age, oral hygiene habits, the exposure to drug (doses, schedule), and results such as clinical effect, analysis methods, stratification variables. this meta-analysis showed absence of statistically significant difference between the effects studied.

  20. The restoration of the vaginal microbiota after treatment for bacterial vaginosis with metronidazole or probiotics.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zongxin; Liu, Xia; Chen, Weiguang; Luo, Yueqiu; Yuan, Li; Xia, Yaxian; Nelson, Karen E; Huang, Shaolei; Zhang, Shaoen; Wang, Yuezhu; Yuan, Jieli; Li, Lanjuan; Xiang, Charlie

    2013-04-01

    Whether or not treatment with antibiotics or probiotics for bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with a change in the diversity of vaginal microbiota in women was investigated. One hundred fifteen women, consisting of 30 healthy subjects, 30 BV-positive control subjects, 30 subjects with BV treated with a 7-day metronidazole regimen, and 25 subjects with BV treated with a 10-day probiotics regimen, were analyzed to determine the efficacy and disparity of diversity and richness of vaginal microbiota using 454 pyrosequencing. Follow-up visits at days 5 and 30 showed a greater BV cure rate in the probiotics-treated subjects (88.0 and 96 %, respectively) compared to the metronidazole-treated subjects (83.3 and 70 %, respectively [p = 0.625 at day 5 and p = 0.013 at day 30]). Treatment with metronidazole reduced the taxa diversity and eradicated most of the BV-associated phylotypes, while probiotics only suppressed the overgrowth and re-established vaginal homeostasis gradually and steadily. Despite significant interindividual variation, the microbiota of the actively treated groups or participants constituted a unique profile. Along with the decrease in pathogenic bacteria, such as Gardnerella, Atopobium, Prevotella, Megasphaera, Coriobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Mycoplasma, and Sneathia, a Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota was recovered. Acting as vaginal sentinels and biomarkers, the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and pathogenic bacteria determined the consistency of the BV clinical and microbiologic cure rates, as well as recurrent BV. Both 7-day intravaginal metronidazole and 10-day intravaginal probiotics have good efficacy against BV, while probiotics maintained normal vaginal microbiota longer due to effective and steady vaginal microbiota restoration, which provide new insights into BV treatment.

  1. Histological investigation of a 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing on wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, T S; Poi, W R; Panzarini, S R; Bezerra, C S; Silva, J L

    2006-01-01

    Alveolitis is considered a disturbance of the alveolar healing process that is characterized by blood clot disintegration, alveolar wall infection and extreme pain. Several substances have been investigated to improve healing and guarantee postoperative comfort to patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate, microscopically, in rats, the healing process in non-infected tooth sockets, after application of a 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing, using lanolin as vehicle and mint as flavoring. Forty-five rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar) had their right incisor extracted and were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=15): Group I (control): the sockets were filled with blood clot; Group II: application of adrenaline solution at 1:1 000 with an absorbent paper point during 1 min plus filling of the socket with a 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing, with lanolin as vehicle, and mint as flavoring; Group III: filling of the socket with the 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing, with lanolin as vehicle and mint as flavoring. After 6, 15 and 28 days postoperatively, 5 animals per group were euthanized with an injectable anesthetic overdose. Histological and statistical analyses were performed. The results showed that the 10% metronidazole and 2% lidocaine dressing with lanolin as vehicle and mint as flavoring yielded similar response as that of the normal repair group and may be used to prevent the onset of alveolitis in those cases in which any predisposing factor is present. The use of this dressing has shown a good postoperative patient's comfort and does not cause a significant delay in the alveolar healing process.

  2. Chronic conjunctivitis caused by oral anaerobes and effectively treated with systemic metronidazole plus amoxicillin.

    PubMed Central

    van Winkelhoff, A J; Abbas, F; Pavicic, M J; de Graaff, J

    1991-01-01

    In this study, we report on a case of refractory, unilateral anaerobic conjunctivitis. The predominant anaerobic flora consisted of Prevotella intermedia (formerly Bacteroides intermedius) and Peptostreptococcus micros. By using the technique of restriction endonuclease fingerprinting of genomic DNA, it was shown that the P. intermedia likely originated from the oral cavity. Topically applied antibiotics had failed to suppress the infection in the past. Successful treatment was achieved after systemic administration of metronidazole plus amoxicillin. Images PMID:1890173

  3. Effect of mesalazine, metronidazole and gentamicin on bacterial translocation in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Yigitler, Cengizhan; Gulec, Bulent; Aydogan, Hakan; Ozcan, Ayhan; Kilinc, Metin; Yigit, Taner; Kozak, Orhan; Pekcan, Mesut

    2004-10-01

    In inflammatory bowel disease it has been established that enteric microorganisms are present in the final stage of the active inflammatory process. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of mesalazine, and metronidazole-gentamicin combination, on bacterial translocation in an animal colitis model. Fifty rats were stratified into five groups. The control group (group NC) was given only 2 mL saline enema and the remaining four groups were given 2 mL acetic acid enema. Group CC was the diseased control group. The treatment regimens started on the fifth day: mesalazine enema in group MesC, metronidazole-gentamicin in group MGC, and mesalazine + metronidazole + gentamicin in group MesMGC. After death on day 10, 2.5-cm colonic segments from all groups were weighed separately. In all rats, histopathological scoring was done, and samples from feces, blood, liver and spleen underwent microbiological analyses. For all diseased rats, both mean weight loss and colonic segment weight/bodyweight ratio was significantly higher than that in the sham group. As compared with other groups, body and colonic segment changes as well as histopathological scoring in rats receiving mesalazine enema either solely or in combination with the antibiotics were lower. No bacterial growth was found in the blood, liver and spleen of the rats in the control group while enteric bacteria, mainly Escherichia coli (35%) were the most common bacteria translocated to that in the latter. Antibiotic combination, alone or in combination with mesalazine was effective in reducing the bacterial translocation while mesalazine administration did not properly influence its regression. Gram-negative enteric bacteria, predominantly E. coli, was the most common bacteria isolated in bacterial translocation occurring in acetic acid-induced colitis. This trial showed that mesalazine alone did not incorporate the reduction of infectious events, despite its beneficial effect on inflammatory

  4. Evaluation of Metronidazole With and Without Enterococcus Faecium SF68 in Shelter Dogs With Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Fenimore, Audra; Martin, Laura; Lappin, Michael R

    2017-09-01

    Diarrhea is common in shelter dogs and nonspecific therapies like therapeutic diets, probiotics, and drugs with activity against Giardia spp. or enteric bacteria are commonly prescribed empirically. All dogs in this study were administered metronidazole, fed a standardized diet, and randomized to either receive a commercially available probiotic (Purina ® Pro Plan ® Veterinary Diets; FortiFlora ® Probiotic Supplement, FortiFlora, Nestle Purina PetCare, St Louis, MO) or a placebo which was the commercial product without the probiotic for 7 days. A fecal score was assigned to each stool passed during the study by masked individuals. Fecal samples were evaluated for select enteric agents including nematodes, Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin before and at the end of the treatment period. There were no differences between groups in regard to parasite prevalence. By day 7, a normal stool (<5) was detected in 37.5% of the dogs administered metronidazole and 68.8% of the dogs administered dual therapy, but the result was not significant (P = .1556). The percentages of days with normal stools were significantly higher (P = .0496) for dogs administered dual therapy 65.6%) when compared to those administered metronidazole alone (46.9%). Giardia cysts were eliminated and diarrhea resolved in both dogs that were infected in the SF68 group. In contrast, of the 7 Giardia positive dogs in the placebo group, 6 (85.7%) were still positive for Giardia cysts on day 7, and 4 of those dogs still had diarrhea on day 7. Addition of SF68 to this protocol of metronidazole and a standardized diet appeared to enhance clinical responses in shelter dogs with diarrhea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonsurgical therapy of chronic periodontitis with adjunctive systemic azithromycin or amoxicillin/metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Jentsch, Holger F R; Buchmann, Andreas; Friedrich, Abel; Eick, Sigrun

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study is to compare the effect of systemic adjunctive use of azithromycin with amoxicillin/metronidazole to scaling and root planing (SRP) in a clinical study. Data from 60 individuals with chronic periodontitis were evaluated after full-mouth SRP. Antibiotics were given from the first day of SRP, in the test group (n = 29), azithromycin for 3 days and, in the control group (n = 31), amoxicillin/metronidazole for7 days. Probing depth (PD), attachment level (AL), and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded at baseline and after 3 and 12 months. Gingival crevicular fluid was analyzed for matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-8 and interleukin (IL)-1beta levels. Subgingival plaque was taken for assessment of the major bacteria associated with periodontitis. In both groups, PD, AL, and BOP were significantly reduced (p < 0.001). A few significant differences between the groups were found; AL and BOP were significantly better in the test than in the control group at the end of the study (p = 0.020 and 0.009). Periodontopathogens were reduced most in the test group. A noninferiority of the treatment with azithromycin in comparison with amoxicillin/metronidazole can be stated. The administration of azithromycin could be an alternative to the use of amoxicillin/metronidazole adjunctive to SRP in patients with moderate or severe chronic periodontitis; however, a randomized placebo-controlled multicenter study is needed. Application of azithromycin as a single antibiotic for 3 days might be considered as an additional adjunctive antibiotic to SRP in selected patients.

  6. Metronidazole immediate release formulations: a fasting randomized open-label crossover bioequivalence study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Silva, M; Schramm, S G; Kano, E K; Koono, E E M; Manfio, J L; Porta, V; dos Reis Serra, C H

    2012-10-01

    Metronidazole is a BCS (Biopharmaceutics Classification System) class 1 drug, traditionally considered the choice drug in the infections treatment caused by protozoa and anaerobic microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate bioequivalence between 2 different marketed 250 mg metronidazole immediate release tablets. A randomized, open-label, 2×2 crossover study was performed in healthy Brazilian volunteers under fasting conditions with a 7-day washout period. The formulations were administered as single oral dose and blood was sampled over 48 h. Metronidazole plasma concentrations were determined by a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The plasma concentration vs. time profile was generated for each volunteer and the pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, ke, and t1/2 were calculated using a noncompartmental model. Bioequivalence between pharmaceutical formulations was determined by calculating 90% CIs (Confidence Intervall) for the ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ values for test and reference using log-transformed data. 22 healthy volunteers (11 men, 11 women; mean (SD) age, 28 (6.5) years [range, 21-45 years]; mean (SD) weight, 66 (9.3) kg [range, 51-81 kg]; mean (SD) height, 169 (6.5) cm [range, 156-186 cm]) were enrolled in and completed the study. The 90% CIs for Cmax (0.92-1.06), AUC0-t (0.97-1.02), and AUC0-∞ (0.97-1.03) values for the test and reference products fitted in the interval of 0.80-1.25 proposed by most regulatory agencies, including the Brazilian agency ANVISA. No clinically significant adverse effects were reported. After pharmacokinetics analysis, it concluded that test 250 mg metronidazole formulation is bioequivalent to the reference product according to the Brazilian agency requirements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Aspirin increases susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole by augmenting endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Wei-Hong; Tian, Yu; Gao, Wen; Li, Jiang

    2009-02-28

    To investigate the mechanisms of aspirin increasing the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) to metronidazole. H pylori reference strain 26695 and two metronidazole-resistant isolates of H pylori were included in this study. Strains were incubated in Brucella broth with or without aspirin (1 mmol/L). The rdxA gene of H pylori was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The permeability of H pylori to antimicrobials was determined by analyzing the endocellular radioactivity of the cells after incubated with [7-(3)H]-tetracycline. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of H pylori 26695 were depurated and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The expression of 5 porins (hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD and hopE) and the putative RND efflux system (hefABC) of H pylori were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR. The mutations in rdxA gene did not change in metronidazole resistant isolates treated with aspirin. The radioactivity of H pylori increased when treated with aspirin, indicating that aspirin improved the permeability of the outer membrane of H pylori. However, the expression of two OMP bands between 55 kDa and 72 kDa altered in the presence of aspirin. The expression of the mRNA of hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD, hopE and hefA, hefB, hefC of H pylori did not change when treated with aspirin. Although aspirin increases the susceptibility of H pylori to metronidazole, it has no effect on the mutations of rdxA gene of H pylori. Aspirin increases endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials probably by altering the OMP expression.

  8. Aspirin increases susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to metronidazole by augmenting endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Wei-Hong; Tian, Yu; Gao, Wen; Li, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanisms of aspirin increasing the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) to metronidazole. METHODS: H pylori reference strain 26 695 and two metronidazole-resistant isolates of H pylori were included in this study. Strains were incubated in Brucella broth with or without aspirin (1 mmol/L). The rdxA gene of H pylori was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The permeability of H pylori to antimicrobials was determined by analyzing the endocellular radioactivity of the cells after incubated with [7-3H]-tetracycline. The outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of H pylori 26 695 were depurated and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The expression of 5 porins (hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD and hopE) and the putative RND efflux system (hefABC) of H pylori were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The mutations in rdxA gene did not change in metronidazole resistant isolates treated with aspirin. The radioactivity of H pylori increased when treated with aspirin, indicating that aspirin improved the permeability of the outer membrane of H pylori. However, the expression of two OMP bands between 55 kDa and 72 kDa altered in the presence of aspirin. The expression of the mRNA of hopA, hopB, hopC, hopD, hopE and hefA, hefB, hefC of H pylori did not change when treated with aspirin. CONCLUSION: Although aspirin increases the susceptibility of H pylori to metronidazole, it has no effect on the mutations of rdxA gene of H pylori. Aspirin increases endocellular concentrations of antimicrobials probably by altering the OMP expression. PMID:19248190

  9. Metronidazole as a protector of cells from electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Malinina, Ulia A.; Popyhova, Era B.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.; Somov, Alexander U.

    2006-08-01

    It is well known that weak electromagnetic fields of extremely high frequencies cause significant modification of the functional status of biological objects of different levels of organization. The aim of the work was to study the combinatory effect of metronidazole - the drug form of 1-(2'hydroxiethil)-2-methil-5-nitroimidazole - and electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies (52...75 GHz) on the hemolytic stability of erythrocytes and hemotaxis activity of Infusoria Paramecium caudatum.

  10. NEONATAL LOW- AND HIGH-DOSE EXPOSURE TO ESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN THE MALE RAT: I. EFFECTS ON THE PROSTATE GLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neonatal Low- And High-Dose Exposure To Estradiol Benzoate In The Male Rat: 1. Effects On The Prostate Gland. Oliver Putz, Christian B. Schwartz, Steve Kim, Gerald A. LeBlanc Ralph L. Cooper, Gail S. Prins

    ABSTRACT
    Brief exposure of rats to high doses of natural estro...

  11. Synthesis of New Nitrofluoroquinolone Derivatives with Novel Anti-Microbial Properties against Metronidazole Resistant H. pylori.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qatouseh, Luay; Abu-Sini, Mohammad; Mayyas, Amal; Al-Hiari, Yusuf; Darwish, Rula; Aburjai, Talal

    2017-01-04

    One of the major therapeutic approaches to preventing relapse and accelerating the healing of duodenal and gastric ulcers is the eradication of Helicobacter pylori . Due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance among clinical strains of H. pylori , alternative approaches using newly discovered antimicrobial agents in combination with the standard regimens for the treatment of H. pylori are increasingly needed. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of newly synthesized 8-nitroflouroqunolone derivatives when used either alone or when combined with metronidazole against metronidazole-resistant H. pylori . Based on the standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and checkerboard titration assay, all of the tested compounds showed interesting antimicrobial activity against 12 clinical strains of H. pylori , with the best in vitro effect for compound 3c . In addition, synergistic and additive activities of some of the tested compounds were observed when combined with metronidazole. Furthermore, among the tested nitroflouroquinolone derivatives, compound 3b showed significant urease inhibition activity with IC 50 of 62.5 µg/mL. These results suggest that 8-nitroflouroquinolone derivatives may have a useful role in combination with anti- H. pylori drugs in the management of H. pylori -associated diseases.

  12. [Topical treatment of vaginal infections by the association of metronidazole-clotrimazole].

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, K; Mattana, P

    2013-12-01

    Vaginal infections are one of the most gynecological frequently diseases observed and with significant psychological and clinical implications. Their pharmacological treatment may require different options, but even today, scientific literature and international guidelines recommend the use of metronidazole for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and trichomoniasis, and the clotrimazole for fungal infections from Candida (VVC). In this contest, the topical association of clotrimazole-metronidazole (vaginal pessaries, cream and douches) represents a current reference treatment for these types of infections with a number of important pharmacological properties. This combination allows an effective activity against to a broad spectrum of pathogens (bacterial, fungal and protozoan), a feature particularly relevant in the case of mixed infections. Furthermore it allows a synergistic action that improve the therapeutic abilities of the individual components, a reduction of the spontaneous resistance of some microorganisms and the activity against symptoms and signs of vaginal inflammation with maintaining the vaginal ecosystem, since they have no activity against endogenous lactobacilli. Finally, recent studies have shown the ability of the topical association of metronidazole-clotrimazole to inhibit the in vitro phenotypic switching of Candida albicans, and its effectiveness against Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (RVVC).

  13. Novel metronidazole-chalcone conjugates with potential to counter drug resistance in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Anthwal, Amit; Rajesh, U Chinna; Rawat, M S M; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Sharma, Vishnu L; Gupta, Gopal; Rawat, Diwan S

    2014-05-22

    Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent, curable sexually transmitted disease (STD), which increases risk of viral STDs and HIV. However, drug resistance has been developed by some strains of Trichomonas vaginalis against Metronidazole (MTZ), the FDA approved drug against trichomoniasis. In the present study twenty two chalcone hybrids of metronidazole have been synthesized in a quest to get new molecules with higher potential against metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis. All new hybrid molecules were found active against T. vaginalis with varying levels of activity against MTZ-susceptible and resistant strains. Eight compounds (4a, 4c, 4d, 4e, 4f, 4h, 4q and 4s) were found as active as the standard drug with an MIC of 1.56 μg/ml against MTZ-susceptible strain. However, compounds 4e, 4h and 4m were 4-times more active than MTZ against drug-resistant T. vaginalis, amongst which 4e and 4h were most promising against both susceptible and resistant strains. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Evaluation of topical metronidazole in the healing wounds process: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Lilian Cristine Teixeira; Biondo-Simões, Maria de Lourdes Pessole; Sampaio, Cláudia Paraguaçu Pupo; Farias, Rogério Estevam; Pierin, Rodrigo Jardim; Netto, Miguel Chomiski

    2010-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of a topical 4% metronidazole solution in wound healing by secondary intention in rats. We made circular wounds two inches in diameter at the back of rats and studied healing at 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. The wound contraction and epithelialization were assessed by peripheral digital planimetry and myofibroblasts by immunohistochemistry with a-SMA. There was no difference between groups regarding wound contraction. In wounds treated with metronidazole peripheral epithelialization was evident early on day 3 (p <0.001) and there were no differences in other periods. In the control group, the number of myofibroblasts was higher on day 7 (p = 0.003) and day 14 (p = 0.001) and in the experimental group it was suggestively higher on day 3 (p = 0.06). Metronidazole 4% solution at a dose of 50 mg/kg applied topically to wounds healing by secondary intention facilitates early peripheral epithelialization, does not interfere with wound contraction and delays the appearance of myofibroblasts.

  15. Degradation of the pharmaceutical metronidazole via UV, Fenton and photo-Fenton processes.

    PubMed

    Shemer, Hilla; Kunukcu, Yasemin Kaçar; Linden, Karl G

    2006-04-01

    Degradation rates and removal efficiencies of Metronidazole using UV, UV/H2O2, H2O2/Fe2+, and UV/H2O2/Fe2+ were studied in de-ionized water. The four different oxidation processes were compared for the removal kinetics of the antimicrobial pharmaceutical Metronidazole. It was found that the degradation of Metronidazole by UV and UV/H2O2 exhibited pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. By applying H2O2/Fe2+, and UV/H2O2/Fe2+ the degradation kinetics followed a second order behavior. The quantum yields for direct photolysis, measured at 254 nm and 200-400 nm, were 0.0033 and 0.0080 mol E(-1), respectively. Increasing the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide promoted the oxidation rate by UV/ H2O2. Adding more ferrous ions enhanced the oxidation rate for the H2O2/Fe2+ and UV/H2O2/Fe2+ processes. The major advantages and disadvantages of each process and the complexity of comparing the various advanced oxidation processes on an equal basis are discussed.

  16. Prediction of the drug release stability of different polymeric matrix tablets containing metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Szente, Virág; Baska, Ferenc; Zelkó, Romána; Süvegh, Károly

    2011-03-25

    The aim of the present study was to predict the structural changes of polymeric excipients in the course of storage causing undesired changes in drug release stability of tablets containing different polymers. Matrix tablets were formulated with metronidazole as a model drug, using polyvinylpyrrolidone and carbopol as matrix materials. Dissolution tests were carried out before and after storing the tablets under stress conditions for different time intervals. Parameters characterizing the release kinetics of matrix tablets, just as difference and similarity factors, were calculated to compare the release profiles as a function of storage time. FT-IR measurements were carried out to track the structural changes of the physical mixtures of metronidazole and polymers during storage. The changes of the characteristic peaks of the FT-IR spectra of metronidazole-polymer mixtures were in good correlation with the significant changes of release parameters of tablets. The latter was confirmed by ab initio calculations. The work showed that the combination of ab initio calculations with structural examinations could predict the possible instability of drug release and, thus, enables the screening of polymeric excipients of undesired physical stability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Systemic moxifloxacin vs amoxicillin/metronidazole adjunct to non-surgical treatment in generalized aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Guzeldemir-Akcakanat, Esra; Gurgan, Cem-Abdulkadir

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this randomized clinical study was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of moxifloxacin compared to amoxicillin and metronidazole, combined with non-surgical treatment in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) in a 6-month follow-up. A total of 39 systemically healthy patients with GAgP were evaluated in this randomized clinical trial. Periodontal parameters were recorded at the baseline during the 1st, 3rd and 6th month. Patients received either 400 mg of moxifloxacin per os once daily or 500 mg of metronidazole and 500 mg amoxicillin per os three times daily for 7 days consecutively. No significant differences between groups were found in any parameters at the baseline. Both groups led to a statistically significant decrease in all clinical periodontal parameters compared to the baseline (PI; p<0.001 and GI, PD, BOP, CAL, p<0.01). There were no differences between the 1st and 3rd months or the 3rd and 6th months for clinical parameters in the groups. Also, no intergroup difference was observed in any parameters at any time, except the gingival index at 6th months. Systemic administration of moxifloxacin as an adjunct to non-surgical treatment significantly improves clinical outcomes and provides comparable clinical improvement with less adverse events to that of combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole in the treatment of GAgP.

  18. Effect of Metronidazole on Halitosis of 2 to 10 Years Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Sayedi, Sayed Javad; Modaresi, Mohammad Reza; Saneian, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regarding the fact that halitosis has social and personal aspects which can lead to social embarrassment and consequently low self-esteem and self-confidence in subjects suffering from the problem, especially children, its proper treatment is an important issue. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of metronidazole as a nonspecific antimicrobial agent in the treatment of halitosis in children. Materials and Methods: In this study, 2-10 years old children with oral halitosis were enrolled. Children without H. pylori infection and parasitic infection were randomized in two interventional and control groups. Metronidazole was given 5mg/kg/day for one week. Information regarding the demographic characteristics of studied population and halitosis (duration and time of day with more halitosis and its severity) before and after intervention was recorded using a questionnaire Results: 77 children with halitosis were studied in two interventional (40 children) and control (37 children) groups. There was no significant difference between two groups before intervention. After intervention, halitosis improvement rate - according to the reports of mothers of studied children - was higher significantly in intervention group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results support the effectiveness of metronidazole in the treatment of halitosis. Moreover, it supports recent findings regarding the participation of specific bacteria specially unculturable ones in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:26199692

  19. Assessment of skin barrier function in rosacea patients with a novel 1% metronidazole gel.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe D

    2005-01-01

    The skin of patients with rosacea is extremely sensitive and hyper-reactive to dietary, environmental, and topical factors. Accordingly, the management of rosacea involves not only choosing appropriate medication and treatment for daily skin care, but also avoiding known trigger factors. Recently, 1% metronidazole, a mainstay of topical rosacea therapy, was reformulated in a gel vehicle that contains hydrosolubilizing agents (HSA) niacinamide, beta cyclodextrin, and a low concentration of propylene glycol. It is designed to solubilize greater concentrations of metronidazole than is possible in water alone while reducing the potential for irritation and barrier disruption. A 2-week study was undertaken by the author to evaluate the effect of the new 1% metronidazole gel on the skin barrier in 25 women with mild to moderate rosacea. Statistically significant improvement in disease severity, erythema, desquamation, and skin irritation was noted by the investigator by the end of week 1, which continued throughout the study. After 2 weeks, subjects noted improvements in skin condition and rosacea. Results of noninvasive assessments showed no disruption of the skin barrier. Furthermore, there was an increasing trend in skin hydration that approached statistical significance.

  20. Secondary septicaemia from intravenous cannulae.

    PubMed

    Darrell, J H; Garrod, L P

    1969-05-24

    Within a period of only seven months three patients in one hospital under treatment with antibiotics by intravenous infusion developed secondary bloodstream infection originating from the site of insertion of the cannula. Two of these infections were fatal. Precautions suggested include strict asepsis, the skin being sterilized with iodine in spirit solution; antibiotic spray; and changing the cannula site.

  1. Secondary Septicaemia from Intravenous Cannulae

    PubMed Central

    Darrell, J. H.; Garrod, L. P.

    1969-01-01

    Within a period of only seven months three patients in one hospital under treatment with antibiotics by intravenous infusion developed secondary bloodstream infection originating from the site of insertion of the cannula. Two of these infections were fatal. Precautions suggested include strict asepsis, the skin being sterilized with iodine in spirit solution; antibiotic spray; and changing the cannula site. PMID:5771579

  2. [Complications caused by intravenous therapy].

    PubMed

    Quirós Luque, José María; Gago Fornells, Manuel

    2005-11-01

    Nursing professionals must know everything related to complications caused by intravenous therapy including the ways to prevent and solve these complications. We need not forget that nurses are the ones mainly responsible for the insertion, manipulation, removal and care of catheters.

  3. Hypertonic Saline in Conjunction with High-Dose Furosemide Improves Dose-Response Curves in Worsening Refractory Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Paterna, Salvatore; Di Gaudio, Francesca; La Rocca, Vincenzo; Balistreri, Fabio; Greco, Massimiliano; Torres, Daniele; Lupo, Umberto; Rizzo, Giuseppina; di Pasquale, Pietro; Indelicato, Sergio; Cuttitta, Francesco; Butler, Javed; Parrinello, Gaspare

    2015-10-01

    Diuretic responsiveness in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is better assessed by urine production per unit diuretic dose than by the absolute urine output or diuretic dose. Diuretic resistance arises over time when the plateau rate of sodium and water excretion is reached prior to optimal fluid elimination and may be overcome when hypertonic saline solution (HSS) is added to high doses of furosemide. Forty-two consecutively hospitalized patients with refractory CHF were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to furosemide doses (125 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg) so that all patients received intravenous furosemide diluted in 150 ml of normal saline (0.9%) in the first step (0-24 h) and the same furosemide dose diluted in 150 ml of HSS (1.4%) in the next step (24-48 h) as to obtain 3 groups as follows: Fourteen patients receiving 125 mg (group 1), fourteen patients receiving 250 mg (group 2), and fourteen patients receiving 500 mg (group 3) of furosemide. Urine samples of all patients were collected at 30, 60, and 90 min, and 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 24 h after infusion. Diuresis, sodium excretion, osmolality, and furosemide concentration were evaluated for each urine sample. After randomization, 40 patients completed the study. Two patients, one in group 2 and one in group 3 dropped out. Patients in group 1 (125 mg furosemide) had a mean age of 77 ± 17 years, 43% were male, 6 (43%) had heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and 64% were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV; the mean age of patients in group 2 (250 mg furosemide) was 80 ± 8.1 years, 15% were male, 5 (38%) had HFpEF, and 84% were in NYHA class IV; and the mean age of patients in group 3 (500 mg furosemide) was 73 ± 12 years, 54% were male, 6 (46%) had HFpEF, and 69% were in NYHA class IV. HSS added to furosemide increased total urine output, sodium excretion, urinary osmolality, and furosemide urine delivery in all patients and at all time points. The percentage increase was 18,14, and

  4. Comparison of pharmacokinetics and toxicity after high-dose methotrexate treatments in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Csordas, Katalin; Hegyi, Marta; Eipel, Oliver T; Muller, Judit; Erdelyi, Daniel J; Kovacs, Gabor T

    2013-02-01

    We carried out a detailed comparative study of the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of methotrexate (MTX) and 7-hydroxy-methotrexate (7-OH-MTX) after high-dose intravenous methotrexate (HD-MTX) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Overall, 65 children were treated with 5 g/m2/24 h MTX and 88 children were treated with 2 g/m2/24 h MTX according to ALL-BFM 95 and ALL IC-BFM 2002 protocols (mean age: 6.4 years, range 1.0-17.9 years). A total of 583 HD-MTX courses were analyzed. Serum MTX and 7-OH-MTX levels were measured at 24, 36, and 48 h, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MTX levels were determined 24 h after the initiation of the infusion. The area under the concentration-time curve was calculated. Hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and bone marrow toxicity were estimated by routine laboratory tests. We investigated pharmacokinetics and toxicity in distinct age groups (< 6 and > 14 years). 5 g/m2/24 h treatments resulted in higher serum and CSF MTX and 7-OH-MTX levels (P < 0.05). The CSF penetration rate of MTX was independent of the MTX dose [2.3% (95% confidence interval: 1.7-2.5%) vs. 2.8% (95% confidence interval: 2.4-3%)]. The CSF MTX concentration was correlated with the 24 h MTX serum level (r = 0.38, P < 0.0001). Repeated treatments did not alter MTX or 7-OH-MTX levels. 7-OH-MTX levels were correlated with nephrotoxicity (r = 0.36, P < 0.0001). Higher MTX levels and toxicity occurred more frequently in children aged older than 14 years (P < 0.05). Therapeutic serum and CSF MTX concentrations can be achieved more reliably with 5 g/m2/24 h treatments. To predict the development of toxicity, monitoring of the level of the 7-OH-MTX is useful. Monitoring of pharmacokinetics is essential to prevent the development of severe adverse events in adolescents.

  5. Does high dose vitamin D supplementation enhance cognition?: A randomized trial in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, Jacqueline A

    2017-04-01

    Insufficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has been associated with dementia and cognitive decline. However, the effects of vitamin D supplementation on cognition are unclear. It was hypothesized that high dose vitamin D3 supplementation would result in enhanced cognitive functioning, particularly among adults whose 25(OH)D levels were insufficient (<75nmol/L) at baseline. Healthy adults (n=82) from northern British Columbia, Canada (54° north latitude) with baseline 25(OH)D levels ≤100nmol/L were randomized and blinded to High Dose (4000IU/d) versus Low Dose (400IU/d) vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) for 18weeks. Baseline and follow-up serum 25(OH)D and cognitive performance were assessed and the latter consisted of: Symbol Digit Modalities Test, verbal (phonemic) fluency, digit span, and the CANTAB® computerized battery. There were no significant baseline differences between Low (n=40) and High (n=42) dose groups. Serum 25(OH)D increased significantly more in the High Dose (from 67.2±20 to 130.6±26nmol/L) than the Low Dose group (60.5±22 to 85.9±16nmol/L), p=0.0001. Performance improved in the High Dose group on nonverbal (visual) memory, as assessed by the Pattern Recognition Memory task (PRM), from 84.1±14.9 to 88.3±13.2, p=0.043 (d=0.3) and Paired Associates Learning Task, (PAL) number of stages completed, from 4.86±0.35 to 4.95±0.22, p=0.044 (d=0.5), but not in the Low Dose Group. Mixed effects modeling controlling for age, education, sex and baseline performance revealed that the degree of improvement was comparatively greater in the High Dose Group for these tasks, approaching significance: PRM, p=0.11 (d=0.4), PAL, p=0.058 (d=0.4). Among those who had insufficient 25(OH)D (<75nmol/L) at baseline, the High Dose group (n=23) improved significantly (p=0.005, d=0.7) and to a comparatively greater degree on the PRM (p=0.025, d=0.6). Nonverbal (visual) memory seems to benefit from higher doses of vitamin D supplementation, particularly among those

  6. Bacteriologic and clinical efficacy of high dose amoxicillin for therapy of acute otitis media in children.

    PubMed

    Piglansky, Lolita; Leibovitz, Eugene; Raiz, Simon; Greenberg, David; Press, Joseph; Leiberman, Alberto; Dagan, Ron

    2003-05-01

    High dose (70 to 90 mg/kg/day) amoxicillin is recommended as first line therapy of acute otitis media (AOM) in geographic areas where drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae is prevalent. Information on the bacteriologic efficacy of high dose amoxicillin treatment for AOM is limited. To evaluate the bacteriologic and clinical efficacy of high dose amoxicillin as first line therapy in AOM. In a prospective study 50 culture-positive patients ages 3 to 22 months (median, 9 months; 77% <1 year) were treated with high dose amoxicillin (80 mg/kg/day three times a day for 10 days) No antibiotics were administered 72 h before enrollment. Twenty-four (48%) patients presented with their first episode of AOM. Middle ear fluid was cultured by tympanocentesis at enrollment and on Days 4 to 6 of therapy. Additional middle ear fluid cultures were obtained if clinical relapse occurred. Bacteriologic failure was defined by positive cultures on Days 4 to 6 and clinical failure by no change or worsening of AOM signs and symptoms and requirement for additional antibiotics during therapy and/or at end of therapy. Patients were followed until Day 28 +/- 2. Susceptibility to penicillin and amoxicillin was measured by E-test. Sixty-five organisms were recovered at enrollment: Haemophilus influenzae (38), Streptococcus pneumoniae (24), Streptococcus pyogenes (2) and Moraxella catarrhalis (1). Eighteen (75%) S. pneumoniae were nonsusceptible to penicillin (MIC > 0.1 microg/ml). All 24 S. pneumoniae isolates had amoxicillin MIC < or = 2.0 microg/ml. Thirteen (34%) of the 38 H. influenzae were beta-lactamase producers. Eradication was achieved in 41 (82%) patients for 54 of 65 (83%) pathogens: 22 of 24 (92%) S. pneumoniae, 21 of 25 (84%) beta-lactamase-negative H. influenzae, 8 of 13 (62%) beta-lactamase-positive H. influenzae, 2 of 2 S. pyogenes and 1 of 1 M. catarrhalis. Seven organisms not initially present were isolated on Days 4 to 6 in 5 patients: 3 beta-lactamase-positive H. influenzae

  7. The appearance of facial foundation cosmetics applied after metronidazole gel 1%.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe D; Colón, Luz E; Preston, Norman; Johnson, Lori A; Gottschalk, Ronald W

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cosmetic appearance of commonly marketed facial cosmetics when used after the application of metronidazole gel 1%. An observational. open-label, single-site study was conducted with women (N=30) aged 20 to 75 years and diagnosed with moderate papulopustular rosacea (investigator global severity score of 3). After cleansing the face with a gentle skin cleanser, participants applied metronidazole gel 1% once daily before applying their usual facial foundation. Two surveys were conducted: (1) investigator assessment of cosmetic appearance; and (2) participant assessment of cosmetic appearance. The investigator also evaluated erythema, disease severity, and tolerability at baseline and week 2. Adverse events were collected. The 28 per-protocol (PP) participants had a mean age (standard deviation [SD]) of 54.0 (10.3) years and a mean duration (SD) of rosacea of 15.4 (13.2) years. The median response score for both the investigator and participant assessments of cosmetic appearance was 10 (best) for each survey question. Signs and symptoms of rosacea did not increase with use of metronidazole gel 1% and the participants' selected cosmetic regimen. At baseline all 28 participants were classified as having moderate erythema. At week 2, 18 (64%) participants were classified as having moderate erythema and 10 (36%) mild. At baseline all 28 (100%) participants were classified as having moderate rosacea according to the investigator global severity score. At week 2, 10 (36%) participants were classified as mild and 18 (64%) moderate. In addition, few participants reported cutaneous irritation during the study. At week 2, 10 participants had dryness, 2 had itching, 8 had scaling, and 2 had stinging/burning. According to surveys completed by the investigator and the participants themselves, most participants had a good cosmetic appearance with their facial foundation cosmetics that were applied after metronidazole gel 1%. The use of

  8. Entirely S-protected chitosan: A promising mucoadhesive excipient for metronidazole vaginal tablets.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Noemi; Fodor, Benjamin; Muhammad, Ijaz; Yaqoob, Muhammad; Matuszczak, Barbara; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Synthesis and evaluation of an entirely S-protected chitosan as mucoadhesive excipient for vaginal drug delivery. N-acetyl-cysteine was linked to 6-mercaptonicotinamide via disulphide exchange reaction. The obtained ligand, NAC-6-MNA, was subsequently attached to chitosan by carbodiimide mediated amide bond formation in two concentrations. The synthesized S-protected chitosan was chemically characterized and mucoadhesive properties and stability against oxidation were investigated. Moreover, metronidazole tablets comprising the S-protected chitosan were evaluated regarding water uptake capacity, disintegration behaviour, residence time on vaginal mucosa, release of the encapsulated drug and antimicrobial activity. S-protected chitosan displayed 160±19 (CS-MNA-160) and 320±38 (CS-MNA-320)µmol of ligand per gram of polymer. At pH 4.2, CS-MNA-160 and CS-MNA-320 showed 5.2-fold and 6.2-fold increase in mucus viscosity in comparison to unmodified chitosan (One-way ANOVA, p<.001), whereas, 9.9-fold (CS-MNA-160) and 15.6-fold (CS-MNA-320) (One-way ANOVA, p<.001) increase in viscosity was measured at pH 6. The S-protected chitosan remained stable against oxidation in presence of 0.5%v/v hydrogen peroxide. Metronidazole tablets consisting in S-protected chitosan showed prolonged residence time on vaginal mucosa and improved water uptake capacity and disintegration time in comparison to tablets consisting of unmodified chitosan. Moreover, CS-MNA-320 metronidazole tablets displayed prolonged drug release and antimicrobial activity. On the basis of the achieved results, entirely S-protected chitosan represents a promising excipient for the development of metronidazole vaginal tablets. S-protected thiomers are polymers modified with thiol groups protected by aromatic ligands and characterized by strong mucoadhesive properties and high stability against oxidation. Up to date, the entirely S-protection of thiol groups was achieved via the synthesis of the ligand 2-((2-amino-2

  9. Comparison of cefixime and amoxicillin plus metronidazole in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Dukić, Smiljka; Matijević, Stevo; Daković, Dragana; Cutović, Tatjana

    2016-06-01

    Despite significant advances in current medicine and improvement of overall health education, chronic periodontitis is still a widespread disease. Losing teeth is the most serious complication of this particular illness. The aim of this study was to examine patients with chronic periodontitis in order to evaluate the efficacy of non-surgical therapy and combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole compared with cefixime, which has not been so far used for the treatment of this disease. Adult patients with chronic periodontitis (n = 90) underwent non-surgical periodontal treatment (zero-day) and then randomly divided into three groups. The group I served as a control, the group II was additionally treated with the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole (for 7 days), while the group III was treated with cefixime (also for 7 days). To assess the condition of periodontium before and seven days after the therapy, four clinical parameters were used: gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL). On the day 7 after the beginning of the therapy, we found that all the three groups of patients had statistically significant clinical improvement of three parameters: GI, BOP and PD, but not of the CAL. However, the improvement of PD was only statistically, but not clinically significant. The improvement in the control group of patients on the day 7 was 19% in BOP and 28% in GI; this improvement was statistically highly significant after the addition of amoxicillin plus metronodazole (71% in BOP and 77% in GI) or cefixime (62% in BOP and 82% in GI). Compared to the combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole, cefixim was statistically significantly more effective for GI (p < 0.05), while for the other three clinical parameters their effects were equal. The conjunction of amoxicillin plus metronidazole or cefixime to the causal treatment of patients with chronic periodontitis led to statistically significant

  10. Single dose intravenous paracetamol or intravenous propacetamol for postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Stott, Amanda

    2017-07-26

    statement The mission of the Cochrane Nursing Care Field (CNCF) is to improve health outcomes through increasing the use of the Cochrane Library and supporting Cochrane's role by providing an evidence base for nurses and healthcare professionals who deliver, lead or research nursing care. The CNCF produces Cochrane Corner columns, summaries of recent nursing-care-relevant Cochrane Reviews that are regularly published in collaborating nursing-related journals. Information on the processes CNCF has developed can be accessed at: cncf.cochrane.org/evidence-transfer-program-review-summaries . This is a Cochrane review summary of: McNicol ED, Ferguson MC, Haroutounian S et al (2016) Single dose intravenous propacetamol or intravenous paracetamol for postoperative pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Issue 10. CD007126. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007126.pub3.

  11. Comparison of low and high dose ionising radiation using topological analysis of gene coexpression networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The growing use of imaging procedures in medicine has raised concerns about exposure to low-dose ionising radiation (LDIR). While the disastrous effects of high dose ionising radiation (HDIR) is well documented, the detrimental effects of LDIR is not well understood and has been a topic of much debate. Since little is known about the effects of LDIR, various kinds of wet-lab and computational analyses are required to advance knowledge in this domain. In this paper we carry out an “upside-down pyramid” form of systems biology analysis of microarray data. We characterised the global genomic response following 10 cGy (low dose) and 100 cGy (high dose) doses of X-ray ionising radiation at four time points by analysing the topology of gene coexpression networks. This study includes a rich experimental design and state-of-the-art computational systems biology methods of analysis to study the differences in the transcriptional response of skin cells exposed to low and high doses of radiation. Results Using this method we found important genes that have been linked to immune response, cell survival and apoptosis. Furthermore, we also were able to identify genes such as BRCA1, ABCA1, TNFRSF1B, MLLT11 that have been associated with various types of cancers. We were also able to detect many genes known to be associated with various medical conditions. Conclusions Our method of applying network topological differences can aid in identifying the differences among similar (eg: radiation effect) yet very different biological conditions (eg: different dose and time) to generate testable hypotheses. This is the first study where a network level analysis was performed across two different radiation doses at various time points, thereby illustrating changes in the cellular response over time. PMID:22594378

  12. High-dose thiamine therapy counters dyslipidaemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Babaei-Jadidi, R; Karachalias, N; Kupich, C; Ahmed, N; Thornalley, P J

    2004-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease in diabetes is linked to increased risk of atherosclerosis, increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and enhanced hepatic lipogenesis. The hepatic hexosamine pathway has been implicated in signalling for de novo lipogenesis by the liver. In this study, we assessed if decrease of flux through the hexosamine pathway induced by high-dose thiamine therapy counters diabetic dyslipidaemia. The model of diabetes used was the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat with maintenance insulin therapy. Normal control and diabetic rats were studied for 24 weeks with and without oral high-dose therapy (7 and 70 mg/kg) with thiamine and benfotiamine. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were determined at 6-week intervals and hepatic metabolites and transketolase activity after death of the rats at 24 weeks. We found that thiamine therapy (70 mg/kg) prevented diabetes-induced increases in plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetic rats but did not reverse the diabetes-induced decrease of HDL. This was achieved by prevention of thiamine depletion and decreased transketolase activity in the liver of diabetic rats. There was a concomitant decrease in hepatic UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and fatty acid synthase activity. Thiamine also normalised food intake of diabetic rats. A lower dose of thiamine (7 mg/kg) and the thiamine monophosphate prodrug benfotiamine (7 and 70 mg/kg) were ineffective. High-dose thiamine therapy prevented diabetic dyslipidaemia in experimental diabetes probably by suppression of food intake and hexosamine pathway signalling but other factors may also be involved. Benfotiamine was ineffective.

  13. High-Dose Citalopram and Escitalopram and the Risk of Out-of-Hospital Death.

    PubMed

    Ray, Wayne A; Chung, Cecilia P; Murray, Katherine T; Hall, Kathi; Stein, C Michael

    2017-02-01

    Studies demonstrating that higher doses of citalopram (> 40 mg) and escitalopram (> 20 mg) prolong the corrected QT interval prompted regulatory agency warnings, which are controversial, given the absence of confirmatory clinical outcome studies. We compared the risk of potential arrhythmia-related deaths for high doses of these selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to that for equivalent doses of fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline. The Tennessee Medicaid retrospective cohort study included 54,220 persons 30-74 years of age without cancer or other life-threatening illness who were prescribed high-dose SSRIs from 1998 through 2011. The mean age was 47 years, and 76% were female. Demographic characteristics and comorbidity for individual SSRIs were comparable. Because arrhythmia-related deaths are typically sudden and occur outside the hospital, we analyzed out-of-hospital sudden unexpected death as well as sudden cardiac deaths, a more specific indicator of proarrhythmic effects. The adjusted risk of sudden unexpected death for citalopram did not differ significantly from that for the other SSRIs. The respective hazard ratios (HRs) for citalopram versus escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.40-1.75), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.75-2.05), 0.75 (95% CI, 0.45-1.24), and 1.53 (95% CI, 0.91-2.55). There were no significant differences for sudden cardiac death or all study deaths, nor were there significant differences among high-risk patients (≥ 60 years of age, upper quartile baseline cardiovascular risk). Escitalopram users had no significantly increased risk for any study end point. We found no evidence that risk of sudden unexpected death, sudden cardiac death, or total mortality for high-dose citalopram and escitalopram differed significantly from that for comparable doses of fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  14. Efficacy and Tolerability of High-Dose Escitalopram in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei; Gevonden, Martin; Shalev, Arieh

    2017-02-01

    Open-label trials suggest that escitalopram (up to 20 mg/d) is an effective treatment for some, but not all posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. Higher doses of escitalopram effectively reduced major depression symptoms in patients who had not responded to regular doses. The current study examines the efficacy, tolerability, and adherence to high-dose escitalopram in PTSD. Forty-five PTSD patients received 12 weeks of gradually increasing doses of escitalopram reaching 40 mg daily at 4 weeks. Among those, 12 participants received regular doses of antidepressants at study onset including escitalopram (n = 7). The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) evaluated PTSD symptoms severity before treatment, at 3 months (upon treatment termination), and at 6 months (maintenance effect). A 20% reduction in CAPS scores was deemed clinically significant. Adverse events and medication adherence were monitored at each clinical session. Linear mixed-models analysis showed a significant reduction of mean CAPS scores (11.5 ± 18.1 points) at 3 months and maintenance of gains by 6 months (F2,34.56 = 8.15, P = 0.001). Eleven participants (34.3%) showed clinically significant improvement at 3 months. Only 9 participants (20%) left the study. There were no serious adverse events and few mild ones with only 2 adverse events (diarrhea, 11.1%; drowsiness, 11.1%) reported by more than 10% of participants. High doses of escitalopram are tolerable and well adhered to in PTSD. Their beneficial effect at a group level is due to a particularly good response in a subset of patients.Variability in prior pharmacological treatment precludes a definite attribution of the results to high doses of escitalopram.

  15. High-Dose Citalopram and Escitalopram and the Risk of Out-of-Hospital Death

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Wayne A.; Chung, Cecilia P.; Murray, Katherine T.; Hall, Kathi; Stein, C. Michael

    2018-01-01

    Objective Studies demonstrating higher doses of citalopram (>40mg) and escitalopram (>20mg) prolong the QTc interval prompted regulatory agency warnings, which are controversial, given the absence of confirmatory clinical outcome studies. We compared the risk of potential arrhythmia-related deaths for high doses of these SSRIs to that for equivalent doses of fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline. Method The Tennessee Medicaid retrospective cohort study included 54,220 persons 30–74 years of age without cancer or other life-threatening illness prescribed high-dose SSRIs. The mean age was 47 years and 76% were female. Demographic characteristics and comorbidity for individual SSRIs were comparable. Because arrhythmia-related deaths are typically sudden and occur outside the hospital, we analyzed out-of-hospital sudden unexpected death as well as sudden cardiac deaths, a more specific indicator of pro-arrhythmic effects. Results The adjusted risk of sudden unexpected death for citalopram did not differ significantly from that for the other SSRIs. The respective hazard ratios (HRs) for citalopram versus escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline were 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40–1.75), 1.24 (0.75–2.05), 0.75 (0.45–1.24), and 1.53 (0.91–2.55). There were no significant differences for sudden cardiac death or all study deaths, nor were there significant differences among high-risk patients (≥60 years of age, upper quartile baseline cardiovascular risk). Escitalopram users had no significantly increased risk for any study endpoint. Conclusions We found no evidence that risk of sudden unexpected death, sudden cardiac death, or total mortality for high-dose citalopram and escitalopram differed significantly from that for comparable doses of fluoxetine, paroxetine, and sertraline. PMID:27736049

  16. High-dose enalapril treatment reverses myocardial fibrosis in experimental uremic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Tyralla, Karin; Adamczak, Marcin; Benz, Kerstin; Campean, Valentina; Gross, Marie-Luise; Hilgers, Karl F; Ritz, Eberhard; Amann, Kerstin

    2011-01-27

    Patients with renal failure develop cardiovascular alterations which contribute to the higher rate of cardiac death. Blockade of the renin angiotensin system ameliorates the development of such changes. It is unclear, however, to what extent ACE-inhibitors can also reverse existing cardiovascular alterations. Therefore, we investigated the effect of high dose enalapril treatment on these alterations. Male Sprague Dawley rats underwent subtotal nephrectomy (SNX, n = 34) or sham operation (sham, n = 39). Eight weeks after surgery, rats were sacrificed or allocated to treatment with either high-dose enalapril, combination of furosemide/dihydralazine or solvent for 4 weeks. Heart and aorta were evaluated using morphometry, stereological techniques and TaqMan PCR. After 8 and 12 weeks systolic blood pressure, albumin excretion, and left ventricular weight were significantly higher in untreated SNX compared to sham. Twelve weeks after SNX a significantly higher volume density of cardiac interstitial tissue (2.57±0.43% in SNX vs 1.50±0.43% in sham, p<0.05) and a significantly lower capillary length density (4532±355 mm/mm(3) in SNX vs 5023±624 mm/mm(3) in sham, p<0.05) were found. Treatment of SNX with enalapril from week 8-12 significantly improved myocardial fibrosis (1.63±0.25%, p<0.05), but not capillary reduction (3908±486 mm/mm(3)) or increased intercapillary distance. In contrast, alternative antihypertensive treatment showed no such effect. Significantly increased media thickness together with decreased vascular smooth muscles cell number and a disarray of elastic fibres were found in the aorta of SNX animals compared to sham. Both antihypertensive treatments failed to cause complete regression of these alterations. The study indicates that high dose ACE-I treatment causes partial, but not complete, reversal of cardiovascular changes in SNX.

  17. High-Dose Enalapril Treatment Reverses Myocardial Fibrosis in Experimental Uremic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tyralla, Karin; Adamczak, Marcin; Benz, Kerstin; Campean, Valentina; Gross, Marie-Luise; Hilgers, Karl F.; Ritz, Eberhard; Amann, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    Aims Patients with renal failure develop cardiovascular alterations which contribute to the higher rate of cardiac death. Blockade of the renin angiotensin system ameliorates the development of such changes. It is unclear, however, to what extent ACE-inhibitors can also reverse existing cardiovascular alterations. Therefore, we investigated the effect of high dose enalapril treatment on these alterations. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats underwent subtotal nephrectomy (SNX, n = 34) or sham operation (sham, n = 39). Eight weeks after surgery, rats were sacrificed or allocated to treatment with either high-dose enalapril, combination of furosemide/dihydralazine or solvent for 4 weeks. Heart and aorta were evaluated using morphometry, stereological techniques and TaqMan PCR. Results After 8 and 12 weeks systolic blood pressure, albumin excretion, and left ventricular weight were significantly higher in untreated SNX compared to sham. Twelve weeks after SNX a significantly higher volume density of cardiac interstitial tissue (2.57±0.43% in SNX vs 1.50±0.43% in sham, p<0.05) and a significantly lower capillary length density (4532±355 mm/mm3 in SNX vs 5023±624 mm/mm3 in sham, p<0.05) were found. Treatment of SNX with enalapril from week 8–12 significantly improved myocardial fibrosis (1.63±0.25%, p<0.05), but not capillary reduction (3908±486 mm/mm3) or increased intercapillary distance. In contrast, alternative antihypertensive treatment showed no such effect. Significantly increased media thickness together with decreased vascular smooth muscles cell number and a disarray of elastic fibres were found in the aorta of SNX animals compared to sham. Both antihypertensive treatments failed to cause complete regression of these alterations. Conclusions The study indicates that high dose ACE-I treatment causes partial, but not complete, reversal of cardiovascular changes in SNX. PMID:21298056

  18. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging After High-Dose Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for Childhood Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Spreafico, Filippo; Gandola, Lorenza; Marchiano, Alfonso

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Brain necrosis or other subacute iatrogenic reactions has been recognized as a potential complication of radiotherapy (RT), although the possible synergistic effects of high-dose chemotherapy and RT might have been underestimated. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the clinical and radiologic data of 49 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with high-dose thiotepa and autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue, preceded or followed by RT. The patients were assessed for neurocognitive tests to identify any correlation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anomalies. Results: Of the 49 children, 18 (6 of 25 with high-grade gliomas and 12 of 24 with primitivemore » neuroectodermal tumors) had abnormal brain MRI findings occurring a median of 8 months (range, 2-39 months) after RT and beginning to regress a median of 13 months (range, 2-26 months) after onset. The most common lesion pattern involved multiple pseudonodular, millimeter-size, T{sub 1}-weighted unevenly enhancing, and T{sub 2}-weighted hyperintense foci. Four patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumors also had subdural fluid leaks, with meningeal enhancement over the effusion. One-half of the patients had symptoms relating to the new radiographic findings. The MRI lesion-free survival rate was 74% {+-} 6% at 1 year and 57% {+-} 8% at 2 years. The number of marrow ablative courses correlated significantly to the incidence of radiographic anomalies. No significant difference was found in intelligent quotient scores between children with and without radiographic changes. Conclusion: Multiple enhancing cerebral lesions were frequently seen on MRI scans soon after high-dose chemotherapy and RT. Such findings pose a major diagnostic challenge in terms of their differential diagnosis vis-a-vis recurrent tumor. Their correlation with neurocognitive results deserves further investigation.« less

  19. Complications Associated With High-dose Corticosteroid Administration in Children With Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Cage, Jason M; Knox, Jeffrey B; Wimberly, Robert L; Shaha, Steve; Jo, ChanHee; Riccio, Anthony I

    2015-01-01

    Complications with high-dose steroid administration for spinal cord injury are documented in adult patients. Our purpose was to determine the incidence of early complications of this therapy in pediatric patients with spinal cord injuries. An IRB-approved retrospective review was performed for patients treated for spinal cord injury at a level 1 pediatric trauma center between 2003 and 2011. Demographic data, injury characteristics, and surgical interventions were documented. Complications were divided into 4 categories: infectious, gastrointestinal (GI), hyperglycemia/endocrine, and wound healing problems. Complication rates were compared using a Student's t test and Fischer's exact test. Thirty-four spinal cord injury patients were identified. Twenty-three patients (mean age 6.6 y) in the treatment group received high-dose steroid treatment and 11 patients (mean age 8.4 y) did not and comprised the control group. No statistical difference was detected between the 2 groups regarding age, mechanism of injury, rate of surgical intervention, level of injury, and injury severity. Hyperglycemia was the most common complication and was present in all patients in both the treatment and control groups. The overall infection rate was 64% in the control group compared with 26% in the treatment (P<0.05). The control group demonstrated a significantly increased rate of respiratory tract infections [45% control vs. 9% treatment (P<0.05)]. No surgical patients developed a wound infection. One treatment group patient experienced a GI bleed. This is the largest study evaluating the complications associated with high-dose steroid administration for spinal trauma in a pediatric population. Hyperglycemia was found in all spinal cord injury patients, regardless of steroid treatment. Paradoxically, infection rates were noted to be higher in the control group. GI and wound problems were not significantly different. Larger, multicenter prospective studies are needed to better understand

  20. Acute cognitive effects of high doses of dextromethorphan relative to triazolam in humans

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Reissig, Chad J.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Klinedinst, Margaret A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although concerns surrounding high-dose dextromethorphan (DXM) abuse have recently increased, few studies have examined the acute cognitive effects of high doses of DXM. The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive effects of DXM with those of triazolam and placebo. METHODS Single, acute, oral doses of DXM (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 mg/70 kg), triazolam (0.25, 0.5 mg /70 kg), and placebo were administered p.o. to twelve healthy volunteers with histories of hallucinogen use, under double-blind conditions, using an ascending dose run-up design. Effects on cognitive performance were examined at baseline and after drug administration for up to 6 hours. RESULTS Both triazolam and DXM produced acute impairments in attention, working memory, episodic memory, and metacognition. Impairments observed following doses of 100-300 mg/70 kg DXM were generally smaller in magnitude than those observed after 0.5 mg/70 kg triazolam. Doses of DXM that impaired performance to the same extent as triazolam were in excess of 10-30 times the therapeutic dose of DXM. CONCLUSION The magnitude of the doses required for these effects and the absence of effects on some tasks within the 100-300 mg/70 kg dose range of DXM, speak to the relatively broad therapeutic window of over-the-counter DXM preparations when used appropriately. However, the administration of supratherapeutic doses of DXM resulted in acute cognitive impairments on all tasks that were examined. These findings are likely relevant to cases of high-dose DXM abuse. PMID:22989498

  1. Brain magnetic resonance imaging after high-dose chemotherapy and radiotherapy for childhood brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Spreafico, Filippo; Gandola, Lorenza; Marchianò, Alfonso; Simonetti, Fabio; Poggi, Geraldina; Adduci, Anna; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Luksch, Roberto; Biassoni, Veronica; Meazza, Cristina; Catania, Serena; Terenziani, Monica; Musumeci, Renato; Fossati-Bellani, Franca; Massimino, Maura

    2008-03-15

    Brain necrosis or other subacute iatrogenic reactions has been recognized as a potential complication of radiotherapy (RT), although the possible synergistic effects of high-dose chemotherapy and RT might have been underestimated. We reviewed the clinical and radiologic data of 49 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with high-dose thiotepa and autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue, preceded or followed by RT. The patients were assessed for neurocognitive tests to identify any correlation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anomalies. Of the 49 children, 18 (6 of 25 with high-grade gliomas and 12 of 24 with primitive neuroectodermal tumors) had abnormal brain MRI findings occurring a median of 8 months (range, 2-39 months) after RT and beginning to regress a median of 13 months (range, 2-26 months) after onset. The most common lesion pattern involved multiple pseudonodular, millimeter-size, T1-weighted unevenly enhancing, and T2-weighted hyperintense foci. Four patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumors also had subdural fluid leaks, with meningeal enhancement over the effusion. One-half of the patients had symptoms relating to the new radiographic findings. The MRI lesion-free survival rate was 74%+/-6% at 1 year and 57%+/-8% at 2 years. The number of marrow ablative courses correlated significantly to the incidence of radiographic anomalies. No significant difference was found in intelligent quotient scores between children with and without radiographic changes. Multiple enhancing cerebral lesions were frequently seen on MRI scans soon after high-dose chemotherapy and RT. Such findings pose a major diagnostic challenge in terms of their differential diagnosis vis-à-vis recurrent tumor. Their correlation with neurocognitive results deserves further investigation.

  2. A single high dose of cocaine induces differential sensitization to specific behaviors across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Caster, Joseph M; Walker, Q David; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2007-08-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for drug addiction. Acute stimulant exposure elicits different behavioral responses in adolescent and adult rodents. The same biological differences that mediate age-specific behavioral responsiveness to stimulants in rodents could contribute to increased addiction vulnerability in adolescent humans. This study compared the ability of a single high dose of cocaine (40 mg/kg) to induce behavioral sensitization to a challenge dose of cocaine (10 mg/kg) 24 h later in young adolescent postnatal day 28 (PN 28), mid-adolescent (PN 42), and young adult (PN 65) male rats. Horizontal activity was resolved into ambulatory and non-ambulatory movements. An observational behavioral rating was obtained by recording specific behaviors. We examined if individual behavioral responses to novelty and cocaine correlate with sensitization in each age group. Single dose cocaine pretreatment induced behavioral sensitization to non-ambulatory horizontal activity, sniffing behaviors, and stereotypies in animals of all ages. Ambulatory sensitization was observed only in the youngest adolescents. Cocaine pretreatment caused greater increases in stereotypies in the young adolescents than in adults. The magnitude of the behavioral response to the initial cocaine treatment was positively correlated with the magnitude of sensitization in individual young adolescents. High levels of novelty-induced ambulatory activity only correlated with the magnitude of ambulatory sensitization in the youngest adolescents. We conclude that a single high dose of cocaine produces age-specific patterns of behavioral sensitization. Young adolescent rats appear to be more sensitive than adults to some of the behavioral alterations induced by a single high dose of cocaine.

  3. Testicular and Epididymal Histology of Rats Chronically Administered High Doses of Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors and Tramadol.

    PubMed

    Nna, Victor U; Udefa, Augustine L; Ofutet, Emmanuel O; Osim, Eme O

    2017-06-30

    Testicular oxidative stress, endocrine disruption and abnormal spermatogenesis in rats exposed to high doses ofphosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5i) and opioids, with poor reversibility following withdrawal of treatment had beenreported. In this study, we examined the histopathological effects of high doses of sildenafil, tadalafil, tramadol andsildenafil+tramadol on the testes and epididymis of rats. Seventy male rats (180 - 200 g b.w) were assigned to one of fivegroups (n = 14), namely; A: control (0.2 mL normal saline), B: sildenafil (1 mg/100g b.w), C: tadalafil (1 mg/100g b.w), D:tramadol (2 mg/100g b.w) and E: sildenafil+tramadol group (dose as in groups B and D). The drugs were administered orallyfor 8 weeks. Seven rats were sacrificed per group while the remaining 7/group continued for 8 weeks without treatment.Histopathological examination was carried out at the end of both phases. After 8 weeks of treatment, mean Johnsen'stesticular biopsy score (MJTBS) and Leydig cell count decreased significantly (p=0.001) in all treated groups compared withthe control. The MJTBS and Leydig cell count decreased significantly in tramadol (p = 0.05) and sildenafil+tramadol (p<0.01)groups compared with tadalafil group. After recovery, MJTBS and Leydig cell count were significantly (p<0.05) lower in all the groups compared with the control. Histology of the testes of rats in groups B - E showed reduced germ cell andspermatozoa population in the seminiferous tubules after 8 weeks treatment. Additionally, their epididymis showed decreasedspermatozoa density. There was no complete reversibility of histopathological alterations following withdrawal of treatment.High doses of sildenafil, tadalafil, tramadol or sildenafil+tramadol impact negatively on testicular histology with poorreversal following withdrawal of treatment.

  4. High-Dose Oral Ibuprofen in Treatment of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Full-Term Neonates.

    PubMed

    Pourarian, Shahnaz; Rezaie, Mehrdad; Amoozgar, Hamid; Shakiba, Ali-Mohammad; Edraki, Mohammad-Reza; Mehdizadegan, Nima

    2015-08-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is an important risk for heart failure due to left to right shunt in term neonates. In this study, we evaluated the effect of high dose ibuprofen in closure of PDA in term neonates. We used double dose ibuprofen (20 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg) for 3 - 30 day old term neonates with PDA who were admitted in the neonatal wards of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The results of this study were compared to the data of the previous study in our center which used the low dose of ibuprofen (10 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 5 mg/kg). 29 full term neonates received high-dose ibuprofen, in 18 neonates, PDA was closed after 4 days (62.1% versus 43.3% for the standard dose and 4.7% for the control group in the previous study) (P = 0.001). The results showed no significant correlation between the closure rate and gestational age, postnatal age, sex, and weight. In the 4(th) day of treatment, size of the pulmonic end of ductus arteriosus decreased from 2.09 mm to 0.77 mm compared to 1.68 mm to 0.81 mm in the standard dose of oral ibuprofen and 2.1 mm to 1.4 mm in the control group (P = 0.046). This study indicated that high-dose oral ibuprofen was more effective in closing or decreasing the size of PDA.

  5. High doses of biotin in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sedel, Frédéric; Papeix, Caroline; Bellanger, Agnès; Touitou, Valérie; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Galanaud, Damien; Gout, Olivier; Lyon-Caen, Olivier; Tourbah, Ayman

    2015-03-01

    No drug has been found to have any impact on progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Biotin is a vitamin acting as a coenzyme for carboxylases involved in key steps of energy metabolism and fatty acids synthesis. Among others, biotin activates acetylCoA carboxylase, a potentially rate-limiting enzyme in myelin synthesis. The aim of this pilot study is to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of high doses of biotin in patients suffering from progressive MS. Uncontrolled, non-blinded proof of concept study 23 consecutive patients with primary and secondary progressive MS originated from three different French MS reference centers were treated with high doses of biotin (100-300mg/day) from 2 to 36 months (mean=9.2 months). Judgement criteria varied according to clinical presentations and included quantitative and qualitative measures. In four patients with prominent visual impairment related to optic nerve injury, visual acuity improved significantly. Visual evoked potentials in two patients exhibited progressive reappearance of P100 waves, with normalization of latencies in one case. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) in one case showed a progressive normalization of the Choline/Creatine ratio. One patient with left homonymous hemianopia kept on improving from 2 to 16 months following treatment׳s onset. Sixteen patients out of 18 (89%) with prominent spinal cord involvement were considered as improved as confirmed by blinded review of videotaped clinical examination in 9 cases. In all cases improvement was delayed from 2 to 8 months following treatment׳s onset. These preliminary data suggest that high doses of biotin might have an impact on disability and progression in progressive MS. Two double-blind placebo-controlled trials are on going. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A method for checking high dose rate treatment times for vaginal applicators

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Charles S.; Ulin, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    A method is presented for checking the treatment time calculation for high dose rate (HDR) vaginal cylinder treatments. The method represents an independent check of the HDR planning system and can take into account nonuniform isodose line coverage around the cylinder. Only the air kerma strength of the source and information that is available from the written directive are required. The maximum discrepancy for a representative set of cylinder plans done on a Nucletron unit was 5%. A working HTML JavaScript program is included in the Appendix. PACS number(s): 87.53.–j, 87.90.+y PMID:11686739

  7. A method for checking high dose rate treatment times for vaginal applicators.

    PubMed

    Mayo, C S; Ulin, K

    2001-01-01

    A method is presented for checking the treatment time calculation for high dose rate (HDR) vaginal cylinder treatments. The method represents an independent check of the HDR planning system and can take into account nonuniform isodose line coverage around the cylinder. Only the air kerma strength of the source and information that is available from the written directive are required. The maximum discrepancy for a representative set of cylinder plans done on a Nucletron unit was 5%. A working HTML JavaScript program is included in the Appendix.

  8. On the use of multi-dimensional scaling and electromagnetic tracking in high dose rate brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, Th I.; Ermer, M.; Salas-González, D.; Kellermeier, M.; Strnad, V.; Bert, Ch; Hensel, B.; Tomé, A. M.; Lang, E. W.

    2017-10-01

    High dose rate brachytherapy affords a frequent reassurance of the precise dwell positions of the radiation source. The current investigation proposes a multi-dimensional scaling transformation of both data sets to estimate dwell positions without any external reference. Furthermore, the related distributions of dwell positions are characterized by uni—or bi—modal heavy—tailed distributions. The latter are well represented by α—stable distributions. The newly proposed data analysis provides dwell position deviations with high accuracy, and, furthermore, offers a convenient visualization of the actual shapes of the catheters which guide the radiation source during the treatment.

  9. Intravascular CNS lymphoma: Successful therapy using high-dose methotrexate-based polychemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Intravascular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma limited to the CNS (cIVL) is a very rare malignant disorder characterized by a selective accumulation of neoplastic lymphocytes (usually B cells) within the lumen of CNS blood vessels but not in the brain parenchyma. In the past, treatment of cIVL with anthracycline-based regimens was unsatisfactory with very short survival times. In the case of cIVL presented here, high-dose methotrexate-based polychemotherapy according to the Bonn protocol plus rituximab therapy was successful and led to a complete clinical and MRI remission which is ongoing 29 months after diagnosis. PMID:23217063

  10. High-dose steroids as a therapeutic option in the management of spur cell haemolytic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Karam, Dhauna; Swiatkowski, Sean; Purohit, Pant; Agrawal, Bharat

    2018-01-31

    Spur cell haemolytic anaemia (SCA) is a form of anaemia that can be seen in patients with severely impaired liver function or advanced cirrhosis. It is associated with high mortality. The treatment options for SCA secondary to cirrhosis are limited. Our patient is a middle-aged man who developed SCA and was not a candidate for liver transplantation or splenectomy. High-dose steroids helped ameliorate haemolysis and improve anaemia and general condition of our patient. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. High-Dose Chemotherapy and Autologous Stem Cell Transplant in Older Patients with Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lahoud, Oscar B.; Sauter, Craig S.; Hamlin, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HDT/ASCT) can improve survival in patients with lymphoma. Limited experience is available on the safety and efficacy of HDT/ASCT in elderly patients. In this article, we review the published data on the role of HDT/ASCT in management of lymphoma in older patients. Based on available data, evaluation of comorbidities, functional status, and comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) will help identify those who can benefit most from this intervention. Prospective clinical trials focusing on HDT/ASCT in older patients with lymphoma are needed to establish optimal management protocols in this select population. PMID:26201264

  12. High-dose B vitamin supplementation and cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Aisen, Paul S; Schneider, Lon S; Sano, Mary; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; van Dyck, Christopher H; Weiner, Myron F; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Jin, Shelia; Stokes, Karen T; Thomas, Ronald G; Thal, Leon J

    2008-10-15

    Blood levels of homocysteine may be increased in Alzheimer disease (AD) and hyperhomocysteinemia may contribute to disease pathophysiology by vascular and direct neurotoxic mechanisms. Even in the absence of vitamin deficiency, homocysteine levels can be reduced by administration of high-dose supplements of folic acid and vitamins B(6) and B(12). Prior studies of B vitamins to reduce homocysteine in AD have not had sufficient size or duration to assess their effect on cognitive decline. To determine the efficacy and safety of B vitamin supplementation in the treatment of AD. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind controlled clinical trial of high-dose folate, vitamin B(6), and vitamin B(12) supplementation in 409 (of 601 screened) individuals with mild to moderate AD (Mini-Mental State Examination scores between 14 and 26, inclusive) and normal folic acid, vitamin B(12), and homocysteine levels. The study was conducted between February 20, 2003, and December 15, 2006, at clinical research sites of the Alzheimer Disease Cooperative Study located throughout the United States. Participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups of unequal size to increase enrollment (60% treated with high-dose supplements [5 mg/d of folate, 25 mg/d of vitamin B(6), 1 mg/d of vitamin B(12)] and 40% treated with identical placebo); duration of treatment was 18 months. Change in the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog). A total of 340 participants (202 in active treatment group and 138 in placebo group) completed the trial while taking study medication. Although the vitamin supplement regimen was effective in reducing homocysteine levels (mean [SD], -2.42 [3.35] in active treatment group vs -0.86 [2.59] in placebo group; P < .001), it had no beneficial effect on the primary cognitive measure, rate of change in ADAS-cog score during 18 months (0.372 points per month for placebo group vs 0.401 points per month for active treatment group, P = .52; 95

  13. Advantages of high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy in treatment of prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molokov, A. A.; Vanina, E. A.; Tseluyko, S. S.

    2017-09-01

    One of the modern methods of preserving organs radiation treatment is brachytherapy. This article analyzes the results of prostate brachytherapy. These studies of the advantages of high dose brachytherapy lead to the conclusion that this method of radiation treatment for prostate cancer has a favorable advantage in comparison with remote sensing methods, and is competitive, preserving organs in comparison to surgical methods of treatment. The use of the method of polyfocal transperineal biopsy during the brachytherapy session provides information on the volumetric spread of prostate cancer and adjust the dosimetry plan taking into account the obtained data.

  14. High-dose adenosine for refractory supraventricular tachycardia: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Dadi, Gal; Fink, Daniel; Weiser, Giora

    2017-07-01

    Supraventricular tachycardia is the most common significant arrhythmia in children. If prolonged, it may cause heart failure and progress to cardiogenic shock warranting prompt treatment. The recommended interventions following vagal manoeuvres are intravenous adenosine and in the unstable patient electrical cardioversion. We present an infant with an unstable supraventricular tachycardia that was resistant to electrical cardioversion and recommended doses of adenosine. He reverted to sinus rhythm with a higher dose of adenosine, suggesting that such doses may be required in refractory supraventricular tachycardia.

  15. Epstein-Barr Virus–Associated Posttransplantation Lymphoproliferative Disorder after High-Dose Immunosuppressive Therapy and Autologous CD34-Selected Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Severe Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Richard A.; Dansey, Roger; Storek, Jan; Georges, George E.; Bowen, James D.; Holmberg, Leona A.; Kraft, George H.; Mayes, Maureen D.; McDonagh, Kevin T.; Chen, Chien-Shing; DiPersio, John; LeMaistre, C. Fred; Pavletic, Steven; Sullivan, Keith M.; Sunderhaus, Julie; Furst, Daniel E.; McSweeney, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    High-dose immunosuppressive therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently being evaluated for the control of severe autoimmune diseases. The addition of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) to high-dose chemoradiotherapy in the high-dose immunosuppressive therapy regimen and CD34 selection of the autologous graft may induce a higher degree of immunosuppression compared with conventional autologous HSCT for malignant diseases. Patients may be at higher risk of transplant-related complications secondary to the immunosuppressed state, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–associated posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), but this is an unusual complication after autologous HSCT. Fifty-six patients (median age, 42 years; range, 23–61 years) with either multiple sclerosis (n = 26) or systemic sclerosis (n = 30) have been treated. The median follow-up has been 24 months (range, 2–60 months). Two patients (multiple sclerosis, n = 1; systemic sclerosis, n = 1) had significant reactivations of herpesvirus infections early after HSCT and then developed aggressive EBV-PTLD and died on days +53 and +64. Multiorgan clonal B-cell infiltrates that were EBV positive by molecular studies or immunohistology were identified at both autopsies. Both patients had positive screening skin tests for equine ATG (Atgam) and had been converted to rabbit ATG (Thymoglobulin) from the first dose. Of the other 54 patients, 2 of whom had partial courses of rabbit ATG because of a reaction to the intravenous infusion of equine ATG, only 1 patient had a significant clinical reactivation of a herpesvirus infection (herpes simplex virus 2) early after HSCT, and none developed EBV-PTLD. The T-cell count in the peripheral blood on day 28 was 0/μL in all 4 patients who received rabbit ATG; this was significantly less than in patients who received equine ATG (median, 174/μL; P = .001; Mann-Whitney ranked sum test). Although the numbers are

  16. Intravenous bisphosphonates for postmenopausal osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Mottaghi, Peyman

    2010-01-01

    Numerous clinical studies have shown bisphoshonates (BPs) to be useful and cost-effective options for the fractures prevention and postmenopausal bone loss. The use of oral bisphoshonates is an established option for managment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, but many of them complaint from gastrointestinal side effect or frequently dosed oral regimens. To improve upon the suboptimal therapeutic compliance in postmenopausal women, newer, longer-acting intravenous formulations of BPs has been approved for intermittent administration in postmenopausal women. These preparations would become an option for patients who can not tolerate oral BPs or it was ineffective in increasing their bone density. This article proposed to review effectiveness and tolerability of intravenous BPs in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. PMID:21526078

  17. Introduction of novel 3D-printed superficial applicators for high-dose-rate skin brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma-Louise; Tonino Baldion, Anna; Thomas, Christopher; Burrows, Tom; Byrne, Nick; Newton, Victoria; Aldridge, Sarah

    Custom-made surface mold applicators often allow more flexibility when carrying out skin brachytherapy, particularly for small treatment areas with high surface obliquity. They can, however, be difficult to manufacture, particularly if there is a lack of experience in superficial high-dose-rate brachytherapy techniques or with limited resources. We present a novel method of manufacturing superficial brachytherapy applicators utilizing three-dimensional (3D)-printing techniques. We describe the treatment planning process and the process of applicator manufacture. The treatment planning process, with the introduction of a pre-plan, allows for an "ideal" catheter arrangement within an applicator to be determined, exploiting varying catheter orientations, heights, and curvatures if required. The pre-plan arrangement is then 3D printed to the exact specifications of the pre-plan applicator design. This results in improved target volume coverage and improved sparing of organs at risk. Using a pre-plan technique for ideal catheter placement followed by automated 3D-printed applicator manufacture has greatly improved the entire process of superficial high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment. We are able to design and manufacture flexible, well-fitting, superior quality applicators resulting in a more efficient and improved patient pathway and patient experience. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High-Dose Benzodiazepine Users' Perceptions and Experiences of Anterograde Amnesia.

    PubMed

    Liebrenz, Michael; Schneider, Marcel; Buadze, Anna; Gehring, Marie-Therese; Dube, Anish; Caflisch, Carlo

    2016-09-01

    Associations between criminal activity and the use of psychotropic substances are well established. Flunitrazepam, specifically, has been suspected of triggering, per se, violent criminal behavior and severe memory disturbances in the form of anterograde amnesia. However, data from investigations of this relationship are scarce and have been primarily derived from forensic institutions, where there may be a reporting bias. This study was a qualitative exploration of high-dose benzodiazepine users' experiences of anterograde amnesia symptoms and their beliefs about their behavior during the phases of memory impairment in a nonforensic setting. Users subjectively reported experiencing symptoms of anterograde amnesia, especially after combining short-acting benzodiazepines with alcohol, but only rarely when using slow-onset, long-acting compounds. They perceived their experiences as unpleasurable, unpredictable, and embarrassing. Their awareness developed with time, triggered by descriptions of disinhibited and erratic behavior by others. Users described being victimized during phases of anterograde amnesia in addition to engaging in violent and criminal activities themselves. Although unable to recall, many participants believed that they had been able to make rational decisions while intoxicated with flunitrazepam, disregarding notions of diminished insight. In light of the varying terminology used for the phases of memory disturbance and these findings, we suggest that forensic experts additionally explore evaluees' beliefs about amnestic periods and their self-perceptions about their behaviors during these episodes, when evaluating high-dose benzodiazepine-dependent patients. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  19. Methamphetamine treatment during development attenuates the dopaminergic deficits caused by subsequent high-dose methamphetamine administration.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Lisa M; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Stout, Kristen A; Sawada, Nicole M; Ellis, Jonathan D; Allen, Scott C; Walters, Elliot T; Nielsen, Shannon M; Gibb, James W; Alburges, Mario E; Wilkins, Diana G; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2011-08-01

    Administration of high doses of methamphetamine (METH) causes persistent dopaminergic deficits in both nonhuman preclinical models and METH-dependent persons. Noteworthy, adolescent [i.e., postnatal day (PND) 40] rats are less susceptible to this damage than young adult (PND90) rats. In addition, biweekly treatment with METH, beginning at PND40 and continuing throughout development, prevents the persistent dopaminergic deficits caused by a "challenge" high-dose METH regimen when administered at PND90. Mechanisms underlying this "resistance" were thus investigated. Results revealed that biweekly METH treatment throughout development attenuated both the acute and persistent deficits in VMAT2 function, as well as the acute hyperthermia, caused by a challenge METH treatment. Pharmacokinetic alterations did not appear to contribute to the protection afforded by the biweekly treatment. Maintenance of METH-induced hyperthermia abolished the protection against both the acute and persistent VMAT2-associated deficits suggesting that alterations in thermoregulation were caused by exposure of rats to METH during development. These findings suggest METH during development prevents METH-induced hyperthermia and the consequent METH-related neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Effect of crospovidone and hydroxypropyl cellulose on carbamazepine in high-dose tablet formulation.

    PubMed

    Flicker, Felicia; Betz, Gabriele

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a high-dose tablet formulation of the poorly soluble carbamazepine (CBZ) with sufficient tablet hardness and immediate drug release. A further aim was to investigate the influence of various commercial CBZ raw materials on the optimized tablet formulation. Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC-SL) was selected as a dry binder and crospovidone (CrosPVP) as a superdisintegrant. A direct compacted tablet formulation of 70% CBZ was optimized by a 3² full factorial design with two input variables, HPC (0--10%) and CrosPVP (0--5%). Response variables included disintegration time, amount of drug released at 15 and 60 min, and tablet hardness, all analyzed according to USP 31. Increasing HPC-SL together with CrosPVP not only increased tablet hardness but also reduced disintegration time. Optimal condition was achieved in the range of 5--9% HPC and 3--5% CrosPVP, where tablet properties were at least 70 N tablet hardness, less than 1 min disintegration, and within the USP requirements for drug release. Testing the optimized formulation with four different commercial CBZ samples, their variability was still observed. Nonetheless, all formulations conformed to the USP specifications. With the excipients CrosPVP and HPC-SL an immediate release tablet formulation was successfully formulated for high-dose CBZ of various commercial sources.

  1. Not too little, not too much-just right! (Better ways to give high dose melphalan).

    PubMed

    Shaw, P J; Nath, C E; Lazarus, H M

    2014-12-01

    Of the 13 286 autologous haematopoietic cell transplant procedures reported in the US in 2010-2012 for plasma cell disorders, 10 557 used single agent, high-dose melphalan. Despite 30 years of clinical and pharmacokinetic (PK) experience with high-dose melphalan, and its continuing central role as cytoreductive therapy for large numbers of patients with myeloma, the pharmacodynamics and pharmacogenomics of melphalan are still in their infancy. The addition of protectant agents such as amifostine and palifermin allows dose escalation to 280 mg/m(2), but at these doses it is cardiac, rather than gut, toxicity that is dose-limiting. Although combination with additional alkylating agents is feasible, the additional TRM may not be justified when so many post-consolidation therapies are available for myeloma patients. Current research should optimise the delivery of this single-agent chemotherapy. This includes the use of newer formulations and real-time PKs. These strategies may allow a safe and effective platform for adding synergistic novel therapies and provide a window of lymphodepletion for the addition of immunotherapies.

  2. Physiological and psychological effects of a high dose of alcohol in young men and women.

    PubMed

    Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Monleón, Santiago; Parra, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a high dose of alcohol on physiological and psychological parameters in young men and women with a previous history of alcohol consumption. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, state anxiety, attention, time estimation and manual dexterity were registered before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) intake of alcohol (38.4 g) or a non-alcoholic beverage. Trait anxiety was registered in phase 2 only. The results showed that acute consumption of a high dose of alcohol: i) improves attention in men (although the performance of alcohol consumers was not better than that of non-consumers); ii) blocks the systolic blood pressure habituation phenomenon (observed in controls) in women; and iii) blocks the improvement in manual dexterity (associated with experience in non-consumers) in both sexes. On the other hand, male consumers had a lower heart rate than non-consumers, independently of the phase, while female consumers had a higher state anxiety and performed worse in attention than controls, also independently of the phase. These results help to understand the extent of performance impairment of different tasks produced by risk alcohol consumption in young men and women.

  3. Gastric tolerance of high-dose pulse oral prednisone in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Metz, L M; Sabuda, D; Hilsden, R J; Enns, R; Meddings, J B

    1999-12-10

    Prednisone and methylprednisolone are well absorbed orally and have lower treatment costs than IV methylprednisolone, but concern that low-dose corticosteroid may cause increased disease activity and that high oral doses may cause gastric ulceration inhibits use of oral therapy for MS attacks. Gastric mucosal injury, detected by measurement of gastric permeability, was examined after five alternate day doses of IV methylprednisolone (1 g) or oral prednisone (1,250 mg) in 21 patients with MS. A triple sugar test solution was consumed at bedtime, and urine was collected overnight. Urine sugar concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Gastric permeability was expressed as total mg of sucrose excreted. Seventeen patients completed the protocol (12 oral, 5 IV). Baseline sucrose excretion was normal in all. Both groups demonstrated an increase in gastric permeability after steroid treatment, but there was no difference between the two groups (95% CI 95 to 91 mg, p = 0.96). After treatment, three (25%) patients in the oral group, and two (40%) patients the IV group, had modestly abnormal gastric permeability (95% CI 34 to 64%, P = 0.6). Short-term high-dose oral prednisone is not associated with greater gastric damage, as measured with permeability tests, than IV methylprednisolone. High-dose oral prednisone should be considered a first-line treatment option for MS attacks.

  4. High-dose radiotherapy to 78 Gy with or without temozolomide for high grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Watkins, John M; Marshall, David T; Patel, Sunil; Giglio, Pierre; Herrin, Amy E; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Jenrette, Joseph M

    2009-07-01

    To describe outcomes associated with high-dose radiotherapy with and without temozolomide for high grade central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms. Retrospective chart review of 60 patients diagnosed with malignant glioma treated with > or =70 Gy radiotherapy. Median age at diagnosis was 52 years, and 52 patients had astrocytomas (38 glioblastomas). Median prescribed radiotherapy dose was 78 Gy (range 70-80), and 29 patients received concurrent temozolomide. Eighty-six percent completed the planned course treatment. Three patients experienced RTOG grade 3 acute CNS toxicity; late brain necrosis was suspected in four patients. Overall median survival was 13 months (range 2-83). Within glioblastoma patients, temozolomide provided a statistically significant survival improvement over no chemotherapy (median survival 12.7 vs. 7.5 months; P = 0.0058). High dose conformal radiotherapy to > or =70 Gy with chemotherapy for high-grade CNS neoplasms appears safe but survival remains suboptimal. Within glioblastoma patients, temozolomide provided statistically significant survival improvement over no chemotherapy.

  5. Safety of prolonged high-dose levofloxacin therapy for bone infections.

    PubMed

    Senneville, E; Poissy, J; Legout, L; Dehecq, C; Loïez, C; Valette, M; Beltrand, E; Caillaux, M; Mouton, Y; Migaud, H; Yazdanpanah, Y

    2007-12-01

    The records of 84 patients with bone infections treated with high-dose levofloxacin (i.e. 0.75-1g daily) for more than 4 weeks were reviewed. Patients were given either 500 mg b.i.d. throughout the treatment period [Group 1 (n=41)], 500 mg b.i.d. for 3 weeks and then 750 mg q.d. [Group 2 (n=21)] or 750 mg q.d. for the whole treatment period [Group 3 (n=22)]. All patients had combined therapy, including levofloxacin-rifampin in 62 cases (73.8%), for an average duration of 13.7 weeks. Muscular pain and/or tendonitis were reported in 19 patients (22.6%) which affected more patients in Groups 1 and 2 than in Group 3 (14/41 and 5/21 vs. 0/22; p=0.01 and 0.001, respectively). A dosage of 750 mg q.d. may be warranted for prolonged high-dose levofloxacin treatment in patients with bone infections rather than 500 mg b.i.d. for the entire duration of treatment, or for the first 3 weeks.

  6. Changes in the avian cochlea after single high-dose gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Girod, D A; Park, R H; Park, D L; Durham, D

    2000-01-01

    Define the time course of functional and anatomical damage and subsequent recovery (by regeneration) of hair cells in the chicken inner ear after a single high-dose of gentamicin. Broiler chicks were given a single intraperitoneal dose (200 mg/kg) of gentamicin (n = 39) or saline (n = 39). Functional status was evaluated with auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds before injection and before sacrifice at 2, 5, 9, 16, 21, 28, and 70 days postinjection. The cochleae were then examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assess the extent of damage along the cochlea and absolute hair cell numbers in the basal 15% of the cochlea (high-frequency region). Considerable variability between animals was seen for both ABR and SEM changes. Damage was maximal at 5 days postinjection with an average ABR threshold shift of 12 dB (range -10 to 50 dB) and basal cochlear damage of 28% (range 12%-57%). Hair cell counts were significantly decreased in the basal 15% of the cochlea at 5 days. Hair cell regeneration resulted in rapid anatomical and functional recovery, but evidence of hair cell disorganization persisted at 70 days despite improved thresholds. A single high dose of gentamicin produces a significant but variable anatomical and functional insult in the chick cochlea. Hair cell regeneration results in rapid but incomplete recovery.

  7. Medical and Psychiatric Effects of Long-Term Dependence on High Dose of tramadol.

    PubMed

    El-Hadidy, Mohmed Adel; Helaly, Ahmed Mohamed Nabil

    2015-04-01

    Tramadol dependence has been studied recently after large-scale exposure. Although tramadol dependence has increased rapidly in Egypt since 2004, no studies have evaluated the effect of high dose long-term tramadol dependence. To address the chronic sequel of tramadol dependence over at least 5 years duration with a large dose (more than 675 mg/day, three tablets or more, each tablet of 225 mg). The study was aimed to check the physical and psychiatric status during tramadol dependence and 3 months after complete treatment. The present study was applied on 79 patients with single tramadol-dependence dose of 675 mg or more for 5 years or more. We examined the physical and psychological impact of tramadol abuse before and after 3 months of stoppage of the drug. The blood chemistry was nearly within normal parameters, although slight nonsignificant rise in liver enzymes was reported in some cases. Patients during tramadol dependence period were angry, hostile, and aggressive. On the other hand, after treatment the main problem observed was the significant increase in comorbid anxiety, depressive, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but no increase was found in psychotic symptoms. Tramadol-dependence dose was more important than duration of use in psychiatric illness. Tramadol dependence on high dose could be physically safe to some limit, but psychiatrically it has many side effects.

  8. High Dose Ilaprazole/Amoxicillin as First-Line Regimen for Helicobacter pylori Infection in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwack, WonGun; Lim, YunJeong; Lim, ChiYeon; Graham, David Y

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) following standard triple therapy has declined over the past few decades. This study has determined whether high dose dual therapy (PPI and amoxicillin) is adequate for eradicating H. pylori in Korea. Methods. This was an open-labeled study of H. pylori infected treatment-naive patients. Subjects received dual therapy for 14 days: ilaprazole 40 mg tablets given twice a day and amoxicillin 750 mg tablets given 4 times a day. At the end of the therapy, the subjects visited the clinic to confirm compliance and monitor for any side effects. Subjects visited again after 4-6 weeks to confirm H. pylori status through a urea breath test. Results. The cure rate of H. pylori was 79.3% (23 of 29) (95% confidence interval: 61.6-90.2) in the intention-to-treat analysis and 82.1% (23 of 28) in the per-protocol analysis. Compliance rates were high (96.6%) and side effects were minimal and tolerable. Conclusion. A high dose of ilaprazole + amoxicillin was ineffective as the first-line therapy for eradicating H. pylori in Korea. Future studies should focus on intragastric pH measurements and assess amoxicillin resistance.

  9. Intravenous Solutions for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Fletcher J.; Niederhaus, Charles; Barlow, Karen; Griffin, DeVon

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the intravenous (IV) fluids requirements being developed for medical care during NASA s future exploration class missions. Previous research on IV solution generation and mixing in space is summarized. The current exploration baseline mission profiles are introduced, potential medical conditions described and evaluated for fluidic needs, and operational issues assessed. We briefly introduce potential methods for generating IV fluids in microgravity. Conclusions on the recommended fluid volume requirements are presented.

  10. Early response to intravenous glucocorticoids for severe thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy predicts treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Hart, Richard H; Kendall-Taylor, Pat; Crombie, Alex; Perros, Petros

    2005-08-01

    The results for 18 consecutive patients with severe thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) treated with high-dose, pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone (MP) are presented in this paper. Eighteen (18) patients with severe TAO, defined as either optic neuropathy, progressive diplopia, or severe soft-tissue swelling accompanied by evidence of NOSPECS class 2b or more severe eye disease, were studied in a prospective, noncontrolled case series. Patients were treated with 1.5 g of intravenous MP, divided over 3 days, followed by a tapering course of oral prednisolone. All patients were examined before treatment, 1 week and 1 month after commencement of treatment and at 2-3 monthly intervals thereafter. Assessment of visual acuity, differential intraocular pressure (IOP), soft-tissue inflammation, diplopia, and exophthalmometry were used to calculate a modified ophthalmopathy index (OI) for each patient at each visit. Median duration of follow-up was 14 months. A statistically significant reduction in OI following treatment with high-dose MP was observed after 1 week of treatment from 10.8 +/- 3.9 standard deviation (SD) to 8.3 +/- 3.4 (SD) (P < 0.001) and between 1 week and the end of the treatment period (OI, 7.2 +/- 3.4 (SD); P < 0.05). A response occurred in 83% of patients within a week but only 66% maintained this response. There was a significant negative correlation between response to treatment (OI before treatment-OI after treatment) and duration of eye disease (P = 0.034, Spearman correlation). High-dose, pulsed intravenous MP is an effective medical treatment for severe TAO. Responders can be identified within the 1st week. Treatment response is inversely related to disease duration.

  11. Loss of Microbiota-Mediated Colonization Resistance to Clostridium difficile Infection With Oral Vancomycin Compared With Metronidazole

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Brittany B.; Buffie, Charlie G.; Carter, Rebecca A.; Leiner, Ingrid; Toussaint, Nora C.; Miller, Liza C.; Gobourne, Asia; Ling, Lilan; Pamer, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic administration disrupts the intestinal microbiota, increasing susceptibility to pathogens such as Clostridium difficile. Metronidazole or oral vancomycin can cure C. difficile infection, and administration of these agents to prevent C. difficile infection in high-risk patients, although not sanctioned by Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines, has been considered. The relative impacts of metronidazole and vancomycin on the intestinal microbiota and colonization resistance are unknown. We investigated the effect of brief treatment with metronidazole and/or oral vancomycin on susceptibility to C. difficile, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli infection in mice. Although metronidazole resulted in transient loss of colonization resistance, oral vancomycin markedly disrupted the microbiota, leading to prolonged loss of colonization resistance to C. difficile infection and dense colonization by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, K. pneumoniae, and E. coli. Our results demonstrate that vancomycin, and to a lesser extent metronidazole, are associated with marked intestinal microbiota destruction and greater risk of colonization by nosocomial pathogens. PMID:25920320

  12. The effect of concomitant use of systemic antibiotics in patients with Clostridium difficile infection receiving metronidazole therapy.

    PubMed

    Jin, S J; Seo, K H; Wi, Y M

    2018-03-01

    Management of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) involves discontinuation of the offending antibiotic agent as soon as possible. However, the ongoing infection does not allow discontinuation of the offending antibiotic. We aimed to retrospectively investigate the predictors of treatment failure and impact of the concomitant use of systemic antibiotics in patients receiving metronidazole therapy. This study was conducted among patients hospitalised at a second care academic hospital from January 2013 to December 2014. Eligible patients were identified by reviewing stool toxin enzyme immunoassay results for C. difficile. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of at least three loose or watery stools within 24 h. Among 314 patients with CDI receiving metronidazole therapy, 62 (19.7%) showed treatment failure and 105 (33.4%) received concomitant antibiotics. Underlying dialysis, fever >38.3 °C, low median serum albumin levels and concomitant use of antibiotics were independent predictors of treatment failure in patients with CDI receiving metronidazole therapy. The concomitant use of antibiotics increased the rates of treatment failure and 30-day mortality in patients receiving metronidazole therapy. These results suggest that metronidazole should be used in mild cases of CDI only after discontinuation of the offending antibiotics.

  13. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of metronidazole 1% cream with sunscreen SPF 15 in treatment of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Tan, J K L; Girard, C; Krol, A; Murray, H E; Papp, K A; Poulin, Y; Chin, D A; Jeandupeux, D

    2002-01-01

    Rosacea is a photoaggravated dermatosis responsive to treatment with topical and oral antibiotics. A formulation combining metronidazole 1% cream with sunscreen SPF 15 was developed for the treatment of rosacea. The objective of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of a formulation combining metronidazole 1% cream with sunscreen SPF 15 in the treatment of moderate to severe rosacea. One hundred and twenty patients with moderate to severe rosacea were enrolled for a randomized, placebo-controlled (vehicle containing sunscreen with SPF 15), double-blind study. Study cream was applied twice daily to the entire face over a 12-week period. Treatment with metronidazole 1% cream with sunscreen SPF 15 resulted in significant improvement (p <0.05) in inflammatory lesion count, erythema and telangiectasiae scores, and investigator and patient global assessment scores compared with baseline and placebo. Adverse reactions related to study medication were typically mild, occurred at the site of application, and were reversible. There was no difference between the safety profiles of metronidazole 1% cream with sunscreen SPF 15 and placebo. The combined topical formulation of metronidazole 1% cream with sunscreen SPF 15 was an effective, well-tolerated topical agent for the treatment of moderate to severe rosacea.

  14. Effects of Metronidazole, Tetracycline, and Bismuth-Metronidazole-Tetracycline Triple Therapy in the Helicobacter pylori SS1 Mouse Model after 1 Day of Dosing: Development of an H. pylori Lead Selection Model

    PubMed Central

    Sizemore, Christine F.; Quispe, Joel D.; Amsler, Karen M.; Modzelewski, Todd C.; Merrill, Jayson J.; Stevenson, D. Andrew; Foster, Lorie A.; Slee, Andrew M.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of optimized doses and dosing schedules of metronidazole, tetracycline, and bismuth-metronidazole-tetracycline (BMT) triple therapy with only 1 day of dosing on Helicobacter pylori SS1 titers in a mouse model. A reduction of bacterial titers was observable with 22.5 and 112.5 mg of metronidazole per kg of body weight (as well as BMT) given twice daily and four times daily (QID). Two hundred milligrams of tetracycline per kilogram, given QID, resulted in only a slight reduction of H. pylori titers in the stomach. We argue that optimization of doses based on antimicrobial drug levels in the animal and shortened (1 or 2 days) drug administration can be used to facilitate early evaluation of putative anti-H. pylori drug candidates in lieu of using human doses and extended schedules (7 to 14 days), as can be deduced from the results seen with these antimicrobial agents. PMID:11959579

  15. Amifostine for salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine treated differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Xie, Jiawei; Chen, Qingfeng; Wang, Guoming; Zuo, Shuyao

    2009-10-07

    Radioactive iodine treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer possibly results in xerostomia. Amifostine has been used to prevent the effects of irradiation to salivary glands. To date, the effects of amifostine on salivary glands in radioactive iodine treated differentiated thyroid cancer remain uncertain. To assess the effects of amifostine on salivary glands in high-dose radioactive iodine treated differentiated thyroid cancer. Studies were obtained from computerized searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library and paper collections of conferences held in Chinese. Randomised controlled clinical trials and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials comparing the effects of amifostine on salivary glands after radioactive iodine treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer with placebo and a duration of follow up of at least three months. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Two trials with 130 patients (67 and 63 patients randomised to intervention versus control) were included. Both studies had a low risk of bias. Amifostine versus placebo showed no statistically significant differences in the incidence of xerostomia (130 patients, two studies), the decrease of scintigraphically measured uptake of technetium-99m by salivary or submandibular glands at twelve months (80 patients, one study), and the reduction of blood pressure (130 patients, two studies). Two patients in one study collapsed after initiation of amifostine therapy and had to be treated by withdrawing the infusion and volume substitution. Both patients recovered without sequelae. Meta-analysis was not performed on the function of salivary glands measured by technetium-99m scintigraphy at three months after high dose radioactive iodine treatment due to the highly inconsistent findings across studies (I(2) statistic 99%). None of the included trials investigated death from any cause, morbidity, health-related quality of life or costs. Results from two randomised

  16. [Vitamin B12 deficiency associated with high doses od metformin in older people diabetic].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Hugo; Masferrer, Dominique; Lera, Lydia; Arancibia, Estrella; Angel, Barbara; Albala, Cecilia

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate if B12 deficiency is associated with the use of metformin in the elderly diabetics. Case-control study in diabetic OP. Cases (n = 137) were defined as elderly with B12 < 221 pmol/L and controls (n = 279) elderly with B12 > 221 pmol/L. Four categories of metformin use were defined: non-users, ≤850 mg/day, > 850 and < 2,550 mg/day and ≥2,550 mg/day. Metformin ≥2,550 mg/day was high doses considered. The crude OR for B12 deficiency and consumption of Metformin were calculated. Logistic regression models were developed to explore the association between B12 deficiency and metformin dose. The research protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of INTA. The age of cases and controls was (70.2 years vs 68.6 years (p < 0.05). The 62% were women in cases vs 74.9% in controls (p < 0.05). The 73% of cases and 76% of controls used metformin (p < 0.05) the average consumption of metformin was de 1,954.3 mg/day (SD: 1,063.2) in cases and 1,696.6 mg/day (SD: 1,074.4) in controls (p < 0.05). The use of 2,550 mg/day was observed in 29.2% of cases and 19.3% for controls (p < 0.05). It was observed that OP who consumed high doses of metformin had 1.9 times the risk of B12 deficiency (OR: 1.9; 95%CI: 1,08- 3,30). These results show a strong association between high doses of metformin and low levels of vitamin B12 in diabetic elderly. This project was funded by FONIS SA11I2092. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Effectiveness of high dose dexamethasone in the treatment of acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Ogun, S A; Odusote, K A

    2001-01-01

    A prospective double-blind placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial was carried out to determine the effectiveness of short-course of high dose dexamethasone therapy on mortality and neurological recovery in stroke patients. During a sixteen month period of study, 230 patients with clinical diagnosis of stroke were seen. Of these, 40 were eligible for the study (27 were presumed to have had haemorrhagic stroke; and 13 were presumed to have had cerebral infarction). The commonest cause of exclusion was presentation after 24 hours of the ictus. Patients were sequentially paired and randomised into high dose dexamethasone and placebo groups in a double-blind fashion. There were twenty patients in either group. Of the 27 patients with haemorrhagic stroke, 15 were in the dexamethasone group and 12 in the placebo group. Of the 13 patients with cerebral infarction, 5 were in the dexamethasone group and 8 in the placebo group. Each patient received 100 mg of dexamethasone stat, and 16 mg every 6 hours for a period of 48 hours or equivalent volumes of placebo. Assessment of each patient was done using a neurological score. Sequential analysis by Armitage was employed, using survival at 1 month as the primary criterion of effectiveness. Survivors were followed-up for 6 months. At the end of one month, 16 patients (80%) had died in the dexamethasone group and 17 (85%) in the placebo group. The average day of death was six days in the dexamethasone group and 15 days in the placebo group, but this was not statistically significant. Of the seven survivors at one month, four were in the dexamethasone group and 3 in the placebo group. Five of them had cerebral infarction and two had haemorrhagic stroke. The two in the haemorrhagic subgroup who survived the first month died at the 2nd and 4th month respectively. At the end of six months, only the five patients with cerebral infarction were alive. Of these, 2 in the dexamethasone group were back at work while the third was

  18. Autografting with peripheral blood CD34-positive cells following high-dose chemotherapy against breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Okumura, A; Tokuda, Y; Ohta, M; Suzuki, Y; Saito, Y; Kuge, S; Kubota, M; Makuuchi, H; Tajima, T; Nakamura, Y; Hotta, T

    1999-12-01

    We report autologous CD34+ cell transplantation performed in 3 cases of recurrent breast cancer. The hematological recovery in these cases was assessed by comparing with that in the previous cases of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation performed with the same high-dose chemotherapy regimen. Patient 1 was a 32-year-old woman with pulmonary and skeletal metastases; patient 2, a 55-year-old woman with pulmonary metastases; and patient 3, a 48-year-old woman with hepatic metastases. On day 1, cyclophosphamide 1000 mg/m2 and epirubicin 130 mg/m2 were administered concurrently with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and peripheral blood stem cells were harvested on days 14-16. These stem cells were processed using anti-CD34 monoclonal antibody and an immunomagnetic bead device, Isolex 300i. The high-dose chemotherapy regimen consisted of cyclophosphamide 2000 mg/m2/day, div, and thiotepa 200 mg/m2/day, div on day -5, -4, and -3. The harvested CD34+ cells numbered 3.9 +/- 2.8 x 10(6)/kg (range: 0.73-7.8/10(6)/kg), and the CFU-GM, 8.3 +/- 5.6 x 10(5)/kg (range: 1.2-15.1/10(5)/kg). After the separation, the percent of CD34+ cells was 81.9 +/- 11.6% (range: 65.8-96.4%), the CD34+ cell yield, 71.8 +/- 30.2% (range: 46.0-129.6%), and the CFU-GM yield, 48.9 +/- 9.1% (range: 35.3-62.0%). At the time of transplantation, the number of nucleated cells was 0.55 +/- 0.31 x 10(5)/kg, and that of CFU-GM, 31.2 +/- 17.8 x 10(5)/kg. Comparison of the hematological recovery in these three cases with that in patients receiving an identical high-dose chemotherapy regimen revealed recovery rates significantly faster than in patients having bone marrow transplants, and approximately identical with that in peripheral blood stem cell transplantation cases.

  19. Oral high-dose multivitamins and minerals after myocardial infarction: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Gervasio A; Boineau, Robin; Goertz, Christine; Mark, Daniel B; Rosenberg, Yves; Stylianou, Mario; Rozema, Theodore; Nahin, Richard L; Lindblad, Lauren; Lewis, Eldrin F; Drisko, Jeanne; Lee, Kerry L

    2013-12-17

    Whether high-dose multivitamins are effective for secondary prevention of atherosclerotic disease is unknown. To assess whether oral multivitamins reduce cardiovascular events and are safe. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2 x 2 factorial, multicenter, randomized trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00044213) SETTING: 134 U.S. and Canadian academic and clinical sites. 1708 patients aged 50 years or older who had myocardial infarction (MI) at least 6 weeks earlier and had serum creatinine levels of 176.8 mol/L (2.0 mg/dL) or less. Patients were randomly assigned to an oral, 28-component, high-dose multivitamin and multimineral mixture or placebo. The primary end point was time to total death, recurrent MI, stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for angina. The median age was 65 years, and 18% of patients were women. The qualifying MI occurred a median of 4.6 years (interquartile range [IQR], 1.6 to 9.2 years) before enrollment. Median follow-up was 55 months (IQR, 26 to 60 months). Patients received vitamins for a median of 31 months (IQR, 13 to 59 months) in the vitamin group and 35 months (IQR, 13 to 60 months) in the placebo group (P = 0.65). Totals of 645 (76%) and 646 (76%) patients in the vitamin and placebo groups, respectively, completed at least 1 year of oral therapy (P = 0.98), and 400 (47%) and 426 (50%) patients, respectively, completed at least 3 years (P = 0.23). Totals of 394 (46%) and 390 (46%) patients in the vitamin and placebo groups, respectively, discontinued the vitamin regimen (P = 0.67), and 17% of patients withdrew from the study. The primary end point occurred in 230 (27%) patients in the vitamin group and 253 (30%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.75 to 1.07]; P = 0.21). No evidence suggested harm from vitamin therapy in any category of adverse events. There was considerable nonadherence and withdrawal, limiting the ability to draw firm conclusions (particularly about safety). High-dose oral multivitamins and

  20. Biodosimetry for high dose accidental exposures by drug induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assay.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Sreedevi; Shirsath, Kapil; Bhat, Nagesh; Anjaria, Kshiti

    2010-06-17

    The conventional dicentric assay does not provide an accurate dose estimate in the case of accidental exposure to ionizing radiation above 6 Gy due to mitotic delay and poor mitotic index. The present study aims to establish a simple and rapid dose assessment technique based on scoring of rings and fragments in PCC spreads of stimulated lymphocytes. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were gamma irradiated to different doses (6.2-24.5 Gy), cultured for two days with PHA and were forced to condense prematurely using 500 nM Okadaic acid (OA). The chromosome spreads were prepared, stained with Giemsa and observed under a microscope. The PCC index, PCC rings, and PCC fragments were scored for each dose point to arrive at the dose effect curve for various end points such as induction of rings and fragments and dicentrics. The PCC index varied from 12-18% up to 18 Gy and thereafter dropped to 6-8% at higher doses. The dose dependent increase in rings and fragments was found to be linear with a slope of 0.054+/-0.001 Gy(-1) for rings and 0.45+/-0.03 Gy(-1) for PCC fragments. An experiment was carried out to simulate partial-body exposure by mixing 10 Gy in vitro irradiated blood with un-irradiated blood in different proportions. The ratio of frequency of damaged cells among the total number of cells analyzed was found to be a good index of partial-body exposure. The culture duration was extended to 72 h to overcome the cell cycle delay induced by high doses of radiation. The conventional dicentrics rings and fragments also showed a dose response at high doses. The response can be best fitted to a linear model with a slope of 0.28+/-0.0007 Gy(-1) for the induction of dicentrics. However, long culture duration, technical skill and time required to analyse multi-aberrant cells makes the dicentric assay less suitable for high dose exposures requiring a rapid dose estimate. The PCC assay can be performed in 50 h with biodosimetric information about the irradiated fraction in

  1. Five-Year Outcomes of High-Dose Single-Fraction Spinal Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Moussazadeh, Nelson; Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York; Lis, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: To characterize local tumor control and toxicity risk in very long-term survivors (>5 years) after high-dose spinal image guided, intensity modulated radiation therapy delivered as single-dose stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Previously published spinal SRS outcome analyses have included a heterogeneous population of cancer patients, mostly with short survival. This is the first study reporting the long-term tumor control and toxicity profiles after high-dose single-fraction spinal SRS. Methods and Materials: The study population included all patients treated from June 2004 to July 2009 with single-fraction spinal SRS (dose 24 Gy) who had survived at least 5 years after treatment. The endpoints examined included diseasemore » progression, surgical or radiation retreatment, in-field fracture development, and radiation-associated toxicity, scored using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group radiation morbidity scoring criteria and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Local control and fracture development were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Of 278 patients, 31 (11.1%), with 36 segments treated for spinal tumors, survived at least 5 years after treatment and were followed up radiographically and clinically for a median of 6.1 years (maximum 102 months). The histopathologic findings for the 5-year survivors included radiation-resistant metastases in 58%, radiation-sensitive metastases in 22%, and primary bone tumors in 19%. In this selected cohort, 3 treatment failures occurred at a median of 48.6 months, including 2 recurrences in the radiation field and 1 patient with demonstrated progression at the treatment margins. Ten lesions (27.8%) were associated with acute grade 1 cutaneous or gastrointestinal toxicity. Delayed toxicity ≥3 months after treatment included 8 cases (22.2%) of mild neuropathy, 2 (5.6%) of gastrointestinal discomfort, 8 (22.2%) of dermatitides, and 3 (8.3%) of myalgias

  2. Pharmacokinetics of prolonged infusion of high-dose dexmedetomidine in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Only limited information exists on the pharmacokinetics of prolonged (> 24 hours) and high-dose dexmedetomidine infusions in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of long dexmedetomidine infusions and to assess the dose linearity of high doses. Additionally, we wanted to quantify for the first time in humans the concentrations of H-3, a practically inactive metabolite of dexmedetomidine. Methods Thirteen intensive care patients with mean age of 57 years and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II score of 45 were included in the study. Dexmedetomidine infusion was commenced by using a constant infusion rate for the first 12 hours. After the first 12 hours, the infusion rate of dexmedetomidine was titrated between 0.1 and 2.5 μg/kg/h by using predefined dose levels to maintain sedation in the range of 0 to -3 on the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale. Dexmedetomidine was continued as long as required to a maximum of 14 days. Plasma dexmedetomidine and H-3 metabolite concentrations were measured, and pharmacokinetic variables were calculated with standard noncompartmental methods. Safety and tolerability were assessed by adverse events, cardiovascular signs, and laboratory tests. Results The following geometric mean values (coefficient of variation) were calculated: length of infusion, 92 hours (117%); dexmedetomidine clearance, 39.7 L/h (41%); elimination half-life, 3.7 hours (38%); and volume of distribution during the elimination phase, 223 L (35%). Altogether, 116 steady-state concentrations were found in 12 subjects. The geometric mean value for clearance at steady state was 53.1 L/h (55%). A statistically significant linear relation (r2 = 0.95; P < 0.001) was found between the areas under the dexmedetomidine plasma concentration-time curves and cumulative doses of dexmedetomidine. The elimination half-life of H-3 was 9.1 hours (37%). The ratio of AUC0-∞ of H-3 metabolite to that of

  3. Efficacy and tolerability of high-dose prednisone in Chinese children with infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhao-Shi; Wu, Hua-Ping; Yu, Xiong-Ying; Chen, Yong; Zhong, Jian-Min

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to preliminarily evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of high-dose prednisone in the treatment of infantile spasms (IS) in China, and to provide additional choice of the therapy of IS. Twenty patients aged 3-53 months with IS were collected in the Department of Neurology of Jiangxi Children's Hospital from May in 2011 to December in 2012, who were placed on high-dose prednisone (took prednisone tablet of 10mg four times a day) for 2 weeks during admission to our hospital. The assessment of spasms seizure and video-EEG monitoring were preformed before treatment and after 2 weeks and the end of treatment of the regimen (7 weeks), respectively. All of the children were followed-up for 2-14 months. Among 20 cases, there were 16 cases (80.0%) with complete cessation of spasms after 2 weeks and 13 cases (65.0%) after 7 weeks. There were 19 cases with typical or modified hypsarrhythmia in 20 cases. No matter after 2 or 7 weeks, there were 12 cases showed complete resolution of hypsarrhythmia and 7 cases with only a partial remission of hypsarrhythmia. After a follow-up of 2-14 months, the longest spasm-free interval was 14 months and the shortest one was 11 days. Six cases relapsed in different periods, and the relapse rate was 35.3%. Amongst the main adverse events, there were Cushing's symptoms in 15 cases (75.0%), irritability in 8 cases (40.0%), drosiness in 3 cases (15.0%), high blood pressure in 3 cases (15.0%), and infections in 8 cases (40.0%), but no one stopped the treatment because of the adverse reactions. In total, high-dose prednisone was effective and well-tolerated in children with IS in China. Maybe the regimen will become a new choice in the treatment of IS. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bladder–Rectum Spacer Balloon in High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in Cervix Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Bhavana; Patel, Firuza D., E-mail: firuzapatel@gmail.com; Chakraborty, Santam

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To compare bladder and rectum doses with the use of a bladder–rectum spacer balloon (BRSB) versus standard gauze packing in the same patient receiving 2 high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy fractions. Methods and Materials: This was a randomized study to compare the reduction in bladder and rectum doses with the use of a BRSB compared with standard gauze packing in patients with carcinoma of the cervix being treated with high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy. The patients were randomized between 2 arms. In arm A, vaginal packing was done with standard gauze packing in the first application, and BRSB was used in the secondmore » application. Arm B was the reverse of arm A. The International Commission for Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) point doses and doses to 0.1-cm{sup 3}, 1-cm{sup 3}, 2-cm{sup 3}, 5-cm{sup 3}, and 10-cm{sup 3} volumes of bladder and rectum were compared. The patients were also subjectively assessed for the ease of application and the time taken for application. Statistical analysis was done using the paired t test. Results: A total of 43 patients were enrolled; however, 3 patients had to be excluded because the BRSB could not be inserted owing to unfavorable local anatomy. Thus 40 patients (80 plans) were evaluated. The application was difficult in 3 patients with BRSB, and in 2 patients with BRSB the application time was prolonged. There was no significant difference in bladder doses to 0.1 cm{sup 3}, 1 cm{sup 3}, 2 cm{sup 3}, 5 cm{sup 3}, and 10 cm{sup 3} and ICRU bladder point. Statistically significant dose reductions to 0.1-cm{sup 3}, 1-cm{sup 3}, and 2-cm{sup 3} volumes for rectum were observed with the BRSB. No significant differences in 5-cm{sup 3} and 10-cm{sup 3} volumes and ICRU rectum point were observed. Conclusion: A statistically significant dose reduction was observed for small high-dose volumes in rectum with the BRSB. The doses to bladder were comparable for BRSB and gauze packing. Transparent

  5. Chromosomal Aberrations in Normal and AT Cells Exposed to High Dose of Low Dose Rate Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawata, T.; Shigematsu, N.; Kawaguchi, O.; Liu, C.; Furusawa, Y.; Hirayama, R.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F.

    2011-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a human autosomally recessive syndrome characterized by cerebellar ataxia, telangiectases, immune dysfunction, and genomic instability, and high rate of cancer incidence. A-T cell lines are abnormally sensitive to agents that induce DNA double strand breaks, including ionizing radiation. The diverse clinical features in individuals affected by A-T and the complex cellular phenotypes are all linked to the functional inactivation of a single gene (AT mutated). It is well known that cells deficient in ATM show increased yields of both simple and complex chromosomal aberrations after high-dose-rate irradiation, but, less is known on how cells respond to low-dose-rate irradiation. It has been shown that AT cells contain a large number of unrejoined breaks after both low-dose-rate irradiation and high-dose-rate irradiation, however sensitivity for chromosomal aberrations at low-dose-rate are less often studied. To study how AT cells respond to low-dose-rate irradiation, we exposed confluent normal and AT fibroblast cells to up to 3 Gy of gamma-irradiation at a dose rate of 0.5 Gy/day and analyzed chromosomal aberrations in G0 using fusion PCC (Premature Chromosomal Condensation) technique. Giemsa staining showed that 1 Gy induces around 0.36 unrejoined fragments per cell in normal cells and around 1.35 fragments in AT cells, whereas 3Gy induces around 0.65 fragments in normal cells and around 3.3 fragments in AT cells. This result indicates that AT cells can rejoin breaks less effectively in G0 phase of the cell cycle? compared to normal cells. We also analyzed chromosomal exchanges in normal and AT cells after exposure to 3 Gy of low-dose-rate rays using a combination of G0 PCC and FISH techniques. Misrejoining was detected in the AT cells only? When cells irradiated with 3 Gy were subcultured and G2 chromosomal aberrations were analyzed using calyculin-A induced PCC technique, the yield of unrejoined breaks decreased in both normal and AT

  6. Treatment with high dose salicylates improves cardiometabolic parameters: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Baye, Estifanos; Naderpoor, Negar; Misso, Marie; Teede, Helena; Moran, Lisa J; de Courten, Barbora

    2017-06-01

    There is conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of high dose salicylates in improving cardiometabolic risk in healthy and type 2 diabetes patients. We aimed to determine whether treatment with salicylates at an anti-inflammatory dose (≥1g daily) would improve cardiometabolic risk in healthy individuals and type 2 diabetes patients, compared to placebo. Medline, Medline-in-process, Embase, and all EBM databases were searched for studies published up to December 2016. Twenty-eight articles from 24 studies comprising 1591 participants were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data from included studies. Meta-analyses using random-effects model were used to analyze the data. High dose salicylates (≥3g/d) decreased fasting glucose (MD -0.4mmol/l, 95% CI -0.54, -0.27) and glucose area under the curve (MD -0.41mmol/l, 95% CI -0.81, -0.01). Salicylates (≥3g/d) also increased fasting insulin (MD 2.4 μU/ml, 95% CI 0.3, 4.4), 2-h insulin (MD 25.4 μU/ml, 95% CI 8.2, 42.6), insulin secretion (MD 79.2, 95% CI 35, 123) but decreased fasting C-peptide (MD -0.11nmol/l, 95% CI -0.2, -0.04), insulin clearance (MD -0.26l/min, 95% CI -0.36, -0.16) and triglycerides (MD -0.36mmol/l, 95% CI -0.51, -0.21) and increased total adiponectin (MD 1.97μg/ml, 95% CI 0.99, 2.95). A lower salicylate dose (1-2.9g) did not change any cardiometabolic parameters (p>0.1). No significant difference was observed between those receiving salicylates and placebo following withdrawal due to adverse events. High dose salicylates appear to improve cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy individuals and type 2 diabetes patients. CRD42015029826. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Remarkable Response to Methylprednisolone in a Multiple Myeloma Patient with Nodal Disease Refractory to High-Dose Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Celotto, Kimberly; Neppalli, Vishala

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a disorder of malignant plasma cells, which is characterized by paraprotein production, lytic bone lesions, hypercalcemia, susceptibility to infections, and renal impairment. Here, we describe a patient with IgA myeloma with extensive nodal involvement who obtained significant benefit from high-dose methylprednisolone after failing aggressive induction chemotherapy and high-dose melphalan with autologous stem cell support. PMID:26824011

  8. Microcalorimetric determination of the effects of amoxicillin, metronidazole, and their combination on in vitro biofilm.

    PubMed

    Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Monika; Braissant, Olivier; Hauser-Gerspach, Irmgard; Weiger, Roland; Walter, Clemens; Zitzmann, Nicola U; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2014-02-01

    The mechanism of action of adjuvant antibiotic therapy in the treatment of peri-implantitis is not well understood. The aim of this study is to investigate antibiotic susceptibility of an in vitro biofilm by isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC). Titanium disks containing a 72-hour three-species biofilm (Streptococcus sanguinis DSM20068, Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC10953, and Porphyromonas gingivalis DSM20709) were placed in a series of IMC ampoules with nutrient agar supplemented with increasing concentrations of amoxicillin, metronidazole, or their combination and incubated anaerobically for 10 days. Lag time and maximum growth rate were determined from continuous heat-flow recordings of metabolic activity. To validate the IMC biofilm results, adherent S. sanguinis and P. gingivalis were incubated anaerobically in medium supplemented with antibiotics at 37°C for 24 hours, and their vitality was determined by live/dead staining, conventional culturing, and IMC. In all biofilm samples incubated with antibiotics, a prolonged lag phase was observed compared with controls (P <0.05). Maximum growth rate was significantly lower for samples treated with either amoxicillin or metronidazole compared with controls (P <0.05). Combining the antibiotics did not improve this effect. Concentrations exceeding 10 times the minimum inhibitory concentration completely inhibited the growth of adherent S. sanguinis and P. gingivalis, whereas lower concentrations resulted in only a delay in the lag phase. A poor correlation was observed between live/dead staining and conventional culturing. IMC gives new evidence about antibiotic effects on oral biofilms and is more informative than conventional culture and live/dead assays. The combination of antibiotics was found to be more efficient than metronidazole alone; however, only minor differences in growth inhibition were detected compared with amoxicillin alone.

  9. Preemptive warfarin dose reduction after initiation of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim or metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Powers, Anna; Loesch, Erin B; Weiland, Anthony; Fioravanti, Nicole; Lucius, David

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the utility of a preemptive warfarin dose reduction at the time of initiation of either sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim or metronidazole, a retrospective chart review of patients who received an outpatient prescription for warfarin and either sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and/or metronidazole from July 1, 2011 to July 1, 2015 was conducted. Clinical outcomes compared Veterans who had a warfarin dose reduction and those who did not within 120 h (5 days) of antibiotic initiation. The primary outcome compared the pre-and post-antibiotic International Normalized Ratio (INR) of patients in the intervention group (warfarin dose reduction) with those in the control group (no intervention). Secondary outcomes assessed incidence of thromboembolic and major bleeding events within 30 days of antibiotic completion. Fifty patients were assessed. Forty-nine patients had at least one follow-up appointment; 126 follow-up visits were evaluated. There was a statistically significant difference for the change in therapeutic INR at the first follow-up appointment (p = 0.029) for those patients in the control group. On average, the patients in the intervention group required fewer follow-up visits (p = 0.019). There were no statistically significant differences for the overall rate of therapeutic INR values between groups, as well as no instances of a thromboembolic or major bleeding events during the follow-up period. Clinically significant differences were observed for patients who received a preemptive warfarin dose reduction upon initiation of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim or metronidazole. Patients in the intervention group required fewer follow-up appointments and were more likely maintain a therapeutic INR within the 30 days following the antibiotic course. Results of this study will be presented the at Pharmacy and Therapeutics committee in an effort to seek approval for policy development to initiate a local preemptive warfarin dose adjustment as a standard

  10. Changes in the Vaginal Microenvironment with Metronidazole Treatment for Bacterial Vaginosis in Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Balkus, Jennifer; Agnew, Kathy; Lawler, Richard; Hitti, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with preterm delivery, but there is little evidence that treatment improves pregnancy outcomes. We examined whether oral or vaginal metronidazole treatment for BV in early pregnancy was more effective in restoring the normal vaginal environment. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial comparing oral and intravaginal metronidazole for treatment of BV in early pregnancy (<20 weeks). Vaginal samples collected at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment were evaluated using gram stain, culture, colorimetric detection of sialidase, and immunoassay for measurement of proinflammatory cytokines interleukins-1β, -6, -8 (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI). We compared the effect of treatment between groups (using chi-square and t test) and within individuals (McNemar's test). Results Of 126 subjects, 108 (86%) completed follow-up (55 oral, 53 intravaginal). Of the study population, 34% achieved therapeutic cure, and this was not different between treatment groups. BV-associated bacteria were significantly reduced in both groups, but few subjects regained colonization with protective lactobacilli. Among women who achieved therapeutic cure, the level of IL-1β dropped significantly (p < 0.001) and SLPI increased (p = 0.003). More women in the vaginal treatment group had undetectable sialidase after treatment (p = 0.013). Conclusions Treatment with oral or intravaginal metronidazole in early pregnancy reduced colonization with BV-associated bacteria but was not effective in achieving therapeutic cure or in restoring healthy vaginal lactobacilli. PMID:19951217

  11. Oral caffeine maintenance potentiates the reinforcing and stimulant subjective effects of intravenous nicotine in cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hendree E; Griffiths, Roland R

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological, clinical and pre-clinical observations suggest that caffeine can potentiate the reinforcing and discriminative effects of nicotine. The present study examined whether chronic exposure to moderate doses of caffeine affects the reinforcing and subjective effects of intravenously administered nicotine. The effects of oral caffeine maintenance on the subjective and physiological effects of intravenously administered nicotine and caffeine were examined using double-blind methods in nine volunteers with current use of tobacco, caffeine, and cocaine. Each subject was exposed to two chronic drug phases (200 mg/70 kg oral caffeine t.i.d. and placebo t.i.d.), each of at least 12 days duration. Within each drug phase, the subject received intravenous injections of placebo, nicotine (1.0 and 2.0 mg/70 kg), and caffeine (200 and 400 mg/70 kg) in mixed order. Physiological and subjective data were collected before and repeatedly after drug or placebo injection. Both intravenous nicotine and caffeine produced significant increases in ratings of drug effect, stimulated, rush, and bad effect, with only nicotine significantly increasing ratings of liking and good effect. Caffeine maintenance significantly increased ratings of drug effect and stimulated after the high dose of nicotine, and significantly decreased ratings of bad effect after the low dose of nicotine. Caffeine maintenance also significantly increased the identification of the low dose of nicotine as a stimulant. A drug versus money measure of reinforcement showed that subjects were willing to pay money to receive nicotine injections, but willing to forfeit money to avoid caffeine injections. Furthermore, subjects were willing to pay significantly more money to receive the high dose of nicotine in the caffeine maintenance phase than in the abstinence phase. Both intravenous nicotine and caffeine increased diastolic blood pressure and decreased skin temperature, and nicotine also increased heart rate

  12. Low, but not high, dose caffeine is a readily available probe for adenosine actions.

    PubMed

    Fredholm, Bertil B; Yang, Jiangning; Wang, Yingqing

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine is very widely used and knowledge of its mode of action can be used to gain an understanding of basal physiological regulation. This review makes the point that caffeine is - in low doses - an antagonist of adenosine acting at A 1 , A 2A and A 2B receptors. We use published and unpublished data to make the point that high dose effects of caffeine are not only qualitatively different but have a different underlying mechanism. Therefore one must be careful in only using epidemiological or experimental data where rather low doses of caffeine are used to draw conclusions about the physiology and pathophysiology of adenosine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Proton Pump Inhibitor and High-dose Methotrexate: Two Cases Reports].

    PubMed

    Evrard, Julien; Farnier, Elodie; Carcel, Corine; Lachenal, Florence; Vial, Thierry; Pont, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is a cytotoxic agent prescribed at high dose in treatment of malignancy. Association of MTX to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is not recommended if doses are more than 20 mg per weeks and only to take into account for smaller doses. Review relate some cases of delayed elimination of methotrexate in patients taking PPI, which increase risk of toxic event. However, currently there is no status quo on interaction between PPI and MTX according to available data. We report two clinical cases illustrating one more time a toxic event to MTX in presence of PPI. In absence of risk/benefit ratio set correctly, an assessment of appropriateness of PPI prescription before MTX therapy can limit an iatrogenic risk. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  14. [Effect of IV hydration with sodium bicarbonate on high-dose methotrexate disposition kinetics].

    PubMed

    Tsuda, N; Goto, M; Konishi, H; Yamashina, H

    1984-04-01

    Following two-compartment kinetic analysis, the effect of loading of transfusion with sodium bicarbonate on methotrexate disposition was investigated in 13 cases with malignant tumor, being treated with high-dose methotrexate. The mean values of total body clearance, when administered at doses 50 mg and 100 mg per kg body weight, were 0.369 and 0.402 (l/h) per kg, respectively. No significant relationship was observed between alpha value and total amount of transfusion, of urine or dosage of sodium bicarbonate. The other kinetic parameters on elimination, beta value, K10 and total body clearance, did not also correlate with those values described above. These results suggest that the elimination profile of methotrexate show linear kinetics, and that massive administration of transfusion with sodium bicarbonate be not necessary if pH value of urine exceeds 7.0.

  15. Extremely high dose neutron dosimetry using CR-39 and atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, N; Koguchi, Y; Tsubomatsu, M; Takagi, T; Kobayashi, I; Tsuruta, T; Morishima, H

    2006-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been applied to the analysis of CR-39 nuclear track detectors for high dose neutron dosimetry. As a feasible study to extract the neutron dose, we have employed a (239)Pu-Be neutron source with the traditional track density measurement of recoil proton etch pits from a high density polyethylene (CH(2)) radiator. After very short etching ( approximately 1 microm), etch pit densities were measured as a function of neutron fluence (neutron dose) up to 1.4 x 10(10) cm(-2) (6.6 Sv). Neutron sensitivity was also measured to be 6.6 x 10(-4). Maximum measurable neutron dose was estimated to be approximately 200 Sv by measuring the fraction of the total image area occupied by the etch pits.

  16. High-dose-rate intraoperative radiation therapy: the nuts and bolts of starting a program

    PubMed Central

    Moningi, Shalini; Armour, Elwood P.; Terezakis, Stephanie A.; Efron, Jonathan E.; Gearhart, Susan L.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Kumar, Rachit; Le, Yi; Kien Ng, Sook; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Zellars, Richard C.; Ellsworth, Susannah G.; Ahuja, Nita

    2014-01-01

    High-dose-rate intraoperative radiation therapy (HDR-IORT) has historically provided effective local control (LC) for patients with unresectable and recurrent tumors. However, IORT is limited to only a few specialized institutions and it can be difficult to initiate an HDR-IORT program. Herein, we provide a brief overview on how to initiate and implement an HDR-IORT program for a selected group of patients with gastrointestinal and pelvic solid tumors using a multidisciplinary approach. Proper administration of HDR-IORT requires institutional support and a joint effort among physics staff, oncologists, surgeons, anesthesiologists, and nurses. In order to determine the true efficacy of IORT for various malignancies, collaboration among institutions with established IORT programs is needed. PMID:24790628

  17. In vivo TLD dose measurements in catheter-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Adlienė, Diana; Jakštas, Karolis; Urbonavičius, Benas Gabrielis

    2015-07-01

    Routine in vivo dosimetry is well established in external beam radiotherapy; however, it is restricted mainly to detection of gross errors in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy due to complicated measurements in the field of steep dose gradients in the vicinity of radioactive source and high uncertainties. The results of in vivo dose measurements using TLD 100 mini rods and TLD 'pin worms' in catheter-based HDR brachytherapy are provided in this paper alongside with their comparison with corresponding dose values obtained using calculation algorithm of the treatment planning system. Possibility to perform independent verification of treatment delivery in HDR brachytherapy using TLDs is discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. High-dose siRNAs upregulate mouse Eri-1 at both transcription and posttranscription levels.

    PubMed

    Bian, Yingnan; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Yingchun; Li, Xiaoping; Geng, Wei; Hao, Ruixin; Yang, Qing; Huang, Weida

    2011-01-01

    The eri-1 gene encodes a 3' exonuclease that can negatively regulate RNA interference via siRNase activity. High-dose siRNAs (hd-siRNAs) can enhance Eri-1 expression, which in return degrade siRNAs and greatly reduces RNAi efficiency. Here we report that hd-siRNAs induce mouse Eri-1 (meri-1) expression through the recruitment of Sp1, Ets-1, and STAT3 to the meri-1 promoter and the formation of an Sp1-Ets-1-STAT3 complex. In addition, hd-siRNAs also abolish the 3' untranslated region (UTR) mediated posttranscriptional repression of meri-1. Our findings demonstrate the molecular mechanism underlying the upregulation of meri-1 by hd-siRNA.

  19. Effect of high-dose oral rabeprazole on recurrent bleeding after endoscopic treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Keun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Chang-Whan; Cho, Young-Seok; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Han, Sok-Won; Park, Yong-Wan; Son, Hye-Suk; Min, Jeong-Yo; Cho, Guen-Jong; Bag, Jung-Sun; Choi, Son-Ook

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of high-dose oral rabeprazole versus high-dose IV PPI on rebleeding after endoscopic treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers. Methods. This was a two-center, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Patients with a high-risk bleeding peptic ulcer had endoscopic hemostasis and were randomly assigned to the high-dose oral rabeprazole group (20 mg twice daily for 72 hours) or the high-dose IV omeprazole group (80 mg as a bolus injection followed by continuous infusion at 8 mg/h for 72 hours). Results. The study was stopped because of slow enrollment (total n = 106). The rebleeding rates within 3 days were 3.7% (2 of 54 patients) given oral rabeprazole and 1.9% (1 of 52 patients) given IV omeprazole (P = 1.000). The rebleeding rates after 3 days were 1.9% and 0% (P = 1.000), respectively. The surgical intervention rates were 3.7% and 0% (P = 0.495), and the mortality rates were 1.9% and 0% (P = 1.000), respectively. Conclusions. The effect of high-dose oral rabeprazole did not differ significantly from that of high-dose IV omeprazole on rebleeding, surgical intervention, or mortality after endoscopic treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers, but this requires further evaluation.

  20. Effect of High-Dose Oral Rabeprazole on Recurrent Bleeding after Endoscopic Treatment of Bleeding Peptic Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Keun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kim, Chang-Whan; Cho, Young-Seok; Kim, Sung-Soo; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Han, Sok-Won; Park, Yong-Wan; Son, Hye-Suk; Min, Jeong-Yo; Cho, Guen-Jong; Bag, Jung-Sun; Choi, Son-Ook

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of high-dose oral rabeprazole versus high-dose IV PPI on rebleeding after endoscopic treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers. Methods. This was a two-center, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Patients with a high-risk bleeding peptic ulcer had endoscopic hemostasis and were randomly assigned to the high-dose oral rabeprazole group (20 mg twice daily for 72 hours) or the high-dose IV omeprazole group (80 mg as a bolus injection followed by continuous infusion at 8 mg/h for 72 hours). Results. The study was stopped because of slow enrollment (total n = 106). The rebleeding rates within 3 days were 3.7% (2 of 54 patients) given oral rabeprazole and 1.9% (1 of 52 patients) given IV omeprazole (P = 1.000). The rebleeding rates after 3 days were 1.9% and 0% (P = 1.000), respectively. The surgical intervention rates were 3.7% and 0% (P = 0.495), and the mortality rates were 1.9% and 0% (P = 1.000), respectively. Conclusions. The effect of high-dose oral rabeprazole did not differ significantly from that of high-dose IV omeprazole on rebleeding, surgical intervention, or mortality after endoscopic treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers, but this requires further evaluation. PMID:23049546

  1. Population pharmacokinetics of metronidazole evaluated using scavenged samples from preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Ouellet, Daniele; Smith, P Brian; James, Laura P; Ross, Ashley; Sullivan, Janice E; Walsh, Michele C; Zadell, Arlene; Newman, Nancy; White, Nicole R; Kashuba, Angela D M; Benjamin, Daniel K

    2012-04-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in preterm infants are rarely conducted due to the research challenges posed by this population. To overcome these challenges, minimal-risk methods such as scavenged sampling can be used to evaluate the PK of commonly used drugs in this population. We evaluated the population PK of metronidazole using targeted sparse sampling and scavenged samples from infants that were ≤ 32 weeks of gestational age at birth and <120 postnatal days. A 5-center study was performed. A population PK model using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM) was developed. Covariate effects were evaluated based on estimated precision and clinical significance. Using the individual Bayesian PK estimates from the final population PK model and the dosing regimen used for each subject, the proportion of subjects achieving the therapeutic target of trough concentrations >8 mg/liter was calculated. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate the adequacy of different dosing recommendations per gestational age group. Thirty-two preterm infants were enrolled: the median (range) gestational age at birth was 27 (22 to 32) weeks, postnatal age was 41 (0 to 97) days, postmenstrual age (PMA) was 32 (24 to 43) weeks, and weight was 1,495 (678 to 3,850) g. The final PK data set contained 116 samples; 104/116 (90%) were scavenged from discarded clinical specimens. Metronidazole population PK was best described by a 1-compartment model. The population mean clearance (CL; liter/h) was determined as 0.0397 × (weight/1.5) × (PMA/32)²·⁴⁹ using a volume of distribution (V) (liter) of 1.07 × (weight/1.5). The relative standard errors around parameter estimates ranged between 11% and 30%. On average, metronidazole concentrations in scavenged samples were 30% lower than those measured in scheduled blood draws. The majority of infants (>70%) met predefined pharmacodynamic efficacy targets. A new, simplified, postmenstrual-age-based dosing regimen is recommended for this

  2. Population Pharmacokinetics of Metronidazole Evaluated Using Scavenged Samples from Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Daniele; Smith, P. Brian; James, Laura P.; Ross, Ashley; Sullivan, Janice E.; Walsh, Michele C.; Zadell, Arlene; Newman, Nancy; White, Nicole R.; Kashuba, Angela D. M.; Benjamin, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in preterm infants are rarely conducted due to the research challenges posed by this population. To overcome these challenges, minimal-risk methods such as scavenged sampling can be used to evaluate the PK of commonly used drugs in this population. We evaluated the population PK of metronidazole using targeted sparse sampling and scavenged samples from infants that were ≤32 weeks of gestational age at birth and <120 postnatal days. A 5-center study was performed. A population PK model using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (NONMEM) was developed. Covariate effects were evaluated based on estimated precision and clinical significance. Using the individual Bayesian PK estimates from the final population PK model and the dosing regimen used for each subject, the proportion of subjects achieving the therapeutic target of trough concentrations >8 mg/liter was calculated. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate the adequacy of different dosing recommendations per gestational age group. Thirty-two preterm infants were enrolled: the median (range) gestational age at birth was 27 (22 to 32) weeks, postnatal age was 41 (0 to 97) days, postmenstrual age (PMA) was 32 (24 to 43) weeks, and weight was 1,495 (678 to 3,850) g. The final PK data set contained 116 samples; 104/116 (90%) were scavenged from discarded clinical specimens. Metronidazole population PK was best described by a 1-compartment model. The population mean clearance (CL; liter/h) was determined as 0.0397 × (weight/1.5) × (PMA/32)2.49 using a volume of distribution (V) (liter) of 1.07 × (weight/1.5). The relative standard errors around parameter estimates ranged between 11% and 30%. On average, metronidazole concentrations in scavenged samples were 30% lower than those measured in scheduled blood draws. The majority of infants (>70%) met predefined pharmacodynamic efficacy targets. A new, simplified, postmenstrual-age-based dosing regimen is recommended for this

  3. Therapy for Clostridium difficile infection - any news beyond Metronidazole and Vancomycin?

    PubMed

    Manthey, C F; Eckmann, L; Fuhrmann, V

    2017-11-01

    Infections with Clostridium difficile (CDI) represent a major burden for the health care system. Treatment is generally by antibiotic therapy with metronidazole and vancomycin, but efficacy remains suboptimal. Areas covered: This review discusses established and emerging treatment options for CDI, and current therapeutic guidelines, taking into account disease severity and risk of relapse. Expert commentary: New therapeutic approaches, including antibodies and new classes of antibiotics, and new measures for preventing infection with vaccines are under development in phase II/III clinical trials. We performed a systematic literature review using the search terms 'Clostridium difficile' and 'treatment'.

  4. Non-destructive determination of metronidazole powder by using artificial neural networks on short-wavelength NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lingzhi; Dou, Ying; Mi, Hong; Ren, Meiyan; Ren, Yulin

    2007-04-01

    The present study aimed at providing a new method in sight into short-wavelength near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy of in pharmaceutical quantitative analysis. To do that, 124 experimental samples of metronidazole powder were analyzed using artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the 780-1100 nm region of short-wavelength NIR spectra. In this paper, metronidazole was as active component and other two components (magnesium stearate and starch) were as excipients. Different preprocessing spectral data (first-derivative, second-derivative, standard normal variate (SNV) and multiplicative scatter correction (MSC)) were applied to establish the ANNs models of metronidazole powder. The degree of approximation, a new evaluation criterion of the networks was employed to prove the accuracy of the predicted results. The results presented here demonstrate that the short-wavelength NIR region is promising for the fast and reliable determination of major component in pharmaceutical analysis.

  5. A safety trial of high dose glyceryl triacetate for Canavan disease.

    PubMed

    Segel, Reeval; Anikster, Yair; Zevin, Shoshana; Steinberg, Avraham; Gahl, William A; Fisher, Drora; Staretz-Chacham, Orna; Zimran, Ari; Altarescu, Gheona

    2011-07-01

    Canavan disease (CD MIM#271900) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder presenting in early infancy. The course of the disease is variable, but it is always fatal. CD is caused by mutations in the ASPA gene, which codes for the enzyme aspartoacylase (ASPA), which breaks down N-acetylaspartate (NAA) to acetate and aspartic acid. The lack of NAA-degrading enzyme activity leads to excess accumulation of NAA in the brain and deficiency of acetate, which is necessary for myelin lipid synthesis. Glyceryltriacetate (GTA) is a short-chain triglyceride with three acetate moieties on a glycerol backbone and has proven an effective acetate precursor. Intragastric administration of GTA to tremor mice results in greatly increased brain acetate levels, and improved motor functions. GTA given to infants with CD at a low dose (up to 0.25 g/kg/d) resulted in no improvement in their clinical status, but also no detectable toxicity. We present for the first time the safety profile of high dose GTA (4.5 g/kg/d) in 2 patients with CD. We treated 2 infants with CD at ages 8 months and 1 year with high dose GTA, for 4.5 and 6 months respectively. No significant side effects and no toxicity were observed. Although the treatment resulted in no motor improvement, it was well tolerated. The lack of clinical improvement might be explained mainly by the late onset of treatment, when significant brain damage was already present. Further larger studies of CD patients below age 3 months are required in order to test the long-term efficacy of this drug. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fatherhood in tall men treated with high-dose sex steroids during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A E J; Boellaard, W P A; van Casteren, N J; Romijn, J C; de Jong, F H; Boot, A M; Drop, S L S

    2010-12-01

    Sex steroid treatment to reduce final height of tall boys has been available since the 1950s. In women, it has been shown to interfere with fertility. In men, no such data are available. We therefore evaluated fertility and gonadal function in tall men who did or did not receive high-dose androgen treatment in adolescence. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 116 tall men, of whom 60 had been treated. Reproductive and gonadal function was assessed by standardized interview, semen analysis, endocrine parameters, ultrasound imaging, and fatherhood. Mean age at treatment commencement was 14.2 yr, and mean follow-up was 21.2 yr. Sixty-six men (36 treated and 30 untreated) had attempted to achieve fatherhood. The probability of conceiving their first pregnancy within 1 yr was similar in treated and untreated men (26 vs. 24; Breslow P=0.8). Eleven treated and 13 untreated men presented with a left-sided varicocele (P=0.5). Testicular volume, sperm quality, and serum LH, FSH, and inhibin B levels were comparable between treated and untreated men. However, treated men had significantly reduced serum T levels, adjusted for known confounders [mean (sd) 13.3 (1.8) vs. 15.2 (1.9) nmol/liter; P=0.005). In addition, testicular volume and serum inhibin B and FSH levels in treated men were significantly correlated with age at treatment commencement. At a mean follow-up of 21 yr after high-dose androgen treatment, we conclude that fatherhood and semen quality in tall treated men are not affected. Serum testosterone levels, however, are reduced in androgen-treated men. Future research is required to determine whether declining testosterone levels may become clinically relevant for these men as they age.

  7. High-Dose-Rate Endobronchial Brachytherapy for Recurrent Airway Obstruction From Hyperplastic Granulation Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Tendulkar, Rahul D.; Fleming, Peter A.; Reddy, Chandana A.

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: Benign endobronchial granulation tissue causes airway obstruction in up to 20% of patients after lung transplantation or stent placement. High-dose-rate endobronchial brachytherapy (HDR-EB) has been successful in some cases refractory to standard bronchoscopic interventions. Methods and Materials: Between September 2004 and May 2005, 8 patients with refractory benign airway obstruction were treated with HDR-EB, using one to two fractions of Ir-192 prescribed to 7.1 Gy at a radius of 1 cm. Charts were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate subjective clinical response, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV{sub 1}), and frequency of therapeutic bronchoscopies over 6-month periods before and aftermore » HDR-EB. Results: The median follow-up was 14.6 months, and median survival was 10.5 months. The mean number of bronchoscopic interventions improved from 3.1 procedures in the 6-month pretreatment period to 1.8 after HDR-EB. Mean FEV{sub 1} improved from 36% predicted to 46% predicted. Six patients had a good-to-excellent subjective early response, but only one maintained this response beyond 6 months, and this was the only patient treated with HDR-EB within 24 h from the most recent bronchoscopic intervention. Five patients have expired from causes related to their chronic pulmonary disease, including one from hemoptysis resulting from a bronchoarterial fistula. Conclusion: High-dose-rate-EB may be an effective treatment for select patients with refractory hyperplastic granulation tissue causing recurrent airway stenosis. Performing HDR-EB within 24-48 h after excision of obstructive granulation tissue could further improve outcomes. Careful patient selection is important to maximize therapeutic benefit and minimize toxicity. The optimal patient population, dose, and timing of HDR-EB should be investigated prospectively.« less

  8. Quality Control of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy: Treatment Delivery Analysis Using Statistical Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Able, Charles M., E-mail: cable@wfubmc.edu; Bright, Megan; Frizzell, Bart

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Statistical process control (SPC) is a quality control method used to ensure that a process is well controlled and operates with little variation. This study determined whether SPC was a viable technique for evaluating the proper operation of a high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment delivery system. Methods and Materials: A surrogate prostate patient was developed using Vyse ordnance gelatin. A total of 10 metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were placed from prostate base to apex. Computed tomography guidance was used to accurately position the first detector in each train at the base. The plan consisted of 12 needles withmore » 129 dwell positions delivering a prescribed peripheral dose of 200 cGy. Sixteen accurate treatment trials were delivered as planned. Subsequently, a number of treatments were delivered with errors introduced, including wrong patient, wrong source calibration, wrong connection sequence, single needle displaced inferiorly 5 mm, and entire implant displaced 2 mm and 4 mm inferiorly. Two process behavior charts (PBC), an individual and a moving range chart, were developed for each dosimeter location. Results: There were 4 false positives resulting from 160 measurements from 16 accurately delivered treatments. For the inaccurately delivered treatments, the PBC indicated that measurements made at the periphery and apex (regions of high-dose gradient) were much more sensitive to treatment delivery errors. All errors introduced were correctly identified by either the individual or the moving range PBC in the apex region. Measurements at the urethra and base were less sensitive to errors. Conclusions: SPC is a viable method for assessing the quality of HDR treatment delivery. Further development is necessary to determine the most effective dose sampling, to ensure reproducible evaluation of treatment delivery accuracy.« less

  9. Retinal toxicity of high-dose hydroxychloroquine in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Navajas, Eduardo V; Krema, Hatem; Hammoudi, Dena S; Lipton, Jeffrey H; Simpson, E Rand; Boyd, Shelley; Easterbrook, Michael

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate retinal toxicity in patients treated with high-dose hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) (Plaquenil, Sanofi Pharmaceuticals) for chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Cohort study. Twelve patients with chronic GVHD treated with 800 mg/day HCQ between June 2005 and December 2010. Patients in this study underwent ophthalmologic examination yearly and ancillary studies including colour vision, Amsler grid, fundus photographs, Humphrey 10-2 automated perimetry, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Evidence of HCQ toxicity was determined by the presence of scotomas in the Amsler grid and Humphrey 10-2 automated perimetry, and confirmed by at least 1 objective test including SD-OCT or mfERG. Of the 12 patients, 7 were male and 5 were female. Mean age was 49 years. Mean best corrected visual acuity at baseline was 20/25 and remained 20/25 at final follow-up. Median duration of HCQ treatment was 22.8 months. Median adjusted daily dosage was 11.5 mg/kg/day. Seven patients developed vortex keratopathy. No signs of pigmentary retinopathy or bull's-eye maculopathy were found in any of the patients. Three patients developed retinal toxicity with scotomas in the Amsler grid and Humphrey 10-2 automated perimetry, as well as abnormal mfERG. Retinal structure measured by SD-OCT was abnormal in 2 of the 3 patients with retinal toxicity. Colour vision measured by Ishihara plates, as well as by 100 Hue colour test, was abnormal in 2 of the 3 patients with retinal toxicity. High-dose HCQ in patients with GVHD was associated with higher incidence and earlier development of retinal toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment with high dose of atorvastatin reduces vascular injury in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Simões, Fabiana Vieira; de Batista, Priscila Rossi; Botelho, Tatiani; Ribeiro-Júnior, Rogério Faustino; Padilha, Alessandra Simão; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2016-10-01

    Previous reports showed conflicting results regarding the treatment effects of statin on Diabetes mellitus (DM). We investigated how treatment with high dose of atorvastatin affects the impaired vascular function in diabetic rats. Atorvastatin (80mg/kg/day, oral gavage, 4 weeks) or its vehicle was administered to male control or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Aortic segments were used to investigate the vascular reactivity, protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase) 1 (NOX1) and superoxide anions levels. Atorvastatin treatment did not affect glycemia levels. In diabetic rats, the vascular reactivity to phenylephrine increased compared with controls and the atorvastatin treatment reduced this response. Removal of the endothelium increased the response to phenylephrine in control rats, but not in the diabetic group. Atorvastatin increased the endothelial modulation in diabetic rats. L-NAME (100μM) increased the reactivity in all groups, but this effect was greater in atorvastatin-treated diabetic rats. Indomethacin (10μM) and NS398 (1μM) decreased the contractile response in diabetic rats and atorvastatin reversed these effects, without changing COX-2 expression. Apocynin (30μM) decreased the phenylephrine response in diabetic rats, which also showed increased NOX1 and superoxide anions; these effects were prevented by atorvastatin treatment. The results suggest that treatment with high dose of atorvastatin, independent of glycemia, improves endothelial function in aortas from diabetic rats by reducing the constrictor prostanoids derived from COX-2 and by reducing the oxidative stress by NADPH oxidase, as well as a possible increasing of nitric oxide participation. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of high dose sublingual immunotherapy to induce a stepdown of seasonal asthma: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Voltolini, Susanna; Troise, Costantino; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Bignardi, Donatella; Di Cara, Giuseppe; Marcucci, Francesco; La Grutta, Stefania; Frati, Franco

    2010-01-01

    There is ample evidence to support the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) on allergic rhinitis, while there is less solid data regarding asthma. We evaluated the effects of a high dose birch SLIT on birch-induced rhinitis and asthma in a controlled study. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, single centre trial on SLIT with birch pollen allergen extract (Stallergenes, Antony, France) included 24 patients presenting severe rhinitis and slight to moderate asthma, 14 actively and 10 placebo treated. SLIT was performed by a pre-coseasonal protocol, and was repeated for 2 years. The study plan included a selection visit, a visit at the start of the first and the second treatment cycle, a follow-up visit after 1-3 months from the start of each cycle, and a final visit at the end of each yearly cycle. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in rhinorrhoea and nasal obstruction occurred in actively treated patients. The median number of days with asthma at visit 3 was 10 (0-27) in the active (SLIT) group and 13 (0-29) in the placebo group. The median number of days with asthma at visit 6 was 2 (0-6) in the SLIT group and 7 (0-15) in the placebo group (p < 0.05 between groups). A stepdown of asthma occurred in 77% of actively treated vs. none of placebo treated patients (p = 0.05). No severe adverse events were observed. This pilot study suggests that SLIT with high dose birch extract may be able to step down seasonal pollen-induced asthma after prolonged treatment.

  12. Role for Gr-1+ Cells in the Control of High-Dose Mycobacterium bovis Recombinant BCG

    PubMed Central

    Letvin, Norman L.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attractive target for development as a live vaccine vector delivering transgenic antigens from HIV and other pathogens. Most studies aimed at defining the clearance of BCG have been performed at doses between 102 and 104 CFU. Interestingly, however, recombinant BCG (rBCG) administered at doses of >106 CFU effectively generates antigen-specific T-cell responses and primes for heterologous boost responses. Thus, defining clearance at high doses might aid in the optimization of rBCG as a vector. In this study, we used bioluminescence imaging to examine the kinetics of rBCG transgene expression and clearance in mice immunized with 5 × 107 CFU rBCG expressing luciferase. Similar to studies using low-dose rBCG, our results demonstrate that the adaptive immune response is necessary for long-term control of rBCG beginning 9 days after immunizing mice. However, in contrast to these reports, we observed that the majority of mycobacterial antigen was eliminated prior to day 9. By examining knockout and antibody-mediated depletion mouse models, we demonstrate that the rapid clearance of rBCG occurs in the first 24 h and is mediated by Gr-1+ cells. As Gr-1+ granulocytes have been described as having no impact on BCG clearance at low doses, our results reveal an unappreciated role for Gr-1+ neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes in the clearance of high-dose rBCG. This work demonstrates the potential of applying bioluminescence imaging to rBCG in order to gain an understanding of the immune response and increase the efficacy of rBCG as a vaccine vector. PMID:24920602

  13. Assessment of simulated high-dose partial-body irradiation by PCC-R assay.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ivonne; García, Omar; Lamadrid, Ana I; Gregoire, Eric; González, Jorge E; Morales, Wilfredo; Martin, Cécile; Barquinero, Joan-Francesc; Voisin, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    The estimation of the dose and the irradiated fraction of the body is important information in the primary medical response in case of a radiological accident. The PCC-R assay has been developed for high-dose estimations, but little attention has been given to its applicability for partial-body irradiations. In the present work we estimated the doses and the percentage of the irradiated fraction in simulated partial-body radiation exposures at high doses using the PCC-R assay. Peripheral whole blood of three healthy donors was exposed to doses from 0-20 Gy, with ⁶⁰Co gamma radiation. To simulate partial body irradiations, irradiated and non-irradiated blood was mixed to obtain proportions of irradiated blood from 10-90%. Lymphocyte cultures were treated with Colcemid and Calyculin-A before harvest. Conventional and triage scores were performed for each dose, proportion of irradiated blood and donor. The Papworth's u test was used to evaluate the PCC-R distribution per cell. A dose-response relationship was fitted according to the maximum likelihood method using the frequencies of PCC-R obtained from 100% irradiated blood. The dose to the partially irradiated blood was estimated using the Contaminated Poisson method. A new D₀ value of 10.9 Gy was calculated and used to estimate the initial fraction of irradiated cells. The results presented here indicate that by PCC-R it is possible to distinguish between simulated partial- and whole-body irradiations by the u-test, and to accurately estimate the dose from 10-20 Gy, and the initial fraction of irradiated cells in the interval from 10-90%.

  14. High dose oral tamoxifen and subcutaneous interferon alpha-2a for recurrent glioma.

    PubMed

    Chang, S M; Barker, F G; Huhn, S L; Nicholas, M K; Page, M; Rabbitt, J; Prados, M D

    1998-04-01

    Chemotherapeutic regimens in present use for recurrent glioma have substantial toxicity. Activity against recurrent gliomas has been reported for both tamoxifen and interferon alpha, agents that have more acceptable toxicity profiles and that can be administered in an outpatient setting. We tested the efficacy and toxicity of the combination of high-dose tamoxifen and interferon alpha in adults with recurrent glioma in a phase II trial. Eligible patients had radiographically measurable recurrent gliomas of any grade after initial radiation therapy. Interferon-alpha [6 x 10(6) U subcutaneously three times per week] and tamoxifen (240 mg/m2/day orally) were administered continuously. Treatment response was assessed at 6 week intervals using clinical and radiographic criteria. Eighteen patients (11 males and 7 females) were enrolled. Median age was 41 years (range 23-61 years). All patients had gliomas that progressed after radiation therapy and nitrosourea chemotherapy. The histologic diagnosis of the original tumor was glioblastoma multiforme in 8 patients, anaplastic astrocytoma in 5 patients, astrocytoma in 4 patients and mixed malignant glioma in 1 patient. Reversible moderate to severe neurological toxicity manifested by dizziness and unsteady gait was seen at tamoxifen doses of 240 mg/m2/day. Although the initial tamoxifen dose was reduced to 120 mg/m2/day, moderate neurotoxicity was noted at this dose as well and the trial was closed early. The combination of oral tamoxifen (120 to 240 mg/m2/day) and subcutaneous interferon-alpha [6 x 10(6) U three times per week] was associated with significant neurotoxicity in this group of recurrent glioma patients, resulting in early study closure. Of 16 evaluable patients, 12 had progressive disease after one cycle of treatment, 3 had stable disease, and there was one minor response. Gradual dose escalation may be required if similar patients are to be treated with high dose tamoxifen in conjunction with interferon.

  15. High dose extended-release lansoprazole (dexlansoprazole) and amoxicillin dual therapy for Helicobacter pylori infections

    PubMed Central

    Attumi, Taraq A.; Graham, David Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori infections have become increasingly difficult to treat. Aim To examine whether amoxicillin and high dose dexlansoprazole would reliably achieve an H. pylori eradication rate of ≥90%. Methods An open-label prospective pilot study of H. pylori eradication in treatment-naïve subjects with active H. pylori infection (positive by two tests). Therapy: amoxicillin 1 g and dexlansoprazole 120 mg each twice a day at approximately 12 hour intervals for 14 days. Success was accessed by urea breath test. An effective therapy was defined as a per-protocol treatment success of 90% or greater; treatment success of 80% or less was prespecified as an unacceptable result. Results After 13 subjects were entered (12 men, one woman; average age of 54 years) the prespecified stopping rule of 6 treatment failures was achieved (i.e. the 95% confidence interval excluded achieving the required 90% success rate even if the proposed study of 50 completed patients were entered) and enrollment was stopped. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat treatment success were both 53.8%; (7/13); 95% CI = 25 to 80%. Compliance was 100%. Three patients (23%) reported side-effects, all of which were mild and none interrupted therapy. Conclusion Theoretically, dual PPI plus amoxicillin should reliably eradicate H. pylori provided nearly neutral intragastric pH can be maintained. Clearly, dexlansoprazole, despite being administered at high dose and twice a day (i.e., total daily dose 240 mg), failed to achieve an intragastric milieu consistent with dual PPI plus amoxicillin therapy being an effective anti-H. pylori regimen. PMID:24698653

  16. High-dose Helical Tomotherapy With Concurrent Full-dose Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jee Suk; Wang, Michael L.C.; Koom, Woong Sub

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To improve poor therapeutic outcome of current practice of chemoradiotherapy (CRT), high-dose helical tomotherapy (HT) with concurrent full-dose chemotherapy has been performed on patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), and the results were analyzed. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed 39 patients with LAPC treated with radiotherapy using HT (median, 58.4 Gy; range, 50.8-59.9 Gy) and concomitant chemotherapy between 2006 and 2009. Radiotherapy was directed to the primary tumor with a 0.5-cm margin without prophylactic nodal coverage. Twenty-nine patients (79%) received full-dose (1000 mg/m{sup 2}) gemcitabine-based chemotherapy during HT. After completion of CRT, maintenance chemotherapy was administered tomore » 37 patients (95%). Results: The median follow-up was 15.5 months (range, 3.4-43.9) for the entire cohort, and 22.5 months (range, 12.0-43.9) for the surviving patients. The 1- and 2-year local progression-free survival rates were 82.1% and 77.3%, respectively. Eight patients (21%) were converted to resectable status, including 1 with a pathological complete response. The median overall survival and progression-free survival were 21.2 and 14.0 months, respectively. Acute toxicities were acceptable with no gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity higher than Grade 3. Severe late GI toxicity ({>=}Grade 3) occurred in 10 patients (26%); 1 treatment-related death from GI bleeding was observed. Conclusion: High-dose helical tomotherapy with concurrent full-dose chemotherapy resulted in improved local control and long-term survival in patients with LAPC. Future studies are needed to widen the therapeutic window by minimizing late GI toxicity.« less

  17. The delayed pulmonary syndrome following acute high-dose irradiation: a rhesus macaque model.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Michael; Bennett, Alexander; Farese, Ann M; Harper, Jamie; Ward, Amanda; Taylor-Howell, Cheryl; Cui, Wanchang; Gibbs, Allison; Lasio, Giovanni; Jackson, William; MacVittie, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Several radiation dose- and time-dependent tissue sequelae develop following acute high-dose radiation exposure. One of the recognized delayed effects of such exposures is lung injury, characterized by respiratory failure as a result of pneumonitis that may subsequently develop into lung fibrosis. Since this pulmonary subsyndrome may be associated with high morbidity and mortality, comprehensive treatment following high-dose irradiation will ideally include treatments that mitigate both the acute hematologic and gastrointestinal subsyndromes as well as the delayed pulmonary syndrome. Currently, there are no drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration to counteract the effects of acute radiation exposure. Moreover, there are no relevant large animal models of radiation-induced lung injury that permit efficacy testing of new generation medical countermeasures in combination with medical management protocols under the FDA animal rule criteria. Herein is described a nonhuman primate model of delayed lung injury resulting from whole thorax lung irradiation. Rhesus macaques were exposed to 6 MV photon radiation over a dose range of 9.0-12.0 Gy and medical management administered according to a standardized treatment protocol. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 180 d. A comparative multiparameter analysis is provided, focusing on the lethal dose response relationship characterized by a lethal dose50/180 of 10.27 Gy [9.88, 10.66] and slope of 1.112 probits per linear dose. Latency, incidence, and severity of lung injury were evaluated through clinical and radiographic parameters including respiratory rate, saturation of peripheral oxygen, corticosteroid requirements, and serial computed tomography. Gross anatomical and histological analyses were performed to assess radiation-induced injury. The model defines the dose response relationship and time course of the delayed pulmonary sequelae and consequent morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it may provide

  18. Adverse reactions and tolerability of high-dose sublingual allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Moral, Angel; Moreno, Victoria; Girón, Francisco; El-Qutob, David; Moure, José D; Alcántara, Manuel; Padial, Antonia; Oehling, Alberto G; Millán, Carmen; de la Torre, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Sublingual allergen immunotherapy is an effective treatment against allergic respiratory disease. Many studies have shown the safety of this type of therapy, although the factors that might affect the tolerability of high-dose sublingual immunotherapy have not been well established. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that affect the tolerability of sublingual allergen immunotherapy. A total of 183 subjects aged ≥5 years, diagnosed with allergic rhinitis with/without mild to moderate asthma due to sensitization to grass, olive pollen, or mites, were included in this open, retrospective, multicentric, noninterventional study. Sublingual immunotherapy was administered for at least 3 months. The most frequent adverse reaction was oral pruritus (13.7% of the patients). Most of the reactions were local (84.7%) and immediate (93.5%) and occurred during the initiation phase (60.6%). All reactions were mild to moderate in severity. No serious adverse reactions were registered. When comparing factors with potential influence on the occurrence of adverse reactions, the results between the groups of subjects with and without adverse reactions showed no statistically significant differences in sex (P=0.6417), age (P=0.1801), years since the disease was first diagnosed (P=0.3800), treatment composition (P=0.6946), polysensitization (P=0.1730), or clinical diagnosis (P=0.3354). However, it was found that treatment duration had a statistically significant influence (3 months, >3 months: P=0.0442) and the presence of asthma was close to statistical significance (P=0.0847). In our study, treatment duration is significantly associated with the occurrence of adverse reactions after the administration of high doses of sublingual allergen immunotherapy.

  19. High-dose extended-release lansoprazole (dexlansoprazole) and amoxicillin dual therapy for Helicobacter pylori infections.

    PubMed

    Attumi, Taraq A; Graham, David Y

    2014-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori infections have become increasingly difficult to treat. To examine whether amoxicillin and high-dose dexlansoprazole would reliably achieve an H. pylori eradication rate of ≥90%. An open-label prospective pilot study of H. pylori eradication in treatment-naïve subjects with active H. pylori infection (positive by two tests). amoxicillin 1 g and dexlansoprazole 120 mg each twice a day at approximately 12-hour intervals for 14 days. Success was accessed by urea breath test. An effective therapy was defined as a per-protocol treatment success of 90% or greater; treatment success of 80% or less was prespecified as an unacceptable result. After 13 subjects were entered (12 men, one woman; average age of 54 years), the prespecified stopping rule of six treatment failures was achieved (i.e., the 95% confidence interval excluded achieving the required 90% success rate even if the proposed study of 50 completed patients were entered) and enrollment was stopped. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat treatment success were both 53.8%; (7/13); 95% CI = 25-80%. Compliance was 100%. Three patients (23%) reported side effects, all of which were mild and none interrupted therapy. Theoretically, dual PPI plus amoxicillin should reliably eradicate H. pylori provided nearly neutral intragastric pH can be maintained. Clearly, dexlansoprazole, despite being administered at high dose and twice a day (i.e., total daily dose 240 mg), failed to achieve an intragastric milieu consistent with dual PPI plus amoxicillin therapy being an effective anti-H. pylori regimen. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. High doses of dextromethorphan, an NMDA antagonist, produce effects similar to classic hallucinogens

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lawrence P.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Mintzer, Miriam Z.; Klinedinst, Margaret A.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Although reports of dextromethorphan (DXM) abuse have increased recently, few studies have examined the effects of high doses of DXM. Objective This study in humans evaluated the effects of supratherapeutic doses of DXM and triazolam. Methods Single, acute, oral doses of DXM (100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 mg/70 kg), triazolam (0.25, 0.5 mg/70kg), and placebo were administered to twelve healthy volunteers with histories of hallucinogen use, under double-blind conditions, using an ascending dose run-up design. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological effects were assessed repeatedly after drug administration for 6 hours. Results Triazolam produced dose-related increases in subject-rated sedation, observer-rated sedation, and behavioral impairment. DXM produced a profile of dose-related physiological and subjective effects differing from triazolam. DXM effects included increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and emesis, increases in observer-rated effects typical of classic hallucinogens (e.g. distance from reality, visual effects with eyes open and closed, joy, anxiety), and participant ratings of stimulation (e.g. jittery, nervous), somatic effects (e.g. tingling, headache), perceptual changes, end-of-session drug liking, and mystical-type experience. After 400 mg/70kg DXM, 11 of 12 participants indicated on a pharmacological class questionnaire that they thought they had received a classic hallucinogen (e.g. psilocybin). Drug effects resolved without significant adverse effects by the end of the session. In a 1-month follow up volunteers attributed increased spirituality and positive changes in attitudes, moods, and behavior to the session experiences. Conclusions High doses of DXM produced effects distinct from triazolam and had characteristics that were similar to the classic hallucinogen psilocybin. PMID:22526529

  1. Dosimetric Effects of Air Pockets Around High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy Vaginal Cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Susan, E-mail: srichardson@radonc.wustl.ed; Palaniswaamy, Geethpriya; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: Most physicians use a single-channel vaginal cylinder for postoperative endometrial cancer brachytherapy. Recent published data have identified air pockets between the vaginal cylinders and the vaginal mucosa. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence, size, and dosimetric effects of these air pockets. Methods and Materials: 25 patients receiving postoperative vaginal cuff brachytherapy with a high-dose rate vaginal cylinders were enrolled in this prospective data collection study. Patients were treated with 6 fractions of 200 to 400 cGy per fraction prescribed at 5 mm depth. Computed tomography simulation for brachytherapy treatment planning was performed for each fraction.more » The quantity, volume, and dosimetric impact of the air pockets surrounding the cylinder were quantified. Results: In 25 patients, a total of 90 air pockets were present in 150 procedures (60%). Five patients had no air pockets present during any of their treatments. The average number of air pockets per patient was 3.6, with the average total air pocket volume being 0.34 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.01-1.32 cm{sup 3}). The average dose reduction to the vaginal mucosa at the air pocket was 27% (range, 9-58%). Ten patients had no air pockets on their first fraction but air pockets occurred in subsequent fractions. Conclusion: Air pockets between high-dose rate vaginal cylinder applicators and the vaginal mucosa are present in the majority of fractions of therapy, and their presence varies from patient to patient and fraction to fraction. The existence of air pockets results in reduced radiation dose to the vaginal mucosa.« less

  2. High-dose oral medroxyprogesterone for inappropriate hypersexuality in elderly men with dementia: a case series.

    PubMed

    Cross, Bethany S; DeYoung, G Robert; Furmaga, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    To retrospectively examine the utility of high-dose oral medroxyprogesterone (MPA) for the treatment of inappropriate hypersexuality (IH) in elderly men with dementia. Ten men aged 65 years or older (median 79.5 years, range 65-93 years) were identified from all admissions at a 170-bed tertiary referral psychiatric hospital between December 2005 and January 2011. Admission records were used to identify subjects who received at least 100 mg daily of oral MPA. The primary outcome of successful treatment was chart documentation of a substantial decline in IH, such that subjects could return to preadmission residence. Data were collected to assess trends in dose, adverse effects, use of other symptom-modifying medications prior to MPA initiation, and successful return to preadmission placement. A trial serotoneric agent was used in 70% of subjects prior to MPA initiation. Sixty percent of subjects failed a trial of an antipsychotic, while 40% did not have response to the use of both a serotonergic agent and an antipsychotic before MPA was initiated. The average daily dose of MPA was 300 mg (range 100-400 mg/day). No adverse effects were documented from physician, nursing, or behavioral health rounding notes; however, adverse effects may not have been systematically assessed at the time of MPA administration. Seventy percent of subjects experienced favorable changes in target behaviors from MPA. Few data exist on effective therapy options for treatment of IH. The minimum concentration of MPA needed to suppress IH in the male body is unknown. MPA was titrated upward, with the efficacy measure being a decrease in inappropriate behaviors. Use of MPA likely contributed to decreased IH; however, other factors involved in hospitalization could have contributed to improved behavior. While requiring further study, high-dose (100-400 mg/day) oral MPA may represent an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for subjects displaying IH.

  3. Trichomonas vaginalis: metronidazole and other nitroimidazole drugs are reduced by the flavin enzyme thioredoxin reductase and disrupt the cellular redox system. Implications for nitroimidazole toxicity and resistance.

    PubMed

    Leitsch, David; Kolarich, Daniel; Binder, Marina; Stadlmann, Johannes; Altmann, Friedrich; Duchêne, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Infections with the microaerophilic parasite Trichomonas vaginalis are treated with the 5-nitroimidazole drug metronidazole, which is also in use against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis and microaerophilic/anaerobic bacteria. Here we report that in T. vaginalis the flavin enzyme thioredoxin reductase displays nitroreductase activity with nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole, and with the nitrofuran drug furazolidone. Reactive metabolites of metronidazole and other nitroimidazoles form covalent adducts with several proteins that are known or assumed to be associated with thioredoxin-mediated redox regulation, including thioredoxin reductase itself, ribonucleotide reductase, thioredoxin peroxidase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase. Disulphide reducing activity of thioredoxin reductase was greatly diminished in extracts of metronidazole-treated cells and intracellular non-protein thiol levels were sharply decreased. We generated a highly metronidazole-resistant cell line that displayed only minimal thioredoxin reductase activity, not due to diminished expression of the enzyme but due to the lack of its FAD cofactor. Reduction of free flavins, readily observed in metronidazole-susceptible cells, was also absent in the resistant cells. On the other hand, iron-depleted T. vaginalis cells, expressing only minimal amounts of PFOR and hydrogenosomal malate dehydrogenase, remained fully susceptible to metronidazole. Thus, taken together, our data suggest a flavin-based mechanism of metronidazole activation and thereby challenge the current model of hydrogenosomal activation of nitroimidazole drugs.

  4. A randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial of the effects of fluid rate and/or presence of dextrose in intravenous fluids on the labor course of nulliparas.

    PubMed

    Fong, Alex; Serra, Allison E; Caballero, Deysi; Garite, Thomas J; Shrivastava, Vineet K

    2017-08-01

    Prolonged labor has been demonstrated to increase adverse maternal and neonatal outcome. A practice that may decrease the risk of prolonged labor is the modification of fluid intake during labor. Several studies demonstrated that increased hydration in labor as well as addition of dextrose-containing fluids may be associated with a decrease in length of labor. The purpose of our study was to characterize whether high-dose intravenous fluids, standard-dose fluids with dextrose, or high-dose fluids with dextrose show a difference in the duration of labor in nulliparas. Nulliparous subjects with singletons who presented in active labor were randomized to 1 of 3 groups of intravenous fluids: 250 mL/h of normal saline, 125 mL/h of 5% dextrose in normal saline, or 250 mL/h of 2.5% dextrose in normal saline. The primary outcome was total length of labor from initiation of intravenous fluid in vaginally delivered subjects. Secondary outcomes included cesarean delivery rate and length of second stage of labor, among other maternal and neonatal outcomes. In all, 274 subjects who met inclusion criteria were enrolled. There were no differences in baseline characteristics among the 3 groups. There was no difference in the primary outcome of total length of labor in vaginally delivered subjects among the 3 groups. First stage of labor duration, second stage of labor duration, and cesarean delivery rates were also equivalent. There were no differences identified in other secondary outcomes including clinical chorioamnionitis, postpartum hemorrhage, blood loss, Apgar scores, or neonatal intensive care admission. There is no difference in length of labor or delivery outcomes when comparing high-dose intravenous fluids, addition of dextrose, or use of high-dose intravenous fluids with dextrose in nulliparous women who present in active labor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin versus levofloxacin plus metronidazole for community-acquired pneumonia with aspiration factors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tieying; Sun, Li; Wang, Rongmei; Ren, Xiaoping; Sui, Dong-Jiang; Pu, Chun; Ren, Yajuan; Liu, Ying; Yang, Zhuo; Li, Fengzhi

    2014-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious disease throughout the world and the incidence continues to grow as the population ages. Aspiration is an important pathogenic mechanism for pneumonia in the elderly and the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia with aspiration factors is a major medical problem. Our study aimed to assess whether moxifloxacin in comparison to levofloxacin plus metronidazole are effective and safe in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia with aspiration factors. In this prospective, multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial, 77 patients with mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia with aspiration factors were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive moxifloxacin or levofloxacin plus metronidazole. The primary efficacy variables were clinical outcomes in evaluable patients at a follow-up visit 7 to 14 days after the end of therapy. Seven days after the end of therapy a clinical cure was achieved for 76.7% (23 of 37) of efficacy-evaluable patients in the moxifloxacin group and 51.7% (15 of 40) of patients in the levofloxacin plus metronidazole group. There was a significant difference between the two groups (χ(2) = 4.002, P < 0.05). Bacteriological success rates were similar in the moxifloxacin group (93.3%) and levofloxacin plus metronidazole group (96.4%), there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The overall adverse event rate was 10.8% (4/37) in the moxifloxacin group versus 17.5% (7/40) in the levofloxacin plus metronidazole group, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). No serious adverse events were observed. Moxifloxacin is effective and safe for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia with aspiration factors. And the regimen of moxifloxacin monotherapy is more convenient compared with levofloxacin plus metronidazole.

  6. Use of metronidazole as part of an empirical antibiotic regimen after incision and drainage of infections of the odontogenic spaces.

    PubMed

    Bali, Rishi; Sharma, Parveen; Gaba, Shivani

    2015-01-01

    The combination of amoxicillin/clavulanate and metronidazole is a widely-accepted empirical regimen for infections of the odontogenic spaces. Once adequate drainage has been established micro-organisms are less likely to grow and multiply, particularly anaerobes. This may obviate the need for anaerobic coverage after drainage in healthy hosts. We studied 60 patients in this randomised prospective study, the objective of which was to evaluate metronidazole as part of an empirical antibiotic regimen after drainage of infections of the odontogenic spaces. Samples of pus were sent for culture and testing for sensitivity. Amoxicillin/clavulanate and metronidazole were given to all patients. After incision and drainage the patients were randomly allocated to two groups. In the first group both antibiotics were continued, and in the second metronidazole was withdrawn. The groups were compared both clinically and microbiologically. There were no significant differences between the groups in the resolution of infection. Thirteen patients (n=6 in the 2-antimicrobial group, and n=7 in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group) showed no improvement during the 48 h postoperatively. Overall there was need to substitute another antibiotic for amoxicillin/clavulanate in only 6 cases. Six patients in the amoxicillin/clavulanate group required the addition of metronidazole after drainage. We conclude that in healthy subjects metronidazole is not necessary in the period after drainage, but its prescription should be based on assessment of clinical and laboratory markers of infection. Copyright © 2014 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of the photolysis of metronidazole in simulated aqueous environmental matrices using a mass spectrometric approach.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lei; Pérez, Sandra; Gonçalves, Carlos; Alpendurada, Fátima; Wang, Yanxin; Barceló, Damià

    2011-01-01

    Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole antibiotic derivative used in humans against anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. In light of the recent detection of metronidazole in hospital wastes, sewage treatment plants, and surface waters, along with its known sensitivity toward photolytical degradation, this study aimed to model the photolysis in environmental waters by sunlight as a natural attenuation process. To this end, the degradation of metronidazole in a photoreactor simulating solar radiation (Suntest CPS) was compared in five different aqueous matrices: deionized water, artificial freshwater (AFW), AFW supplemented with nitrate (5 mg/L), AFW containing humic acids, and AFW with both nitrate and humic acids. Irrespective of the test medium, the degradation of the metronidazole solutions (10 and 0.02 mg/L) was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics. Degradation rates were dependant on the matrix, with humic acids causing a two to threefold decrease in the rate constants while the presence of nitrate had no marked effect on the kinetics. Therefore, the direct photolysis of metronidazole was apparently attenuated through a filter effect of humic acids. Screening of the irradiated water samples by ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry allowed separation and characterisation of four principal phototransformation products of the antibiotic. The high-resolution MS data pointed to the formation of two rearrangement products (C(6)H(10)N(3)O(3)) isobaric with metronidazole, a third product deriving from the elimination of NO from the nitro group (C(6)H(11)N(2)O(2)), and a fourth unidentified degradate with a likely elemental composition of C(5)H(10)N(3)O.