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Sample records for high-energy emission mechanisms

  1. Studies on High Energy Radiation Mechanisms and Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.

    2014-07-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most violent high-energy explosion in the universe. They are randomly happened, pulse-like phenomena with short durations. Since its discovery in 1960's by Vela satellite, GRBs have become a hot topic for astrophysical research. In 1997 the BeppoSAX satellite discovered afterglows of GRBs, and then helped to measure GRB redshifts. Thus it was found that GRBs are the events occurred at cosmological distances. Now it is widely accepted that the long bursts with durations longer than 2 s are from the collapsing massive stars, while the short bursts with durations less than 2 s are results of the merging compact binaries. By studying GRBs, the physical processes in ultrarelativistic and very high energy conditions can be investigated, and the researches on other fields, including constraining the cosmological models, can also get helped. The goal of this thesis is to present some discussions on possible radiation mechanisms and prompt light curves of GRBs. Since radiation mechanisms and prompt emissions are related to GRB central engines directly, studying these topics can help us to get a better understanding of some properties of the central engine. In Chapter 1, we review the discovery and observations of GRBs, presenting major achievements from major GRB-monitoring satellites including Compton Gamma-ray Observatory, BeppoSAX satellite, Swift satellite, as well as the latest Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The multi-wavelength properties of prompt emission as well as afterglows of GRBs are also summarized in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 the current GRB standard model is presented. According to standard model, a fireball is ejected by the central engine. The internal shock is produced by collisions between various shells with different velocities inside the fireball. The directional kinetic energy of the fireball is then converted to internal energy, and finally the non-thermal radiation (the prompt emission) is produced by internal shocks

  2. Magnetar giant flare high-energy emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elenbaas, C.; Huppenkothen, D.; Omand, C.; Watts, A. L.; Bissaldi, E.; Caiazzo, I.; Heyl, J.

    2017-10-01

    High-energy (>250 keV) emission has been detected persisting for several tens of seconds after the initial spike of magnetar giant flares (GFs). It has been conjectured that this emission might arise via inverse Compton scattering in a highly extended corona generated by super-Eddington outflows high up in the magnetosphere. In this paper, we undertake a detailed examination of this model. We investigate the properties of the required scatterers, and whether the mechanism is consistent with the degree of pulsed emission observed in the tail of the GF. We conclude that the mechanism is consistent with current data, although the origin of the scattering population remains an open question. We propose an alternative picture in which the emission is closer to that star and is dominated by synchrotron radiation. The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager observations of the 2004 December flare modestly favour this latter picture. We assess the prospects for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to detect and characterize a similar high-energy component in a future GF. Such a detection should help to resolve some of the outstanding issues.

  3. High energy photon emission from wakefields

    SciTech Connect

    Farinella, D. M. Lau, C. K.; Taimourzadeh, S.; Hwang, Y.; Abazajian, K.; Canac, N.; Taborek, P.; Tajima, T.; Zhang, X. M.; Koga, J. K.; Ebisuzaki, T.

    2016-07-15

    Experimental evidence has accumulated to indicate that wakefield acceleration (WFA) accompanies intense and sometimes coherent emission of radiation such as from betatron radiation. The investigation of this issue has additional impetus nowadays because we are learning (1) there is an additional acceleration process of the ponderomotive acceleration; (2) WFA may become relevant in much higher density regimes; (3) WFA has been proposed as the mechanism for extreme high energy cosmic ray acceleration and gamma ray bursts for active galactic nuclei. These require us to closely examine the radiative mechanisms in WFA anew. We report studies of radiation from wakefield (self-injected betatron) and ponderomotive (laser field) mechanisms in scalings of the frequency and intensity of the driver, as well as the plasma density.

  4. High-energy thermal synchrotron emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, J. N.; Epstein, R. I.; Petrosian, V.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown how the thermal synchrotron emission spectrum is modified when the photon energy is greater than the mean energy of the radiating particles. The effect if applying this energy conservation constraint is to produce spectra which have less high-energy photon emission than had been previously estimated. The thermal synchrotron spectra provide satisfactory fits to recently observed very high energy gamma ray spectra of certain burst sources.

  5. High-energy emission from transients.

    PubMed

    Hinton, J A; Starling, R L C

    2013-06-13

    Cosmic explosions dissipate energy into their surroundings on a very wide range of time scales: producing shock waves and associated particle acceleration. The historical culprits for the acceleration of the bulk of Galactic cosmic rays are supernova remnants: explosions on approximately 10(4) year time scales. Increasingly, however, time-variable emission points to rapid and efficient particle acceleration in a range of different astrophysical systems. Gamma-ray bursts have the shortest time scales, with inferred bulk Lorentz factors of approximately 1000 and photons emitted beyond 100 GeV, but active galaxies, pulsar wind nebulae and colliding stellar winds are all now associated with time-variable emission at approximately teraelectron volt energies. Cosmic photons and neutrinos at these energies offer a powerful probe of the underlying physical mechanisms of cosmic explosions, and a tool for exploring fundamental physics with these systems. Here, we discuss the motivations for high-energy observations of transients, the current experimental situation, and the prospects for the next decade, with particular reference to the major next-generation high-energy observatory, the Cherenkov Telescope Array.

  6. Clues on high-energy emission mechanism from blazar 3C 454.3 during 2015 August flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Zahir; Sahayanathan, S.; Mankuzhiyil, Nijil; Kushwaha, Pankaj; Misra, Ranjeev; Iqbal, Naseer

    2017-09-01

    We perform a detailed spectral study of a recent flaring activity from the flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ), 3C 454.3, observed simultaneously in optical, UV, X-ray and γ-ray energies during 2015 August 16-28. The source reached its peak γ-ray flux of (1.9 ± 0.2) × 10-05 ph cm-2 s-1 on August 22. The time-averaged broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) is obtained for three time periods, namely 'flaring state', covering the peak γ-ray flux; 'post-flaring state', immediately following the peak flare and 'quiescent state', separated from the flaring event and following the post-flaring state. The SED corresponding to the flaring state is investigated using different emission models involving synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) and external Compton (EC) mechanisms. Our study suggests that the X-ray and γ-ray emission from 3C 454.3 cannot be attributed to a single emission mechanism and instead, one needs to consider both SSC and EC mechanisms. Moreover, the target photon energy responsible for the EC process corresponds to an equivalent temperature of 564 K, suggesting that the flare location lies beyond the broad line emitting region of the FSRQ. The SED fitting of the other two flux states further supports these inferences.

  7. High energy emission processes in OJ 287 during 2009 flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Pankaj; Sahayanathan, S.; Singh, K. P.

    2013-08-01

    The broad-band spectrum of a BL Lac object, OJ 287, from radio to γ-rays obtained during a major γ-ray flare detected by Fermi in 2009 is studied to understand the high energy emission mechanism during this episode. Using a simple one-zone leptonic model, incorporating synchrotron and inverse Compton emission processes, we show that the explanation of high energy emission from X-rays to γ-rays, by considering a single emission mechanism, namely, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) or external Compton (EC), requires unlikely physical conditions. However, a combination of both SSC and EC mechanisms can reproduce the observed high energy spectrum satisfactorily. Using these emission mechanisms we extract the physical parameters governing the source and its environment. Our study suggests that the emission region of OJ 287 is surrounded by a warm infrared emitting region of ˜250 K. Assuming this region as a spherical cloud illuminated by an accretion disc, we obtain the location of the emission region to be ˜9 pc. This supports the claim that the γ-ray emission from OJ 287 during the 2009 flare arises from a location far away from the central engine as deduced from millimetre-γ-ray correlation study and very long baseline array images.

  8. Role of oxygen vacancies on light emission mechanisms in SrTiO3 induced by high-energy particles

    DOE PAGES

    Crespillo, M. L.; Graham, J. T.; Agulló-López, F.; ...

    2017-02-23

    Light emission under MeV hydrogen and oxygen ions in stoichiometric SrTiO3 are identified at temperatures of 100 K, 170 K and room-temperature. MeV ions predominately deposit their energies to electrons in SrTiO3 with energy densities orders of magnitude higher than from UV or x-ray sources but comparable to femtosecond lasers. The ionoluminescence (IL) spectra can be resolved into three main Gaussian bands at 2.0 eV, 2.5 eV and 2.8 eV, whose relative contributions strongly depend on irradiation temperature, electronic energy loss and irradiation fluence. Two main bands, observed at 2.5 eV and 2.8 eV, are intrinsic and associated with electron–holemore » recombination in the perfect SrTiO3 lattice. The 2.8 eV band is attributed to recombination of free (conduction) electrons with an in-gap level, possibly related to self-trapped holes. Self-trapped excitons (STEs) are considered suitable candidates for the 2.5 eV emission band, which implies a large energy relaxation in comparison to the intrinsic edge transition. The dynamics of electronic excitation, governs a rapid initial rise of the intensity; whereas, accumulated irradiation damage (competing non-radiative recombination channels) accounts for a subsequent intensity decrease. The previously invoked role of isolated oxygen vacancies for the blue luminescence (2.8 eV) does not appear consistent with the data. An increasing well-resolved band at 2.0 eV dominates at 170 K and below. It has been only previously observed in heavily strained and amorphous SrTiO3, and is, here, attributed to transitions from d(t 2g) conduction band levels to d(e g) levels below the gap. In accordance with ab initio theoretical calculations they are associated to trapped electron states in relaxed Ti3+ centers at an oxygen vacancy within distorted TiO6 octahedra. The mechanism of defect evolution monitored during real-time IL experiments is presented. In conclusion, the light emission data confirm that IL is a useful tool to

  9. Role of oxygen vacancies on light emission mechanisms in SrTiO3 induced by high-energy particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespillo, M. L.; Graham, J. T.; Agulló-López, F.; Zhang, Y.; Weber, W. J.

    2017-04-01

    Light emission under MeV hydrogen and oxygen ions in stoichiometric SrTiO3 are identified at temperatures of 100 K, 170 K and room-temperature. MeV ions predominately deposit their energies to electrons in SrTiO3 with energy densities orders of magnitude higher than from UV or x-ray sources but comparable to femtosecond lasers. The ionoluminescence (IL) spectra can be resolved into three main Gaussian bands at 2.0 eV, 2.5 eV and 2.8 eV, whose relative contributions strongly depend on irradiation temperature, electronic energy loss and irradiation fluence. Two main bands, observed at 2.5 eV and 2.8 eV, are intrinsic and associated with electron–hole recombination in the perfect SrTiO3 lattice. The 2.8 eV band is attributed to recombination of free (conduction) electrons with an in-gap level, possibly related to self-trapped holes. Self-trapped excitons (STEs) are considered suitable candidates for the 2.5 eV emission band, which implies a large energy relaxation in comparison to the intrinsic edge transition. The dynamics of electronic excitation, governs a rapid initial rise of the intensity; whereas, accumulated irradiation damage (competing non-radiative recombination channels) accounts for a subsequent intensity decrease. The previously invoked role of isolated oxygen vacancies for the blue luminescence (2.8 eV) does not appear consistent with the data. An increasing well-resolved band at 2.0 eV dominates at 170 K and below. It has been only previously observed in heavily strained and amorphous SrTiO3, and is, here, attributed to transitions from d(t 2g) conduction band levels to d(e g) levels below the gap. In accordance with ab initio theoretical calculations they are associated to trapped electron states in relaxed Ti3+ centers at an oxygen vacancy within distorted TiO6 octahedra. The mechanism of defect evolution monitored during real-time IL experiments is presented. In conclusion, the light emission data confirm that IL is a

  10. High-Energy Emission From Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.; Usov, Vladimir V.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray and gamma-ray spectrum of rotation-powered millisecond pulsars is investigated in a model for acceleration and pair cascades on open field lines above the polar caps. Although these pulsars have low surface magnetic fields, their short periods allow them to have large magnetospheric potential drops, but the majority do not produce sufficient pairs to completely screen the accelerating electric field. In these sources, the primary and secondary electrons continue to accelerate to high altitude and their Lorentz factors are limited by curvature and synchrotron radiation reaction. The accelerating particles maintain high Lorentz factors and undergo cyclotron resonant absorption of radio emission, that produces and maintains a large pitch angle, resulting in a strong synchrotron component. The resulting spectra consist of several distinct components: curvature radiation from primary electrons dominating from 1 - 100 GeV, synchrotron radiation from primary and secondary electrons dominating up to about 100 MeV, and much weaker inverse-Compton radiation from primary electrons a t 0.1 - 1 TeV. We find that the relative size of these components depends on pulsar period, period derivative, and neutron star mass and radius with the level of the synchrotron component also depending sensitively on the radio emission properties. This model is successful in describing the observed X-ray and gamma-ray spectrum of PSR J0218+4232 as synchrotron radiation, peaking around 100 MeV and extending up to a turnover around several GeV. The predicted curvature radiation components from a number of millisecond pulsars, as well as the collective emission from the millisecond pulsars in globular clusters, should be detectable with AGILE and GLAST. We also discuss a hidden population of X-ray-quiet and radio-quiet millisecond pulsars which have evolved below the pair death line, some of which may be detectable by telescopes sensitive above 1 GeV. Subject headings: pulsars: general

  11. High energy polarimetry of prompt GRB emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Mark L.

    2017-02-01

    [Evidence] of polarized γ-ray emission (> 50 keV) from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) has been accumulated in recent years. Measurements have been reported with levels in the range of 30-80%, typically with limited statistical significance. No clear picture has yet emerged with regards to the polarization properties of GRBs. Taken at face value, the data suggest that most GRBs have a relatively large level of polarization (typically, > 50%), which may suggest synchrotron emission associated with an ordered magnetic field structure within the GRB jet. But these results are far from conclusive. Here, we review the observations that have been made, concentrating especially on the instrumental issues and the lessons that might be learned from these data.

  12. Theory of High Energy Emission in GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Meszaros, Peter

    2007-05-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are thought to be capable of accelerating cosmic rays up to GZK energies Ep {approx} 1020 eV, leading to a flux at Earth comparable to that observed by large EAS arrays such as AUGER. Both leptonic, e.g. synchrotron and inverse Compton, as well as photomeson processes can lead to GeV-TeV gamma-rays measurable by GLAST, AGILE, or ACTs, providing useful probes of the burst physics and model parameters. Photomeson interactions also produce neutrinos at energies ranging from sub-TeV to EeV, which will be probed with forthcoming experiments such as IceCube, ANITA and KM3NeT. This would provide information about the fundamental interaction physics, the acceleration mechanism, the nature of the sources and their environment.

  13. High-energy emission in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matz, S. M.; Forrest, D. J.; Vestrand, W. T.; Chupp, E. L.; Share, G. H.; Rieger, E.

    1985-01-01

    Between February 1980 and August 1983 the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission Satellite (SMM) detected 72 events identified as being of cosmic origin. These events are an essentially unbiased subset of all gamma-ray bursts. The measured spectra of these events show that high energy (greater than 1 MeV) emission is a common and energetically important feature. There is no evidence for a general high-energy cut-off or a distribution of cut-offs below about 6 MeV. These observations imply a limit on the preferential beaming of high energy emission. This constraint, combined with the assumption of isotropic low energy emission, implies that the typical magnetic field strength at burst radiation sites is less than 1 x 10 to the 12th gauss.

  14. CONSTRAINTS ON VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM GRB 130427A

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Biteau, J.; Byrum, K.; Cardenzana, J. V; Dickinson, H. J.; Eisch, J. D.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connaughton, V.; Cui, W.; Falcone, A. E-mail: sjzhu@umd.edu; and others

    2014-11-01

    Prompt emission from the very fluent and nearby (z = 0.34) gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A was detected by several orbiting telescopes and by ground-based, wide-field-of-view optical transient monitors. Apart from the intensity and proximity of this GRB, it is exceptional due to the extremely long-lived high-energy (100 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission, which was detected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope for ∼70 ks after the initial burst. The persistent, hard-spectrum, high-energy emission suggests that the highest-energy gamma rays may have been produced via synchrotron self-Compton processes though there is also evidence that the high-energy emission may instead be an extension of the synchrotron spectrum. VERITAS, a ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, began follow-up observations of GRB 130427A ∼71 ks (∼20 hr) after the onset of the burst. The GRB was not detected with VERITAS; however, the high elevation of the observations, coupled with the low redshift of the GRB, make VERITAS a very sensitive probe of the emission from GRB 130427A for E > 100 GeV. The non-detection and consequent upper limit derived place constraints on the synchrotron self-Compton model of high-energy gamma-ray emission from this burst.

  15. CONSTRAINTS ON VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM GRB 130427A

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Biteau, J.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cardenzana, J. V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connaughton, V.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H. J.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Rajotte, J.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; McEnery, J. E.; Perkins, J. S.; Veres, P.; Zhu, S.

    2014-10-10

    In this study, prompt emission from the very fluent and nearby (z = 0.34) gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A was detected by several orbiting telescopes and by ground-based, wide-field-of-view optical transient monitors. Apart from the intensity and proximity of this GRB, it is exceptional due to the extremely long-lived high-energy (100 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission, which was detected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope for ~70 ks after the initial burst. The persistent, hard-spectrum, high-energy emission suggests that the highest-energy gamma rays may have been produced via synchrotron self-Compton processes though there is also evidence that the high-energy emission may instead be an extension of the synchrotron spectrum. VERITAS, a ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, began follow-up observations of GRB 130427A ~71 ks (~20 hr) after the onset of the burst. The GRB was not detected with VERITAS; however, the high elevation of the observations, coupled with the low redshift of the GRB, make VERITAS a very sensitive probe of the emission from GRB 130427A for E > 100 GeV. In conclusion, the non-detection and consequent upper limit derived place constraints on the synchrotron self-Compton model of high-energy gamma-ray emission from this burst.

  16. CONSTRAINTS ON VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM GRB 130427A

    DOE PAGES

    Aliu, E.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; ...

    2014-10-10

    In this study, prompt emission from the very fluent and nearby (z = 0.34) gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A was detected by several orbiting telescopes and by ground-based, wide-field-of-view optical transient monitors. Apart from the intensity and proximity of this GRB, it is exceptional due to the extremely long-lived high-energy (100 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission, which was detected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope for ~70 ks after the initial burst. The persistent, hard-spectrum, high-energy emission suggests that the highest-energy gamma rays may have been produced via synchrotron self-Compton processes though there is alsomore » evidence that the high-energy emission may instead be an extension of the synchrotron spectrum. VERITAS, a ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, began follow-up observations of GRB 130427A ~71 ks (~20 hr) after the onset of the burst. The GRB was not detected with VERITAS; however, the high elevation of the observations, coupled with the low redshift of the GRB, make VERITAS a very sensitive probe of the emission from GRB 130427A for E > 100 GeV. In conclusion, the non-detection and consequent upper limit derived place constraints on the synchrotron self-Compton model of high-energy gamma-ray emission from this burst.« less

  17. Understanding the Pulsar High Energy Emission: Macroscopic and Kinetic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Brambilla, Gabriele; Timokhin, Andrey; Kust Harding, Alice; Kazanas, Demos

    2017-08-01

    Pulsars are extraordinary objects powered by the rotation of magnetic fields of order 10^8, 10^12G anchored onto neutron stars and rotating with periods 10^(-3)-10s. These fields mediate the conversion of their rotational energy into MHD winds and at the same time accelerate particles to energies sufficiently high to produce GeV photons. Fermi, since its launch in 2008, has established several trends among the observed gamma-ray pulsar properties playing a catalytic role in the current modeling of the high energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. We judiciously use the guidance provided by the Fermi data to yield meaningful constraints on the macroscopic parameters of our global dissipative pulsar magnetosphere models. Our FIDO (Force-Free Inside, Dissipative Outside) models indicate that the dissipative regions lie outside the light cylinder near the equatorial current sheet. Our models reproduce the light-curve phenomenology while a detailed comparison of the model spectral properties with those observed by Fermi reveals the dependence of the macroscopic conductivity parameter on the spin-down rate providing a unique insight into the understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the high-energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. Finally, we further exploit these important results by building self-consistent 3D global kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) models which, eventually, provide the dependence of the macroscopic parameter behavior (e.g. conductivity) on the microphysical properties (e.g. particle multiplicities, particle injection rates). Our PIC models provide field structures and particle distributions that are not only consistent with each other but also able to reproduce a broad range of the observed gamma-ray phenomenology (light curves and spectral properties) of both young and millisecond pulsars.

  18. Orbitally-Modulated High Energy Emission from Millisecond Pulsar Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Kust Harding, Alice; Venter, Christo; Boettcher, Markus; Baring, Matthew G.

    2017-08-01

    Radio, optical and X-ray followup of unidentified Fermi sources has expanded the number of known galactic-field "black widow" and "redback" millisecond pulsar binaries from four to nearly 30. Several systems observed by Chandra, XMM, Suzaku, and NuSTAR exhibit double-peaked X-ray orbital modulation. This is attributed to synchrotron emission from electrons accelerated in an intrabinary shock and Doppler boosting by mildly relativistic bulk flow along the shock. It is anticipated that NICER will also detect such emission from B1957+20 and other targets. The structure of the orbital X-ray light curves depend upon the binary inclination, shock geometry, and particle acceleration distribution. In particular, the spatial variation along the shock of the underlying electron power-law index yields energy-dependence in the shape of light curves motivating future high energy phase-resolved spectroscopic studies to probe the unknown physics of pulsar winds and relativistic shock acceleration therein. We also briefly discuss stability of the shock to dynamical perturbations for redbacks and how observations of correlated X ray-optical variability may test self-regulatory stabilizing mechanisms.

  19. Search for High Energy emission from GRBs with MAGIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berti, Alessio; MAGIC GRB Group

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most violent explosions in the Universe, releasing a huge amount of energy in few seconds. While our understanding of the prompt and the afterglow phases has increased with Swift and Fermi, we have very few information about their High Energy (HE, E <~ 100) emission components. This requires a ground-based experiment able to perform fast follow-up with enough sensitivity above ~ 50 GeV. The MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov) telescopes have been designed to perform fast follow-up on GRBs thanks to fast slewing movement and low energy threshold (~ 50 GeV). Since the beginning of the operations, MAGIC followed-up 89 GRBs in good observational conditions. In this contribution the MAGIC GRBs follow-up campaign and the results which could be obtained by detecting HE and Very High Energy (VHE, E >~ 100 GeV) γ-rays from GRBs will be reviewed.

  20. Neutron emission and fragment yield in high-energy fission

    SciTech Connect

    Grudzevich, O. T. Klinov, D. A.

    2013-07-15

    The KRIS special library of spectra and emission probabilities in the decays of 1500 nuclei excited up to energies between 150 and 250 MeV was developed for correctly taking into account the decay of highly excited nuclei appearing as fission fragments. The emission of neutrons, protons, and photons was taken into account. Neutron emission fromprimary fragments was found to have a substantial effect on the formation of yields of postneutron nuclei. The library was tested by comparing the calculated and measured yields of products originating from the fission of nuclei that was induced by high-energy protons. The method for calculating these yields was tested on the basis of experimental data on the thermal-neutroninduced fission of {sup 235}U nuclei.

  1. Theoretical overview on high-energy emission in microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Ramon, Valentí

    2007-06-01

    Microquasar (MQ) jets are sites of particle acceleration and synchrotron emission. Such synchrotron radiation has been detected coming from jet regions of different spatial scales, which for the instruments at work nowadays appear as compact radio cores, slightly resolvedradio jets, or (very) extended structures (e.g. Mirabel and Rodríguez, 1999; Fender, 2001; Corbel et al., 2002). Because of the presence of relativistic particles and dense photon, magnetic and matter fields, these outflows are also the best candidates to generate the very high-energy (VHE) gamma-rays detected coming from two of these objects, LS 5039 and LS I +61 303 (Aharonian, 2005; Aharonian et al., 2006a; and Albert, 2006, respectively), and may be contributing significantly to the X-rays emitted from the MQ core (e.g. Markoff et al., 2001; Bosch-Ramon et al., 2005a). In addition, beside electromagnetic radiation, jets at different scales are producing some amount of leptonic and hadronic cosmic rays (CR), and evidences of neutrino production in these objects may be eventually found. In this work, we review on the different physical processes that may be at work in or related to MQ jets. The jet regions capable to produce significant amounts of emission at different wavelengths have been reduced to the jet base, the jet at scales of the order of the size of the system orbital semi-major axis, the jet middle scales (the resolved radio jets), and the jet termination point. The surroundings of the jet could be sites of multiwavelength emission as well, deserving also an insight. We focus on those scenarios, either hadronic or leptonic, in which it seems more plausible to generate both photons from radio to VHE and high-energy neutrinos. We briefly comment as well on the relevance of MQ as possible contributors to the galactic CR in the GeV-PeV range.

  2. What High Energy Emissions Reveal about Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, R. J.; Share, G. H.

    Interactions of accelerated ions in solar flares produce gamma-ray lines and continuum and neutrons. These emissions contain a rich set of observable quantities such as line intensities, shapes, shifts and time histories and escaping neutron spectra and time histories. An extensive database of high-energy flare observations spanning almost 25 years exists from various missions such as SMM/GRS, Yohkoh, all four CGRO instruments, GAMMA-1, and GRANAT/Phebus. RHESSI, launched in 2002, observed the 2002 July 23 solar flare and provided the first comprehensive high-spectral resolution measurements and gamma-ray imaging of a flare and has since observed gamma-ray lines from the 2003 October 28 and November 2 flares. These high-energy measurements provide information not only about the accelerated particles but also about the physical conditions at the flare site. We will discuss how this information is extracted from the measurements and review what has been learned about the acceleration process, the relationship of flare particles with particles observed in space, and the flare environment.

  3. Unexpected high-energy γ emission from decaying exotic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottardo, A.; Verney, D.; Deloncle, I.; Péru, S.; Delafosse, C.; Roccia, S.; Matea, I.; Sotty, C.; Andreoiu, C.; Costache, C.; Delattre, M.-C.; Etilé, A.; Franchoo, S.; Gaulard, C.; Guillot, J.; Ibrahim, F.; Lebois, M.; MacCormick, M.; Marginean, N.; Marginean, R.; Martini, M.; Mihai, C.; Mitu, I.; Olivier, L.; Portail, C.; Qi, L.; Roussière, B.; Stan, L.; Testov, D.; Wilson, J.; Yordanov, D. T.

    2017-09-01

    The N = 5283Gaβ decay was studied at ALTO. The radioactive 83Ga beam was produced through the ISOL photofission technique and collected on a movable tape for the measurement of γ-ray emission following β decay. While β-delayed neutron emission has been measured to be 56-85% of the decay path, in this experiment an unexpected high-energy 5-9 MeV γ-ray yield of 16(4)% was observed, coming from states several MeVs above the neutron separation threshold. This result is compared with cutting-edge QRPA calculations, which show that when neutrons deeply bound in the core of the nucleus decay into protons via a Gamow-Teller transition, they give rise to a dipolar oscillation of nuclear matter in the nucleus. This leads to large electromagnetic transition probabilities which can compete with neutron emission, thus affecting the β-decay path. This process is enhanced by an excess of neutrons on the nuclear surface and may thus be a common feature for very neutron-rich isotopes, challenging the present understanding of decay properties of exotic nuclei.

  4. Resolving high energy emission of jets using strong gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnacka, Anna

    2014-11-01

    Chandra observations of M87 in 2004 uncovered an outburst originating in distant knot along the jet hundreds of parsecs from the core. This discovery challenges our understanding of the origin of high energy flares. Current technology is inadequate to resolve jets at distances greater than M87, or observed at higher energies. We propose to use gravitationally lensed jets to investigate the structure of more distant sources. Photons emitted at different sites cross the lens plane at different distances, thus magnification ratios and time delays differ between the mirage images. Monitoring of flares from lensed jets reveals the origin of the emission. With detectors like Chandra, lensed systems are a tool for resolving the structure of the jets and for investigating their cosmic evolution.

  5. The high-energy γ -ray emission of AP Librae

    DOE PAGES

    Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; ...

    2014-12-10

    In this paper, the γ-ray spectrum of the low-frequency-peaked BL Lac (LBL) object AP Librae is studied, following the discovery of very-high-energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) γ-ray emission up to the TeV range by the H.E.S.S. experiment. This makes AP Librae one of the few VHE emitters of the LBL type. The measured spectrum yields a flux of (8.8 ± 1.5stat ± 1.8sys) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 above 130 GeV and a spectral index of Γ = 2.65 ± 0.19stat ± 0.20sys. This study also makes use of Fermi-LAT observations in the high energy (HE, E> 100 MeV) range, providingmore » the longest continuous light curve (5 years) ever published on this source. The source underwent a flaring event between MJD 56 306–56 376 in the HE range, with a flux increase of a factor of 3.5 in the 14 day bin light curve and no significant variation in spectral shape with respect to the low-flux state. While the H.E.S.S. and (low state) Fermi-LAT fluxes are in good agreement where they overlap, a spectral curvature between the steep VHE spectrum and the Fermi-LAT spectrum is observed. Finally, the maximum of the γ-ray emission in the spectral energy distribution is located below the GeV energy range.« less

  6. Spectral diagnostics of high energy emission in lambda Eri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Myron

    1995-01-01

    Multi-line observations of the optical spectrum of lambda Eri demonstrates that rapidly varying, low-velocity emissions occur in several He I lines even when H alpha shows no emission. A peculiar aspect of the He I emissions is that the ratio 5876/6678 is = 1. A theory of helium line formation generally admits two common emission mechanisms. The first is recombination/cascades, which is well known to give a ratio of greater than or equal to 3. The second is a non-LTE effect that occurs in hot (O-type) photospheres when resonance He I 584 radiation becomes transparent and drives single lines along into the emission. To accommodate a ratio of 5876/6678 = 1 may require that both processes sometimes operate at the same time, presumably in separate localities near the surface of this star.

  7. The Prompt and High Energy Emission of Gamma Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Meszaros, P.

    2009-05-25

    I discuss some recent developments concerning the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts, in particular the jet properties and radiation mechanisms, as exemplified by the naked-eye burst GRB 080319b, and the prompt X-ray emission of XRB080109/SN2008d, where the progenitor has, for the first time, been shown to contribute to the prompt emission. I discuss then some recent theoretical calculations of the GeV/TeV spectrum of GRB in the context of both leptonic SSC models and hadronic models. The recent observations by the Fermi satellite of GRB 080916C are then reviewed, and their implications for such models are discussed, together with its interesting determination of a bulk Lorentz factor, and the highest lower limit on the quantum gravity energy scale so far.

  8. Plasma simulations of emission line regions in high energy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Chris T.

    constrain the spectral energy distribution, excitation mechanism, abundances and physical conditions present in these galaxies, while the large data set allows many weaker emission lines to be used as consistency checks. By integrating over a wide range of densities and radii from the excitation source, the variation in ionization for AGN can be represented as change in the central concentration of clouds in the NLR. Preliminary analysis from modeling star forming galaxies indicates that the same interpretation might apply to galaxies without an AGN in which gas is excited by starlight.

  9. Evidence for Temporally-Extended, High-Energy Emission from Gamma Ray Burst 990104

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wren, D. N.; Bertsch, D. L.; Ritz, S.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that high-energy emission (MeV - GeV) has been observed in several gamma ray bursts and temporally-extended emission from lower-energy gamma rays through radio wavelengths is well established. Observations of extended, high-energy emission are, however, scarce. Here we present evidence for a gamma ray burst emission that is both high-energy and extended, coincident with lower energy emissions. For the very bright and long burst, GRB 990104, we show light curves and spectra that confirm emission above 50 MeV, approximately 152 seconds after the BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) trigger and initial burst emission. Between the initial output and the main peak, seen at both low and high energy, there was a period of approx. 100 s during which the burst was relatively quiet. This burst was found as part of an ongoing search for high-energy emission in gamma ray bursts.

  10. High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts - Before GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Yi-Zhong; Piran, Tsvi

    2011-11-29

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short and intense emission of soft {gamma}-rays, which have fascinated astronomers and astrophysicists since their unexpected discovery in 1960s. The X-ray/optical/radio afterglow observations confirm the cosmological origin of GRBs, support the fireball model, and imply a long-activity of the central engine. The high-energy {gamma}-ray emission (> 20 MeV) from GRBs is particularly important because they shed some lights on the radiation mechanisms and can help us to constrain the physical processes giving rise to the early afterglows. In this work, we review observational and theoretical studies of the high-energy emission from GRBs. Special attention is given to the expected high-energy emission signatures accompanying the canonical early-time X-ray afterglow that was observed by the Swift X-ray Telescope. We also discuss the detection prospect of the upcoming GLAST satellite and the current ground-based Cerenkov detectors.

  11. High-Energy Emission from Colliding Winds in Massive Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, Michael; Gull, Theodore; Pollock, Andy; Moffat, Anthony; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Pittard, Julian; Russell, Christopher

    Strong shocks produced by colliding winds in massive binaries was originally understood as a mechanism by which massive stellar systems could generate observable X-ray emission. The first X-ray observations of massive stars showed that most massive stars (binary or not) were X-ray sources, and also indicated that massive binaries were only slightly brighter in X-rays than their single cousins. Over the past three and a half decades, observations at X-ray and higher energy have confirmed the presence of variable, hard emission associated with colliding wind shocks in a number of important system. In this talk I'll review the status of our understanding of the production of X-rays from wind-wind shocks, and review some key observational X-ray spectral and temporal properties for some important colliding wind systems. I'll also discuss how the study of the X-ray emission generated along the colliding wind bow shock provides important information about the mass-loss process in massive binaries.

  12. Diffuse emission of high-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray burst fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Tamborra, Irene; Ando, Shin'ichiro E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl

    2015-09-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been suggested as possible sources of the high-energy neutrino flux recently detected by the IceCube telescope. We revisit the fireball emission model and elaborate an analytical prescription to estimate the high-energy neutrino prompt emission from pion and kaon decays, assuming that the leading mechanism for the neutrino production is lepto-hadronic. To this purpose, we include hadronic, radiative and adiabatic cooling effects and discuss their relevance for long- (including high- and low-luminosity) and short-duration GRBs. The expected diffuse neutrino background is derived, by requiring that the GRB high-energy neutrino counterparts follow up-to-date gamma-ray luminosity functions and redshift evolutions of the long and short GRBs. Although dedicated stacking searches have been unsuccessful up to now, we find that GRBs could contribute up to a few % to the observed IceCube high-energy neutrino flux for sub-PeV energies, assuming that the latter has a diffuse origin. Gamma-ray bursts, especially low-luminosity ones, could however be the main sources of the IceCube high-energy neutrino flux in the PeV range. While high-luminosity and low-luminosity GRBs have comparable intensities, the contribution from the short-duration component is significantly smaller. Our findings confirm the most-recent IceCube results on the GRB searches and suggest that larger exposure is mandatory to detect high-energy neutrinos from high-luminosity GRBs in the near future.

  13. High-energy gamma-ray emission from pion decay in a solar flare magnetic loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandzhavidze, Natalie; Ramaty, Reuven

    1992-01-01

    The production of high-energy gamma rays resulting from pion decay in a solar flare magnetic loop is investigated. Magnetic mirroring, MHD pitch-angle scattering, and all of the relevant loss processes and photon production mechanisms are taken into account. The transport of both the primary ions and the secondary positrons resulting from the decay of the positive pions, as well as the transport of the produced gamma-ray emission are considered. The distributions of the gamma rays as a function of atmospheric depth, time, emission angle, and photon energy are calculated and the dependence of these distributions on the model parameters are studied. The obtained angular distributions are not sufficiently anisotropic to account for the observed limb brightening of the greater than 10 MeV flare emission, indicating that the bulk of this emission is bremsstrahlung from primary electrons.

  14. ON THE HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION OF THE SHORT GRB 090510

    SciTech Connect

    He Haoning; Wang Xiangyu; Wu Xuefeng; Toma, Kenji; Meszaros, Peter

    2011-05-20

    Long-lived high-energy (>100 MeV) emission, a common feature of most Fermi-LAT-detected gamma-ray burst, is detected up to {approx}10{sup 2} s in the short GRB 090510. We study the origin of this long-lived high-energy emission, using broadband observations including X-ray and optical data. We confirm that the late >100 MeV, X-ray, and optical emission can be naturally explained via synchrotron emission from an adiabatic forward shock propagating into a homogeneous ambient medium with low number density. The Klein-Nishina effects are found to be significant, and effects due to jet spreading and magnetic field amplification in the shock appear to be required. Under the constraints from the low-energy observations, the adiabatic forward shock synchrotron emission is consistent with the later-time (t {approx}> 2 s) high-energy emission, but falls below the early-time (t < 2 s) high-energy emission. Thus we argue that an extra high-energy component is needed at early times. A standard reverse-shock origin is found to be inconsistent with this extra component. Therefore, we attribute the early part of the high-energy emission (t {approx}< 2 s) to the prompt component, and the long-lived high-energy emission (t {approx}> 2 s) to the adiabatic forward shock synchrotron afterglow radiation. This avoids the requirement for an extremely high initial Lorentz factor.

  15. High-energy Neutrino Emission from White Dwarf Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Di; Mészáros, Peter; Murase, Kohta; Dai, Zi-Gao

    2016-11-01

    The merger of two white dwarfs is expected to result in a central fast-rotating core surrounded by a debris disk, in which magnetorotational instabilities give rise to a hot magnetized corona and a magnetized outflow. The dissipation of magnetic energy via reconnection could lead to the acceleration of cosmic-rays (CRs) in the expanding material, which would result in high energy neutrinos. We discuss the possibility of using these neutrino signals as probes of the outflow dynamics, magnetic energy dissipation rate, and CR acceleration efficiency. Importantly, the accompanying high-energy gamma-rays are absorbed within these sources because of the large optical depth, so these neutrino sources can be regarded as hidden cosmic-ray accelerators that are consistent with the non-detection of gamma-rays with Fermi-LAT. While the CR generation rate is highly uncertain, if it reaches ∼ {10}45 {erg} {{Mpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1, the diffuse neutrino flux could contribute a substantial fraction of the IceCube observations. We also evaluate the prospect of observing individual merger events, which provides a means for testing such sources in the future.

  16. Accretion, jets and winds: High-energy emission from young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, H. M.

    2011-06-01

    This article summarizes the processes of high-energy emission in young stellar objects. Stars of spectral type A and B are called Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars in this stage, all later spectral types are termed classical T Tauri stars (CTTS). Both types are studied by high-resolution X-ray and UV spectroscopy and modeling. Three mechanisms contribute to the high-energy emission from CTTS: 1) CTTS have active coronae similar to main-sequence stars, 2) the accreted material passes through an accretion shock at the stellar surface, which heats it to a few MK, and 3) some CTTS drive powerful outflows. Shocks within these jets can heat the plasma to X-ray emitting temperatures. Coronae are already well characterized in the literature; for the latter two scenarios models are shown. The magnetic field suppresses motion perpendicular to the field lines in the accretion shock, thus justifying a 1D geometry. The radiative loss is calculated as optically thin emission. A mixture of shocked and coronal gas is fitted to X-ray observations of accreting CTTS. Specifically, the model explains the peculiar line-ratios in the He-like triplets of Ne IX and O VII. All stars require only small mass accretion rates to power the X-ray emission. In contrast, the HAeBe HD 163296 has line ratios similar to coronal sources, indicating that neither a high density nor a strong UV-field is present in the region of the X-ray emission. This could be caused by a shock in its jet. Similar emission is found in the deeply absorbed CTTS DG Tau. Shock velocities between 400 and 500 km s-1 are required to explain the observed spectrum. Doctoral Thesis Award Lecture 2010

  17. High-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, P.L.; Share, G.H.; Matz, S.; Chupp, E.L.; Forrest, D.J.; Rieger, E.

    1984-05-26

    We discuss broad-band continuum spectroscopy of 17 gamma-ray bursts above 0.3 MeV. The spectra were fitted by 3 trial functions, none of which provided an adequate fit to all the spectra. Most were too hard for a thermal bremsstarhlung function. Harder functional forms, such as thermal synchrotron or power-law, provide better fits for most of the spectra. The strong emission observed above 1 MeV raises some interesting theoretical questions.

  18. Fermi γ-ray Pulsars: Towards the Understanding of the Pulsed High-Energy Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kust Harding, Alice; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Brambilla, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Based on the Fermi observational data we reveal meaningful constraints for the dependence of the macroscopic parameters of dissipative pulsar magnetosphere models on the corresponding spin-down rate. Our models are specifications of the FIDO (Force-Free Inside, Dissipative Outside) model where the dissipative regions are outside the light-cylinder near the equatorial current sheet. These models provide not only the field geometry but also the necessary particle accelerating electric fields. Assuming emission due to curvature radiation, the FIDO models reproduce the observed light-curve phenomenology as depicted in the radio-lag vs peak-separation diagram obtained by Fermi. A direct and detailed comparison of the model spectral properties (cutoff energies and total γ-ray luminosities) with those observed by Fermi reveals the dependence of the macroscopic conductivity parameter on the spin-down rate providing a unique insight for the understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the high-energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres.

  19. High-energy emission of the first millisecond pulsar

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, C.-Y.; Takata, J.; Leung, G. C. K.; Cheng, K. S.; Philippopoulos, P.

    2014-06-01

    We report on X-ray and gamma-ray observations of the millisecond pulsar (MSP) B1937+21 taken with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, XMM-Newton, and the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The pulsar X-ray emission shows a purely non-thermal spectrum with a hard photon index of 0.9 ± 0.1, and is nearly 100% pulsed. We found no evidence of varying pulse profile with energy as previously claimed. We also analyzed 5.5 yr of Fermi survey data and obtained much improved constraints on the pulsar's timing and spectral properties in gamma-rays. The pulsed spectrum is adequately fitted by a simple power-law with a photon index of 2.38 ± 0.07. Both the gamma-ray and X-ray pulse profiles show similar two-peak structure and generally align with the radio peaks. We found that the aligned profiles and the hard spectrum in X-rays seem to be common properties among MSPs with high magnetic fields at the light cylinder. We discuss a possible physical scenario that could give rise to these features.

  20. Discovery of high-energy and very high energy γ-ray emission from the blazar RBS 0413

    DOE PAGES

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; ...

    2012-04-18

    Here, we report on the discovery of high-energy (HE; E > 0.1 GeV) and very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emission from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object RBS 0413. VERITAS, a ground-based γ-ray observatory, detected VHE γ rays from RBS 0413 with a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations (σ) and a γ-ray flux of (1.5 ± 0.6stat ± 0.7syst) × 10–8 photons m–2 s–1 (~1% of the Crab Nebula flux) above 250 GeV. The observed spectrum can be described by a power law with a photon index of 3.18 ± 0.68stat ± 0.30syst. Contemporaneous observations withmore » the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected HE γ rays from RBS 0413 with a statistical significance of more than 9σ, a power-law photon index of 1.57 ± 0.12stat +0.11 – 0.12sys, and a γ-ray flux between 300 MeV and 300 GeV of (1.64 ± 0.43stat +0.31 – 0.22sys) × 10–5 photons m–2 s–1. We also present the results from Fermi-LAT and VERITAS, including a spectral energy distribution modeling of the γ-ray, quasi-simultaneous X-ray (Swift-XRT), ultraviolet (Swift-UVOT), and R-band optical (MDM) data. We finally find that, if conditions close to equipartition are required, both the combined synchrotron self-Compton/external-Compton and the lepto-hadronic models are preferred over a pure synchrotron self-Compton model.« less

  1. DISCOVERY OF HIGH-ENERGY AND VERY HIGH ENERGY {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BLAZAR RBS 0413

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bouvier, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Boettcher, M.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Decerprit, G.; Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Coppi, P.; Cui, W. E-mail: fortin@llr.in2p3.fr; and others

    2012-05-10

    We report on the discovery of high-energy (HE; E > 0.1 GeV) and very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray emission from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object RBS 0413. VERITAS, a ground-based {gamma}-ray observatory, detected VHE {gamma} rays from RBS 0413 with a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations ({sigma}) and a {gamma}-ray flux of (1.5 {+-} 0.6{sub stat} {+-} 0.7{sub syst}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1} ({approx}1% of the Crab Nebula flux) above 250 GeV. The observed spectrum can be described by a power law with a photon index of 3.18 {+-} 0.68{sub stat} {+-} 0.30{sub syst}. Contemporaneous observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected HE {gamma} rays from RBS 0413 with a statistical significance of more than 9{sigma}, a power-law photon index of 1.57 {+-} 0.12{sub stat}+{sup 0.11}{sub -0.12sys}, and a {gamma}-ray flux between 300 MeV and 300 GeV of (1.64 {+-} 0.43{sub stat}{sup +0.31}{sub -0.22sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. We present the results from Fermi-LAT and VERITAS, including a spectral energy distribution modeling of the {gamma}-ray, quasi-simultaneous X-ray (Swift-XRT), ultraviolet (Swift-UVOT), and R-band optical (MDM) data. We find that, if conditions close to equipartition are required, both the combined synchrotron self-Compton/external-Compton and the lepto-hadronic models are preferred over a pure synchrotron self-Compton model.

  2. Predictions on the High-Energy Emission from the Coma Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Schlickeiser, R.; Iyukin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The Coma galaxy cluster exhibits evidence for the existence of a high-energetic non-thermal particle populations. At frequencies > 1 GHz observations of Coma's radio halo indicate a significant spec- tral steepening of the volume-integrated emission from Coma which comprise important information on the electron spectrum. We calculate the volume- averaged high-energy spectrum due to inverse Comp- ton scattering off the cosmic microwave background radiation field and non-thermal bremsstrahlung tak- ing into account an exponential cutoff in the electron spectrum. This particle distribution was deduced from the radio observations. The synchrotron ra- diation from the secondary pairs, created from the decay of charged mesons produced in hadronic pp- interactions, is found to set significant limits on the hadronic energy component in Coma when compared to the steepening radio spectrum. This leads to fur- ther constraints for the maximum flux that can be expected in the high-energy range. In particular we predict that Coma cannot be detected with INTE- GRAL's ISGRI above a few 100 keV (based on the AO-2 continuum sensitivity) nor with the current generation atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes unless significantly more than 106 sec or > 50 hrs of obser- vations are accummulated, respectively. Key words: Galaxies: clusters: Coma Gamma rays: theory Radiation mechanisms: non-thermal.

  3. Fermi Gamma-Ray Pulsars: Understanding the High-energy Emission from Dissipative Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Harding, Alice K.; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Brambilla, Gabriele

    2017-06-01

    Based on the Fermi observational data, we reveal meaningful constraints for the dependence of the macroscopic conductivity (σ) of dissipative pulsar magnetosphere models on the corresponding spin-down rate, \\dot{{ E }}. Our models are refinements of the FIDO (Force-free Inside, Dissipative Outside) models, which have dissipative regions that are restricted on the equatorial current sheet outside of the the light-cylinder. Taking into account the observed cutoff energies of all of the Fermi pulsars and assuming that (a) the corresponding γ-ray pulsed emission is due to curvature radiation at the radiation-reaction-limit regime, and (b) this emission is produced at the equatorial current sheet near the light cylinder, we show that the Fermi data provide clear indications about the corresponding accelerating electric-field components. A direct comparison between the Fermi cutoff energies and the model ones reveals that σ increases with \\dot{{ E }} for high \\dot{{ E }}-values, while it saturates for low ones. This comparison indicates also that the corresponding gap width increases toward low \\dot{{ E }}-values. Assuming the Goldreich-Julian flux for the emitting particles, we calculate the total γ-ray luminosity (L γ ). A comparison between the dependence of the Fermi L γ -values and the model ones on \\dot{{ E }} indicates an increase of the emitting particle multiplicity with \\dot{{ E }}. Our modeling, guided by the Fermi data alone, enhances our understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the high-energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres.

  4. Discovery of high-energy and very high energy γ-ray emission from the blazar RBS 0413

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Bouvier, A.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Coppi, P.; Cui, W.; Decerprit, G.; Dickherber, R.; Dumm, J.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Hawkins, K.; Holder, J.; Huan, H.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Lee, K.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Palma, N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Ruppel, J.; Saxon, D. B.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Şentürk, G. D.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Tsurusaki, K.; Varlotta, A.; Vivier, M.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; Fortin, P.; Horan, D.

    2012-04-18

    Here, we report on the discovery of high-energy (HE; E > 0.1 GeV) and very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emission from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object RBS 0413. VERITAS, a ground-based γ-ray observatory, detected VHE γ rays from RBS 0413 with a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations (σ) and a γ-ray flux of (1.5 ± 0.6stat ± 0.7syst) × 10–8 photons m–2 s–1 (~1% of the Crab Nebula flux) above 250 GeV. The observed spectrum can be described by a power law with a photon index of 3.18 ± 0.68stat ± 0.30syst. Contemporaneous observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected HE γ rays from RBS 0413 with a statistical significance of more than 9σ, a power-law photon index of 1.57 ± 0.12stat +0.11 – 0.12sys, and a γ-ray flux between 300 MeV and 300 GeV of (1.64 ± 0.43stat +0.31 – 0.22sys) × 10–5 photons m–2 s–1. We also present the results from Fermi-LAT and VERITAS, including a spectral energy distribution modeling of the γ-ray, quasi-simultaneous X-ray (Swift-XRT), ultraviolet (Swift-UVOT), and R-band optical (MDM) data. We finally find that, if conditions close to equipartition are required, both the combined synchrotron self-Compton/external-Compton and the lepto-hadronic models are preferred over a pure synchrotron self-Compton model.

  5. Observational and theoretical study of the point sources of very high energy gamma-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babyk, Iurii

    2017-04-01

    The study of the sky using the most energetic photons plays a crucial role in detecting and exploring high-energy phenomena in the Universe. Observations conducted over recent years with new ground-based and space-borne gamma-ray instruments reveal that the universe is full of extreme accelerators, i.e., objects with surprisingly high efficiency for acceleration of electrons. In particular such an efficient acceleration is observed in gamma-ray-loud binary (GRLB) systems. GRLBs are a newly identified class of X-ray binaries in which interaction of an outflow from the compact object with the wind and radiation emitted by a companion star leads to the production of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission. Only five such systems have been firmly detected as persistent or regularly variable TeV gamma-ray emitters. All GRLBs detected in the TeV energy range contain a hot, young star and exhibit variable or periodic emission at multiple wavelengths across the electromagnetic spectrum. Details of the physical mechanism of the high-energy activity of GRLBs are not clear yet. Broad multi-wavelength observations are crucial to reveal the characteristic energies of the relativistic wind and better understanding of the nature of these sources. It looks quite possible that all these systems can be understood within the "hidden pulsar" model, and the observed differences are due to the different sizes of the system. In my work, I concentrate on the X-ray and gamma-ray emission observed from gamma-ray binaries PSR B1259-63 and LS I +61 303 with Suzaku, XMM-Newton, Swift, Chandra and Fermi observatories. In PSR B1259-63, the compact source is a young 48 ms radio pulsar orbiting Be-type star with period of 3.4 years. During my studies, I have been intensively involved in the analysis of the results of two multi-wavelength campaigns organized in 2010 and 2014 during the periastron passages in this system. These observations reveal complex spectral variability of the source as it passes

  6. The Search for High Energy Extended Emission by Fermi-LAT from Swift-Localized Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, J.; Racusin, J.L.; /NASA, Goddard

    2012-05-01

    The brighter Fermi-LAT bursts have exhibited emission at energies >0.1 GeV that persists as late as {approx}2 ks after the prompt phase has nominally ended. This so-called 'extended emission' could arise from continued activity of the prompt burst mechanism or it could be the start of a high energy afterglow component. The high energy extended emission seen by the LAT has typically followed a t{sup -}{gamma} power-law temporal decay where {gamma} {approx} 1.2-1.7 and has shown no strong indication of spectral evolution. In contrast, the prompt burst emission generally displays strong spectral variability and more complex temporal changes in the LAT band. This differing behavior suggests that the extended emission likely corresponds to an early afterglow phase produced by an external shock. In this study, we look for evidence of high energy extended emission from 145 Swift-localized GRBs that have occurred since the launch of Fermi. A majority of these bursts were either outside of the LAT field-of-view or were otherwise not detected by the LAT during the prompt phase. However, because of the scanning operation of the Fermi satellite, the long-lived extended emission of these bursts may be detectable in the LAT data on the {approx}few ks time scale. We will look for emission from individual bursts and will perform a stacking analysis in order to set bounds on this emission for the sample as a whole. The detection of such emission would have implications for afterglow models and for the overall energy budget of GRBs.

  7. Search for emission of ultra high energy radiation from active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    The CYGNUS Collaboration

    1993-05-01

    A search for emission of ultra-high energy gamma radiation from 13 active galactic nuclei that were detected by EGRET, using the CYGNUS extensive air-shower array, is described. The data set has been searched for continuous emission, emission on the time scale of one week, and for on the time scale of out day. No evidence for emission from any of the AGN on any of the time scales examined was found. The 90% C.L. upper limit to the continuous flux from Mrk 421 above 50 TeV is 7.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}14} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}.

  8. Search for emission of ultra high energy radiation from active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    A search for emission of ultra-high energy gamma radiation from 13 active galactic nuclei that were detected by EGRET, using the CYGNUS extensive air-shower array, is described. The data set has been searched for continuous emission, emission on the time scale of one week, and for on the time scale of out day. No evidence for emission from any of the AGN on any of the time scales examined was found. The 90% C.L. upper limit to the continuous flux from Mrk 421 above 50 TeV is 7.5 [times] 10[sup [minus]14] cm[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1].

  9. Spatially resolving the very high energy emission from MGRO J2019+37 with VERITAS

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Aune, T.; Behera, B.; Chen, X.; Federici, S.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dumm, J.; Dwarkadas, V. V.; Falcone, A. E-mail: nahee@uchicago.edu; and others

    2014-06-10

    We present very high energy (VHE) imaging of MGRO J2019+37 obtained with the VERITAS observatory. The bright extended (∼2°) unidentified Milagro source is located toward the rich star formation region Cygnus-X. MGRO J2019+37 is resolved into two VERITAS sources. The faint, point-like source VER J2016+371 overlaps CTB 87, a filled-center remnant (SNR) with no evidence of a supernova remnant shell at the present time. Its spectrum is well fit in the 0.65-10 TeV energy range by a power-law model with photon index 2.3 ± 0.4. VER J2019+378 is a bright extended (∼1°) source that likely accounts for the bulk of the Milagro emission and is notably coincident with PSR J2021+3651 and the star formation region Sh 2–104. Its spectrum in the range 1-30 TeV is well fit with a power-law model of photon index 1.75 ± 0.3, among the hardest values measured in the VHE band, comparable to that observed near Vela-X. We explore the unusual spectrum and morphology in the radio and X-ray bands to constrain possible emission mechanisms for this source.

  10. Spatially Resolving the Very High Energy Emission from MGRO J2019+37 with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliu, E.; Aune, T.; Behera, B.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dumm, J.; Dwarkadas, V. V.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gillanders, G. H.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kargaltsev, O.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Park, N.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Rajotte, J.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Roberts, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

    2014-06-01

    We present very high energy (VHE) imaging of MGRO J2019+37 obtained with the VERITAS observatory. The bright extended (~2°) unidentified Milagro source is located toward the rich star formation region Cygnus-X. MGRO J2019+37 is resolved into two VERITAS sources. The faint, point-like source VER J2016+371 overlaps CTB 87, a filled-center remnant (SNR) with no evidence of a supernova remnant shell at the present time. Its spectrum is well fit in the 0.65-10 TeV energy range by a power-law model with photon index 2.3 ± 0.4. VER J2019+378 is a bright extended (~1°) source that likely accounts for the bulk of the Milagro emission and is notably coincident with PSR J2021+3651 and the star formation region Sh 2-104. Its spectrum in the range 1-30 TeV is well fit with a power-law model of photon index 1.75 ± 0.3, among the hardest values measured in the VHE band, comparable to that observed near Vela-X. We explore the unusual spectrum and morphology in the radio and X-ray bands to constrain possible emission mechanisms for this source.

  11. Systematic search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from bow shocks of runaway stars

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, A.; Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R.; Mayer, M.; Klepser, S.

    2014-05-01

    Context. It has been suggested that the bow shocks of runaway stars are sources of high-energy gamma rays (E > 100 MeV). Theoretical models predicting high-energy gamma-ray emission from these sources were followed by the first detection of non-thermal radio emission from the bow shock of BD+43°3654 and non-thermal X-ray emission from the bow shock of AE Aurigae. Aims. We perform the first systematic search for MeV and GeV emission from 27 bow shocks of runaway stars using data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Methods. We analysed 57 months of Fermi-LAT data at the positions of 27 bow shocks of runaway stars extracted from the Extensive stellar BOw Shock Survey catalogue (E-BOSS). A likelihood analysis was performed to search for gamma-ray emission that is not compatible with diffuse background or emission from neighbouring sources and that could be associated with the bow shocks. Results. None of the bow shock candidates is detected significantly in the Fermi-LAT energy range. We therefore present upper limits on the high-energy emission in the energy range from 100MeV to 300 GeV for 27 bow shocks of runaway stars in four energy bands. For the three cases where models of the high-energy emission are published we compare our upper limits to the modelled spectra. Our limits exclude the model predictions for ζ Ophiuchi by a factor ≈ 5.

  12. Systematic search for high-energy gamma-ray emission from bow shocks of runaway stars

    DOE PAGES

    Schulz, A.; Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R.; ...

    2014-05-01

    Context. It has been suggested that the bow shocks of runaway stars are sources of high-energy gamma rays (E > 100 MeV). Theoretical models predicting high-energy gamma-ray emission from these sources were followed by the first detection of non-thermal radio emission from the bow shock of BD+43°3654 and non-thermal X-ray emission from the bow shock of AE Aurigae. Aims. We perform the first systematic search for MeV and GeV emission from 27 bow shocks of runaway stars using data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Methods. We analysed 57 months of Fermi-LATmore » data at the positions of 27 bow shocks of runaway stars extracted from the Extensive stellar BOw Shock Survey catalogue (E-BOSS). A likelihood analysis was performed to search for gamma-ray emission that is not compatible with diffuse background or emission from neighbouring sources and that could be associated with the bow shocks. Results. None of the bow shock candidates is detected significantly in the Fermi-LAT energy range. We therefore present upper limits on the high-energy emission in the energy range from 100MeV to 300 GeV for 27 bow shocks of runaway stars in four energy bands. For the three cases where models of the high-energy emission are published we compare our upper limits to the modelled spectra. Our limits exclude the model predictions for ζ Ophiuchi by a factor ≈ 5.« less

  13. Soft-photon emission effects and radiative corrections for electromagnetic processes at very high energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Higher-order electromagnetic processes involving particles at ultrahigh energies are discussed, with particular attention given to Compton scattering with the emission of an additional photon (double Compton scattering). Double Compton scattering may have significance in the interaction of a high-energy electron with the cosmic blackbody photon gas. At high energies the cross section for double Compton scattering is large, though this effect is largely canceled by the effects of radiative corrections to ordinary Compton scattering. A similar cancellation takes place for radiative pair production and the associated radiative corrections to the radiationless process. This cancellation is related to the well-known cancellation of the infrared divergence in electrodynamics.

  14. High-energy two-electron capture with emission of a single photon

    SciTech Connect

    Drukarev, E. G.; Mikhailov, A. I.; Mikhailov, I. A.; Scheid, W.

    2007-12-15

    We investigate the two-electron capture with emission of a single photon to the ground state in the Coulomb field of a heavy nucleus in its collision with a light atom. Describing electron-electron interactions in the bound state perturbatively, we obtained an analytical formula for the high-energy limit of the cross section. In combination with previous results obtained in the same approach we calculated the cross section in a broad interval of energies of the collision. We show that the amplitude of the process at high energy depends on the behavior of the bound state wave function near the triple coalescence point. We analyze the properties of the approximate wave functions which are necessary for the description of the high-energy limit.

  15. Very high energy gamma-ray emission from Tycho's supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxon, Dana Boltuch

    Supernova remnant (SNR) G120.1+1.4 (also known as Tycho's SNR) is the remnant of one of only five confirmed historical supernovae. As such, it has been well studied across the electromagnetic spectrum. This thesis describes the first statistically significant detection of very high energy (VHE) (˜ 100 GeV to 100 TeV) gamma rays from Tycho's SNR, reported in 2011 by the VERITAS collaboration. The analysis that led to that detection was performed by this author, and this dissertation will discuss the process in detail. Subsequently, a statistically significant detection in high energy (HE) (˜ 30 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma rays was reported by other authors using data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Comparison of models to the spectral energy distribution of the photon flux from this remnant in HE and VHE gamma rays favors a hadronic origin for the emission, particularly when combined with current X-ray data, although a leptonic origin cannot be ruled out at this time. This is significant because a confirmed hadronic origin for the gamma-ray emission would identify this SNR as a site of cosmic ray acceleration, providing observational evidence for the idea that SNRs are the source of the Galactic cosmic ray population. Chapter 1 of this dissertation will provide historical background on Tycho's SNR, along with a summary of modern observations of the remnant across the electromagnetic spectrum. Chapter 2 is a discussion of the role played by SNRs in the process of cosmic ray acceleration, including both theoretical underpinnings and observational evidence. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the field of VHE gamma-ray astronomy, with discussions of gamma-ray production mechanisms and gamma-ray source classes. Chapter 4 describes the instruments used to observe HE and VHE gamma rays. Chapter 5 is a discussion of general analysis methods and techniques for data from Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs). Chapter 6 provides details about the specific

  16. Modulated High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celik, O.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Johnson, T. J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Thompson, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Microquasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and microquasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets.

  17. Modulated High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Microquasar Cygnus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celik, O.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Johnson, T. J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Thompson, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Microquasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and microquasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets.

  18. Modulated high-energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-3.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Chaty, S; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Corbel, S; Corbet, R; Dermer, C D; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dubus, G; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hill, A B; Hjalmarsdotter, L; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Koerding, E; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marchand, L; Marelli, M; Max-Moerbeck, W; Mazziotta, M N; McColl, N; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Migliari, S; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Ong, R A; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pooley, G; Porter, T A; Pottschmidt, K; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Rea, N; Readhead, A; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Richards, J L; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, J; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Stevenson, M; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tomsick, J A; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Wilms, J; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-12-11

    Microquasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and microquasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets.

  19. AN UP-SCATTERED COCOON EMISSION MODEL OF GAMMA-RAY BURST HIGH-ENERGY LAGS

    SciTech Connect

    Toma, Kenji; Wu Xuefeng; Meszaros, Peter

    2009-12-20

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope recently detected the most energetic gamma-ray burst so far, GRB 080916C, and reported its detailed temporal properties in an extremely broad spectral range: (1) the time-resolved spectra are well described by broken power-law forms over the energy range of 10 keV-10 GeV, (2) the high-energy emission (at epsilon>100 MeV) is delayed by approx5 s with respect to the epsilon approx< 1 MeV emission, and (3) the emission onset times shift toward later times in higher energy bands. We show that this behavior of the high-energy emission can be explained by a model in which the prompt emission consists of two components: one is the emission component peaking at epsilon approx 1 MeV due to the synchrotron-self-Compton radiation of electrons accelerated in the internal shock of the jet and the other is the component peaking at epsilon approx 100 MeV due to up-scattering of the photospheric X-ray emission of the expanding cocoon (i.e., the hot bubble produced by dissipation of the jet energy inside the progenitor star) off the same electrons in the jet. Based on this model, we derive some constraints on the radius of the progenitor star and the total energy and mass of the cocoon of this GRB, which may provide information on the structure of the progenitor star and the physical conditions of the jet propagating in the star. The up-scattered cocoon emission could be important for other Fermi GRBs as well. We discuss some predictions of this model, including a prompt bright optical emission and a soft X-ray excess.

  20. Search for ultra-high energy emission from Geminga and five unidentified EGRET sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Data from the CYGNUS extensive air shower array were searched for continuous ultra-high energy (UHE) gamma radiation from five unidentified EGRET sources and from the Geminga pulsar. No evidence for continuous emission from any of these objects was found. Data in the Geminga source bin were also searched for pulsed emission using the recent EGRET ephemeris (237 ms period). No evidence of a periodic signal was found. The 90% confidence level upper limit on the continuous gamma-ray flux above 80 TeV for Geminga is 7.9 [times] 10[sup [minus]14] cm[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1].

  1. Search for ultra-high energy emission from Geminga and five unidentified EGRET sources

    SciTech Connect

    The CYGNUS Collaboration

    1993-05-01

    Data from the CYGNUS extensive air shower array were searched for continuous ultra-high energy (UHE) gamma radiation from five unidentified EGRET sources and from the Geminga pulsar. No evidence for continuous emission from any of these objects was found. Data in the Geminga source bin were also searched for pulsed emission using the recent EGRET ephemeris (237 ms period). No evidence of a periodic signal was found. The 90% confidence level upper limit on the continuous gamma-ray flux above 80 TeV for Geminga is 7.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}14} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}.

  2. Search for continuous and single day emission from ultra-high-energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mei-Li.

    1993-01-01

    Data from the CYGNUS experiment has been used to search the northern sky for point sources of continuous ultra-high-energy gamma radiation and to examine 51 candidate sources on a daily basis to search for episodic emission. In this paper, we make use of our most recent data to update our previously published results from these searches. The data sample is approximately twice as large as the published data set for continuous emission, and contains an additional year for the daily search. The latest results, up to the time of the conference, will be presented at the meeting.

  3. An upper limit on the high-energy gamma-ray emission of Vela X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, J. R.; Oegelman, H.; Kanbach, G.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the X-ray binary Vela X-1 was investigated by analyzing the COS-B satellite observations, using the COS-B X-ray detector for a phase coherent analysis in the search of rotational periodicity. The rotational upper limit is compared to the X-ray, TeV, and PeV fluxes reported by Chodil et al. (1967), North et al. (1984), and Protheroe et al. (1984), respectively. It was found that, under certain conditions, the upper limit determined here is not inconsistent with the reports of TeV and PeV emission.

  4. An upper limit on the high-energy gamma-ray emission of Vela X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattox, J. R.; Oegelman, H.; Kanbach, G.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the X-ray binary Vela X-1 was investigated by analyzing the COS-B satellite observations, using the COS-B X-ray detector for a phase coherent analysis in the search of rotational periodicity. The rotational upper limit is compared to the X-ray, TeV, and PeV fluxes reported by Chodil et al. (1967), North et al. (1984), and Protheroe et al. (1984), respectively. It was found that, under certain conditions, the upper limit determined here is not inconsistent with the reports of TeV and PeV emission.

  5. High-Energy Emission From the Polar Cap and Slot Gap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-five years after the discovery of rotation-powered pulsars, we still do not understand the fundamentals of their pulsed emission at any wavelength. I will review the latest developments in understanding the high-energy emission of rotation-powered pulsars, with particular emphasis on the polar cap and slot gap models. Special and general relativistic effects play important roles in pulsar emission, from inertial frame-dragging near the stellar surface to aberration, time-of-flight and retardation of the magnetic field near the light cylinder. Understanding how these effects determine what we observe at different wavelengths is critical to unraveling the emission physics. I will discuss how the next generation of gamma-ray detectors, AGILE and GLAST, will test prediction of these models.

  6. High-Energy Emission From the Polar Cap and Slot Gap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-five years after the discovery of rotation-powered pulsars, we still do not understand the fundamentals of their pulsed emission at any wavelength. I will review the latest developments in understanding the high-energy emission of rotation-powered pulsars, with particular emphasis on the polar cap and slot gap models. Special and general relativistic effects play important roles in pulsar emission, from inertial frame-dragging near the stellar surface to aberration, time-of-flight and retardation of the magnetic field near the light cylinder. Understanding how these effects determine what we observe at different wavelengths is critical to unraveling the emission physics. I will discuss how the next generation of gamma-ray detectors, AGILE and GLAST, will test prediction of these models.

  7. Elementary Quantum Mechanics in a High-Energy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denville, A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Compares two approaches to strong absorption in elementary quantum mechanics; the black sphere and a model based on the continuum theory of nuclear reactions. Examines the application to proton-antiproton interactions at low momenta and concludes that the second model is the appropriate and simplest to use. (Author/GA)

  8. Elementary Quantum Mechanics in a High-Energy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denville, A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Compares two approaches to strong absorption in elementary quantum mechanics; the black sphere and a model based on the continuum theory of nuclear reactions. Examines the application to proton-antiproton interactions at low momenta and concludes that the second model is the appropriate and simplest to use. (Author/GA)

  9. FAINT HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY PHOTON EMISSION OF GRB 081006A FROM FERMI OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Weikang; Akerlof, Carl W.; Pandey, Shashi B.; McKay, Timothy A.; Zhang Binbin; Zhang Bing

    2012-01-20

    Since the launch of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope on 2008 June 11, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument has firmly detected more than 20 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with high-energy photon emission above 100 MeV. Using the matched filter technique, three more GRBs have also shown evidence of correlation with high-energy photon emission as demonstrated by Akerlof et al. In this paper, we present another GRB, GRB 081006A, unambiguously detected by the matched filter technique. This event is associated with more than 13 high-energy photons above 100 MeV. The likelihood analysis code provided by the Fermi Science Support Center generated an independent verification of this detection using a comparison of the test statistics value with similar calculations for random LAT data fields. We have performed detailed temporal and spectral analysis of photons from 8 keV up to 0.8 GeV from the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and the LAT. The properties of GRB 081006A can be compared to those of the other two long-duration GRBs detected at similar significance, GRB 080825C and GRB 090217A. We find that GRB 081006A is more similar to GRB 080825C with comparable appearances of late high-energy photon emission. As demonstrated previously, there appears to be a surprising dearth of faint LAT GRBs, with only one additional GRB identified in a sample of 74. In this unique period when both Swift and Fermi are operational, there is some urgency to explore this aspect of GRBs as fully as possible.

  10. FERMI observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from GRB 090217A

    DOE PAGES

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; ...

    2010-06-22

    The Fermi observatory is advancing our knowledge of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) through pioneering observations at high energies, covering more than seven decades in energy with the two on-board detectors, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). Here, we report on the observation of the long GRB 090217A which triggered the GBM and has been detected by the LAT with a significance greater than 9σ. We present the GBM and LAT observations and on-ground analyses, including the time-resolved spectra and the study of the temporal profile from 8 keV up to ~1 GeV. All spectra are wellmore » reproduced by a Band model. We compare these observations to the first two LAT-detected, long bursts GRB 080825C and GRB 080916C. These bursts were found to have time-dependent spectra and exhibited a delayed onset of the high-energy emission, which are not observed in the case of GRB 090217A. We discuss some theoretical implications for the high-energy emission of GRBs.« less

  11. FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GRB 090217A

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M. E-mail: piron@lpta.in2p3.f

    2010-07-10

    The Fermi observatory is advancing our knowledge of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) through pioneering observations at high energies, covering more than seven decades in energy with the two on-board detectors, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). Here, we report on the observation of the long GRB 090217A which triggered the GBM and has been detected by the LAT with a significance greater than 9{sigma}. We present the GBM and LAT observations and on-ground analyses, including the time-resolved spectra and the study of the temporal profile from 8 keV up to {approx}1 GeV. All spectra are well reproduced by a Band model. We compare these observations to the first two LAT-detected, long bursts GRB 080825C and GRB 080916C. These bursts were found to have time-dependent spectra and exhibited a delayed onset of the high-energy emission, which are not observed in the case of GRB 090217A. We discuss some theoretical implications for the high-energy emission of GRBs.

  12. VERITAS Upper Limit on the Very High Energy Emission from the Radio Galaxy NGC 1275

    DOE PAGES

    Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; ...

    2009-11-16

    We report the recent detection by the Fermi γ-ray space telescope of high-energy γ-rays from the radio galaxy NGC 1275 that makes the observation of the very high energy (VHE: E>100 GeV) part of its broadband spectrum particularly interesting, especially for the understanding of active galactic nuclei with misaligned multi-structured jets. The radio galaxy NGC 1275 was recently observed by VERITAS at energies above 100 GeV for about 8 hr. No VHE γ-ray emission was detected by VERITAS from NGC 1275. Finally, a 99% confidence level upper limit of 2.1% of the Crab Nebula flux level is obtained at themore » decorrelation energy of approximately 340 GeV, corresponding to 19% of the power-law extrapolation of the Fermi Large Area Telescope result.« less

  13. VERITAS UPPER LIMIT ON THE VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM THE RADIO GALAXY NGC 1275

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Celik, O.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Cogan, P.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.

    2009-12-01

    The recent detection by the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope of high-energy gamma-rays from the radio galaxy NGC 1275 makes the observation of the very high energy (VHE: E>100 GeV) part of its broadband spectrum particularly interesting, especially for the understanding of active galactic nuclei with misaligned multi-structured jets. The radio galaxy NGC 1275 was recently observed by VERITAS at energies above 100 GeV for about 8 hr. No VHE gamma-ray emission was detected by VERITAS from NGC 1275. A 99% confidence level upper limit of 2.1% of the Crab Nebula flux level is obtained at the decorrelation energy of approximately 340 GeV, corresponding to 19% of the power-law extrapolation of the Fermi Large Area Telescope result.

  14. VERY HIGH ENERGY gamma-RAY AFTERGLOW EMISSION OF NEARBY GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, R. R.; Fan, Y. Z.; Wei, D. M.; Tam, P. H.; Wagner, S. J.; Behera, B. E-mail: phtam@lsw.uni-heidelberg.d

    2009-09-20

    The synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission from gamma-ray burst (GRB) forward shock can extend to the very high energy (VHE; E{sub {gamma}} > 100 GeV) range. Such high energy photons are rare and are attenuated by the cosmic infrared background before reaching us. In this work, we discuss the prospect to detect these VHE photons using the current ground-based Cherenkov detectors. Our calculated results are consistent with the upper limits obtained with several Cherenkov detectors for GRB 030329, GRB 050509B, and GRB 060505 during the afterglow phase. For five bursts in our nearby GRB sample (except for GRB 030329), current ground-based Cherenkov detectors would not be expected to detect the modeled VHE signal. Only for those very bright and nearby bursts like GRB 030329, detection of VHE photons is possible under favorable observing conditions and a delayed observation time of {approx}<10 hr.

  15. VERITAS Upper Limit on the Very High Energy Emission from the Radio Galaxy NGC 1275

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Celik, O.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gibbs, K.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Horan, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Toner, J. A.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wagner, R. G.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.; Kataoka, J.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cheung, C. C.; Lott, B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tosti, G.

    2009-11-16

    We report the recent detection by the Fermi γ-ray space telescope of high-energy γ-rays from the radio galaxy NGC 1275 that makes the observation of the very high energy (VHE: E>100 GeV) part of its broadband spectrum particularly interesting, especially for the understanding of active galactic nuclei with misaligned multi-structured jets. The radio galaxy NGC 1275 was recently observed by VERITAS at energies above 100 GeV for about 8 hr. No VHE γ-ray emission was detected by VERITAS from NGC 1275. Finally, a 99% confidence level upper limit of 2.1% of the Crab Nebula flux level is obtained at the decorrelation energy of approximately 340 GeV, corresponding to 19% of the power-law extrapolation of the Fermi Large Area Telescope result.

  16. Search for Very High Energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts using Milagro

    SciTech Connect

    Saz Parkinson, P. M.

    2007-07-12

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) have been detected at GeV energies by EGRET and models predict emission at > 100 GeV. Milagro is a wide field (2 sr) high duty cycle (> 90%) ground based water Cherenkov detector that records extensive air showers in the energy range 100 GeV to 100 TeV. We have searched for very high energy emission from a sample of 106 gamma-ray bursts (GRB) detected since the beginning of 2000 by BATSE, BeppoSax, HETE-2, INTEGRAL, Swift or the IPN. No evidence for emission from any of the bursts has been found and we present upper limits from these bursts.

  17. From Radio with Love: An Overview of the Role of Radio Observations in Understanding High-Energy Emission from Active Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ojha, Roopesh

    2012-01-01

    The gamma-ray satellite Fermi and the ground based TeV facilities MAGIC, VERITAS and HESS have ushered in a new era in the observation of high-energy emission from active galaxies. The energy budgets of these objects have a major contribution from gamma-rays and it is simply not possible to understand their physics without high-energy observations. Though the exact mechanisms for high-energy production in galaxies remains an open question, gamma-rays typically result from interactions between high-energy particles. Via different interactions these same particles can produce radio emission. Thus the non-thermal nature of gamma-ray emission practically guarantees that high-energy emitters are also radio loud. Aside from their obvious role as a component of multiwavelength analysis, radio observations provide two crucial elements essential to understanding the source structure and physical processes of high-energy emitters: very high timing resolution and very high spatial resolution. A brief overview of the unique role played by radio observations in unraveling the mysteries of the high energy Universe as presented here.

  18. An outer gap model of high-energy emission from rotation-powered pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, James; Romani, Roger W.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a refined calculation of high-energy emission from rotation-powered pulsars based on the outer gap model of Cheng, Ho, & Ruderman (1986 a, b). In this calculation, vacuum gaps form in regions near the speed-of-light cylinder of the pulsar magnetosphere along the boundary between the closed and open field line zones. We have improved upon previous efforts to model the spectra from these pulsars (e.g., Cheng et al. 1986b; Ho 1989) by following the variation in particle production and radiation properties with position in the outer gap. Curvature, synchotron, and inverse-Compton scattering fluxes vary significantly over the gap, and their interactions via photon-photon pair production build up the radiating charge populations at varying rates. We have also incorporated an approximate treatment of the transport particle and photon fluxes between gap emission zones. These effects, along with improved computations of the particle and photon distribution, provide very important modifications of the model gamma-ray flux. In paticular, we attempt to make specific predictions of pulse profile shapes and spectral variations as a function of pulse phase and suggest further extensions to the model which may provide accurate computations of the observed high-energy emissions.

  19. Sources of High-Energy Emission in the Green Pea Galaxies: New Constraints from Magellan Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Derek Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered Green Pea galaxies display extreme starburst activity and may be some of the only possible Lyman continuum emitting galaxies at low redshift. Green Peas are characterized by their unusually high [O III]/[O II] ratios, similar to the ratios observed in high-redshift galaxies. In addition, the presence of the high-energy He II 4686 line shows that the Green Peas are highly ionized. However, the origin of the He II emission in the Green Peas, and many other starburst galaxies, is still an open question. We analyze IMACS and MagE spectra from the Magellan telescopes in order to evaluate the most probable cause of this He II emission. We also analyze other properties like dust content, temperature and density, and kinematic components. Our IMACS spectra show no Wolf-Rayet (WR) features. We set upper limits on the WR populations in our sample and conclude that Wolf-Rayet stars are not a likely candidate for the He II emission. With deeper MagE spectra we investigate energetic shocks as a possible source of the He II, and move one step closer to uncovering the origin of high-energy photons in these unique starbursts.

  20. An outer gap model of high-energy emission from rotation-powered pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, James; Romani, Roger W.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a refined calculation of high-energy emission from rotation-powered pulsars based on the outer gap model of Cheng, Ho, & Ruderman (1986 a, b). In this calculation, vacuum gaps form in regions near the speed-of-light cylinder of the pulsar magnetosphere along the boundary between the closed and open field line zones. We have improved upon previous efforts to model the spectra from these pulsars (e.g., Cheng et al. 1986b; Ho 1989) by following the variation in particle production and radiation properties with position in the outer gap. Curvature, synchotron, and inverse-Compton scattering fluxes vary significantly over the gap, and their interactions via photon-photon pair production build up the radiating charge populations at varying rates. We have also incorporated an approximate treatment of the transport particle and photon fluxes between gap emission zones. These effects, along with improved computations of the particle and photon distribution, provide very important modifications of the model gamma-ray flux. In paticular, we attempt to make specific predictions of pulse profile shapes and spectral variations as a function of pulse phase and suggest further extensions to the model which may provide accurate computations of the observed high-energy emissions.

  1. Experimental results from CERN on reaction mechanisms in high energy heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, S.P. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    Three main experimental results from CERN concerning reaction mechanisms in high energy heavy ion collisions are discussed: (1) the striking validity of the single particle picture, (2) the nuclear stopping power and (3) the attained energy densities.

  2. High energy (gamma)-ray emission from the starburst nucleus of NGC 253

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo-Santamaria, E; Torres, D F

    2005-06-15

    The high density medium that characterizes the central regions of starburst galaxies and its power to accelerate particles up to relativistic energies make these objects good candidates as {gamma}-rays sources. In this paper, a self-consistent model of the multifrequency emission of the starburst galaxy NGC 253, from radio to gamma-rays, is presented. The model is in agreement with all current measurements and provides predictions for the high energy behavior of the NGC 253 central region. Prospects for observations with the HESS array and GLAST satellite are especially discussed.

  3. Related investigations on the physics of high energy emission from active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    The Final Technical Report on a number of related investigations on the physics of high energy emission from active galactic nuclei, such as Seyfert galaxies and quasi-stellar objects is presented. The chief conclusions of the work are briefly described, and citations to the papers supported by this grant and published in the refereed scientific literature are provided. Areas of research included: 'warm' galaxies observed in x rays; x ray/infrared correlations in galaxies; the contribution of active galaxies to the cosmic x ray background radiation; and an unusual x ray emitting starburst galaxy.

  4. Modelling the high-energy emission from gamma-ray binaries using numerical relativistic hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubus, G.; Lamberts, A.; Fromang, S.

    2015-09-01

    Context. Detailed modelling of the high-energy emission from gamma-ray binaries has been propounded as a path to pulsar wind physics. Aims: Fulfilling this ambition requires a coherent model of the flow and its emission in the region where the pulsar wind interacts with the stellar wind of its companion. Methods: We have developed a code that follows the evolution and emission of electrons in the shocked pulsar wind based on inputs from a relativistic hydrodynamical simulation. The code is used to model the well-documented spectral energy distribution and orbital modulations from LS 5039. Results: The pulsar wind is fully confined by a bow shock and a back shock. The particles are distributed into a narrow Maxwellian, emitting mostly GeV photons, and a power law radiating very efficiently over a broad energy range from X-rays to TeV gamma rays. Most of the emission arises from the apex of the bow shock. Doppler boosting shapes the X-ray and very high energy (VHE) lightcurves, constraining the system inclination to i ≈ 35°. There is tension between the hard VHE spectrum and the level of X-ray to MeV emission, which requires differing magnetic field intensities that are hard to achieve with constant magnetisation σ and Lorentz factor Γp of the pulsar wind. Our best compromise implies σ ≈ 1 and Γp ≈ 5 × 103, so respectively higher and lower than the typical values in pulsar wind nebulae. Conclusions: The high value of σ derived here, where the wind is confined close to the pulsar, supports the classical picture that has pulsar winds highly magnetised at launch. However, such magnetisations will require that further investigations are based on relativistic MHD simulations. Movies associated to Figs. A.1-A.4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. THE {gamma}-RAY SPECTRUM OF GEMINGA AND THE INVERSE COMPTON MODEL OF PULSAR HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2012-09-20

    We reanalyze the Fermi spectra of the Geminga and Vela pulsars. We find that the spectrum of Geminga above the break is well approximated by a simple power law without the exponential cutoff, making Geminga's spectrum similar to that of Crab. Vela's broadband {gamma}-ray spectrum is equally well fit with both the exponential cutoff and the double power-law shapes. In the broadband double power-law fits, for a typical Fermi spectrum of a bright {gamma}-ray pulsar, most of the errors accumulate due to the arbitrary parameterization of the spectral roll-off. In addition, a power law with an exponential cutoff gives an acceptable fit for the underlying double power-law spectrum for a very broad range of parameters, making such fitting procedures insensitive to the underlying Fermi photon spectrum. Our results have important implications for the mechanism of pulsar high-energy emission. A number of observed properties of {gamma}-ray pulsars-i.e., the broken power-law spectra without exponential cutoffs and stretching in the case of Crab beyond the maximal curvature limit, spectral breaks close to or exceeding the maximal breaks due to curvature emission, patterns of the relative intensities of the leading and trailing pulses in the Crab repeated in the X-ray and {gamma}-ray regions, presence of profile peaks at lower energies aligned with {gamma}-ray peaks-all point to the inverse Compton origin of the high-energy emission from majority of pulsars.

  6. High-energy non-thermal and thermal emission from GRB 141207A detected by Fermi

    DOE PAGES

    Arimoto, Makoto; Asano, Katsuaki; Ohno, Masanori; ...

    2016-12-13

    A bright long gamma-ray burst GRB 141207A was observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and detected by both instruments onboard. The observations show that the spectrum in the prompt phase is not well described by the canonical empirical Band function alone, and that an additional power-law component is needed. In the early phase of the prompt emission, a modified blackbody with a hard low-energy photon index (α = +0.2 to +0.4) is detected, which suggests a photospheric origin. In a finely time-resolved analysis, the spectra are also well fitted by the modified blackbody combined with a power-law function. Heremore » we discuss the physical parameters of the photosphere such as the bulk Lorentz factor of the relativistic flow and the radius. We also discuss the physical origin of the extra power-law component observed during the prompt phase in the context of different models such as leptonic and hadronic scenarios in the internal shock regime and synchrotron emission in the external forward shock. In the afterglow phase, the temporal and spectral behaviors of the temporally extended high-energy emission and the fading X-ray emission detected by the X-Ray Telescope on-board Swift are consistent with synchrotron emission in a radiative external forward shock.« less

  7. Bursts of the Crab Nebula gamma-ray emission at high and ultra-high energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidvansky, A. S.

    2017-06-01

    Characteristics of the flares of gamma rays detected from the Crab Nebula by the AGILE and Fermi-LAT satellite instruments are compared with those of a gamma ray burst recorded by several air shower arrays on February 23, 1989 and with one recent observation made by the ARGO-YBJ array. It is demonstrated that though pulsar-periodicity and energy spectra of emissions at 100 MeV (satellite gamma ray telescopes) and 100 TeV (EAS arrays) are different, their time structures seem to be similar. Moreover, maybe the difference between "flares" and "waves" recently found in the Crab Nebula emission by the AGILE team also exists at ultra-high energies.

  8. Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from Solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesce Rollins, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the active Sun provide the largest sample of detected solar flares with emission greater than 30 MeV to date. These include detections of impulsive and sustained emission, extending up to 20 hours in the case of the 2012 March 7 X-class flares. These high-energy flares are coincident with GOES X-ray flares of X, M and C classes as well as very fast Coronal Mass Ejections (CME). We will present results from the First Fermi-LAT solar flare catalog covering the majority of Solar Cycle 24 including correlation studies with the associated Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) and CMEs.

  9. Evolution of and High-Energy Emission from GHz-Peaked Spectrum Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stawarz, Ł.; Ostorero, L.; Begelman, M. C.; Moderski, R.; Kataoka, J.; Wagner, S.

    2008-06-01

    Here we discuss evolution and broadband emission of compact (emission of young radio sources. In particular, we argue that the observed spectral turnover in the radio synchrotron spectra of these objects cannot originate from the synchrotron self-absorption process but is most likely due to free-free absorption effects connected with neutral clouds of interstellar medium engulfed by the expanding lobes and photoionized by active centers. We also find a relatively strong and complex high-energy emission component produced by inverse Compton upscattering of various surrounding photon fields by the lobes' electrons. We argue that such high-energy radiation is strong enough to account for several observed properties of GHz-peaked spectrum (GPS) radio galaxies at UV and X-ray frequencies. In addition, this emission is expected to extend up to GeV (or possibly even TeV) photon energies and can thus be probed by several modern γ-ray instruments. In particular, we suggest that GPS radio galaxies should constitute a relatively numerous class of extragalactic sources detected by GLAST.

  10. On the Evolution of and High-Energy Emission from GHz-Peaked-Spectrum Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stawarz, L.; Ostorero, L.; Begelman, M.C.; Moderski, R.; Kataoka, J.; Wagner, S.

    2007-12-18

    Here we discuss evolution and broad-band emission of compact (< kpc) lobes in young radio sources. We propose a simple dynamical description for these objects, consisting of a relativistic jet propagating into a uniform gaseous medium in the central parts of an elliptical host. In the framework of the proposed model, we follow the evolution of ultrarelativistic electrons injected from a terminal hotspot of a jet to expanding lobes, taking into account their adiabatic energy losses as well as radiative cooling. This allows us to discuss the broad-band lobe emission of young radio sources. In particular, we argue that the observed spectral turnover in the radio synchrotron spectra of these objects cannot originate from the synchrotron self-absorption process but is most likely due to free-free absorption effects connected with neutral clouds of interstellar medium engulfed by the expanding lobes and photoionized by active centers. We also find a relatively strong and complex high-energy emission component produced by inverse-Compton up-scattering of various surrounding photon fields by the lobes electrons. We argue that such high energy radiation is strong enough to account for several observed properties of GHz-peaked-spectrum (GPS) radio galaxies at UV and X-ray frequencies. In addition, this emission is expected to extend up to GeV (or possibly even TeV) photon energies and can thus be probed by several modern {gamma}-ray instruments. In particular, we suggest that GPS radio galaxies should constitute a relatively numerous class of extragalactic sources detected by GLAST.

  11. MAGIC Discovery of Very High Energy Emission from the FSRQ PKS 1222+21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thom, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Tanaka, Y. T.; Wood, D. L.; Buson, S.

    2011-03-01

    Very high energy (VHE) γ-ray emission from the flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 1222+21 (4C 21.35, z = 0.432) was detected with the MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes during a short observation (~0.5 hr) performed on 2010 June 17. The MAGIC detection coincides with high-energy MeV/GeV γ-ray activity measured by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi satellite. The VHE spectrum measured by MAGIC extends from about 70 GeV up to at least 400 GeV and can be well described by a power-law dN/dE vprop E -Γ with a photon index Γ = 3.75 ± 0.27stat ± 0.2syst. The averaged integral flux above 100 GeV is (4.6 ± 0.5) × 10-10 cm-2 s-1 (~1 Crab Nebula flux). The VHE flux measured by MAGIC varies significantly within the 30 minute exposure implying a flux doubling time of about 10 minutes. The VHE and MeV/GeV spectra, corrected for the absorption by the extragalactic background light (EBL), can be described by a single power law with photon index 2.72 ± 0.34 between 3 GeV and 400 GeV, and is consistent with emission belonging to a single component in the jet. The absence of a spectral cutoff constrains the γ-ray emission region to lie outside the broad-line region, which would otherwise absorb the VHE γ-rays. Together with the detected fast variability, this challenges present emission models from jets in FSRQs. Moreover, the combined Fermi/LAT and MAGIC spectral data yield constraints on the density of the EBL in the UV-optical to near-infrared range that are compatible with recent models.

  12. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Constraining the accelerated proton spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, David; Dunphy, Philip P.; Mackinnon, Alexander L.

    1994-01-01

    Using a multi-component model to describe the gamma-ray emission, we investigate the flares of December 16, 1988 and March 6, 1989 which exhibited unambiguous evidence of neutral pion decay. The observations are then combined with theoretical calculations of pion production to constrain the accelerated proton spectra. The detection of pi(sup 0) emission alone can indicate much about the energy distribution and spectral variation of the protons accelerated to pion producing energies. Here both the intensity and detailed spectral shape of the Doppler-broadened pi(sup 0) decay feature are used to determine the spectral form of the accelerated proton energy distribution. The Doppler width of this gamma-ray emission provides a unique diagnostic of the spectral shape at high energies, independent of any normalisation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this diagnostic has been used to constrain the proton spectra. The form of the energetic proton distribution is found to be severely limited by the observed intensity and Doppler width of the pi(sup 0) decay emission, demonstrating effectively the diagnostic capabilities of the pi(sup 0) decay gamma-rays. The spectral index derived from the gamma-ray intensity is found to be much harder than that derived from the Doppler width. To reconcile this apparent discrepancy we investigate the effects of introducing a high-energy cut-off in the accelerated proton distribution. With cut-off energies of around 0.5-0.8 GeV and relatively hard spectra, the observed intensities and broadening can be reproduced with a single energetic proton distribution above the pion production threshold.

  13. Magic discovery of very high energy emission from the FSRQ PKS 1222+21

    DOE PAGES

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; ...

    2011-02-25

    Very high energy (VHE) γ-ray emission from the flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 1222+21 (4C 21.35, z = 0.432) was detected with the MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes during a short observation (~0.5 hr) performed on 2010 June 17. The MAGIC detection coincides with high-energy MeV/GeV γ-ray activity measured by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi satellite. The VHE spectrum measured by MAGIC extends from about 70 GeV up to at least 400 GeV and can be well described by a power-law dN/dE ∝ E –Γ with a photon index Γ = 3.75 ± 0.27stat ± 0.2syst. Themore » averaged integral flux above 100 GeV is (4.6 ± 0.5) × 10–10 cm–2 s–1 (~1 Crab Nebula flux). The VHE flux measured by MAGIC varies significantly within the 30 minute exposure implying a flux doubling time of about 10 minutes. The VHE and MeV/GeV spectra, corrected for the absorption by the extragalactic background light (EBL), can be described by a single power law with photon index 2.72 ± 0.34 between 3 GeV and 400 GeV, and is consistent with emission belonging to a single component in the jet. The absence of a spectral cutoff constrains the γ-ray emission region to lie outside the broad-line region, which would otherwise absorb the VHE γ-rays. Together with the detected fast variability, this challenges present emission models from jets in FSRQs. Furthermore, the combined Fermi/LAT and MAGIC spectral data yield constraints on the density of the EBL in the UV-optical to near-infrared range that are compatible with recent models.« less

  14. Measurements of particle emission from discharge sites in Teflon irradiated by high energy electron beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazelton, R. C.; Churchill, R. J.; Yadlowsky, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Anomalous behavior of synchronous orbit satellites manifested by overall degradation of system performance and reduced operating life is associated with electrical discharges resulting from differential charging of the spacecraft surface by fluxes of high energy electrons. During a laboratory simulation silver-backed Teflon samples have been irradiated by electron beams having energies in the range 16-26 keV. Charged particles emitted from the resultant electrical discharges have been measured with a biased Faraday cup and retarding potential analyser. Measurements indicate the presence of two distinct fluxes of particles, the first being an early pulse (0-600ns) of high energy (about 7keV) electrons, while the second is a late pulse (1-5 microseconds) of low energy electrons (less than 1eV) and ions (70eV) leaving the discharge site as a quasi plasma. Calculations indicate an electrostatic field as the dominant accelerating mechanism for charged particles.

  15. Measurements of particle emission from discharge sites in Teflon irradiated by high energy electron beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazelton, R. C.; Churchill, R. J.; Yadlowsky, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Anomalous behavior of synchronous orbit satellites manifested by overall degradation of system performance and reduced operating life is associated with electrical discharges resulting from differential charging of the spacecraft surface by fluxes of high energy electrons. During a laboratory simulation silver-backed Teflon samples have been irradiated by electron beams having energies in the range 16-26 keV. Charged particles emitted from the resultant electrical discharges have been measured with a biased Faraday cup and retarding potential analyser. Measurements indicate the presence of two distinct fluxes of particles, the first being an early pulse (0-600ns) of high energy (about 7keV) electrons, while the second is a late pulse (1-5 microseconds) of low energy electrons (less than 1eV) and ions (70eV) leaving the discharge site as a quasi plasma. Calculations indicate an electrostatic field as the dominant accelerating mechanism for charged particles.

  16. High-energy proton emission and Fermi motion in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, W.; Liu, X.; Wada, R.; Huang, M.; Ren, P.; Tian, G.; Luo, F.; Sun, Q.; Chen, Z.; Xiao, G. Q.; Han, R.; Shi, F.; Liu, J.; Gou, B.

    2016-12-01

    An antisymmetrized molecular dynamics model (AMD-FM), modified to take into account the Fermi motion explicitly in its nucleon-nucleon collision process, is presented. Calculated high-energy proton spectra are compared with those of 40Ar+51V at 44 MeV/nucleon from Coniglione et al. [Phys. Lett. B 471, 339 (2000), 10.1016/S0370-2693(99)01383-0] and those of 36Ar+181Ta at 94 MeV/nucleon from Germain et al. [Nucl. Phys. A 620, 81 (1997), 10.1016/S0375-9474(97)00146-2]. Both of the experimental data are reasonably well reproduced by the newly added Fermi boost in the nucleon-nucleon collision process without additional processes, such as a three-body collision or a short-range correlation. The production mechanism of high-energy protons in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions is discussed.

  17. High Energy Solar Flare Emission as Measured by the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J.

    1992-05-01

    During the period of 1991 June 8 to June 15 , the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory observed the Sun as a ``Target of Opportunity'' and as part of a Max '91 campaign. OSSE and BATSE observed the Sun as early as June 4. All instruments made important and significant measurements of solar flare emissions from a series of large and energetic flares from active region 6659. Gamma ray emissions above 100 MeV were measured by OSSE from the flares of June 4 and 11 in addition to high energy neutrons on June 4. The hard X-ray flux of the June 4 event as measured by BATSE was greater than that of any flare of the SMM era. OSSE also made detailed line measurements of all the larger flares. Medium energy neutrons were measured with COMPTEL from the 9 June flare and were found to be cotemporaneous with the MeV gamma ray emission. Extended (> 1 hour) gamma ray emission was measured by COMPTEL for the June 15 flare in the MeV range and by EGRET for the 11 June flare above 50 MeV, implying prolonged particle acceleration or trapping. These and other noteworthy observations will be reviewed.

  18. FERMI-LAT OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY γ-RAY EMISSION TOWARD THE GALACTIC CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Atwood, W. B.; Caputo, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonino, R.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; and others

    2016-03-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has provided the most detailed view to date of the emission toward the Galactic center (GC) in high-energy γ-rays. This paper describes the analysis of data taken during the first 62 months of the mission in the energy range 1–100 GeV from a 15° × 15° region about the direction of the GC. Specialized interstellar emission models (IEMs) are constructed to enable the separation of the γ-ray emissions produced by cosmic ray particles interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation fields in the Milky Way into that from the inner ∼1 kpc surrounding the GC, and that from the rest of the Galaxy. A catalog of point sources for the 15° × 15° region is self-consistently constructed using these IEMs: the First Fermi-LAT Inner Galaxy Point Source Catalog (1FIG). The spatial locations, fluxes, and spectral properties of the 1FIG sources are presented, and compared with γ-ray point sources over the same region taken from existing catalogs. After subtracting the interstellar emission and point-source contributions a residual is found. If templates that peak toward the GC are used to model the positive residual the agreement with the data improves, but none of the additional templates tried account for all of its spatial structure. The spectrum of the positive residual modeled with these templates has a strong dependence on the choice of IEM.

  19. Fermi-LAT Observations of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission toward the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caputo, R.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Harding, A. K.; Hewitt, J. W.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Karwin, C.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Malyshev, D.; Manfreda, A.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vianello, G.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.

    2016-03-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has provided the most detailed view to date of the emission toward the Galactic center (GC) in high-energy γ-rays. This paper describes the analysis of data taken during the first 62 months of the mission in the energy range 1-100 GeV from a 15° × 15° region about the direction of the GC. Specialized interstellar emission models (IEMs) are constructed to enable the separation of the γ-ray emissions produced by cosmic ray particles interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation fields in the Milky Way into that from the inner ˜1 kpc surrounding the GC, and that from the rest of the Galaxy. A catalog of point sources for the 15° × 15° region is self-consistently constructed using these IEMs: the First Fermi-LAT Inner Galaxy Point Source Catalog (1FIG). The spatial locations, fluxes, and spectral properties of the 1FIG sources are presented, and compared with γ-ray point sources over the same region taken from existing catalogs. After subtracting the interstellar emission and point-source contributions a residual is found. If templates that peak toward the GC are used to model the positive residual the agreement with the data improves, but none of the additional templates tried account for all of its spatial structure. The spectrum of the positive residual modeled with these templates has a strong dependence on the choice of IEM.

  20. Fermi-Lat Observations of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission Toward the Galactic Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W.B.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Brandt, T. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has provided the most detailed view to date of the emission toward the Galactic center (GC) in high-energy gamma-rays. This paper describes the analysis of data taken during the first 62 months of the mission in the energy range 1-100 GeV from a 15 degrees x 15 degrees region about the direction of the GC. Specialized interstellar emission models (IEMs) are constructed to enable the separation of the gamma-ray emissions produced by cosmic ray particles interacting with the interstellar gas and radiation fields in the Milky Way into that from the inner 1 kpc surrounding the GC, and that from the rest of the Galaxy. A catalog of point sources for the 15 degrees x 15 degrees region is self-consistently constructed using these IEMs: the First Fermi-LAT Inner Galaxy Point SourceCatalog (1FIG). The spatial locations, fluxes, and spectral properties of the 1FIG sources are presented, and compared with gamma-ray point sources over the same region taken from existing catalogs. After subtracting the interstellar emission and point-source contributions a residual is found. If templates that peak toward the GC areused to model the positive residual the agreement with the data improves, but none of the additional templates tried account for all of its spatial structure. The spectrum of the positive residual modeled with these templates has a strong dependence on the choice of IEM.

  1. Searching for High-energy, Horizon-scale Emissions from Galactic Black Hole Transients during Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L. C.-C.; Pu, Hung-Yi; Hirotani, Kouichi; Kong, Albert K. H.; Matsushita, Satoki; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Inoue, Makoto; Tam, Pak-Hin T.

    2017-08-01

    We search for the gamma-ray counterparts of stellar-mass black holes using the long-term Fermi archive to investigate the electrostatic acceleration of electrons and positrons in the vicinity of the event horizon. We achieve this by applying the pulsar outer-gap model to their magnetospheres. When a black hole transient (BHT) is in a low-hard or quiescent state, the radiatively inefficient accretion flow cannot emit enough MeV photons that are required to sustain the force-free magnetosphere in the polar funnel via two-photon collisions. In this charge-starved gap region, an electric field arises along the magnetic field lines to accelerate electrons and positrons into ultra-relativistic energies. These relativistic leptons emit copious Gamma-rays via the curvature and inverse-Compton (IC) processes. It is found that these gamma-ray emissions exhibit a flaring activity when the plasma accretion rate typically stays between 0.01% and 0.005% of the Eddington value for rapidly rotating, stellar-mass black holes. By analyzing the detection limit determined from archival Fermi/Large Area Telescope data, we find that the 7-year averaged duty cycle of such flaring activities should be less than 5% and 10% for XTE J1118+480 and 1A 0620-00, respectively, and that the detection limit is comparable to the theoretical prediction for V404 Cyg. It is predicted that the gap emission can be discriminated from the jet emission if we investigate the high-energy spectral behavior or observe nearby BHTs during deep quiescence simultaneously in infrared wavelength and very-high energies.

  2. High energy neutrinos and gamma-ray emission from supernovae in compact star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. M.; Ellison, D. C.; Gladilin, P. E.; Osipov, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Compact clusters of young massive stars are observed in the Milky Way and in starburst galaxies. The compact clusters with multiple powerful winds of young massive stars and supernova shocks are favorable sites for high-energy particle acceleration. We argue that expanding young supernova (SN) shells in compact stellar clusters can be very efficient PeV CR accelerators. At a stage when a supernova shock is colliding with collective fast winds from massive stars in a compact cluster the Fermi mechanism allows particle acceleration to energies well above the standard limits of diffusive shock acceleration in an isolated SNR. The energy spectrum of protons in such an accelerator is a hard power-law with a broad spectral upturn above TeV before a break at multi-PeV energies, providing a large energy flux in the high-energy end of the spectrum. The acceleration stage in the colliding shock flow lasts for a few hundred years after the supernova explosion producing high-energy CRs that escape the accelerator and diffuse through the ambient matter producing γ-rays and neutrinos in inelastic nuclear collisions. In starburst galaxies a sizeable fraction of core collapse supernovae is expected to occur in compact star clusters and therefore their high energy gamma-ray and neutrino spectra in the PeV energy regime may differ strongly from that of our Galaxy. To test the model with individual sources we briefly discuss the recent H.E.S.S. detections of gamma-rays from two potential candidate sources, Westerlund 1 and HESS J1806-204 in the Milky Way. We argue that this model of compact star clusters, with typical parameters, could produce a neutrino flux sufficient to explain a fraction of the recently detected IceCube South Pole Observatory neutrinos.

  3. 90° Neutron emission from high energy protons and lead ions on a thin lead target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Foglio Para, A.; Mitaroff, A.; Silari, M.; Ulrici, L.

    2002-01-01

    The neutron emission from a relatively thin lead target bombarded by beams of high energy protons/pions and lead ions was measured at CERN in one of the secondary beam lines of the Super Proton Synchrotron for radiation protection and shielding calculations. Measurements were performed with three different beams: 208Pb 82+ lead ions at 40 GeV/ c per nucleon and 158 GeV/ c per nucleon, and 40 GeV/ c mixed protons/pions. The neutron yield and spectral fluence per incident ion on target were measured at 90° with respect to beam direction. Monte-Carlo simulations with the FLUKA code were performed for the case of protons and pions and the results found in good agreement with the experimental data. A comparison between simulations and experiment for protons, pions and lead ions have shown that—for such high energy heavy ion beams—a reasonable estimate can be carried out by scaling the result of a Monte-Carlo calculation for protons by the projectile mass number to the power of 0.80-0.84.

  4. Fermi Observations of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from GRB 080916C

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Arimoto, M.; ...

    2009-02-19

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. Finally, the known distance of the burstmore » enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.« less

  5. Search for High-Energy Emission from GRBs with the ARGO-YBJ Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Girolamo, T.

    2009-05-01

    ARGO-YBJ is a ``full coverage'' air shower detector consisting of a 6700 m2 carpet of Resistive Plate Counters, located at Yangbajing (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.l). Its large field of view (~2 sr, limited only by the atmospheric absorption) and high duty-cycle make ARGO-YBJ particularly suitable to detect unpredictable and short duration events such as GRBs. ARGO-YBJ works using two techniques: the ``Scaler Mode,'' which reaches the lower energy limit (~1 GeV) of the detector, and the ``Shower Mode,'' with an energy threshold of a few hundreds of GeV. Here we present the results of the search for high-energy emission from GRBs in coincidence with satellite detections.

  6. Fermi Observations of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from GRB 080916C

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Arimoto, M.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Band, D. L.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Battelino, M.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellardi, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bogaert, G.; Bogart, J. R.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Burrows, D.; Busetto, G.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Ceccanti, M.; Cecchi, C.; Celotti, A.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Costamante, L.; Cutini, S.; DeKlotz, M.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Dingus, B. L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Edmonds, Y.; Evans, P. A.; Fabiani, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Finke, J.; Fishman, G.; Focke, W. B.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Goldstein, A.; Granot, J.; Greiner, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Haller, G.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hernando Morat, J. A.; Hoover, A.; Hughes, R. E.; Johannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kavelaars, A.; Kawai, N.; Kelly, H.; Kennea, J.; Kerr, M.; Kippen, R. M.; Knodlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kocian, M. L.; Komin, N.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kuehn, F.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Landriu, D.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lavalley, C.; Lee, B.; Lee, S. -H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lichti, G. G.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Marangelli, B.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McBreen, S.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meegan, C.; Meszaros, P.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Minuti, M.; Mirizzi, N.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nelson, D.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Perri, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Pinchera, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Preece, R.; Raino, S.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Rando, R.; Rapposelli, E.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Reyes, L. C.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Segal, K. N.; Sgro, C.; Shimokawabe, T.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stamatikos, M.; Starck, J. -L.; Stecker, F. W.; Steinle, H.; Stephens, T. E.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Tenze, A.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Turri, M.; Tuvi, S.; Usher, T. L.; van der Horst, A. J.; Vigiani, L.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Waite, A. P.; Williams, D. A.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wu, X. F.; Yamazaki, R.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2009-02-19

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. Finally, the known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.

  7. The high-energy γ-ray emission of AP Librae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Finke, J.; Fortin, P.; Horan, D.

    2015-01-01

    The γ-ray spectrum of the low-frequency-peaked BL Lac (LBL) object AP Librae is studied, following the discovery of very-high-energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) γ-ray emission up to the TeV range by the H.E.S.S. experiment. This makes AP Librae one of the few VHE emitters of the LBL type. The measured spectrum yields a flux of (8.8 ± 1.5stat ± 1.8sys) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 above 130 GeV and a spectral index of Γ = 2.65 ± 0.19stat ± 0.20sys. This study also makes use of Fermi-LAT observations in the high energy (HE, E> 100 MeV) range, providing the longest continuous light curve (5 years) ever published on this source. The source underwent a flaring event between MJD 56 306-56 376 in the HE range, with a flux increase of a factor of 3.5 in the 14 day bin light curve and no significant variation in spectral shape with respect to the low-flux state. While the H.E.S.S. and (low state) Fermi-LAT fluxes are in good agreement where they overlap, a spectral curvature between the steep VHE spectrum and the Fermi-LAT spectrum is observed. The maximum of the γ-ray emission in the spectral energy distribution is located below the GeV energy range.

  8. The high-energy γ -ray emission of AP Librae

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O’C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J. -P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C. -C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P. -O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J. -P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H. -S.; Finke, J.; Fortin, P.; Horan, D.

    2014-12-10

    In this paper, the γ-ray spectrum of the low-frequency-peaked BL Lac (LBL) object AP Librae is studied, following the discovery of very-high-energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) γ-ray emission up to the TeV range by the H.E.S.S. experiment. This makes AP Librae one of the few VHE emitters of the LBL type. The measured spectrum yields a flux of (8.8 ± 1.5stat ± 1.8sys) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 above 130 GeV and a spectral index of Γ = 2.65 ± 0.19stat ± 0.20sys. This study also makes use of Fermi-LAT observations in the high energy (HE, E> 100 MeV) range, providing the longest continuous light curve (5 years) ever published on this source. The source underwent a flaring event between MJD 56 306–56 376 in the HE range, with a flux increase of a factor of 3.5 in the 14 day bin light curve and no significant variation in spectral shape with respect to the low-flux state. While the H.E.S.S. and (low state) Fermi-LAT fluxes are in good agreement where they overlap, a spectral curvature between the steep VHE spectrum and the Fermi-LAT spectrum is observed. Finally, the maximum of the γ-ray emission in the spectral energy distribution is located below the GeV energy range.

  9. Fermi-LAT Observations of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission Toward the Galactic Center

    DOE PAGES

    Ajello, M.

    2016-02-26

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has provided the most detailed view to date of the emission towards the Galactic centre (GC) in high-energy γ-rays. This paper describes the analysis of data taken during the first 62 months of the mission in the energy range 1 - 100 GeV from a 15° X15° region about the direction of the GC, and implications for the interstellar emissions produced by cosmic ray (CR) particles interacting with the gas and radiation fields in the inner Galaxy and for the point sources detected. Specialised interstellar emission models (IEMs) are constructed that enable separation ofmore » the γ-ray emission from the inner ~ 1 kpc about the GC from the fore- and background emission from the Galaxy. Based on these models, the interstellar emission from CR electrons interacting with the interstellar radiation field via the inverse Compton (IC) process and CR nuclei inelastically scattering off the gas producing γ-rays via π⁰ decays from the inner ~ 1 kpc is determined. The IC contribution is found to be dominant in the region and strongly enhanced compared to previous studies. A catalog of point sources for the 15 °X 15 °region is self-consistently constructed using these IEMs: the First Fermi–LAT Inner Galaxy point source Catalog (1FIG). The spatial locations, fluxes, and spectral properties of the 1FIG sources are presented, and compared with γ-ray point sources over the same region taken from existing catalogs, including the Third Fermi–LAT Source Catalog (3FGL). In general, the spatial density of 1FIG sources differs from those in the 3FGL, which is attributed to the different treatments of the interstellar emission and energy ranges used by the respective analyses. Three 1FIG sources are found to spatially overlap with supernova remnants (SNRs) listed in Green’s SNR catalog; these SNRs have not previously been associated with high-energy γ-ray sources. Most 3FGL sources with known multi-wavelength counterparts are also found

  10. Fermi-LAT Observations of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission Toward the Galactic Center

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.

    2016-02-26

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has provided the most detailed view to date of the emission towards the Galactic centre (GC) in high-energy γ-rays. This paper describes the analysis of data taken during the first 62 months of the mission in the energy range 1 - 100 GeV from a 15° X15° region about the direction of the GC, and implications for the interstellar emissions produced by cosmic ray (CR) particles interacting with the gas and radiation fields in the inner Galaxy and for the point sources detected. Specialised interstellar emission models (IEMs) are constructed that enable separation of the γ-ray emission from the inner ~ 1 kpc about the GC from the fore- and background emission from the Galaxy. Based on these models, the interstellar emission from CR electrons interacting with the interstellar radiation field via the inverse Compton (IC) process and CR nuclei inelastically scattering off the gas producing γ-rays via π⁰ decays from the inner ~ 1 kpc is determined. The IC contribution is found to be dominant in the region and strongly enhanced compared to previous studies. A catalog of point sources for the 15 °X 15 °region is self-consistently constructed using these IEMs: the First Fermi–LAT Inner Galaxy point source Catalog (1FIG). The spatial locations, fluxes, and spectral properties of the 1FIG sources are presented, and compared with γ-ray point sources over the same region taken from existing catalogs, including the Third Fermi–LAT Source Catalog (3FGL). In general, the spatial density of 1FIG sources differs from those in the 3FGL, which is attributed to the different treatments of the interstellar emission and energy ranges used by the respective analyses. Three 1FIG sources are found to spatially overlap with supernova remnants (SNRs) listed in Green’s SNR catalog; these SNRs have not previously been associated with high-energy γ-ray sources. Most 3FGL sources with known multi-wavelength counterparts are also found. However

  11. Magic discovery of very high energy emission from the FSRQ PKS 1222+21

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thom, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Tanaka, Y. T.; Wood, D. L.; Buson, S.

    2011-02-25

    Very high energy (VHE) γ-ray emission from the flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) PKS 1222+21 (4C 21.35, z = 0.432) was detected with the MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes during a short observation (~0.5 hr) performed on 2010 June 17. The MAGIC detection coincides with high-energy MeV/GeV γ-ray activity measured by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi satellite. The VHE spectrum measured by MAGIC extends from about 70 GeV up to at least 400 GeV and can be well described by a power-law dN/dE ∝ E –Γ with a photon index Γ = 3.75 ± 0.27stat ± 0.2syst. The averaged integral flux above 100 GeV is (4.6 ± 0.5) × 10–10 cm–2 s–1 (~1 Crab Nebula flux). The VHE flux measured by MAGIC varies significantly within the 30 minute exposure implying a flux doubling time of about 10 minutes. The VHE and MeV/GeV spectra, corrected for the absorption by the extragalactic background light (EBL), can be described by a single power law with photon index 2.72 ± 0.34 between 3 GeV and 400 GeV, and is consistent with emission belonging to a single component in the jet. The absence of a spectral cutoff constrains the γ-ray emission region to lie outside the broad-line region, which would otherwise absorb the VHE γ-rays. Together with the detected fast variability, this challenges present emission models from jets in FSRQs. Furthermore, the combined Fermi/LAT and MAGIC spectral data yield constraints on the density of the EBL in the UV-optical to near-infrared range that are compatible with recent models.

  12. Clustering of LAT light curves: a clue to the origin of high-energy emission in gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, L.; Vianello, G.; Omodei, N.; Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Celotti, A.; Longo, F.; Desiante, R.; Barniol Duran, R.

    2014-10-01

    The physical origin of the >0.1 GeV emission detected from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) by the Fermi satellite has not yet been completely understood. In this work, we consider the GeV light curves of 10 GRBs with measured redshift detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). These light curves are characterized by a long-lived (≳102 seconds) emission, whose luminosity decays in time as a power law. While the decay rate is similar for all GRBs (i.e. LLAT ∝ t-1.2), the normalization spans about two orders of magnitude in luminosity. However, after re-normalizing the luminosities to the prompt energetics Eprompt the light curves overlap. We consider the scenario in which the temporally extended LAT emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated at the forward external shock. According to this model, at high energies (i.e. above the typical synchrotron frequencies) a small dispersion of the Eprompt-normalized light curves is expected. The fact that the LAT temporally extended emission follows this behaviour reinforces its interpretation in terms of afterglow radiation from external shocks. Assuming this scenario, we argue that the parameters ɛe and ηγ (i.e. the fraction of shock-dissipated energy gained by the electrons, and the efficiency of the mechanism producing the prompt radiation, respectively) must be narrowly distributed.

  13. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of High-Energy Gamma-ray Emission From Behind-the-limb Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omodei, Nicola; Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Petrosian, Vahe; Liu, Wei; Rubio da Costa, Fatima; Golenetskii, Sergei; Kashapova, Larisa; Krucker, Sam; Palshin, Valentin; Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Fermi LAT >30 MeV observations of the active Sun have increased the number of detected solar flares by almost a factor of 10 with respect to previous space observations. Of particular interest are the recent detections of three solar flares whose position behind the limb was confirmed by the STEREO-B spacecraft. These observations sample flares from active regions originating from behind both the eastern and western limbs and include an event associated with the second ground level enhancement event (GLE) of the 24th Solar Cycle. While gamma-ray emission up to tens of MeV resulting from proton interactions has been detected before from occulted solar flares, the significance of these particular events lies in the fact that these are the first detections of >100 MeV gamma-ray emission from footpoint-occulted flares. These detections present an unique opportunity to diagnose the mechanisms of high-energy emission and particle acceleration and transport in solar flares. We will present the Fermi-LAT, RHESSI and STEREO observations of these flares and discuss the various emission scenarios for these sources.

  14. Constraints on high-energy neutrino emission from SN 2008D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IceCube Collaboration; Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Ben Zvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Gro, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hül, J. P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K. H.; Kappes A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemming, N.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J. H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lehmann, R.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Marotta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Matusik, M.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Singh, K.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Voge, M.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.

    2011-03-01

    SN 2008D, a core collapse supernova at a distance of 27 Mpc, was serendipitously discovered by the Swift satellite through an associated X-ray flash. Core collapse supernovae have been observed in association with long gamma-ray bursts and X-ray flashes and a physical connection is widely assumed. This connection could imply that some core collapse supernovae possess mildly relativistic jets in which high-energy neutrinos are produced through proton-proton collisions. The predicted neutrino spectra would be detectable by Cherenkov neutrino detectors like IceCube. A search for a neutrino signal in temporal and spatial correlation with the observed X-ray flash of SN 2008D was conducted using data taken in 2007-2008 with 22 strings of the IceCube detector. Events were selected based on a boosted decision tree classifier trained with simulated signal and experimental background data. The classifier was optimized to the position and a "soft jet" neutrino spectrum assumed for SN 2008D. Using three search windows placed around the X-ray peak, emission time scales from 100-10 000 s were probed. No events passing the cuts were observed in agreement with the signal expectation of 0.13 events. Upper limits on the muon neutrino flux from core collapse supernovae were derived for different emission time scales and the principal model parameters were constrained. While no meaningful limits can be given in the case of an isotropic neutrino emission, the parameter space for a jetted emission can be constrained. Future analyses with the full 86 string IceCube detector could detect up to ~100 events for a core-collapse supernova at 10 Mpc according to the soft jet model.

  15. Milagro Search for Very High Energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts in the Swift Era

    SciTech Connect

    Saz Parkinson, P. M.

    2006-05-19

    The recently launched Swift satellite is providing an unprecedented number of rapid and accurate Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) localizations, facilitating a flurry of follow-up observations by a large number of telescopes at many different wavelengths. The Very High Energy (VHE, >100 GeV) regime has so far been relatively unexplored. Milagro is a wide field of view (2 sr) and high duty cycle (> 90%) ground-based gamma-ray telescope which employs a water Cherenkov detector to monitor the northern sky almost continuously in the 100 GeV to 100 TeV energy range. We have searched the Milagro data for emission from the most recent GRBs identified within our field of view. These include three Swift bursts which also display late-time X-ray flares. We have searched for emission coincident with these flares. No significant detection was made. A 99% confidence upper limit is provided for each of the GRBs, as well as the flares.

  16. Extended Acceleration in Slot Gaps and Pulsar High-Energy Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Muslimov, Alex G.; Harding, Alice K.

    2003-01-01

    We revise the physics of primary electron acceleration in the "slot gap" (SG) above the pulsar polar caps (PCs), a regime originally proposed by Arons and Scharlemann (1979) in their electrodynamic model of pulsar PCs. We employ the standard definition of the SG as a pair-free space between the last open field lines and the boundary of the pair plasma column which is expected to develop above the bulk of the PC. The rationale for our revision is that the proper treatment of primary acceleration within the pulsar SGs should take into account the effect of the narrow geometry of the gap on the electrodynamics within the gap and also to include the effect of inertial frame dragging on the particle acceleration. We show that the accelerating electric field within the gap, being significantly boosted by the effect of frame dragging, becomes reduced because of the gap geometry by a factor proportional to the square of the SG width. The combination of the effects of frame dragging and geometrical screening in the gap region naturally gives rise to a regime of extended acceleration, that is not limited to favorably curved field lines as in earlier models, and the possibility of multiple-pair production by curvature photons at very high altitudes, up to several stellar radii. We present our estimates of the characteristic SG thickness across the PC, energetics of primaries accelerated within the gap, high-energy bolometric luminosities emitted from the high altitudes in the gaps, and maximum heating luminosities produced by positrons returning from the elevated pair fronts. The estimated theoretical high-energy luminosities are in good agreement with the corresponding empirical relationships for gamma-ray pulsars. We illustrate the results of our modeling of the pair cascades and gamma-ray emission from the high altitudes in the SG for the Crab pulsar. The combination of the frame-dragging field and high-altitude SG emission enables both acceleration at the smaller

  17. Effects of high energy photon emissions in laser generated ultra-relativistic plasmas: Real-time synchrotron simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, Erik; Gonoskov, Arkady; Marklund, Mattias

    2015-03-01

    We model the emission of high energy photons due to relativistic charged particle motion in intense laser-plasma interactions. This is done within a particle-in-cell code, for which high frequency radiation normally cannot be resolved due to finite time steps and grid size. A simple expression for the synchrotron radiation spectra is used together with a Monte-Carlo method for the emittance. We extend previous work by allowing for arbitrary fields, considering the particles to be in instantaneous circular motion due to an effective magnetic field. Furthermore, we implement noise reduction techniques and present validity estimates of the method. Finally, we perform a rigorous comparison to the mechanism of radiation reaction, and find the emitted energy to be in excellent agreement with the losses calculated using radiation reaction.

  18. Constraining the High-Energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with Fermi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Racusin, J. L.; Sonbas, E.; Stamatikos, M.; Guirec, S.

    2012-01-01

    We examine 288 GRBs detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) that fell within the field-of-view of Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) during the first 2.5 years of observations, which showed no evidence for emission above 100 MeV. We report the photon flux upper limits in the 0.1-10 GeV range during the prompt emission phase as well as for fixed 30 s and 100 s integrations starting from the trigger time for each burst. We compare these limits with the fluxes that would be expected from extrapolations of spectral fits presented in the first GBM spectral catalog and infer that roughly half of the GBM-detected bursts either require spectral breaks between the GBM and LAT energy bands or have intrinsically steeper spectra above the peak of the nuF(sub v) spectra (E(sub pk)). In order to distinguish between these two scenarios, we perform joint GBM and LAT spectral fits to the 30 brightest GBM-detected bursts and find that a majority of these bursts are indeed softer above E(sub pk) than would be inferred from fitting the GBM data alone. Approximately 20% of this spectroscopic subsample show statistically significant evidence for a cut-off in their high-energy spectra, which if assumed to be due to gamma gamma attenuation, places limits on the maximum Lorentz factor associated with the relativistic outflow producing this emission. All of these latter bursts have maximum Lorentz factor estimates that are well below the minimum Lorentz factors calculated for LAT-detected GRBs, revealing a wide distribution in the bulk Lorentz factor of GRB outflows and indicating that LAT-detected bursts may represent the high end of this distribution.

  19. Constraining the high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts with Fermi

    DOE PAGES

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; ...

    2012-07-17

    Here, we examine 288 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) that fell within the field of view of Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) during the first 2.5 years of observations, which showed no evidence for emission above 100 MeV. We report the photon flux upper limits in the 0.1-10 GeV range during the prompt emission phase as well as for fixed 30 s and 100 s integrations starting from the trigger time for each burst. We also compare these limits with the fluxes that would be expected from extrapolations of spectral fitsmore » presented in the first GBM spectral catalog and infer that roughly half of the GBM-detected bursts either require spectral breaks between the GBM and LAT energy bands or have intrinsically steeper spectra above the peak of the νF ν spectra (E pk). In order to distinguish between these two scenarios, we perform joint GBM and LAT spectral fits to the 30 brightest GBM-detected bursts and find that a majority of these bursts are indeed softer above E pk than would be inferred from fitting the GBM data alone. Approximately 20% of this spectroscopic subsample show statistically significant evidence for a cutoff in their high-energy spectra, which if assumed to be due to γγ attenuation, places limits on the maximum Lorentz factor associated with the relativistic outflow producing this emission. Furthermore, all of these latter bursts have maximum Lorentz factor estimates that are well below the minimum Lorentz factors calculated for LAT-detected GRBs, revealing a wide distribution in the bulk Lorentz factor of GRB outflows and indicating that LAT-detected bursts may represent the high end of this distribution.« less

  20. Constraining the high-energy emission from gamma-ray bursts with Fermi

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brigida, M.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Granot, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Jóhannesson, G.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J.; McGlynn, S.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Nymark, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Ryde, F.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Sonbas, E.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stamatikos, M.; Stawarz, Łukasz; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Uehara, T.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Guirec, S.; Goldstein, A.; Burgess, J. M.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Fishman, J.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; Gruber, D.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; McBreen, S.; Meegan, C.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Rau, A.; Tierney, D.; van der Horst, A. J.; von Kienlin, A.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Xiong, S.

    2012-07-17

    Here, we examine 288 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) that fell within the field of view of Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) during the first 2.5 years of observations, which showed no evidence for emission above 100 MeV. We report the photon flux upper limits in the 0.1-10 GeV range during the prompt emission phase as well as for fixed 30 s and 100 s integrations starting from the trigger time for each burst. We also compare these limits with the fluxes that would be expected from extrapolations of spectral fits presented in the first GBM spectral catalog and infer that roughly half of the GBM-detected bursts either require spectral breaks between the GBM and LAT energy bands or have intrinsically steeper spectra above the peak of the νF ν spectra (E pk). In order to distinguish between these two scenarios, we perform joint GBM and LAT spectral fits to the 30 brightest GBM-detected bursts and find that a majority of these bursts are indeed softer above E pk than would be inferred from fitting the GBM data alone. Approximately 20% of this spectroscopic subsample show statistically significant evidence for a cutoff in their high-energy spectra, which if assumed to be due to γγ attenuation, places limits on the maximum Lorentz factor associated with the relativistic outflow producing this emission. Furthermore, all of these latter bursts have maximum Lorentz factor estimates that are well below the minimum Lorentz factors calculated for LAT-detected GRBs, revealing a wide distribution in the bulk Lorentz factor of GRB outflows and indicating that LAT-detected bursts may represent the high end of this distribution.

  1. CONSTRAINING THE HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS WITH FERMI

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R. A.; Charles, E.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bonamente, E.; Cecchi, C.; Bouvier, A.; Brigida, M.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A. E-mail: kocevski@slac.stanford.edu E-mail: connauv@uah.edu E-mail: michael.briggs@nasa.gov; Collaboration: Fermi Large Area Telescope Team; Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor Team; and others

    2012-08-01

    We examine 288 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) that fell within the field of view of Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT) during the first 2.5 years of observations, which showed no evidence for emission above 100 MeV. We report the photon flux upper limits in the 0.1-10 GeV range during the prompt emission phase as well as for fixed 30 s and 100 s integrations starting from the trigger time for each burst. We compare these limits with the fluxes that would be expected from extrapolations of spectral fits presented in the first GBM spectral catalog and infer that roughly half of the GBM-detected bursts either require spectral breaks between the GBM and LAT energy bands or have intrinsically steeper spectra above the peak of the {nu}F{sub {nu}} spectra (E{sub pk}). In order to distinguish between these two scenarios, we perform joint GBM and LAT spectral fits to the 30 brightest GBM-detected bursts and find that a majority of these bursts are indeed softer above E{sub pk} than would be inferred from fitting the GBM data alone. Approximately 20% of this spectroscopic subsample show statistically significant evidence for a cutoff in their high-energy spectra, which if assumed to be due to {gamma}{gamma} attenuation, places limits on the maximum Lorentz factor associated with the relativistic outflow producing this emission. All of these latter bursts have maximum Lorentz factor estimates that are well below the minimum Lorentz factors calculated for LAT-detected GRBs, revealing a wide distribution in the bulk Lorentz factor of GRB outflows and indicating that LAT-detected bursts may represent the high end of this distribution.

  2. High-energy emission from the pulsar striped wind: a synchrotron model for gamma-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétri, Jérôme

    2012-08-01

    Gamma-ray pulsars constitute a class of high and very high energy emitters for which the known population is steadily increasing thanks to the Fermi/Large Area Telescope. More than a hundred such pulsars have been detected, offering a reasonable sample on to which to apply statistical techniques in order to outline relevant trends in the averaged properties of this (maybe not so) special class of pulsars. In this paper, their gamma-ray luminosity and spectral features are explained in the framework of synchrotron radiation from particles located in the stripe of the pulsar wind. Apart from radiative losses, particles are also subject to a constant re-acceleration and reheating for instance by a magnetic-reconnection-induced electric field. The high-energy luminosity scales as Lγ ≈ 2 × 1026 W (Lsd/1028 W)1/2 (P/1 s)-1/2, where Lsd is the pulsar spin-down luminosity and P its period. From this relation, we derive important parameters of pulsar magnetosphere and wind theories. Indeed, we find the bulk Lorentz factor of the wind scaling as Γv≈10 τrec1/5(Lsd/1028 W)1/2, pair multiplicity κ related to the magnetization parameter σ by κ σ τrec1/5≈108 and efficiency η of spin-down luminosity conversion into particle kinetic energy according to the relation η σ ≈ 1. A good guess for the associated reconnection rate is then τrec ≈ 0.5 (Lsd/1028 W)-5/12. Finally, pulses in gamma-rays are visible only if Lsd/P ≳ 1027 W s-1. This model differs from other high-energy emission mechanisms because it makes allowance not only for rotational kinetic energy release but also for an additional reservoir of energy anchored to the magnetic field of the stripe and released for instance by some magnetic reconnection processes.

  3. The LAGO Collaboration: Searching for high energy GRB emissions in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, H.; Lago Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    During more than a decade Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB a cosmological phenomena of tremendous power) have been extensively studied in the keV - MeV energy range. However, the higher energy emission still remains a mystery. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (L.A.G.O.) is an international collaboration started in 2005 aiming at a better understanding of the GRB by studying their emission at high energies (> 1 GeV), where the fluxes are low and measurements by satellites are difficult. This is done using the Single Particle Technique, by means of ground-based Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) at sites of high altitude. At those altitudes it is possible to detect air showers produced by high energy photons from the GRB, i. e. a higher rate of events on a short time scale, of the order of the second. The Pierre Auger Observatory could detect such GRB given its large number of detectors, but at 1400 m.a.s.l. the expected signal is quite small. At higher altitudes, similar performance is expected with only a very small number of WCD. As of 2011, high altitude WCD are in operation at Sierra Negra (Mexico, 4650 m.a.s.l.), Chacaltaya (Bolivia, 5200 m.a.s.l.), Maracapomacocha (Peru, 4200 m.a.s.l.), and new WCDs are being installed in Venezuela (Pico Espejo, 4750 m.a.s.l.), Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Guatemala. Most of the new WCDs will not be at high enough altitude to detect GRB, never the less it will allow obtaining valuable measurements of secondaries at ground level, which are relevant for solar physics. The LAGO sensitivity to GRB is determined from simulations (under a sudden increase of 1 GeV - 1 TeV photons from a GRB) of the gamma initiated particle shower in the atmosphere and the WCD response to secondaries. We report on WDC calibration and operation at high altitude, GRB detectability, background rates, search for bursts in several months of preliminary data, as well as search for signals at ground level when satellite burst is reported, all these show the

  4. High-energy Neutrino Emission from Short Gamma-Ray Bursts: Prospects for Coincident Detection with Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Shigeo S.; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter; Kiuchi, Kenta

    2017-10-01

    We investigate current and future prospects for coincident detection of high-energy neutrinos and gravitational waves (GWs). Short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) are believed to originate from mergers of compact star binaries involving neutron stars. We estimate high-energy neutrino fluences from prompt emission, extended emission (EE), X-ray flares, and plateau emission, and we show that neutrino signals associated with the EE are the most promising. Assuming that the cosmic-ray loading factor is ∼10 and the Lorentz factor distribution is lognormal, we calculate the probability of neutrino detection from EE by current and future neutrino detectors, and we find that the quasi-simultaneous detection of high-energy neutrinos, gamma-rays, and GWs is possible with future instruments or even with current instruments for nearby SGRBs having EE. We also discuss stacking analyses that will also be useful with future experiments such as IceCube-Gen2.

  5. High-energy emissions from the gamma-ray binary LS 5039

    SciTech Connect

    Takata, J.; Leung, Gene C. K.; Cheng, K. S.; Tam, P. H. T.; Kong, A. K. H.; Hui, C. Y. E-mail: gene930@connect.hku.hk

    2014-07-20

    We study mechanisms of multi-wavelength emissions (X-ray, GeV, and TeV gamma-rays) from the gamma-ray binary LS 5039. This paper is composed of two parts. In the first part, we report on results of observational analysis using 4 yr data of the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Due to the improvement of instrumental response function and increase of the statistics, the observational uncertainties of the spectrum in the ∼100-300 MeV bands and >10 GeV bands are significantly improved. The present data analysis suggests that the 0.1-100 GeV emissions from LS 5039 contain three different components: (1) the first component contributes to <1 GeV emissions around superior conjunction, (2) the second component dominates in the 1-10 GeV energy bands, and (3) the third component is compatible with the lower-energy tail of the TeV emissions. In the second part, we develop an emission model to explain the properties of the phase-resolved emissions in multi-wavelength observations. Assuming that LS 5039 includes a pulsar, we argue that emissions from both the magnetospheric outer gap and the inverse-Compton scattering process of cold-relativistic pulsar wind contribute to the observed GeV emissions. We assume that the pulsar is wrapped by two kinds of termination shock: Shock-I due to the interaction between the pulsar wind and the stellar wind and Shock-II due to the effect of the orbital motion. We propose that the X-rays are produced by the synchrotron radiation at the Shock-I region and the TeV gamma-rays are produced by the inverse-Compton scattering process at the Shock-II region.

  6. Correlated X-Ray and Very High Energy Emission in the Gamma-Ray Binary LS I +61 303

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderhub, H.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Balestra, S.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Becker, J. K.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Bock, R. K.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Britzger, D.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Commichau, S.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Costado, M. T.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; de Cea del Pozo, E.; De los Reyes, R.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fernández, E.; Firpo, R.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Galante, N.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Godinovic, N.; Goebel, F.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hsu, C. C.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Kranich, D.; La Barbera, A.; Laille, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moles, M.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Ninkovic, J.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pasanen, M.; Pascoli, D.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Prada, F.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Robert, A.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sidro, N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Stark, L. S.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Turini, N.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Zapatero, J.; MAGIC Collaboration; Falcone, A.; Vetere, L.; Gehrels, N.; Trushkin, S.; Dhawan, V.; Reig, P.

    2009-11-01

    The discovery of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emitting X-ray binaries has triggered an intense effort to better understand the particle acceleration, absorption, and emission mechanisms in compact binary systems, which provide variable conditions along eccentric orbits. Despite this, the nature of some of these systems, and of the accelerated particles producing the VHE emission, is unclear. To answer some of these open questions, we conducted a multiwavelength campaign of the VHE gamma-ray emitting X-ray binary LS I +61 303 including the MAGIC telescope, XMM-Newton, and Swift during 60% of an orbit in 2007 September. We detect a simultaneous outburst at X-ray and VHE bands, with the peak at phase 0.62 and a similar shape at both wavelengths. A linear fit to the simultaneous X-ray/VHE pairs obtained during the outburst yields a correlation coefficient of r = 0.97, while a linear fit to all simultaneous pairs provides r = 0.81. Since a variable absorption of the VHE emission towards the observer is not expected for the data reported here, the correlation found indicates a simultaneity in the emission processes. Assuming that they are dominated by a single particle population, either hadronic or leptonic, the X-ray/VHE flux ratio favors leptonic models. This fact, together with the detected photon indices, suggests that in LS I +61 303 the X-rays are the result of synchrotron radiation of the same electrons that produce VHE emission as a result of inverse Compton scattering of stellar photons.

  7. Effects of high energy radiation on the mechanical properties of epoxy graphite fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, R. D.; Fornes, R. E.; Memory, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of high energy radiation on mechanical properties and on the molecular and structural properties of graphite fiber reinforced composites are assessed so that durability in space applications can be predicted. A listing of composite systems irradiated along with the maximum radiation dose applied and type of mechanical tests performed is shown. These samples were exposed to 1/2 MeV electrons.

  8. THE VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM PULSARS: A CASE FOR INVERSE COMPTON SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Otte, Nepomuk; McCann, Andrew

    2012-07-20

    The observations of gamma-ray emission from pulsars with the Fermi-LAT detector and the detection of the Crab pulsar with the VERITAS array of Cherenkov telescopes at energies above 100 GeV make it unlikely that curvature radiation is the main source of photons above GeV energies in the Crab and many other pulsars. We outline a model in which the broad UV-X-ray component and the very high energy {gamma}-ray emission of pulsars are explained within the synchrotron self-Compton framework. We argue that the bulk of the observed radiation is generated by the secondary plasma, which is produced in cascades in the outer gaps of the magnetosphere. We find that the inverse Compton (IC) scattering occurs in the Klein-Nishina regime, which favors synchrotron photons in the UV band as target field for the scattering process. The primary beam is accelerated in a modest electric field, with a field strength that is of the order of a few percent of the magnetic field near the light cylinder. Overall, for IC scattering occurring in the Klein-Nishina regime, the particle distribution in the gap does not evolve toward a stationary distribution and thus is intrinsically time-dependent. We point out that in a radiation reaction-limited regime of particle acceleration the gamma-ray luminosity L{sub {gamma}} scales linearly with the pulsar spin-down power E-dot , L{sub {gamma}}{proportional_to} E-dot , and not proportional to {radical}( E-dot ) as expected from potential-limited acceleration.

  9. High energy neutrino emission from the earliest gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Shan; Toma, Kenji; Meszaros, Peter

    2011-05-15

    We discuss the high energy neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts resulting from the earliest generation (''population III'') stars forming in the Universe, whose core collapses into a black hole. These gamma-ray bursts are expected to produce a highly relativistic, magnetically dominated jet, where protons can be accelerated to ultrahigh energies. These interact with the photons produced by the jet, leading to ultrahigh energy photomeson neutrinos as well as secondary leptons and photons. The photon luminosity and the shock properties, and thus the neutrino spectrum, depend on the mass of the black holes as well as on the density of the surrounding external gas. We calculate the individual source neutrino spectral fluxes and the expected diffuse neutrino flux for various source parameters and evolution scenarios. Both the individual and diffuse signals appear detectable in the 1-300 PeV range with current and planned neutrino detectors such as IceCube and ARIANNA, provided the black hole mass is in excess of 30-100 solar masses. This provides a possible test for the debated mass of the progenitor stellar objects, as well as a probe for the early cosmological environment and the formation rate of the earliest structures.

  10. Characterization of High-Energy Emissions of GKM Stars using Wide Binaries with White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, S.; Garcés, A.; Ribas, I.

    2011-12-01

    The definition of an age calibration for main-sequence late-type stars has multiple applications, e.g., in the fields of galactic evolution, stellar dynamos, theories of angular momentum loss and planetary atmospheres. In the latter, the characterization of the time-evolution of stellar high-energy emissions can help us understand the influence on planetary atmospheres and their potential habitability. A key element for this characterization is a reliable age determination. For this purpose we have studied a sample of late G, K, and M stars. To cover the age window up to 0.7 Gyr we have used stars belonging to open clusters, while for ages above this limit we use wide binaries containing white dwarfs. Since the evolution of white dwarfs can be understood as a cooling process, which is relatively well known at the moment, we can use them as age calibrators. Wide binary members are supposed to have been born simultaneously and with the same chemical composition. Since they are well separated (100-1000 AU aprox.) we can assume that no interaction has occurred between them in the past and they have evolved as single stars. So, from the white dwarf age we can infer the age of the system. We present our current results based in a sample of 30 binaries from the NLTT catalogue comprised by a DA white dwarf (showing only H absorption lines) and a G, K or M star.

  11. The High-energy Continuum Emission of the Gamma-Ray Blazar PKS 0528+134

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambruna, Rita M.; Urry, C. Megan; Maraschi, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Mukherjee, R.; Pesce, Joseph E.; Wagner, S. J.; Wehrle, A. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Lin, Y. C.; VonMintigny, C.

    1997-01-01

    We present Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observations of the gamma-ray blazar PKS 0528 + 134, obtained at two separate epochs in 1994 August and 1995 March. These data represent the first measurement of the X-ray continuum emission of this source in the medium-hard X-ray band. Both ASCA spectra are consistent with a single power law with photon index GAMMA approx. = 1.7-1.8 and column density N(sub H) approx. = 5 x 10(exp 21)/ sq cm, higher than Galactic. The X-ray flux increased by a factor of 4 in approx. 7 months without appreciable change of the spectral shape. During the lower state of 1994 August, PKS 0528 + 134 was observed simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and at gamma-ray energies with Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). The gamma-ray intensity is the faintest detected thus far in the source, with a steep spectrum (GAMMA approx. = 2.7). The extrapolation of the X-ray continuum to the gamma-ray range requires a sharp spectral break at approx. 10(exp 22) Hz. We discuss the radio through gamma-ray spectral energy distribution of PKS 0528 + 134, comparing the low state of 1994 August with the flare state of 1993 March. We show that in PKS 0528 + 134, a non-negligible contribution from the external radiation field is present and that, although synchrotron self-Compton scenarios cannot be ruled out, inverse Compton upscattering of thermal seed photons may be the dominant cooling process for the production of the high-energy continuum in this blazar.

  12. The High-Energy Continuum Emission of the Gamma-Ray Blazar PKS 0528+134

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambruna, Rita M.; Urry, C. Megan; Maraschi, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Mukherjee, R.; Pesce, Joseph E.; Wagner, S. J.; Wehrle, A. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Lin, Y. C.

    1997-01-01

    We present Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) observations of the gamma-ray blazar PKS 0528 + 134, obtained at two separate epochs in 1994 August and 1995 March. These data represent the first measurement of the X-ray continuum emission of this source in the medium-hard X-ray band. Both ASCA spectra are consistent with a single power law with photon index GAMMA approximate 1.7-1.8 and column density N(sub H) approximately 5 x 10(exp 21) /sq cm, higher than Galactic. The X-ray flux increased by a factor of 4 in approximately 7 months without appreciable change of the spectral shape. During the lower state of 1994 August, PKS 0528 + 134 was observed simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and at gamma-ray energies with EGRET. The gamma-ray intensity is the faintest detected thus far in the source, with a steep spectrum (GAMMA approximately 2.7). The extrapolation of the X-ray continuum to the gamma-ray range requires a sharp spectral break at approximately 10(exp 22) Hz. We discuss the radio through gamma-ray spectral energy distribution of PKS 0528 + 134, comparing the low state of 1994 August with the flare state of 1993 March. We show that in PKS 0528 + 134, a non-negligible contribution from the external radiation field is present and that, although synchrotron self-Compton scenarios cannot be ruled out, inverse Compton upscattering of thermal seed photons may be the dominant cooling process for the production of the high-energy continuum in this blazar.

  13. LEONA: Transient Luminous Event and Thunderstorm High Energy Emission Collaborative Network in Latin America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sao Sabbas, F. T.

    2012-12-01

    This project has the goal of establishing the Collaborative Network LEONA, to study the electrodynamical coupling of the atmospheric layers signaled by Transient Luminous Events - TLEs and high energy emissions from thunderstorms. We will develop and install a remotely controlled network of cameras to perform TLE observations in different locations in South America and one neutron detector in southern Brazil. The camera network will allow building a continuous data set of the phenomena studied in this continent. The first two trial units of the camera network are already installed, in Brazil and Peru, and two more will be installed until December 2012, in Argentina and Brazil. We expect to determine the TLE geographic distribution, occurrence rate, morphology, and possible coupling with other geophysical phenomena in South America, such as the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly - SAMA. We also expect to study thunderstorm neutron emissions in a region of intense electrical activity, measuring neutron fluxes with high time resolution simultaneously with TLEs and lightning for the first time in South America. Using an intensified high-speed camera for TLE observation during 2 campaigns we expect to be able to determine the duration and spatial- temporal development of the TLEs observed, to study the structure and initiation of sprites and to measure the velocity of development of sprite structures and the sprite delay. The camera was acquired via the FAPESP project DEELUMINOS (2005-2010), which also nucleated our research group Atmospheric Electrodynamical Coupling - ACATMOS. LEONA will nucleate this research in other institutions in Brazil and other countries in South America, providing continuity for this important research in our region. The camera network will be an unique tool to perform consistent long term TLE observation, and in fact is the only way to accumulate a data set for a climatological study of South America, since satellite instrumentation turns off in

  14. Unrecognized ligamentous instability due to high-energy, low-velocity mechanism of injury.

    PubMed

    Dusseldorp, J R; Ow-Yang, M; Mobbs, R J

    2010-01-01

    We report a unique mechanism of injury and illustrate the difficulties of diagnosing purely ligamentous injuries to the cervical spine. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports of this type of high-energy, low-velocity mechanism of injury. The pattern of injury is also unusual, consisting of anterolisthesis of L4 on L5 with bilateral perched facet joints, atlantoaxial instability and bilateral lower limb fractures. We present a 49-year-old man who experienced a high-energy, low-velocity crush injury that led to extreme hyperflexion of his spine. Standard trauma protocols were carried out, yet atlantoaxial instability was not diagnosed until 3 days post-operatively, when the patient went into respiratory failure due to high spinal cord compression. We fused the C1/2 vertebral bodies using Harm's technique; the patient exhibited no long-term spinal cord dysfunction. Although uncommon, if left undiagnosed or not considered, purely ligamentous injuries to the cervical spine can result in catastrophic complications. Such injuries are an important subgroup to be considered at the time of initial assessment. Furthermore, when managing the multi-trauma patient, clinicians must remember not to overlook the atlantoaxial joint, as high-energy, low-velocity injury to the cervical spine may lead to silent, life-threatening instability that may not be apparent on routine imaging. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanism of light-particle emission

    SciTech Connect

    Nagamiya, S.

    1982-02-01

    A general overview of the field of high-energy nuclear collisions studied from light particle spectra, pions, kaons, lambdas, protons, deuterons, and light composite fragments is given. Specifically, the basic reaction mechanism that determines the main features of particle emission such as the energy and angular distributions, the multiplicity, the production rate, the projectile and target mass dependences, the beam-energy dependences, etc. are discussed. Very general features of high-energy nuclear collisions are described. The major question is what characterizes these collisions. Proton emission is discussed since the proton is the dominant particle emitted at a large angle. The mechanism of composite-fragment formation is discussed. Also pion production and strange particle production are considered.

  16. Search for high-energy γ-ray emission from galaxies of the Local Group with Fermi/LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenain, J.-P.; Walter, R.

    2011-11-01

    Context. With the discovery of high-energy γ-ray emission from the Andromeda galaxy (M 31) by the Fermi/LAT collaboration, normal galaxies begin to arise from the shadows for the first time, providing insight into cosmic ray acceleration in external galaxies. Aims: We search for high-energy γ-ray emission from those galaxies in the Local Group that have so far not been investigated: M 81, M 83, IC 342, Maffei 1, Maffei 2, and M 94. Methods.Fermi/LAT public data from August 4, 2008 to January 1, 2011 were analysed for these galaxies. We compared the results to other starburst and normal galaxies detected so far at high energies: the Magellanic clouds, M 31, and the starburst galaxies M 82 and NGC 253. Results: No significant detection is found in the data for the sources in our sample, and we derive upper limits on their photon flux. After comparing the results to other Local Group objects, we find that the derived upper limits are fully compatible with expectations from cosmic rays interacting with the interstellar medium within the host galaxies. In the case of M 33 and M 83, a detection in Fermi/LAT data should be imminent. The expected fluxes for the other sources in the sample are below the sensitivity of Fermi/LAT, even after 10 years of observation. Collective emission from compact objects in the host galaxies is also found to be negligible compared to the expected emission from cosmic ray interactions.

  17. Very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the direction of the Galactic globular cluster Terzan 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gast, H.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Göring, D.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hampf, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Keogh, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; Maxted, N.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, D.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Ryde, F.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2011-07-01

    The HESS very-high-energy (VHE, E > 0.1 TeV) gamma-ray telescope system has discovered a new source, HESS J1747-248. The measured integral flux is (1.2 ± 0.3) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 above 440 GeV for a power-law photon spectral index of 2.5 ± 0.3stat ± 0.2sys. The VHE gamma-ray source is located in the close vicinity of the Galactic globular cluster Terzan 5 and extends beyond the HESS point spread function (0.07°). The probability of a chance coincidence with Terzan 5 and an unrelated VHE source is quite low (~10-4). With the largest population of identified millisecond pulsars (msPSRs), a very high core stellar density and the brightest GeV range flux as measured by Fermi-LAT, Terzan 5 stands out among Galactic globular clusters. The properties of the VHE source are briefly discussed in the context of potential emission mechanisms, notably in relation to msPSRs. Interpretation of the available data accommodates several possible origins for this VHE gamma-ray source, although none of them offers a satisfying explanation of its peculiar morphology.

  18. Detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission during the X-ray flaring activity in GRB 100728A

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Granot, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S. -H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lubrano, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mészáros, P.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pelassa, V.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Sonbas, E.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stamatikos, M.; Strickman, M. S.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uehara, T.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yamazaki, R.; Yang, Z.; Ziegler, M.; Piro, L.

    2011-05-26

    Here, we present the simultaneous Swift and Fermi observations of the bright GRB 100728A and its afterglow. The early X-ray emission is dominated by a vigorous flaring activity continuing until 1 ks after the burst. In the same time interval, high-energy emission is significantly detected by the Fermi/Large Area Telescope. Marginal evidence of GeV emission is observed up to later times. As a result, we discuss the broadband properties of this burst within both the internal and external shock scenarios, with a particular emphasis on the relation between X-ray flares, the GeV emission, and a continued long-duration central engine activity as their power source.

  19. Detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission during the X-ray flaring activity in GRB 100728A

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2011-05-26

    Here, we present the simultaneous Swift and Fermi observations of the bright GRB 100728A and its afterglow. The early X-ray emission is dominated by a vigorous flaring activity continuing until 1 ks after the burst. In the same time interval, high-energy emission is significantly detected by the Fermi/Large Area Telescope. Marginal evidence of GeV emission is observed up to later times. As a result, we discuss the broadband properties of this burst within both the internal and external shock scenarios, with a particular emphasis on the relation between X-ray flares, the GeV emission, and a continued long-duration central engine activitymore » as their power source.« less

  20. HEAO 1 observations of high-energy X-rays from 3C273. [quasar emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primini, F. A.; Cooke, B. A.; Dobson, C. A.; Howe, S. K.; Scheepmaker, A.; Wheaton, W. A.; Lewin, W. H. G.; Baity, W. A.; Gruber, D. E.; Matteson, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    The first detection of high energy (13 to 120 keV) X rays from the quasar 3C273, made by the HEAO 1 satellite, is reported. Observations were made with the 13 to 180 keV slat collimated detectors of the high energy X-ray and low energy gamma-ray (A4) experiment during December 1977-January 1978 and June-July 1978. Results are consistent with the previously observed X-ray flux variability on a scale of months. Photon count rates are presented for each of five energy bands and count rate and photon spectra for the June through July 1978 observations are derived. A comparison of the data obtained with that at lower X-ray energies and higher gamma-ray energies indicates that there is an overall spectral steepening from low to high energies and a possible break near 20 keV, which may be due to the gamma rays originating from a different region than that of the X rays.

  1. Variable very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar LS I +61 303.

    PubMed

    Albert, J; Aliu, E; Anderhub, H; Antoranz, P; Armada, A; Asensio, M; Baixeras, C; Barrio, J A; Bartelt, M; Bartko, H; Bastieri, D; Bavikadi, S R; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bigongiari, C; Biland, A; Bisesi, E; Bock, R K; Bordas, P; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Chilingarian, A; Ciprini, S; Coarasa, J A; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Curtef, V; Danielyan, V; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; de Los Reyes, R; De Lotto, B; Domingo-Santamaría, E; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Errando, M; Fagiolini, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Flix, J; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fuchs, M; Galante, N; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Giller, M; Goebel, F; Hakobyan, D; Hayashida, M; Hengstebeck, T; Höhne, D; Hose, J; Hsu, C C; Isar, P G; Jacon, P; Kalekin, O; Kosyra, R; Kranich, D; Laatiaoui, M; Laille, A; Lenisa, T; Liebing, P; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, J; López, M; Lorenz, E; Lucarelli, F; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mannheim, K; Mansutti, O; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mase, K; Mazin, D; Merck, C; Meucci, M; Meyer, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Mizobuchi, S; Moralejo, A; Nilsson, K; Oña-Wilhelmi, E; Orduña, R; Otte, N; Oya, I; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pavel, N; Pegna, R; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Piccioli, A; Poller, M; Pooley, G; Prandini, E; Raymers, A; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Riegel, B; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Romero, G E; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Sánchez, A; Sartori, P; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schmitt, R; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shinozaki, K; Shore, S N; Sidro, N; Sillanpää, A; Sobczynska, D; Stamerra, A; Stark, L S; Takalo, L; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tonello, N; Torres, A; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Vitale, V; Wagner, R M; Wibig, T; Wittek, W; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J

    2006-06-23

    Microquasars are binary star systems with relativistic radio-emitting jets. They are potential sources of cosmic rays and can be used to elucidate the physics of relativistic jets. We report the detection of variable gamma-ray emission above 100 gigaelectron volts from the microquasar LS I 61 + 303. Six orbital cycles were recorded. Several detections occur at a similar orbital phase, which suggests that the emission is periodic. The strongest gamma-ray emission is not observed when the two stars are closest to one another, implying a strong orbital modulation of the emission or absorption processes.

  2. High-Energy Ion Acceleration Mechanisms in a Dense Plasma Focus Z-Pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginson, D. P.; Link, A.; Schmidt, A.; Welch, D.

    2016-10-01

    The compression of a Z-pinch plasma, specifically in a dense plasma focus (DPF), is known to accelerate high-energy electrons, ions and, if using fusion-reactant ions (e.g. D, T), neutrons. The acceleration of particles is known to coincide with the peak constriction of the pinch, however, the exact physical mechanism responsible for the acceleration remains an area of debate and uncertainty. Recent work has suggested that this acceleration is linked to the growth of an m =0 (sausage) instability that evacuates a region of low-density, highly-magnetized plasma and creates a strong (>MV/cm) electric field. Using the fully kinetic particle-in-cell code LSP in 2D-3V, we simulate the compression of a 2 MA, 35 kV DPF plasma and investigate in detail the formation of the electric field. The electric field is found to be predominantly in the axial direction and driven via charge-separation effects related to the resistivity of the kinetic plasma. The strong electric and magnetic fields are shown to induce non-Maxwellian distributions in both the ions and electrons and lead to the acceleration of high-energy tails. We compare the results in the kinetic simulations to assumptions of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. TRACING HIGH-ENERGY RADIATION FROM T TAURI STARS USING MID-INFRARED NEON EMISSION FROM DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Espaillat, C.; Ingleby, L.; McClure, M.; Nieusma, J.; Calvet, N.; Bergin, E.; Hartmann, L.; Miller, J. M. E-mail: lingleby@umich.edu E-mail: jdnieusma@gmail.com E-mail: ebergin@umich.edu; and others

    2013-01-01

    High-energy radiation from T Tauri stars (TTS) influences the amount and longevity of gas in disks, thereby playing a crucial role in the creation of gas giant planets. Here we probe the high-energy ionizing radiation from TTS using high-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph neon forbidden line detections in a sample of disks from IC 348, NGC 2068, and Chamaeleon. We report three new detections of [Ne III] from CS Cha, SZ Cha, and T 54, doubling the known number of [Ne III] detections from TTS. Using [Ne III]-to-[Ne II] ratios in conjunction with X-ray emission measurements, we probe high-energy radiation from TTS. The majority of previously inferred [Ne III]/[Ne II] ratios based on [Ne III] line upper limits are significantly less than 1, pointing to the dominance of either X-ray radiation or soft extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in producing these lines. Here we report the first observational evidence for hard EUV-dominated Ne forbidden line production in a T Tauri disk: [Ne III]/[Ne II] {approx} 1 in SZ Cha. Our results provide a unique insight into the EUV emission from TTS, by suggesting that EUV radiation may dominate the creation of Ne forbidden lines, albeit in a minority of cases.

  4. FERMI observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from GRB 090217A

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Granot, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kippen, R. M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S. -H.; Garde, M. Llena; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McBreen, S.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meegan, C.; Mehault, J.; Mészáros, P.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakajima, H.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Preece, R.; Racusin, J. L.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Rau, A.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ripken, J.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sander, A.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stamatikos, M.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uehara, T.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van der Horst, A. J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wu, X. F.; Yamazaki, R.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2010-06-22

    The Fermi observatory is advancing our knowledge of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) through pioneering observations at high energies, covering more than seven decades in energy with the two on-board detectors, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). Here, we report on the observation of the long GRB 090217A which triggered the GBM and has been detected by the LAT with a significance greater than 9σ. We present the GBM and LAT observations and on-ground analyses, including the time-resolved spectra and the study of the temporal profile from 8 keV up to ~1 GeV. All spectra are well reproduced by a Band model. We compare these observations to the first two LAT-detected, long bursts GRB 080825C and GRB 080916C. These bursts were found to have time-dependent spectra and exhibited a delayed onset of the high-energy emission, which are not observed in the case of GRB 090217A. We discuss some theoretical implications for the high-energy emission of GRBs.

  5. Temporalization of peak electric generation particulate matter emissions during high energy demand days.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Caroline M; Moeller, Michael D; Felder, Frank A; Baker, Kirk R; Rodgers, Mark; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2015-04-07

    Underprediction of peak ambient pollution by air quality models hinders development of effective strategies to protect health and welfare. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) model routinely underpredicts peak ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. Temporal misallocation of electricity sector emissions contributes to this modeling deficiency. Hourly emissions are created for CMAQ by use of temporal profiles applied to annual emission totals unless a source is matched to a continuous emissions monitor (CEM) in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). More than 53% of CEMs in the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) electricity market and 45% nationally are unmatched in the 2008 NEI. For July 2006, a United States heat wave with high electricity demand, peak electric sector emissions, and elevated ambient PM2.5 mass, we match hourly emissions for 267 CEM/NEI pairs in PJM (approximately 49% and 12% of unmatched CEMs in PJM and nationwide) using state permits, electricity dispatch modeling and CEMs. Hourly emissions for individual facilities can differ up to 154% during the simulation when measurement data is used rather than default temporalization values. Maximum CMAQ PM2.5 mass, sulfate, and elemental carbon predictions increase up to 83%, 103%, and 310%, at the surface and 51%, 75%, and 38% aloft (800 mb), respectively.

  6. EGRET upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars in nearby globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, P. F.; Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K.; Chiang, J.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fierro, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a number of globular clusters. The observations were done as part of an all-sky survey by the energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) during Phase I of the CGRO mission (1991 June to 1992 November). Several theoretical models suggest that MSPs may be sources of high-energy gamma radiation emitted either as primary radiation from the pulsar magnetosphere or as secondary radiation generated by conversion into photons of a substantial part of the relativistic e(+/-) pair wind expected to flow from the pulsar. To date, no high-energy emission has been detected from an individual MSP. However, a large number of MSPs are expected in globular cluster cores where the formation rate of accreting binary systems is high. Model predictions of the total number of pulsars range in the hundreds for some clusters. These expectations have been reinforced by recent discoveries of a substantial number of radio MSPs in several clusters; for example, 11 have been found in 47 Tucanae (Manchester et al.). The EGRET observations have been used to obtain upper limits for the efficiency eta of conversion of MSP spin-down power into hard gamma rays. The upper limits are also compared with the gamma-ray fluxes predicted from theoretical models of pulsar wind emission (Tavani). The EGRET limits put significant constraints on either the emission models or the number of pulsars in the globular clusters.

  7. EGRET upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars in nearby globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, P. F.; Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K.; Chiang, J.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fierro, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a number of globular clusters. The observations were done as part of an all-sky survey by the energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) during Phase I of the CGRO mission (1991 June to 1992 November). Several theoretical models suggest that MSPs may be sources of high-energy gamma radiation emitted either as primary radiation from the pulsar magnetosphere or as secondary radiation generated by conversion into photons of a substantial part of the relativistic e(+/-) pair wind expected to flow from the pulsar. To date, no high-energy emission has been detected from an individual MSP. However, a large number of MSPs are expected in globular cluster cores where the formation rate of accreting binary systems is high. Model predictions of the total number of pulsars range in the hundreds for some clusters. These expectations have been reinforced by recent discoveries of a substantial number of radio MSPs in several clusters; for example, 11 have been found in 47 Tucanae (Manchester et al.). The EGRET observations have been used to obtain upper limits for the efficiency eta of conversion of MSP spin-down power into hard gamma rays. The upper limits are also compared with the gamma-ray fluxes predicted from theoretical models of pulsar wind emission (Tavani). The EGRET limits put significant constraints on either the emission models or the number of pulsars in the globular clusters.

  8. Effects of high energy radiation on the mechanical properties of epoxy/graphite fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fornes, R. E.; Memory, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Studies on the effects of high energy radiation on graphite fiber reinforced composites are summarized. Studies of T300/5208 and C6000/PMR15 composites, T300 fibers and the resin system MY720/DDS (tetraglycidyl-4,4'-diaminodiphenyl methane cured with diaminodiphenyl sulfone) are included. Radiation dose levels up to 8000 Mrads were obtained with no deleterious effects on the breaking stress or modulus. The effects on the structure and morphology were investigated using mechanical tests, electron spin resonance, X-ray diffraction, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA or X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Details of the experiments and results are given. Studies of the fracture surfaces of irradiated samples were studied with scanning electron microscopy; current results indicate no differences in the morphology of irradiated and control samples.

  9. The slingshot effect: A possible new laser-driven high energy acceleration mechanism for electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, Gaetano; Fedele, Renato; Angelis, Umberto de

    2014-11-15

    We show that under appropriate conditions the impact of a very short and intense laser pulse onto a plasma causes the expulsion of surface electrons with high energy in the direction opposite to the one of the propagations of the pulse. This is due to the combined effects of the ponderomotive force and the huge longitudinal field arising from charge separation (“slingshot effect”). The effect should also be present with other states of matter, provided the pulse is sufficiently intense to locally cause complete ionization. An experimental test seems to be feasible and, if confirmed, would provide a new extraction and acceleration mechanism for electrons, alternative to traditional radio-frequency-based or laser-wake-field ones.

  10. Energetic particle imaging: The evolution of techniques in imaging high-energy neutral atom emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D. G.; Brandt, P. C.; Westlake, J. H.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Andrews, G. B.; Nelson, K. S.

    2016-09-01

    Energetic neutral atom imaging instruments have been flown on a variety of space missions to satisfy a variety of science requirements. In this paper we discuss the most recent developments that lead to improvements in energy range, angular resolution, and background rejection for the high-energy range, as represented in the past by the Cassini magnetosphere imaging instrument Ion and Neutral Camera, the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) mission High-Energy Neutral Atom instrument, and to some degree the IMAGE mission Medium-Energy Neutral Atom instrument. The new approaches discussed here rely on the use of ultrathin foils without UV filters and on very high speed coincidence logic to reduce accidentals from intense background sources. We present laboratory results demonstrating an electrostatic design that meets the coincidence timing requirements, position, and scattering performance consistent with angular resolution (full width at half maximum) of 2° for hydrogen above 10 keV and a hydrogen energy threshold ≤1 keV.

  11. THz Pulse Duration Influence on High Energy Level Excitation Due to Cascade Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Zagursky, Dmitry Yu.; Zakharova, Irina G.

    2017-04-01

    We study influence of an incident broadband THz pulse duration on the spectral features of a signal transmitted through/reflected from a substance covered by a disordered structure by means of computer simulation. It is well-known that under real conditions, the results of a standard THz TDS undergo various factors. For example, a substance under investigation can be put into a bulk medium with ordinary properties. This often results in the distortion of the reflected/transmitted pulse spectra and hence, one may reveal additional absorption frequencies which can be thought as belonging to a dangerous substance. An issue from this situation may be a substance emission spectrum using. As we showed the emission frequencies appear due to the cascade mechanism of higher energy level excitation. In this paper we study the incident THz pulse duration influence on the emission frequencies manifestation.

  12. High-energy electron emission from metallic nano-tips driven by intense single-cycle terahertz pulses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sha; Jones, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Electrons ejected from atoms and subsequently driven to high energies in strong laser fields enable techniques from attosecond pulse generation to imaging with rescattered electrons. Analogous processes govern strong-field electron emission from nanostructures, where long wavelength radiation and large local field enhancements hold the promise for producing electrons with substantially higher energies, allowing for higher resolution time-resolved imaging. Here we report on the use of single-cycle terahertz pulses to drive electron emission from unbiased nano-tips. Energies exceeding 5 keV are observed, substantially greater than previously attained at higher drive frequencies. Despite large differences in the magnitude of the respective local fields, we find that the maximum electron energies are only weakly dependent on the tip radius, for 10 nmhigh-energy electron emission is predicted to be confined to a single burst, potentially enabling a variety of applications. PMID:27830701

  13. High-energy electron emission from metallic nano-tips driven by intense single-cycle terahertz pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sha; Jones, R. R.

    2016-11-10

    Electrons ejected from atoms and subsequently driven to high energies in strong laser fields enable techniques from attosecond pulse generation to imaging with rescattered electrons. Analogous processes govern strong-field electron emission from nanostructures, where long wavelength radiation and large local field enhancements hold the promise for producing electrons with substantially higher energies, allowing for higher resolution time-resolved imaging. Here we report on the use of single-cycle terahertz pulses to drive electron emission from unbiased nano-tips. Energies exceeding 5 keV are observed, substantially greater than previously attained at higher drive frequencies. Despite large differences in the magnitude of the respective local fields, we find that the maximum electron energies are only weakly dependent on the tip radius, for 10 nmhigh-energy electron emission is predicted to be confined to a single burst, potentially enabling a variety of applications.

  14. High-energy Emissions from the Pulsar/Be Binary System PSR J2032+4127/MT91 213

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, J.; Tam, P. H. T.; Ng, C. W.; Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.; Hui, C. Y.; Cheng, K. S.

    2017-02-01

    PSR J2032+4127 is a radio-loud gamma-ray-emitting pulsar; it is orbiting around a high-mass Be type star with a very long orbital period of 25–50 years, and is approaching periastron, which will occur in late 2017/early 2018. This system comprises a young pulsar and a Be type star, which is similar to the so-called gamma-ray binary PSR B1259–63/LS2883. It is expected therefore that PSR J2032+4127 shows an enhancement of high-energy emission caused by the interaction between the pulsar wind and Be wind/disk around periastron. Ho et al. recently reported a rapid increase in the X-ray flux from this system. In this paper, we also confirm a rapid increase in the X-ray flux along the orbit, while the GeV flux shows no significant change. We discuss the high-energy emissions from the shock caused by the pulsar wind and stellar wind interaction and examine the properties of the pulsar wind in this binary system. We argue that the rate of increase of the X-ray flux observed by Swift indicates (1) a variation of the momentum ratio of the two-wind interaction region along the orbit, or (2) an evolution of the magnetization parameter of the pulsar wind with the radial distance from the pulsar. We also discuss the pulsar wind/Be disk interaction at the periastron passage, and propose the possibility of formation of an accretion disk around the pulsar. We model high-energy emissions through the inverse-Compton scattering process of the cold-relativistic pulsar wind off soft photons from the accretion disk.

  15. FERMI Observations of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from GRB 080825C

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Asano, K.; ...

    2009-11-24

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has opened a new high-energy window in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Here in this paper, we present a thorough analysis of GRB 080825C, which triggered the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), and was the first firm detection of a GRB by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We discuss the LAT event selections, background estimation, significance calculations, and localization for Fermi GRBs in general and GRB 080825C in particular. We show the results of temporal and time-resolved spectral analysis of the GBM and LAT data. Finally, we also present some theoretical interpretation ofmore » GRB 080825C observations as well as some common features observed in other LAT GRBs.« less

  16. FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GRB 080825C

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E. E-mail: j.granot@herts.ac.u

    2009-12-10

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has opened a new high-energy window in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Here we present a thorough analysis of GRB 080825C, which triggered the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), and was the first firm detection of a GRB by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We discuss the LAT event selections, background estimation, significance calculations, and localization for Fermi GRBs in general and GRB 080825C in particular. We show the results of temporal and time-resolved spectral analysis of the GBM and LAT data. We also present some theoretical interpretation of GRB 080825C observations as well as some common features observed in other LAT GRBs.

  17. Radio emission of air showers with extremely high energy measured by the Yakutsk Radio Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knurenko, S. P.; Petrov, Z. E.; Petrov, I. S.

    2017-09-01

    The Yakutsk Array is designed to study cosmic rays at energy 1015 -1020 eV . It consists several independent arrays that register charged particles, muons with energy E ≥ 1 GeV , Cherenkov light and radio emission. The paper presents a technical description of the Yakutsk Radio Array and some preliminary results obtained from measurements of radio emission at 30-35 MHz frequency induced by air shower particles with energy ε ≥ 1 ·1017 eV . The data obtained at the Yakutsk array in 1986-1989 (first set of measurements) and 2009-2014 (new set of measurements). Based on the obtained results we determined: Lateral distribution function (LDF) of air showers radio emission with energy ≥1017 eV . Radio emission amplitude empirical connection with air shower energy. Determination of depth of maximum by ratio of amplitude at different distances from the shower axis. For the first time, at the Yakutsk array radio emission from the air shower with energy >1019 eV was registered including the shower with the highest energy ever registered at the Yakutsk array with energy ∼ 2 ·1020 eV .

  18. Direct Observations of the Dynamics and Variability at High Energy Emission Regions in TeV Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kino, M.; Asada, K.; Hagiwara, Y.; Edwards, P. G.; VSOP-2 Science Working Group

    2009-08-01

    VSOP-2 observations of ``blazars" may be part of the VSOP-2 Key Science Program for Active Galactic Nuclei. We propose VSOP-2 observations of nearby blazars together with a multi-frequency campaign observations. For example, in two nearby TeV blazars Mrk 421 and Mrk 501, the 38 micro-arcsec resolution corresponds to about 0.03 pc in linear scale, which is comparable to the size of the high energy emission region in the standard one-zone model. We show the advantages of VSOP-2 observation of these blazars compared with previous VLBI studies, and discuss some relevant unresolved problems.

  19. High-energy non-thermal and thermal emission from GRB 141207A detected by Fermi

    SciTech Connect

    Arimoto, Makoto; Asano, Katsuaki; Ohno, Masanori; Veres, Péter; Axelsson, Magnus; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Tachibana, Yutaro; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2016-12-13

    A bright long gamma-ray burst GRB 141207A was observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and detected by both instruments onboard. The observations show that the spectrum in the prompt phase is not well described by the canonical empirical Band function alone, and that an additional power-law component is needed. In the early phase of the prompt emission, a modified blackbody with a hard low-energy photon index (α = +0.2 to +0.4) is detected, which suggests a photospheric origin. In a finely time-resolved analysis, the spectra are also well fitted by the modified blackbody combined with a power-law function. Here we discuss the physical parameters of the photosphere such as the bulk Lorentz factor of the relativistic flow and the radius. We also discuss the physical origin of the extra power-law component observed during the prompt phase in the context of different models such as leptonic and hadronic scenarios in the internal shock regime and synchrotron emission in the external forward shock. In the afterglow phase, the temporal and spectral behaviors of the temporally extended high-energy emission and the fading X-ray emission detected by the X-Ray Telescope on-board Swift are consistent with synchrotron emission in a radiative external forward shock.

  20. High-energy electron emission from metallic nano-tips driven by intense single-cycle terahertz pulses

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Sha; Jones, R. R.

    2016-11-10

    Electrons ejected from atoms and subsequently driven to high energies in strong laser fields enable techniques from attosecond pulse generation to imaging with rescattered electrons. Analogous processes govern strong-field electron emission from nanostructures, where long wavelength radiation and large local field enhancements hold the promise for producing electrons with substantially higher energies, allowing for higher resolution time-resolved imaging. Here we report on the use of single-cycle terahertz pulses to drive electron emission from unbiased nano-tips. Energies exceeding 5 keV are observed, substantially greater than previously attained at higher drive frequencies. Despite large differences in the magnitude of the respective localmore » fields, we find that the maximum electron energies are only weakly dependent on the tip radius, for 10 nm« less

  1. Search for Very High Energy Gamma-ray Emission from Pulsar-Pulsar Wind Nebula Systems with the MAGIC Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderhub, H.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Balestra, S.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Becker, J. K.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, al K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Bock, R. K.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Britzger, D.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Commichau, S.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Costado, M. T.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; de Cea del Pozo, E.; De los Reyes, R.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fernández, E.; Firpo, R.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Galante, N.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Godinovic, N.; Goebel, F.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hsu, C. C.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Kranich, D.; La Barbera, A.; Laille, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moles, M.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Ninkovic, J.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pasanen, M.; Pascoli, D.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Prada, F.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Robert, A.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Stark, L. S.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Turini, N.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Zapatero, J.; Cognard, I.

    2010-02-01

    The MAGIC collaboration has searched for high-energy gamma-ray emission of some of the most promising pulsar candidates above an energy threshold of 50 GeV, an energy not reachable up to now by other ground-based instruments. Neither pulsed nor steady gamma-ray emission has been observed at energies of 100 GeV from the classical radio pulsars PSR J0205+6449 and PSR J2229+6114 (and their nebulae 3C58 and Boomerang, respectively) and the millisecond pulsar PSR J0218+4232. Here, we present the flux upper limits for these sources and discuss their implications in the context of current model predictions.

  2. HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION OF GRB 130427A: EVIDENCE FOR INVERSE COMPTON RADIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Yi-Zhong; Zhang, Fu-Wen; He, Hao-Ning; Zhou, Bei; Yang, Rui-Zhi; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Wei, Da-Ming; Tam, P. H. T.; Liang, Yun-Feng E-mail: fwzhang@pmo.ac.cn

    2013-10-20

    A nearby superluminous burst GRB 130427A was simultaneously detected by six γ-ray space telescopes (Swift, the Fermi GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM)/Large Area Telescope, Konus-Wind, SPI-ACS/INTEGRAL, AGILE, and RHESSI) and by three RAPTOR full-sky persistent monitors. The isotropic γ-ray energy release is ∼10{sup 54} erg, rendering it the most powerful explosion among gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a redshift z ≤ 0.5. The emission above 100 MeV lasted about one day, and four photons are at energies greater than 40 GeV. We show that the count rate of 100 MeV-100 GeV emission may be mainly accounted for by the forward shock synchrotron radiation and the inverse Compton radiation likely dominates at GeV-TeV energies. In particular, an inverse Compton radiation origin is favored for the ∼(95.3, 47.3, 41.4, 38.5, 32) GeV photons arriving at t ∼ (243, 256.3, 610.6, 3409.8, 34366.2) s after the trigger of Fermi-GBM. Interestingly, the external inverse Compton scattering of the prompt emission (the second episode, i.e., t ∼ 120-260 s) by the forward-shock-accelerated electrons is expected to produce a few γ-rays at energies above 10 GeV, while five were detected in the same time interval. A possible unified model for the prompt soft γ-ray, optical, and GeV emission of GRB 130427A, GRB 080319B, and GRB 090902B is outlined. Implications of the null detection of >1 TeV neutrinos from GRB 130427A by IceCube are discussed.

  3. High-energy Emission of GRB 130427A: Evidence for Inverse Compton Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yi-Zhong; Tam, P. H. T.; Zhang, Fu-Wen; Liang, Yun-Feng; He, Hao-Ning; Zhou, Bei; Yang, Rui-Zhi; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Wei, Da-Ming

    2013-10-01

    A nearby superluminous burst GRB 130427A was simultaneously detected by six γ-ray space telescopes (Swift, the Fermi GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM)/Large Area Telescope, Konus-Wind, SPI-ACS/INTEGRAL, AGILE, and RHESSI) and by three RAPTOR full-sky persistent monitors. The isotropic γ-ray energy release is ~1054 erg, rendering it the most powerful explosion among gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a redshift z <= 0.5. The emission above 100 MeV lasted about one day, and four photons are at energies greater than 40 GeV. We show that the count rate of 100 MeV-100 GeV emission may be mainly accounted for by the forward shock synchrotron radiation and the inverse Compton radiation likely dominates at GeV-TeV energies. In particular, an inverse Compton radiation origin is favored for the ~(95.3, 47.3, 41.4, 38.5, 32) GeV photons arriving at t ~ (243, 256.3, 610.6, 3409.8, 34366.2) s after the trigger of Fermi-GBM. Interestingly, the external inverse Compton scattering of the prompt emission (the second episode, i.e., t ~ 120-260 s) by the forward-shock-accelerated electrons is expected to produce a few γ-rays at energies above 10 GeV, while five were detected in the same time interval. A possible unified model for the prompt soft γ-ray, optical, and GeV emission of GRB 130427A, GRB 080319B, and GRB 090902B is outlined. Implications of the null detection of >1 TeV neutrinos from GRB 130427A by IceCube are discussed.

  4. High-energy Emission from the Composite Supernova Remnant MSH 15-56

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick; Castro, Daniel; Plucinsky, Paul; Gelfand, Joseph; Dickel, John R.

    2013-01-01

    MSH 1556 (G326.3-1.8) is a composite supernova remnant (SNR) that consists of an SNR shell and a displaced pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the radio. We present XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observations of the remnant that reveal a compact source at the tip of the radio PWN and complex structures that provide evidence for mixing of the supernova (SN) ejecta with PWN material following a reverse shock interaction. The X-ray spectra are well fitted by a non-thermal power-law model whose photon index steepens with distance from the presumed pulsar, and a thermal component with an average temperature of 0.55 keV. The enhanced abundances of silicon and sulfur in some regions, and the similar temperature and ionization timescale, suggest that much of the X-ray emission can be attributed to SN ejecta that have either been heated by the reverse shock or swept up by the PWN. We find one region with a lower temperature of 0.3 keV that appears to be in ionization equilibrium.Assuming the Sedov model, we derive a number of SNR properties, including an age of 16,500 yr. Modeling of the gamma-ray emission detected by Fermi shows that the emission may originate from the reverse shock-crushed PWN.

  5. Bremsstrahlung emission of high energy accompanying spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Maydanyuk, S. P.; Olkhovsky, V. S.; Mandaglio, G.; Manganaro, M.; Fazio, G.; Giardina, G.

    2010-07-15

    The study of the bremsstrahlung photon emission accompanying fragments produced in the spontaneous fission of heavy nuclei by a fully quantum approach is presented for the first time. This kind of problem requires the knowledge of wave functions of the fissioning system leading to a wide distribution of couples of fragments that are the products of fission. With the aim of obtaining these wave functions, the interaction potential between the emitted fragment and residual nucleus is calculated by a standard approach. A new procedure was performed that allows an increase in the accuracy of calculations of radial integrals in the far asymptotic region and the achievement of the convenient convergence in calculations of the spectra. The total probability of the emitted photons in the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf was calculated in such a way. We obtained good agreement between theory and experimental data up to 38 MeV for the bremsstrahlung spectrum of photons while the calculation of the total probability of photon emission accompanying fragments was performed up to an energy of 60 MeV. The analysis of contributions in the bremsstrahlung spectrum accompanying the emission of light, medium, and heavy fragments in the fission of {sup 252}Cf is presented.

  6. A LEPTONIC MODEL OF STEADY HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM Sgr A*

    SciTech Connect

    Kusunose, Masaaki; Takahara, Fumio E-mail: takahara@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2012-03-20

    Recent observations of Sgr A* by Fermi and HESS have detected steady {gamma}-ray emission in the GeV and TeV bands. We present a new model to explain the GeV {gamma}-ray emission by inverse Compton scattering by nonthermal electrons supplied by the NIR/X-ray flares of Sgr A*. The escaping electrons from the flare regions accumulate in a region with a size of {approx}10{sup 18} cm and magnetic fields of {approx}< 10{sup -4} G. Those electrons produce {gamma}-rays by inverse Compton scattering off soft photons emitted by stars and dust around the central black hole. By fitting the GeV spectrum, we find constraints on the magnetic field and the energy density of optical-UV radiation in the central 1 pc region around the supermassive black hole. While the GeV spectrum is well fitted by our model, the TeV {gamma}-rays, whose spectral index is different from that of the GeV emission, may be from different sources such as pulsar wind nebulae.

  7. HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION FROM THE COMPOSITE SUPERNOVA REMNANT MSH 15-56

    SciTech Connect

    Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Castro, Daniel; Gelfand, Joseph; Dickel, John R.

    2013-05-01

    MSH 15-56 (G326.3-1.8) is a composite supernova remnant (SNR) that consists of an SNR shell and a displaced pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the radio. We present XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observations of the remnant that reveal a compact source at the tip of the radio PWN and complex structures that provide evidence for mixing of the supernova (SN) ejecta with PWN material following a reverse shock interaction. The X-ray spectra are well fitted by a non-thermal power-law model whose photon index steepens with distance from the presumed pulsar, and a thermal component with an average temperature of 0.55 keV. The enhanced abundances of silicon and sulfur in some regions, and the similar temperature and ionization timescale, suggest that much of the X-ray emission can be attributed to SN ejecta that have either been heated by the reverse shock or swept up by the PWN. We find one region with a lower temperature of 0.3 keV that appears to be in ionization equilibrium. Assuming the Sedov model, we derive a number of SNR properties, including an age of 16,500 yr. Modeling of the {gamma}-ray emission detected by Fermi shows that the emission may originate from the reverse shock-crushed PWN.

  8. High-energy Emission from the Composite Supernova Remnant MSH 15-56

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick; Castro, Daniel; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Gelfand, Joseph; Dickel, John R.

    2013-05-01

    MSH 15-56 (G326.3-1.8) is a composite supernova remnant (SNR) that consists of an SNR shell and a displaced pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the radio. We present XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observations of the remnant that reveal a compact source at the tip of the radio PWN and complex structures that provide evidence for mixing of the supernova (SN) ejecta with PWN material following a reverse shock interaction. The X-ray spectra are well fitted by a non-thermal power-law model whose photon index steepens with distance from the presumed pulsar, and a thermal component with an average temperature of 0.55 keV. The enhanced abundances of silicon and sulfur in some regions, and the similar temperature and ionization timescale, suggest that much of the X-ray emission can be attributed to SN ejecta that have either been heated by the reverse shock or swept up by the PWN. We find one region with a lower temperature of 0.3 keV that appears to be in ionization equilibrium. Assuming the Sedov model, we derive a number of SNR properties, including an age of 16,500 yr. Modeling of the γ-ray emission detected by Fermi shows that the emission may originate from the reverse shock-crushed PWN.

  9. High energy neutron and pion-decay gamma-ray emissions from solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupp, Edward L.; Ryan, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Solar flare gamma-ray emissions from energetic ions and electrons have been detected and measured to GeV energies since 1980. In addition, neutrons produced in solar flares with 100 MeV to GeV energies have been observed at the Earth. These emissions are produced by the highest energy ions and electrons accelerated at the Sun and they provide our only direct (albeit secondary) knowledge about the properties of the accelerator(s) acting in a solar flare. The solar flares, which have direct evidence for pion-decay gamma-rays, are unique and are the focus of this paper. We review our current knowledge of the highest energy solar emissions, and how the characteristics of the acceleration process are deduced from the observations. Results from the RHESSI, INTEGRAL and CORONAS missions will also be covered. The review will also cover the solar flare capabilities of the new mission, FERMI GAMMA RAY SPACE TELESCOPE, launched on 2008 June 11. Finally, we discuss the requirements for future missions to advance this vital area of solar flare physics.

  10. Point-source and diffuse high-energy neutrino emission from Type IIn supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulou, M.; Coenders, S.; Vasilopoulos, G.; Kamble, A.; Sironi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Type IIn supernovae (SNe), a rare subclass of core collapse SNe, explode in dense circumstellar media that have been modified by the SNe progenitors at their last evolutionary stages. The interaction of the freely expanding SN ejecta with the circumstellar medium gives rise to a shock wave propagating in the dense SN environment, which may accelerate protons to multi-PeV energies. Inelastic proton-proton collisions between the shock-accelerated protons and those of the circumstellar medium lead to multimessenger signatures. Here, we evaluate the possible neutrino signal of Type IIn SNe and compare with IceCube observations. We employ a Monte Carlo method for the calculation of the diffuse neutrino emission from the SN IIn class to account for the spread in their properties. The cumulative neutrino emission is found to be ∼10 per cent of the observed IceCube neutrino flux above 60 TeV. Type IIn SNe would be the dominant component of the diffuse astrophysical flux, only if 4 per cent of all core collapse SNe were of this type and 20-30 per cent of the shock energy was channeled to accelerated protons. Lower values of the acceleration efficiency are accessible by the observation of a single Type IIn SN as a neutrino point source with IceCube using up-going muon neutrinos. Such an identification is possible in the first year following the SN shock breakout for sources within 20 Mpc.

  11. Mechanically Induced Graphite-Nanodiamonds-Phase Transformations During High-Energy Ball Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Eskandarany, M. Sherif

    2017-05-01

    Due to their unusual mechanical, chemical, physical, optical, and biological properties, nearly spherical-like nanodiamonds have received much attention as desirable advanced nanomaterials for use in a wide spectrum of applications. Although, nanodiamonds can be successfully synthesized by several approaches, applications of high temperature and/or high pressure may restrict the real applications of such strategic nanomaterials. Distinct from the current preparation approaches used for nanodiamonds preparation, here we show a new process for preparing ultrafine nanodiamonds (3-5 nm) embedded in a homogeneous amorphous-carbon matrix. Our process started from high-energy ball milling of commercial graphite powders at ambient temperature under normal atmospheric helium gas pressure. The results have demonstrated graphite-single wall carbon nanotubes-amorphous-carbon-nanodiamonds phase transformations carried out through three subsequent stages of ball milling. Based on XRD and RAMAN analyses, the percentage of nanodiamond phase + C60 (crystalline phase) produced by ball milling was approximately 81%, while the amorphous phase amount was 19%. The pressure generated on the powder together the with temperature increase upon the ball-powder-ball collision is responsible for the phase transformations occurring in graphite powders.

  12. Search for very-high-energy γ-ray emission from Galactic globular clusters with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Hampf, D.; Harris, J.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nguyen, N.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S. G

    2013-03-01

    Context. Globular clusters (GCs) are established emitters of high-energy (HE, 100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) γ-ray radiation which could originate from the cumulative emission of the numerous millisecond pulsars (msPSRs) in the clusters' cores or from inverse Compton (IC) scattering of relativistic leptons accelerated in the GC environment. These stellar clusters could also constitute a new class of sources in the very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray regime, judging from the recent detection of a signal from the direction of Terzan 5 with the H.E.S.S. telescope array. Aims: To search for VHE γ-ray sources associated with other GCs, and to put constraints on leptonic emission models, we systematically analyzed the observations towards 15 GCs taken with the H.E.S.S. array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Methods: We searched for point-like and extended VHE γ-ray emission from each GC in our sample and also performed a stacking analysis combining the data from all GCs to investigate the hypothesis of a population of faint emitters. Assuming IC emission as the origin of the VHE γ-ray signal from the direction of Terzan 5, we calculated the expected γ-ray flux from each of the 15 GCs, based on their number of millisecond pulsars, their optical brightness and the energy density of background photon fields. Results: We did not detect significant VHE γ-ray emission from any of the 15 GCs in either of the two analyses. Given the uncertainties related to the parameter determinations, the obtained flux upper limits allow to rule out the simple IC/msPSR scaling model for NGC 6388 and NGC 7078. The upper limits derived from the stacking analyses are factors between 2 and 50 below the flux predicted by the simple leptonic scaling model, depending on the assumed source extent and the dominant target photon fields. Therefore, Terzan 5 still remains exceptional among all GCs, as the VHE γ-ray emission either arises from extra-ordinarily efficient leptonic processes

  13. The effect of expansion on high-energy emission from AGN jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Martin

    2006-04-01

    We study the radiation yield of relativistic particles in AGN jet that undergo expansion. For that purpose we use a specific model of particle acceleration (Pohl & Schlickeiser 2000) that is based on aborted relativistic shock acceleration and the direct conversion of bulk flow energy into particle energy. While jet expansion must be expected on account of the high pressure in the jet emission zones, the structure of radio galaxies suggests that the expansion is moderate. For various expansion profiles we solve the jet propagation equation and the continuity equations of energetic particles in parallel to derive observable signatures of expansion. A comparison with data suggests that expansion is very inefficient indeed, and we speculate on possible reasons why that is so. Though our study is based on a particular jet model, its results can -- within limits -- be extrapolated to other scenarios, provided they are based on jets being matter-dominated.

  14. High energy gamma-ray emission from PKS 1441+25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahakyan, N.; Gasparyan, S.

    2017-09-01

    We present the γ-ray observations of the flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1441+25 (z = 0.939), using the Fermi large Area Telescope data accumulated during 2015 January - December. A γ-ray flare was observed in January 24, when the flux increased up to (2.22 ± 0.38) × 10-6 photon cm-2 s-1 with the flux-doubling time-scale being as short as ∼1.44 d. The spectral analysis shows that from 2015 April 13 to April 28, the MeV-to-GeV photon index has hardened and changes in the range of Γ = (1.73 - 1.79) for most of the time. The hardest photon index of Γ = 1.54 ± 0.16 has been observed on MJD 57 131.46 with 11.8σ which is not common for flat-spectrum radio quasars. For the same period the γ-ray spectrum shows a possible deviation from a simple power-law shape, indicating a spectral cutoff at Ecut = 17.7 ± 8.9 GeV. The spectral energy distributions during quiescent and flaring states are modelled using one-zone leptonic models that include the synchrotron, synchrotron self Compton and external inverse Compton processes; the model parameters are estimated using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. The emission in the flaring states can be modelled assuming that either the bulk Lorentz factor or the magnetic field has increased. The modelling shows that there is a hint of hardening of the low-energy index (∼1.98) of the underlying non-thermal distribution of electrons responsible for the emission in 2015 April. Such hardening agrees with the γ-ray data, which pointed out a significant γ-ray photon index hardening on 2015 April 13 to 28.

  15. High Energy Emission from Quasar Jets: HST polarimetry, X-ray and Gamma-ray Emission and the IC/CMB hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Meyer, Eileen T.; Cara, Mihai

    2015-01-01

    One of the unique legacies of the Chandra X-ray Observatory is the discovery of X-ray emission from a large number of extragalactic jets (over 100 are now known). In less powerful, FR I radio jets this emission is generally understood to be synchrotron emission from the highest energy electrons, requiring in situ particle acceleration, but the nature of the high-energy emission from the more powerful quasar jets is less well constrained. In quasar jets, the emission extends for tens to hundreds of kiloparsecs, and the observed X-rays are harder and at a higher flux than expected from an extrapolation of the radio to optical spectrum. Over the last 15 years, a persistent debate has arisen as to the nature of this emission, with the leading model being inverse-Comptonization of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. This explanation requires the jet to be relativistic out to hundreds of kiloparsecs from the nucleus, and requires an electron spectrum that extends to very low Lorentz factors. The combination of these two results in a very high kinetic power, very close to or over the Eddington limit if the electron spectrum continues to gamma ~ 1. We discuss recent work with HST polarimetry and the X-ray to gamma-ray spectrum that we believe makes it necessary to re-examine the IC/CMB hypothesis. In many quasar jets, the optical and X-ray emission is joined by a single spectral component, and HST polarimetry in that high-energy component is detecting high polarizations, making it difficult to explain the high-energy emission via the IC/CMB hypothesis. So far, this has been found in 2 jets (PKS 1136-135, Cara et al. 2013, and 1150+497), with observations of a third (3C 273) scheduled for January. In addition, IC/CMB of the highest energy synchrotron photons predicts that we should be detecting GeV gamma-ray emission from the extended jets (Georganopoulos et al. 2006, Meyer & Georganopoulos 2014). These lines of evidence have made the IC/CMB hypothesis very unlikely

  16. High-energy side-peak emission of exciton-polariton condensates in high density regime.

    PubMed

    Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Kamide, Kenji; Matsuo, Yasuhiro; Byrnes, Tim; Ishida, Natsuko; Löffler, Andreas; Höfling, Sven; Shikano, Yutaka; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Forchel, Alfred; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-05-19

    In a standard semiconductor laser, electrons and holes recombine via stimulated emission to emit coherent light, in a process that is far from thermal equilibrium. Exciton-polariton condensates-sharing the same basic device structure as a semiconductor laser, consisting of quantum wells coupled to a microcavity-have been investigated primarily at densities far below the Mott density for signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation. At high densities approaching the Mott density, exciton-polariton condensates are generally thought to revert to a standard semiconductor laser, with the loss of strong coupling. Here, we report the observation of a photoluminescence sideband at high densities that cannot be accounted for by conventional semiconductor lasing. This also differs from an upper-polariton peak by the observation of the excitation power dependence in the peak-energy separation. Our interpretation as a persistent coherent electron-hole-photon coupling captures several features of this sideband, although a complete understanding of the experimental data is lacking. A full understanding of the observations should lead to a development in non-equilibrium many-body physics.

  17. High-energy side-peak emission of exciton-polariton condensates in high density regime

    PubMed Central

    Horikiri, Tomoyuki; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Kamide, Kenji; Matsuo, Yasuhiro; Byrnes, Tim; Ishida, Natsuko; Löffler, Andreas; Höfling, Sven; Shikano, Yutaka; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Forchel, Alfred; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    In a standard semiconductor laser, electrons and holes recombine via stimulated emission to emit coherent light, in a process that is far from thermal equilibrium. Exciton-polariton condensates–sharing the same basic device structure as a semiconductor laser, consisting of quantum wells coupled to a microcavity–have been investigated primarily at densities far below the Mott density for signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation. At high densities approaching the Mott density, exciton-polariton condensates are generally thought to revert to a standard semiconductor laser, with the loss of strong coupling. Here, we report the observation of a photoluminescence sideband at high densities that cannot be accounted for by conventional semiconductor lasing. This also differs from an upper-polariton peak by the observation of the excitation power dependence in the peak-energy separation. Our interpretation as a persistent coherent electron-hole-photon coupling captures several features of this sideband, although a complete understanding of the experimental data is lacking. A full understanding of the observations should lead to a development in non-equilibrium many-body physics. PMID:27193700

  18. Prospects for exploring the local galaxies through the study of their high-energy gamma-ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozel, Mehmet E.; Fichtel, Carl E.

    1988-01-01

    In the near future, high-energy (E greater than 20 MeV) gamma-ray astronomy offers the promise of a new means of examining the closest galaxies. Three local galaxies, the SMCs, LMCs, and M31, should be visible to the high-energy gamma-ray telescope on the Gamma Ray Observatory and the first two should be seen by GAMMA-1. It is expected that the intensity and the structure of both of the Magellanic Clouds can be examined in sufficient detail to study the cosmic-ray density and its variation, and, thereby, to determine the relevant scale of coupling for the cosmic rays and diffuse matter. With the assumptions of adequate sources and reasonable magnetic field strengths, both of which should likely be satisfied, very specific predictions of the gamma-ray emission can be made separating the three current cosmic-ray containment concepts, namely that it is on the scale of one to a few kiloparsec mass clustering, the whole galaxy, or some much larger scale. Further, because of the markedly different distributions of molecular and atomic hydrogen in the galaxies and the differences between the galaxies, an independent measure of the normalization of the diffuse molecular hydrogen density is possible.

  19. Systematic search for molecular clouds near supernova remnants as sources of very-high-energy γ-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häffner, Stephanie; Stegmann, Christian; Jung-Richardt, Ira

    2015-12-01

    Supernova remnants accelerate particles up to energies of at least 100 TeV as established by observations in very-high-energy γ-ray astronomy. Molecular clouds in their vicinity provide an increased amount of target material for proton-proton interaction and subsequent neutral pion decay into γ-rays of accelerated hadrons escaping the remnant. Therefore, these molecular clouds are potential γ-ray sources. The γ-ray emission from these clouds provides a unique environment to derive information on the propagation of very-high-energy particles through the interstellar medium as well as on the acceleration of hadrons in supernova remnants. Current Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope systems are suitable to explore a large parameter space of the propagation properties depending on the age of the supernova remnant and the distance between the remnant and the nearby molecular cloud. In this paper we present our strategy and results of a systematic search for γ-ray emitting molecular clouds near supernova remnants which are potentially detectable with current experiments in the TeV energy range and explore the prospects of future experiments.

  20. A Program To Search For Transient Microwave Emission From GRBs And Other High-Energy Sources Using Archival WMAP Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacy, J. Gregory; Case, Gary L.; Hart, Daniel R.; Jackson, Peter D.; Winkler, Christoph

    2007-07-01

    We report on a new program to search the public time-ordered datasets acquired with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) for transient signals associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and other high-energy sources. This program is an extension of earlier work in which we established the first limits on prompt microwave emission from GRBs using archival datasets from the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) aboard the COBE satellite. The increased sensitivity and angular resolution of the WMAP radiometers compared to the COBE/DMR lead to a factor of ~10,000 improvement in overall point-source sensitivity. Such limits approach the signal levels predicted in the microwave band for the peak prompt emission arising from reverse shocks in GRBs. In the first phase of our program we are verifying our analysis software and assessing sensitivity limits by searching for microwave transients or flaring signals from known blazars and similar sources that are detected in the cumulative WMAP data as ``foreground'' point sources of microwave emission.

  1. The extended jet of AP Librae: Origin of the very high-energy γ-ray emission?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Michael; Wagner, Stefan J.

    2016-04-01

    The low-frequency peaked BL Lac object (LBL) AP Librae exhibits very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emission and hosts an extended jet, which has been detected in radio and X-rays. The jet X-ray spectral index implies an inverse Compton origin. These observations are unusual for LBLs calling for a consistent explanation of this extraordinary source. The observationally constrained parameters necessary to describe the core emission within the standard one-zone model are unable to explain the broad-band spectrum, even if observationally unconstrained external photon fields are taken into account. We demonstrate that the addition of the extended jet emission successfully reproduces the total spectral energy distribution. In particular, the VHE radiation is produced in the >100 kpc long extended jet via inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons by highly relativistic electrons. We present several ways to test this theory. The extended jet is weakly magnetized (B0 = 2.5 μG), while its minimum and maximum electron Lorentz factors are γmin = 60 and γmax = 5 × 106, respectively. The electron spectral index is s = 2.6. These parameters are comparable to parameters of other blazars with extended X-ray jets dominated by inverse Compton scattering.

  2. Prospects for detection of very high-energy emission from GRB in the context of the external shock model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, A.; Piro, L.

    2008-10-01

    Context: The detection of the 100 GeV-TeV emission by a gamma-ray burst (GRB) will provide an unprecedented opportunity to study the nature of the central engine and the interaction between the relativistic flow and the environment of the burst's progenitor. Aims: In this paper we show that there are exciting prospects of detecting from the burst by MAGIC high-energy (HE) emission during the early X-ray flaring activity and, later, during the normal afterglow phase. We also identify the best observational strategy: trigger conditions and time period of observation. Methods: We determine the expected HE emission from the flaring and afterglow phases of GRBs in the context of the external shock scenario and compare them with the MAGIC threshold. Results: We find that an X-ray flare with the average properties of the class can be detected in the 100 GeV range by MAGIC, provided that z ≲ 0.7. The requested observational window with MAGIC should then start from 10-20 s after the burst and cover about 1000-2000 s. Furthermore, we demonstrate that there are solid prospects of detecting the late afterglow emission in the same energy range for most of the bursts with z ≲ 0.5 if the density of the external medium is n ≳ a few cm-3. In this case, the MAGIC observation shall extend to about 10-20 ks. We provide recipes for tailoring this prediction to the observational properties of each burst, in particular the fluence in the prompt emission and the redshift, thus allowing an almost real time decision procedure to decide whether to continue the follow-up observation of a burst at late times.

  3. Impulsive And Long Duration High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission From The Very Bright 2012 March 7 Solar Flares

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.

    2014-06-10

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observed two bright X-class solar ares on 2012 March 7, and detected gamma-rays up to 4 GeV. We detected gamma-rays both during the impulsive and temporally-extended emission phases, with emission above 100 MeV lasting for approximately 20 hours. Accurate localization of the gamma-ray production site(s) coincide with the solar active region from which X-ray emissions associated with these ares originated. Our analysis of the > 100 MeV gamma-ray emission shows a relatively rapid monotonic decrease in flux during the first hour of the impulsive phase, and a much slower, almost monotonic decrease in flux for the next 20 hours. The spectra can be adequately described by a power law with a high energy exponential cutoff, or as resulting from the decay of neutral pions produced by accelerated protons and ions with an isotropic power-law energy distribution. The required proton spectrum has a number index 3, with minor variations during the impulsive phase, while during the temporally extended phase the spectrum softens monotonically, starting with index 4. The > 30 MeV proton flux and spectra observed near the Earth by the GOES satellites also show a monotonic flux decrease and spectral softening during the extended phase, but with a harder spectrum, with index 3. Based on the Fermi-LAT and GOES observations of the flux and spectral evolution of these bright ares, we explore the relative merits of prompt and continuous acceleration scenarios, hadronic and leptonic emission processes, and acceleration at the solar corona by the fast Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) as explanations for the observations. We conclude that the most likely scenario is continuous acceleration of protons in the solar corona which penetrate the lower solar atmosphere and produce pions that decay into gamma-rays.

  4. Impulsive And Long Duration High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission From The Very Bright 2012 March 7 Solar Flares

    DOE PAGES

    Ajello, M.

    2014-06-10

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observed two bright X-class solar ares on 2012 March 7, and detected gamma-rays up to 4 GeV. We detected gamma-rays both during the impulsive and temporally-extended emission phases, with emission above 100 MeV lasting for approximately 20 hours. Accurate localization of the gamma-ray production site(s) coincide with the solar active region from which X-ray emissions associated with these ares originated. Our analysis of the > 100 MeV gamma-ray emission shows a relatively rapid monotonic decrease in flux during the first hour of the impulsive phase, and a much slower, almost monotonic decrease in fluxmore » for the next 20 hours. The spectra can be adequately described by a power law with a high energy exponential cutoff, or as resulting from the decay of neutral pions produced by accelerated protons and ions with an isotropic power-law energy distribution. The required proton spectrum has a number index 3, with minor variations during the impulsive phase, while during the temporally extended phase the spectrum softens monotonically, starting with index 4. The > 30 MeV proton flux and spectra observed near the Earth by the GOES satellites also show a monotonic flux decrease and spectral softening during the extended phase, but with a harder spectrum, with index 3. Based on the Fermi-LAT and GOES observations of the flux and spectral evolution of these bright ares, we explore the relative merits of prompt and continuous acceleration scenarios, hadronic and leptonic emission processes, and acceleration at the solar corona by the fast Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) as explanations for the observations. We conclude that the most likely scenario is continuous acceleration of protons in the solar corona which penetrate the lower solar atmosphere and produce pions that decay into gamma-rays.« less

  5. Effect of high-energy X-ray irradiation on creep mechanisms in bone and dentin.

    PubMed

    Deymier-Black, Alix C; Singhal, Anjali; Yuan, Fang; Almer, Jonathan D; Brinson, L Catherine; Dunand, David C

    2013-05-01

    Under long-term loading creep conditions, mineralized biological tissues like bone are expected to behave in a similar manner to synthetic composites where the creeping matrix sheds load to the elastic reinforcement as creep deformation progresses. To study this mechanism in biological composites, creep experiments were performed at 37 °C on bovine compact bone and dentin. Static compressive stresses were applied to the samples, while wide- and small-angle scattering patterns from high energy synchrotron X-rays were used to determine, respectively, the elastic strain in the hydroxyapatite (HAP) platelets and the strain in the mineralized collagen fibril, as a function of creep time. In these highly irradiated biological composites, the reinforcing hydroxyapatite platelets progressively transfer some of their stress back to the softer protein matrix during creep. While such behavior can be explained by damage at the interface between the two phases, it is not consistent with measurements of the apparent moduli--the ratio of applied stress to elastic HAP strain measured throughout the creep experiments by elastic unload/load segments--which remained constant throughout the experiment and thus indicated good HAP/protein bonding. A possible explanation is a combination of X-ray and load induced interfacial damage explaining the shedding of load from the HAP during long term creep, coupled with interfacial re-bonding of the load-disrupted reversible bonds upon unloading, explaining the unaffected elastic load partitioning during unload/load segments. This hypothesis is further supported by finite element modeling which shows results mirroring the experimental strain measurements when considering interfacial delamination and a compliant interstitial space at the ends of the HAP platelets. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Modeling the Delayed Emission in the 2005 Mkn 501 Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Flare

    SciTech Connect

    Bednarek, Wlodek; Wagner, Robert

    2008-12-24

    Recently, the MAGIC collaboration reported evidence for a delay in the arrival times of photons of different energies during a {gamma}-ray flare from the blazar Markarian 501 on 2005 July 9. We describe the observed delayed high-energy emission by applying a homogeneous synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model under the assumption that the blob, containing relativistic electrons, was observed in its acceleration phase. This modified SSC model predicts the appearance of a {gamma}-ray flare first at lower energies and subsequently at higher energies. Based on the reported time delay, we predict a delay on the order of 1 h if observed between 10 GeV and 100 GeV, which can be tested in the future by simultaneous flare observations using, e.g., the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope and Cerenkov telescopes.

  7. Very high energy gamma-ray emission detected from PKS 1440-389 with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W.

    2012-04-01

    The BL Lac object PKS 1440-389, located at a tentative redshift of z=0.065 (6dF Galaxy Survey, Jones, D.H. et al. MNRAS 355, 747-763, 2004), has been reported as a hard (G=1.75+/-0.05), bright, and steady extragalactic source at GeV energies in the Fermi-LAT catalogue (2FGL J1443.9-3908, P.L. Nolan et al., 2012, ApJS, 199, 31). The extrapolation of the Fermi-LAT spectrum to very high energies (VHE; E> 100 GeV), together with its brightness in the radio and X-ray bands, makes this BL Lac object a good candidate for VHE emission.

  8. Gamma-ray emission from globular clusters. Shock high energy emission from the Be-Star/Pulsar System PSR 1259-63. Echoes in x-ray novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    1995-01-01

    This grant covers work on the Compton phase 3 investigation, 'Shock High Energy Emission from the Be- Star/Pulsar System PSR 1259-63' and cycle 4 investigations 'Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at High Latitudes' and 'Echoes in X-Ray Novae'. Work under the investigation 'Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission at High Latitudes' has lead to the publication of a paper (attached), describing gamma-ray emissivity variations in the northern galactic hemisphere. Using archival EGRET data, we have found a large irregular region of enhanced gamma-ray emissivity at energies greater 100 MeV. This is the first observation of local structure in the gamma-ray emissivity. Work under the investigation 'Echoes in X-Ray Novae' is proceeding with analysis of data from OSSE from the transient source GRO J1655-40. The outburst of this source last fall triggered this Target of Opportunity investigation. Preliminary spectral analysis shows emission out to 600 keV and a pure power low spectrum with no evidence of an exponential cutoff. Work is complete on the analysis of BATSE data from the Be-Star/Pulsar Sustem PSR 1259-63.

  9. Discovery of high and very high-energy emission from the BL Lacertae object SHBL J001355.9-185406

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spieß, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2013-06-01

    The detection of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object (HBL) SHBL J001355.9-185406 (z = 0.095) at high (HE; 100 MeV < E < 300 GeV) and very high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is reported. Dedicated observations were performed with the H.E.S.S. telescopes, leading to a detection at the 5.5σ significance level. The measured flux above 310 GeV is (8.3 ± 1.7stat ± 1.7sys) × 10-13 photons cm-2 s-1 (about 0.6% of that of the Crab Nebula), and the power-law spectrum has a photon index of Γ = 3.4 ± 0.5stat ± 0.2sys. Using 3.5 years of publicly available Fermi-LAT data, a faint counterpart has been detected in the LAT data at the 5.5σ significance level, with an integrated flux above 300 MeV of (9.3 ± 3.4stat ± 0.8sys) × 10-10 photons cm-2 s-1 and a photon index of Γ = 1.96 ± 0.20stat ± 0.08sys. X-ray observations with Swift-XRT allow the synchrotron peak energy in νFν representation to be located at ~1.0 keV. The broadband spectral energy distribution is modelled with a one-zone synchrotronself-Compton (SSC) model and the optical data by a black-body emission describing the thermal emission of the host galaxy. The derived parameters are typical of HBLs detected at VHE, with a particle-dominated jet.

  10. Probing the micro-mechanical behavior of bone via high-energy x-rays.

    SciTech Connect

    Almer, J.; Stock, S. R.; X-Ray Science Division; Northwestern Univ.

    2006-01-01

    the sample. While under load, high-energy x-rays (80.7 keV) of transverse size 0.05(x) x 0.05(y) mm{sup 2} were used to sample through the entire thickness (z) of the sample. Wide-angle scattering patterns at multiple x-positions (y=0) were collected using a large area detector, with each 2D pattern containing data in a plane approximately parallel to the sample x-y plane. Internal strains along the longitudinal/loading direction ({var_epsilon}{sub yy}) are shown for the apatite (002) reflection in Fig. 1. Values for five different lateral positions are shown, with x = -1 mm near the convex side of the sample and x = +1 near the concave side. Also shown are value from the strain gage located on the concave side of the specimen. All internal strains are non-zero before unloading and {var_epsilon}{sub yy} {approx} -700 {mu}{var_epsilon}. When stress is applied, strain response varies substantially across the sample, with {var_epsilon}{sub yy} (x = 1) showing the highest compression while {var_epsilon}{sub yy} (x = -1) slightly more tensile values. The macroscopic strain increases similar to, but at a higher degree than, {var_epsilon}{sub yy} (x = -1). At the maximum applied stress of {approx}33 MPa the sample experienced multiple cracks, as verified via post-mortem analysis. Upon unloading the macroscopic strain was primarily elastic, as values (nearly) returned to those seen upon loading.

  11. Mechanical effects induced by shock waves generated by high energy laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, J.; Ballard, P.; Merrien, P.; Barralis, J.; Castex, L.; Fabbro, R.

    1991-09-01

    Specimens made of low alloy and non alloyed medium carbon steels were subjected to high energy laser pulses. Direct ablation and confined plasma procedures were both investigated. An optimum impulse momentum transfer to the material is attained with a pulse duration of 30 ns and a power density of 10 GW .cm^2. Fatigue testing shows that the fatigue strengths of the selected materials are significantly increased. This can be related to the fact that laser shock processing generates an appropriate residual compressive stress field in a sufficiently thick layer and does not alter the initial surface roughness. In addition, the use of cumulative laser impacts and of dual treatment combining thermal and mechanical effects of the laser beam have been investigated and shown to result in an enhanced fatigue strength. Des échantillons d'acier éventuellement faiblement allié sont irradiés par un ou plusieurs pulses laser ayant une intensité comprise entre 1 et 100 GW/cm^2 et une durée d'émission laser de 3 ou 30 ns, les deux configurations d'ablation directe ou de plasma confiné étant utilisées. Les contraintes résiduelles résultant du passage de l'onde de choc sont analysées à l'aide de la technique de diffraction de rayons X. D'après cette étude, il apparaît clairement que les valeurs d'intensité et de durée d'émission laser les plus appropriées sont respectivement 10 GW/cm^2 et 30 ns. Ces valeurs correspondent à l'optimum de transfert d'impulsion. De plus, l'influence du nombre d'impacts laser utilisés est discuté et un essai de fatigue montre que ce traitement mécanique de surface augmente de manière significative la limite d'endurance du matériau étudié.

  12. Sub-second variations of high energy ( 300 keV) hard X-ray emission from solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Taeil

    1986-01-01

    Subsecond variations of hard X-ray emission from solar flares were first observed with a balloon-borne detector. With the launch of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM), it is now well known that subsecond variations of hard X-ray emission occur quite frequently. Such rapid variations give constraints on the modeling of electron energization. Such rapid variations reported until now, however, were observed at relatively low energies. Fast mode data obtained by the Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) has time resolution of approximately 1 ms but has no energy resolution. Therefore, rapid fluctuations observed in the fast-mode HXRBS data are dominated by the low energy hard X-rays. It is of interest to know whether rapid fluctuations are observed in high-energy X-rays. The highest energy band at which subsecond variations were observed is 223 to 1057 keV. Subsecond variations observed with HXRBS at energies greater than 300 keV are reported, and the implications discussed.

  13. DISCOVERY OF VERY HIGH ENERGY {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SNR G54.1+0.3

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Bradbury, S. M.; Butt, Y.; Byrum, K.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Duke, C.; Finnegan, G. E-mail: wakely@uchicago.ed

    2010-08-10

    We report the discovery of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from the direction of the SNR G54.1+0.3 using the VERITAS ground-based gamma-ray observatory. The TeV signal has an overall significance of 6.8{sigma} and appears pointlike given the resolution of the instrument. The integral flux above 1 TeV is 2.5% of the Crab Nebula flux and significant emission is measured between 250 GeV and 4 TeV, well described by a power-law energy spectrum dN/dE {approx} E {sup -{Gamma}} with a photon index {Gamma} = 2.39 {+-} 0.23{sub stat} {+-} 0.30{sub sys}. We find no evidence of time variability among observations spanning almost two years. Based on the location, the morphology, the measured spectrum, the lack of variability, and a comparison with similar systems previously detected in the TeV band, the most likely counterpart of this new VHE gamma-ray source is the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the SNR G54.1+0.3. The measured X-ray to VHE gamma-ray luminosity ratio is the lowest among all the nebulae supposedly driven by young rotation-powered pulsars, which could indicate a particle-dominated PWN.

  14. DISCOVERY OF VARIABILITY IN THE VERY HIGH ENERGY {gamma}-RAY EMISSION OF 1ES 1218+304 WITH VERITAS

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Beilicke, M.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Boltuch, D.; Boettcher, M.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Fortson, L.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Finley, J. P.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Finnegan, G.; Furniss, A.

    2010-02-01

    We present results from an intensive VERITAS monitoring campaign of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1218+304 in 2008/2009. Although 1ES 1218+304 was detected previously by MAGIC and VERITAS at a persistent level of {approx}6% of the Crab Nebula flux, the new VERITAS data reveal a prominent flare reaching {approx}20% of the Crab. While very high energy (VHE) flares are quite common in many nearby blazars, the case of 1ES 1218+304 (redshift z = 0.182) is particularly interesting since it belongs to a group of blazars that exhibit unusually hard VHE spectra considering their redshifts. When correcting the measured spectra for absorption by the extragalactic background light, 1ES 1218+304 and a number of other blazars are found to have differential photon indices {gamma}{<=} 1.5. The difficulty in modeling these hard spectral energy distributions in blazar jets has led to a range of theoretical {gamma}-ray emission scenarios, one of which is strongly constrained by these new VERITAS observations. We consider the implications of the observed light curve of 1ES 1218+304, which shows day scale flux variations, for shock acceleration scenarios in relativistic jets, and in particular for the viability of kiloparsec-scale jet emission scenarios.

  15. A Search for Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from Scorpius X-1 with the Magic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thom, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2011-07-01

    The acceleration of particles up to GeV or higher energies in microquasars has been the subject of considerable theoretical and observational efforts in the past few years. Sco X-1 is a microquasar from which evidence of highly energetic particles in the jet has been found when it is in the so-called Horizontal Branch (HB), a state when the radio and hard X-ray fluxes are higher and a powerful relativistic jet is present. Here we present the first very high energy gamma-ray observations of Sco X-1, obtained with the MAGIC telescopes. An analysis of the whole data set does not yield a significant signal, with 95% CL flux upper limits above 300 GeV at the level of 2.4 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1. Simultaneous RXTE observations were conducted to provide the X-ray state of the source. A selection of the gamma-ray data obtained during the HB based on the X-ray colors did not yield a signal either, with an upper limit of 3.4 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1. These upper limits place a constraint on the maximum TeV luminosity to non-thermal X-ray luminosity of L VHE/L ntX <~ 0.02 that can be related to a maximum TeV luminosity to jet power ratio of L VHE/L j <~ 10-3. Our upper limits indicate that the underlying high-energy emission physics in Sco X-1 must be inherently different from that of the hitherto detected gamma-ray binaries.

  16. Lepton Acceleration in the Vicinity of the Event Horizon: High-energy and Very-high-energy Emissions from Rotating Black Holes with Various Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirotani, Kouichi; Pu, Hung-Yi; Chun-Che Lin, Lupin; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Inoue, Makoto; Kong, Albert K. H.; Matsushita, Satoki; Tam, Pak-Hin T.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the electrostatic acceleration of electrons and positrons in the vicinity of the event horizon, applying the pulsar outer-gap model to black hole (BH) magnetospheres. During a low accretion phase, the radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) cannot emit enough MeV photons that are needed to sustain the force-free magnetosphere via two-photon collisions. In such a charge-starved region (or a gap), an electric field arises along the magnetic field lines to accelerate electrons and positrons into ultra-relativistic energies. These relativistic leptons emit copious gamma rays via curvature and inverse-Compton (IC) processes. Some of such gamma rays collide with the submillimeter-IR photons emitted from the RIAF to materialize as pairs, which polarize to partially screen the original acceleration electric field. It is found that the gap gamma-ray luminosity increases with decreasing accretion rate. However, if the accretion rate decreases too much, the diminished RIAF soft photon field can no longer sustain a stationary pair production within the gap. As long as a stationary gap is formed, the magnetosphere becomes force-free outside the gap by the cascaded pairs, irrespective of the BH mass. If a nearby stellar-mass BH is in quiescence, or if a galactic intermediate-mass BH is in a very low accretion state, its curvature and IC emissions are found to be detectable with Fermi/LAT and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACT). If a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus is located within about 30 Mpc, the IC emission from its supermassive BH is marginally detectable with IACT.

  17. High-Energy X-Ray Detection of G359.89-0.08 (SGR A-E): Magnetic Flux Tube Emission Powered by Cosmic Rays?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A; Zhang, Will

    2014-01-01

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E (is) greater than 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to approximately 50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index gamma approximately equals 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is F(sub X) = (2.0 +/- 0.1) × 10(exp -12)erg cm(-2) s(-1) , corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity L(sub X) = (2.6+/-0.8)×10(exp 34) erg s(-1) assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A-E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to (is) approximately 100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to (is) approximately 30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  18. High-energy X-Ray Detection of G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E): Magnetic Flux Tube Emission Powered by Cosmic Rays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-03-01

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E > 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89-0.08 (Sgr A-E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to ~50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index Γ ≈ 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is FX = (2.0 ± 0.1) × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1, corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity LX = (2.6 ± 0.8) × 1034 erg s-1 assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A-E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to ~100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to ~30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  19. Experimental study on the fabrication of advanced materials for energy applications using high energy mechanical milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana Swamy, Ashvin Kumar

    The reaction of aluminum (Al) powder with water has the potential for on demand hydrogen generation. Conventional Al powders, however, react with water slowly due to a highly protective oxide layer on the particle surface. Current methods for Al activation involve harmful and expensive materials. The nano-scale Al powders also remain very expensive and have problems such as a large amount of oxide on the surface. The use of aluminum in an energy generation cycle is also hindered by the fact that, although Al is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust, its recovery from ore consumes a lot of energy. Recycling aluminum hydroxide, formed as a result of Al reaction with water, would also require large amounts of energy. The energy consumption for production of Al powder and hence its cost could be significantly reduced by using recycled aluminum scrap and waste where aluminum is contained in metallic, non-oxidized form. The research work presented here investigates the preparation of an activated aluminum powder from aluminum foil that is widely available as scrap and waste. The obtained results demonstrate that a highly reactive, fine powder can be obtained from Al foil by high-energy ball milling with sodium chloride (NaCl). The obtained powder readily reacts with hot water, releasing hydrogen. Note that NaCl is an environment-friendly additive that can easily be removed after milling and recycled. After washing NaCl out, the powders retain a high reactivity with respect to hot water. As compared to previously studied activation of commercial Al powders, a major advantage of the investigated process is the feasibility of using secondary aluminum. Another area of research presented here is the synthesis of gallium oxide (Ga2O3) nanostructures for their use as high-temperature sensors. Quasi one-dimensional nanomaterials are of great interest due to increased focus on their importance in physics research and also their applications in the nanodevices industry

  20. Suzaku Observations of Luminous Quasars: Revealing the Nature of High-Energy Blazar Emission in Low-level activity States

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2010-05-21

    We present the results from the Suzaku X-ray observations of five flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), namely PKS 0208–512, Q 0827+243, PKS 1127–145, PKS 1510–089, and 3C 454.3. Here, all these sources were additionally monitored simultaneously or quasi-simultaneously by the Fermi satellite in gamma rays and the Swift UVOT in the UV and optical bands, respectively. Here, we constructed their broadband spectra covering the frequency range from 1014 Hz up to 1025 Hz, and those reveal the nature of high-energy emission of luminous blazars in their low-activity states. The analyzed X-ray spectra are well fitted by a power-law model with photoelectricmore » absorption. In the case of PKS 0208–512, PKS 1127–145, and 3C 454.3, the X-ray continuum showed indication of hardening at low energies. Moreover, when compared with the previous X-ray observations, we see a significantly increasing contribution of low-energy photons to the total X-ray fluxes when the sources are getting fainter. The same behavior can be noted in the Suzaku data alone. A likely explanation involves a variable, flat-spectrum component produced via inverse-Compton emission, plus an additional, possibly steady soft X-ray component prominent when the source gets fainter. This soft X-ray excess is represented either by a steep power-law (photon indices Γ ~ 3-5) or a blackbody-type emission with temperatures kT ~ 0.1-0.2 keV. We model the broadband spectra of the five observed FSRQs using synchrotron self-Compton and/or external-Compton radiation models. Lastly, our modeling suggests that the difference between the low- and high-activity states in luminous blazars is due to the different total kinetic power of the jet, most likely related to varying bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow within the blazar emission zone.« less

  1. Suzaku Observations of Luminous Quasars: Revealing the Nature of High-Energy Blazar Emission in Low-level activity States

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grandi, P.; Grenier, I. A.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Itoh, R.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nestoras, I.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sambruna, R.; Sander, A.; Sato, R.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stecker, F. W.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Villata, M.; Vitale, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.; Tavecchio, F.; Sikora, M.; Schady, P.; Roming, P.; Chester, M. M.; Maraschi, L.

    2010-05-21

    We present the results from the Suzaku X-ray observations of five flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), namely PKS 0208–512, Q 0827+243, PKS 1127–145, PKS 1510–089, and 3C 454.3. Here, all these sources were additionally monitored simultaneously or quasi-simultaneously by the Fermi satellite in gamma rays and the Swift UVOT in the UV and optical bands, respectively. Here, we constructed their broadband spectra covering the frequency range from 1014 Hz up to 1025 Hz, and those reveal the nature of high-energy emission of luminous blazars in their low-activity states. The analyzed X-ray spectra are well fitted by a power-law model with photoelectric absorption. In the case of PKS 0208–512, PKS 1127–145, and 3C 454.3, the X-ray continuum showed indication of hardening at low energies. Moreover, when compared with the previous X-ray observations, we see a significantly increasing contribution of low-energy photons to the total X-ray fluxes when the sources are getting fainter. The same behavior can be noted in the Suzaku data alone. A likely explanation involves a variable, flat-spectrum component produced via inverse-Compton emission, plus an additional, possibly steady soft X-ray component prominent when the source gets fainter. This soft X-ray excess is represented either by a steep power-law (photon indices Γ ~ 3-5) or a blackbody-type emission with temperatures kT ~ 0.1-0.2 keV. We model the broadband spectra of the five observed FSRQs using synchrotron self-Compton and/or external-Compton radiation models. Lastly, our modeling suggests that the difference between the low- and high-activity states in luminous blazars is due to the different total kinetic power of the jet, most likely related to varying bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow within the blazar emission zone.

  2. Hardness enhancement and crosslinking mechanisms in polystyrene irradiated with high energy ion-beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.H.; Rao, G.R.; Mansur, L.K.

    1996-12-31

    Surface hardness values several times larger than steel were produced using high energy ion beams at several hundred keV to MeV. High LET is important for crosslinking. Crosslinking is studied by analyzing hardness variations in response to irradiation parameter such as ion species, energy, and fluence. Effective crosslinking radii at hardness saturation are derived base on experimental data for 350 keV H{sup +} and 1 MeV Ar{sup +} irradiation of polystyrene. Saturation value for surface hardness is about 20 GPa.

  3. Impulsive and long duration high-energy gamma-ray emission from the very bright 2012 March 7 solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Charles, E.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Cecchi, C.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Caraveo, P. A. E-mail: vahep@stanford.edu; and others

    2014-07-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) detected gamma-rays up to 4 GeV from two bright X-class solar flares on 2012 March 7, showing both an impulsive and temporally extended emission phases. The gamma-rays appear to originate from the same active region as the X-rays associated with these flares. The >100 MeV gamma-ray flux decreases monotonically during the first hour (impulsive phase) followed by a slower decrease for the next 20 hr. A power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff can adequately describe the photon spectrum. Assuming that the gamma rays result from the decay of pions produced by accelerated protons and ions with a power-law spectrum, we find that the index of that spectrum is ∼3, with minor variations during the impulsive phase. During the extended phase the photon spectrum softens monotonically, requiring the proton index varying from ∼4 to >5. The >30 MeV proton flux observed by the GOES satellites also shows a flux decrease and spectral softening, but with a harder spectrum (index ∼2-3). Based on these observations, we explore the relative merits of prompt or continuous acceleration scenarios, hadronic or leptonic emission processes, and acceleration at the solar corona or by the fast coronal mass ejections. We conclude that the most likely scenario is continuous acceleration of protons in the solar corona that penetrate the lower solar atmosphere and produce pions that decay into gamma rays. However, acceleration in the downstream of the shock cannot be definitely ruled out.

  4. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from 1FGL J2001.1 4351 by MAGIC

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Karsten; Paneque, David; Giavitto, Gianluca; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2012-05-07

    We report the discovery of Very High Energy (VHE; >100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from the source 1FGL J2001.1+4351, (RA 20 01 13.5, dec 43 53 02.8, J2000), which is positionally consistent with the location of the flat spectrum radio source MG4 J200112+4352 (RA 20 01 12.9, dec 43 52 52.8, J2000). The VHE detection is based on a 1.5 hour-long observation performed on July 16th in stereoscopic mode with the two 17m diameter imaging Cherenkov telescopes on La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. The preliminary analysis of the MAGIC data using the standard cuts optimized for soft energy spectra sources yields a detection of 125 gamma-rays above 90 GeV, corresponding to a pre-trail statistical significance of 7.6 standard deviations. The observed flux is estimated to be {approx}20% of the Crab nebula flux above 100 GeV. Earlier MAGIC observations indicated a substantially lower flux; hence indicating that the source is variable on a few days timescale.

  5. Spectral and Atomic Physics Analysis of Xenon L-Shell Emission From High Energy Laser Produced Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorn, Daniel; Kemp, G. E.; Widmann, K.; Benjamin, R. D.; May, M. J.; Colvin, J. D.; Barrios, M. A.; Fournier, K. B.; Liedahl, D.; Moore, A. S.; Blue, B. E.

    2016-10-01

    The spectrum of the L-shell (n =2) radiation in mid to high-Z ions is useful for probing plasma conditions in the multi-keV temperature range. Xenon in particular with its L-shell radiation centered around 4.5 keV is copiously produced from plasmas with electron temperatures in the 5-10 keV range. We report on a series of time-resolved L-shell Xe spectra measured with the NIF X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) in high-energy long-pulse (>10 ns) laser produced plasmas at the National Ignition Facility. The resolving power of the NXS is sufficiently high (E/ ∂E >100) in the 4-5 keV spectral band that the emission from different charge states is observed. An analysis of the time resolved L-shell spectrum of Xe is presented along with spectral modeling by detailed radiation transport and atomic physics from the SCRAM code and comparison with predictions from HYDRA a radiation-hydrodynamics code with inline atomic-physics from CRETIN. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Mechanism of multiple grating formation in high-energy recording of holographic sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Yetisen, Ali K. Yun, Seok Hyun; Montelongo, Yunuen; Farandos, Nicholas M.; Naydenova, Izabela; Lowe, Christopher R.

    2014-12-29

    We report numerical analyses of Bragg diffraction by Denisyuk reflection holograms recorded by a high-energy pulsed laser. An intensity threshold must be passed to pattern a multilayer reflection and transmission hologram, which exhibits a nonlinear fringe structure. Numerical evaluations are provided for the laser light intensity, readout diffraction offset angle, transmission of the layer, and thickness of the polymer matrix during hologram recording. A non-sinusoidal surface pattern is formed at the top of the multilayer structure, and its effect on the diffraction properties of the structure becomes significant when the recording tilt angle is increased. Experimental results show that the angle of the diffracted light increases nonlinearly according to the tilt geometry in grating formation.

  7. Detection of very-high energy γ-ray emission from NGC 1275 by the MAGIC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Caneva, G.; de Cea Del Pozo, E.; de Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jogler, T.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Paiano, S.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puerto Gimenez, I.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Pfrommer, C.; Pinzke, A.

    2012-03-01

    We report on the detection of very-high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emission from NGC 1275, the central radio galaxy of the Perseus cluster of galaxies. The source has been detected by the MAGIC telescopes with a statistical significance of 6.6σ above 100 GeV in 46 h of stereo observations carried out between August 2010 and February 2011. The measured differential energy spectrum between 70 GeV and 500 GeV can be described by a power law with a steep spectral index of Γ = -4.1 ± 0.7stat ± 0.3syst, and the average flux above 100 GeV is Fγ = (1.3 ± 0.2stat ± 0.3syst) × 10-11 cm-2 s-1. These results, combined with the power-law spectrum measured in the first two years of observations by the Fermi-LAT above 100 MeV, with a spectral index of Γ ≃ - 2.1, strongly suggest the presence of a break or cut-off around tens of GeV in the NGC 1275 spectrum. The light curve of the source above 100 GeV does not show hints of variability on a month time scale. Finally, we report on the nondetection in the present data of the radio galaxy IC 310, previously discovered by the Fermi-LAT and MAGIC. The derived flux upper limit FU.L.γ (>300 GeV) = 1.2 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 is a factor ~ 3 lower than the mean flux measured by MAGIC between October 2009 and February 2010, thus confirming the year time-scale variability of the source at VHE.

  8. High-energy chemistry of formamide: a unified mechanism of nucleobase formation.

    PubMed

    Ferus, Martin; Nesvorný, David; Šponer, Jiří; Kubelík, Petr; Michalčíková, Regina; Shestivská, Violetta; Šponer, Judit E; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2015-01-20

    The coincidence of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) period and the emergence of terrestrial life about 4 billion years ago suggest that extraterrestrial impacts could contribute to the synthesis of the building blocks of the first life-giving molecules. We simulated the high-energy synthesis of nucleobases from formamide during the impact of an extraterrestrial body. A high-power laser has been used to induce the dielectric breakdown of the plasma produced by the impact. The results demonstrate that the initial dissociation of the formamide molecule could produce a large amount of highly reactive CN and NH radicals, which could further react with formamide to produce adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. Based on GC-MS, high-resolution FTIR spectroscopic results, as well as theoretical calculations, we present a comprehensive mechanistic model, which accounts for all steps taking place in the studied impact chemistry. Our findings thus demonstrate that extraterrestrial impacts, which were one order of magnitude more abundant during the LHB period than before and after, could not only destroy the existing ancient life forms, but could also contribute to the creation of biogenic molecules.

  9. High-energy chemistry of formamide: A unified mechanism of nucleobase formation

    PubMed Central

    Ferus, Martin; Nesvorný, David; Šponer, Jiří; Kubelík, Petr; Michalčíková, Regina; Shestivská, Violetta; Šponer, Judit E.; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2015-01-01

    The coincidence of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) period and the emergence of terrestrial life about 4 billion years ago suggest that extraterrestrial impacts could contribute to the synthesis of the building blocks of the first life-giving molecules. We simulated the high-energy synthesis of nucleobases from formamide during the impact of an extraterrestrial body. A high-power laser has been used to induce the dielectric breakdown of the plasma produced by the impact. The results demonstrate that the initial dissociation of the formamide molecule could produce a large amount of highly reactive CN and NH radicals, which could further react with formamide to produce adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil. Based on GC-MS, high-resolution FTIR spectroscopic results, as well as theoretical calculations, we present a comprehensive mechanistic model, which accounts for all steps taking place in the studied impact chemistry. Our findings thus demonstrate that extraterrestrial impacts, which were one order of magnitude more abundant during the LHB period than before and after, could not only destroy the existing ancient life forms, but could also contribute to the creation of biogenic molecules. PMID:25489115

  10. High-energy X-ray detection of G359.89–0.08 (SGR A–E): Magnetic flux tube emission powered by cosmic rays?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Mori, Kaya; Nynka, Melania; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Tomsick, John A.; Christensen, Finn E.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-03-20

    We report the first detection of high-energy X-ray (E > 10 keV) emission from the Galactic center non-thermal filament G359.89–0.08 (Sgr A–E) using data acquired with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). The bright filament was detected up to ∼50 keV during a NuSTAR Galactic center monitoring campaign. The featureless power-law spectrum with a photon index Γ ≈ 2.3 confirms a non-thermal emission mechanism. The observed flux in the 3-79 keV band is F{sub X} = (2.0 ± 0.1) × 10{sup –12} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, corresponding to an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity L{sub X} = (2.6 ± 0.8) × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1} assuming a distance of 8.0 kpc. Based on theoretical predictions and observations, we conclude that Sgr A–E is unlikely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) or supernova remnant-molecular cloud (SNR-MC) interaction, as previously hypothesized. Instead, the emission could be due to a magnetic flux tube which traps TeV electrons. We propose two possible TeV electron sources: old PWNe (up to ∼100 kyr) with low surface brightness and radii up to ∼30 pc or MCs illuminated by cosmic rays (CRs) from CR accelerators such as SNRs or Sgr A*.

  11. NuSTAR detection of high-energy X-ray emission and rapid variability from Sagittarius A{sup *} flares

    SciTech Connect

    Barrière, Nicolas M.; Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Zoglauer, Andreas; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Christensen, Finn E.; Dexter, Jason; Grefenstette, Brian; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Zhang, Shuo; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-05-01

    Sagittarius A{sup *} harbors the supermassive black hole that lies at the dynamical center of our Galaxy. Sagittarius A{sup *} spends most of its time in a low luminosity emission state but flares frequently in the infrared and X-ray, increasing up to a few hundred fold in brightness for up to a few hours at a time. The physical processes giving rise to the X-ray flares are uncertain. Here we report the detection with the NuSTAR observatory in Summer and Fall 2012 of four low to medium amplitude X-ray flares to energies up to 79 keV. For the first time, we clearly see that the power-law spectrum of Sagittarius A{sup *} X-ray flares extends to high energy, with no evidence for a cutoff. Although the photon index of the absorbed power-law fits are in agreement with past observations, we find a difference between the photon index of two of the flares (significant at the 95% confidence level). The spectra of the two brightest flares (∼55 times quiescence in the 2-10 keV band) are compared to simple physical models in an attempt to identify the main X-ray emission mechanism, but the data do not allow us to significantly discriminate between them. However, we confirm the previous finding that the parameters obtained with synchrotron models are, for the X-ray emission, physically more reasonable than those obtained with inverse Compton models. One flare exhibits large and rapid (<100 s) variability, which, considering the total energy radiated, constrains the location of the flaring region to be within ∼10 Schwarzschild radii of the black hole.

  12. NuSTAR Detection of High-Energy X-Ray Emission and Rapid Variability from Sagittarius A(star) Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barriere, Nicolas M.; Tomsick, John A.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Dexter, Jason; Grefenstette, Brian; Hailey, Charles J.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Sagittarius A(star) harbors the supermassive black hole that lies at the dynamical center of our Galaxy. Sagittarius A(star) spends most of its time in a low luminosity emission state but flares frequently in the infrared and X-ray, increasing up to a few hundred fold in brightness for up to a few hours at a time. The physical processes giving rise to the X-ray flares are uncertain. Here we report the detection with the NuSTAR observatory in Summer and Fall 2012 of four low to medium amplitude X-ray flares to energies up to 79 keV. For the first time, we clearly see that the power-law spectrum of Sagittarius A(star) X-ray flares extends to high energy, with no evidence for a cut off. Although the photon index of the absorbed power-law fits are in agreement with past observations, we find a difference between the photon index of two of the flares (significant at the 95% confidence level). The spectra of the two brightest flares (approx. 55 times quiescence in the 2- 10 keV band) are compared to simple physical models in an attempt to identify the main X-ray emission mechanism, but the data do not allow us to significantly discriminate between them. However, we confirm the previous finding that the parameters obtained with synchrotron models are, for the X-ray emission, physically more reasonable than those obtained with inverse-Compton models. One flare exhibits large and rapid (less than 100 s) variability, which, considering the total energy radiated, constrains the location of the flaring region to be within approx. 10 Schwarzschild radii of the black hole.

  13. First limits on the very-high energy gamma-ray afterglow emission of a fast radio burst. H.E.S.S. observations of FRB 150418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arakawa, M.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Büchele, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Coffaro, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; Dewilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'c.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katsuragawa, M.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Nakashima, S.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Richter, S.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, S.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seglar-Arroyo, M.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Takahashi, T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tsuji, N.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.; Superb Collaboration; Jankowski, F.; Keane, E. F.; Petroff, E.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Following the detection of the fast radio burst FRB150418 by the SUPERB project at the Parkes radio telescope, we aim to search for very-high energy gamma-ray afterglow emission. Methods: Follow-up observations in the very-high energy gamma-ray domain were obtained with the H.E.S.S. imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope system within 14.5 h of the radio burst. Results: The obtained 1.4 h of gamma-ray observations are presented and discussed. At the 99% C.L. we obtained an integral upper limit on the gamma-ray flux of Φγ(E > 350 GeV) < 1.33 × 10-8 m-2 s-1. Differential flux upper limits as function of the photon energy were derived and used to constrain the intrinsic high-energy afterglow emission of FRB 150418. Conclusions: No hints for high-energy afterglow emission of FRB 150418 were found. Taking absorption on the extragalactic background light into account and assuming a distance of z = 0.492 based on radio and optical counterpart studies and consistent with the FRB dispersion, we constrain the gamma-ray luminosity at 1 TeV to L < 5.1 × 1047 erg/s at 99% C.L.

  14. GRB 110709A, 111117A, and 120107A: Faint High-energy Gamma-Ray Photon Emission from Fermi-LAT Observations and Demographic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Akerlof, Carl W.; Pandey, Shashi B.; McKay, Timothy A.; Zhang, BinBin; Zhang, Bing; Sakamoto, Takanori

    2012-09-01

    Launched on 2008 June 11, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided a rare opportunity to study high-energy photon emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although the majority of such events (27) have been identified by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration, four were uncovered by using more sensitive statistical techniques. In this paper, we continue our earlier work by finding three more GRBs associated with high-energy photon emission, GRB 110709A, 111117A, and 120107A. To systematize our matched filter approach, a pipeline has been developed to identify these objects in nearly real time. GRB 120107A is the first product of this analysis procedure. Despite the reduced threshold for identification, the number of GRB events has not increased significantly. This relative dearth of events with low photon number prompted a study of the apparent photon number distribution. We find an extremely good fit to a simple power law with an exponent of -1.8 ± 0.3 for the differential distribution. As might be expected, there is a substantial correlation between the number of lower energy photons detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and the number observed by LAT. Thus, high-energy photon emission is associated with some but not all of the brighter GBM events. Deeper studies of the properties of the small population of high-energy emitting bursts may eventually yield a better understanding of these entire phenomena.

  15. GRB 110709A, 111117A, AND 120107A: FAINT HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY PHOTON EMISSION FROM FERMI-LAT OBSERVATIONS AND DEMOGRAPHIC IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Weikang; Akerlof, Carl W.; McKay, Timothy A.; Pandey, Shashi B.; Zhang Binbin; Zhang Bing; Sakamoto, Takanori

    2012-09-01

    Launched on 2008 June 11, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided a rare opportunity to study high-energy photon emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although the majority of such events (27) have been identified by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration, four were uncovered by using more sensitive statistical techniques. In this paper, we continue our earlier work by finding three more GRBs associated with high-energy photon emission, GRB 110709A, 111117A, and 120107A. To systematize our matched filter approach, a pipeline has been developed to identify these objects in nearly real time. GRB 120107A is the first product of this analysis procedure. Despite the reduced threshold for identification, the number of GRB events has not increased significantly. This relative dearth of events with low photon number prompted a study of the apparent photon number distribution. We find an extremely good fit to a simple power law with an exponent of -1.8 {+-} 0.3 for the differential distribution. As might be expected, there is a substantial correlation between the number of lower energy photons detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and the number observed by LAT. Thus, high-energy photon emission is associated with some but not all of the brighter GBM events. Deeper studies of the properties of the small population of high-energy emitting bursts may eventually yield a better understanding of these entire phenomena.

  16. Overview of reaction mechanisms for calculating the high energy component of fast-nucleon induced gamma spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, F.S.

    1995-02-21

    This presentation reviews the current status of quantum mechanical models for understanding the high-energy component of gamma spectra resulting from radiative capture of fast nucleons; i.e., the part of the spectrum that is not amenable to standard statistical model (Hauser-Feshbach) treatments. These models are based on the direct-semidirect (DSD) model and its variants. Included are recent results on the extension of the DSD model to unbound final states, a discussion of problems and improvements in understanding the form factors in this model, and a brief discussion of a model closely related to the DSD, the pure-resonance model.

  17. Synthesis of Nanostructured GAMMA-TiAl Based Powders and Bulk Alloys Using High Energy Mechanical Milling and Hip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongbao; Zhang, Deliang; Chen, Yuyong; Liu, Zhiguang

    The microstructural evolution and powder particle morphology change in the process used to synthesize bulk nanostructured γ-TiAl intermetallic based binary Ti-47Al (in at%) alloy (TA-1) and complex Ti-45Al-2Cr-2Nb-1B-0.5Ta (in at%) alloy (TA-2) have been studied. This process combines high energy mechanical milling of elemental powder mixtures, thermal treatment and HIP. The bulk alloys consist of predominantly TiAl phase and a small fraction of Ti3Al phase, with the average grain sizes of the TiAl and Ti3Al phases being approximately 45nm and 40nm respectively in the bulk TA-1 alloy and being 37nm and 35nm respectively in the bulk TA-2 alloy. The study also shows that addition of a small fraction of hard powder particles such as Nb, Cr, B and Ta powder particles to the starting powder mixture has a significant effect in maintaining a small average particle size during high energy mechanical milling without using PCA and thus significantly enhances the mechanical alloying effect of the milling process.

  18. Effects of high energy radiation on the mechanical properties of epoxy/graphite fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fornes, R. E.; Gilbert, R. D.; Memory, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The epoxy resin system formed by tetraglycidyl 4,4'-diamino diphenyl methane (TGDDM) and 4,4'-diamino diphenyl sulfone (DDS) was characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Dynamic mechanical properties of graphite fiber epoxy composite specimens formulated with two different adhesive systems (NARMCO 5208, NARMCO 5209) were determined. The specimens were exposed to varying dose levels of ionizing radiation (0.5 MeV electrons) with a maximum absorbed dose of 10,000 Mrads. Following irradiation, property measurements were made to assess the influence of radiation on the epoxy and composite specimens. The results established that ionizing radiation has a limited effect on the properties of epoxy and composite specimens.

  19. Very high energy gamma-ray emission from SHBL J001355.9-185406 detected by HESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, W.

    2010-11-01

    The AGN SHBL J001355.9-185406 (z=0.095), selected from a list of extremely high X-ray to radio flux ratio targets in the Sedentary High energy peaked BL Lac catalog (Giommi et al. 2005, A&A, 434, 385), has been detected by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). Using published advanced analysis methods a statistical significance of more than 5 standard deviations above 300 GeV is found in 38 hours of live time taken between July 2008 and August 2010.

  20. Effects of high energy radiation on the mechanical properties of epoxy-graphite fiber reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fornes, R. E.; Gilbert, R. D.; Memory, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    In an effort to elucidate the changes in molecular structural and mechanical properties of epoxy/graphite fiber composites upon exposure to ionizing radiation in a simulated space environment, spectroscopic and surface properties of tetraglycidyl-4,4'-diamino diphenyl methane (TGDDM) red with diamino diphenyl sulfone (DDS) and T-300 graphite fiber were investigated following exposure to ionizing radiation. Cobalt-60 gamma radiation and 1/2 MeV electrons were used as radiation sources. The system was studied using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, infrared absorption spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis.

  1. High energy emission of GRB 130821A: Constraining the density profile of the circum-burst medium as well as the initial Lorentz factor of the outflow

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Yun-Feng; Zhou, Bei; He, Hao-Ning; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming; Tam, Pak-Hin Thomas

    2014-02-01

    GRB 130821A was detected by Fermi-GBM/LAT, Konus-WIND, SPI-ACS/INTEGRAL, RHESSI and Mars Odyssey-HEND. Although the data of GRB 130821A are very limited, we show in this work that the high energy γ-ray emission (i.e., above 100 MeV) alone imposes tight constraint on the density profile of the circum-burst medium as well as the initial Lorentz factor of the outflow. The temporal behavior of the high energy γ-ray emission is consistent with the forward shock synchrotron radiation model, and the circum-burst medium likely has a constant-density profile. The Lorentz factor is about a few hundred, similar to other bright GRBs.

  2. Radio imaging of the very-high-energy gamma-ray emission region in the central engine of a radio galaxy.

    PubMed

    Acciari, V A; Aliu, E; Arlen, T; Bautista, M; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Butt, Y; Byrum, K; Cannon, A; Celik, O; Cesarini, A; Chow, Y C; Ciupik, L; Cogan, P; Cui, W; Dickherber, R; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Gall, D; Gillanders, G H; Grube, J; Guenette, R; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Horan, D; Hui, C M; Humensky, T B; Imran, A; Kaaret, P; Karlsson, N; Kieda, D; Kildea, J; Konopelko, A; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; LeBohec, S; Maier, G; McCann, A; McCutcheon, M; Millis, J; Moriarty, P; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Pandel, D; Perkins, J S; Petry, D; Pohl, M; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Roache, E; Roache, E; Rose, H J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Smith, A W; Swordy, S P; Theiling, M; Toner, J A; Varlotta, A; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Ward, J E; Weekes, T C; Weinstein, A; Williams, D A; Wissel, S; Wood, M; Walker, R C; Davies, F; Hardee, P E; Junor, W; Ly, C; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Barres de Almeida, U; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Becherini, Y; Behera, B; Bernlöhr, K; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Borrel, V; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bühler, R; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Chounet, L-M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Feinstein, F; Fiasson, A; Förster, A; Fontaine, G; Füssling, M; Gabici, S; Gallant, Y A; Gérard, L; Gerbig, D; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Göhring, D; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; de Jager, O C; Jahn, C; Jung, I; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Kendziorra, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Khangulyan, D; Khélifi, B; Keogh, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Lamanna, G; Lenain, J-P; Lohse, T; Marandon, V; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Maurin, D; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J-F; de Oña Wilhelmi, E; Orford, K J; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Paz Arribas, M; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P-O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Renaud, M; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schöck, F M; Schröder, R; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sikora, M; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Superina, G; Szostek, A; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J-P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Tluczykont, M; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Venter, L; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Anderhub, H; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Backes, M; Baixeras, C; Balestra, S; Barrio, J A; Bastieri, D; Becerra González, J; Becker, J K; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Bock, R K; Bonnoli, G; Bordas, P; Borla Tridon, D; Bosch-Ramon, V; Bose, D; Braun, I; Bretz, T; Britvitch, I; Camara, M; Carmona, E; Commichau, S; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Costado, M T; Covino, S; Curtef, V; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Cea del Pozo, E; Delgado Mendez, C; De los Reyes, R; De Lotto, B; De Maria, M; De Sabata, F; Dominguez, A; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Elsaesser, D; Errando, M; Ferenc, D; Fernández, E; Firpo, R; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Galante, N; García López, R J; Garczarczyk, M; Gaug, M; Goebel, F; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Höhne-Mönch, D; Hose, J; Hsu, C C; Jogler, T; Kranich, D; La Barbera, A; Laille, A; Leonardo, E; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; Longo, F; López, M; Lorenz, E; Majumdar, P; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Miyamoto, H; Moldón, J; Moles, M; Moralejo, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Ninkovic, J; Oya, I; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Pasanen, M; Pascoli, D; Pauss, F; Pegna, R G; Perez-Torres, M A; Persic, M; Peruzzo, L; Prada, F; Prandini, E; Puchades, N; Reichardt, I; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rissi, M; Robert, A; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Sanchez-Conde, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schweizer, T; Shayduk, M; Shore, S N; Sidro, N; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamerra, A; Stark, L S; Takalo, L; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Torres, D F; Turini, N; Vankov, H; Wagner, R M; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Zapatero, J

    2009-07-24

    The accretion of matter onto a massive black hole is believed to feed the relativistic plasma jets found in many active galactic nuclei (AGN). Although some AGN accelerate particles to energies exceeding 10(12) electron volts and are bright sources of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission, it is not yet known where the VHE emission originates. Here we report on radio and VHE observations of the radio galaxy Messier 87, revealing a period of extremely strong VHE gamma-ray flares accompanied by a strong increase of the radio flux from its nucleus. These results imply that charged particles are accelerated to very high energies in the immediate vicinity of the black hole.

  3. Characterization of Al and Fe nanosized powders synthesized by high energy mechanical milling

    SciTech Connect

    Mhadhbi, Mohsen; Khitouni, Mohamed Azabou, Myriam; Kolsi, Abdelwaheb

    2008-07-15

    The process of nanocrystalline structure formation during mechanical milling was studied in Al and Fe powders. A detailed microstructural study of powder samples was carried out by X-ray diffraction experiments as a function of milling time. As a result, nanosized powders have been synthesized with microstructures showing a significant decrease of the coherent diffraction domains and the creation of a large number of linear defects, which induce microstrains. SEM results show that welding of very small particles to the surfaces of larger particles occurred and that the powder particles tended to form a matrix of randomly welded thin layers of highly deformed particles. Calorimetric measurements, as a function of milling time, indicated the decrease of the melting point of Al powder and at early stages it can be seen that initially endothermic peak was divided to two endothermic melting peaks. This is probably due to the oxide layer around the Al grains. In the case of Fe powder, the DSC measurements show a broad exothermal peak occurring over quite a large temperature interval, corresponding to the strain release and grain growth.

  4. Investigation of the 2p_{32}-3d_{52} line emission of Au;{53+}-Au;{69+} for diagnosing high energy density plasmas.

    PubMed

    Brown, G V; Hansen, S B; Träbert, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Widmann, K; Chen, H; Chung, H K; Clementson, J H T; Gu, M F; Thorn, D B

    2008-06-01

    Measurements of the L -shell emission of highly charged gold ions were made under controlled laboratory conditions using the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap, allowing detailed spectral observations of lines from Fe-like Au53+ through Ne-like Au69+ . Using atomic data from the Flexible Atomic Code, we have identified strong 3d_{52}-->2p_{32} emission features that can be used to diagnose the charge state distribution in high energy density plasmas, such as those found in the laser entrance hole of hot hohlraum radiation sources. We provide collisional-radiative calculations of the average ion charge Z as a function of temperature and density, which can be used to relate charge state distributions inferred from 3d_{52}-->2p_{32} emission features to plasma conditions, and investigate the effects of plasma density on calculated L -shell Au emission spectra.

  5. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-10

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  6. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Mechanism of high-energy electron production in a laser plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, V. S.

    2004-01-01

    A mechanism of high-energy electron production in the interaction of high-intensity short laser pulses with a solid target is proposed and analysed. The theoretical dependences of fast-electron kinetic energy on the parameters of laser radiation and target material are given. The effect of ionisation of the target material is considered. The generation of ultrastrong magnetic fields in the laser plasma is shown to play the key part in the formation, transfer, and acceleration of electron beams. This results in the production of vortex electric fields accelerating electrons. The theoretical dependences yield well-proved limits for the electron energy and are in good agreement with the results of experiments performed on high-intensity laser setups, including the results obtained with participation of the author.

  7. ON THE IMPLICATIONS OF LATE INTERNAL DISSIPATION FOR SHALLOW-DECAY AFTERGLOW EMISSION AND ASSOCIATED HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY SIGNALS

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, Kohta; Toma, Kenji; Meszaros, Peter; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2011-05-10

    The origin of the shallow-decay emission during early X-ray afterglows has been an open issue since the launch of the Swift satellite. One of the appealing models is the late internal dissipation model, where X-ray emission during the shallow-decay phase is attributed to internal dissipation, analogous to the prompt gamma-ray emission. We discuss possible scenarios of the late prompt emission, such as late internal shocks, magnetic reconnection, and photospheric dissipation. We also consider the consequences of late dissipation and a two-component (early and late) jet model for the high-energy (GeV-TeV) emission. We study not only synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission from the early and late jets but also external inverse-Compton (EIC) emission, which is naturally predicted in the late dissipation model. For the latter, we perform numerical calculations taking into account the equal-arrival-time surface of EIC photons and show that the EIC component typically has a peak at {approx}1-100 GeV which may dominate over the SSC components. We demonstrate that very high energy gamma rays from both these components are detectable for nearby and/or energetic gamma-ray bursts, with current and future Cherenkov detectors such as MAGIC, VERITAS, CTA, and HAWC, and possibly Fermi. Although the expected event rate would not be large, detections should be useful as a test of the model. Multi-wavelength observations using both the ground-based telescopes and the Swift and/or Fermi satellites are also important to constrain the models.

  8. Imaging of high-energy x-ray emission from cryogenic thermonuclear fuel implosions on the NIF.

    PubMed

    Ma, T; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Bradley, D K; Bell, P; Cerjan, C J; Dixit, S; Döppner, T; Jones, O; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G; Landen, O L; LePape, S; Mackinnon, A J; Park, H-S; Patel, P K; Prasad, R R; Ralph, J; Regan, S P; Smalyuk, V A; Springer, P T; Suter, L; Town, R P J; Weber, S V; Glenzer, S H

    2012-10-01

    Accurately assessing and optimizing the implosion performance of inertial confinement fusion capsules is a crucial step to achieving ignition on the NIF. We have applied differential filtering (matched Ross filter pairs) to provide broadband time-integrated absolute x-ray self-emission images of the imploded core of cryogenic layered implosions. This diagnostic measures the temperature- and density-sensitive bremsstrahlung emission and provides estimates of hot spot mass, mix mass, and pressure.

  9. Enhanced high-energy gamma-ray emission from the microquasar Cygnus X-3 detected by Fermi/LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Alan; Corbel, Stephane

    2017-02-01

    Following the recent decrease of the hard X-ray emission from the high-mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-3 as seen by the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (https://swift.gsfc.nasa.gov/results/transients/CygX-3/), the Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed significant gamma-ray emission originating from the microquasar.

  10. Detection of very high energy gamma-ray emission from the gravitationally lensed blazar QSO B0218+357 with the MAGIC telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Arcaro, C.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Buson, S.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Clavero, R.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Verguilov, V.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Zanin, R.; Desiante, R.

    2016-11-04

    QSO B0218+357 is a gravitationally lensed blazar located at a redshift of 0.944. The gravitational lensing splits the emitted radiation into two components that are spatially indistinguishable by gamma-ray instruments, but separated by a 10–12 day delay. In July 2014, QSO B0218+357 experienced a violent flare observed by the Fermi-LAT and followed by the MAGIC telescopes. The spectral energy distribution of QSO B0218+357 can give information on the energetics of z ~ 1 very high energy gamma-ray sources. Furthermore, the gamma-ray emission can also be used as a probe of the extragalactic background light at z ~ 1. MAGIC performed observations of QSO B0218+357 during the expected arrival time of the delayed component of the emission. The MAGIC and Fermi-LAT observations were accompanied by quasi-simultaneous optical data from the KVA telescope and X-ray observations by Swift-XRT. We construct a multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of QSO B0218+357 and use it to model the source. The GeV and sub-TeV data obtained by Fermi-LAT and MAGIC are used to set constraints on the extragalactic background light. We detected very high energy gamma-ray emission from the direction of QSO B0218+357 by the MAGIC telescopes during the expected time of arrival of the trailing component of the flare, making it the farthest very high energy gamma-ray source detected to date. We also observed emission spans the energy range from 65 to 175 GeV. The combined MAGIC and Fermi-LAT spectral energy distribution of QSO B0218+357 is consistent with current extragalactic background light models. The broadband emission can be modeled in the framework of a two-zone external Compton scenario, where the GeV emission comes from an emission region in the jet, located outside the broad line region.

  11. Detection of very high energy gamma-ray emission from the gravitationally lensed blazar QSO B0218+357 with the MAGIC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Arcaro, C.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Buson, S.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Clavero, R.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Verguilov, V.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Zanin, R.; Desiante, R.

    2016-11-01

    Context. QSO B0218+357 is a gravitationally lensed blazar located at a redshift of 0.944. The gravitational lensing splits the emitted radiation into two components that are spatially indistinguishable by gamma-ray instruments, but separated by a 10-12 day delay. In July 2014, QSO B0218+357 experienced a violent flare observed by the Fermi-LAT and followed by the MAGIC telescopes. Aims: The spectral energy distribution of QSO B0218+357 can give information on the energetics of z 1 very high energy gamma-ray sources. Moreover the gamma-ray emission can also be used as a probe of the extragalactic background light at z 1. Methods: MAGIC performed observations of QSO B0218+357 during the expected arrival time of the delayed component of the emission. The MAGIC and Fermi-LAT observations were accompanied by quasi-simultaneous optical data from the KVA telescope and X-ray observations by Swift-XRT. We construct a multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of QSO B0218+357 and use it to model the source. The GeV and sub-TeV data obtained by Fermi-LAT and MAGIC are used to set constraints on the extragalactic background light. Results: Very high energy gamma-ray emission was detected from the direction of QSO B0218+357 by the MAGIC telescopes during the expected time of arrival of the trailing component of the flare, making it the farthest very high energy gamma-ray source detected to date. The observed emission spans the energy range from 65 to 175 GeV. The combined MAGIC and Fermi-LAT spectral energy distribution of QSO B0218+357 is consistent with current extragalactic background light models. The broadband emission can be modeled in the framework of a two-zone external Compton scenario, where the GeV emission comes from an emission region in the jet, located outside the broad line region.

  12. Detection of very high energy gamma-ray emission from the gravitationally lensed blazar QSO B0218+357 with the MAGIC telescopes

    DOE PAGES

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; ...

    2016-11-04

    QSO B0218+357 is a gravitationally lensed blazar located at a redshift of 0.944. The gravitational lensing splits the emitted radiation into two components that are spatially indistinguishable by gamma-ray instruments, but separated by a 10–12 day delay. In July 2014, QSO B0218+357 experienced a violent flare observed by the Fermi-LAT and followed by the MAGIC telescopes. The spectral energy distribution of QSO B0218+357 can give information on the energetics of z ~ 1 very high energy gamma-ray sources. Furthermore, the gamma-ray emission can also be used as a probe of the extragalactic background light at z ~ 1. MAGIC performedmore » observations of QSO B0218+357 during the expected arrival time of the delayed component of the emission. The MAGIC and Fermi-LAT observations were accompanied by quasi-simultaneous optical data from the KVA telescope and X-ray observations by Swift-XRT. We construct a multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of QSO B0218+357 and use it to model the source. The GeV and sub-TeV data obtained by Fermi-LAT and MAGIC are used to set constraints on the extragalactic background light. We detected very high energy gamma-ray emission from the direction of QSO B0218+357 by the MAGIC telescopes during the expected time of arrival of the trailing component of the flare, making it the farthest very high energy gamma-ray source detected to date. We also observed emission spans the energy range from 65 to 175 GeV. The combined MAGIC and Fermi-LAT spectral energy distribution of QSO B0218+357 is consistent with current extragalactic background light models. The broadband emission can be modeled in the framework of a two-zone external Compton scenario, where the GeV emission comes from an emission region in the jet, located outside the broad line region.« less

  13. A System for Conducting Sophisticated Mechanical Tests in Situ with High Energy Synchrotron X-Rays Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jeremy Weiss

    2012-08-02

    This is the final technical report for the SBIR Phase I project titled 'A System for Conducting Sophisticated Mechanical Tests in Situ with High Energy Synchrotron X-Rays.' Experiments using diffraction of synchrotron radiation that help scientists understand engineering material failure modes, such as fracture and fatigue, require specialized machinery. This machinery must be able to induce these failure modes in a material specimen while adhering to strict size, weight, and geometric limitations prescribed by diffraction measurement techniques. During this Phase I project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) developed one such machine capable of applying uniaxial mechanical loading to a material specimen in both tension and compression, with zero backlash while transitioning between the two. Engineers currently compensate for a lack of understanding of fracture and fatigue by employing factors of safety in crucial system components. Thus, mechanical and structural parts are several times bigger, thicker, and heavier than they need to be. The scientific discoveries that result from diffraction experiments which utilize sophisticated mechanical loading devices will allow for broad material, weight, fuel, and cost savings in engineering design across all industries, while reducing the number of catastrophic failures in transportation, power generation, infrastructure, and all other engineering systems. With an existing load frame as the starting point, the research focused on two main areas: (1) the design of a specimen alignment and gripping system that enables pure uniaxial tension and compression loading (and no bending, shear, or torsion), and (2) development of a feedback control system that is adaptive and thus can maintain a load set point despite changing specimen material properties (e.g. a decreasing stiffness during yield).

  14. Observational Signatures of High-Energy Emission during the Shallow Decay Phase of Gamma-Ray Burst X-Ray Afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y. W.; Liu, X. W.; Dai, Z. G.

    2007-12-01

    The widely existing shallow decay phase of the X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is generally accepted to be due to long-lasting energy injection. The outflows carrying the injecting energy, based on the component that is dominant in energy, fall into two possible types: baryon-dominated and lepton-dominated ones. The former type of outflow could be ejecta that is ejected during the prompt phase of a GRB and consists of a series of baryonic shells with a distribution of Lorentz factors, and the latter type could be an electron-positron pair wind that is driven by the postburst central engine. We here provide a unified description for the dynamics of fireballs based on these two types of energy injection and calculate the corresponding high-energy photon emission by considering synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton scattering (including synchrotron self-Compton and combined inverse Compton) of electrons. We find that, in the two energy-injection models, there is a plateau (even a hump) in high-energy light curves during the X-ray shallow decay phase. In particular, a considerable fraction of the injecting energy in the lepton-dominated model can be shared by the long-lasting reverse shock since it is relativistic. Furthermore, almost all of the energy of the reverse shock is carried by leptons, and thus, the inverse Compton emission is enhanced dramatically. Therefore, this model predicts more significant high-energy afterglow emission than the baryon-dominated model. We argue that these observational signatures would be used to discriminate between different energy-injection models in the upcoming Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) era.

  15. Mössbauer analysis of high-energy mechanical-milled sand fraction of a magnetic soil developing on basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, José Flávio Marcelino; Hneda, Marlon Luiz; Brinatti, André Maurício; Cunha, João Batista Marimon da; Rosa, Jadir Aparecido; Fabris, José Domingos

    2011-11-01

    A sample of the coarse sand fraction from the soil material of the A-horizon (0-0.2 m from the soil surface) of a dusky red magnetic Oxisol was submitted to high-energy mechanical milling for different times. This assay aimed mainly at (a) monitoring the individualization of strongly aggregated mineral particles, and (b) measuring the effect of the milling pressure on the mineralogy changes of the material. These data are also intended to experimentally subside any physical model describing the mechanical behavior of the superficial soil layer that is subjected to intensive machine management, in agriculture fields. Powder X-ray data reveal that some mineralogical phases, notably gibbsite, disappear soon after the first few hours milling. The 298 K-transmission Mössbauer spectrum for the non-milled sand sample shows a qualitatively typical pattern for the sand fraction of basalt derived soils, with magnetically ordered sextets, assignable mainly to hematite and maghemite, and an intense central (super)paramagnetic Fe3 + doublet. For the milled samples, spectra revealed progressive spectral reduction of the magnetic hyperfine structure, with concomitant increase of relative subspectral areas due to (super)paramagnetic phases, as the milling time increased. This result is consistent with the reduction of measured saturation magnetization, from 4.96(8) J T - 1 kg - 1, for the non-milled sample, to 3.26(7) J T - 1 kg - 1, for the sample milled for 8 hours.

  16. A SEARCH FOR ENHANCED VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE 2013 MARCH CRAB NEBULA FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Archambault, S.; Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Dumm, J.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S. E-mail: gtrichards@gatech.edu; and others

    2014-01-20

    In 2013 March, a flaring episode from the Crab Nebula lasting ∼2 weeks was detected by Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope). The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) provides simultaneous observations throughout this period. During the flare, Fermi-LAT detected a 20 fold increase in flux above the average synchrotron flux >100 MeV seen from the Crab Nebula. Simultaneous measurements with VERITAS are consistent with the non-variable long-term average Crab Nebula flux at TeV energies. Assuming a linear correlation between the very high energy flux change >1 TeV and the flux change seen in the Fermi-LAT band >100 MeV during the period of simultaneous observations, the linear correlation factor can be constrained to be at most 8.6 × 10{sup –3} with 95% confidence.

  17. FERMI Observations of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from GRB 080825C

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Band, D. L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Chaplin, V.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Focke, W. B.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Gibby, L.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Goldstein, A.; Granot, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Komin, N.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kuehn, F.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McBreen, S.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meegan, C.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Preece, R.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Parkinson, P. M. Saz; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stamatikos, M.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; van der Horst, A. J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2009-11-24

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has opened a new high-energy window in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Here in this paper, we present a thorough analysis of GRB 080825C, which triggered the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), and was the first firm detection of a GRB by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We discuss the LAT event selections, background estimation, significance calculations, and localization for Fermi GRBs in general and GRB 080825C in particular. We show the results of temporal and time-resolved spectral analysis of the GBM and LAT data. Finally, we also present some theoretical interpretation of GRB 080825C observations as well as some common features observed in other LAT GRBs.

  18. Upconversion emissions from high-energy states of Eu3+ sensitized by Yb3+ and Ho3+ in β-NaYF4 microcrystals under 980 nm excitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Liu, Zhenyu; Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Dan; Qin, Guanshi; Qin, Weiping

    2011-12-05

    Under 980 nm excitation, multiple ultraviolet and visible upconversion luminescence from Ho3+ and Eu3+ ions were observed in Yb3+/Ho3+/Eu3+ tri-doped NaYF4 microcrystals (MCs). The high-energy states (5H3-7, 5L6, 5D3 and 5D2) of Eu3+ ions could be efficiently populated by two-step energy transfer (ET) processes of Yb → Ho → Eu. Four-, three-, two-photon UC processes of Eu3+ ions were confirmed by the dependence of 5H3-7, 5L6 and 5D0 levels emission intensities on the pumping power.

  19. What is learned from high energy bursts and flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneid, Edward J.

    1990-01-01

    The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) with its large Nal Total Absorption Shower Counter (TASC) has the scientific capability of performing spectroscopy of high energy cosmic gamma ray bursts and solar flares. EGRET, with a spectroscopy energy range from 0.6 to 140 MeV, provides an opportunity to increase the understanding of the high energy mechanisms of gamma ray bursts and solar flares. A likely interpretation of gamma ray burst sources is that they are rotating, magnetized neutron stars. High magnetic fields can influence the emission of high energy gamma rays, so observational spectroscopic data at high energies can provide information on the upper limits of the magnetic fields in the GRB regions of magnetized neutron stars. Likewise, spectroscopy of high energy gamma rays can provide information useful for deriving the flare proton spectrum which in turn can lead to an understanding of high energy solar flare particle acceleration mechanisms.

  20. Detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the globular cluster 47 Tucanae with Fermi.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chaty, S; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dormody, M; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Sgrò, C; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Wang, P; Webb, N; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-08-14

    We report the detection of gamma-ray emissions above 200 megaelectron volts at a significance level of 17sigma from the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, using data obtained with the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Globular clusters are expected to emit gamma rays because of the large populations of millisecond pulsars that they contain. The spectral shape of 47 Tucanae is consistent with gamma-ray emission from a population of millisecond pulsars. The observed gamma-ray luminosity implies an upper limit of 60 millisecond pulsars present in 47 Tucanae.

  1. Discovery of very high energy γ-ray emission from the BL Lacertae object PKS 0301-243 with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2013-11-01

    The active galactic nucleus PKS 0301-243 (z = 0.266) is a high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lac object that is detected at high energies (HE, 100 MeV high energies (E > 100 GeV) by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) from observations between September 2009 and December 2011 for a total live time of 34.9 h. Gamma rays above 200 GeV are detected at a significance of 9.4σ. A hint of variability at the 2.5σ level is found. An integral flux I(E > 200 GeV) = (3.3 ± 1.1stat ± 0.7syst) × 10-12 ph cm-2 s-1 and a photon index Γ = 4.6 ± 0.7stat ± 0.2syst are measured. Multi-wavelength light curves in HE, X-ray and optical bands show strong variability, and a minimal variability timescale of eight days is estimated from the optical light curve. A single-zone leptonic synchrotron self-Compton scenario satisfactorily reproduces the multi-wavelength data. In this model, the emitting region is out of equipartition and the jet is particle dominated. Because of its high redshift compared to other sources observed at TeV energies, the very high energy emission from PKS 0301-243 is attenuated by the extragalactic background light (EBL) and the measured spectrum is used to derive an upper limit on the opacity of the EBL.

  2. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission in the W 28 (G6.4-0.1) Region and Multiwavelength Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Rowell, G.; Brion, E.; Reimer, O.; Moriguchi, Y.; Fukui, Yasuo; Djannati-Atai, A.; Funk, S.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-10-29

    H.E.S.S. observations of the old-age (>10{sup 4} yr; {approx} 0.5 degree diameter) composite supernova remnant (SNR)W28 reveal very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray emission situated at its northeastern and southern boundaries. The northeastern VHE source (HESS J1801-233) is in an area where W 28 is interacting with a dense molecular cloud, containing OH masers, local radio and X-ray peaks. The southern VHE sources (HESS J1800-240 with components labeled A, B and C) are found in a region occupied by several HII regions, including the ultracompact HII region W 28A2. Our analysis of NANTEN CO data reveals a dense molecular cloud enveloping this southern region, and our reanalysis of EGRET data reveals MeV/GeV emission centered on HESS J1801-233 and the northeastern interaction region.

  3. Elucidating the Irreversible Mechanism and Voltage Hysteresis in Conversion Reaction for High-Energy Sodium-Metal Sulfide Batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jiajun; Wang, Liguang; Eng, Christopher; ...

    2017-03-03

    We present that irreversible electrochemical behavior and large voltage hysteresis are commonly observed in battery materials, in particular for materials reacting through conversion reaction, resulting in undesirable round-trip energy loss and low coulombic efficiency. Seeking solutions to these challenges relies on the understanding of the underlying mechanism and physical origins. Here, this study combines in operando 2D transmission X-ray microscopy with X-ray absorption near edge structure, 3D tomography, and galvanostatic intermittent titration techniques to uncover the conversion reaction in sodium–metal sulfide batteries, a promising high-energy battery system. This study shows a high irreversible electrochemistry process predominately occurs at first cycle,more » which can be largely linked to Na ion trapping during the first desodiation process and large interfacial ion mobility resistance. Subsequently, phase transformation evolution and electrochemical reaction show good reversibility at multiple discharge/charge cycles due to materials' microstructural change and equilibrium. The origin of large hysteresis between discharge and charge is investigated and it can be attributed to multiple factors including ion mobility resistance at the two-phase interface, intrinsic slow sodium ion diffusion kinetics, and irreversibility as well as ohmic voltage drop and overpotential. In conclusion, this study expects that such understandings will help pave the way for engineering design and optimization of materials microstructure for future-generation batteries.« less

  4. Study of the nanocrystalline bulk Al alloys synthesized by high energy mechanical milling followed by room temperature high pressing consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhlouf, T.; Azabou, M.; Ghrib, M.; Ghrib, T.; Yacoubi, N.; Khitouni, M.

    2009-11-01

    In the present study high energy mechanical milling followed by high-pressing consolidation has been used to obtain bulk nanocrystalline Al-Fe-Si alloy. Quantitative XRD analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the material evolution during thermal treatments in the temperature range 25- 500∘ C. The cold-worked structure have been synthesized with microstructure showing a mixture of a significant low size of crystallite (70 nm) and a high level of lattice strains (0.85%). Starting from the nanocrystalline specimens, isochronal experiments were carried out to monitor the reserve microstructure and transformations. The high temperature annealing is required for ameliorating the quality of room temperature consolidated materials by removing all porosity and obtaining good interparticle bonding. The thermal conductivity and the thermal diffusivity are investigated with the Photothermal deflection technique. These thermal parameters increase with the annealing temperatures. This behavior is attributed to the increase in the rate of diffusion coefficient of added elements inside the aluminum matrix.

  5. Si-FeSi2/C nanocomposite anode materials produced by two-stage high-energy mechanical milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yun Mo; Loka, Chadrasekhar; Kim, Dong Phil; Joo, Sin Yong; Moon, Sung Whan; Choi, Yi Sik; Park, Jung Han; Lee, Kee-Sun

    2017-05-01

    High capacity retention Silicon-based nanocomposite anode materials have been extensively explored for use in lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. Here we report the preparation of Si-FeSi2/C nanocomposite through scalable a two-stage high-energy mechanical milling process, in which nano-scale Si-FeSi2 powders are besieged by the carbon (graphite/amorphous phase) layer; and investigation of their structure, morphology and electrochemical performance. Raman analysis revealed that the carbon layer structure comprised of graphitic and amorphous phase rather than a single amorphous phase. Anodes fabricated with the Si-FeSi2/C showed excellent electrochemical behavior such as a first discharge capacity of 1082 mAh g-1 and a high capacity retention until the 30th cycle. A remarkable coulombic efficiency of 99.5% was achieved within a few cycles. Differential capacity plots of the Si-FeSi2/C anodes revealed a stable lithium reaction with Si for lithiation/delithiation. The enhanced electrochemical properties of the Si-FeSi2/C nanocomposite are mainly attributed to the nano-size Si and stable solid electrolyte interface formation and highly conductive path driven by the carbon layer.

  6. Regimes of high-energy shock emission from the Be star/pulsar system PSR 1259-63

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco; Arons, Jonathan; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    1994-01-01

    PSR B1259-63 is a 47 ms radio pulsar in a wide, eccentric orbit with a Be star. We study the shock interaction between the pulsar and the companion's mass outflow and investigate the time evolution of radiative shock regimes. We find that for small values of the Be star's mass-loss rate, inverse-Compton scattering is likely to dominate the shock emission. Alternately, for a large mass-loss rate, synchrotron emission will dominate. Multifrequency X-ray and gamma-ray observations near periastron can distinguish between these cases and yield unique constraints on the pulsar and Be star winds. The PSR B1259-63 system provides a unique laboratory to study the time-dependent interaction of a pulsar wind with the circumbinary material from its companion star.

  7. A flat-spectrum candidate for a track-type high-energy neutrino emission event, the case of blazar PKS 0723-008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, E.; Biermann, P. L.; Gergely, L. Á.

    2017-03-01

    By cross-correlating both the Parkes Catalogue and the Second Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources with the arrival direction of the track-type neutrinos detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory, we find the flat-spectrum blazar PKS 0723-008 as a good candidate for the high-energy neutrino event 5 (ID5). Apart from its coordinates matching those of ID5, PKS 0723-008 exhibits further interesting radio properties. Its spectrum is flat up to high Planck frequencies, and it produced a fivefold-increased radio flux density through the last decade. Based upon these radio properties we propose a scenario of binary black hole evolution leading to the observed high-energy neutrino emission. The main contributing events are the spin-flip of the dominant black hole, the formation of a new jet with significant particle acceleration and interaction with the surrounding material, with the corresponding increased radio flux. Doppler boosting from the underlying jet pointing to the Earth makes it possible to identify the origin of the neutrinos, so the merger itself is the form of an extended flat-spectrum radio emission, a key selection criterion to find traces of this complex process.

  8. Lepton Acceleration in the Vicinity of the Event Horizon: Very High Energy Emissions from Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirotani, Kouichi; Pu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Lupin Chun-Che; Kong, Albert K. H.; Matsushita, Satoki; Asada, Keiichi; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Tam, Pak-Hin T.

    2017-08-01

    Around a rapidly rotating black hole (BH), when the plasma accretion rate is much less than the Eddington rate, the radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) cannot supply enough MeV photons that are capable of materializing as pairs. In such a charge-starved BH magnetosphere, the force-free condition breaks down in the polar funnels. Applying the pulsar outer-magnetospheric lepton accelerator theory to supermassive BHs, we demonstrate that a strong electric field arises along the magnetic field lines in the direct vicinity of the event horizon in the funnels, that the electrons and positrons are accelerated up to 100 TeV in this vacuum gap, and that these leptons emit copious photons via inverse-Compton (IC) processes between 0.1 and 30 TeV for a distant observer. It is found that these IC fluxes will be detectable with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, provided that a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus is located within 1 Mpc for a million-solar-mass central BH or within 30 Mpc for a billion-solar-mass central BH. These very high energy fluxes are beamed in a relatively small solid angle around the rotation axis because of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic distribution of the RIAF photon field and show an anticorrelation with the RIAF submillimeter fluxes. The gap luminosity depends little on the 3D magnetic field configuration, because the Goldreich-Julian charge density, and hence the exerted electric field, is essentially governed by the frame-dragging effect, not by the magnetic field configuration.

  9. Observation of atomic oxygen O(1S) green-line emission in the summer polar upper mesosphere associated with high-energy (≥30 keV) electron precipitation during high-speed solar wind streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Sook; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kim, Kyung-Chan; Solheim, Brian; Lee, Regina; Lee, Jaejin

    2017-01-01

    The auroral green-line emission at 557.7 nm wavelength as arising from the atomic oxygen O(1S → 1D) transition typically peaks at an altitude of 100 km specifically in the nightside oval, induced by auroral electrons within an energy range of 100 eV-30 keV. Intense aurora is known as being suppressed by sunlight in summer daytime but usually occurs in low electrical background conductivity. However, in the present study in summer (July) sunlit condition, enhancements of O(1S) emission rates observed by using the Wind Imaging Interferometer/UARS were frequently observed at low altitudes below 90 km, where ice particles are created initially as subvisible and detected as polar mesosphere summer echoes, emerging to be an optical phenomenon of polar mesospheric clouds. The intense O(1S) emission occurring in summer exceeds those occurring in the daytime in other seasons both in occurrence and in intensity, frequently accompanied by occurrences of supersonic neutral velocity (300-1500 m s-1). In the mesosphere, ion motion is controlled by electric field and the momentum is transferred to neutrals. The intense O(1S) emission is well associated with high-energy electron precipitation as observed during an event of high-speed solar wind streams. Meanwhile, since the minimum occurrences of O(1S) emission and supersonic velocity are maintained even in the low precipitation flux, the mechanism responsible is not only related to high-energy electron precipitation but also presumably to the local conditions, including the composition of meteoric-charged ice particles and charge separation expected in extremely low temperatures (<150 K).

  10. Imaging of High-Energy X-Ray Emission from Cryogenic Thermonuclear Fuel Implosions on the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, T

    2012-05-01

    Accurately assessing and optimizing the implosion performance of inertial confinement fusion capsules is a crucial step to achieving ignition on the NIF. We have applied differential filtering (matched Ross filter pairs) to provide spectrally resolved time-integrated absolute x-ray self-emission images of the imploded core of cryogenic layered targets. Using bremsstrahlung assumptions, the measured absolute x-ray brightness allows for the inference of electron temperature, electron density, hot spot mass, mix mass, and pressure. Current inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) seek to indirectly drive a spherical implosion, compressing and igniting a deuterium-tritium fuel. This DT fuel capsule is cryogenically prepared as a solid ice layer surrounded by a low-Z ablator material. Ignition will occur when the hot spot approaches sufficient temperature ({approx}3-4 keV) and {rho}R ({approx}0.3 g/cm{sup 2}) such that alpha deposition can further heat the hot spot and generate a self-sustaining burn wave. During the implosion, the fuel mass becomes hot enough to emit large amounts of x-ray radiation, the spectra and spatial variation of which contains key information that can be used to evaluate the implosion performance. The Ross filter diagnostic employs differential filtering to provide spectrally resolved, time-integrated, absolute x-ray self-emission images of the imploded core of cryogenic layered targets.

  11. Investigation of the 2p3/2-3d5/2 line emission of Au53+ -- Au69+ for diagnosing high energy density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V; Hansen, S B; Trabert, E; Beiersdorfer, P; Widmann, K; Chen, H; Chung, H K; Clementson, J T; Gu, M F; Thorn, D B

    2008-01-29

    Measurements of the L-shell emission of highly charged gold ions were made under controlled laboratory conditions using the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap, allowing detailed spectral observations of lines from ironlike Au{sup 53+} through neonlike Au{sup 69+}. Using atomic data from the Flexible Atomic Code, we have identified strong 3d{sub 5/2} {yields} 2p{sub 3/2} emission features that can be used to diagnose the charge state distribution in high energy density plasmas, such as those found in the laser entrance hole of hot hohlraum radiation sources. We provide collisional-radiative calculations of the average ion charge as a function of temperature and density, which can be used to relate charge state distributions inferred from 3d{sub 5/2} {yields} 2p{sub 3/2} emission features to plasma conditions, and investigate the effects of plasma density on calculated L-shell Au emission spectra.

  12. Magnetic Activity and High Energy XUV Irradiances of Dwarf K-Stars - Impacts of XUV Emissions on Hosted Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakatos, S. L.; Voyer, E. N.; Guinan, E. F.; DeWarf, L. E.; Ribas, I.; Harper, G. M.

    2005-05-01

    We report on the study of magnetic activity and spectral X-ray-UV (XUV) irradiances of main-sequence K-type (dK) stars covering a wide range of ages from <0.1 to 10 Gyr and rotation periods of <0.5 - 45d. This study is an extension of the Villanova ``Sun in Time'' Program (see Guinan et al. 2003; Ribas et al. 2005) to cooler, less luminous, but much more numerous, dK stars. These dK stars have deeper convective zones and more efficient magnetic dynamos. Of particular interest is the study of the evolution of coronal and chromospheric XUV emissions of these stars because of the critical roles that these emissions play in the photochemical and photoionization (and possible erosion) of the atmospheres of potentially hosted planets. The extension to dK stars is motivated by the upcoming extrasolar planet search missions (such as Kepler, SIM, and Darwin-TPF) that will search for earth-size planets in the (liquid water) habitable zones of nearby dG, dK and dM stars. Because of the very high space densities of low mass stars, they will likely be discovered to host numerous planets. In this study we have combined our FUSE FUV observations with archival X-ray, EUV, and UV, along with ground-based photometry, to study dependencies of XUV emissions with respect to age and rotation. Here we report on our initial study of a small sample of bright, nearby dK0-5 stars with a wide range of ages and rotation periods. The initial results are presented and we discuss the suitability of low mass dK stars as hosts for planets habitable for life. Also, the long lifetimes and high spacial densities of older dK stars make them attractive targets for searches for advanced intelligent life. This research is supported by NASA/FUSE Grants NAG5-12125, NNG04G038G, and NNGG04GC76G, which we gratefully acknowledge.

  13. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Summary of Fermi large area telescope detections and analysis of two m-class flares

    DOE PAGES

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; ...

    2014-04-29

    Here, we present the detections of 18 solar flares detected in high-energy γ-rays (above 100 MeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its first 4 yr of operation. Our work suggests that particle acceleration up to very high energies in solar flares is more common than previously thought, occurring even in modest flares, and for longer durations. Interestingly, all these flares are associated with fairly fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We then describe the detailed temporal, spatial, and spectral characteristics of the first two long-lasting events: the 2011 March 7 flare, a moderate (M3.7) impulsive flare followed bymore » slowly varying γ-ray emission over 13 hr, and the 2011 June 7 M2.5 flare, which was followed by γ-ray emission lasting for 2 hr. We compare the Fermi LAT data with X-ray and proton data measurements from GOES and RHESSI. We argue that the γ-rays are more likely produced through pion decay than electron bremsstrahlung, and we find that the energy spectrum of the proton distribution softens during the extended emission of the 2011 March 7 flare. Furthermore, this would disfavor a trapping scenario for particles accelerated during the impulsive phase of the flare and point to a continuous acceleration process at play for the duration of the flares. CME shocks are known for accelerating the solar energetic particles (SEPs) observed in situ on similar timescales, but it might be challenging to explain the production of γ-rays at the surface of the Sun while the CME is halfway to the Earth. A stochastic turbulence acceleration process occurring in the solar corona is another likely scenario. Detailed comparison of characteristics of SEPs and γ-ray-emitting particles for several flares will be helpful to distinguish between these two possibilities.« less

  14. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Summary of Fermi large area telescope detections and analysis of two m-class flares

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, Q.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Inoue, Y.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Kawano, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Murphy, R.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Takahashi, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Tronconi, V.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.

    2014-04-29

    Here, we present the detections of 18 solar flares detected in high-energy γ-rays (above 100 MeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its first 4 yr of operation. Our work suggests that particle acceleration up to very high energies in solar flares is more common than previously thought, occurring even in modest flares, and for longer durations. Interestingly, all these flares are associated with fairly fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We then describe the detailed temporal, spatial, and spectral characteristics of the first two long-lasting events: the 2011 March 7 flare, a moderate (M3.7) impulsive flare followed by slowly varying γ-ray emission over 13 hr, and the 2011 June 7 M2.5 flare, which was followed by γ-ray emission lasting for 2 hr. We compare the Fermi LAT data with X-ray and proton data measurements from GOES and RHESSI. We argue that the γ-rays are more likely produced through pion decay than electron bremsstrahlung, and we find that the energy spectrum of the proton distribution softens during the extended emission of the 2011 March 7 flare. Furthermore, this would disfavor a trapping scenario for particles accelerated during the impulsive phase of the flare and point to a continuous acceleration process at play for the duration of the flares. CME shocks are known for accelerating the solar energetic particles (SEPs) observed in situ on similar timescales, but it might be challenging to explain the production of γ-rays at the surface of the Sun while the CME is halfway to the Earth. A stochastic turbulence acceleration process occurring in the solar corona is another likely scenario. Detailed comparison of characteristics of SEPs and γ-ray-emitting particles for several flares will be helpful to distinguish between these two possibilities.

  15. High-energy Gamma-Ray Emission from Solar Flares: Summary of Fermi Large Area Telescope Detections and Analysis of Two M-class Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, Q.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Inoue, Y.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Kawano, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Murphy, R.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Takahashi, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, Y.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Tronconi, V.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    We present the detections of 18 solar flares detected in high-energy γ-rays (above 100 MeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its first 4 yr of operation. This work suggests that particle acceleration up to very high energies in solar flares is more common than previously thought, occurring even in modest flares, and for longer durations. Interestingly, all these flares are associated with fairly fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We then describe the detailed temporal, spatial, and spectral characteristics of the first two long-lasting events: the 2011 March 7 flare, a moderate (M3.7) impulsive flare followed by slowly varying γ-ray emission over 13 hr, and the 2011 June 7 M2.5 flare, which was followed by γ-ray emission lasting for 2 hr. We compare the Fermi LAT data with X-ray and proton data measurements from GOES and RHESSI. We argue that the γ-rays are more likely produced through pion decay than electron bremsstrahlung, and we find that the energy spectrum of the proton distribution softens during the extended emission of the 2011 March 7 flare. This would disfavor a trapping scenario for particles accelerated during the impulsive phase of the flare and point to a continuous acceleration process at play for the duration of the flares. CME shocks are known for accelerating the solar energetic particles (SEPs) observed in situ on similar timescales, but it might be challenging to explain the production of γ-rays at the surface of the Sun while the CME is halfway to the Earth. A stochastic turbulence acceleration process occurring in the solar corona is another likely scenario. Detailed comparison of characteristics of SEPs and γ-ray-emitting particles for several flares will be helpful to distinguish between these two possibilities.

  16. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Summary of Fermi large area telescope detections and analysis of two M-class flares

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; and others

    2014-05-20

    We present the detections of 18 solar flares detected in high-energy γ-rays (above 100 MeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its first 4 yr of operation. This work suggests that particle acceleration up to very high energies in solar flares is more common than previously thought, occurring even in modest flares, and for longer durations. Interestingly, all these flares are associated with fairly fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We then describe the detailed temporal, spatial, and spectral characteristics of the first two long-lasting events: the 2011 March 7 flare, a moderate (M3.7) impulsive flare followed by slowly varying γ-ray emission over 13 hr, and the 2011 June 7 M2.5 flare, which was followed by γ-ray emission lasting for 2 hr. We compare the Fermi LAT data with X-ray and proton data measurements from GOES and RHESSI. We argue that the γ-rays are more likely produced through pion decay than electron bremsstrahlung, and we find that the energy spectrum of the proton distribution softens during the extended emission of the 2011 March 7 flare. This would disfavor a trapping scenario for particles accelerated during the impulsive phase of the flare and point to a continuous acceleration process at play for the duration of the flares. CME shocks are known for accelerating the solar energetic particles (SEPs) observed in situ on similar timescales, but it might be challenging to explain the production of γ-rays at the surface of the Sun while the CME is halfway to the Earth. A stochastic turbulence acceleration process occurring in the solar corona is another likely scenario. Detailed comparison of characteristics of SEPs and γ-ray-emitting particles for several flares will be helpful to distinguish between these two possibilities.

  17. Measurement of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Moon with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Costanza, F.; Cuoco, A.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Harding, A. K.; Hewitt, J. W.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Iafrate, G.; Jóhannesson, G.; Kamae, T.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Murgia, S.; Nuss, E.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yassine, M.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Sala, P. R.; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We have measured the gamma-ray emission spectrum of the Moon using the data collected by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite during its first seven years of operation, in the energy range from 30 MeV up to a few GeV. We have also studied the time evolution of the flux, finding a correlation with the solar activity. We have developed a full Monte Carlo simulation describing the interactions of cosmic rays with the lunar surface. The results of the present analysis can be explained in the framework of this model, where the production of gamma rays is due to the interactions of cosmic-ray proton and helium nuclei with the surface of the Moon. Finally, we have used our simulation to derive the cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra near Earth from the Moon gamma-ray data.

  18. Measurement of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Moon with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    DOE PAGES

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; ...

    2016-04-08

    We have measured the gamma-ray emission spectrum of the Moon using the data collected by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite during its first seven years of operation, in the energy range from 30 MeV up to a few GeV. We have also studied the time evolution of the flux, finding a correlation with the solar activity. We have developed a full Monte Carlo simulation describing the interactions of cosmic rays with the lunar surface. The results of the present analysis can be explained in the framework of this model, where the production of gamma rays is duemore » to the interactions of cosmic-ray proton and helium nuclei with the surface of the Moon. Lastly, we have used our simulation to derive the cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra near Earth from the Moon gamma-ray data.« less

  19. Measurement of the High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Moon with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the gamma-ray emission spectrum of the Moon using the data collected by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite during its first seven years of operation, in the energy range from 30 MeV up to a few GeV. We have also studied the time evolution of the flux, finding a correlation with the solar activity. We have developed a full Monte Carlo simulation describing the interactions of cosmic rays with the lunar surface. The results of the present analysis can be explained in the framework of this model, where the production of gamma rays is due to the interactions of cosmic-ray proton and helium nuclei with the surface of the Moon. Finally, we have used our simulation to derive the cosmic-ray proton and helium spectra near Earth from the Moon gamma-ray data.

  20. Ion neutralization and high-energy electron emission in He+ scattering by a highly oriented pyrolitic graphite surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias-García, A.; Bonetto, F.; Vidal, R.; Ferrón, J.; Goldberg, E. C.

    2014-04-01

    We report results of ion neutralization of low-energy positive He ions interacting with a surface of highly oriented pyrolitic graphite as a function of the impinging energy. We found a neutralization probability close to unity for a wide energy range. This behavior is reproduced by our theory only if we take into account the electronic correlation introduced by the He first excited states considered as possible neutralization channels. The finite occupation of these excited states opens the Auger deexcitation process as a source of emitted electrons. The calculation of this electron emitted spectrum is complex as it requires the knowledge of the energies and occupations of the atomic configurations as a function of the ion trajectory. Our calculation shows the presence of high energetic secondary electrons contributing to the Auger electron emission spectra of this system [N. Bajales, L. Cristina, S. Mendoza, R. A. Baragiola, E. C. Goldberg, and J. Ferrón, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 227604 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.227604].

  1. Discovery of very high energy gamma-ray emission from the blazar 1ES 1727+502 with the MAGIC Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carreto Fidalgo, D.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Farina, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadamek, A.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Jankowski, F.; Kadenius, V.; Klepser, S.; Knoetig, M. L.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Masbou, J.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Buson, S.

    2014-03-14

    Motivated by the prediction of a high TeV luminosity we investigated whether the blazar 1ES 1727+502 (z = 0.055) is emitting very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ rays. Here, we observed the BL Lac object 1ES 1727+502 in stereoscopic mode with the two MAGIC telescopes for 14 nights between May 6th and June 10th 2011, for a total effective observing time of 12.6 h. To study the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED), we also oused simultaneous optical R-band data from the KVA telescope, archival UV/optical and X-ray observations from instruments UVOT and XRT on board of the Swift satellite, and high energy (HE, 0.1 GeV–100 GeV) γ-ray data from the Fermi-LAT instrument. We detected, for the first time, VHE γ-ray emission from 1ES 1727+502 at a statistical significance of 5.5σ. The integral flux above 150 GeV is estimated to be (2.1 ± 0.4)% of the Crab nebula flux and the de-absorbed VHE spectrum has a photon index of (2.7 ± 0.5). Furthermore, there were no significant short-term variability found in any of the wavebands presented here. We model the SED using a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model obtaining parameters typical for this class of sources.

  2. Poster — Thur Eve — 18: Cherenkov Emission By High-Energy Radiation Therapy Beams: A Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zlateva, Y.; El Naqa, I.; Quitoriano, N.

    2014-08-15

    We investigate Cherenkov emission (CE) by radiotherapy beams via radiation dose-versus-CE correlation analyses, CE detection optimization by means of a spectral shift towards the near-infrared (NIR) window of biological tissue, and comparison of CE to on-board MV imaging. Dose-CE correlation was investigated via simulation and experiment. A Monte Carlo (MC) CE simulator was designed using Geant4. Experimental phantoms include: water; tissue-simulating phantom composed of water, Intralipid®, and beef blood; plastic phantom with solid water insert. The detector system comprises an optical fiber and diffraction-grating spectrometer incorporating a front/back-illuminated CCD. The NIR shift was carried out with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), emitting at (650±10) nm. CE and MV images were acquired with a CMOS camera and electronic portal imaging device. MC and experimental studies indicate a strong linear dose-CE correlation (Pearson coefficient > 0.99). CE by an 18-MeV beam was effectively NIR-shifted in water and a tissue-simulating phantom, exhibiting a significant increase at 650 nm for QD depths up to 10 mm. CE images exhibited relative contrast superior to MV images by a factor of 30. Our work supports the potential for application of CE in radiotherapy online imaging for patient setup and treatment verification, since CE is intrinsic to the beam and non-ionizing and QDs can be used to improve CE detectability, potentially yielding image quality superior to MV imaging for the case of low-density-variability, low-optical-attenuation materials (ex: breast/oropharynx). Ongoing work involves microenvironment functionalization of QDs and application of multi-channel spectrometry for simultaneous acquisition of dosimetric and tumor oxygenation signals.

  3. Searches for High-energy Neutrino Emission in the Galaxy with the Combined ICECUBE-AMANDA Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IceCube Collaboration; Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bell, M.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Brown, A. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Heereman, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jlelati, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pirk, N.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rädel, L.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Salameh, T.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheel, M.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönherr, L.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soiron, M.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Usner, M.; van der Drift, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wasserman, R.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zilles, A.; Zoll, M.

    2013-01-01

    We report on searches for neutrino sources at energies above 200 GeV in the Northern sky of the Galactic plane, using the data collected by the South Pole neutrino telescope, IceCube, and AMANDA. The Galactic region considered in this work includes the local arm toward the Cygnus region and our closest approach to the Perseus Arm. The searches are based on the data collected between 2007 and 2009. During this time AMANDA was an integrated part of IceCube, which was still under construction and operated with 22 strings (2007-2008) and 40 strings (2008-2009) of optical modules deployed in the ice. By combining the advantages of the larger IceCube detector with the lower energy threshold of the more compact AMANDA detector, we obtain an improved sensitivity at energies below ~10 TeV with respect to previous searches. The analyses presented here are a scan for point sources within the Galactic plane, a search optimized for multiple and extended sources in the Cygnus region, which might be below the sensitivity of the point source scan, and studies of seven pre-selected neutrino source candidates. For one of them, Cygnus X-3, a time-dependent search for neutrino emission in coincidence with observed radio and X-ray flares has been performed. No evidence of a signal is found, and upper limits are reported for each of the searches. We investigate neutrino spectra proportional to E -2 and E -3 in order to cover the entire range of possible neutrino spectra. The steeply falling E -3 neutrino spectrum can also be used to approximate neutrino energy spectra with energy cutoffs below 50 TeV since these result in a similar energy distribution of events in the detector. For the region of the Galactic plane visible in the Northern sky, the 90% confidence level muon neutrino flux upper limits are in the range E 3 dN/dE ~ 5.4-19.5 × 10-11 TeV2 cm-2 s-1 for point-like neutrino sources in the energy region [180.0 GeV-20.5 TeV]. These represent the most stringent upper limits for

  4. SEARCHES FOR HIGH-ENERGY NEUTRINO EMISSION IN THE GALAXY WITH THE COMBINED ICECUBE-AMANDA DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, R.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Baker, M.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Altmann, D.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bell, M.; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2013-01-20

    We report on searches for neutrino sources at energies above 200 GeV in the Northern sky of the Galactic plane, using the data collected by the South Pole neutrino telescope, IceCube, and AMANDA. The Galactic region considered in this work includes the local arm toward the Cygnus region and our closest approach to the Perseus Arm. The searches are based on the data collected between 2007 and 2009. During this time AMANDA was an integrated part of IceCube, which was still under construction and operated with 22 strings (2007-2008) and 40 strings (2008-2009) of optical modules deployed in the ice. By combining the advantages of the larger IceCube detector with the lower energy threshold of the more compact AMANDA detector, we obtain an improved sensitivity at energies below {approx}10 TeV with respect to previous searches. The analyses presented here are a scan for point sources within the Galactic plane, a search optimized for multiple and extended sources in the Cygnus region, which might be below the sensitivity of the point source scan, and studies of seven pre-selected neutrino source candidates. For one of them, Cygnus X-3, a time-dependent search for neutrino emission in coincidence with observed radio and X-ray flares has been performed. No evidence of a signal is found, and upper limits are reported for each of the searches. We investigate neutrino spectra proportional to E {sup -2} and E {sup -3} in order to cover the entire range of possible neutrino spectra. The steeply falling E {sup -3} neutrino spectrum can also be used to approximate neutrino energy spectra with energy cutoffs below 50 TeV since these result in a similar energy distribution of events in the detector. For the region of the Galactic plane visible in the Northern sky, the 90% confidence level muon neutrino flux upper limits are in the range E {sup 3} dN/dE {approx} 5.4-19.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} TeV{sup 2} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for point-like neutrino sources in the energy

  5. Discovery of high and very high-energy emission from the BL Lacertae object SHBL J001355.9–185406

    DOE PAGES

    Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; ...

    2013-06-05

    In this paper, the detection of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object (HBL) SHBL J001355.9–185406 (z = 0.095) at high (HE; 100 MeV < E < 300 GeV) and very high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is reported. Dedicated observations were performed with the H.E.S.S. telescopes, leading to a detection at the 5.5σ significance level. The measured flux above 310 GeV is (8.3 ± 1.7stat ± 1.7sys) × 10-13 photons cm-2 s-1 (about 0.6% of that of the Crab Nebula), and the power-law spectrum has amore » photon index of Γ = 3.4 ± 0.5stat ± 0.2sys. Using 3.5 years of publicly available Fermi-LAT data, a faint counterpart has been detected in the LAT data at the 5.5σ significance level, with an integrated flux above 300 MeV of (9.3 ± 3.4stat ± 0.8sys) × 10-10 photons cm-2 s-1 and a photon index of Γ = 1.96 ± 0.20stat ± 0.08sys. X-ray observations with Swift-XRT allow the synchrotron peak energy in νFν representation to be located at ~1.0 keV. The broadband spectral energy distribution is modelled with a one-zone synchrotronself-Compton (SSC) model and the optical data by a black-body emission describing the thermal emission of the host galaxy. Lastly, the derived parameters are typical of HBLs detected at VHE, with a particle-dominated jet.« less

  6. Deducing dust emission mechanisms from field measurements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field observations are needed to both develop and test theories on dust emission for use in global modeling systems. The mechanism of dust emission (aerodynamic entrainment, saltation bombardment, aggregate disintegration) and the amount and particle-size distribution of emitted dust may vary under ...

  7. High-energy particle production in solar flares (SEP, gamma-ray and neutron emissions). [solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, E. L.

    1987-01-01

    Electrons and ions, over a wide range of energies, are produced in association with solar flares. Solar energetic particles (SEPs), observed in space and near earth, consist of electrons and ions that range in energy from 10 keV to about 100 MeV and from 1 MeV to 20 GeV, respectively. SEPs are directly recorded by charged particle detectors, while X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron detectors indicate the properties of the accelerated particles (electrons and ions) which have interacted in the solar atmosphere. A major problem of solar physics is to understand the relationship between these two groups of charged particles; in particular whether they are accelerated by the same mechanism. The paper reviews the physics of gamma-rays and neutron production in the solar atmosphere and the method by which properties of the primary charged particles produced in the solar flare can be deduced. Recent observations of energetic photons and neutrons in space and at the earth are used to present a current picture of the properties of impulsively flare accelerated electrons and ions. Some important properties discussed are time scale of production, composition, energy spectra, accelerator geometry. Particular attention is given to energetic particle production in the large flare on June 3, 1982.

  8. High-energy particle production in solar flares (SEP, gamma-ray and neutron emissions). [solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, E. L.

    1987-01-01

    Electrons and ions, over a wide range of energies, are produced in association with solar flares. Solar energetic particles (SEPs), observed in space and near earth, consist of electrons and ions that range in energy from 10 keV to about 100 MeV and from 1 MeV to 20 GeV, respectively. SEPs are directly recorded by charged particle detectors, while X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron detectors indicate the properties of the accelerated particles (electrons and ions) which have interacted in the solar atmosphere. A major problem of solar physics is to understand the relationship between these two groups of charged particles; in particular whether they are accelerated by the same mechanism. The paper reviews the physics of gamma-rays and neutron production in the solar atmosphere and the method by which properties of the primary charged particles produced in the solar flare can be deduced. Recent observations of energetic photons and neutrons in space and at the earth are used to present a current picture of the properties of impulsively flare accelerated electrons and ions. Some important properties discussed are time scale of production, composition, energy spectra, accelerator geometry. Particular attention is given to energetic particle production in the large flare on June 3, 1982.

  9. Gamma Rays at Very High Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonian, Felix

    This chapter presents the elaborated lecture notes on Gamma Rays at Very High Energies given by Felix Aharonian at the 40th Saas-Fee Advanced Course on "Astrophysics at Very High Energies". Any coherent description and interpretation of phenomena related to gammarays requires deep knowledge of many disciplines of physics like nuclear and particle physics, quantum and classical electrodynamics, special and general relativity, plasma physics, magnetohydrodynamics, etc. After giving an introduction to gamma-ray astronomy the author discusses the astrophysical potential of ground-based detectors, radiation mechanisms, supernova remnants and origin of the galactic cosmic rays, TeV emission of young supernova remnants, gamma-emission from the Galactic center, pulsars, pulsar winds, pulsar wind nebulae, and gamma-ray loud binaries.

  10. Solid State Reaction Mechanism and Microstructure Evolution of Ni-Al Powders during High Energy Ball Milling Revisited by TEM.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guohua; Geng, Lin; Feng, Yicheng; Cui, Xiping; Yan, Xudong

    2015-08-01

    Microstructure evolution during the formation of B2-NiAl by high energy ball milling of equiatomic elemental mixtures was studied by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallite size, lattice defects and ordering of the B2-NiAl were monitored via TEM as function of milling time. The diffusion reaction, Ni+Al→NiAl3 or/and Ni2Al3, occurred during high energy ball milling, and to a certain extent offered the stored energy for the explosive exothermic reaction, Ni+Al→B2-NiAl. The fine microstructure of newly formed B2-NiAl after 5 h milling involved high density defects, e.g. antiphase boundary, long range ordering domains, vacancies, and dislocations.

  11. The chemical sensitivity of X-ray spectroscopy: high energy resolution XANES versus X-ray emission spectroscopy of substituted ferrocenes.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Andrew J; Bauer, Matthias; Jacob, Christoph R

    2013-06-07

    X-ray spectroscopy at the metal K-edge is an important tool for understanding catalytic processes and provides insight into the geometric and electronic structures of transition metal complexes. In particular, X-ray emission-based methods such as high-energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD), X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopy (V2C-XES) hold the promise of providing increased chemical sensitivity compared to conventional X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Here, we explore the ability of HERFD-XANES and V2C-XES spectroscopy to distinguish substitutions beyond the directly coordinated atoms for the example of ferrocene and selected ferrocene derivatives. The experimental spectra are assigned and interpreted through the use of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that while the pre-edge peaks in the HERFD-XANES spectra are affected by substituents at the cyclopentadienyl ring containing π-bonds [A. J. Atkins, Ch. R. Jacob and M. Bauer, Chem.-Eur. J., 2012, 18, 7021], the V2C-XES spectra are virtually unchanged. The pre-edge in HERFD-XANES probes the weak transition to unoccupied metal d-orbitals, while the V2C-XES spectra are determined by dipole-allowed transitions from occupied ligand orbitals to the 1s core hole. The latter turn out to be less sensitive to changes beyond the first coordination shell.

  12. Detection of Very High Energy γ-ray Emission from the Perseus Cluster Head-Tail Galaxy IC 310 by the MAGIC Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Neronov, A.; Pfrommer, C.; Pinzke, A.; Semikoz, D. V.; MAGIC Collaboration

    2010-11-01

    We report on the detection with the MAGIC telescopes of very high energy (VHE) γ-rays from IC 310, a head-tail radio galaxy in the Perseus galaxy cluster, observed during the interval 2008 November to 2010 February. The Fermi satellite has also detected this galaxy. The source is detected by MAGIC at a high statistical significance of 7.6σ in 20.6 hr of stereo data. The observed spectral energy distribution is flat with a differential spectral index of -2.00 ± 0.14. The mean flux above 300 GeV, between 2009 October and 2010 February, (3.1 ± 0.5) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1, corresponds to (2.5 ± 0.4)% of Crab Nebula units. Only an upper limit, of 1.9% of Crab Nebula units above 300 GeV, was obtained with the 2008 data. This, together with strong hints (>3σ) of flares in the middle of 2009 October and November, implies that the emission is variable. The MAGIC results favor a scenario with the VHE emission originating from the inner jet close to the central engine. More complicated models than a simple one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario, e.g., multi-zone SSC, external Compton, or hadronic, may be required to explain the very flat spectrum and its extension over more than three orders of magnitude in energy.

  13. High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission From Solar Flares: Summary of Fermi LAT Detections and Analysis of Two M-Class Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present the detections of 19 solar flares detected in high-energy gamma rays (above 100 MeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its rst four years of operation. Interestingly, all ares are associated with fairly fast Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and are not all powerful X-ray ares. We then describe the detailed temporal, spatial and spectral characteristics of the rst two long-lasting events: the 2011 March 7 are, a moderate (M3.7) impulsive are followed by slowly varying gamma-ray emission over 13 hours, and the 2011 June 7 M2.5 are, which was followed by gamma-ray emission lasting for 2 hours. We compare the Fermi-LAT data with X-ray and proton data measurements from GOES and RHESSI. We argue that a hadronic origin of the gamma rays is more likely than a leptonic origin and nd that the energy spectrum of the proton distribution softens after the 2011 March 7 are, favoring a scenario with continuous acceleration at the are site. This work suggests that proton acceleration in solar ares is more common than previously thought, occurring for even modest X-ray ares, and for longer durations.

  14. High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission From Solar Flares: Summary of Fermi LAT Detections and Analysis of Two M-Class Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Guiriec, S.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Nemmen, R.; Perkins, J. S.; Thompson, D. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present the detections of 19 solar flares detected in high-energy gamma rays (above 100 MeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during its rst four years of operation. Interestingly, all ares are associated with fairly fast Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and are not all powerful X-ray ares. We then describe the detailed temporal, spatial and spectral characteristics of the rst two long-lasting events: the 2011 March 7 are, a moderate (M3.7) impulsive are followed by slowly varying gamma-ray emission over 13 hours, and the 2011 June 7 M2.5 are, which was followed by gamma-ray emission lasting for 2 hours. We compare the Fermi-LAT data with X-ray and proton data measurements from GOES and RHESSI. We argue that a hadronic origin of the gamma rays is more likely than a leptonic origin and nd that the energy spectrum of the proton distribution softens after the 2011 March 7 are, favoring a scenario with continuous acceleration at the are site. This work suggests that proton acceleration in solar ares is more common than previously thought, occurring for even modest X-ray ares, and for longer durations.

  15. Time evolution of high-energy emissions of low-mass stars. I. Age determination using stellar chronology with white dwarfs in wide binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcés, A.; Catalán, S.; Ribas, I.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Stellar ages are extremely difficult to determine and often subject to large uncertainties, especially for field low-mass stars. We plan to carry out a calibration of the decrease in high-energy emissions of low-mass GKM stars with time, and therefore precise age determination is a key ingredient. The overall goal of our research is to study the time evolution of these high-energy emissions as an essential input to studying exoplanetary atmospheres. Aims: We propose to determine stellar ages with a methodology based on wide binaries. We are interested in systems composed of a low-mass star and a white dwarf (WD), where the latter serves as a stellar chronometer for the system. We aim at obtaining reliable ages for a sample of late-type stars older than 1 Gyr. Methods: We selected a sample of wide binaries composed by a DA type WD and a GKM companion. High signal-to-noise, low-resolution spectroscopic observations were obtained for most of the WD members of the sample. Atmospheric parameters were determined by fitting the spectroscopic data to appropiate WD models. The total ages of the systems were derived by using cooling sequences, an initial-final mass relationship and evolutionary tracks, to account for the progenitor life. Results: The spectroscopic observations have allowed us to determine ages for the binary systems using WDs as cosmochronometers. We obtained reliable ages for 27 stars between 1 and 5 Gyr, which is a range where age determination becomes difficult for field objects. Roughly half of these systems have cooling ages that contribute at least 30% the total age. We select those for further study since their age estimate should be less prone to systematic errors coming from the initial-final mass relationship. Conclusions: We have determined robust ages for a sizeable sample of GKM stars that can be subsequently used to study the time evolution of their emissions associated to stellar magnetic activity. Based on observations collected at

  16. Search for Hard X-Ray Emission from Aquila X-1: High Energy Emission from Gamma-ray Radio Star 2CG 135+1/LSI 61 305

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco

    1998-01-01

    Several investigations supported by these CCRO grant were completed or are close to completion. The study of EGRET data for the unidentified source 2CG 135+01 was very fruitful. We discovered transient gamma-ray emission by combining several data obtained since 1994 through 1997. It is the first time that time variable emission is established for this enigmatic source, and clearly an interpretation in terms of an isolated radio pulsar (Geminga-like) is disfavored now. Our preferred model is a Galactic source, probably an energetic pulsar (such as PSR129-63) in a binary system producing gamma-rays because of pulsar wind/mass outflow interaction. We also accumulated may data concerning the radio source LSI 61 303, the possible counterpart of 2CG 135+01. We show that a possible anti-correlation between radio and gamma-ray emission exists. This anticorrelation is evident only in the energy range above 100 MeV, as demonstrated by the lack of it obtained from OSSE data. If confirmed, this anti-correlation would prove to be very important for the interpretation of the hundreds of unidentified gamma-ray sources currently discovered by EGRET near the Galactic plane, and would point to a new class of sources in addition to AGNs and isolated pulsars. We also completed the analysis of several time variable gamma-ray sources near the Galactic plane, with the discussion of evidence for transient emission from 2EG J1813-12 and 2EG J1828+01. We completed several investigations regarding gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), including the study of the brightness distribution for different spectral/duration GRB sub-classes, an investigation of acceleration processes and their consequences for GRB afterglow emission [61, the application of the synchrotron shock model of GRBs to X-ray energies.

  17. Discovery of very high energy gamma-ray emission from the blazar 1ES 1727+502 with the MAGIC Telescopes

    DOE PAGES

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; ...

    2014-03-14

    Motivated by the prediction of a high TeV luminosity we investigated whether the blazar 1ES 1727+502 (z = 0.055) is emitting very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ rays. Here, we observed the BL Lac object 1ES 1727+502 in stereoscopic mode with the two MAGIC telescopes for 14 nights between May 6th and June 10th 2011, for a total effective observing time of 12.6 h. To study the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED), we also oused simultaneous optical R-band data from the KVA telescope, archival UV/optical and X-ray observations from instruments UVOT and XRT on board of themore » Swift satellite, and high energy (HE, 0.1 GeV–100 GeV) γ-ray data from the Fermi-LAT instrument. We detected, for the first time, VHE γ-ray emission from 1ES 1727+502 at a statistical significance of 5.5σ. The integral flux above 150 GeV is estimated to be (2.1 ± 0.4)% of the Crab nebula flux and the de-absorbed VHE spectrum has a photon index of (2.7 ± 0.5). Furthermore, there were no significant short-term variability found in any of the wavebands presented here. We model the SED using a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model obtaining parameters typical for this class of sources.« less

  18. Discovery of very high energy γ-ray emission from the blazar 1ES 0033+595 by the MAGIC telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksi , J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; de Almeida, U. B.; Barrio, J. A.; Gonzalez, J. B.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Fidalgo, D. C.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; Mendez, C. D.; Doert, M.; Dominguez, A.; Prester, D. D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Farina, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Lopez, R. J. G.; Garczarczyk, M.; Terrats, D. G.; Gaug, M.; Godinovi , N.; Munoz, A. G.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Krause, J.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Barbera, A. L.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Lopez, M.; Lopez-Coto, R.; Lopez-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martinez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Moroni, P. G. P.; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribo, M.; Rico, J.; Garcia, J. R.; Rugamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpaa, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Suri , T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzi , T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; collaboration), (MAGIC; Tronconi, V.; Buson, S.; Borghese, A.

    2014-11-11

    The number of known very high energy (VHE) blazars is ~50, which is very small in comparison to the number of blazars detected in other frequencies. This situation is a handicap for population studies of blazars, which emit about half of their luminosity in the γ-ray domain. Moreover, VHE blazars, if distant, allow for the study of the environment that the high-energy γ-rays traverse in their path towards the Earth, like the extragalactic background light (EBL) and the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF), and hence they have a special interest for the astrophysics community. In this papaer, we present the first VHE detection of 1ES 0033+595 with a statistical significance of 5.5σ. The VHE emission of this object is constant throughout the MAGIC observations (2009 August and October), and can be parametrized with a power law with an integral flux above 150 GeV of (7.1 ± 1.3) × 10-12 photons cm-2 s-1 and a photon index of (3.8 ± 0.7). We model its spectral energy distribution (SED) as the result of inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons. For the study of the SED, we used simultaneous optical R-band data from the KVA telescope, archival X-ray data by Swift as well as INTEGRAL, and simultaneous high-energy (HE, 300 MeV–10 GeV) γ-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observatory. Using the empirical approach of Prandini et al. (2010) and the Fermi LAT and MAGIC spectra for this object, we estimate the redshift of this source to be 0.34 ± 0.08 ± 0.05. Also, this is a relevant result because this source is possibly one of the 10 most distant VHE blazars known to date, and with further (simultaneous) observations could play an important role in blazar population studies, as well as future constraints on the EBL and IGMF.

  19. Discovery of very high energy γ-ray emission from the blazar 1ES 0033+595 by the MAGIC telescopes

    DOE PAGES

    Aleksi , J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; ...

    2014-11-11

    The number of known very high energy (VHE) blazars is ~50, which is very small in comparison to the number of blazars detected in other frequencies. This situation is a handicap for population studies of blazars, which emit about half of their luminosity in the γ-ray domain. Moreover, VHE blazars, if distant, allow for the study of the environment that the high-energy γ-rays traverse in their path towards the Earth, like the extragalactic background light (EBL) and the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF), and hence they have a special interest for the astrophysics community. In this papaer, we present the firstmore » VHE detection of 1ES 0033+595 with a statistical significance of 5.5σ. The VHE emission of this object is constant throughout the MAGIC observations (2009 August and October), and can be parametrized with a power law with an integral flux above 150 GeV of (7.1 ± 1.3) × 10-12 photons cm-2 s-1 and a photon index of (3.8 ± 0.7). We model its spectral energy distribution (SED) as the result of inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons. For the study of the SED, we used simultaneous optical R-band data from the KVA telescope, archival X-ray data by Swift as well as INTEGRAL, and simultaneous high-energy (HE, 300 MeV–10 GeV) γ-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observatory. Using the empirical approach of Prandini et al. (2010) and the Fermi LAT and MAGIC spectra for this object, we estimate the redshift of this source to be 0.34 ± 0.08 ± 0.05. Also, this is a relevant result because this source is possibly one of the 10 most distant VHE blazars known to date, and with further (simultaneous) observations could play an important role in blazar population studies, as well as future constraints on the EBL and IGMF.« less

  20. Discovery of very high energy γ-ray emission from the blazar 1ES 0033+595 by the MAGIC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carreto Fidalgo, D.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Caneva, G.; de Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Farina, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Krause, J.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Moroni, P. G. Prada; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Tronconi, V.; Buson, S.; Borghese, A.

    2015-01-01

    The number of known very high energy (VHE) blazars is ˜50, which is very small in comparison to the number of blazars detected in other frequencies. This situation is a handicap for population studies of blazars, which emit about half of their luminosity in the γ-ray domain. Moreover, VHE blazars, if distant, allow for the study of the environment that the high-energy γ-rays traverse in their path towards the Earth, like the extragalactic background light (EBL) and the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF), and hence they have a special interest for the astrophysics community. We present the first VHE detection of 1ES 0033+595 with a statistical significance of 5.5σ. The VHE emission of this object is constant throughout the MAGIC observations (2009 August and October), and can be parametrized with a power law with an integral flux above 150 GeV of (7.1 ± 1.3) × 10-12 photons cm-2 s-1 and a photon index of (3.8 ± 0.7). We model its spectral energy distribution (SED) as the result of inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons. For the study of the SED, we used simultaneous optical R-band data from the KVA telescope, archival X-ray data by Swift as well as INTEGRAL, and simultaneous high-energy (HE, 300 MeV-10 GeV) γ-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observatory. Using the empirical approach of Prandini et al. (2010) and the Fermi LAT and MAGIC spectra for this object, we estimate the redshift of this source to be 0.34 ± 0.08 ± 0.05. This is a relevant result because this source is possibly one of the 10 most distant VHE blazars known to date, and with further (simultaneous) observations could play an important role in blazar population studies, as well as future constraints on the EBL and IGMF.

  1. Control of Y₂O₃ phase and its nanostructure formation through a very high energy mechanical milling

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.K.; Park, E.K.; Park, J.J.; Rhee, C.K.

    2013-05-01

    The formation behavior of Y₂O₃ ceramic particles was studied by employing a very high energy ball milling (milling energy: ~165 kJ/g·hit, milling speed: 1000 rpm). Both the XRD and HRTEM studies revealed that the high impact strain energy generated during the milling caused a drastic phase transition from the original C-type cubic (space group Ia3, a=10.58 Å) to the metastable B-type monoclinic (space group C2/m, a=13.89 Å), finally followed by a partial solid-state amorphization. The cubic phase was difficult to be reduced down to smaller than 10 nm, while the monoclinic phase was stabilized at sizes smaller than 10 nm with a mean crystallite size of 7.57 nm. Consequently, the existence of Y₂O₃ at a nanoscale smaller than 10 nm is possible by forming metastable monoclinic crystals, which are strain-induced. - Graphical abstract: The fig shows the solid-state phase formation of Y₂O₃ by very high energy input into the particles during milling: ordered body-centered cubic phase (space group Ia3, a=10.58 Å) nanocrystalline monoclinic phase (space group C2/m, a=13.89 Å) disordered monoclinic phase partial amorphous phase. The formation of Y₂O₃ smaller than 10 nm was strongly dependent on whether the phase transition from cubic to monoclinic occurred. Highlights: • This paper analyses very high energy milling behavior of coarse Y₂O₃ particles. • A drastic phase transition from cubic to monoclinic occurred with a partial amorphization. • An existence of Y₂O₃ smaller than 10 nm is possible by forming strain-induced monoclinic crystals.

  2. Discovery of high and very high-energy emission from the BL Lacertae object SHBL J001355.9–185406

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O’C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J. -P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C. -C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P. -O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez⋆, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spieß, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J. -P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H. -S.

    2013-06-05

    In this paper, the detection of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object (HBL) SHBL J001355.9–185406 (z = 0.095) at high (HE; 100 MeV < E < 300 GeV) and very high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is reported. Dedicated observations were performed with the H.E.S.S. telescopes, leading to a detection at the 5.5σ significance level. The measured flux above 310 GeV is (8.3 ± 1.7stat ± 1.7sys) × 10-13 photons cm-2 s-1 (about 0.6% of that of the Crab Nebula), and the power-law spectrum has a photon index of Γ = 3.4 ± 0.5stat ± 0.2sys. Using 3.5 years of publicly available Fermi-LAT data, a faint counterpart has been detected in the LAT data at the 5.5σ significance level, with an integrated flux above 300 MeV of (9.3 ± 3.4stat ± 0.8sys) × 10-10 photons cm-2 s-1 and a photon index of Γ = 1.96 ± 0.20stat ± 0.08sys. X-ray observations with Swift-XRT allow the synchrotron peak energy in νFν representation to be located at ~1.0 keV. The broadband spectral energy distribution is modelled with a one-zone synchrotronself-Compton (SSC) model and the optical data by a black-body emission describing the thermal emission of the host galaxy. Lastly, the derived parameters are typical of HBLs detected at VHE, with a particle-dominated jet.

  3. New Prospects in High Energy Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Blandford, Roger; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2011-11-15

    Recent discoveries using TeV, X-ray and radio telescopes as well as Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray arrays are leading to new insights into longstanding puzzles in high energy astrophysics. Many of these insights come from combining observations throughout the electromagnetic and other spectra as well as evidence assembled from different types of source to propose general principles. Issues discussed in this general overview include methods of accelerating relativistic particles, and amplifying magnetic field, the dynamics of relativistic outflows and the nature of the prime movers that power them. Observational approaches to distinguishing hadronic, leptonic and electromagnetic outflows and emission mechanisms are discussed along with probes of the velocity field and the confinement mechanisms. Observations with GLAST promise to be very prescriptive for addressing these problems.

  4. The synergistic effects of combining the high energy mechanical milling and wet milling on Si negative electrode materials for lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Shang-Chieh; Su, Yuh-Fan; Chang, Chia-Chin; Hu, Chih-Wei; Chen, Tsan-Yao; Yang, Shun-Min; Huang, Jow-Lay

    2017-05-01

    The submicro-sized and nanostructured Si aggregated powder is prepared by combinational routes of high energy mechanical milling (HEMM) and wet milling. Milled Si powder is investigated by particle size analyzer, SEM, TEM, XPS and XRD as well as the control ones. Its electrode is also investigated by in situ XRD and electrochemical performance. Morphology reveals that combining the high energy mechanical milling and wet milling not only fracture primary Si particles but also form submicro-sized Si aggregates constructed by amorphous and nanocrystalline phases. Moreover, XPS shows that wet milling in ethanol trigger Sisbnd Osbnd CH2CH3 bonding on Si surface might enhance the SEI formation. In situ XRD analysis shows negative electrode made of submicro-sized Si aggregated powder can effectively suppress formation of crystalline Li15Si4 during lithiation and delithiation due to amorphous and nanocrystalline construction. Thus, the submicro-sized Si powder with synergistic effects combining the high energy mechanical milling and wet milling in ethanol as negative electrode performs better capacity retention.

  5. Optical performance related to mechanical deformations of a Davies-Cotton mount for the high energy section of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, Adrian C.; Supanitsky, A. Daniel; Ringegni, Pablo; Antico, Federico; Botani, A.; Vallejo, G.; Ochoa, I.; Hughes, G.; Marconi, D.

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array is the next generation ground-based instrument for the observation of very high-energy gamma-rays. It will provide an order of magnitude more sensitivity and better angular and energy resolution than present systems as well as an increased energy range. For the high energy portion of this range, the construction of ~6m diameter Cherenkov telescopes is an option under study. We have proposed an innovative design of a Davies-Cotton mount for such a telescope, within Cherenkov Telescope Array specifications, and evaluated its mechanical and optical performance. The mount is a reticulated-type structure with steel tubes and tensioned wires. It consists of three main parts to be assembled on site. In this work we focus on the study of the point-pread-function of collected light for different mirror facet sizes and telescope positions, related to mount deformations.

  6. Equal-Channel Angular Extrusion of a Low-Density High-Entropy Alloy Produced by High-Energy Cryogenic Mechanical Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Vincent H.; Atwater, Mark A.; Darling, Kristopher A.; Nguyen, Hoang Q.; Kecskes, Laszlo J.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of forming a bulk consolidated, low-density high-entropy alloy, namely AlFeMgTiZn, which shows reasonable mechanical properties and high hardness. The fabrication of the high-entropy alloy from powdered precursors via high-energy mechanical alloying as a function of milling time is presented. In turn, the evolution of the alloy microstructure with postmilling anneal treatment is elucidated. Last, the severe plastic deformation processing methodology, i.e., equal-channel angular extrusion, chosen for consolidation, is described and shown to result in a bulk product with good results.

  7. Effect of High Energy Radiation on Mechanical Properties of Graphite Fiber Reinforced Composites. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naranong, N.

    1980-01-01

    The flexural strength and average modulus of graphite fiber reinforced composites were tested before and after exposure to 0.5 Mev electron radiation and 1.33 Mev gamma radiation by using a three point bending test (ASTM D-790). The irradiation was conducted on vacuum treated samples. Graphite fiber/epoxy (T300/5208), graphite fiber/polyimide (C6000/PMR 15) and graphite fiber/polysulfone (C6000/P1700) composites after being irradiated with 0.5 Mev electron radiation in vacuum up to 5000 Mrad, show increases in stress and modulus of approximately 12% compared with the controls. Graphite fiber/epoxy (T300/5208 and AS/3501-6), after being irradiated with 1.33 Mev gamma radiation up to 360 Mrads, show increases in stress and modulus of approximately 6% at 167 Mrad compared with the controls. Results suggest that the graphite fiber composites studied should withstand the high energy radiation in a space environment for a considerable time, e.g., over 30 years.

  8. High energy density sodium-ion capacitors through co-intercalation mechanism in diglyme-based electrolyte system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Pengxian; Han, Xiaoqi; Yao, Jianhua; Zhang, Lixue; Cao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Changshui; Cui, Gunglei

    2015-11-01

    A novel sodium-ion capacitor (NIC) was assembled using graphitic mesocarbon microbead anode and activated carbon cathode in diglyme-based electrolyte. Charge/discharge tests indicate that sodium ions can reversibly co-intercalated with diglyme solvent into graphite anode and show good rate performance. The energy densities of the NICs are as high as 93.5 and 86.5 Wh kg-1 at 573 and 2832 W kg-1 (equal to 4 C and 50 C) in the voltage window at 1-4 V, respectively. By optimizing the voltage ranges, the capacity retention of the NIC at 20 C is 98.3% even after 3000 cycles. Such superior electrochemical performance should be attributed to the reversible intercalated/deintercalated reaction of sodium ions and the formation of ternary graphite intercalation compounds in diglyme-based electrolyte. The present work pioneers new realms of hybrid energy storage system with high energy density, high power density and long cycle life.

  9. High-energy electron irradiation of annual plants (bagasse) for an efficient production of chemi-mechanical pulp fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Shailesh; Ray, A. K.; Großmann, Harald; Kleinert, Rene

    2015-12-01

    The paper industry is one of the largest consumers of energy and energy consumption has been increased several times in last few decades. Bagasse chemical pulping has very low yield about 45-55% and also generates high pollution load in the effluent as compared to mechanical pulping, g. Thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand,-->e.g. thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP). On the other hand, the specific energy consumption is very high for TMP pulps. ETMP (Energy efficient Thermo-Mechanical Pulping) or ECTMP (Energy efficient Chemi-Thermo Mechanical Pulping) is an innovative idea for reducing the energy demand in TMP refining. In the present investigation, energy efficient mechanical pulping potential of bagasse was studied using TMP, CTMP and ECTMP pulping methodology with electron irradiation pretreatment. It is evident from the results that more than 50% energy saving potential of irradiation pre-treatment was achieved.

  10. MAGIC detection of very high energy γ-ray emission from the low-luminosity blazar 1ES 1741+196

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Arcaro, C.; Babic, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Buson, S.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Clavero, R.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hughes, G.; Idec, W.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moretti, E.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Verguilov, V.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Wu, M. H.; Zanin, R.; Becerra González, J.; Rani, B.; Krauss, F.; Perri, M.; Verrecchia, F.; Reinthal, R.

    2017-06-01

    We present the first detection of the nearby (z = 0.084) low-luminosity BL Lac object 1ES 1741+196 in the very high energy (E > 100 GeV) band. This object lies in a triplet of interacting galaxies. Early predictions had suggested 1ES 1741+196 to be, along with several other high-frequency BL Lac sources, within the reach of MAGIC detectability. Its detection by MAGIC, later confirmed by VERITAS, helps to expand the small population of known TeV BL Lacs. The source was observed with the MAGIC telescopes between 2010 April and 2011 May, collecting 46 h of good quality data. These observations led to the detection of the source at 6.0 σ confidence level, with a steady flux F(>100 GeV) = (6.4 ± 1.7stat ± 2.6syst) × 10-12 ph cm-2s-1 and a differential spectral photon index Γ = 2.4 ± 0.2stat ± 0.2syst in the range of ˜80 GeV-3 TeV. To study the broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) simultaneous with MAGIC observations, we use KVA, Swift/UVOT and XRT and Fermi/LAT data. One-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) modelling of the SED of 1ES 1741+196 suggests values for the SSC parameters that are quite common among known TeV BL Lacs except for a relatively low Doppler factor and slope of electron energy distribution. A thermal feature seen in the SED is well matched by a giant elliptical's template. This appears to be the signature of thermal emission from the host galaxy, which is clearly resolved in optical observations.

  11. MAGIC detection of very high energy γ-ray emission from the low-luminosity blazar 1ES 1741+196

    DOE PAGES

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; ...

    2017-02-23

    Here, we present the first detection of the nearby (z = 0.084) low-luminosity BL Lac object 1ES 1741+196 in the very high energy (E > 100 GeV) band. This object lies in a triplet of interacting galaxies. Early predictions had suggested 1ES 1741+196 to be, along with several other high-frequency BL Lac sources, within the reach of MAGIC detectability. Its detection by MAGIC, later confirmed by VERITAS, helps to expand the small population of known TeV BL Lacs. The source was observed with the MAGIC telescopes between 2010 April and 2011 May, collecting 46 h of good quality data. Thesemore » observations led to the detection of the source at 6.0 σ confidence level, with a steady flux F(>100 GeV) = (6.4 ± 1.7stat ± 2.6syst) × 10–12 ph cm–2s–1 and a differential spectral photon index Γ = 2.4 ± 0.2stat ± 0.2syst in the range of ~80 GeV–3 TeV. To study the broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) simultaneous with MAGIC observations, we use KVA, Swift/UVOT and XRT and Fermi/LAT data. One-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) modelling of the SED of 1ES 1741+196 suggests values for the SSC parameters that are quite common among known TeV BL Lacs except for a relatively low Doppler factor and slope of electron energy distribution. A thermal feature seen in the SED is well matched by a giant elliptical's template. As a result, this appears to be the signature of thermal emission from the host galaxy, which is clearly resolved in optical observations.« less

  12. High-energy resolution X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy reveals insight into unique selectivity of La-based nanoparticles for CO2

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Ofer; Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Luo, Li; Süess, Martin J.; Glatzel, Pieter; Koziej, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The lanthanum-based materials, due to their layered structure and f-electron configuration, are relevant for electrochemical application. Particularly, La2O2CO3 shows a prominent chemoresistive response to CO2. However, surprisingly less is known about its atomic and electronic structure and electrochemically significant sites and therefore, its structure–functions relationships have yet to be established. Here we determine the position of the different constituents within the unit cell of monoclinic La2O2CO3 and use this information to interpret in situ high-energy resolution fluorescence-detected (HERFD) X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and valence-to-core X-ray emission spectroscopy (vtc XES). Compared with La(OH)3 or previously known hexagonal La2O2CO3 structures, La in the monoclinic unit cell has a much lower number of neighboring oxygen atoms, which is manifested in the whiteline broadening in XANES spectra. Such a superior sensitivity to subtle changes is given by HERFD method, which is essential for in situ studying of the interaction with CO2. Here, we study La2O2CO3-based sensors in real operando conditions at 250 °C in the presence of oxygen and water vapors. We identify that the distribution of unoccupied La d-states and occupied O p- and La d-states changes during CO2 chemoresistive sensing of La2O2CO3. The correlation between these spectroscopic findings with electrical resistance measurements leads to a more comprehensive understanding of the selective adsorption at La site and may enable the design of new materials for CO2 electrochemical applications. PMID:26668362

  13. Possible radio emission mechanism for pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovalev, Y. A.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented and discussed as a possible mechanism to describe radio emission from pulsars. The model determines that the magnetic field in the neutron proton electron (npe) layer of a neutron star results from a quasistationary eddy current of superconducting and normal protons relative to normal electrons, which generates radio emission by the Josephson effect. The radiation propagates in the magnetically active medium, from the optically thick npe layer to the magnetosphere through breaks in the crust. As a result, hot radio spots form on the surface of the star, and a radiation pattern forms near the magnetic poles, the cross section of which gives the observed pulse structure. Due to the specific properties of the mechanism, variations of the quasistationary current are converted to amplitude frequency variations of the radiation spectrum. Variations of the fine structure of the spectrum pulse amplitude and spectral index, as well as their correlation are discussed.

  14. Study of Mechanical Properties of Bone by Measuring Load Transfer via High-energy X-ray Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Anjali

    Synchrotron high-energy X-ray scattering is used to investigate the in situ strains in hydroxyapatite (HAP) platelets and mineralized collagen fibrils in bovine cortical bone. Compressive load-unload tests at room temperature (27°C) and body temperature (37°C) show that the load transfer to the stiff nano-sized platelets from the surrounding compliant protein matrix does not vary significantly with temperature. This emphasizes that the stiffness of bone is controlled by the stiffness of the HAP phase, which remains unaffected by this change in temperature. Monotonic loading tests in compression and tension, conducted at 37°C, illustrate the spatial variation of properties within a single femur, which is correlated to the mineral content, porosity and microstructure of the samples. The average apparent modulus of HAP and fibrils (EappHAP and Eappfib, respectively), defined as the ratio of applied stress and phase strain, is obtained as 27.5 ± 6.6 and 18.5 ± 8.9 GPa, respectively, in compression. These values are significantly higher than the values of 20.0 ± 5.4 and 4.1 ± 2.6 GPa obtained for HAP and fibrils, respectively, in tension. The difference between the two types of loading is attributed to greater plastic deformation of collagen in tension, which results in greater strains in the collagen fibril, and concomitant greater load transfer to the HAP. Increasing synchrotron X-ray doses (5-3880 kGy) affect neither apparent HAP nor fibrillar modulus, up to stresses of -60 MPa (measured during in situ loading and unloading). However, the residual elastic strains in the HAP phase decrease markedly with increased irradiation, indicating damage at the HAP-collagen interface. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction peak widths shows that unit cells of HAP which are under the highest initial residual strains are most able to relax due to irradiation, resulting in a net decrease in the strain

  15. Structural, mechanical and magnetic properties studies on high-energy Kr-ion irradiated Fe3O4 material (main corrosion layer of Fe-based alloys)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianrong; Wang, Zhiguang; Zhang, Hongpeng; Song, Peng; Chang, Hailong; Cui, Minghuan; Pang, Lilong; Zhu, Yabin; Li, Fashen

    2014-12-01

    The Fe-based (T91 and RAFM) alloys are considered as the promising candidate structural materials for DEMO and the first fusion power plant, and these two kinds of steels suffered more serious corrosion attack at 450 °C in liquid PbBi metal. So in order to further clarify the applicability of Fe-based structural materials in nuclear facilities, we should study not only the alloys itself but also its corrosion layers; and in order to simplify the discussion and clarify the irradiation effects of the different corrosion layer, we abstract the Fe3O4 (main corrosion layer of Fe-based alloys) to study the structural, micro-mechanical and magnetic properties under 2.03 GeV Kr-ion irradiation. The initial crystallographic structure of the Fe3O4 remains unaffected after irradiation at low damage levels, but as the Kr-ion fluence increases and the defects accumulate, the macroscopic magnetic properties (Ms, Hc, etc.) and micro-mechanical properties (nano-hardness and Young's modulus) are sensitive to high-energy Kr-ion irradiation and exhibit excruciating uniform changing regularities with varying fluences (firstly increases, then decreases). And these magnetism, hardening and softening phenomena can be interpreted very well by the effects related to the stress and defects (the production, accumulation and free) induced by high-energy ions irradiation.

  16. High energy neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-06-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos.

  17. Improvement of mechanical and thermal properties of high energy electron beam irradiated HDPE/hydroxyapatite nano-composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, M.; Ziaie, F.; Majdabadi, A.; Akhavan, A.; Shafaei, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this research work, the nano-composites of high density polyethylene/hydroxyapatite samples were manufactured via two methods: In the first method, the granules of high density polyethylene and nano-structure hydroxyapatite were processed in an internal mixer to prepare the nano-composite samples with a different weight percentage of the reinforcement phase. As for the second one, high density polyethylene was prepared in nano-powder form in boiling xylene. During this procedure, the hydroxyapatite nano-powder was added with different weight percentages to the solvent to obtain the nano-composite. In both of the procedures, the used hydroxyapatite nano-powder was synthesized via hydrolysis methods. The samples were irradiated under 10 MeV electron beam in 70-200 kGy of doses. Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of the samples were investigated and compared. The results demonstrate that the nano-composites which we have prepared using nano-polyethylene, show better mechanical and thermal properties than the composites prepared from normal polyethylene granules, due to the better dispersion of nano-particles in the polymer matrix.

  18. Mechanism of instability of carbides in Fe-TaC alloy under high energy electron irradiation at 673 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Hiroaki; Ishizaki, Takahiro; Kano, Sho; Li, Feng; Satoh, Yuhki; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Hamaguchi, Dai; Nagase, Takeshi; Yasuda, Hidehiro

    2014-12-01

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs), such as F82H steel, are designed to enhance the high-temperature strength by formation of MX-type nanometer-scale precipitates, mainly TaC. However, their instability under irradiation was recently reported. The purpose of this work, therefore, is to clarify the mechanism employing simultaneous observations under electron irradiation at elevated temperature in a high voltage electron microscope. In this work, Fe-0.2 wt.% TaC was fabricated as a model alloy of F82H steel. The instability of the precipitates was observed under electron irradiation at 1 MeV or above. The remarkable shrinkage and disappearance were clearly observed under irradiation with 1.5 MeV and above. On the contrary, the precipitates were mostly stable below 0.75 MeV. Two kinds of mechanism of the irradiation-induced instability were deduced from the electron-energy dependence. One is the dissolution and diffusion of tantalum from precipitates in ferrite matrix. The other is the displacements of tantalum in precipitates that introduce dissolution of Ta into matrix.

  19. Disentangling Hadronic and Leptonic Cascade Scenarios from the Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission of Distant Hard-Spectrum Blazars

    DOE PAGES

    Takami, Hajime; Murase, Kohta; Dermer, Charles D.

    2013-06-26

    We show that recent data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope have revealed about a dozen distant hard-spectrum blazars that have very-high-energy (VHE; ≳ 100 eV) photons associated with them, but most of them have not yet been detected by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. Most of these high-energy gamma-ray spectra, like those of other extreme high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects, can be well explained either by gamma rays emitted at the source or by cascades induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, as we show specifically for KUV 00311–1938. We consider the prospects for detection of the VHE sources by the plannedmore » Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and show how it can distinguish the two scenarios by measuring the integrated flux above ~500 GeV (depending on source redshift) for several luminous sources with z ≲ 1 in the sample. Strong evidence for the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays could be obtained from VHE observations with CTA. Depending on redshift, if the often quoted redshift of KUV 00311–1938 (z = 0.61) is believed, then preliminary H.E.S.S. data favor cascades induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. Lastly, accurate redshift measurements of hard-spectrum blazars are essential for this study.« less

  20. DISENTANGLING HADRONIC AND LEPTONIC CASCADE SCENARIOS FROM THE VERY-HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION OF DISTANT HARD-SPECTRUM BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, Hajime; Murase, Kohta; Dermer, Charles D. E-mail: murase@ias.edu

    2013-07-10

    Recent data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope have revealed about a dozen distant hard-spectrum blazars that have very-high-energy (VHE; {approx}> 100 GeV) photons associated with them, but most of them have not yet been detected by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. Most of these high-energy gamma-ray spectra, like those of other extreme high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects, can be well explained either by gamma rays emitted at the source or by cascades induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, as we show specifically for KUV 00311-1938. We consider the prospects for detection of the VHE sources by the planned Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and show how it can distinguish the two scenarios by measuring the integrated flux above {approx}500 GeV (depending on source redshift) for several luminous sources with z {approx}< 1 in the sample. Strong evidence for the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays could be obtained from VHE observations with CTA. Depending on redshift, if the often quoted redshift of KUV 00311-1938 (z = 0.61) is believed, then preliminary H.E.S.S. data favor cascades induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. Accurate redshift measurements of hard-spectrum blazars are essential for this study.

  1. Disentangling Hadronic and Leptonic Cascade Scenarios from the Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission of Distant Hard-Spectrum Blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, Hajime; Murase, Kohta; Dermer, Charles D.

    2013-06-26

    We show that recent data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope have revealed about a dozen distant hard-spectrum blazars that have very-high-energy (VHE; ≳ 100 eV) photons associated with them, but most of them have not yet been detected by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. Most of these high-energy gamma-ray spectra, like those of other extreme high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects, can be well explained either by gamma rays emitted at the source or by cascades induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, as we show specifically for KUV 00311–1938. We consider the prospects for detection of the VHE sources by the planned Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and show how it can distinguish the two scenarios by measuring the integrated flux above ~500 GeV (depending on source redshift) for several luminous sources with z ≲ 1 in the sample. Strong evidence for the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays could be obtained from VHE observations with CTA. Depending on redshift, if the often quoted redshift of KUV 00311–1938 (z = 0.61) is believed, then preliminary H.E.S.S. data favor cascades induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. Lastly, accurate redshift measurements of hard-spectrum blazars are essential for this study.

  2. The High-Energy Emission of the Crab Nebula from 20 keV TO 6 MeV with Integral SPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P.

    2009-10-01

    The SPI spectrometer aboard the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory mission regularly observes the Crab Nebula since 2003. We report on observations distributed over 5.5 years and investigate the variability of the intensity and spectral shape of this remarkable source in the hard X-rays domain up to a few MeV. While single power-law models give a good description in the X-ray domain (mean photon index ~ 2.05) and MeV domain (photon index ~ 2.23), crucial information is contained in the evolution of the slope with energy between these two values. This study has been carried out through individual observations and long duration (~ 400 ks) averaged spectra. The stability of the emission is remarkable and excludes a single power-law model. The slopes measured below and above 100 keV agree perfectly with the last values reported in the X-ray and MeV regions, respectively, but without indication of a localized break point. This suggests a gradual softening in the emission around 100 keV and thus a continuous evolution rather than an actual change in the mechanism parameters. In the MeV region, no significant deviation from the proposed power-law model is visible up to 5-6 MeV. Finally, we take advantage of the spectroscopic capability of the instrument to seek for previously reported spectral features in the covered energy range with negative results for any significant cyclotron or annihilation emission on 400 ks timescales. Beyond the scientific results, the performance and reliability of the SPI instrument is explicitly demonstrated, with some details about the most appropriate analysis method. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data center funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland), Czech Republic and Poland with participation of Russia and USA.

  3. HIGH ENERGY POLARIZATION OF BLAZARS: DETECTION PROSPECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, N.; Pavlidou, V.; Fields, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (with X-Calibur offering the most promising prospects), space-based missions should detect the brightest blazars for polarization fractions down to a few percent. Typical flaring activity of blazars could boost the overall number of polarimetric detections by nearly a factor of five to six purely accounting for flux increase of the brightest of the comprehensive, all-sky, Fermi-LAT blazar distribution. The instantaneous increase in the number of detections is approximately a factor of two, assuming a duty cycle of 20% for every source. The detectability of particular blazars may be reduced if variations in the flux and polarization fraction are anticorrelated. Simultaneous use of variability and polarization trends could guide the selection of blazars for high-energy polarimetric observations.

  4. High Energy Polarization of Blazars: Detection Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, N.; Pavlidou, V.; Fields, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (with X-Calibur offering the most promising prospects), space-based missions should detect the brightest blazars for polarization fractions down to a few percent. Typical flaring activity of blazars could boost the overall number of polarimetric detections by nearly a factor of five to six purely accounting for flux increase of the brightest of the comprehensive, all-sky, Fermi-LAT blazar distribution. The instantaneous increase in the number of detections is approximately a factor of two, assuming a duty cycle of 20% for every source. The detectability of particular blazars may be reduced if variations in the flux and polarization fraction are anticorrelated. Simultaneous use of variability and polarization trends could guide the selection of blazars for high-energy polarimetric observations.

  5. Structural studies of calcium phosphate doped with titanium and zirconium obtained by high-energy mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, C. C.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, we present a new variation of the solid-state procedure on the synthesis of bioceramics with titanium (CapTi) and zirconium (CapZr), considering that zirconium (ZrO2) and titanium oxide (TiO2) are strengthening agents, due to their superb force and fracture toughness. The high efficiency of the calcination process opens a new way of producing commercial amounts of nanocrystalline bioceramics. In this work, a new variation of the solid-state procedure method was used to produce nanocrystalline powders of titanium and zirconium, using two different experimental chemical routes: CapTi: Ca(H2PO4)2+TiO2 and CapZr: Ca(H2PO4)2+ZrO2. The powders were submitted to calcination processes (CapTic and CapZrc) at 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The calcium titanium phosphate phase, CaTi4P6O24, was obtained in the CapTic reaction and the calcium zirconium phosphate, CaZr4P6O24, was obtained in the CapZrc reaction. The obtained ceramics were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, Raman scattering spectroscopy (RSS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. This method was compared with the milling process (CapTim and CapZrm), where in the last process the melting is not necessary and the powder obtained is nanocrystalline. The calcium titanium phosphate phase, CaTi4P6O24, was obtained in the reaction CapTim, but in CapZrm the formation of any calcium phosphate phase even after 15 h of dry mechanical alloying was not observed.

  6. High Energy Missile Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    hypervelocity missile concept has been investigated. This research and development project called High Energy Missile (HEMi) technology...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 00 DEC 2004 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High Energy

  7. From QCD-based hard-scattering to nonextensive statistical mechanical descriptions of transverse momentum spectra in high-energy pp and pp¯ collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Wilk, Grzegorz; Cirto, Leonardo J. L.; ...

    2015-06-22

    Transverse spectra of both jets and hadrons obtained in high-energymore » $pp$ and $$p\\bar p $$ collisions at central rapidity exhibit power-law behavior of $$1/p_T^n$$ at high $$p_T$$. The power index $n$ is 4-5 for jet production and is slightly greater for hadron production. Furthermore, the hadron spectra spanning over 14 orders of magnitude down to the lowest $$p_T$$ region in $pp$ collisions at LHC can be adequately described by a single nonextensive statistical mechanical distribution that is widely used in other branches of science. This suggests indirectly the dominance of the hard-scattering process over essentially the whole $$p_T$$ region at central rapidity in $pp$ collisions at LHC. We show here direct evidences of such a dominance of the hard-scattering process by investigating the power index of UA1 jet spectra over an extended $$p_T$$ region and the two-particle correlation data of the STAR and PHENIX Collaborations in high-energy $pp$ and $$p \\bar p$$ collisions at central rapidity. We then study how the showering of the hard-scattering product partons alters the power index of the hadron spectra and leads to a hadron distribution that can be cast into a single-particle non-extensive statistical mechanical distribution. Lastly, because of such a connection, the non-extensive statistical mechanical distribution can be considered as a lowest-order approximation of the hard-scattering of partons followed by the subsequent process of parton showering that turns the jets into hadrons, in high energy $pp$ and $$p\\bar p$$ collisions.« less

  8. Efficient sensitization of Yb3+ emission by Nd3+ in Y2O3 transparent ceramics and the prospect for high-energy Yb lasers.

    PubMed

    Lupei, Voicu; Lupei, Aurelia; Gheorghe, Cristina; Hau, Stefania; Ikesue, Akio

    2009-07-15

    Very efficient energy transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ in transparent Y2O3 ceramics in the temperature range 10-300 K is demonstrated. It is inferred that this shows potential for the construction of high-energy Yb3+ lasers under diode or flash-lamp excitation of Nd3+.

  9. i RadMat: A thermo-mechanical testing system for in situ high-energy X-ray characterization of radioactive specimens

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xuan; Xu, Chi; Wang, Leyun; ...

    2017-01-27

    Here, we present an in situ Radiated Materials (iRadMat) experimental module designed to interface with a servo-hydraulic load frame for X-ray measurements at beamline 1-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. This new capability allows in situ studies of radioactive specimens subject to thermo-mechanical loading using a suite of high-energy X-ray scattering and imaging techniques. The iRadMat is a radiation-shielded vacuum heating system with the sample rotation-under-load capability. We describe the design features and performances of the iRadMat and present a dataset from a 300 °C uniaxial tensile test of a neutron-irradiated pure Fe specimen to demonstrate its capabilities.

  10. The Structure and Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Bulk Ultrafine-Grained Cobalt Prepared Using High-Energy Ball Milling in Combination with Spark Plasma Sintering

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Ivo; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Michalcová, Alena; Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2016-01-01

    In this study, bulk ultrafine-grained and micro-crystalline cobalt was prepared using a combination of high-energy ball milling and subsequent spark plasma sintering. The average grain sizes of the ultrafine-grained and micro-crystalline materials were 200 nm and 1 μm, respectively. Mechanical properties such as the compressive yield strength, the ultimate compressive strength, the maximum compressive deformation and the Vickers hardness were studied and compared with those of a coarse-grained as-cast cobalt reference sample. The bulk ultrafine-grained sample showed an ultra-high compressive yield strength that was greater than 1 GPa, which is discussed with respect to the preparation technique and a structural investigation. PMID:28773514

  11. iRadMat: A thermo-mechanical testing system for in situ high-energy X-ray characterization of radioactive specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuan; Xu, Chi; Wang, Leyun; Chen, Yiren; Li, Meimei; Almer, Jonathan D.; Benda, Erika; Kenesei, Peter; Mashayekhi, Ali; Park, Jun-Sang; Westferro, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    We present an in situ Radiated Materials (iRadMat) experimental module designed to interface with a servo-hydraulic load frame for X-ray measurements at beamline 1-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. This new capability allows in situ studies of radioactive specimens subject to thermo-mechanical loading using a suite of high-energy X-ray scattering and imaging techniques. The iRadMat is a radiation-shielded vacuum heating system with the sample rotation-under-load capability. We describe the design features and performances of the iRadMat and present a dataset from a 300 °C uniaxial tensile test of a neutron-irradiated pure Fe specimen to demonstrate its capabilities.

  12. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics program at the University of California at Riverside. In hadron collider physics the authors will complete their transition from experiment UA1 at CERN to the DZERO experiment at Fermilab. On experiment UA1 their effort will concentrate on data analysis at Riverside. At Fermilab they will coordinate the high voltage system for all detector elements. They will also carry out hardware/software development for the D0 muon detector. The TPC/Two-Gamma experiment has completed its present phase of data-taking after accumulating 160 pb{sup {minus}}1 of luminosity. The UC Riverside group will continue data and physics analysis and make minor hardware improvement for the high luminosity run. The UC Riverside group is participating in design and implementation of the data acquisition system for the OPAL experiment at LEP. Mechanical and electronics construction of the OPAL hadron calorimeter strip readout system is proceeding on schedule. Data analysis and Monte Carlo detector simulation efforts are proceeding in preparation for the first physics run when IEP operation comenses in fall 1989.

  13. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    This proposal is for the continuation of the High Energy Physics Program at the University of California, Riverside. In 1990, we will concentrate on analysis of LEP data from the OPAL detector. We expect to record 10{sup 5} Z`s by the end of 1989 and 10{sup 6} in 1990. This data will be used to measure the number of quark-lepton families in the universe. In the second half of 1990 we will also be occupied with the installation of the D-Zero detector in the Tevatron Collider and the preparation of software for the 1991 run. A new initiative made possible by generous university support is a laboratory for detector development at UCR. The focus will be on silicon strip tracking detectors both for the D-Zero upgrade and for SSC physics. The theory program will pursue further various mass-generating radiative mechanisms for understanding small quark and lepton masses as well as some novel phenomenological aspects of supersymmetry.

  14. Hydrogen desorption properties of MgH2-TiCr1.2Fe0.6 nanocomposite prepared by high-energy mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudi, Nafiseh; Kaflou, A.; Simchi, A.

    2011-05-01

    In the present work, high-energy mechanical alloying (MA) was employed to synthesize a nanostructured magnesium-based composite for hydrogen storage. The preparation of the composite material with composition of MgH2-5 at% (TiCr1.2Fe0.6) was performed by co-milling of commercial available MgH2 powder with the body-centered cubic (bcc) alloy either in the form of Ti-Cr-Fe powder mixture with the proper mass fraction (sample A) or prealloyed TiCr1.2Fe0.6 powder (sample B). The prealloyed powder with an average crystallite size of 14 nm and particle size of 384 nm was prepared by the mechanical alloying process. It is shown that the addition of the Ti-based bcc alloy to magnesium hydride yields a finer particle size and grain structure after mechanical alloying. As a result, the desorption temperature of mechanically activated MgH2 for 4 h decreased from 327 °C to 262 °C for sample A and 241 °C for sample B. A high dehydrogenation capacity (∼5 wt%) at 300 °C is also obtained. The effect of the Ti-based alloy on improvement of the dehydrogenation is discussed.

  15. Field emission, morphological and mechanical properties of variety of diamond-like carbon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sushil; Tripathi, R. K.; Malik, H. K.; Panwar, O. S.

    2011-11-01

    The effect of nitrogen incorporation and sandwich titanium and copper layers, on field emission, morphological and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films is explored. The introduction of foreign element (N2) and sandwich Cu and Ti layers changed the amorphous morphology to nanostructured, reduced the stress, enhanced the hardness (except N2 incorporated DLC film) and improved the field emission (except Ti/DLC bilayer) of modified DLC films. The associated versatile electrical and mechanical properties of modified DLC film made it a material of great utility in the development of field emission display panels and also lead to its application as a hard and protective coating on cutting tools, automobile parts etc. It is important to mention that DLC-based electronic materials may replace currently used soft electronic materials (such as Si) due to their enhanced stability under high energy radiation.

  16. Ultraviolet and Visible Emission Mechanisms in Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stancil, Phillip C.; Schultz, David R.

    2003-01-01

    The project involved the study of ultraviolet (UV) and visible emission mechanisms in astrophysical and atmospheric environments. In many situations, the emission is a direct consequence of a charge transferring collision of an ion with a neutral with capture of an electron to an excited state of the product ion. The process is also important in establishing the ionization and thermal balance of an astrophysical plasma. As little of the necessary collision data are available, the main thrust of the project was the calculation of total and state-selective charge transfer cross sections and rate coefficients for a very large number of collision systems. The data was computed using modern explicit techniques including the molecular-orbital close-coupling (MOCC), classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC), and continuum distorted wave (CDW) methods. Estimates were also made in some instances using the multichannel Landau-Zener (MCLZ) and classical over-the-barrier (COB) models. Much of the data which has been computed has been formatted for inclusion in a charge transfer database on the World Wide Web (cfadc.phy.ornl.gov/astro/ps/data/). A considerable amount of data has been generated during the lifetime of the grant. Some of it has not been analyzed, but it will be as soon as possible, the data placed on our website, and papers ultimately written.

  17. Black holes and high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grib, A. A.; Pavlov, Yu. V.

    2016-01-01

    Three mechanisms of getting high energies in particle collisions in the ergosphere of the rotating black holes are considered. The consequences of these mechanisms for observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays particles on the Earth as result of conversion of superheavy dark matter particles into ordinary particles are discussed.

  18. Search for Very-high-energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts Using the First 18 Months of Data from the HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, R.; Alvarez, C.; Álvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Avila Rojas, D.; Ayala Solares, H. A.; Barber, A. S.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Becerril, A.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Bernal, A.; Braun, J.; Brisbois, C.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Capistrán, T.; Carramiñana, A.; Casanova, S.; Castillo, M.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; Coutiño deLeón, S.; De la Fuente, E.; De León, C.; DeYoung, T.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Dingus, B. L.; DuVernois, M. A.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engel, K.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fraija, N.; García-González, J. A.; Garfias, F.; Gerhardt, M.; González Muñoz, A.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Hernandez, S.; Hona, B.; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Iriarte, A.; Jardin-Blicq, A.; Joshi, V.; Kaufmann, S.; Kieda, D.; Lauer, R. J.; Lee, W. H.; Lennarz, D.; León Vargas, H.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longinotti, A. L.; Raya, G. Luis; Luna-García, R.; López-Coto, R.; Malone, K.; Marinelli, S. S.; Martinez, O.; Martinez-Castellanos, I.; Martínez-Castro, J.; Martínez-Huerta, H.; Matthews, J. A.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Mostafá, M.; Nellen, L.; Newbold, M.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Pelayo, R.; Pérez-Pérez, E. G.; Pretz, J.; Ren, Z.; Rho, C. D.; Rivière, C.; Rosa-González, D.; Rosenberg, M.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Salazar, H.; Salesa Greus, F.; Sandoval, A.; Schneider, M.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Springer, R. W.; Surajbali, P.; Taboada, I.; Tibolla, O.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Vianello, G.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Wood, J.; Yapici, T.; Younk, P. W.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-ray Observatory is an extensive air shower detector operating in central Mexico that has recently completed its first two years of full operations. If for a burst like GRB 130427A at a redshift of 0.34 and a high-energy component following a power law with index 1.66, the high-energy component is extended to higher energies with no cutoff other than that from extragalactic background light attenuation, HAWC would observe gamma-rays with a peak energy of ˜300 GeV. This paper reports the results of HAWC observations of 64 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by Swift and Fermi, including 3 GRBs that were also detected by the Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). An ON/OFF analysis method is employed, searching on the timescale given by the observed light curve at keV-MeV energies and also on extended timescales. For all GRBs and timescales, no statistically significant excess of counts is found and upper limits on the number of gamma-rays and the gamma-ray flux are calculated. GRB 170206A, the third brightest short GRB detected by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor on board the Fermi satellite (Fermi-GBM) and also detected by the LAT, occurred very close to zenith. The LAT measurements can neither exclude the presence of a synchrotron self-Compton component nor constrain its spectrum. Instead, the HAWC upper limits constrain the expected cutoff in an additional high-energy component to be less than 100 {GeV} for reasonable assumptions about the energetics and redshift of the burst.

  19. High-energy detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

  20. High Energy Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by members of the USRA (Universities Space Research Association) contract team during the six months during the reporting period (10/95 - 3/96) and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics. Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science, Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  1. High Energy Astrophysics Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed-by members of the USRA contract team during the six months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, visiting the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics. Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA); X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE); X-ray Spectrometer (XRS); Astro-E; High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  2. High Energy Exoplanet Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llama, Joe; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.

    2017-10-01

    X-ray and ultraviolet transits of exoplanets allow us to probe the atmospheres of these worlds. High energy transits have been shown to be deeper but also more variable than in the optical. By simulating exoplanet transits using high-energy observations of the Sun, we can test the limits of our ability to accurately measure the properties of these planets in the presence of stellar activity. We use both disk-resolved images of the Solar disk spanning soft X-rays, the ultraviolet, and the optical and also disk-integrated Sun-as-a-star observations of the Lyα irradiance to simulate transits over a wide wavelength range. We find that for stars with activity levels similar to the Sun, the planet-to-star radius ratio can be overestimated by up to 50% if the planet occults an active region at high energies. We also compare our simulations to high energy transits of WASP-12b, HD 189733, 55 Cnc b, and GJ 436b.

  3. High energy colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Gallardo, J.C.

    1997-02-01

    The authors consider the high energy physics advantages, disadvantages and luminosity requirements of hadron (pp, p{anti p}), lepton (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}, {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup {minus}}) and photon-photon colliders. Technical problems in obtaining increased energy in each type of machine are presented. The machines relative size are also discussed.

  4. High energy particle astronomy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, A.; Muller, R. A.; Smith, L. H.; Smoot, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of techniques currently used in high energy particle astronomy for measuring charged and neutral cosmic rays and their isotope and momentum distribution. Derived from methods developed for accelerator experiments in particle physics, these techniques help perform important particle astronomy experiments pertaining to nuclear cosmic ray and gamma ray research, electron and position probes, and antimatter searches.

  5. High energy particle astronomy.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, A.; Muller, R. A.; Smith, L. H.; Smoot, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of techniques currently used in high energy particle astronomy for measuring charged and neutral cosmic rays and their isotope and momentum distribution. Derived from methods developed for accelerator experiments in particle physics, these techniques help perform important particle astronomy experiments pertaining to nuclear cosmic ray and gamma ray research, electron and position probes, and antimatter searches.

  6. Inorganic High Energy Oxidisers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    properties may contribute significantly to the energy of the whole system. A book entitled ’Inorganic High - Energy Oxidisers’ by E.W. Lawless and I.C. Smith is the subject of this Essay Review by W.E. Batty.

  7. High Energy Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 2 contributions to X-ray astronomy is presented along with a brief description of the satellite and onboard telescope. Observations relating to galaxies and galactic clusters, black holes, supernova remnants, quasars, and cosmology are discussed.

  8. Perspective of detecting very high energy gamma-ray emission from active galactic nuclei with Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi; Yuan, Qiang; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Zhu, Feng-Rong; Jia, Huan-Yu

    2016-10-01

    The detectability of active galactic nuclei (AGN), a major class of γ-ray emitters in the sky, by the newly planned Chinese project, Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), is investigated. The expectation is primarily based on the AGN catalog of Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT), with an extrapolation to the very high energy (VHE) range taking into account the absorption effect by the extragalactic background light (EBL). It is found that LHAASO may have the potential to detect more than several tens of the Fermi detected AGN, basically BL Lacertaes, with one-year sky survey. The capability of measuring the energy spectrum and light curve are also discussed.

  9. High energy flux thermo-mechanical test of 1D-carbon-carbon fibre composite prototypes for the SPIDER diagnostic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    De Muri, M. Pasqualotto, R.; Dalla Palma, M.; Cervaro, V.; Fasolo, D.; Franchin, L.; Tollin, M.; Serianni, G.; Cavallin, T.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.

    2014-02-15

    Operation of the thermonuclear fusion experiment ITER requires additional heating via injection of neutral beams from accelerated negative ions. In the SPIDER test facility, under construction in Padova, the production of negative ions will be studied and optimised. STRIKE (Short-Time Retractable Instrumented Kalorimeter Experiment) is a diagnostic used to characterise the SPIDER beam during short pulse operation (several seconds) to verify if the beam meets the ITER requirements about the maximum allowed beam non-uniformity (below ±10%). The major components of STRIKE are 16 1D-CFC (Carbon-Carbon Fibre Composite) tiles, observed at the rear side by a thermal camera. This contribution gives an overview of some tests under high energy particle flux, aimed at verifying the thermo-mechanical behaviour of several CFC prototype tiles. The tests were performed in the GLADIS facility at IPP (Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik), Garching. Dedicated linear and nonlinear simulations were carried out to interpret the experiments and a comparison of the experimental data with the simulation results is presented. The results of some morphological and structural studies on the material after exposure to the GLADIS beam are also given.

  10. Investigation of the capacity retention mechanisms in novel composite sulfur copolymer-base cathodes for high-energy density Li-S batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleshko, Vladimir; Kim, Jenny; Masser, Kevin; Hudson, Steven; Soles, Christopher; Griebel, Jared; Chung, Woo Jin; Simmonds, Adam; Pyun, Jeffrey

    2013-03-01

    Utilization of the active cathode material in high-energy density Li-S batteries limited by the insulating nature of sulfur and losses in the form of insoluble polysulfides was improved by the use of 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene (DIB) copolymerized with molten sulfur. This approach termed, inverse vulcanization, transforms elemental sulfur into chemically stable processable copolymer forms with tunable thermomechanical properties. According to dielectric spectroscopy and dc conductivity measurements, composite sulfur-DIB copolymer cathodes exhibit a glassy-state beta relaxation related to short sulfur segments or to the DIB cross-linker. High-resolution AEM and FESEM studies down to the atomic scale reveal multiscale 3D-architectures created within the pristine and cycled composite cathodes with various contents of the electroactive copolymers. The morphology, structures, bonding and local compositional distributions of the constituents (sulfur, copolymers, aggregated conductive carbon nanoparticles) as well as extended pore structures and their transformations under cycling have been examined to provide insights into mechanisms of the enhanced capacity retention in the modified Li-S cells. NIST support under grant MML12-1053-N00

  11. High energy flux thermo-mechanical test of 1D-carbon-carbon fibre composite prototypes for the SPIDER diagnostic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Muri, M.; Cavallin, T.; Pasqualotto, R.; Dalla Palma, M.; Cervaro, V.; Fasolo, D.; Franchin, L.; Tollin, M.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Serianni, G.

    2014-02-01

    Operation of the thermonuclear fusion experiment ITER requires additional heating via injection of neutral beams from accelerated negative ions. In the SPIDER test facility, under construction in Padova, the production of negative ions will be studied and optimised. STRIKE (Short-Time Retractable Instrumented Kalorimeter Experiment) is a diagnostic used to characterise the SPIDER beam during short pulse operation (several seconds) to verify if the beam meets the ITER requirements about the maximum allowed beam non-uniformity (below ±10%). The major components of STRIKE are 16 1D-CFC (Carbon-Carbon Fibre Composite) tiles, observed at the rear side by a thermal camera. This contribution gives an overview of some tests under high energy particle flux, aimed at verifying the thermo-mechanical behaviour of several CFC prototype tiles. The tests were performed in the GLADIS facility at IPP (Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik), Garching. Dedicated linear and nonlinear simulations were carried out to interpret the experiments and a comparison of the experimental data with the simulation results is presented. The results of some morphological and structural studies on the material after exposure to the GLADIS beam are also given.

  12. High capacity retention Si/silicide nanocomposite anode materials fabricated by high-energy mechanical milling for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hyoung Kyu; Loka, Chadrasekhar; Yang, Yun Mo; Kim, Jae Hyuk; Moon, Sung Whan; Cho, Jong Soo; Lee, Kee-Sun

    2015-05-01

    The preparation of different kinds of nanocomposite materials is a promising approach to alleviate the severe volume changes of Silicon anode materials for lithium-ion secondary batteries. In the present study, a novel nanocomposite Si80Fe16Cr4 was synthesized by high-energy mechanical milling without noticeable contamination. The nano-indentation results revealed that the elastic recoverable energy range of the synthesized nanocomposite is 3.43 times higher than that of Si. The proposed nanocomposite milled for 8 and 10 h recorded a noteworthy reversible capacity of 841 and 812 mAh g-1 even at 100th cycle, with excellent capacity retention. Remarkably, the nanocomposite exhibited a very low initial cycle (1st cycle) capacity loss ∼14%. The crystal separation of the less active silicide phases was determined after the extended cycling, which is advantageous for accommodating the stress produced by the volume changes of the active Si. The primary factors attributed to the excellent electrochemical performance were the size reduction of Si particles to nanometer scale, the formation of the highly elastic matrix, and separation of silicide phases after extended cycling.

  13. High energy flux thermo-mechanical test of 1D-carbon-carbon fibre composite prototypes for the SPIDER diagnostic calorimeter.

    PubMed

    De Muri, M; Cavallin, T; Pasqualotto, R; Dalla Palma, M; Cervaro, V; Fasolo, D; Franchin, L; Tollin, M; Greuner, H; Böswirth, B; Serianni, G

    2014-02-01

    Operation of the thermonuclear fusion experiment ITER requires additional heating via injection of neutral beams from accelerated negative ions. In the SPIDER test facility, under construction in Padova, the production of negative ions will be studied and optimised. STRIKE (Short-Time Retractable Instrumented Kalorimeter Experiment) is a diagnostic used to characterise the SPIDER beam during short pulse operation (several seconds) to verify if the beam meets the ITER requirements about the maximum allowed beam non-uniformity (below ±10%). The major components of STRIKE are 16 1D-CFC (Carbon-Carbon Fibre Composite) tiles, observed at the rear side by a thermal camera. This contribution gives an overview of some tests under high energy particle flux, aimed at verifying the thermo-mechanical behaviour of several CFC prototype tiles. The tests were performed in the GLADIS facility at IPP (Max-Plank-Institut für Plasmaphysik), Garching. Dedicated linear and nonlinear simulations were carried out to interpret the experiments and a comparison of the experimental data with the simulation results is presented. The results of some morphological and structural studies on the material after exposure to the GLADIS beam are also given.

  14. High-energy facility development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Roberts, W. T.; Dabbs, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Approaches to the deployment of instruments for the study of high-energy solar emissions alone or in conjunction with other solar instruments are considered. The Space Station has been identified as the preferred mode for the deployment of the Advanced Solar Observatory, and it is suggested that a proposed High-Energy Facility could be on a coorbiting platform. The implementation plan for the High-Energy Facility involves the definition of the interface structures required to mount the facility instruments to the Space Station and the development of hard X-ray and gamma-ray imaging, spectroscopic, and polarimetric instruments.

  15. High-energy facility development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Roberts, W. T.; Dabbs, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Approaches to the deployment of instruments for the study of high-energy solar emissions alone or in conjunction with other solar instruments are considered. The Space Station has been identified as the preferred mode for the deployment of the Advanced Solar Observatory, and it is suggested that a proposed High-Energy Facility could be on a coorbiting platform. The implementation plan for the High-Energy Facility involves the definition of the interface structures required to mount the facility instruments to the Space Station and the development of hard X-ray and gamma-ray imaging, spectroscopic, and polarimetric instruments.

  16. High energy transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woosley, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    A meeting was convened on the campus of the University of California at Santa Cruz during the two-week interval July 11 through July 22, 1983. Roughly 100 participants were chosen so as to give broad representation to all aspects of high energy transients. Ten morning review sessions were held in which invited speakers discussed the current status of observations and theory of the above subjects. Afternoon workshops were also held, usually more than one per day, to informally review various technical aspects of transients, confront shortcomings in theoretical models, and to propose productive courses for future research. Special attention was also given to the instrumentation used to study high energy transient and the characteristics and goals of a dedicated space mission to study transients in the next decade were determined. A listing of articles written by various members of the workshop is included.

  17. High energy from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, Bruce; Canizares, Claude; Catura, Richard C.; Clark, George W.; Fichtel, Carl E.; Friedman, Herbert; Giacconi, Riccardo; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Helfand, David J.; Holt, Stephen S.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: (1) important scientific problems for high energy astrophysics (stellar activity, the interstellar medium in galaxies, supernovae and endpoints of stellar evolution, nucleosynthesis, relativistic plasmas and matter under extreme conditions, nature of gamma-bursts, identification of black holes, active nuclei, accretion physics, large-scale structures, intracluster medium, nature of dark matter, and the X- and gamma-ray background); (2) the existing experimental programs (Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO), X-Ray Timing Explorer (XTE), High Energy Transient Experiment (HETE), U.S. participation in foreign missions, and attached Shuttle and Space Station Freedom payloads); (3) major missions for the 1990's; (4) a new program of moderate missions; (5) new opportunities for small missions; (6) technology development issues; and (7) policy issues.

  18. High energy beam lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, M.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ISAC post accelerator comprises an RFQ, DTL and SC-linac. The high energy beam lines connect the linear accelerators as well as deliver the accelerated beams to two different experimental areas. The medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line connects the RFQ to the DTL. The high energy beam transport (HEBT) line connects the DTL to the ISAC-I experimental stations (DRAGON, TUDA-I, GPS). The DTL to superconducting beam (DSB) transport line connects the ISAC-I and ISAC-II linacs. The superconducting energy beam transport (SEBT) line connects the SC linac to the ISAC-II experimental station (TUDA-II, HERACLES, TIGRESS, EMMA and GPS). All these lines have the function of transporting and matching the beams to the downstream sections by manipulating the transverse and longitudinal phase space. They also contain diagnostic devices to measure the beam properties.

  19. Discovery of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the binary system PSR B1259–63/LS 2883 around periastron with Fermi

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2011-06-28

    Here, we report on the discovery of ≥ 100 MeV rays from the binary system PSR B12596–3/LS 2883 using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board Fermi. The system comprises a radio pulsar in orbit around a Be star. We report on LAT observations from near apastron to ~60 days after the time of periastron, tp, on 2010 December 15. No γ-ray emission was detected from this source when it was far from periastron.

  20. The possibility of investigating ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray sources using data on the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uryson, A. V.

    2017-08-01

    We provide our estimates of the intensity of the gamma-ray emission with an energy near 0.1 TeV generated in intergalactic space in the interactions of cosmic rays with background emissions. We assume that the cosmic-ray sources are pointlike and that these are active galactic nuclei. The following possible types of sources are considered: remote and powerful ones, at redshifts up to z = 1.1, with a monoenergetic particle spectrum, E = 1021 eV; the same objects, but with a power-law particle spectrum; and nearby sources at redshifts 0 < z ≤ 0.0092, i.e., at distances no larger than 50 Mpc also with a power-law particle spectrum. The contribution of cosmic rays to the extragalactic diffuse gammaray background at an energy of 0.1 TeVhas been found to depend on the type of sources or, more specifically, the contribution ranges from f ≪ 10-4 to f ≈ 0.1, depending on the source model. We conclude that the data on the extragalactic background gamma-ray emission can be used to determine the characteristics of extragalactic cosmic-ray sources, i.e., their distances and the pattern of the particle energy spectrum.

  1. Near-IR laser generation of a high-energy conformer of L-alanine and the mechanism of its decay in a low-temperature nitrogen matrix.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Cláudio M; Lapinski, Leszek; Fausto, Rui; Reva, Igor

    2013-03-28

    Monomers of L-alanine (ALA) were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 14 K. Two conformers were identified for the compound trapped from the gas-phase into the solid nitrogen environment. The potential energy surface (PES) of ALA was theoretically calculated at the MP2 and QCISD levels. Twelve minima were located on this PES. Seven low-energy conformers fall within the 0-10 kJ mol(-1) range and should be appreciably populated in the equilibrium gas phase prior to deposition. Observation of only two forms in the matrices is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the O=C-O-H moiety in the cis orientation are separated by low barriers and collapse to the most stable form I during deposition of the matrix onto the low-temperature substrate. The second observed form II has the O=C-O-H group in the trans orientation. The remaining trans forms have very high relative energies (between 24 and 30 kJ mol(-1)) and are not populated. The high-energy trans form VI, that differs from I only by rotation of the OH group, was found to be separated from other conformers by barriers that are high enough to open a perspective for its stabilization in a matrix. The form VI was photoproduced in situ by narrow-band near-infrared irradiation of the samples at 6935-6910 cm(-1), where the first overtone of the OH stretching vibration in form I appears. The photogenerated form VI decays in N2 matrices back to conformer I with a characteristic decay time of ∼15 min. The mechanism of the VI → I relaxation is rationalized in terms of the proton tunneling.

  2. Discovery of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the binary system PSR B1259–63/LS 2883 around periastron with Fermi

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chekhtman, A.; Chernyakova, M.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Corbel, S.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Dormody, M.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Dumora, D.; Enoto, T.; Espinoza, C. M.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Grundstrom, E.; Guiriec, S.; Gwon, C.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kramer, M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Lee, S. -H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Manchester, R. N.; Marelli, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neronov, A.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Noutsos, A.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Paneque, D.; Parent, D.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Possenti, A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Shannon, R.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ziegler, M.; Zimmer, S.

    2011-06-28

    Here, we report on the discovery of ≥ 100 MeV rays from the binary system PSR B12596–3/LS 2883 using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board Fermi. The system comprises a radio pulsar in orbit around a Be star. We report on LAT observations from near apastron to ~60 days after the time of periastron, tp, on 2010 December 15. No γ-ray emission was detected from this source when it was far from periastron.

  3. UNDERSTANDING THE UNUSUAL X-RAY EMISSION PROPERTIES OF THE MASSIVE, CLOSE BINARY WR 20a: A HIGH ENERGY WINDOW INTO THE STELLAR WIND INITIATION REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, Gabriela; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Strickler, Rachel

    2013-11-10

    The problem of explaining the X-ray emission properties of the massive, close binary WR 20a is discussed. Located near the cluster core of Westerlund 2, WR 20a is composed of two nearly identical Wolf-Rayet stars of 82 and 83 solar masses orbiting with a period of only 3.7 days. Although Chandra observations were taken during the secondary optical eclipse, the X-ray light curve shows no signs of a flux decrement. In fact, WR 20a appears slightly more X-ray luminous and softer during the optical eclipse, opposite to what has been observed in other binary systems. To aid in our interpretation of the data, we compare with the results of hydrodynamical simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code Mezcal which includes radiative cooling and a radiative acceleration force term. It is shown that the X-ray emission can be successfully explained in models where the wind-wind collision interface in this system occurs while the outflowing material is still being accelerated. Consequently, WR 20a serves as a critical test-case for how radiatively driven stellar winds are initiated and how they interact. Our models not only procure a robust description of current Chandra data, which cover the orbital phases between 0.3 and 0.6, but also provide detailed predictions over the entire orbit.

  4. Understanding the Unusual X-Ray Emission Properties of the Massive, Close Binary WR 20a: A High Energy Window into the Stellar Wind Initiation Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Gabriela; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; De Colle, Fabio; Strickler, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    The problem of explaining the X-ray emission properties of the massive, close binary WR 20a is discussed. Located near the cluster core of Westerlund 2, WR 20a is composed of two nearly identical Wolf-Rayet stars of 82 and 83 solar masses orbiting with a period of only 3.7 days. Although Chandra observations were taken during the secondary optical eclipse, the X-ray light curve shows no signs of a flux decrement. In fact, WR 20a appears slightly more X-ray luminous and softer during the optical eclipse, opposite to what has been observed in other binary systems. To aid in our interpretation of the data, we compare with the results of hydrodynamical simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code Mezcal which includes radiative cooling and a radiative acceleration force term. It is shown that the X-ray emission can be successfully explained in models where the wind-wind collision interface in this system occurs while the outflowing material is still being accelerated. Consequently, WR 20a serves as a critical test-case for how radiatively driven stellar winds are initiated and how they interact. Our models not only procure a robust description of current Chandra data, which cover the orbital phases between 0.3 and 0.6, but also provide detailed predictions over the entire orbit.

  5. Theoretical High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Christ, Norman H.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2014-07-14

    we provide reports from each of the six faculty supported by the Department of Energy High Energy Physics Theory grant at Columbia University. Each is followed by a bibliography of the references cited. A complete list of all of the publications in the 12/1/2010-04/30/2014 period resulting from research supported by this grant is provided in the following section. The final section lists the Ph.D. dissertations based on research supported by the grant that were submitted during this period.

  6. High energy electron cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  7. Detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 by the Egret telescope on the Compton Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. C.; Bertsch, D. L.; Chiang, J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Mattox, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma radiation in the energy range from 50 MeV to well over 1 GeV has been observed from the direction of the BL Lac object Markarian 421 by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope on the Compton Observatory during the period 1991 June 27-July 11. The source flux is weak, but still statistically significant at the level of 10 exp -5; the integrated photon flux above 100 MeV is (1.4 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -7/sq cm s. The differential photon energy spectrum can be represented by a power law with exponent 1.96 +/- 0.14. This is the first detection of gamma-ray emission from a BL Lac object.

  8. Detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 by the Egret telescope on the Compton Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. C.; Bertsch, D. L.; Chiang, J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Mattox, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma radiation in the energy range from 50 MeV to well over 1 GeV has been observed from the direction of the BL Lac object Markarian 421 by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope on the Compton Observatory during the period 1991 June 27-July 11. The source flux is weak, but still statistically significant at the level of 10 exp -5; the integrated photon flux above 100 MeV is (1.4 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -7/sq cm s. The differential photon energy spectrum can be represented by a power law with exponent 1.96 +/- 0.14. This is the first detection of gamma-ray emission from a BL Lac object.

  9. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1979-01-01

    This is an x-ray image of the Crab Nebula taken with the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory. The image is demonstrated by a pulsar, which appears as a bright point due to its pulsed x-ray emissions. The strongest region of diffused emissions comes from just northwest of the pulsar, and corresponds closely to the region of brightest visible-light emission. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

  10. Long-Term Monitoring of the High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from LS I +61 deg 303 and LS 5039

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadasch, D.; Torres, D. F.; Tanaka, T.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Hill, A. B.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Glanzman, T.; Corbel, S.; Li, J.; Chen, Y. P.; Zhang, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Kerr, M.; Richards, J. L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A.; Pooley, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) reported the first definitive gigaelectron volts detections of the binaries LS I +61 deg 303 and LS 5039 in the first year after its launch in 2008 June. These detections were unambiguous as a consequence of the reduced positional uncertainty and the detection of modulated gamma-ray emission on the corresponding orbital periods. An analysis of new data from the LAT, comprising 30 months of observations, identifies a change in the gamma-ray behavior of LS I +61 deg 303. An increase in flux is detected in 2009 March and a steady decline in the orbital flux modulation is observed. Significant emission up to 30 gigaelectron volts is detected by the LAT; prior data sets led to upper limits only. Contemporaneous terraelectron volt observations no longer detected the source, or found it-in one orbit-close to periastron, far from the phases at which the source previously appeared at terraelectron volt energies. The detailed numerical simulations and models that exist within the literature do not predict or explain many of these features now observed at gigaelectron volt and terraelectron volt energies. New ideas and models are needed to fully explain and understand this behavior. A detailed phase-resolved analysis of the spectral characterization of LS I +61 deg 303 in the gigaelectron volt regime ascribes a power law with an exponential cutoff spectrum along each analyzed portion of the system's orbit. The on-source exposure of LS 5039 is also substantially increased with respect to our prior publication. In this case, whereas the general gamma-ray properties remain consistent, the increased statistics of the current data set allows for a deeper investigation of its orbital and spectral evolution.

  11. LONG-TERM MONITORING OF THE HIGH-ENERGY {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 AND LS 5039

    SciTech Connect

    Hadasch, D.; Torres, D. F.; Caliandro, G. A.; Tanaka, T.; Hill, A. B.; Dubois, R.; Glanzman, T.; Kerr, M.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Dubus, G.; Li, J.; Chen, Y. P.; Zhang, S.; Richards, J. L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A.; Pooley, G.

    2012-04-10

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) reported the first definitive GeV detections of the binaries LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 and LS 5039 in the first year after its launch in 2008 June. These detections were unambiguous as a consequence of the reduced positional uncertainty and the detection of modulated {gamma}-ray emission on the corresponding orbital periods. An analysis of new data from the LAT, comprising 30 months of observations, identifies a change in the {gamma}-ray behavior of LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303. An increase in flux is detected in 2009 March and a steady decline in the orbital flux modulation is observed. Significant emission up to 30 GeV is detected by the LAT; prior data sets led to upper limits only. Contemporaneous TeV observations no longer detected the source, or found it-in one orbit-close to periastron, far from the phases at which the source previously appeared at TeV energies. The detailed numerical simulations and models that exist within the literature do not predict or explain many of these features now observed at GeV and TeV energies. New ideas and models are needed to fully explain and understand this behavior. A detailed phase-resolved analysis of the spectral characterization of LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 in the GeV regime ascribes a power law with an exponential cutoff spectrum along each analyzed portion of the system's orbit. The on-source exposure of LS 5039 is also substantially increased with respect to our prior publication. In this case, whereas the general {gamma}-ray properties remain consistent, the increased statistics of the current data set allows for a deeper investigation of its orbital and spectral evolution.

  12. Long-Term Monitoring Of The High-Energy γ-Ray Emission From Ls I +61°303 And Ls 5039

    DOE PAGES

    Hadasch, D.; Torres, D. F.; Tanaka, T.; ...

    2012-03-22

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) reported the first definitive GeV detections of the binaries LS I +61°303 and LS 5039 in the first year after its launch in 2008 June. These detections were unambiguous as a consequence of the reduced positional uncertainty and the detection of modulated γ-ray emission on the corresponding orbital periods. An analysis of new data from the LAT, comprising 30 months of observations, identifies a change in the γ-ray behavior of LS I +61°303. An increase in flux is detected in 2009 March and a steady decline in the orbital flux modulation is observed. Significantmore » emission up to 30 GeV is detected by the LAT; prior data sets led to upper limits only. Contemporaneous TeV observations no longer detected the source, or found it—in one orbit—close to periastron, far from the phases at which the source previously appeared at TeV energies. The detailed numerical simulations and models that exist within the literature do not predict or explain many of these features now observed at GeV and TeV energies. New ideas and models are needed to fully explain and understand this behavior. A detailed phase-resolved analysis of the spectral characterization of LS I +61°303 in the GeV regime ascribes a power law with an exponential cutoff spectrum along each analyzed portion of the system's orbit. The on-source exposure of LS 5039 is also substantially increased with respect to our prior publication. In this case, whereas the general γ-ray properties remain consistent, the increased statistics of the current data set allows for a deeper investigation of its orbital and spectral evolution.« less

  13. Long-Term Monitoring Of The High-Energy γ-Ray Emission From Ls I +61°303 And Ls 5039

    SciTech Connect

    Hadasch, D.; Torres, D. F.; Tanaka, T.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Hill, A. B.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Glanzman, T.; Corbel, S.; Li, J.; Chen, Y. P.; Zhang, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Kerr, M.; Richards, J. L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A.; Pooley, G.

    2012-03-22

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) reported the first definitive GeV detections of the binaries LS I +61°303 and LS 5039 in the first year after its launch in 2008 June. These detections were unambiguous as a consequence of the reduced positional uncertainty and the detection of modulated γ-ray emission on the corresponding orbital periods. An analysis of new data from the LAT, comprising 30 months of observations, identifies a change in the γ-ray behavior of LS I +61°303. An increase in flux is detected in 2009 March and a steady decline in the orbital flux modulation is observed. Significant emission up to 30 GeV is detected by the LAT; prior data sets led to upper limits only. Contemporaneous TeV observations no longer detected the source, or found it—in one orbit—close to periastron, far from the phases at which the source previously appeared at TeV energies. The detailed numerical simulations and models that exist within the literature do not predict or explain many of these features now observed at GeV and TeV energies. New ideas and models are needed to fully explain and understand this behavior. A detailed phase-resolved analysis of the spectral characterization of LS I +61°303 in the GeV regime ascribes a power law with an exponential cutoff spectrum along each analyzed portion of the system's orbit. The on-source exposure of LS 5039 is also substantially increased with respect to our prior publication. In this case, whereas the general γ-ray properties remain consistent, the increased statistics of the current data set allows for a deeper investigation of its orbital and spectral evolution.

  14. Insights into the High-energy γ-ray Emission of Markarian 501 from Extensive Multifrequency Observations in the Fermi Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kadler, M.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Pearson, T. J.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Richards, J. L.; Ripken, J.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stevenson, M.; Strickman, M. S.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wehrle, A. E.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Zensus, J. A.; Ziegler, M.; Fermi LAT Collaboration; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinovi, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, E.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, J.; Pochon, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prada, F.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, T.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L. O.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Acciari, V. A.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huang, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Rovero, A. C.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Senturk, G. D.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Arkharov, A. A.; Blinov, D. A.; Calcidese, P.; Chen, W. P.; Efimova, N. V.; Kimeridze, G.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Larionov, V. M.; Larionova, E. G.; Larionova, L. V.; Ligustri, R.; Morozova, D. A.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Sigua, L. A.; Troitsky, I. S.; Angelakis, E.; Capalbi, M.; Carramiñana, A.; Carrasco, L.; Cassaro, P.; de la Fuente, E.; Gurwell, M. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Krimm, H. A.; Leto, P.; Lister, M. L.; Maccaferri, G.; Moody, J. W.; Mori, Y.; Nestoras, I.; Orlati, A.; Pagani, C.; Pace, C.; Pearson, R., III; Perri, M.; Piner, B. G.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Ros, E.; Sadun, A. C.; Sakamoto, T.; Tornikoski, M.; Yatsu, Y.; Zook, A.

    2011-02-01

    We report on the γ-ray activity of the blazar Mrk 501 during the first 480 days of Fermi operation. We find that the average Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum of Mrk 501 can be well described by a single power-law function with a photon index of 1.78 ± 0.03. While we observe relatively mild flux variations with the Fermi-LAT (within less than a factor of two), we detect remarkable spectral variability where the hardest observed spectral index within the LAT energy range is 1.52 ± 0.14, and the softest one is 2.51 ± 0.20. These unexpected spectral changes do not correlate with the measured flux variations above 0.3 GeV. In this paper, we also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign (2009 March 15—August 1) on Mrk 501, which included the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, and VERITAS, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments which provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign. The extensive radio to TeV data set from this campaign provides us with the most detailed spectral energy distribution yet collected for this source during its relatively low activity. The average spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 is well described by the standard one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. In the framework of this model, we find that the dominant emission region is characterized by a size lsim0.1 pc (comparable within a factor of few to the size of the partially resolved VLBA core at 15-43 GHz), and that the total jet power (sime1044 erg s-1) constitutes only a small fraction (~10-3) of the Eddington luminosity. The energy distribution of the freshly accelerated radiating electrons required to fit the time-averaged data has a broken power-law form in the energy range 0.3 GeV-10 TeV, with spectral indices 2.2 and 2.7 below and above the break energy of 20 GeV. We argue that such a form is consistent with a scenario in which the bulk

  15. Magnetic Reconnection-Powered Relativistic Particle Acceleration, High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission, and Pair Production in Coronae of Accreting Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental plasma process believed to play an important role in energetics of magnetically-dominated coronae of various astrophysical objects including accreting black holes. Building up on recent advances in kinetic simulations of relativistic collisionless reconnection, we investigate nonthermal particle acceleration and its key observational consequences for these systems. We argue that reconnection can efficiently accelerate coronal electrons (as well as ions) up to hundreds of MeV or even GeV energies. In brightest systems, radiation back-reaction due to inverse-Compton (and/or synchrotron) emission becomes important at these energies and limits any further electron acceleration, thereby turning reconnection layers into powerful and efficient radiators of γ-rays. We then evaluate the rate of absorption of the resulting γ-ray photons by the ambient soft (X-ray) photon fields and show that it can be a significant source of pair production, with important implications for the composition of black-hole coronae and jets. Finally, we assess the prospects of laboratory studies of magnetic reconnection in the physical regimes relevant to black-hole accretion flows using modern and future laser-plasma facilities. This work is supported by DOE, NSF, and NASA.

  16. High energy phenomena during solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Emilia

    1989-11-01

    The main purpose is to analyze the characteristics of peculiar solar events that could be produced by ultrarelativistic electrons and try to define the new boundary conditions for the primary energy release during impulsive phase. It seems that submillimeter emission in solar flares is not a rare phenomenon, there is not much evidence, due to the lack of observations in this range of the spectrum. During May 1984 the Sun was observed at 90 GHz with high time resolution and high sensitivity, and evidence was obtained. The May 21, 1984 event, at 1326 UT is the best example of the high energy manifestation during the spectrum and gave us new boundary conditions for the physical phenomena in the Sun. The May 21 event required a detailed analysis of the current interpretation models and suggested the presence of relativistic electrons during the impulsive phase. In this case Syncrotron/inverse compton mechanism was suggested to explain submillimeter/x ray emission and short pulse duration. The new boundary conditions for primary energy release favored Tajima and Sakai's model, based in magnetic island coalescence theory.

  17. CONSTRAINTS ON THE SYNCHROTRON EMISSION MECHANISM IN GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Beniamini, Paz; Piran, Tsvi E-mail: tsvi.piran@mail.huji.ac.il

    2013-05-20

    We reexamine the general synchrotron model for gamma-ray bursts' (GRBs') prompt emission and determine the regime in the parameter phase space in which it is viable. We characterize a typical GRB pulse in terms of its peak energy, peak flux, and duration and use the latest Fermi observations to constrain the high-energy part of the spectrum. We solve for the intrinsic parameters at the emission region and find the possible parameter phase space for synchrotron emission. Our approach is general and it does not depend on a specific energy dissipation mechanism. Reasonable synchrotron solutions are found with energy ratios of 10{sup -4} < {epsilon}{sub B}/{epsilon}{sub e} < 10, bulk Lorentz factor values of 300 < {Gamma} < 3000, typical electrons' Lorentz factor values of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} < {gamma}{sub e} < 10{sup 5}, and emission radii of the order 10{sup 15} cm < R < 10{sup 17} cm. Most remarkable among those are the rather large values of the emission radius and the electron's Lorentz factor. We find that soft (with peak energy less than 100 keV) but luminous (isotropic luminosity of 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 53}) pulses are inefficient. This may explain the lack of strong soft bursts. In cases when most of the energy is carried out by the kinetic energy of the flow, such as in the internal shocks, the synchrotron solution requires that only a small fraction of the electrons are accelerated to relativistic velocities by the shocks. We show that future observations of very high energy photons from GRBs by CTA could possibly determine all parameters of the synchrotron model or rule it out altogether.

  18. High energy reactor neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raper, Neill

    We present the first measurement of a nonzero reactor neutrino flux with energies above 8 MeV. Measurements are taken with the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiments detectors, using the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station as a source. Disagreement between data and theory regarding rate and shape of reactor neutrino spectra have made the need for direct measurement clear. Data are especially useful at high energies, where far fewer isotopes contribute. Neutrino candidates are correlated to reactor power and reactor power is extrapolated to zero in order to separate neutrino events from background. We find evidence of reactor neutrinos up to ˜12.5 MeV at 1.92 sigma above 0 and include a survey of isotopes likely to be contributing neutrinos in this energy range.

  19. Prospects at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, C.

    1988-11-01

    I discuss some possibilities for neutrino experiments in the fixed-target environment of the SPS, Tevatron, and UNK, with their primary proton beams of 0.4, 0.9, and 3.0 TeV. The emphasis is on unfinished business: issues that have been recognized for some time, but not yet resolved. Then I turn to prospects for proton-proton colliders to explore the 1-TeV scale. I review the motivation for new physics in the neighborhood of 1 TeV and mention some discovery possibilities for high-energy, high-luminosity hadron colliders and the implications they would have for neutrino physics. I raise the possibility of the direct study of neutrino interactions in hadron colliders. I close with a report on the status of the SSC project. 38 refs., 17 figs.

  20. Insights Into the High-energy γ-ray Emission of Markarian 501 from Extensive Multifrequency Observations in the Fermi Era

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kadler, M.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S. -H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Pearson, T. J.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Richards, J. L.; Ripken, J.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stevenson, M.; Strickman, M. S.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wehrle, A. E.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Zensus, J. A.; Ziegler, M.; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; González, J. Becerra; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Tridon, D. Borla; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; Pozo, E. De Cea del; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Mendez, C. Delgado; Ortega, A. Diago; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Prester, D. Dominis; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; López, R. J. García; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinovi, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; Barbera, A. La; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, E.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, J.; Pochon, J.; Moroni, P. G. Prada; Prada, F.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, T.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L. O.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Acciari, V. A.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huang, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Rovero, A. C.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Senturk, G. D.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Arkharov, A. A.; Blinov, D. A.; Calcidese, P.; Chen, W. P.; Efimova, N. V.; Kimeridze, G.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Larionov, V. M.; Larionova, E. G.; Larionova, L. V.; Ligustri, R.; Morozova, D. A.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Sigua, L. A.; Troitsky, I. S.; Angelakis, E.; Capalbi, M.; Carramiñana, A.; Carrasco, L.; Cassaro, P.; de la Fuente, E.; Gurwell, M. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Krimm, H. A.; Leto, P.; Lister, M. L.; Maccaferri, G.; Moody, J. W.; Mori, Y.; Nestoras, I.; Orlati, A.; Pagani, C.; Pace, C.; Pearson, R.; Perri, M.; Piner, B. G.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Ros, E.; Sadun, A. C.; Sakamoto, T.; Tornikoski, M.; Yatsu, Y.; Zook, A.

    2011-01-12

    Here, we report on the γ-ray activity of the blazar Mrk 501 during the first 480 days of Fermi operation. We find that the average Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum of Mrk 501 can be well described by a single power-law function with a photon index of 1.78 ± 0.03. While we observe relatively mild flux variations with the Fermi-LAT (within less than a factor of two), we detect remarkable spectral variability where the hardest observed spectral index within the LAT energy range is 1.52 ± 0.14, and the softest one is 2.51 ± 0.20. These unexpected spectral changes do not correlate with the measured flux variations above 0.3 GeV. In this paper, we also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign (2009 March 15—August 1) on Mrk 501, which included the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, and VERITAS, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments which provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign. The extensive radio to TeV data set from this campaign provides us with the most detailed spectral energy distribution yet collected for this source during its relatively low activity. The average spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 is well described by the standard one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. In the framework of this model, we find that the dominant emission region is characterized by a size $\\lesssim$0.1 pc (comparable within a factor of few to the size of the partially resolved VLBA core at 15-43 GHz), and that the total jet power (~1044 erg s–1) constitutes only a small fraction (~10–3) of the Eddington luminosity. The energy distribution of the freshly accelerated radiating electrons required to fit the time-averaged data has a broken power-law form in the energy range 0.3 GeV-10 TeV, with spectral indices 2.2 and 2.7 below and above the break energy of 20 GeV. We argue that such a form

  1. Insights Into the High-energy γ-ray Emission of Markarian 501 from Extensive Multifrequency Observations in the Fermi Era

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2011-01-12

    Here, we report on the γ-ray activity of the blazar Mrk 501 during the first 480 days of Fermi operation. We find that the average Large Area Telescope (LAT) γ-ray spectrum of Mrk 501 can be well described by a single power-law function with a photon index of 1.78 ± 0.03. While we observe relatively mild flux variations with the Fermi-LAT (within less than a factor of two), we detect remarkable spectral variability where the hardest observed spectral index within the LAT energy range is 1.52 ± 0.14, and the softest one is 2.51 ± 0.20. These unexpected spectral changes do not correlate with the measured flux variations above 0.3 GeV. In this paper, we also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign (2009 March 15—August 1) on Mrk 501, which included the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, and VERITAS, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments which provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign. The extensive radio to TeV data set from this campaign provides us with the most detailed spectral energy distribution yet collected for this source during its relatively low activity. The average spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 is well described by the standard one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. In the framework of this model, we find that the dominant emission region is characterized by a sizemore » $$\\lesssim$$0.1 pc (comparable within a factor of few to the size of the partially resolved VLBA core at 15-43 GHz), and that the total jet power (~1044 erg s–1) constitutes only a small fraction (~10–3) of the Eddington luminosity. The energy distribution of the freshly accelerated radiating electrons required to fit the time-averaged data has a broken power-law form in the energy range 0.3 GeV-10 TeV, with spectral indices 2.2 and 2.7 below and above the break energy of 20 GeV. We argue that such a form is consistent with a

  2. Can dust emission mechanisms be determined from field measurements?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field observations are needed to develop and test theories on dust emission for use in dust modeling systems. The dust emission mechanism (aerodynamic entrainment, saltation bombardment, aggregate disintegration) as well as the amount and particle-size distribution of emitted dust may vary under sed...

  3. Disentangling dust emission mechanisms – a field study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field observations are needed to both develop and test theories on dust emission for use in global modeling systems. The dust emission mechanism (aerodynamic entrainment, saltation bombardment, aggregate disintegration) as well as the amount and particle-size distribution of emitted dust may vary un...

  4. Mechanism of directional emission from a peanut-shaped microcavity

    SciTech Connect

    Shu Fangjie; Zou Changling; Sun Fangwen; Xiao Yunfeng

    2011-05-15

    Collimated directional emission is essentially required for an asymmetric resonant cavity. In this paper, we theoretically investigate a type of peanut-shaped microcavity which can support highly directional emission with a beam divergence as small as 2.5 deg. The mechanism of the collimated emission of this type of peanut-shaped microcavity is explained with a short-term ray trajectory. Moreover, the explanations are also confirmed by a numerical wave simulation. This extremely narrow divergence of the emission holds great potential in highly collimated lasing from on-chip microcavities.

  5. AN EMISSION MECHANISM EXPLAINING OFF-PULSE EMISSION ORIGINATING IN THE OUTER MAGNETOSPHERE OF PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Rahul; Mitra, Dipanjan; Melikidze, George I. E-mail: dmitra@ncra.tifr.res.in

    2013-08-01

    We have examined the cyclotron resonance instability developing in the relativistic outflowing plasma in the pulsar magnetosphere. The instability condition leads to radio emission in the subgigahertz frequency regime which is likely to be seen as off-pulse emission. Recent studies have shown the presence of off-pulse emission in long period pulsars, and we demonstrate this plasma process to be an energetically viable mechanism.

  6. FSU High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Prosper, Harrison B.; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Berg, Bernd; Blessing, Susan K.; Okui, Takemichi; Owens, Joseph F.; Reina, Laura; Wahl, Horst D.

    2014-12-01

    The High Energy Physics group at Florida State University (FSU), which was established in 1958, is engaged in the study of the fundamental constituents of matter and the laws by which they interact. The group comprises theoretical and experimental physicists, who sometimes collaborate on projects of mutual interest. The report highlights the main recent achievements of the group. Significant, recent, achievements of the group’s theoretical physicists include progress in making precise predictions in the theory of the Higgs boson and its associated processes, and in the theoretical understanding of mathematical quantities called parton distribution functions that are related to the structure of composite particles such as the proton. These functions are needed to compare data from particle collisions, such as the proton-proton collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with theoretical predictions. The report also describes the progress in providing analogous functions for heavy nuclei, which find application in neutrino physics. The report highlights progress in understanding quantum field theory on a lattice of points in space and time (an area of study called lattice field theory), the progress in constructing several theories of potential new physics that can be tested at the LHC, and interesting new ideas in the theory of the inflationary expansion of the very early universe. The focus of the experimental physicists is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN. The report, however, also includes results from the D0 experiment at Fermilab to which the group made numerous contributions over a period of many years. The experimental group is particularly interested in looking for new physics at the LHC that may provide the necessary insight to extend the standard model (SM) of particle physics. Indeed, the search for new physics is the primary task of contemporary particle physics, one motivated by the need to explain certain facts, such as the

  7. High Energy Astrophysics Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.; Ormes, Jonathan F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The nature of gravity and its relationship to the other three forces and to quantum theory is one of the major challenges facing us as we begin the new century. In order to make progress we must challenge the current theories by observing the effects of gravity under the most extreme conditions possible. Black holes represent one extreme, where the laws of physics as we understand them break down. The Universe as whole is another extreme, where its evolution and fate is dominated by the gravitational influence of dark matter and the nature of the Cosmological constant. The early universe represents a third extreme, where it is thought that gravity may somehow be unified with the other forces. NASA's "Cosmic Journeys" program is part of a NASA/NSF/DoE tri-agency initiative designed to observe the extremes of gravity throughout the universe. This program will probe the nature of black holes, ultimately obtaining a direct image of the event horizon. It will investigate the large scale structure of the Universe to constrain the location and nature of dark matter and the nature of the cosmological constant. Finally it will search for and study the highest energy processes, that approach those found in the early universe. I will outline the High Energy Astrophysics part of this program.

  8. High Energy Astrophysics Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E.; Ormes, Jonathan F. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The nature of gravity and its relationship to the other three forces and to quantum theory is one of the major challenges facing us as we begin the new century. In order to make progress we must challenge the current theories by observing the effects of gravity under the most extreme conditions possible. Black holes represent one extreme, where the laws of physics as we understand them break down. The Universe as whole is another extreme, where its evolution and fate is dominated by the gravitational influence of dark matter and the nature of the Cosmological constant. The early universe represents a third extreme, where it is thought that gravity may somehow be unified with the other forces. NASA's "Cosmic Journeys" program is part of a NASA/NSF/DoE tri-agency initiative designed to observe the extremes of gravity throughout the universe. This program will probe the nature of black holes, ultimately obtaining a direct image of the event horizon. It will investigate the large scale structure of the Universe to constrain the location and nature of dark matter and the nature of the cosmological constant. Finally it will search for and study the highest energy processes, that approach those found in the early universe. I will outline the High Energy Astrophysics part of this program.

  9. Surface renewal as a significant mechanism for dust emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Teng, Zhenjiao; Huang, Ning; Guo, Lei; Shao, Yaping

    2016-12-01

    Wind tunnel experiments of dust emissions from different soil surfaces are carried out to better understand dust emission mechanisms. The effects of surface renewal on aerodynamic entrainment and saltation bombardment are analyzed in detail. It is found that flow conditions, surface particle motions (saltation and creep), soil dust content and ground obstacles all strongly affect dust emission, causing its rate to vary over orders of magnitude. Aerodynamic entrainment is highly effective, if dust supply is unlimited, as in the first 2-3 min of our wind tunnel runs. While aerodynamic entrainment is suppressed by dust supply limits, surface renewal through the motion of surface particles appears to be an effective pathway to remove the supply limit. Surface renewal is also found to be important to the efficiency of saltation bombardment. We demonstrate that surface renewal is a significant mechanism affecting dust emission and recommend that this mechanism be included in future dust models.

  10. The Mechanisms of Particle Kinetics and Dynamics Leading to Seismic Emission and Sunquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkova, V. V.

    2008-09-01

    In this paper the mechanisms responsible for observational features associated with sunquakes induced by different classes of solar flares are compared. The role of high-energy particle beams via Coulomb and Ohmic heating of the ambient plasma and nonthermal excitation and ionization is explored for different beam parameters at various atmospheric depths. On the one hand, only hard electron beams with high-energy fluxes are found producing extensive nonthermal hydrogen ionization, four orders of magnitude higher than in the quiet atmosphere. This excess ionization leads to the white-light flares associated with the seismic emission appearing simultaneously with hard X-ray emission and, consequently, to a strong increase of Ni-line emission observed as the seismic emission measured with the holographic technique. On the other hand, the ambient plasma hydrodynamic response to heating by such beam electrons forms hydrodynamic shocks just below the transition region, in the upper chromosphere, and they travel with supersonic velocity for up to five minutes before reaching the photosphere. These hydrodynamic responses caused by the beam electrons are maximized in the lower chromosphere for moderate electron beams because of their smaller Ohmic losses in the upper atmosphere compared to those for higher-energy electron beams whose bulk energy is deposited in the transition region. These shocks caused by electron beams can explain the observations of seismic emission by time distance (TD) diagrams and the holographic method in M- and C-class flares, whereas to account for the quakes in X-class flares, high-energy quasi-thermal protons or power-law proton beams either by themselves or blended with electron beams are the most likely agents. Nonthermal ionization and excitation of lower atmospheric levels during the beam injection followed by thermo-conductive heating after the beam is stopped can contribute to the seismic signatures observed with the holographic technique

  11. Multiwavelength Observations of AGN Jets: Untangling the Coupled Problems of Emission Mechanism and Jet Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Avachat, Sayali S.; Clautice, Devon; Georganopoulos, Markos; Meyer, Eileen; Cara, Mihai

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of X-ray and optical emission from large numbers of AGN jets is one of the key legacies of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope. Several dozen optical and X-ray emitting jets are now known, most of which are seen in both bands as well as in the radio, where they were first discovered. Jets carry prodigious amounts of energy and mass out from the nuclear regions out to tens to hundreds of kiloparsecs distant from the central black hole, depositing it into the host galaxy and cluster. Interpreting their multiwavelength emissions has not been easy: while in most jets, the optical and radio emission in many objects is believed to emerge via the synchrotron process, due to its characteristic spectral shape and high radio polarization, the X-ray emission has been a tougher nut to crack. In less powerful, FR I jets, such as M87, the X-ray emission is believed to be synchrotron emission from the highest energy electrons, requiring in situ particle acceleration due to the short radiative lifetimes of the particles. However, in FR II and quasar jets, a variety of emission mechanisms are possible. Until the last few years, the leading interpretation had been inverse-Comptonization of Cosmic Microwave Background photons (the IC/CMB mechanism). This requires the jet to be relativistic out to hundreds of kiloparsecs from the nucleus, and requires an electron spectrum that extends to very low Lorentz factors. However, that now appears less likely, due to observed high optical polarizations in jets where the optical and X-ray emission appears to lie on the same spectral component, as well as limits derived from Fermi observations in the GeV gamma-rays. It now appears more likely that the X-rays must arise as synchrotron emission from a second, high energy electron population. With this revelation, we must tackle anew the coupling between jet structure and emission mechanisms. Multiwavelength imaging and polarimetry can give us clues to the

  12. Comparison of Spitzer/IRAC Galactic Center Mid-IR Survey Results with X-ray and Radio Emission Due to High-Energy Processes in the Central 100 Parsecs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Arendt, R. A.; Smith, R.; Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Stolovy, S.; Law, C.; Smith, H. A.; Moseley, Harvey; Ramirez, S.; Karr, J.

    2006-01-01

    We compare the results of a small region from our 3.6 - 8.0 micron Spitzer/IRAC imaging survey of 2 x 1.5 deg around the Galactic Center with x-ray and radio emission due to high energy processes. The region we studied covers 100 x 100 parsecs, and was chosen to include a rich collection of sources, including Sgr A* and the bright Sgr AWest infrared/radio source complex, the non-thermal radio filaments and the thermal: radio arches. In a 40 x 40 parsec subset of that region we also make a preliminary analysis of the correlation between approx.2300 x-ray sources identified by Muno et al. (2003) and 20,000 infrared sources from our survey. We also investigate the correlation between infrared and radio emission in the large-scale structures including the thermal radio arches and non-thermal radio filaments. We set constrictions on the synchrotron spectrum observed at radio and millimeter wavelengths extrapolated to 8 micons, and set limits on the midinfrared variability of Sgr A* during and after the coordinated multi-wavelength observing campaign in September 2004.

  13. Comparison of Spitzer/IRAC Galactic Center Mid-IR Survey Results with X-ray and Radio Emission Due to High-Energy Processes in the Central 100 Parsecs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Arendt, R. A.; Smith, R.; Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Stolovy, S.; Law, C.; Smith, H. A.; Moseley, Harvey; Ramirez, S.; Karr, J.

    2006-01-01

    We compare the results of a small region from our 3.6 - 8.0 micron Spitzer/IRAC imaging survey of 2 x 1.5 deg around the Galactic Center with x-ray and radio emission due to high energy processes. The region we studied covers 100 x 100 parsecs, and was chosen to include a rich collection of sources, including Sgr A* and the bright Sgr AWest infrared/radio source complex, the non-thermal radio filaments and the thermal: radio arches. In a 40 x 40 parsec subset of that region we also make a preliminary analysis of the correlation between approx.2300 x-ray sources identified by Muno et al. (2003) and 20,000 infrared sources from our survey. We also investigate the correlation between infrared and radio emission in the large-scale structures including the thermal radio arches and non-thermal radio filaments. We set constrictions on the synchrotron spectrum observed at radio and millimeter wavelengths extrapolated to 8 micons, and set limits on the midinfrared variability of Sgr A* during and after the coordinated multi-wavelength observing campaign in September 2004.

  14. Volatile Emission of Mechanically Damaged Almonds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mature almonds from the Monterey variety were evaluated for their volatile composition after mechanical damage and compared to the volatile composition of the corresponding undamaged almonds. Volatiles were collected on Tenax, desorbed with diethyl ether, and identified via GC-MS analyses. Volatile ...

  15. Constraints on Black Hole Emission Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarone, Thomas J.

    2001-12-01

    This thesis concentrates on the analysis of a unique Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer(RXTE)/Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment(OSSE) data set for Cygnus X-1. We find: (1) Autocorrelation and cross-correlation analyses of Cyg X-1 require an active rather than a static corona and the observed hard time lags must come from coronal variations rather than light travel times, (2) The lightcurves of Cyg X-1 and GX 339-4 show a different sense of asymmetry on long timescales than on short timescales. This requires a second process driving the long timescale variability, perhaps an energy reservoir. (3) The hard-state X/γ-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1 is well modelled with a single corona, and is shown to have a reflection fraction substantially less than unity. Hybrid thermal/non-thermal models are preferred over pure thermal models. (4) In the soft and transition states, the iron line of Cyg X-1 has a constant equivalent width, requiring that the line emission comes primarily from the disk/corona system, and a constant blackbody temperature, requiring that coronal changes drive the variability. (5) The spectra of GRS 1915+105 are well fit by hybrid Comptonization models, often with large non-thermal electron fractions. Reflection features are washed out at high optical depths. Disk radii can be correctly fit with these models. (6) The spectra of neutron star Aql X-1 can be well fit with thermal Comptonization models. Bursts are used to probe the corona in neutron stars. The state transitions occur at variable luminosities, casting doubt on propeller models.

  16. Acoustic emission spectral analysis of fiber composite failure mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, D. M.; Williams, J. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The acoustic emission of graphite fiber polyimide composite failure mechanisms was investigated with emphasis on frequency spectrum analysis. Although visual examination of spectral densities could not distinguish among fracture sources, a paired-sample t statistical analysis of mean normalized spectral densities did provide quantitative discrimination among acoustic emissions from 10 deg, 90 deg, and plus or minus 45 deg, plus or minus 45 deg sub s specimens. Comparable discrimination was not obtained for 0 deg specimens.

  17. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1980-01-01

    The dramatic change in x-ray emission from the Terzan 2 cluster is shown in this series of 2.5-minute exposures taken with the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory immediately before, during, and after the burst. Total exposure (20 minutes) of the object, including the outburst, is shown in the fourth photograph. These images represent the first observation of an x-ray burst in progress. The actual burst lasted 50 seconds. Among the rarest, and most bizarre, phenomena observed by x-ray astronomers are the so-called cosmic bursters (x-ray sources that suddenly and dramatically increase in intensity then subside). These sudden bursts of intense x-ray radiation apparently come from compact objects with a diameter smaller than 30 miles (48 kilometers). Yet, despite their minuscule size, a typical x-ray burster can release more x-ray energy in a single brief burst than our Sun does in an entire week. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO was designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  18. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1980-01-01

    This supernova in the constellation Cassiopeia was observed by Tycho Brahe in 1572. In this x-ray image from the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO-2/Einstein Observatory produced by nearly a day of exposure time, the center region appears filled with emissions that can be resolved into patches or knots of material. However, no central pulsar or other collapsed object can be seen. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

  19. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-01-01

    This photograph is of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 telescope being evaluated by engineers in the clean room of the X-Ray Calibration Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The MSFC was heavily engaged in the technical and scientific aspects, testing and calibration, of the HEAO-2 telescope The HEAO-2 was the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date. The X-Ray Calibration Facility was built in 1976 for testing MSFC's HEAO-2. The facility is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produced a space-like environment in which components related to x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performance in space is predicted. The original facility contained a 1,000-foot long by 3-foot diameter vacuum tube (for the x-ray path) cornecting an x-ray generator and an instrument test chamber. Recently, the facility was upgraded to evaluate the optical elements of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-Ray Observatory and Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory.

  20. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1980-01-01

    Like the Crab Nebula, the Vela Supernova Remnant has a radio pulsar at its center. In this image taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory, the pulsar appears as a point source surrounded by weak and diffused emissions of x-rays. HEAO-2's computer processing system was able to record and display the total number of x-ray photons (a tiny bundle of radiant energy used as the fundamental unit of electromagnetic radiation) on a scale along the margin of the picture. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

  1. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-06-01

    This photograph is of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 telescope being checked by engineers in the X-Ray Calibration Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The MSFC was heavily engaged in the technical and scientific aspects, testing and calibration, of the HEAO-2 telescope. The HEAO-2 was the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date. The X-Ray Calibration Facility was built in 1976 for testing MSFC's HEAO-2. The facility is the world's largest, most advanced laboratory for simulating x-ray emissions from distant celestial objects. It produced a space-like environment in which components related to x-ray telescope imaging are tested and the quality of their performance in space is predicted. The original facility contained a 1,000-foot long by 3-foot diameter vacuum tube (for the x-ray path) cornecting an x-ray generator and an instrument test chamber. Recently, the facility was upgraded to evaluate the optical elements of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-Ray Observatory and Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory.

  2. Ammonia emissions from two mechanically ventilated UK livestock buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demmers, T. G. M.; Burgess, L. R.; Short, J. L.; Phillips, V. R.; Clark, J. A.; Wathes, C. M.

    Ammonia emission rates from livestock buildings are required to construct an accurate emission inventory for the UK. Ventilation and ammonia emission rates from a fattening pig unit and a broiler house, both mechanically ventilated, were estimated using fan wheel anemometers and thermal converters with a chemiluminescence NO x-analyser to measure the ventilation rate and the ammonia concentration, respectively. The estimated ammonia emission factors were 46.9 and 16.6 kg lu -1 a -1 for the fattening pig unit and the broiler house, respectively. Both emission factors were within the range reported in the literature. A tracer gas (CO) method, based on a constant tracer release rate, was validated for measuring ventilation rates from naturally ventilated livestock buildings. Air inlets and outlets were identified using the air temperature or tracer concentration in the opening. Tracer concentration was found to be a more suitable criterion than temperature. In both houses, a significant correlation between the estimated ventilation rate using the tracer method and the measured ventilation rate using fan wheel anemometers was found. The ventilation rate was underestimated by 12 and 6% for the piggery and broiler house, respectively. The instantaneous ammonia emission derived from the tracer gas method was lower than the ammonia emission derived from the fan wheel anemometer method by 14 and 16% for the piggery and broiler house, respectively. The ventilation and ammonia emission estimates using the tracer method were within acceptable range from the ventilation and emission rates measured using measuring fans, but because of its accuracy and simplicity the fan wheel anemometer method is preferred for long-term measurements of ventilation rate in mechanically ventilated buildings.

  3. Green house gas emissions from composting and mechanical biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Amlinger, Florian; Peyr, Stefan; Cuhls, Carsten

    2008-02-01

    In order to carry out life-cycle assessments as a basis for far-reaching decisions about environmentally sustainable waste treatment, it is important that the input data be reliable and sound. A comparison of the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with each solid waste treatment option is essential. This paper addresses GHG emissions from controlled composting processes. Some important methodological prerequisites for proper measurement and data interpretation are described, and a common scale and dimension of emission data are proposed so that data from different studies can be compared. A range of emission factors associated with home composting, open windrow composting, encapsulated composting systems with waste air treatment and mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) are presented from our own investigations as well as from the literature. The composition of source materials along with process management issues such as aeration, mechanical agitation, moisture control and temperature regime are the most important factors controlling methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammoniac (NH3) emissions. If ammoniac is not stripped during the initial rotting phase or eliminated by acid scrubber systems, biofiltration of waste air provides only limited GHG mitigation, since additional N2O may be synthesized during the oxidation of NH3, and only a small amount of CH4 degradation occurs in the biofilter. It is estimated that composting contributes very little to national GHG inventories generating only 0.01-0.06% of global emissions. This analysis does not include emissions from preceding or post-treatment activities (such as collection, transport, energy consumption during processing and land spreading), so that for a full emissions account, emissions from these activities would need to be added to an analysis.

  4. High Energy Gas Fracturing Test

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, R.

    2001-02-27

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed two tests of a high-energy gas fracturing system being developed by Western Technologies of Crossville, Tennessee. The tests involved the use of two active wells located at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3), thirty-five miles north of Casper, Wyoming (See Figure 1). During the testing process the delivery and operational system was enhanced by RMOTC, Western Technologies, and commercial wireline subcontractors. RMOTC has assisted an industrial client in developing their technology for high energy gas fracturing to a commercial level. The modifications and improvements implemented during the technology testing process are instrumental in all field testing efforts at RMOTC. The importance of well selection can also be critical in demonstrating the success of the technology. To date, significant increases in well productivity have been clearly proven in well 63-TPX-10. Gross fluid production was initially raised by a factor of three. Final production rates increased by a factor of six with the use of a larger submersible pump. Well productivity (bbls of fluid per foot of drawdown) increased by a factor of 15 to 20. The above results assume that no mechanical damage has occurred to the casing or cast iron bridge plug which could allow well production from the Tensleep ''B'' sand. In the case of well 61-A-3, a six-fold increase in total fluid production was seen. Unfortunately, the increase is clouded by the water injection into the well that was necessary to have a positive fluid head on the propellant tool. No significant increase in oil production was seen. The tools which were retrieved from both 63-TPX-10 and 61-A-3 indicated a large amount of energy, similar to high gram perforating, had been expended downhole upon the formation face.

  5. Method for Simultaneously improving the thermal stability and mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid): effect of high-energy electrons on the morphological, mechanical, and thermal properties of PLA/MMT nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Yi; Gohs, Uwe; Kang, Nian-Jun; Leuteritz, Andreas; Boldt, Regine; Wagenknecht, Udo; Heinrich, Gert

    2012-08-28

    Nanocomposites derived from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and organically modified montmorillonite (oMMT) have been cross-linked by high-energy electrons in the presence of triallyl cyanurate (TAC). The morphology of untreated and cross-linked PLA/MMT nanocomposites was characterized by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This treatment can improve both the thermal stability and the glass-transition temperatures of the PLA nanocomposites (e.g., PLA-MMT-TAC 30kGy, 50kGy, and 70kGy) because of the formation of cross-linking structures in the nanocomposites that will considerably reduce the mobility of polymers. Interestingly, at relatively low irradiation doses (e.g., 30 and 50 kGy) a good balance between tensile strength and elongation at break for the PLA nanocomposites could be achieved. These mechanical properties are superior to those of pure PLA. Therefore, combining nanotechnology and electron beam cross-linking is a promising new method of simultaneously improving the mechanical properties (toughness and tensile strength) and thermal stability of PLA.

  6. Flare physics at high energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.

    1990-01-01

    High-energy processes, involving a rich variety of accelerated particle phenomena, lie at the core of the solar flare problem. The most direct manifestation of these processes are high-energy radiations, gamma rays, hard X-rays and neutrons, as well as the accelerated particles themselves, which can be detected in interplanetary space. In the study of astrophysics from the moon, the understanding of these processes should have great importance. The inner solar system environment is strongly influenced by activity on the sun; the physics of solar flares is of great intrinsic interest; and much high-energy astrophysics can be learned from investigations of flare physics at high energies.

  7. Increased chemical weathering of olivine in high-energy shelf seas can counteract human CO2 emissions and ocean acidification against a price well below that of CCS and other methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, Poppe L.; Schuiling, Roelof D.

    2014-05-01

    In the reaction: Mg(Fe)2SiO4 (olivine) + 4 H2O 2 Mg(Fe)2+ + 4 OH- + H4SiO4, followed by 4 OH- + 4 CO2 4 HCO3-, CO2 is consumed, and Mg2+, Fe2+, H4SiO4 and HCO3- are produced. Contrary to the paradigm that olivine weathering in nature is a slow process, flume experiments show a fast reaction, consuming CO2, and raising the pH at short notice. Only under static conditions a silica coating develops that retards the reaction. In high-energy shallow marine environments such silica coatings are abraded so that the chemical reaction can continue. When kept in motion even large olivine grains and gravels, rubbing and bumping against each other and against other sediment grains, weather quickly. Experiments show that fine micron- to silt-sized olivine particles are produced, and that the chemical reaction is fast. The chemical weathering of 7 km3 olivine is needed on a yearly basis in order to compensate the human CO2 emissions. This seems much, but is of the same order of magnitude as the volume of fossil fuels (in oil equivalents ~10 km3) that are burnt annually. Olivine is readily available at the Earth' surface on all continents, and such volume of 7 km3 is exceeded by existing mines; e.g. the Bingham Canyon open pit mine in Utah has an excavated volume of 25 km3. Hydrocarbons, on the other hand, are commonly retrieved with great efforts, from great depths, and often at remote locations. Spreading of large amounts of olivine (and/or serpentinite) in high-energy shelf seas where coarse sand and gravel can be transported, will counteract human CO2 production by fossil fuel burning and ocean acidification against a price well below that of other methods; order of US 10.- per ton CO2. For example part of the continental shelf between the Shetland Isles and France, that is the Southern Bight of the North Sea, the English Channel and the Irish Sea, is covered with sand waves, and in and around the English Channel an area of well over 100,000 km2 experiences bed shear stresses

  8. Mechanisms of Increased Particle and VOC Emissions during DPF Active Regeneration and Practical Emissions Considering Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2017-03-07

    Mechanisms involved in increased particle and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during active and parked active regenerations of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) were investigated using heavy-duty trucks equipped with both a urea selective catalytic reduction system and a DPF (SCR + DPF) and a DPF-only. Particle emissions increased in the later part of the regeneration period but the mechanisms were different above and below 23 nm. Particles above 23 nm were emitted due to the lower filtering efficiency of the DPF because of the decreasing amount of soot trapped during regeneration. Small particles below 23 nm were thought to be mainly sulfuric acid particles produced from SO2 trapped by the catalyst, being released and oxidized during regeneration. Contrary to the particle emissions, VOCs increased in the earlier part of the regeneration period. The mean molecular weights of the VOCs increased gradually as the regeneration proceeded. To evaluate "practical emissions" in which increased emissions during the regeneration were considered, a Regeneration Correction Factor (RCF), which is the average emission during one cycle of regeneration/emission in normal operation, was adopted. The RCFs of PM and VOCs were 1.1-1.5, and those of PNs were as high as 3-140, although they were estimated from a limited number of observations.

  9. Detection of very-high-energy γ-ray emission from the vicinity of PSR B1706-44 and G 343.1-2.3 with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Bernloehr, K.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Borrel, V.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Buesching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Conrad, J.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataie, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'c.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Foerster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Fuessling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gast, H.; Gerard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glueck, B.; Goret, P.; Goering, D.; Hague, J. D.; Hampf, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzynski, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khangulyan, D.; Khelifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Kluzniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Laffont, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; Maxted, N.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Mehault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-F.; de Ona Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Puehlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Ryde, F.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schoeck, F. M.; Schoenwald, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sushch, I.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, L.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Szostek, A.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Voelk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Dubner, G.; Giacani, E.

    2011-04-01

    The γ-ray pulsar PSR B1706-44 and the adjacent supernova remnant (SNR) candidate G 343.1-2.3 were observed by H.E.S.S. during a dedicated observation campaign in 2007. As a result of this observation campaign, a new source of very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emission, H.E.S.S. J1708-443, was detected with a statistical significance of 7σ, although no significant point-like emission was detected at the position of the energetic pulsar itself. In this paper, the morphological and spectral analyses of the newly-discovered TeV source are presented. The centroid of H.E.S.S. J1708-443 is considerably offset from the pulsar and located near the apparent center of the SNR, at αJ2000 = 17h08m11s ± 17s and δJ2000 = -44°20' ± 4'. The source is found to be significantly more extended than the H.E.S.S. point spread function (~0.1°), with an intrinsic Gaussian width of 0.29° ± 0.04°. Its integral flux between 1 and 10 TeV is ~ 3.8 × 10-12 ph cm-2 s-1, equivalent to 17% of the Crab Nebula flux in the same energy range. The measured energy spectrum is well-fit by a power law with a relatively hard photon index Γ = 2.0 ± 0.1stat ± 0.2sys. Additional multi-wavelength data, including 330 MHz VLA observations, were used to investigate the VHE γ-ray source's possible associations with the pulsar wind nebula of PSR B1706-44 and/or with the complex radio structure of the partial shell-type SNR G 343.1-2.3.

  10. Current Perspectives in High Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormes, Jonathan F. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    High energy astrophysics is a space-age discipline that has taken a quantum leap forward in the 1990s. The observables are photons and particles that are unable to penetrate the atmosphere and can only be observed from space or very high altitude balloons. The lectures presented as chapters of this book are based on the results from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) and Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) missions to which the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center made significant hardware contributions. These missions study emissions from very hot plasmas, nuclear processes, and high energy particle interactions in space. Results to be discussed include gamma-ray beaming from active galactic nuclei (AGN), gamma-ray emission from pulsars, radioactive elements in the interstellar medium, X-ray emission from clusters of galaxies, and the progress being made to unravel the gamma-ray burst mystery. The recently launched X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) and prospects for upcoming Astro-E and Advanced X-ray Astronomy Satellite (AXAF) missions are also discussed.

  11. High energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kernan, A.; Shen, B.C.; Ma, E.

    1997-07-01

    Hadron collider studies will focus on: (i) the search for the top quark with the newly installed D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, (ii) the upgrade of the D0 detector to match the new main injector luminosity and (iii) R&D on silicon microstrip tracking devices for the SSC. High statistics studies of Z{sup 0} decay will continue with the OPAL detector at LEP. These studies will include a direct measurement of Z decay to neutrinos, the search for Higgs and heavy quark decays of Z. Preparations for the Large Scintillation Neutrino Detector (LSND) to measure neutrino oscillations at LAMPF will focus on data acquisition and testing of photomultiplier tubes. In the theoretical area E. Ma will concentrate on mass-generating radiative mechanisms for light quarks and leptons in renormalizable gauge field theories. J. Wudka`s program includes a detailed investigation of the magnetic-flip approach to the solar neutrino.

  12. Unraveling the Voltage-Fade Mechanism in High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries: Origin of the Tetrahedral Cations for Spinel Conversion

    DOE PAGES

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P.; ...

    2014-09-30

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cationmore » intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct →LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct → LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.« less

  13. Unraveling the Voltage-Fade Mechanism in High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries: Origin of the Tetrahedral Cations for Spinel Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P.; Huq, Ashfia; Payzant, E. Andrew; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2014-09-30

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cation intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct →LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct → LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

  14. High-energy spectroscopic astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güdel, Manuel; Walter, Roland

    After three decades of intense research in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, the time was ripe to summarize basic knowledge on X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy for interested students and researchers ready to become involved in new high-energy missions. This volume exposes both the scientific basics and modern methods of high-energy spectroscopic astrophysics. The emphasis is on physical principles and observing methods rather than a discussion of particular classes of high-energy objects, but many examples and new results are included in the three chapters as well.

  15. Experimental High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Distefano, Carla

    2005-10-12

    Neutrinos are considered promising probes for high energy astrophysics. More than four decades after deep water Cerenkov technique was proposed to detect high energy neutrinos. Two detectors of this type are successfully taking data: BAIKAL and AMANDA. They have demonstrated the feasibility of the high energy neutrino detection and have set first constraints on TeV neutrino production astrophysical models. The quest for the construction of km3 size detectors have already started: in the South Pole, the IceCube neutrino telescope is under construction; the ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR Collaborations are working towards the installation of a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea.

  16. Mechanism of thermoluminescence in high energy carbon ion irradiated Tb3+ doped Al2O3 phosphor for carbon ion beam dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyanarayana Reddy, S.; Nagabhushana, K. R.; Singh, Fouran

    2017-09-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 80 MeV C6+ ion irradiated pure and Tb3+ doped Al2O3 phosphors are reported. Undoped and Tb3+ doped Al2O3 phosphors are synthesized by solution combustion method. Crystalline phase is analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and average crystallite size is found to be ~64 nm. XRD pattern of Al2O3:Tb3+ (0.05 mol%) is analyzed by Rietveld refinement using the FULLPROF program. TL glow curves of C6+ ion irradiated pure and Tb3+ doped Al2O3 phosphors are recorded for low fluence (5.06  ×  106 to 2.05  ×  108 ions cm‑2) and high fluence (1  ×  1010 to 5  ×  1012 ions cm‑2). TL glow curves of C6+ ion irradiated pure Al2O3 shows prominent peaks at ~466 K and ~623 K with shoulder at ~569 K. These glow peaks are ascribed to Cr3+and Mn4+ emissions. The effect of Tb3+ concentration on TL is investigated and optimum Tb3+ concentration is found to be 0.05 mol%. These Tb3+ doped TL glow curves exhibit a new well resolved prominent peak at 569 K with small humps at 466 K and 623 K. This new TL glow peak is due to Tb3+ characteristic emission. Further, linearity, kinetic parameters, repeatability and fading effect of pure and Tb3+ doped Al2O3 phosphors are studied and they exhibit appropriate properties for carbon beam dosimetry in radiation therapy.

  17. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1979-01-01

    Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and built by TRW, the third High Energy Astronomy Observatory was launched September 20, 1979. HEAO-3 was designed to study gamma-rays and cosmic ray particles.

  18. Nonthermal processes around collapsed objects: High energy gamma ray sources in the radio sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.; Ruderman, Malvin; Applegate, James H.; Becker, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    In our proposal responding to the initial Guest Observer NRA for the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, 'Nonthermal Processes Around Collapsed Objects: High Energy Gamma Ray Sources in the Radio Sky', we stated that 'At high energies - the identity of the principal Galactic source population remains unknown' although the 'one certain source of high energy emission is young radio pulsars'. These two statements remain true, although at this writing, eighteen months after the beginning of the Compton allsky survey, much of the gamma-ray data required to greatly extend our knowledge of the Galaxy's high energy emission has been collected. The thrust of the program supported by our grant was to collect and analyze a complementary set of data on the Milky Way at radio wavelengths in order to help identify the dominant Pop 1 component of the Galaxy's gamma ray sources, and to pursue theoretical investigations on the origins and emission mechanisms of young pulsars, the one component of this population identified to date. We summarize here our accomplishments under the grant. In Section 2, we describe our VLA surveys of the Galactic Plane along with the current status of the radio source catalogs derived therefrom; unfortunately, owing to the TDRSS antenna problem and subsequent extension of the Sky Survey, we were not able to carry out a comparison with the EGRET data directly, although everything is now in place to do so as soon as it becomes available. In Section 2, we summarize our progress on the theoretical side, including the substantial completion of a dissertation on pulsar origins and work on the high energy emission mechanisms of isolated pulsars. We list the personnel supported by the grant in section 4 and provide a complete bibliography of publications supported in whole or in part by the grant in the final section.

  19. Astrophysical High-Energy Neutrinos and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, Kohta

    2008-10-22

    High-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been expected in various scenarios. Many predictions for prompt and afterglow emission were done in the pre-Swift era. After the launch of Swift, several new discoveries such as flares have allowed us to expect additional new possibilities of high-energy neutrino emission from GRBs. In this paper, we overview various predictions of GRB neutrino emission, and discuss feature prospects. High-energy neutrino signals may be detected by future-coming large neutrino detectors such as IceCube and KM3Net. If detected, they should be very useful to know the nature of cosmic-ray acceleration sites. It would also help us to reveal the possible connection between ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and GRBs. Finally, we also compare a prediction of GRB neutrinos with several predictions for other sources such as active galactic nuclei (AGN) and clusters of galaxies.

  20. Experimental, Modeling, and Sensitivity Analysis Studies of Gas-Phase Reaction Mechanisms Important to the Combustion of High Energy Density Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    of massively parallel computer ar- chitecture and algonthms), and systematic sensitivity analysis techniques, which link ex- perimental and...28 is from Slack and Grillo (1978) who derived the rate from an analysis of the complex kinetics of H2 0/2/NO2 ignition. An uncertainty of a factor of...8217r r T AD-A242 746 Annual Report C Experimental, Modeling, and Sensitivity Analysis Studies of Gas-Phase Reaction Mechanisms Important to the

  1. Intrinsic mechanical behavior of femoral cortical bone in young, osteoporotic and bisphosphonate-treated individuals in low- and high energy fracture conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Schaible, Eric; Gludovatz, Bernd; ...

    2016-02-16

    Bisphosphonates are a common treatment to reduce osteoporotic fractures. This treatment induces osseous structural and compositional changes accompanied by positive effects on osteoblasts and osteocytes. Here, we test the hypothesis that restored osseous cell behavior, which resembles characteristics of younger, healthy cortical bone, leads to improved bone quality. Microarchitecture and mechanical properties of young, treatment-naïve osteoporosis, and bisphosphonate-treated cases were investigated in femoral cortices. Tissue strength was measured using three-point bending. Collagen fibril-level deformation was assessed in non-traumatic and traumatic fracture states using synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) at low and high strain rates. The lower modulus, strength and fibrilmore » deformation measured at low strain rates reflects susceptibility for osteoporotic low-energy fragility fractures. Independent of age, disease and treatment status, SAXS revealed reduced fibril plasticity at high strain rates, characteristic of traumatic fracture. We find the significantly reduced mechanical integrity in osteoporosis may originate from porosity and alterations to the intra/extrafibrillar structure, while the fibril deformation under treatment indicates improved nano-scale characteristics. In conclusion, losses in strength and fibril deformation at low strain rates correlate with the occurrence of fragility fractures in osteoporosis, while improvements in structural and mechanical properties following bisphosphonate treatment may foster resistance to fracture during physiological strain rates.« less

  2. Intrinsic mechanical behavior of femoral cortical bone in young, osteoporotic and bisphosphonate-treated individuals in low- and high energy fracture conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Schaible, Eric; Gludovatz, Bernd; Schmidt, Felix N.; Riedel, Christoph; Krause, Matthias; Vettorazzi, Eik; Acevedo, Claire; Hahn, Michael; Püschel, Klaus; Tang, Simon; Amling, Michael; Ritchie, Robert O.; Busse, Björn

    2016-02-16

    Bisphosphonates are a common treatment to reduce osteoporotic fractures. This treatment induces osseous structural and compositional changes accompanied by positive effects on osteoblasts and osteocytes. Here, we test the hypothesis that restored osseous cell behavior, which resembles characteristics of younger, healthy cortical bone, leads to improved bone quality. Microarchitecture and mechanical properties of young, treatment-naïve osteoporosis, and bisphosphonate-treated cases were investigated in femoral cortices. Tissue strength was measured using three-point bending. Collagen fibril-level deformation was assessed in non-traumatic and traumatic fracture states using synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) at low and high strain rates. The lower modulus, strength and fibril deformation measured at low strain rates reflects susceptibility for osteoporotic low-energy fragility fractures. Independent of age, disease and treatment status, SAXS revealed reduced fibril plasticity at high strain rates, characteristic of traumatic fracture. We find the significantly reduced mechanical integrity in osteoporosis may originate from porosity and alterations to the intra/extrafibrillar structure, while the fibril deformation under treatment indicates improved nano-scale characteristics. In conclusion, losses in strength and fibril deformation at low strain rates correlate with the occurrence of fragility fractures in osteoporosis, while improvements in structural and mechanical properties following bisphosphonate treatment may foster resistance to fracture during physiological strain rates.

  3. Intrinsic mechanical behavior of femoral cortical bone in young, osteoporotic and bisphosphonate-treated individuals in low- and high energy fracture conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Schaible, Eric; Gludovatz, Bernd; Schmidt, Felix N.; Riedel, Christoph; Krause, Matthias; Vettorazzi, Eik; Acevedo, Claire; Hahn, Michael; Püschel, Klaus; Tang, Simon; Amling, Michael; Ritchie, Robert O.; Busse, Björn

    2016-02-01

    Bisphosphonates are a common treatment to reduce osteoporotic fractures. This treatment induces osseous structural and compositional changes accompanied by positive effects on osteoblasts and osteocytes. Here, we test the hypothesis that restored osseous cell behavior, which resembles characteristics of younger, healthy cortical bone, leads to improved bone quality. Microarchitecture and mechanical properties of young, treatment-naïve osteoporosis, and bisphosphonate-treated cases were investigated in femoral cortices. Tissue strength was measured using three-point bending. Collagen fibril-level deformation was assessed in non-traumatic and traumatic fracture states using synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) at low and high strain rates. The lower modulus, strength and fibril deformation measured at low strain rates reflects susceptibility for osteoporotic low-energy fragility fractures. Independent of age, disease and treatment status, SAXS revealed reduced fibril plasticity at high strain rates, characteristic of traumatic fracture. The significantly reduced mechanical integrity in osteoporosis may originate from porosity and alterations to the intra/extrafibrillar structure, while the fibril deformation under treatment indicates improved nano-scale characteristics. In conclusion, losses in strength and fibril deformation at low strain rates correlate with the occurrence of fragility fractures in osteoporosis, while improvements in structural and mechanical properties following bisphosphonate treatment may foster resistance to fracture during physiological strain rates.

  4. Intrinsic mechanical behavior of femoral cortical bone in young, osteoporotic and bisphosphonate-treated individuals in low- and high energy fracture conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Schaible, Eric; Gludovatz, Bernd; Schmidt, Felix N.; Riedel, Christoph; Krause, Matthias; Vettorazzi, Eik; Acevedo, Claire; Hahn, Michael; Püschel, Klaus; Tang, Simon; Amling, Michael; Ritchie, Robert O.; Busse, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are a common treatment to reduce osteoporotic fractures. This treatment induces osseous structural and compositional changes accompanied by positive effects on osteoblasts and osteocytes. Here, we test the hypothesis that restored osseous cell behavior, which resembles characteristics of younger, healthy cortical bone, leads to improved bone quality. Microarchitecture and mechanical properties of young, treatment-naïve osteoporosis, and bisphosphonate-treated cases were investigated in femoral cortices. Tissue strength was measured using three-point bending. Collagen fibril-level deformation was assessed in non-traumatic and traumatic fracture states using synchrotron small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) at low and high strain rates. The lower modulus, strength and fibril deformation measured at low strain rates reflects susceptibility for osteoporotic low-energy fragility fractures. Independent of age, disease and treatment status, SAXS revealed reduced fibril plasticity at high strain rates, characteristic of traumatic fracture. The significantly reduced mechanical integrity in osteoporosis may originate from porosity and alterations to the intra/extrafibrillar structure, while the fibril deformation under treatment indicates improved nano-scale characteristics. In conclusion, losses in strength and fibril deformation at low strain rates correlate with the occurrence of fragility fractures in osteoporosis, while improvements in structural and mechanical properties following bisphosphonate treatment may foster resistance to fracture during physiological strain rates. PMID:26879146

  5. Generation mechanism of whistler-mode chorus emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omura, Yoshiharu

    We describe the nonlinear dynamics of resonant electrons interacting with a coherent whistler-mode wave and the formation of electromagnetic electron holes or hills in the velocity phase space. In the presence of the inhomogeneity due to the frequency variation and the gradient of the magnetic field, the electron holes or hills result in resonant currents generating rising-tone emissions (1, 2) or falling-tone emissions (3), respectively. After formation of a coherent wave at the maximum linear growth rate, triggering of the nonlinear wave growth takes place when the wave amplitude is close to the optimum wave amplitude (4). The wave amplitude also has to be above the threshold amplitude (2) so that the nonlinear wave growth can occur as an absolute instability at the magnetic equator. The triggering process is repeated at progressively higher frequencies in the case of a rising-tone emission, generating subpackets of a chorus element. We also describe the mechanism of nonlinear wave damping due to quasi-oblique propagation from the equator (2), which results in the formation of a gap at half the electron cyclotron frequency, separating a long rising-tone chorus emission into the upper-band and lower-band chorus emissions (5). *References (1) Y. Omura,Y. Katoh, and D. Summers, Theory and simulation of the generation of whistler-mode chorus, J. Geophys. Res., 113, A04223, 2008. (2) Y. Omura, , M. Hikishima, Y. Katoh, D. Summers, and S. Yagitani, Nonlinear mechanisms of lower band and upper band VLF chorus emissions in the magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 114, A07217, 2009. (3) Nunn, D., and Y. Omura, A computational and theoretical analysis of falling frequency VLF emissions, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A08228, 2012. (4) Omura, Y., and D. Nunn, Triggering process of whistler mode chorus emissions in the magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A05205, 2011. (5) S. Kurita, Y. Katoh, Y. Omura, V. Angelopoulos, C. M. Cully, O. Le Contel, and H. Misawa, THEMIS observation of

  6. Wavelength and Intensity Dependence of the Standing Wave Mechanism in the Near-IR Regime in Producing High Energy Backwards Electron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngirmang, Gregory; Orban, Chris; Feister, Scott; Morrison, John; Chowdhury, Enam; Roquemore, William

    2016-10-01

    Laser-plasma interactions involving ultra-short ultra-intense, near IR or IR wavelength lasers represent a novel regime, specifically inducing relativistic dynamics of charges at lower intensities than required for current ultra-intense lasers. We present 2D(3 v) Particle-in-Cell(PIC) simulations using the LSP code that produce super-ponderomotive MeV electron beams from ultra-short ultra-intense IR or Near-IR laser beams incident on targets with significant pre-plasma. We perform simulations across different wavelengths, including 800 nanometer, 3 microns, and 10 microns. We also simulate different pulse energies varying from tens of microjoules to tens of joules, and different scale lengths of pre-plasma. The accelerated electrons energies reach super-ponderomotive energies that scale roughly with the normalized vector potential, in line with the standing wave acceleration mechanism discussed in Orban et al. The angular spectrum of ejected electrons in all cases are similar, displaying preferred angles as suggested by the elaborations on the standing wave mechanism explained in Ngirmang, et al.

  7. High energy neutrinos from primary cosmic rays accelerated in the cores of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectra and high-energy neutrino fluxes are calculated from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) such as quasars and Seyfert galaxies using recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays in the AGN. Collectively AGN should produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10 exp 4 and 10 exp 10 GeV. Measurement of this background could be critical in determining the energy-generation mechanism, evolution, and distribution of AGN. High-energy background spectra and spectra from bright AGN such as NGC4151 and 3C273 are predicted which should be observable with present detectors. High energy AGN nus should produce a sphere of stellar disruption around their cores which could explain their observed broad-line emission regions.

  8. High energy neutrinos from primary cosmic rays accelerated in the cores of active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Done, C.; Salamon, M. H.; Sommers, P.

    1991-01-01

    The spectra and high-energy neutrino fluxes are calculated from photomeson production in active galactic nuclei (AGN) such as quasars and Seyfert galaxies using recent UV and X-ray observations to define the photon fields and an accretion-disk shock-acceleration model for producing ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays in the AGN. Collectively AGN should produce the dominant isotropic neutrino background between 10 exp 4 and 10 exp 10 GeV. Measurement of this background could be critical in determining the energy-generation mechanism, evolution, and distribution of AGN. High-energy background spectra and spectra from bright AGN such as NGC4151 and 3C273 are predicted which should be observable with present detectors. High energy AGN nus should produce a sphere of stellar disruption around their cores which could explain their observed broad-line emission regions.

  9. The Sun as a Library for High-Energy Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David M.

    2017-08-01

    Our maternal G dwarf star gives us life, light, warmth, and a surprisingly well-stocked library of high-energy phenomena to study and compare to more distant, violent objects. I will give a survey of what we see from the Sun -- X-rays, gamma-rays, radio emission, energetic neutral atoms, neutrinos, and particles accelerated in the low and high corona -- and of the physical processes and emission mechanisms thought to be involved, including magnetic reconnection, Fermi acceleration, thermal and nonthermal bremsstrahlung, coherent and incoherent radio emission, and gamma-ray line mechanisms: nuclear de-excitation, pion decay, neutron capture, and positron annihilation. I will outline the range of transient coronal behaviors from hypothetical nanoflares below the limit of individual detection to coronal mass ejections and the largest flares, comparing the latter to what is observed from other stars. Throughout the presentation, I will look for parallels with a variety of cosmic objects and observations, with no guarantee that any particular comparison is quantitatively appropriate. Finally, I will advertise the recent contributions of focusing hard X-ray observations with NuSTAR and the FOXSI rockets.

  10. High energy cosmic ray composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, E. S.

    Cosmic rays are understood to result from energetic processes in the galaxy, probably from supernova explosions. However, cosmic ray energies extend several orders of magnitude beyond the limit thought possible for supernova blast waves. Over the past decade several ground-based and space-based investigations were initiated to look for evidence of a limit to supernova acceleration in the cosmic-ray chemical composition at high energies. These high-energy measurements are difficult because of the very low particle fluxes in the most interesting regions. The space-based detectors must be large enough to collect adequate statistics, yet stay within the weight limit for space flight. Innovative approaches now promise high quality measurements over an energy range that was not previously possible. The current status of high energy cosmic-ray composition measurements and planned future missions are discussed in this paper.

  11. Future of high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1984-06-01

    A rough overview is given of the expectations for the extension of high energy colliders and accelerators into the xtremely high energy range. It appears likely that the SSC or something like it will be the last gasp of the conventional method of producing high energy proton-proton collisions using synchrotron rings with superconducting magnets. It is likely that LEP will be the highest energy e+e/sup -/ colliding beam storage ring built. The future beyond that depends on the successful demonstrations of new technologies. The linear collider offers hope in this respect for some extension in energy for electrons, and maybe even for protons, but is too early to judge whether, by how much, or when such an extension will indeed take place.

  12. Mechanisms of charge transfer and redistribution in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 revealed by high-energy optical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmara, T. C.; Annadi, A.; Santoso, I.; Gogoi, P. K.; Kotlov, A.; Omer, H. M.; Motapothula, M.; Breese, M. B. H.; Rübhausen, M.; Venkatesan, T.; Ariando; Rusydi, A.

    2014-04-01

    In condensed matter physics the quasi two-dimensional electron gas at the interface of two different insulators, polar LaAlO3 on nonpolar SrTiO3 (LaAlO3/SrTiO3) is a spectacular and surprising observation. This phenomenon is LaAlO3 film thickness dependent and may be explained by the polarization catastrophe model, in which a charge transfer of 0.5e- from the LaAlO3 film into the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface is expected. Here we show that in conducting samples (≥4 unit cells of LaAlO3) there is indeed a ~0.5e- transfer from LaAlO3 into the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface by studying the optical conductivity in a broad energy range (0.5-35 eV). Surprisingly, in insulating samples (≤3 unit cells of LaAlO3) a redistribution of charges within the polar LaAlO3 sublayers (from AlO2 to LaO) as large as ~0.5e- is observed, with no charge transfer into the interface. Hence, our results reveal the different mechanisms for the polarization catastrophe compensation in insulating and conducting LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces.

  13. Synthesis of Nanostructured Carbides of Titanium and Vanadium from Metal Oxides and Ferroalloys Through High-energy Mechanical Milling and Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, P.; Jian, P. F.; Seong, K. Y.; Seng, G. S.; Masrom, A. K.; Hussain, Z.; Aziz, A.

    2010-03-01

    Carbides of Ti and V have been synthesized directly from their oxides and ferroalloys through mechanical milling and heat treatment. The powder mixtures are milled in a planetary ball mill from 15-80 hours and subsequently heat treated at 1000-1300° C for TiO2-C mixtures, at 500-550° C for V2O5-C mixtures and at 600-1000° C for (Fe-V)-C mixtures. The milled and heat treated powders are characterized by SEM, EDAX, XRD, and BET techniques. Nanostructured TiC has been successfully synthesized under suitable processing conditions. However, carbides of vanadium is unidentified even though possibilities of V2O5-C reaction are indicated with an extent of induced amorphism in the powder mixture. Density, specific surface area and particle size of the milled and heat treated mixtures are correlated with heat treatment temperatures. Similar attempts are also made to synthesize vanadium carbides from industrial grade Fe-V.

  14. Effects of high-energy electro-pulsing treatment on microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoxin; Wang, Lingsheng; Tse, Zion T H; Tang, Guoyi; Song, Guolin

    2015-04-01

    The effect of electro-pulsing treatment (EPT) on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of cold-rolled Ti-6Al-4V alloy strips was investigated in this paper. It was found that the elongation to failure of materials obtains a noticeable enhancement with increased EPT processing time while slightly sacrificing strength. Fine recrystallized grains and the relative highest elongation to failure (32.5%) appear in the 11second-EPT samples. Grain coarsening and decreased ductility were brought in with longer EPT duration time. Fracture surface analysis shows that transition from intergranular brittle facture to transgranular dimple fracture takes place with an increase in processing time of EPT. Meanwhile, corrosion behavior of titanium alloys is greatly improved with increased EPT processing time, which is presented by polarization test and surface observation with the beneficial effect of forming a protective anatase-TiO2 film on the surface of alloys. The rapid recrystallization behavior and oxide formation of the titanium alloy strip under EPTs are attributed to the enhancement of nucleation rate, atomic diffusion and oxygen migration resulting from the coupling of the thermal and athermal effects.

  15. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  16. High Energy Astrophysics Program (HEAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, Lorella; Corcoran, Michael; Drake, Stephen; McGlynn, Thomas A.; Snowden, Stephen; Mukai, Koji; Cannizzo, John; Lochner, James; Rots, Arnold; Christian, Eric; hide

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by the members of the USRA contract team during the 6 months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming 6 months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in astrophysics. Supported missions include advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-Ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) and others.

  17. High Energy Astrophysics Program (HEAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelini, L.

    1998-01-01

    This report reviews activities performed by members of the USRA contract team during the six months of the reporting period and projected activities during the coming six months. Activities take place at the Goddard Space Flight Center, within the Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. Developments concern instrumentation, observation, data analysis, and theoretical work in Astrophysics Missions supported include: Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), X-ray Timing Experiment (XTE), X-ray Spectrometer (XRS), Astro-E, High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), and others.

  18. High-Energy Traumatic Maxillofacial Injury.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jacob; Sawatari, Yoh; Peleg, Michael

    2015-07-01

    High-energy blunt or penetrating impact leads to great variability in facial injury patterns. Although the mechanism, pattern, and distribution of forces vary, the resultant damage to hard and soft tissues requires dedicated planning and execution of debridement and reconstructive procedures. This article evaluates the initial management of patients sustaining high-energy facial impact injuries resulting in one or more comminuted or displaced facial fractures, with accompanying severe facial lacerations and/or soft tissue defects and avulsion injuries. Seventy-three patients met the criteria for high-energy traumatic injuries at Jackson Memorial/University of Miami Medical Center between 2003 and 2013 and are included in this article. Thirty-nine patients sustained one or more gunshot wounds to the face, and 34 patients were involved in high-speed motor vehicle collisions; all patients met our criteria for high-energy trauma. The treatment protocol for these injuries involves meticulous surgical exploration and assessment, aggressive debridement, early definitive reduction/fixation, and reconstruction as necessary.

  19. On the generation mechanism of ULF seismogenic electromagnetic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, O. A.; Hayakawa, M.

    Microfracturing electrification is suggested as a possible mechanism for explaining ULF electromagnetic emissions observed before and after the earthquakes. This effect appears as fast fluctuation of microcracks and leads to the origination of wideband electromagnetic noise. This noise dissipates outside the source region and produces ULF emissions on the ground surface with an upper cutoff frequency ˜1 Hz due to the skin depth attenuation. Each microcurrent results from charge relaxation during microcrack opening and depends on the time of opening and conductivity of the rock medium. The normal size distribution of microcracks, their fast opening and healing (intermittence), and average size progression due to stress corrosion are assumed. Using this model, it is possible to compare these theoretical explanations with the observational results with reference to the intensity, frequency spectrum and temporal development of ULF magnetic field variations.

  20. Pulsed high-energy gamma-rays from the radio pulsar PSR1706-44

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. J.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K. T. S.; D'Amico, N.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fierro, J. M.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Johnston, S.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma radiation above 100 MeV in energy has been detected from the radio pulsar PSR1706-44. The gamma emission forms a single broad peak within the pulsar period of 102 ms, in contrast to the two narrow peaks seen in the other three known high-energy gamma-ray pulsars. The emission mechanism in all cases is probably the same, the differences arising from the geometry of the magnetic and rotation axes and the line of sight. Gamma-ray emission accounts for as much as 1 percent of the total neutron star spindown energy in these pulsars, much more than emerges at optical or radio frequencies. Thus, study of this emission is important in understanding pulsar emission and evolution.

  1. Mexican High Energy Physics Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Olivo, J. C.; Napsuciale, M.; Pérez-Angón, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    The Mexican High Energy Physics Network is one of CONACYT's thematic research networks, created with the aim of increasing the communication and cooperation of the scientific and technology communities of Mexico in strategic areas. In this report we review the evolution, challenges, achievements and opportunities faced by the network.

  2. Extraterrestrial high energy neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Using the most recent cosmic ray spectra up to 2x10 to the 20th power eV, production spectra of high energy neutrinos from cosmic ray interactions with interstellar gas and extragalactic interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with 3K universal background photons are presented and discussed. Estimates of the fluxes from cosmic diffuse sources and the nearby quasar 3C273 are made using the generic relationship between secondary neutrinos and gammas and using recent gamma ray satellite data. These gamma ray data provide important upper limits on cosmological neutrinos. Quantitative estimates of the observability of high energy neutrinos from the inner galaxy and 3C273 above atmospheric background for a DUMAND type detector are discussed in the context of the Weinberg-Salam model with sq sin theta omega = 0.2 and including the atmospheric background from the decay of charmed mesons. Constraints on cosmological high energy neutrino production models are also discussed. It appears that important high energy neutrino astronomy may be possible with DUMAND, but very long observing times are required.

  3. HIGH ENERGY CRYSTALLINE LASER MATERIALS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The object of this research is to obtain improved laser materials for high energy lasers. During the third quarter of this contract, the study of... energy transfer from Cr to Nd in GdAlO3 and YAlG continued. In order to study the Nd fluorescence arising via transfer from Cr, the material was excited

  4. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-01-01

    Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and built by TRW, the second High Energy Astronomy Observatory was launched November 13, 1978. The observatory carried the largest X-ray telescope ever built and was renamed the Einstein Observatory after achieving orbit.

  5. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-01-01

    Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and designed by TRW, the first High Energy Astronomy Observatory was launched August 12, 1977 aboard an Atlas Centaur rocket. HEAO-1, devoted to the study of X-rays in space, carried four instruments all used primarily in a scarning mode. The mission lasted seventeen months.

  6. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-08-01

    This picture is of an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle, carrying the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-1, on Launch Complex 36 at the Air Force Eastern Test Range prior to launch on August 12, 1977. The Kennedy Space Center managed the launch operations that included a pre-aunch checkout, launch, and flight, up through the observatory separation in orbit.

  7. Sub-terahertz emission from solar flares: The plasma mechanism of chromospheric emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, V. V.; Stepanov, A. V.; Melnikov, V. F.

    2013-09-01

    We consider the plasma mechanism of sub-terahertz emission from solar flares and determine the conditions for its realization in the solar atmosphere. The source is assumed to be localized at the chromospheric footpoints of coronal magnetic loops, where the electron density should reach n ≈ 1015 cm-3. This requires chromospheric heating at heights h ⩾ 500 km to coronal temperatures, which provides a high degree of ionization needed for Langmuir frequencies ν p ≈ 200-400 GHz and reduces the bremsstrahlung absorption of the sub-THz emission as it escapes from the source. The plasma wave excitation threshold for electron-ion collisions imposes a constraint on the lower density limit for energetic electrons in the source, n 1 > 4 × 109 cm-3. The generation of emission at the plasma frequency harmonic ν ≈ 2 ν p rather than the fundamental tone turns out to be preferred. We show that the electron acceleration and plasma heating in the sub-THz emission source can be realized when the ballooning mode of the flute instability develops at the chromospheric footpoints of a flare loop. The flute instability leads to the penetration of external chromospheric plasma into the loop and causes the generation of an inductive electric field that efficiently accelerates the electrons and heats the chromosphere in situ. We show that the ultraviolet radiation from the heated chromosphere emerging in this case does not exceed the level observed during flares.

  8. a Unified Model of High-Energy Astrophysical Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rújula, A.

    I outline a unified model of high-energy astrophysics, in which the gamma background radiation, cluster "cooling flows", gamma-ray bursts, X-ray flashes and cosmic-ray electrons and nuclei of all energies — share a common origin. The mechanism underlying these phenomena is the emission of relativistic "cannonballs" by ordinary supernovae, analogous to the observed ejection of plasmoids by quasars and microquasars. I concentrate on Cosmic Rays: the longest-lasting conundrum in astrophysics. The distribution of Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy, their total "luminosity", the broken power-law spectra with their observed slopes, the position of the knee(s) and ankle(s), and the alleged variations of composition with energy are all explained in terms of simple and "standard" physics. The model is only lacking a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the "cannon" that emits the cannonballs in catastrophic episodes of accretion onto a compact object.

  9. High Energy Density Extended Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2009-06-01

    Application of high pressure significantly alters the interatomic distance and, thus, the nature of intermolecular interaction, chemical bonding, molecular configuration, crystal structure, and stability of solid. With modern advances in high-pressure technologies, it is feasible to achieve a large (often up to a several-fold) compression of lattice, at which condition material can be easily forced into a new physical and chemical configuration. The high-pressure thus offers enhanced opportunities to discover new phases, both stable and metastable ones, and to tune novel properties in a wide-range of atomistic length scale, substantially greater than (often being several orders of) those achieved by other thermal (varying temperatures) and chemical (varying composition or making alloys) means. Over the past decade or two, a large number of new materials and novel phenomena have been discovered and predicted at extreme pressure-temperature conditions. Commonly observed under extreme conditions is the transformation of solids into more compact structures with itinerant electrons such as metallic and nonmetallic extended phases. Nonmolecular extended solids, particularly made of low Z elements such as hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine, constitute a new class of high energy density solids, which can store a large sum of energy in their three-dimensional network structure (˜ several eV/bond). Yet, a large cohesive energy of singly bonded (or sp3 hybridized) electrons gives rise to an extremely stiff lattice and novel electronic and optical properties. Broadly speaking, these molecular-to-nonmolecular transitions occur due to electron delocalization manifested as a rapid increase in electron kinetic energy at high density, but there are many outstanding questions as well regarding the exact nature of chemical bonding, phase stability, chemical mechanisms, and so on. These questions constitute fundamental chemistry unique to extreme pressure

  10. Analysis of Jovian decametric data: Study of radio emission mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Catalogues of approx. 200 decametric arcs and approx. 200 gaps between arcs were studied, in an effort to reconcile the data with predictions for the model wherein reflections of Io-induced currents each emit in a conical pattern and yield a distinct radio arc. The most recent interpretations of this data suggest that these Io-produced Alfven waves persist for at least one or two passages of Io, and that the emission cone half angles are approx. 40 to 90 deg., varying from arc to arc. Below 1.2 MHz it was discovered that Jupiter emits radiation strongly modulated in frequency with periods of approx. 200 kHz; this quasi-sinusoidal emission (MSA) can shift more than 180 deg. in phase over periods of 6 seconds, although these shifts are usually much smaller. MSA is not strongly correlated with the longitudes of Io or Jupiter, and typically occurs in patches covering approx. 500 kHz or more for periods of a few minutes. Furthermore, this modulation sometimes resembles a train of impulses in frequency with exponential decays toward high frequencies. Comparison of these results with the previous studies of V-shaped S-bursts is suggestive of an emission mechanism.

  11. Analysis of Jovian decametric data: Study of radio emission mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Catalogues of approx. 200 decametric arcs and approx. 200 gaps between arcs were studied, in an effort to reconcile the data with predictions for the model wherein reflections of Io-induced currents each emit in a conical pattern and yield a distinct radio arc. The most recent interpretations of this data suggest that these Io-produced Alfven waves persist for at least one or two passages of Io, and that the emission cone half angles are approx. 40 to 90 deg., varying from arc to arc. Below 1.2 MHz it was discovered that Jupiter emits radiation strongly modulated in frequency with periods of approx. 200 kHz; this quasi-sinusoidal emission (MSA) can shift more than 180 deg. in phase over periods of 6 seconds, although these shifts are usually much smaller. MSA is not strongly correlated with the longitudes of Io or Jupiter, and typically occurs in patches covering approx. 500 kHz or more for periods of a few minutes. Furthermore, this modulation sometimes resembles a train of impulses in frequency with exponential decays toward high frequencies. Comparison of these results with the previous studies of V-shaped S-bursts is suggestive of an emission mechanism.

  12. Generalized Mechanism of Field Emission from Nanostructured Semiconductor Film Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ru-Zhi; Zhao, Wei; Yan, Hui

    2017-03-01

    Considering the effect of both the buffer layer and substrate, a series of ultrathin multilayered structure cathodes (UTMC) is constructed to simulate the field emission (FE) process of nanostructured semiconductor film cathodes (NSFCs). We find a generalized FE mechanism of the NSFCs, in which there are three distinct FE modes with the change of the applied field. Our results clearly show significant differences of FE between conventional emitters and nanofilm emitters, which the non-Fowler-Nordheim characteristics and the resonant FE will be inevitable for NSFCs. Moreover, the controllable FE can be realized by fine-tuning the quantum structure of NSFCs. The generalized mechanism of NSFCs presented here may be particularly useful for design high-speed and high-frequency vacuum nano-electronic devices.

  13. Generalized Mechanism of Field Emission from Nanostructured Semiconductor Film Cathodes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ru-Zhi; Zhao, Wei; Yan, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Considering the effect of both the buffer layer and substrate, a series of ultrathin multilayered structure cathodes (UTMC) is constructed to simulate the field emission (FE) process of nanostructured semiconductor film cathodes (NSFCs). We find a generalized FE mechanism of the NSFCs, in which there are three distinct FE modes with the change of the applied field. Our results clearly show significant differences of FE between conventional emitters and nanofilm emitters, which the non-Fowler-Nordheim characteristics and the resonant FE will be inevitable for NSFCs. Moreover, the controllable FE can be realized by fine-tuning the quantum structure of NSFCs. The generalized mechanism of NSFCs presented here may be particularly useful for design high-speed and high-frequency vacuum nano-electronic devices.

  14. Identifying the nature of high energy Astroparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomé Caballero Mora, Karen

    2016-10-01

    High energy Astroparticles include Cosmic Ray (CR), gamma ray and neutrinos, all of them coming from the universe. The origin and production, acceleration and propagation mechanisms of ultrahigh-energy CR (UHECR ∼ 1020 eV) are still unknown. Knowledge on particle interactions taking place at those energies, useful for studying current theories on particle physics, can be obtained only from measurements of high energy astroparticles. In the present document some techniques on data analysis of mass composition of UHECR with the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. The relevance of the muon component of air showers produced by the primary CR, as well as some low energy simulations of that component, are explained.

  15. ACCELERATING POLARIZED PROTONS TO HIGH ENERGY.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI, M.; AHRENS, L.; ALEKSEEV, I.G.; ALESSI, J.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRAVAR, A.; BRENNAN, J.M.; BRUNO, D.; BUNCE, G.; ET AL.

    2006-10-02

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is designed to provide collisions of high energy polarized protons for the quest of understanding the proton spin structure. Polarized proton collisions at a beam energy of 100 GeV have been achieved in RHIC since 2001. Recently, polarized proton beam was accelerated to 250 GeV in RHIC for the first time. Unlike accelerating unpolarized protons, the challenge for achieving high energy polarized protons is to fight the various mechanisms in an accelerator that can lead to partial or total polarization loss due to the interaction of the spin vector with the magnetic fields. We report on the progress of the RHIC polarized proton program. We also present the strategies of how to preserve the polarization through the entire acceleration chain, i.e. a 200 MeV linear accelerator, the Booster, the AGS and RHIC.

  16. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-01-01

    The family of High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) instruments consisted of three unmarned scientific observatories capable of detecting the x-rays emitted by the celestial bodies with high sensitivity and high resolution. The celestial gamma-ray and cosmic-ray fluxes were also collected and studied to learn more about the mysteries of the universe. High-Energy rays cannot be studied by Earth-based observatories because of the obscuring effects of the atmosphere that prevent the rays from reaching the Earth's surface. They had been observed initially by sounding rockets and balloons, and by small satellites that do not possess the needed instrumentation capabilities required for high data resolution and sensitivity. The HEAO carried the instrumentation necessary for this capability. In this photograph, an artist's concept of three HEAO spacecraft is shown: HEAO-1, launched on August 12, 1977; HEAO-2, launched on November 13, 1978; and HEAO-3, launched on September 20. 1979.

  17. High energy density aluminum battery

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  18. Cosmology for high energy physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, A.

    1987-11-01

    The standard big bang model of cosmology is presented. Although not perfect, its many successes make it a good starting point for most discussions of cosmology. Places are indicated where well understood laboratory physics is incorporated into the big bang, leading to successful predictions. Much less established aspects of high energy physics and some of the new ideas they have introduced into the field of cosmology are discussed, such as string theory, inflation and monopoles. 49 refs., 5 figs.

  19. A high energy physics perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Marciano, W.J.

    1997-01-13

    The status of the Standard model and role of symmetry in its development are reviewed. Some outstanding problems are surveyed and possible solutions in the form of additional {open_quotes}Hidden Symmetries {close_quotes} are discussed. Experimental approaches to uncover {open_quotes}New Physics{close_quotes} associated with those symmetries are described with emphasis on high energy colliders. An outlook for the future is given.

  20. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1970-01-01

    This schematic details the third High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-3. The HEAO-3's mission was to survey and map the celestial sphere for gamma-ray flux and make detailed measurements of cosmic-ray particles. It carried three scientific experiments: a gamma-ray spectrometer, a cosmic-ray isotope experiment, and a heavy cosmic-ray nuclei experiment. The HEAO-3 was originally identified as HEAO-C but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit.

  1. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-11-13

    The launch of an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle is shown in this photograph. The Atlas/Centaur, launched on November 13, 1978, carried the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 into the required orbit. The second observatory, the HEAO-2 (nicknamed the Einstein Observatory in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein) carried the first telescope capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects.

  2. High energy gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    High energy gamma ray astronomy has evolved with the space age. Nonexistent twenty-five years ago, there is now a general sketch of the gamma ray sky which should develop into a detailed picture with the results expected to be forthcoming over the next decade. The galactic plane is the dominant feature of the gamma ray sky, the longitude and latitude distribution being generally correlated with galactic structural features including the spiral arms. Two molecular clouds were already seen. Two of the three strongest gamma ray sources are pulsars. The highly variable X-ray source Cygnus X-3 was seen at one time, but not another in the 100 MeV region, and it was also observed at very high energies. Beyond the Milky Way Galaxy, there is seen a diffuse radiation, whose origin remains uncertain, as well as at least one quasar, 3C 273. Looking to the future, the satellite opportunities for high energy gamma ray astronomy in the near term are the GAMMA-I planned to be launched in late 1987 and the Gamma Ray Observatory, scheduled for launch in 1990. The Gamma Ray Observatory will carry a total of four instruments covering the entire energy range from 30,000 eV to 3 x 10 to the 10th eV with over an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity relative to previous satellite instruments.

  3. On the Origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T; Colgate, S; Li, H

    2009-07-01

    Turbulence-driven plasma accelerators produced by magnetized accretion disks around black holes are proposed as the mechanism mainly responsible for observed cosmic ray protons with ultra high energies 10{sup 19}-10{sup 21} eV. The magnetized disk produces a voltage comparable to these cosmic ray energies. Here we present a Poynting model in which this voltage provides all of the energy to create the jet-like structures observed to be ejected from accretion disks, and this voltage also accelerates ions to high energies at the top of the expanding structure. Since the inductive electric field E = -v x B driving expansion has no component parallel to the magnetic field B, ion acceleration requires plasma wave generation - either a coherent wave accelerator as recently proposed, or instability-driven turbulence. We find that turbulence can tap the full inductive voltage as a quasi-steady accelerator, and even higher energies are produced by transient events on this structure. We find that both MHD modes due to the current and ion diffusion due to kinetic instability caused by the non-Maxwellian ion distribution contribute to acceleration. We apply our results to extragalactic giant radiolobes, whose synchrotron emissions serve to calibrate the model, and we discuss extrapolating to other astrophysical structures. Approximate calculations of the cosmic ray intensity and energy spectrum are in rough agreement with data and serve to motivate more extensive MHD and kinetic simulations of turbulence that could provide more accurate cosmic ray and synchrotron spectra to be compared with observations. A distinctive difference from previous models is that the cosmic ray and synchrotron emissions arise from different parts of the magnetic structure, thus providing a signature for the model.

  4. Cross sections for proton induced high energy γ -ray emission (PIGE) in reaction 19 F(p, αγ)16 O at incident proton energies between 1.5 and 4 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanelas, P.; Cruz, J.; Fonseca, M.; Henriques, A.; Lourenço, F.; Luís, H.; Machado, J.; Pires Ribeiro, J.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Teubig, P.; Velho, P.; Zarza-Moreno, M.; Galaviz, D.; Jesus, A. P.

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the high energy gamma-rays produced in the reaction 19 F(p, αγ)16 O for incident proton energies from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV over NaF/Ag and CaF2/Ag thin targets in two different sets of data. Gamma-rays were detected with a High Purity Ge detector with an angle of 130° with respect to the beam axis. The cross-sections for the high energy gamma-rays of 6.129, 6.915 and 7.115 MeV have been measured for the whole group between 5 and 7.2 MeV with accuracy better than 10%. A new energy range was covered and more points are included in the cross-sections data base expanding the existing set of data. Results are in agreement with previous measurements in similar conditions.

  5. Microwave subsecond pulses in solar flares - source localization, emission mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altyntsev, A. T.; Kardapolova, N. N.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Lesovoi, S. V.; Meshalkina, N. S.; Yan, Y.

    The observations of bursts with fine temporal structures is one of few ways to study the primary energy release sites in solar flares. The localization of their sources in a flare region using the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope data (5.7 GHz) provide us with the unique possibility to determine plasma parameters, and to verify emission mechanisms. The simultaneous spectral observations (5.2 - 7.7 GHz) were provided by National Astronomical Observatorie