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Sample records for high-fat fed rats

  1. [Effect of dietary mineral nutrients and vitamins on metabolism of rat fed with high fat].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liying; Sun, Changhao; Zhou, Xiaorong; Wang, Haiying; Ren, Lina

    2004-07-01

    To explore dietary mineral nutrients (calcium, magnesium, zinc, ferric, chromium) and vitamins (vitamin A, B1, B2, C, D, E) on the effect of metabolic disorder of Wistar rat fed with high fat diet. Fifty obesity-prone male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: A group were fed with basic diet, B group were fed with high fat diet and normal minerals and vitamins, C group were fed with high fat diet with lower minerals and vitamins, D group were fed with high fat diet with higher minerals and vitamins, E group were fed with high fat diet with only higher calcium. After 8 weeks, blood glucose, serum insulin and leptin, serum triglycerides, cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein were measured respectively. The body weight and fat content in B group were significantly higher than those of other groups. The body weight in D, E group decreased significantly compared with B group, both of which are similar with A group. In the case of blood glucose, serum insulin, leptin,triglycerides, cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein, they all have the tendency of decreasing in D group compared with E group. In addition to reducing body weight and fat content, dietary mineral nutrients and vitamins can also ameliorate the blood glucose and improve hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia, modify the metabolic disordor of rat fed with high fat diet.

  2. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Mangge, Harald; Prüller, Florian; Zelzer, Sieglinde; Ainödhofer, Herwig; Pailer, Sabine; Kieslinger, Petra; Haybaeck, Johannes; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Cvirn, Gerhard; Gruber, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66) were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30) and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36) groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3) treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased—and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased—ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition. PMID:26184174

  3. Hypothyroidism Exacerbates Thrombophilia in Female Rats Fed with a High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Mangge, Harald; Prüller, Florian; Zelzer, Sieglinde; Ainödhofer, Herwig; Pailer, Sabine; Kieslinger, Petra; Haybaeck, Johannes; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Cvirn, Gerhard; Gruber, Hans-Jürgen

    2015-07-10

    Clotting abnormalities are discussed both in the context with thyroid dysfunctions and obesity caused by a high fat diet. This study aimed to investigate the impact of hypo-, or hyperthyroidism on the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), a master indicator of clotting activation, on Sprague Dawley rats fed a normal or high fat diet. Female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 66) were grouped into normal diet (ND; n = 30) and high-fat diet (HFD; n = 36) groups and subdivided into controls, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid groups, induced through propylthiouracil or triiodothyronine (T3) treatment, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment ETP, body weight and food intake were analyzed. Successfully induced thyroid dysfunction was shown by T3 levels, both under normal and high fat diet. Thyroid dysfunction was accompanied by changes in calorie intake and body weight. In detail, compared to euthyroid controls, hypothyroid rats showed significantly increased-and hyperthyroid animals significantly decreased-ETP levels. High fat diet potentiated these effects in both directions. In summary, we are the first to show that hypothyroidism and high fat diet potentiate the thrombotic capacity of the clotting system in Sprague Dawley rats. This effect may be relevant for cardiovascular disease where thyroid function is poorly understood as a pathological contributor in the context of clotting activity and obesogenic nutrition.

  4. Effect of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in Wistar rats fed high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee Sun; Park, Hoon Jung

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effects of Chlorella vulgaris on lipid metabolism in rats fed high fat diet. Sixty 6-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; normal diet group and high fat diet group, then the rats in each group were further divided into three subgroups and fed 0%, 5% and 10% (w/w) chlorella-containing diets, respectively, and raised for 9 weeks. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and total protein and albumin concentration were not different among groups. Serum total lipids and liver TG concentration were significantly lower in 5% and 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (p<0.05). Serum TG, serum total cholesterol, liver total lipid and liver total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella group in high fat diet groups (p<0.05). Fecal total lipid, TG and total cholesterol excretions were significantly higher in 5% and 10% chlorella groups than 0% chlorella groups in normal diet and high fat diet groups, respectively (p<0.05). These results suggest that Chlorella vulgaris is effective for prevention of dyslipidemia which may be due to the modulation of lipid metabolism and increased fecal excretion of lipid. PMID:20016720

  5. Adipose tissue chromium and vanadium disbalance in high-fat fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Kwan, Olga V; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the current study is to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content and adipose tissue dysfunction in a model of diet-induced obesity. A total of 26 female Wistar rats were fed either standard or high-fat diet (31.6% of fat from total caloric content) for 3 months. High-fat-feeding resulted in 21 and 33% decrease in adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content, respectively. No change was seen in hair chromium or vanadium levels. Statistical analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of adipose tissue Cr and V with animal morphometric parameters and adipocyte size. Significant inverse dependence was observed between adipose tissue Cr and V and serum leptin and proinflammatory cytokines' levels. At the same time, adipose tissue Cr and V levels were characterized by positive correlation between serum adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Adipose tissue Cr and V were inversely correlated (p<0.05) with insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels. Cr and V concentrations were not correlated with serum glucose in either high-fat fed or control rats; however, both serum glucose and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in high-fat fed, compared to control, rats. The results allow to hypothesize that impairment of adipose tissue Cr and V content plays a certain role in the development of adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction in obesity.

  6. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Popova, Elizaveta V; Gatiatulina, Evgenia R; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Yakovenko, Elena N; Alchinova, Irina B; Karganov, Mikhail Y; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2016-01-01

    Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. A total of 48 adult female Wistar rats were used in the present study. Rats were fed either control (10% of fat) or high fat diet (31.6% of fat). Adipose tissue zinc content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Rats' serum was examined for adiponectin, leptin, insulin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Serum glucose and apolipoprotein spectrum were also evaluated. High fat feeding resulted in a significant 34% decrease in adipose tissue zinc content in comparison to the control values. Fat pad zinc levels were significantly inversely associated with morphometric parameters, circulating leptin, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α levels and HOMA-IR values. At the same time,      a significant correlation with apolipoprotein A1 concentration was observed. Generally, the obtained data indicate that (1) high fat feeding results in decreased adipose tissue zinc content; (2) adipose tissue zinc content is tightly associated with excessive adiposity, inflammation, insulin resistance and potentially atherogenic changes.

  7. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  8. A Krill Oil Supplemented Diet Suppresses Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals. PMID:22685607

  9. Alteration of Loperamide-Induced Prostate Relaxation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Sheng-Lung; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Chen, I-Hung; Tong, Yat-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the change of loperamide-induced prostate relaxation in rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD). Materials and Methods. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups: (1) control rats fed with normal chow and (2) rats fed with HFD for 6 months. The prostate was removed for histology study. Isolated prostate strips were hung in organ bath and precontracted with 1 μmol/L phenylephrine or 50 mmol/L KCl. The relaxation responses to loperamide 0.1 to 10 μmol/L were recorded. Western blotting analyses were performed for prostate μ-opioid receptors (MOR) and ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel proteins: sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) and inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir) 6.2 subunits. Results. Body weight, prostate weight, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol, as well as systolic blood pressure, were significantly increased in the HFD rats. Histology showed prostatic hyperplasia in the HFD rat prostate. Prostatic relaxation induced by loperamide was markedly reduced in HFD when compared to the control. Protein expressions of MOR, SUR, and Kir 6.2 were decreased in HFD-fed rats. Conclusion. Loperamide-induced prostate relaxation is decreased in HFD rats due to reduced MOR and KATP channel expressions. PMID:25506071

  10. Aspirin prevents bone loss with little mechanical improvement in high-fat-fed ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sien; Lee, Wayne Y W; Huang, Meiling; Fu, Ziwei; Liang, Yanlong; Wu, Haiyou; Xu, Liangliang; Suen, Chun Wai; Huang, Jianping; Wu, Tie; Cui, Liao; Li, Gang

    2016-11-15

    Obesity and osteoporosis are often concurrently happened in the menopausal women. Obesity in menopausal women is not only related to a high risk of cardiovascular disease, but also results in a detrimental effect on bone health. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aspirin, a popular anti-thrombosis drug, on bone quantity and quality in the high-fat-fed animal model. Adult female rats were subjected to either sham operations or ovariectomized operations. The ovariectomized rats were orally administered with deionized water or standardized high fat emulsion with or without aspirin. All rats were injected with calcein before killed for the purpose of double in vivo labeling. Biochemistry, histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography analysis, mechanical test, and component analysis were performed after 12 weeks. In vitro cell culture was also performed to observe the effect of aspirin in osteogenesis. We found that high fat remarkably impaired bone formation and bone biomechanics. Aspirin treatment significantly prevented bone loss by increasing bone formation. In vitro studies also validated the enhancement of osteogenic differentiation. However, aspirin presented no significant improvement in bone mechanical properties. Component analysis shown aspirin could significantly increase the content of mineral, but had limited effect on the content of collagen. In conclusion, aspirin is beneficial for the prevention of bone loss; meanwhile, it may cause an imbalance in the components of bone which may weaken the mechanical properties. The current study provided further evidence that aspirin might not be powerful for the prevention of fracture in osteoporotic patients.

  11. Effect of voluntary wheel-running on insulin sensitivity and responsiveness in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Y; Oshida, Y; Li, L; Koshinaka, K; Fuku, N; Yamanouchi, K; Sato, Y

    2001-10-01

    The effect of voluntary wheel-running on insulin resistance was studied in high-fat-fed rats. A sequential hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp procedure was employed (insulin infusion rates: 3 and 30 mU/kg BW/min) in 14 high-fat-fed rats and 7 chow-fed rats under the awake condition. The high-fat-fed rats were further divided into a sedentary (n=7) and a voluntary wheel-running (n=7) groups. Blood glucose was clamped at the fasting level in each rat. Plasma insulin levels during the 3- and 30-mU/kg BW/min insulin infusions were 40-50 and 450-550 microU/ml, respectively. At both 3 and 30 mU/kg BW/min insulin infusions, high-fat-feeding showed a significant decrease in glucose infusion rate (GIR), compared with the chow-fed rats. However, decreased GIRs were restored by the 4-wk wheel-running and reached similar levels as the chow-fed rats. Therefore, it could be concluded that voluntary wheel-running prevents insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding.

  12. Blueberry intervention improves vascular reactivity and lowers blood pressure in high-fat-, high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Ishisaka, Akari; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Vidal-Diez, Alberto; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Terao, Junji

    2013-05-28

    Growing evidence suggests that intake of flavonoid-containing foods may exert cardiovascular benefits in human subjects. We have investigated the effects of a 10-week blueberry (BB) supplementation on blood pressure (BP) and vascular reactivity in rats fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet, known to induce endothelial dysfunction. Rats were randomly assigned to follow a control chow diet, a chow diet supplemented with 2 % (w/w) BB, a high-fat diet (10 % lard; 0·5 % cholesterol) or the high fat plus BB for 10 weeks. Rats supplemented with BB showed significant reductions in systolic BP (SBP) of 11 and 14 %, at weeks 8 and 10, respectively, relative to rats fed the control chow diet (week 8 SBP: 107·5 (SEM 4·7) v. 122·2 (SEM 2·1) mmHg, P= 0·018; week 10 SBP: 115·0 (SEM 3·1) v. 132·7 (SEM 1·5) mmHg, P< 0·0001). Furthermore, SBP was reduced by 14 % in rats fed with the high fat plus 2 % BB diet at week 10, compared to those on the high-fat diet only (SBP: 118·2 (SEM 3·6) v. 139·5 (SEM 4·5) mmHg, P< 0·0001). Aortas harvested from BB-fed animals exhibited significantly reduced contractile responses (to L-phenylephrine) compared to those fed the control chow or high-fat diets. Furthermore, in rats fed with high fat supplemented with BB, aorta relaxation was significantly greater in response to acetylcholine compared to animals fed with the fat diet. These data suggest that BB consumption can lower BP and improve endothelial dysfunction induced by a high fat, high cholesterol containing diet.

  13. Supplementary chromium(III) propionate complex does not protect against insulin resistance in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Król, Ewelina; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Iwanik, Katarzyna

    2014-02-01

    Improper eating habits such as high-fat or high-carbohydrate diets are responsible for metabolic changes resulting in impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and ultimately diabetes. Although the essentiality of trivalent chromium for humans has been recently questioned by researchers, pharmacological dosages of this element can improve insulin sensitivity in experimental animals and diabetic subjects. The aim of the study was to assess the preventive potential of the supplementary chromium(III) propionate complex (CrProp) in rats fed a high-fat diet. The experiment was conducted on 32 male Wistar rats divided into four groups and fed the following diets: the control (C, AIN-93G), high-fat diets (HF, 40% energy from fat), and a high-fat diet supplemented with CrProp at dosages of 10 and 50 mg Cr/kg diet (HF + Cr10 and HF + Cr50, respectively). After 8 weeks, high-fat feeding led to an increased body mass, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, a decreased serum urea concentration, accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatocytes, and increased renal Fe and splenic Cu contents. Supplementary CrProp in both dosages did not alleviate these changes but increased renal Cr content and normalized splenic Cu content in high-fat-fed rats. Supplementary CrProp does not prevent the development of insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  14. Antioxidant effects of fucoxanthin rich powder in rats fed with high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Na, Se Jung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant effect of fucoxanthin. After rats were fed a normal fat diet (NF), high fat diet (HF), and high fat with 0.2% fucoxanthin diet (HF + Fxn) for 4 weeks, the markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity like lipid peroxidation, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and gluthathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were determined. mRNA expression of transcription factor, nuclear erythroid factor like 2 (Nrf2), and its target genes such as NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were also determined. Mean weight gain in the HF + Fxn group was lower, without statistical significance, and the total food intake in the HF + Fxn group was lower than that in the HF group (P < 0.05). The activity of GSH-Px (P < 0.05) in plasma was significantly higher in the HF + Fxn group than those in the HF group (P < 0.05). In the liver, the activities of catalase (P < 0.05) and GSH-Px (P < 0.05) in the HF + Fxn group were significantly higher than those in the HF group. Plasma TAC level was significantly higher in the HF + Fxn group than that in the HF group (P < 0.05). Lipid peroxidation in plasma tended to be lower without statistical significance. Fucoxanthin supplements were shown to have higher mRNA expression of Nrf2 and NQO1 than those in the high fat diet only group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of fucoxanthin improved the antioxidant capacity, depleted by high fat diet, by activating the Nrf2 pathway and its downstream target gene NQO1. Therefore, supplementation of fucoxanthin, especially for those who consume high fat in their diet, may benefit from reduced risk of oxidative stress. PMID:24353833

  15. Raspberry ketone protects rats fed high-fat diets against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Meng, Xianjun; Zhang, Fengqing

    2012-05-01

    The protective effect of raspberry ketone against nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was tested by using a high-fat diet-induced NASH model, and its mechanism was explored. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats with a 1:1 male to female ratio were randomly divided into five groups: the normal control (NC) group (n=8) fed normal diet for 8 weeks, the model control (MC) group (n=8) fed high-fat diet (82% standard diet, 8.3% yolk powder, 9.0% lard, 0.5% cholesterol, and 0.2% sodium taurocholate), and the raspberry ketone low-dose (0.5%) (RKL) group (n=8), the raspberry ketone middle-dose (1%) (RKM) group (n=8), and the raspberry ketone high-dose (2%) (RKH) group (n=8) fed high-fat diet for 4 weeks. After 8 weeks of experiment, all the rats were sacrificed, and blood lipid parameters (total cholesterol [TC], triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]), liver function parameters (serum alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]), leptin (LEP), free fatty acid (FFA), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), blood glucose (GLU), and insulin (INS) with calculated INS resistance index (IRI) and INS-sensitive index (ISI) were measured in rats. Therefore, we determined the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α activity in liver homogenate and the levels of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponection (APN), superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde (MDA). The liver tissues of rats in each group were imaged by electron microscopy with hematoxylin-eosin as the staining agent. The levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, ALP, GLU, INS, IRI, FFA, LEP, TNF-α, MDA, and hs-CRP of MC rats were significantly increased (P<.05, P<.01). Therefore, the levels of HDL-C, ISI, PPAR-α, LDLR, and APN were significantly decreased (P<.05, P<.01). Compared with the MC group, each parameter in the RKL, RKM, and RKH groups was

  16. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Jung; Choi, Deok Ho; Cho, Guk Hyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-08-06

    Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL) seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). EAL-I (100 mg·kg-1/day), EAL-II (200 mg·kg-1/day), and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg-1/day) groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation.

  17. Arctium lappa ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with high fat/cholesterol diets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), burdock, is a medicinal plant that is popularly used for treating hypertension, gout, hepatitis, and other inflammatory disorders. This study was performed to test the effect of ethanol extract of Arctium lappa L. (EAL) seeds on vascular reactivity and inflammatory factors in rats fed a high fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). Method EAL-I (100 mg·kg−1/day), EAL-II (200 mg·kg−1/day), and fluvastatin (3 mg·kg−1/day) groups initially received HFCD alone for 8 weeks, with EAL supplementation provided during the final 6 weeks. Results Treatment with low or high doses of EAL markedly attenuated plasma levels of triglycerides and augmented plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL markedly reduced impairments of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation of aortic rings. Furthermore, chronic treatment with EAL significantly lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) and maintained smooth and flexible intimal endothelial layers in HFCD-fed rats. Chronic treatment with EAL suppressed upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, and E-selectin in the aorta. Chronic treatment with EAL also suppressed increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 expression. These results suggested that EAL can inhibit HFCD-induced vascular inflammation in the rat model. Conclusion The present study provides evidence that EAL ameliorates HFCD-induced vascular dysfunction through protection of vascular relaxation and suppression of vascular inflammation. PMID:22866890

  18. Dissociation between PGC-1alpha and GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Higashida, Kazuhiko; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Terada, Shin

    2009-12-01

    It has recently been reported that a 4-wk high-fat diet gradually increases skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) protein content, which has been suggested to regulate GLUT-4 gene transcription. However, it has not been reported that a high-fat diet enhances GLUT-4 mRNA expression and protein content in skeletal muscle, suggesting that an increase in PGC-1alpha protein content is not sufficient to induce muscle GLUT-4 biogenesis in a high-fat fed animal. Therefore, we first evaluated the relationship between PGC-1alpha and GLUT-4 expression in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet for 4 wk. The PGC-1alpha protein content in rat epitrochlearis muscle significantly increased by twofold after the 4-wk high-fat diet feeding. However, the high-fat diet had no effect on GLUT-4 protein content and induced a 30% decrease in GLUT-4 mRNA expression in rat skeletal muscle (p<0.05). To clarify the mechanism by which a high-fat diet downregulates GLUT-4 mRNA expression, we next examined the effect of PPARdelta activation, which is known to occur in response to a high-fat diet, on GLUT-4 mRNA expression in L6 myotubes. Incubation with 500 nM GW501516 (PPARdelta activator) for 24 h significantly decreased GLUT-4 mRNA in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings suggest that a high-fat diet downregulates GLUT-4 mRNA, possibly through the activation of PPARdelta, despite an increase in PGC-1alpha protein content in rat skeletal muscle, and that a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism maintains GLUT-4 protein content in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high-fat diet.

  19. Lipoprotein lipase activity and chylomicron clearance in rats fed a high fat diet

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.M.; Layman, D.K.

    1988-11-01

    The relationships of tissue and plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities to tissue uptake and plasma clearance of UC-labeled chylomicron-triglyceride ( UC-CM-TG) were studied in female rats fed isoenergetic and isonitrogenous control (12% kJ from fat) or high fat diets (72% kJ from fat) for 8 wk. Animals fed the high-fat diet had higher levels of fasting plasma triglycerides and lower LPL activities in heart, renal adipose tissue and post-heparin plasma. Changes in LPL activities of skeletal muscles varied among muscles with higher values in the soleus and plantaris (32-61%) and no differences in the gastrocnemius. The lower LPL activity in renal adipose tissue was associated with lower uptake of fatty acids from UC-CM-TG by adipose. Fatty-acid uptake from labeled TG was not associated with tissue LPL activity in other tissues. Clearance of UC-CM-TG from plasma and the half-lives of UC-CM-TG were similar in both dietary groups. These data indicate that tissue and plasma LPL activities are not a direct index of uptake of fatty acids by tissues or clearance of chylomicron triglycerides.

  20. Effect of fruit vinegars on liver damage and oxidative stress in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Bouazza, Asma; Bitam, Arezki; Amiali, Malek; Bounihi, Abdenour; Yargui, Lyece; Koceir, Elhadj Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Vinegar has long been used as a condiment and a traditional medicine worldwide. The current study investigates the antioxidant effect of three types of fruit vinegars (FV) namely pomegranate [Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)], prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae)], and apple [Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae)] vinegars in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic Wistar rats. Fifty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups; HFD (80 cal/d) fed rats were orally dosed with fruit vinegars (7 ml/kg) once daily for 28 weeks. At the end of the experiment, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation products, antioxidant enzymes, and trace elements were assessed in serum. In addition, a liver histopathological study was performed. HFD showed a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in lipid profile and TBARS levels when compared with normal control. Daily oral administration of FV normalized various biochemical, metabolic, and histopathological changes. However, pomegranate vinegar exhibited a very significant (p ≤ 0.001) reduction in lipid profile levels (total cholesterol: 165%, triglycerides: 68%, LDL-c: 76%, and atherogenic index: 80%), whereas an increase in antioxidant status (SOD: 7-fold, GPx: 4.81-fold, GRx: 1.66-fold, and TAS: 3.45-fold) when compared with hyperlipidemic control. Histopathological examinations also confirmed the protective effects of pomegranate vinegar against lipid accumulation and the improvement of hepatic lesions. The fruit vinegars regulate lipid metabolism and decrease liver damage in high-fat fed rats as shown in this study.

  1. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen B; Kennelly, John P; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J; Jacobs, René L

    2016-09-23

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  2. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen B.; Kennelly, John P.; Ordonez, Marta; Nelson, Randal; Leonard, Kelly; Stabler, Sally; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio; Field, Catherine J.; Jacobs, René L.

    2016-01-01

    Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA) intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA) intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF) diet or 60% energy high fat (HF) diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05). Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA) fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA) fed rats (p < 0.05). In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet. PMID:27669293

  3. Chronic mild stress induces variations in locomotive behavior and metabolic rates in high fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    García-Díaz, D F; Campion, J; Milagro, F I; Lomba, A; Marzo, F; Martínez, J A

    2007-12-01

    Chronic mild stress (CMS) has been often associated to the pathogenesis of many diseases including obesity. Indeed, visceral obesity has been linked to the development of metabolic syndrome features and constitutes a serious risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. In order to study possible mechanistic relationships between stress and the onset of obesity, we developed during 11 weeks a model of high-fat dietary intake (cafeteria diet) together with a CMS regimen in male Wistar rats. During the experimental period, basal metabolism by indirect calorimetry, rectal temperature, food intake, and locomotive markers were specifically analyzed. After 77 days, animals were sacrificed and body, adiposity and plasma biochemical profiles were also examined. As expected, cafeteria diet in unstressed animals induced a significative increase in body weight, adiposity, and insulin resistance markers. Locomotive variables, specifically distance, rearing and meander, were significantly increased by CMS on the first weeks of stress. Moreover, this model of CMS in Wistar rats increased significantly energy expenditure, and apparently interplayed with the dietary treatment on the muscle weight/fat weight ratio. In summary, this chronic stress model did not affected weight gain in control and high fat fed animals, but induced an interaction concerning the metabolic muscle/fat repartitioning.

  4. Tocotrienols Reverse Cardiovascular, Metabolic and Liver Changes in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Weng-Yew; Poudyal, Hemant; Ward, Leigh C.; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Tocotrienols have been reported to improve lipid profiles, reduce atherosclerotic lesions, decrease blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin concentrations, normalise blood pressure in vivo and inhibit adipogenesis in vitro, yet their role in the metabolic syndrome has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic, cardiovascular and liver dysfunction in rats. Rats fed a high carbohydrate, high fat diet for 16 weeks developed abdominal obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance with increased ventricular stiffness, lower systolic function and reduced liver function. TRF treatment improved ventricular function, attenuated cardiac stiffness and hypertension, and improved glucose and insulin tolerance, with reduced left ventricular collagen deposition and inflammatory cell infiltration. TRF improved liver structure and function with reduced plasma liver enzymes, inflammatory cell infiltration, fat vacuoles and balloon hepatocytes. TRF reduced plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride concentrations but only omental fat deposition was decreased in the abdomen. These results suggest that tocotrienols protect the heart and liver, and improve plasma glucose and lipid profiles with minimal changes in abdominal obesity in this model of human metabolic syndrome. PMID:23201770

  5. Spent turmeric reduces fat mass in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kinoshita, Mikio; Oh, Chan-Ho; Shimada, Ken-ichiro; Fukushima, Michihiro

    2016-04-01

    Indigestible carbohydrates may improve obesity. Spent turmeric contains high levels of dietary fibre and resistant starch (RS), which have fermentation potential in vitro. We hypothesised that indigestible carbohydrates in spent turmeric might prevent obesity development. In the first study, rats were administered 10% turmeric powder (TP) or spent turmeric powder (STP) in a high-fat (HF) diet for 28 d. In the second study, rats were fed 10% STP in a HF diet with or without antibiotics for 15 d. In the third study, rats were treated with a STP-containing suspension. In study 1, the TP and STP diet increased the caecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) content compared to that of a control diet. The lower energy intake in the TP and STP group was strongly related to the decrease in visceral fat weight. In study 2, after caecal fermentation suppression with antibiotics, STP treatment decreased the visceral fat mass. In study 3, the plasma glucose levels and incremental area under the curve (AUC) after ingestion of a STP-containing suspension were lower than those after ingestion of suspension alone. These findings suggest the reduction of carbohydrate absorption during the gastrointestinal passage after TP and STP treatment. Our data indicate that the reduced obesity development in rats fed a HF diet may be attributed to the low metabolisable energy density of carbohydrates in the spent turmeric, independent of SCFA-mediated factors.

  6. Physicochemical characteristics of rapidly dried onion powder and its anti-atherogenic effect on rats fed high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hamauzu, Yasunori; Nosaka, Toshiya; Ito, Fuyu; Suzuki, Takanori; Torisu, Shuichi; Hashida, Miyoko; Fukuzawa, Akira; Ohguchi, Masakatsu; Yamanaka, Shigeru

    2011-12-01

    Rapidly dried onion (Allium cepa L. cv. Momiji No. 3) powder (OP) prepared from the outer layers (from second to fourth scale leaves from the surface) of onion bulbs was analysed for its quercetin and polyuronide contents, the effects of enzymatic treatment and the anti-atherogenic effect on rats fed a high-fat diet. Quercetin 4'-glucoside (50%), free quercetin (30%) and quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside (20%) were identified as quercetin derivatives, and boiling-water extraction was effective in extracting these compounds. OP contained 12.9% of polyuronides, the basic skeleton of pectin. Enzymatic degradation (cellulase and pectinase, 50°C for 12h, pH 6.0) of OP was effective in obtaining a slurry of smaller particle sizes. The free quercetin increased and the glucosides decreased with enzyme treatment. In Wistar rats fed an OP-added high-fat diet, the total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were not significantly different from the rats fed a high-fat diet without OP. However, the atherogenic index (AI) of Wistar rats fed an OP-added high-fat diet was lower (AI=3.3) than rats fed the diet without OP (AI=4.1). The incremental elastic modulus (IEM) of the aorta from rats fed the OP-added diet was also significantly lower than that of the rats fed the diet without OP. The AI and IEM values of the rats fed the OP-added diet were quite similar to the values of rats fed the diet without OP but were allowed spontaneous exercise. These results suggest that OP intake is effective for decreasing the risk of arteriosclerosis.

  7. Cocos nucifera water improves metabolic functions in offspring of high fat diet fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kunle-Alabi, Olufadekemi T; Akindele, Opeyemi O; Raji, Yinusa

    2017-10-09

    Maternal high fat diet has been implicated in the aetiology of metabolic diseases in their offspring. The hypolipidaemic actions of Cocos nucifera water improve metabolic indices of dams consuming a high fat diet during gestation. This study investigated the effects of C. nucifera water on metabolism of offspring of dams exposed to high fat diet during gestation. Four groups of pregnant Wistar rat dams (n=6) were treated orally from Gestation Day (GD) 1 to GD 21 as follows: standard rodent feed+10 mL/kg distilled water (Control), standard rodent feed+10 mL/kg C. nucifera water, high fat feed+10 mL/kg distilled water (high fat diet), and high fat feed+10 mL/kg C. nucifera water (high fat diet+C. nucifera water). The feeds were given ad libitum and all dams received standard rodent feed after parturition. Fasting blood glucose was measured in offspring before being euthanized on Postnatal Day (PND) 120. Serum insulin, leptin, lipid profile and liver enzymes were measured. Serum total cholesterol (TC), insulin, alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly increased (p<0.05) in high fat diet offspring compared with controls. Similar changes were not observed in high fat diet+C. nucifera water offspring. Results suggest that the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring's metabolism can be ameliorated by C. nucifera water.

  8. Effects of lipoic acid on AMPK and adiponectin in adipose tissue of low- and high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Hontoria, Pedro L; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Fernández-Galilea, Marta; Alfredo Martínez, J; Moreno-Aliaga, María J

    2013-03-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) is an antioxidant with antiobesity and antidiabetic properties. Adiponectin is an adipokine with potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key enzyme involved in cellular energy homeostasis. Activation of AMPK has been considered as a target to reverse the metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of LA on AMPK phosphorylation and adiponectin production in adipose tissue of low-fat (control diet) and high-fat diet-fed rats. Dietary supplementation with LA reduced body weight and adiposity in control and high-fat-fed rats. LA also reduced basal hyperinsulinemia as well as the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) levels, an index of insulin resistance, in high-fat-fed rats, which was in part independent of their food intake lowering actions. Furthermore, AMPK phosphorylation was increased in white adipose tissue (WAT) from LA-treated rats as compared with pair-fed animals. Dietary supplementation with LA also upregulated adiponectin gene expression in WAT, while a negative correlation between adiposity-corrected adiponectin levels and HOMA index was found. Our present data suggest that the ability of LA supplementation to prevent insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats might be related in part to the stimulation of AMPK and adiponectin in WAT.

  9. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  10. Ginger extract and aerobic training reduces lipid profile in high-fat fed diet rats.

    PubMed

    Khosravani, M; Azarbayjani, M A; Abolmaesoomi, M; Yusof, A; Zainal Abidin, N; Rahimi, E; Feizolahi, F; Akbari, M; Seyedjalali, S; Dehghan, F

    2016-04-01

    Obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, are major risk factors. However, natural therapies, dietary components, and physical activity may effect on these concerns. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise and consumption of liquid ginger extract on lipid profile of Male rats with a high-fat fed diet. 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) aerobic exercise, 2) Ginger extract, 3) combined aerobic exercise and Ginger extract, and 4) the control. Subjects of the first three groups received ginger extract via gavage feeding of 250 mg/kg. The exercise program was 3 sessions per week on 3 different days over 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), HDL and LDL were measured 24-h before the first session and 24-h after the final training session. The concentration of TG in the control group was significantly higher than other groups. In addition, the mean concentration of TG in the aerobic exercise group was significantly lower than Ginger extract group but there was no significant difference as compared to combined aerobic exercise and ginger extract group. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger consumption significantly reduced the TG level compared to ginger group. TC and LDL concentrations were significantly decreased in all groups compare to control. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger extract feeding caused a significant increase in HDL levels. The finding of this study suggests that the combination of aerobic exercise and liquid ginger extract consumption might be an effective method of reducing lipid profiles, which will reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases caused by high-fat diets.

  11. Effects of herbal mixture extracts on obesity in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chien, Mei-Yin; Ku, Yu-Hua; Chang, Jin-Ming; Yang, Chih-Min; Chen, Chao-Hsiang

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of three herbal mixture extracts on obesity induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. The prescriptions-Pericarpium citri reticulatae and Fructus crataegi-were used as matrix components and mixed with Ampelopsis grossedentata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to form T1, T2, and T3 complexes, respectively. Results revealed that HFD feeding significantly increased body weight gain, fat deposition, plasma lipid profiles, hepatic lipid accumulation, and hepatic vacuoles formation, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin in rats. Only the T1 complex showed the tendency, although not significantly so, for decreased HFD-induced body weight gain. T1 and T3 complexes significantly reduced HFD-induced fat deposition, and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Only the T1 complex significantly increased HFD-reduced adiponectin levels in plasma, but decreased HFD-increased triglyceride content in liver tissues. All complexes effectively inhibited HFD-induced vacuoles formation. The content of dihydromyricetin, salvianolic acid B, and EGCG in T1, T2, and T3 complexes was 18.25 ± 0.07%, 22.20 ± 0.10%, and 18.86 ± 0.04%, respectively. In summary, we demonstrated that herbal mixture extracts, especially T1 complex, exhibit antiobesity activity in HFD-fed rats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Efficacy of Garcinia Cambogia on Body Weight, Inflammation and Glucose Tolerance in High Fat Fed Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. Results: High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-α. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-α level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Conclusion: Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance. PMID:25859449

  13. Efficacy of garcinia cambogia on body weight, inflammation and glucose tolerance in high fat fed male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sripradha, Ramalingam; Magadi, Sridhar Gopalakrishna

    2015-02-01

    Obesity leads to derangements in lipid and glucose homeostasis resulting in various metabolic complications. Plants containing vital phytochemicals are known to posses anti obesity properties and have proved to exert beneficial effects in obesity. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Garcinia Cambogia on body weight, glucose tolerance and inflammation in high fat diet fed male Wistar rats. Five month old male wistar rats (n=40) were divided into four groups. Two groups were fed with standard rodent diet and the remaining two with 30% high fat diet. One group in each of the two sets received the crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia Cambogia at a dose of 400mg/kg body weight/day for ten weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and renal function (urea, creatinine, uric acid) were studied. High fat diet fed rats showed increased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, elevated levels of plasma leptin and TNF-α. Supplementation of Garcinia Cambogia extract (GE) along with high fat diet significantly decreased body weight gain, glucose intolerance, plasma leptin and TNF-α level. No significant changes were observed in the renal function parameters in any of the groups. Supplementation of the Garcinia Cambogia extract with high fat diet reduced body weight gain, inflammation and glucose intolerance.

  14. Neuroprotective effect of Sapucaia nuts (Lecythis pisonis)on rats fed with high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Vidal Martins, Marcos; Montezano de Carvalho, Izabela Maria; Magalhães Caetano, Mônica Maria; Lopes Toledo, Renata Celi; Avelar Xavier, Antônio; De Queiroz, José Humberto

    2016-11-29

    Lecythis pisonis Cambess is commonly known as "castanha de sapucaia" in Brazil. Chemical composition studies revealed that this nut is an excellent source of anti-oxidant minerals and of essential lipids. The aim of the present study is to assess the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of Lecythis pisonis Cambess on the brain tissue of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in four experimental groups (n = 6), total of forty-eight rats. Treatments included the standard diet (AIN-93G) and high-fat food, supplemented with Sapucaianut from 14 to 28 days. The gene expression markers TNF-α, NFkB, ZnSOD and HSP-72 were defined through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR). The anti-oxidant effect was assessed through the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and the measurement of the activity performed by superoxide dismutase enzymes. Accordingly, the gene expression of the inflammatory markers NFkB (p65) and TNF-αwas lower in rats fed on diets supplemented with "sapucaia", and they presented significant difference in the Tukey test (p < 0.05). The heat-shock HSP-72 protein and the ZnSOD enzyme raised the gene expression and showed significant statistical difference (p < 0.05) in both groups fed on Sapucaia nut-based diet. Thus, the nutritional properties of the Sapucaia nuts perform important neuroprotective activities because they modulated the anti-oxidant activity and the brain tissue inflammatory process in the assessed animals.

  15. Inulin oligofructose attenuates metabolic syndrome in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Senthil A; Ward, Leigh C; Brown, Lindsay

    2016-11-01

    Prebiotics alter bacterial content in the colon, and therefore could be useful for obesity management. We investigated the changes following addition of inulin oligofructose (IO) in the food of rats fed either a corn starch (C) diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet as a model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. IO did not affect food intake, but reduced body weight gain by 5·3 and 12·3 % in corn starch+inulin oligofructose (CIO) and high-carbohydrate, high-fat with inulin oligofructose (HIO) rats, respectively. IO reduced plasma concentrations of free fatty acids by 26·2 % and TAG by 75·8 % in HIO rats. IO increased faecal output by 93·2 %, faecal lipid excretion by 37·9 % and weight of caecum by 23·4 % and colon by 41·5 % in HIO rats. IO improved ileal morphology by reducing inflammation and improving the density of crypt cells in HIO rats. IO attenuated H diet-induced increases in abdominal fat pads (C 275 (sem 19), CIO 264 (sem 40), H 688 (sem 55), HIO 419 (sem 32) mg/mm tibial length), fasting blood glucose concentrations (C 4·5 (sem 0·1), CIO 4·2 (sem 0·1), H 5·2 (sem 0·1), HIO 4·3 (sem 0·1) mmol/l), systolic blood pressure (C 124 (sem 2), CIO 118 (sem 2), H 152 (sem 2), HIO 123 (sem 3) mmHg), left ventricular diastolic stiffness (C 22·9 (sem 0·6), CIO 22·9 (sem 0·5), H 27·8 (sem 0·5), HIO 22·6 (sem 1·2)) and plasma alanine transaminase (C 29·6 (sem 2·8), CIO 32·1 (sem 3·0), H 43·9 (sem 2·6), HIO 33·6 (sem 2·0) U/l). IO attenuated H-induced increases in inflammatory cell infiltration in the heart and liver, lipid droplets in the liver and plasma lipids as well as impaired glucose and insulin tolerance. These results suggest that increasing soluble fibre intake with IO improves signs of the metabolic syndrome by decreasing gastrointestinal carbohydrate and lipid uptake.

  16. Effects of α-lipoic acid on endothelial function in aged diabetic and high-fat fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Sena, C M; Nunes, E; Louro, T; Proença, T; Fernandes, R; Boarder, M R; Seiça, R M

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of α-lipoic acid (α-LA) on endothelial function in diabetic and high-fat fed animal models and elucidate the potential mechanism underlying the benefits of α-LA. Experimental approach: Plasma metabolites reflecting glucose and lipid metabolism, endothelial function, urinary albumin excretion (UAE), plasma and aortic malondialdehyde (MDA) and urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were assessed in non-diabetic controls (Wistar rats), untreated Goto-Kakizaki (GK) diabetic and high-fat fed GK rats (fed with atherogenic diet only, treated with α-LA and treated with vehicle, for 3 months). Vascular eNOS, nitrotyrosine, carbonyl groups and superoxide anion were also assessed in the different groups. Key results: α-LA and soybean oil significantly reduced both total and non-HDL serum cholesterol and triglycerides induced by atherogenic diet. MDA, carbonyl groups, vascular superoxide and 8-OHdG levels were higher in GK and high-fat fed GK groups and fully reversed with α-LA treatment. High-fat fed GK diabetic rats showed significantly reduced endothelial function and increased UAE, effects ameliorated with α-LA. This endothelial dysfunction was associated with decreased NO production, decreased expression of eNOS and increased vascular superoxide production and nitrotyrosine expression. Conclusions and implications: α-LA restores endothelial function and significantly improves systemic and local oxidative stress in high-fat fed GK diabetic rats. Improved endothelial function due to α-LA was at least partially attributed to recoupling of eNOS and increased NO bioavailability and represents a pharmacological approach to prevent major complications associated with type 2 diabetes. PMID:17906683

  17. High fat diet-fed obese rats are highly sensitive to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-09-15

    Often, chemotherapy by doxorubicin (Adriamycin) is limited due to life threatening cardiotoxicity in patients during and posttherapy. Recently, we have shown that moderate diet restriction remarkably protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. This cardioprotection is accompanied by decreased cardiac oxidative stress and triglycerides and increased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and upregulated JAK/STAT3 pathway. In the current study, we investigated whether a physiological intervention by feeding 40% high fat diet (HFD), which induces obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g), sensitizes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. A LD{sub 10} dose (8 mg doxorubicin/kg, ip) administered on day 43 of the HFD feeding regimen led to higher cardiotoxicity, cardiac dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and 80% mortality in the obese (OB) rats in the absence of any significant renal or hepatic toxicity. Doxorubicin toxicokinetics studies revealed no change in accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the normal diet-fed (ND) and OB hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that OB rats are sensitized due to: (1) higher oxyradical stress leading to upregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) downregulation of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-{alpha}, (3) decreased plasma adiponectin levels, (4) decreased cardiac fatty-acid oxidation (666.9 {+-} 14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ND versus 400.2 {+-} 11.8 nmol/min/g heart in OB), (5) decreased mitochondrial AMP-{alpha}2 protein kinase, and (6) 86% drop in cardiac ATP levels accompanied by decreased ATP/ADP ratio after doxorubicin administration. Decreased cardiac erythropoietin and increased SOCS3 further downregulated the cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. In conclusion, HFD-induced obese rats are highly sensitized to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by substantially downregulating cardiac mitochondrial ATP generation, increasing oxidative stress and downregulating

  18. Predictive blood glucose lowering efficacy by Glucokinase activators in high fat fed female Zucker rats

    PubMed Central

    Coope, G J; Atkinson, A M; Allott, C; McKerrecher, D; Johnstone, C; Pike, K G; Holme, P C; Vertigan, H; Gill, D; Coghlan, M P; Leighton, B

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Glucokinase (GK) is the rate-limiting enzyme of hepatic glucose metabolism and acts as a sensor for glucose-stimulated insulin release in β-cells. Here we examine whether the lowering of blood glucose levels in the rat by small molecule glucokinase activators (GKAs) can be predicted from in vitro enzyme potencies and plasma compound exposure. Experimental approach: We developed an insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic animal model, the high fat fed female Zucker (fa/fa) rat (HFFZ), and measured the acute in vivo glucose-lowering efficacy of a number of GKAs in an oral glucose tolerance test. Key results: Four GKAs (at 1 to 30 mg kg−1), with different in vitro enzyme potencies, dose-dependently improved oral glucose tolerance in HFFZ rats (10–40% decrease glucose area under the curve (AUC) from vehicle control). The extent of glucose lowering, or the pharmacodynamic (PD) effect, of a GKA was directly related to the total compound concentration in the plasma; the pharmacokinetic (PK) measurement. This PK-PD relationship was extended across a series of GKAs by accounting for differences in protein binding and in the in vitro potency. Conclusions and implications: When the unbound GKA compound level is greater than the in vitro enzyme potency there was significant blood glucose lowering in vivo. This latter relationship was upheld in non-diabetic Wistar rats orally dosed with a GKA. The robust and predictive nature of the PK-PD relationship for GKAs may prove of value in testing these agents in early human clinical studies. PMID:16921397

  19. Cinnamon Polyphenol Extract Inhibits Hyperlipidemia and Inflammation by Modulation of Transcription Factors in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tuzcu, Zeynep; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Juturu, Vijaya

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of cinnamon polyphenol extract on hepatic transcription factors expressions including SREBP-1c and LXR-α in rats fed high fat diet (HFD). Twenty-eight Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: (i) normal control: animals fed with normal chow; (ii) cinnamon: animals supplemented with cinnamon polyphenol; (iii) HFD: animals fed a high-fat diet; and (iv) HFD + cinnamon: animals fed a high-fat diet and treated with cinnamon polyphenol. Obesity was linked to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress as imitated by elevated serum glucose, lipid profile, and serum and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Cinnamon polyphenol decreased body weight, visceral fat, liver weight and serum glucose and insulin concentrations, liver antioxidant enzymes, and lipid profile (P < 0.05) and reduced serum and liver MDA concentration compared to HFD rats (P < 0.05). Cinnamon polyphenol also suppressed the hepatic SREBP-1c, LXR-α, ACLY, FAS, and NF-κB p65 expressions and enhanced the PPAR-α, IRS-1, Nrf2, and HO-1 expressions in the HFD rat livers (P < 0.05). In conclusion, cinnamon polyphenol reduces the hyperlipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress through activating transcription factors and antioxidative defense signaling pathway in HFD rat liver. PMID:28396714

  20. Cinnamon Polyphenol Extract Inhibits Hyperlipidemia and Inflammation by Modulation of Transcription Factors in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Tuzcu, Zeynep; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Juturu, Vijaya; Sahin, Kazim

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of cinnamon polyphenol extract on hepatic transcription factors expressions including SREBP-1c and LXR-α in rats fed high fat diet (HFD). Twenty-eight Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: (i) normal control: animals fed with normal chow; (ii) cinnamon: animals supplemented with cinnamon polyphenol; (iii) HFD: animals fed a high-fat diet; and (iv) HFD + cinnamon: animals fed a high-fat diet and treated with cinnamon polyphenol. Obesity was linked to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress as imitated by elevated serum glucose, lipid profile, and serum and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Cinnamon polyphenol decreased body weight, visceral fat, liver weight and serum glucose and insulin concentrations, liver antioxidant enzymes, and lipid profile (P < 0.05) and reduced serum and liver MDA concentration compared to HFD rats (P < 0.05). Cinnamon polyphenol also suppressed the hepatic SREBP-1c, LXR-α, ACLY, FAS, and NF-κB p65 expressions and enhanced the PPAR-α, IRS-1, Nrf2, and HO-1 expressions in the HFD rat livers (P < 0.05). In conclusion, cinnamon polyphenol reduces the hyperlipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress through activating transcription factors and antioxidative defense signaling pathway in HFD rat liver.

  1. Adipocytes play an etiological role in the podocytopathy of high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinn-Yang; Jian, Deng-Yuan; Lien, Chih-Chan; Lin, Yu-Ting; Ting, Ching-Heng; Chen, Luen-Kui; Hsu, Ting-Chia; Huang, Hsuan-Min; Wu, Yu-Ting; Kuan, Tse-Ting; Chao, Yu-Wen; Wu, Liang-Yi; Huang, Seng-Wong; Juan, Chi-Chang

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a risk factor that promotes progressive kidney disease. Studies have shown that an adipocytokine imbalance contributes to impaired renal function in humans and animals, but the underlying interplay between adipocytokines and renal injury remains to be elucidated. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms linking obesity to chronic kidney disease. We assessed renal function in high-fat (HF) diet-fed and normal diet-fed rats, and the effects of preadipocyte- and adipocyte-conditioned medium on cultured podocytes. HF diet-fed and normal diet-fed Sprague Dawley rats were used to analyze the changes in plasma BUN, creatinine, urine protein and renal histology. Additionally, podocytes were incubated with preadipocyte- or adipocyte-conditioned medium to investigate the effects on podocyte morphology and protein expression. In the HF diet group, 24 h urinary protein excretion (357.5 ± 64.2 mg/day vs 115.9 ± 12.4 mg/day, P < 0.05) and the urine protein/creatinine ratio were significantly higher (1.76 ± 0.22 vs 1.09 ± 0.15, P < 0.05), increased kidney weight (3.54 ± 0.04 g vs 3.38 ± 0.04 g, P < 0.05) and the glomerular volume and podocyte effacement increased by electron microscopy. Increased renal expression of desmin and decreased renal expression of CD2AP and nephrin were also seen in the HF diet group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, we found that adipocyte-conditioned medium-treated podocytes showed increased desmin expression and decreased CD2AP and nephrin expression compared with that in preadipocyte-conditioned medium-treated controls (P < 0.05). These findings show that adipocyte-derived factor(s) can modulate renal function. Adipocyte-derived factors play an important role in obesity-related podocytopathy. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  2. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) reduces adiposity, lowers serum insulin and normalizes glucose tolerance in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qixuan; Chan, Laureen L Y; Li, Edmund T S

    2003-04-01

    Bitter melon (BM) is known for its hypoglycemic effect but its effect on rats fed a hyperinsulinemic high fat diet has not been examined. In a dose-response (0.375, 0.75 and 1.5%) study, oral glucose tolerance was improved in rats fed a high fat (HF; 30%) diet supplemented with freeze-dried BM juice at a dose of 0.75% or higher (P < 0.05). At the highest dose, BM-supplemented rats had lower energy efficiency (P < 0.05) and tended (P = 0.10) to have less visceral fat mass. In a subsequent experiment, rats habitually fed a HF diet either continued to consume the diet or were switched to a HF+BM, low fat (LF; 7%) or LF+BM diet for 7 wk. BM was added at 0.75%. Final body weight and visceral fat mass of the two last-mentioned groups were similar to those of rats fed a LF diet for the entire duration. Rats switched to the HF+BM diet gained less weight and had less visceral fat than those fed the HF diet (P < 0.05). The addition of BM did not change apparent fat absorption. BM supplementation to the HF diet improved insulin resistance, lowered serum insulin and leptin but raised serum free fatty acid concentration (P < 0.05). This study reveals for the first time that BM reduces adiposity in rats fed a HF diet. BM appears to have multiple influences on glucose and lipid metabolism that strongly counteract the untoward effects of a high fat diet.

  3. Melatonin effect on plasma adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol in normal and high fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Lugo, María J; Cano, Pilar; Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Fernández-Mateos, María P; Scacchi, Pablo A; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2010-11-01

    Melatonin effect on body weight progression, mean levels and 24-hr pattern of circulating adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were examined in rats fed a normal or a high-fat diet. In experiment 1, rats fed a normal diet were divided into two groups: receiving melatonin (25 μg/mL drinking water) or vehicle for 9 wk. In experiment 2, animals were divided into three groups: two fed with a high-fat diet (35% fat) and melatonin (25 μg/mL) or vehicle in drinking water for 11 wk, while a third group was given a normal diet (4% fat). At the end of experiments, groups of eight rats were killed at six different time intervals throughout a 24-hr period. Melatonin administration for 9 wk decreased body weight gain from the 3rd wk on without affecting food intake. A significant reduction in circulating insulin, glucose and triglyceride mean levels and disrupted daily patterns of plasma adiponectin, leptin and insulin were observed after melatonin. In high fat-fed rats, melatonin attenuated body weight increase, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, as well as the increase in mean plasma adiponectin, leptin, triglycerides and cholesterol levels. The high-fat diet disrupted normal 24-hr patterns of circulating adiponectin, insulin and cholesterol, the effects on insulin and cholesterol being counteracted by melatonin. Nocturnal plasma melatonin concentration in control and obese rats receiving melatonin for 11 wk attained values 21-24-fold greater than controls. The results indicate that melatonin counteracts some of the disrupting effects of diet-induced obesity in rats. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Pineal Research © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Basis of aggravated hepatic lipid metabolism by chronic stress in high-fat diet-fed rat.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Lin, Min; Wang, Xiaobin; Guo, Keke; Wang, Shanshan; Sun, Mengfei; Wang, Jiao; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Hu, Yang; Fu, Jihua

    2015-03-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that long-term stress, known as chronic stress (CS), can aggravate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat. In this study, we tried to figure out which lipid metabolic pathways were impacted by CS in the HFD-fed rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age, n = 8 per group) were fed with either standard diet or HFD with or without CS exposure for 8 weeks. Hepatic lipidosis, biochemical, hormonal, and lipid profile markers in serum and liver, and enzymes involved in de novo lipogenesis (DNL) of fatty acids (FAs) and cholesterol, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, triglycerides synthesis, and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly in the liver were detected. CS exposure reduced hepatic lipidosis but further elevated hepatic VLDL content with aggravated dyslipidemia in the HFD-fed rats. There was a synergism between CS and HFD on VLDL production and dyslipidemia. PCR and western blot assays showed that CS exposure significantly promoted hepatic VLDL assembly in rats, especially in the HFD-fed rats, while it had little impact on DNL, β-oxidation, FAs uptake, and triglycerides synthesis in the HFD-fed rats. This phenomenon was in accordance with elevated serum glucocorticoid level. The critical influence of CS exposure on hepatic lipid metabolism in the HFD-fed rats is VLDL assembly which might be regulated by glucocorticoid.

  5. Effects of konjac glucomannan on putative risk factors for colon carcinogenesis in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Tzu; Chen, Hsiao-Ling

    2011-02-09

    The aim of this study was to determine effects of konjac glucomannan (KGM) in a high fat corn oil diet on risk factors of colon carcinogenesis, that is, fecal β-glucuronidase, mucinase, and bile acids, and on preventive factors, that is, fecal microflora and cecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8 animals per group) were fed a normal-fat fiber-free (5% corn oil, w/w) or high-fat (25% corn oil, w/w) diet containing no fiber, KGM (5%, w/w), or inulin (5%, w/w, as a prebiotic control) for 4 weeks. Results indicated that the high-fat fiber-free diet significantly elevated the fecal β-glucuronidase and mucinase activities and total bile acid concentration and decreased cecal SCFA contents, as compared with its normal-fat counterpart. The incorporation of KGM, as well as inulin, into the high-fat fiber-free diet beneficially reduced the fecal β-glucuronidase and mucinase activities and lithocholic acid (secondary bile acid) concentration. Although KGM elevated the daily fecal total bile acid excretion, the change was due to the primary, instead of the secondary, bile acids. In addition, KGM beneficially promoted the daily fecal excretion of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and cecal SCFA contents, as compared with the high-fat fiber-free diet. Therefore, the present study suggests that KGM potentially attenuated the high fat-induced risk in colon carcinogenesis.

  6. Betaine alleviates hepatic lipid accumulation via enhancing hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaolin; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yizhen; Feng, Jie

    2015-06-28

    To assess the effects of betaine on hepatic lipid accumulation and investigate the underlying mechanism, thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 (sd 2·50) g were divided into four groups, and started on one of four treatments: basal diet, basal diet with betaine administration, high-fat diet and high-fat diet with betaine administration. The results showed that no significant difference of body weight was found among experimental groups. Compared with high-fat diet-fed rats, a betaine supplementation decreased (P< 0·05) hepatic TAG accumulation induced by high-fat diet, which was also supported by hepatic histology results. Additionally, hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase concentration [corrected] as well as its mRNA abundance and lecithin level were found increased (P< 0·05) by betaine supplementation in both basal diet-fed rats and high-fat diet-fed rats. Betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats exhibited a higher (P< 0·05) concentration [corrected] of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) compared with high-fat diet-fed rats. High-fat diet inhibited (P< 0·05) the gene expression of hepatic PPARα and CPT1. However, betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats elevated (P< 0·05) the gene expression of PPARα and CPT1. Moreover, concentration, gene and protein expressions of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were increased (P< 0·05) in response to betaine administration in high-fat diet group; meanwhile the gene expression of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase was increased (P< 0·05) as well. The results suggest that betaine administration enhanced hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet-fed rats, thus effectively alleviating fat accumulation in the liver.

  7. Anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Hemidesmus indicus in rats fed with high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshan, Suganya; Subramaniyan, Vetriselvan; Chinnasamy, Velmurugan; Chandiran, Sarath

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Dietary changes play major risk roles in oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease and modulate normal metabolic function. The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of different extracts of Hemidesmus indicus to experimental high-fat diet in wistar rats, and their possible mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/group) and fed with a standard diet (control), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet supplemented with different extracts and positive control for 9 weeks. High-fat diet induced changes in average body weight and oxidative stress and elevated levels of plasma lipid profile in rats. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of H. indicus (200 mg/kg) offered a significant dose-dependent protection against HFD-induced oxidative stress, as reflected in the levels of catalase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver), superoxide dismutase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver), and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver). Hyperlipidemia condition assessed in terms of body weight, total cholesterol, free cholesterol, ester cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, and atherogenic index and the results showed significant differences between HFD and non-HFD fed rats (p<0.001). High-fat diet treated rats showed changes in hepatic tissue architecture such as micro and macrovascular steatosis, increased fatty infiltration, and inflammation. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the methanolic extract of H. indicus protects against oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia and liver damage. PMID:27761421

  8. Antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of the ethanolic extract of Garcinia cambogia on high fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Sripradha, Ramalingam; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu

    2016-03-01

    The study investigated the antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of the ethanolic extract of Garcinia cambogia on high fat diet-fed rats. The phytochemical constituents, total polyphenol content and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were estimated in the G. cambogia extract (GE). Male Wistar rats were fed with either standard rodent diet or 30% high-fat diet and administered with GE at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight/day for 10 weeks. At the end, lipid profile and oxidative stress parameters were estimated. The analyses revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, sterols, tannins, flavonoids and saponins in GE. The total polyphenol content and FRAP of GE were 82.82±7.64 mg of gallic acid equivalents and 260.49±10.18 µM FRAP per gram of the GE. High-fat feeding elevated plasma total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-C), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced HDL-C and blood antioxidants, glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase. Increase in total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and decrease in the total antioxidant status (TAS) were observed in plasma, liver and kidney of fat-fed rats. Administration of GE decreased food intake, plasma TC, TAG, non HDL-C, MDA, increased HDL-C and blood antioxidants GSH, GPx, catalase. GE also reduced TOS, OSI and elevated TAS in plasma and liver of fat-fed rats. Renal OSI was significantly reduced upon GE treatment. Our study demonstrated that GE is effective in ameliorating high-fat-diet-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress.

  9. Effect of ethyl pyruvate on skeletal muscle metabolism in rats fed on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Olek, Robert A; Ziolkowski, Wieslaw; Wierzba, Tomasz H; Kaczor, Jan J

    2013-07-01

    Impaired mitochondrial capacity may be implicated in the pathology of chronic metabolic diseases. To elucidate the effect of ethyl pyruvate supplementation on skeletal muscles metabolism we examined changes in activities of mitochondrial and antioxidant enzymes, as well as sulfhydryl groups oxidation (an indirect marker of oxidative stress) during the development of obesity. After 6 weeks feeding of control or high fat diet, Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control diet, control diet and ethyl pyruvate, high fat diet, and high fat diet and ethyl pyruvate. Ethyl pyruvate was administered as 0.3% solution in drinking water, for the following 6 weeks. High fat diet feeding induced the increase of activities 3-hydroxyacylCoA dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and fumarase. Moreover, higher catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, as well as sulfhydryl groups oxidation, were noted. Ethyl pyruvate supplementation did not affect the mitochondrial enzymes' activities, but induced superoxide dismutase activity and sulfhydryl groups oxidation. All of the changes were observed in soleus muscle, but not in extensor digitorum longus muscle. Additionally, positive correlations between fasting blood insulin concentration and activities of catalase (p = 0.04), and superoxide dismutase (p = 0.01) in soleus muscle were noticed. Prolonged ethyl pyruvate consumption elevated insulin concentration, which may cause modifications in oxidative type skeletal muscles.

  10. Long-term globular adiponectin administration improves adipose tissue dysmetabolism in high-fat diet-fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Matafome, P; Rodrigues, T; Pereira, A; Letra, L; Azevedo, H; Paixão, A; Silvério, M; Almeida, A; Sena, C; Seiça, R

    2014-10-01

    Adiponectin administration to obese or type 2 diabetic patients is still far off, due to its expensive costs and absence of studies demonstrating the effectiveness of its chronic administration. We performed long-term globular adiponectin administration, testing its usefulness in improving adipose tissue metabolism. Adiponectin (98 υg/day) was administered through a subcutaneous minipump with continued release (28 days) to Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet. Adiponectin decreased body weight and adipocyte size, while decreasing circulating leptin levels. More, adiponectin was able to increase IkappaBalpha and PPARgamma levels and to prevent high-fat diet-induced impairment of insulin signalling, especially in epididymal adipose tissue. This resulted in improved glucose profile. High-fat diet caused an impairment of lipolysis in epididymal adipose tissue, which was partially restored by adiponectin treatment. Long-term globular adiponectin administration was able to improve pathways of insulin signalling and lipid storage in adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed rats, contributing to a better metabolic profile.

  11. Effects of ID-alG™ on weight management and body fat mass in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Terpend, Kathleen; Bisson, Jean-François; Le Gall, Claire; Linares, Elodie

    2012-05-01

    Seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum, ID-alG™, was evaluated for its chronic effects on weight management in high-fat-fed Sprague-Dawley rats. ID-alG™ was orally administered daily during 9 weeks at doses of 40 and 400 mg/kg/day with fat-enriched diet (FED) in comparison with two control groups consuming standard diet (negative control) or FED (positive control) and orally treated with vehicle. Body weight, percentage of body fat mass and lipid parameters were measured. After 9 weeks, the oral administration of ID-alG™ at both doses decreased significantly the mean body weight gains (MBWG) of rats submitted to the FED in comparison to the positive control (-6.8% and -11.8%). ID-alG™ at both doses improved significantly the MBWG of rats and decreased significantly the percentage of body fat mass of rats (-9.8% and -19.0%), in comparison to the positive control. In the same way, the triglyceride blood level was also significantly improved for the dose of 400 mg/kg/day (-30.6% vs. +49.9% for the positive control); and the dose of 40 mg/kg/day just lead to a trend. Moreover, in both controls and ID-alG™-treated groups, total cholesterol, LDL and HDL blood levels were not modified. The seaweed extract of Ascophyllum nodosum, ID-alG™, demonstrated beneficial effects on weight management of rats submitted to a high-fat diet.

  12. 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in high fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Rie; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Deguchi, Yohei; Yaku, Keisuke; Tabuchi, Masaki; Munakata, Hiroshi; Akahoshi, Yasumitsu; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2012-01-01

    Alpinia galanga and Languas galanga, which are plants belonging to the ginger family, are frequently used for cooking, especially in Thai and Indonesian cuisine. The compound 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), which is naturally obtained from the rhizomes and seeds of these gingers, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the anti-obesity effects of ACA in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in high fat diet (HFD)-induced rat models of obesity. ACA caused a significant decrease in the activity of GPDH in 3T3-L1 adipocytes without eliciting cell cytotoxicity, and it inhibited cellular lipid accumulation through the down-regulation of transcription factors such as PPARγ and C/EBPα. ACA also induced a dose-dependent phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In the animal model, rats fed an HFD containing 0.05% ACA gained less weight than rats fed an HFD alone. The visceral fat mass in rats fed an HFD containing 0.05% ACA tended to be lower than that in rats fed an HFD alone. Furthermore, a histological examination of livers from rats fed an HFD showed steatohepatitis. However, rats fed an HFD containing 0.05% ACA showed no histopathological changes in the liver tissue. Our results show that ACA exerts anti-obesity activities both in vitro and in vivo and suggests that ACA may have a novel preventive activity against obesity and possibly other metabolic diseases.

  13. Preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high-fat fed obese rats.

    PubMed

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Sripradha, Ramalingam

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the beneficial effects of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high-fat fed male Wistar rats. Five-month-old male Wistar rats (n=20) were divided into two groups (10 rats in each group). Among the two groups, one group received 30 % high-fat diet (HFD) and another group received 30 % HFD with curcumin (200 mg/kg body weight). Food intake, body weight and biochemical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. After 10 weeks, oxidative stress parameters in skeletal muscle and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) content were estimated. Histological examinations of the liver samples were performed at the end of the experiment. High-fat feeding caused increase in body weight, liver and adipose tissue mass. Rats fed with HFD showed increased levels of fasting plasma glucose, insulin, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), TAG, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). There was also increase in the plasma inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP)] and skeletal muscle oxidative stress parameters [malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS)] in these rats. In addition, high-fat feeding increased liver TAG content and caused fat accumulation in the liver. Treatment with curcumin significantly reduced body weight, relative organ weights (liver, adipose tissue), glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR. Curcumin supplementation decreased plasma levels of TC, TAG, VLDL-c, TNF-α and increased HDL-c. Administration of curcumin also reduced MDA, TOS in skeletal muscle, hepatic TAG content and liver fat deposition. Curcumin supplementation improved HFD-induced dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance.

  14. Hypocholesterolemic effect of daily fisetin supplementation in high fat fed Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Min-Jeong; Cho, Yoonsu; Moon, Jiyoung; Jeon, Hyun Ju; Lee, Seung-Min; Chung, Ji Hyung

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to test whether fisetin could modulate cholesterol homeostasis in rats with diet-induced hypercholesterolemia, and further investigated the underlying mechanisms by which fisetin exerts its cholesterol lowering effect. Blood lipid profile, hepatic cholesterol content, as well as gene expressions in cholesterol metabolism were examined. Elevated levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, along with hepatic cholesterol content in a high fat group were found to be significantly reduced by fisetin. The high fat diet significantly decreased hepatic mRNA levels of LDLR, SREBP2, HMGCR and PCSK9 in comparison to the control diet, however, fisetin did not further elicit any changes in mRNA levels of the same genes. The high fat diet dramatically increased the transcript levels of CYP7A1, which was subsequently reversed by the fisetin. In HepG2 cells, fisetin was found to increase the levels of a nuclear form of SREBP2 and LDLR. In conclusion, fisetin supplementation displayed hypocholesterolemic effects by modulating the expression of genes associated with cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anti-Obesity Effects of Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn in Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Karupiah, Sundram; Ismail, Zhari

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide and it is generally associated with many diseases. Although synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of obesity, herbal remedies may provide safe, natural, and cost-effective alternative to synthetic drugs. One example of such drugs is Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn (MM). Although several studies have been reported for the pharmacological activities of MM, there is no report on the anti-obesity effect of MM. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of methanolic extract of MM. The anti-obesity effect of MM on rats fed with a high-fat diet was investigated through determination of the changes in body weight, fat weight, organ weights, and blood biochemicals. The animals in this study were divided into three groups: a normal group with a standard diet (N), a control group fed with high-fat diet (C), and a MM treatment group fed with high-fat (HFD + MM) diet for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in the amount of food intake between control and HFD + MM treatments. These results also suggest that MM does not induce a dislike for the diet due to its smell or taste. The study shows that MM significantly prevented increases in body weight, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and total lipids that resulted from the high-fat diet. MM also decreased the epididymal fat (E-fat) and retroperitoneal fat (R-fat) weights and phospholipid concentrations induced by the high-fat diet. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that MM had anti-obesity effects by suppressing body weight gain and abdominal fat formation.

  16. Effect of exercise and caloric restriction on DMBA induced mammary tumorigenesis and plasma lipids in rats fed high fat diets

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D. )

    1991-03-15

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single 10 mg dose of 7, 12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and grouped as follows: (1) low fat-sedentary (LF-SED), (2) low fat-exercised (LF-EX), (3) high fat-sedentary (HF-SED), (4) high fat-exercised (HF-EX), (5) high fat-caloric restricted (HF-RES). Diets were isocaloric and contained 3.9% (LF) and 19.4% (HF) of corn oil. Group 5 was fed a 25% caloric restricted diet but with 24.6% fat content to equalize fat intake to HF-SED. After 12 weeks of diet or treadmill exercise, tumor data and plasma lipid profiles were determined. Results show that rats on HF-EX had more total tumors, % of tumors and tumors per tumor bearing rat than rats on HF-SED. The effect of exercise was also evident in LF-EX rats, when compared to LF-SED. Average tumor size and tumor volumes were not affected. The HF-RES group showed reduced tumor profiles compared to HF-SED. HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol were unaffected by HF or LF diets or exercise. These data suggest that tumorigenesis is increased by moderate and constant exercise.

  17. Probing the anti-hyperlipidemic efficacy of the allspice (Pimenta officinalis Lindl.) in rats fed with high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Shyamala, M P; Paramundayil, Julie J; Venukumar, M R; Latha, M S

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the anti-hyperlipidemic effect of aqueous extract of Pimenta officinalis (APO) was investigated in experimental rats fed with high fat diet (HFD). Hyperlipidemia in experimental rats was evidenced by a significant enhancement in the level of glycerol, triglycerides and phopholipids in serum, and also in liver and kidney tissues. HFD caused oxidative stress in these animals as shown by marked increment in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and diene conjugates (CD), and a distinct diminution in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in liver and kidneys. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) showed reduced activity in hyperlipidemic rats. All these biochemical parameters showed reliable signs of retrieving towards near-normalcy in APO-administered HFD fed rats. This study unveiled the anti-hyperlipidemic as well as antioxidant activity of APO.

  18. Effect of pectin feeding on obesity development and duodenal alkaline phosphatase activity in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high-fat/high-energy diet.

    PubMed

    Šefčíková, Z; Raček, L

    2016-06-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to evaluate whether pectin feeding would affect the small intestinal function and whether these changes would lead to obesity prevention in rats fed with high-fat diet. Three groups of weaned male rats (ad lib. fed; rats fed with diet containing 15% w/w of citrus pectin; restrictedly pair-fed rats) were fed with either a standard diet (9.5% fat) or a high-fat diet (30% fat) for 10 days. Results Our results revealed that pectin feeding led to significant decreases in body weight, energy intake and fat pad weight in rats fed with the standard as well as high-fat diet. Moreover, compared to the restrictedly pair-fed rats, in both groups of rats fed with the diet containing pectin, significant decrease in duodenal alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity was observed in histochemically stained cryostat sections. In contrast, despite their lower energy intake, restrictedly pair-fed rats showed similar fat pad deposition accompanied by unchanged values of AP activity in comparison to the controls. Conclusions Our findings indicate that daily pectin consumption could be beneficial in suppressing body weight gain and reducing probability of obesity risk in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

  19. Effects of chitosan and water-soluble chitosan micro- and nanoparticles in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-liang; Zhong, Xiao-bin; Tao, Yi; Wu, Si-hui; Su, Zheng-quan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study determined the effects of chitosan (CTS) and water-soluble chitosan (WSC) microparticles (MPs) and nanoparticles (NPs) in rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Methods: The rats were randomly separated into eight groups: a normal diet group (the blank control), a high-fat emulsion group (the negative control), CTS and WSC control groups, CTS-MP and WSC-MP groups, and CTS-NP and WSC-NP groups. All groups (except the blank control group) were fed the high-fat diet for 4 weeks to establish the obesity model. Different samples were administered orally once daily to the treatment groups for 4 weeks. Results: A significantly lower weight gain was observed in the WSC-MP and WSC-NP groups, as well as in the CTS-MP and CTS-NP groups, compared with rats given a normal diet and a high-fat diet (P < 0.05). The WSC-MP rats had the least weight gain among all the groups. The food intake in the eight groups had the same trend as weight gain. CTS and WSC MPs and NPs significantly reduced the final amounts of epididymal and perirenal white adipose tissue. Liver weight was reduced in the CTS-MP group compared to rats fed a high-fat diet. Serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly reduced in all treatment groups, with the WSC-MP and CTS-MP groups showing a more significant reduction than the other groups. Triacylglycerol levels were significantly reduced in the WSC-NP group compared to the high-fat group. The mortality rates of CTS-MP, CTS-NP, WSC-MP, and WSC-NP groups were 30%, 30%, 55%, and 65%, respectively. The median lethal dose for the WSC-MP and WSC-NP groups were 4080 mg/kg and 2370 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: These results indicate that CTS and WSC MPs and NPs have greater effects than commercially available CTS and WSC, and can be used as potential antiobesity agents. PMID:22888243

  20. Infliximab reverses steatosis and improves insulin signal transduction in liver of rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Barbuio, Raquel; Milanski, Marciane; Bertolo, Manoel B; Saad, Mário J; Velloso, Lício A

    2007-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, induced by nutritional factors, is one of the leading causes of hepatic dysfunction in the modern world. The activation of proinflammatory signaling in the liver, which is induced by systemic and locally produced cytokines, and the development of hepatic insulin resistance are two important factors associated with the progression from steatosis to steatohepatitis, a pre-cirrhotic condition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of inhibition of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha , using the monoclonal antibody infliximab, on the expression of cytokines, induction of steatosis and fibrosis, and insulin signal transduction in the liver of Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet. Ten days of treatment with infliximab significantly reduced the expression of the proinflammatory markers, TNF-alpha , IL-6, IL-1beta , and SOCS-3, in the liver of rats fed a high-fat diet. This was accompanied by reduced fat deposition and fibrosis and by improved insulin signal transduction through insulin receptor (IR)/IR substrate/Akt/FOXO1 and JAK2/STAT3 pathways. In conclusion, short-term inhibition of TNF-alpha with infliximab reduces inflammation and steatosis/fibrosis, while improving insulin signal transduction in an animal model treated with a high-fat diet.

  1. Cardiovascular, metabolic, and coronary dysfunction in high-fat-fed obesity-resistant/prone rats.

    PubMed

    Dake, Brian L; Oltman, Christine L

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic leading to several comorbidities including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The hypothesis that the genetic background of the obesity-prone rat (OP) predisposes to physiologic, metabolic, and microvascular dysfunction which is exacerbated by a diet high in saturated fats was tested. Male OP and obesity-resistant (OR) rats were fed either a diet containing 10% (chow) or 45% kcal fat (HF) for 42 weeks. Weight of OP rats was greater than OR rats by 8 weeks on both diets. Blood pressure was increased in OP rats on chow and further augmented by HF diet compared to OR rats on similar diets. In contrast to weight and blood pressure, glucose clearance was similar in OR and OP rats on chow and impaired in both models on HF diet. Relaxation to acetylcholine was attenuated in OP rats compared to OR rats by 8 weeks and remained reduced throughout the study. A longer period of time was required to observe vascular dysfunction in HF-fed OR rats. When compared to OR rats, OP rats are prone to develop not only greater obesity but also hypertension and vascular dysfunction on a normal diet which is further augmented with HF diet. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  2. Anorexic effects of intra-VTA leptin are similar in low-fat and high-fat-fed rats but attenuated in a subgroup of high-fat-fed obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.; Qi, Xiaoli; Corrie, Lu W.

    2012-01-01

    Leptin is an adiposity hormone that plays an important role in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of a high-fat (HF) and a low-fat, high-carbohydrate/sugar (LF) diet on leptin sensitivity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in rats. The animals were exposed to a HF or LF diet for 16 weeks. Then the effects of intra-VTA leptin (150 and 500 ng/side, unilateral dose) on food intake and body weights were investigated while the animals were maintained on the HF or LF diet. Long-term exposure to the HF or LF diet led to similar body weight gain in these groups. The HF-fed animals consumed a smaller amount of food by weight than the LF-fed animals but both groups consumed the same amount of calories. The bilateral administration of leptin into the VTA decreased food intake (72 h) and body weights (48 h) to a similar degree in the HF and LF-fed animals. When the HF-fed animals were ranked by body weight gain it was shown that the diet-induced obese rats (HF-fed DIO, upper quartile for weight gain) were less sensitive to the effects of leptin on food intake and body weights than the diet-resistant rats (HF-fed DR, lower quartile for weight gain). A control experiment with fluorescent Cy3-labeled leptin showed that leptin did not spread beyond the borders of the VTA. This study indicates that leptin sensitivity in the VTA is the same in animals that are exposed to a HF or LF diet. However, HF-fed DIO rats are less sensitive to the effects of leptin in the VTA than HF-fed DR rats. Leptin resistance in the VTA might contribute to overeating and weight gain when exposed to a HF diet. PMID:23107643

  3. Anorexic effects of intra-VTA leptin are similar in low-fat and high-fat-fed rats but attenuated in a subgroup of high-fat-fed obese rats.

    PubMed

    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W; Qi, Xiaoli; Corrie, Lu W

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is an adiposity hormone that plays an important role in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis. This study investigated the effects of a high-fat (HF) and a low-fat, high-carbohydrate/sugar (LF) diet on leptin sensitivity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in rats. The animals were exposed to a HF or LF diet for 16 weeks. Then the effects of intra-VTA leptin (150 and 500 ng/side, unilateral dose) on food intake and body weights were investigated while the animals were maintained on the HF or LF diet. Long-term exposure to the HF or LF diet led to similar body weight gain in these groups. The HF-fed animals consumed a smaller amount of food by weight than the LF-fed animals but both groups consumed the same amount of calories. The bilateral administration of leptin into the VTA decreased food intake (72 h) and body weights (48 h) to a similar degree in the HF and LF-fed animals. When the HF-fed animals were ranked by body weight gain it was shown that the diet-induced obese rats (HF-fed DIO, upper quartile for weight gain) were less sensitive to the effects of leptin on food intake and body weights than the diet-resistant rats (HF-fed DR, lower quartile for weight gain). A control experiment with fluorescent Cy3-labeled leptin showed that leptin did not spread beyond the borders of the VTA. This study indicates that leptin sensitivity in the VTA is the same in animals that are exposed to a HF or LF diet. However, HF-fed DIO rats are less sensitive to the effects of leptin in the VTA than HF-fed DR rats. Leptin resistance in the VTA might contribute to overeating and weight gain when exposed to a HF diet. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Berberine reverts hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat fed rats: a possible role for SirT3 activation.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, João Soeiro; Duarte, Filipe Valente; Gomes, Ana Patrícia; Varela, Ana Teresa; Peixoto, Francisco Manuel; Rolo, Anabela Pinto; Palmeira, Carlos Marques

    2013-11-01

    Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid with anti-diabetic properties. Despite the central role of liver and thus hepatic mitochondria in whole-body metabolism, berberine effects on hepatic mitochondrial function in an obesity model are still unknown. Here, we demonstrate that berberine treatment recovers mitochondrial efficiency when altered by a high-fat feeding. Mitochondria isolated from the liver of high-fat fed rats exhibited decreased capacity to accumulate calcium and impaired oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity, as shown by impaired mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption and cellular ATP levels. Interestingly, the recovery of mitochondrial function by berberine was associated with an increased activity of the mitochondrial sirtuin 3 (SirT3). In conclusion, berberine potent protective effects against metabolic syndrome may rely on increasing mitochondrial SirT3 activity, normalizing mitochondrial function and preventing a state of energetic deficit caused by impaired OXPHOS.

  5. Effects of the cannabinoid CB1 antagonist rimonabant on hepatic mitochondrial function in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Flamment, Mélissa; Gueguen, Naïg; Wetterwald, Céline; Simard, Gilles; Malthièry, Yves; Ducluzeau, Pierre-Henri

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rimonabant treatment on hepatic mitochondrial function in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet (35% lard) for 13 wk were treated with rimonabant (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) during the last 3 wk and matched with pair-fed controls. Oxygen consumption with various substrates, mitochondrial enzyme activities on isolated liver mitochondria, and mitochondrial DNA quantity were determined. Body weight and fat mass were decreased in rats treated with rimonabant compared with pair-fed controls. Moreover, the serum adiponectin level was increased with rimonabant. Hepatic triglyceride content was increased, while serum triglycerides were decreased. An increase of mitochondrial respiration was observed in rats treated with rimonabant. The increase of mitochondrial respiration with palmitoyl-CoA compared with respiration with palmitoyl-l-carnitine stating that the entry of fatty acids into mitochondria via carnitine palmitoyltransferase I was increased in rats treated with rimonabant. Moreover, rimonabant treatment led to a reduction in the enzymatic activity of ATP synthase, whereas the quantity of mitochondrial DNA and the activity of citrate synthase remained unchanged. To summarize, rimonabant treatment leads to an improvement of hepatic mitochondrial function by increasing substrate oxidation and fatty acid entry into mitochondria for the β-oxidation pathway and by increasing proton leak. However, this increase of mitochondrial oxidation is regulated by a decrease of ATP synthase activity in order to have only ATP required for the cell function.

  6. The beneficial effect of propolis on fat accumulation and lipid metabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ichi, I; Hori, H; Takashima, Y; Adachi, N; Kataoka, R; Okihara, K; Hashimoto, K; Kojo, S

    2009-06-01

    This study examined whether propolis, which had many biological activities, affected body fat and lipid metabolism. Four-week-old Wistar rats were fed a control or propolis diet for 8 wk. The control group was fed a high-fat diet, the low and the high group were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5% (w/w) and 0.05% (w/w) propolis, respectively. The weight of total white adipose tissue of the high group was lower than that of the control group. The level of PPARgamma protein in the adipose tissues of the high group was significantly lower than that of the control group. In plasma and the liver, the high group showed a significantly reduced level of cholesterol and triglyceride compared to the control group. The liver PPARalpha protein level of the high group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The liver HMG-CoA reductase protein in the high group was also significantly lower than that in the control group. Results from rats on an olive oil loading test were used to investigate whether propolis inhibited triglyceride absorption. The serum triglyceride level of the group, which received propolis corresponding to the daily dose of the high group, was significantly lower than that of the control group. It is possible that the administration of propolis improves the accumulation of body fat and dyslipidemia via the change of the expression of proteins involved in adipose depot and lipid metabolism.

  7. Effect of repeated stress on body weight and body composition of rats fed low- and high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Harris, R B; Zhou, J; Youngblood, B D; Rybkin, I I; Smagin, G N; Ryan, D H

    1998-12-01

    Exposure to the moderate stressor of 3-h restraint for 3 consecutive days causes a temporary drop in food intake but a permanent reduction in body weight in adult rats. Young rats did not show the same response. Food intake of adult rats exposed to repeated restraint was significantly lower than that of controls for 4 days after the end of stress, and there was no rebound hyperphagia. Body weight remained significantly lower for at least 40 days after stress. When the rats were fed a high-fat diet of 80% chow and 20% vegetable shortening (48% kcal fat, 16% protein), lean body mass accounted for all of the weight loss in stressed rats. When the experiment was repeated with a purified high-fat diet containing corn oil and coconut oil as the source of fat (41% kcal fat, 16% protein), weight loss consisted of both lean and fat tissue. There were no sustained changes in single time point measures of corticosterone, insulin, or leptin that could account for the reduced body weight in these rats.

  8. Salvia libanotica improves glycemia and serum lipid profile in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Bassil, Maya; Daher, Costantine F; Mroueh, Mohammad; Zeeni, Nadine

    2015-10-23

    Salvia libanotica (S. Libanotica) is a commonly used herb in folk medicine in Lebanon and the Middle East. The present study aimed to assess the scientific basis for the therapeutic use of S. libanotica in glycemia and to evaluate its effects on lipemia and abdominal fat. Animals were fed a high-fat diet and allocated into a control and three experimental groups (GI, GII and GIII) receiving incremental doses of the plant water extract in drinking water (50, 150 and 450 mg/Kg body weight respectively) for six weeks. The intake of S. libanotica extract was associated with a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose (102.9 ± 10.8 in GII and 87.5 ± 6.4 in GIII vs. 152.1 ± 7.9 mg/dl in controls) and a two fold increase in fasting serum insulin (GIII) and liver glycogen content (GII and GIII). Group III also had better glucose tolerance following intraperitoneal glucose challenges. Additionally, the plant extract intake produced a significant improvement in serum HDL (34.4 ± 2.4 in GIII vs. 27.2 ± 1.9 mg/dl in controls) and HDL/LDL cholesterol ratio (2.79 ± 0.32 in GII and 3.02 ± 0.31 in GIII vs. 1.74 ± 0.18 in controls), as well as a decrease in abdominal fat. The current study is the first to demonstrate that the chronic intake of S. libanotica infusion helps in the prevention of high fat-induced hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. This supports the plant use as a remedy for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  9. The effects of chromium complex and level on glucose metabolism and memory acquisition in rats fed high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Kazim; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Agca, Can A; Sahin, Nurhan; Guvenc, Mehmet; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Staniek, Halina; Hayirli, Armagan

    2011-11-01

    Conditions in which glucose metabolism is impaired due to insulin resistance are associated with memory impairment. It was hypothesized that supplemental chromium (Cr) may alleviate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes and consequently improve memory acquisition, depending upon its source and level. In a complete randomized design experiment, male Wistar rats (n=60; weighing 200-220 g) were fed either normal (8%, normal diet (ND)) or high-fat (40%, high-fat diet (HFD)) diet and supplemented with Cr as either chromium-glycinate (CrGly) or chromium-acetate (CrAc) at doses of 0, 40, or 80 μg/kg body weight (BW) via drinking water from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Feeding HFD induced type 2 diabetes, as reflected by greater glucose/insulin ratio (2.98 vs. 2.74) comparing to feeding ND. Moreover, HFD rats had greater BW (314 vs. 279 g) and less serum (53 vs. 68 μg/L) and brain (14 vs. 24 ng/g) Cr concentrations than ND rats. High-fat diet caused a 32% reduction in expressions of glucose transporters 1 and 3 (GLUTs) in brain tissue and a 27% reduction in mean percentage time spent in the target quadrant and a 38% increase in spatial memory acquisition phase (SMAP) compared with ND. Compared with supplemental Cr as CrAc, CrGly was more effective to ameliorate response variables (i.e., restoration of tissue Cr concentration, enhancement of cerebral GLUTs expressions, and reduction of the glucose/insulin ratio and SMAP) in a dose-response manner, especially in rats fed HFD. Supplemental Cr as CrGly may have therapeutic potential to enhance insulin action and alleviate memory acquisition in a dose-dependent manner, through restoring tissue Cr reserve and enhancing cerebral GLUTs expressions.

  10. Seaweed supplements normalise metabolic, cardiovascular and liver responses in high-carbohydrate, high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C; Paul, Nicholas A; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-02-02

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330-340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium.

  11. Green tea aqueous extract reduces visceral fat and decreases protein availability in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Bajerska, Joanna; Wozniewicz, Małgorzata; Jeszka, Jan; Drzymala-Czyz, Slawomira; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw

    2011-02-01

    Green tea is associated with beneficial health effects mainly because of its body fat-reducing and hypocholesterolemic activities, but an effective dose without pronounced influence on protein availability is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that green tea aqueous extract (GTAE) depending on dose improves cardiovascular risk indicators such as body weight, visceral fat content, and atherogenic index of plasma and does not have unfavorable effect on protein availability in rats fed with a high-fat diet. The rats fed with a high-fat diet enriched with 1.1 and 2.0% GTAE for 8 weeks had significantly (P < .05) lower atherogenic index (in both groups, about 14.3%). Only administration of 2.0% GTAE significantly (P < .05) decreased body weight gain (5.6%) and prevented visceral fat accumulation (17.8%) in rats. However, considerably (P < .05), reduction in the digestion of protein (but not fat) was observed in both GTAE groups (1.1% GTAE: 82.6% ± 1.8%; 2.0% GTAE: 84.3% ± 0.8%) when compared to the control (93.3% ± 1.5%). It was concluded that GTAE may have preventive effects on the accumulation of visceral fat but only in higher doses. Although both doses improved cardiovascular risk indicators, they, in addition, significantly inhibited protein digestion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of exercise on the skeletal muscle phospholipidome of rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Todd W; Turner, Nigel; Else, Paul L; Hulbert, Anthony J; Hawley, John A; Lee, Jong Sam; Bruce, Clinton R; Blanksby, Stephen J

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of endurance training on skeletal muscle phospholipid molecular species from high-fat fed rats. Twelve female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet (78.1% energy). The rats were randomly divided into two groups, a sedentary control group and a trained group (125 min of treadmill running at 8 m/min, 4 days/wk for 4 weeks). Forty-eight hours after their last training bout phospholipids were extracted from the red and white vastus lateralis and analyzed by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry. Exercise training was associated with significant alterations in the relative abundance of a number of phospholipid molecular species. These changes were more prominent in red vastus lateralis than white vastus lateralis. The largest observed change was an increase of ~30% in the abundance of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine ions in oxidative fibers. Reductions in the relative abundance of a number of phospholipids containing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were also observed. These data suggest a possible reduction in phospholipid remodeling in the trained animals. This results in a decrease in the phospholipid n-3 to n-6 ratio that may in turn influence endurance capacity.

  13. Seaweed Supplements Normalise Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Liver Responses in High-Carbohydrate, High-Fat Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Increased seaweed consumption may be linked to the lower incidence of metabolic syndrome in eastern Asia. This study investigated the responses to two tropical green seaweeds, Ulva ohnoi (UO) and Derbesia tenuissima (DT), in a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Male Wistar rats (330–340 g) were fed either a corn starch-rich diet or a high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with 25% fructose in drinking water, for 16 weeks. High-carbohydrate, high-fat diet-fed rats showed the signs of metabolic syndrome leading to abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodelling and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Food was supplemented with 5% dried UO or DT for the final 8 weeks only. UO lowered total final body fat mass by 24%, systolic blood pressure by 29 mmHg, and improved glucose utilisation and insulin sensitivity. In contrast, DT did not change total body fat mass but decreased plasma triglycerides by 38% and total cholesterol by 17%. UO contained 18.1% soluble fibre as part of 40.9% total fibre, and increased magnesium, while DT contained 23.4% total fibre, essentially as insoluble fibre. UO was more effective in reducing metabolic syndrome than DT, possibly due to the increased intake of soluble fibre and magnesium. PMID:25648511

  14. Effects of xanthohumol-rich extract from the hop on fatty acid metabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yui, Kazuki; Kiyofuji, Ayane; Osada, Kyoichi

    2014-01-01

    Xanthohumol is the major prenylated flavonoid of female inflorescences of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.) and is a hydrophobic flavonoid. We examined the effects of dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract in obese rats that was induced by feeding a high-fat diet. Dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract significantly lowered the body weight gain of these rats compared to rats fed a high-fat diet without the extract. The increase of body weight, liver weight, and triacylglycerol levels in the plasma and liver of the rats fed a high-fat diet was ameliorated by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract tended to reduce hepatic fatty acid synthesis through the reduction of hepatic SREBP1c mRNA expression in the rats fed a high-fat diet. The excreted of triacylglycerol into feces also was promoted by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Plasma adiponectin levels in the rats fed a high-fat diet also tended to be elevated by dietary xanthohumol-rich hop extract. Thus, xanthohumol-rich hop extract may inhibit the increase of body weight, liver weight, and triacylglycerol in the plasma and liver induced by feeding high-fat diet through the regulation of hepatic fatty acid metabolism and inhibition of intestinal fat absorption. Therefore, xanthohumol-rich hop extract may exert preventive function on the increase of body weight and tissue triacylglycerol levels by overnutrition.

  15. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.). Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO) staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia.

  16. Antiatherogenic Effect of Camellia japonica Fruit Extract in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Ho; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Jeong, Jieun; Wi, An-Jin; Park, Whoa-Shig; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known etiological factor for cardiovascular disease and a common symptom of most types of metabolic disorders. Camellia japonica is a traditional garden plant, and its flower and seed have been used as a base oil of traditional cosmetics in East Asia. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of C. japonica fruit extracts (CJF) in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. CJF was administered orally at three different doses: 100, 400, and 800 mg·kg−1·day−1 (CJF 100, 400, and 800, resp.). Our results showed that CJF possessed strong cholesterol-lowering potency as indicated by the decrease in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), accompanied by an increase in serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Furthermore, CJF reduced serum lipid peroxidation by suppressing the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. In addition, oil red O (ORO) staining of rat arteries showed decreased lipid-positive staining in the CJF-treated groups compared to the control HFD group. Taken together, these results suggest that CJF could be a potent herbal therapeutic option and source of a functional food for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases associated with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:27340422

  17. Metformin HCl has curative effect on rebuilding of ventricular diastolic functions in high-fat-diet fed rats.

    PubMed

    Topal, Askin Ender; Kelle, Ilker; Akkoc, Hasan; Yilmaz, Sedat; Yilmaz, Sedat; Akkus, Murat

    2017-05-01

    Myocardial lipid accumulation due to diabetes and/or obesity plays a role in the progression of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Our aims were to exhibit the correlation between histopathologic stage of the liver and cardiac functions, and to evaluate the effects of metformin HCl and rosiglitazone on myocardial functions. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups to exhibit the correlation between histopathologic stage of the liver and cardiac functions and to determine whether metformin HCl and rosiglitazone have effects on cardiac functions. For 20 weeks, one group was fed standard rat basic diet, whereas the other groups were on high-fat-diet. During the last 4 weeks, metformin HCl was given to the third group, rosiglitazone to the fourth group. Histological evaluation of rat livers yielded significantly higher steatosis grade in high-fat-diet group and different fibrosis stages among groups. Also, there was significant correlation between diastolic functions and steatosis grade/fibrosis stage of rat liver. Electrophysiological study of hearts via Langendorff technique showed better coronary perfusion pressures and diastolic functions in standard-diet and metformin HCl groups compared to other groups. Metformin HCl improves LV diastolic dysfunction and coronary perfusion pressures.

  18. The effects of black garlic (Allium satvium) extracts on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Ying, Tian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD/OBEJECTIVES The mechanism of how black garlic effects lipid metabolism remains unsolved. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of black garlic on lipid profiles and the expression of related genes in rats fed a high fat diet. MATERIALS/METHODS Thirty-two male Sqrague-Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and fed the following diets for 5 weeks: normal food diet, (NF); a high-fat diet (HF); and a high-fat diet + 0.5% or 1.5% black garlic extract (HFBG0.5 or HFBG1.5). Body weights and blood biochemical parameters, including lipid profiles, and expressions of genes related to lipid metabolism were determined. RESULTS Significant differences were observed in the final weights between the HFBG1.5 and HF groups. All blood biochemical parameters measured in the HFBG1.5 group showed significantly lower values than those in the HF group. Significant improvements of the plasama lipid profiles as well as fecal excretions of total lipids and triglyceride (TG) were also observed in the HFBG1.5 group, when compared to the HF diet group. There were significant differences in the levels of mRNA of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in the HFBG1.5 group compared to the HF group. In addition, the hepatic expression of (HMG-CoA) reductase and Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) mRNA was also significantly lower than the HF group. CONCLUSIONS Consumption of black garlic extract lowers SREBP-1C mRNA expression, which causes downregulation of lipid and cholestrol metahbolism. As a result, the blood levels of total lipids, TG, and cholesterol were decreased. PMID:25671065

  19. The effects of black garlic (Allium satvium) extracts on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ae Wha; Ying, Tian; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism of how black garlic effects lipid metabolism remains unsolved. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of black garlic on lipid profiles and the expression of related genes in rats fed a high fat diet. Thirty-two male Sqrague-Dawley rats aged 4 weeks were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) and fed the following diets for 5 weeks: normal food diet, (NF); a high-fat diet (HF); and a high-fat diet + 0.5% or 1.5% black garlic extract (HFBG0.5 or HFBG1.5). Body weights and blood biochemical parameters, including lipid profiles, and expressions of genes related to lipid metabolism were determined. Significant differences were observed in the final weights between the HFBG1.5 and HF groups. All blood biochemical parameters measured in the HFBG1.5 group showed significantly lower values than those in the HF group. Significant improvements of the plasama lipid profiles as well as fecal excretions of total lipids and triglyceride (TG) were also observed in the HFBG1.5 group, when compared to the HF diet group. There were significant differences in the levels of mRNA of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in the HFBG1.5 group compared to the HF group. In addition, the hepatic expression of (HMG-CoA) reductase and Acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) mRNA was also significantly lower than the HF group. Consumption of black garlic extract lowers SREBP-1C mRNA expression, which causes downregulation of lipid and cholestrol metahbolism. As a result, the blood levels of total lipids, TG, and cholesterol were decreased.

  20. Changes in baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity in high-fat-fed rats as a predictor of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fardin, Núbia M; Oyama, Lila M; Campos, Ruy R

    2012-08-01

    There is evidence that obesity is associated with increased sympathetic activity and hypertension. However, the mechanisms responsible for these changes are not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular function and the baroreceptor reflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity (rSNA) in rats exposed to a high-fat diet over different periods (10 and 20 weeks) compared to control rats. Serum leptin levels were assessed for all time points. Male Wistar rats weighing 150-180 g were used. Four groups of rats were studied: control 10 weeks (Ct10), obese 10 weeks (Ob10), control 20 weeks (Ct20), and obese 20 weeks (Ob20). Blood pressure (BP) and rSNA were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats (1.4 g/kg, intravenous).The sensitivity of rSNA responses to baroreceptor reflex was assessed by changes in BP induced by increasing doses of phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside. Significant and progressive increases in serum leptin levels were found in the obese rats, but not in the control rats. No changes in basal BP or rSNA were found in the Ob10 and Ob20 groups; however, a significant impairment in the baroreceptor sensitivity was observed in the Ob20 group for phenylephrine (slope Ob20: -0.78 ± 0.12 vs. Ct20: -1.00 ± 0.08 potential per second (pps)/mm Hg, P < 0.05) and sodium nitroprusside (slope Ob20: -0.82 ± 0.09 vs. 1.13 ± 0.13 pps/mm Hg, P < 0.05). The results suggest that the baroreceptor dysfunction that controls the rSNA is an initial change in the obesity induced in high-fat-fed rats, which might be a predictor of sympathoexcitation and hypertension associated to obesity.

  1. Lipogenesis Is Decreased by Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins According to Liver Proteomics of Rats Fed a High Fat Diet*

    PubMed Central

    Baiges, Isabel; Palmfeldt, Johan; Bladé, Cinta; Gregersen, Niels; Arola, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive proanthocyanidins have been reported to have several beneficial effects on health in relation to metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). This is the first study of the effects of flavonoids on the liver proteome of rats suffering from metabolic syndrome. Three groups of rats were fed over a period of 13 weeks either a chow diet (control), an HFD, or a high fat diet supplemented for the last 10 days with GSPE (HFD + GSPE). The liver proteome was fractionated, using a Triton X-114-based two-phase separation, into soluble and membrane protein fractions so that total proteome coverage was considerably improved. The data from isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based nano-LC-MS/MS analysis revealed 90 proteins with a significant (p < 0.05) minimal expression difference of 20% due to metabolic syndrome (HFD versus control) and 75 proteins due to GSPE treatment (HFD + GSPE versus HFD). The same animals have previously been studied (Quesada, H., del Bas, J. M., Pajuelo, D., Díaz, S., Fernandez-Larrea, J., Pinent, M., Arola, L., Salvadó, M. J., and Bladé, C. (2009) Grape seed proanthocyanidins correct dyslipidemia associated with a high-fat diet in rats and repress genes controlling lipogenesis and VLDL assembling in liver. Int. J. Obes. 33, 1007–1012), and GSPE was shown to correct dyslipidemia observed in HFD-fed rats probably through the repression of hepatic lipogenesis. Our data corroborate those findings with an extensive list of proteins describing the induction of hepatic glycogenesis, glycolysis, and fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis in HFD, whereas the opposite pattern was observed to a large extent in GSPE-treated animals. GSPE was shown to have a wider effect than previously thought, and putative targets of GSPE involved in the reversal of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome were revealed. Some

  2. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P < 0.05; NDE group vs. ND group, P < 0.01). Pearson's correlation analysis showed that serum irisin level negatively correlated with TG level (r = -0.771, P < 0.05), percentage fat mass (r = -0.68, P < 0.05), fat mass (r = -0.576, P < 0.05), visceral fat mass (r = -0.439, P < 0.05) and TC level (r = -0.389, P < 0.05). The fat mass, visceral fat mass and percentage fat mass were lower in the HFDE group than the HFD group (all P values < 0.01). Swimming exercise decreases body fat mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  3. Cissus quadrangularis stem alleviates insulin resistance, oxidative injury and fatty liver disease in rats fed high fat plus fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Chidambaram, Jaya; Carani Venkatraman, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated the protective effects of Cissus quadrangularis stem extract (CQEt) on oxidant-antioxidant balance and insulin resistance (IR) in rats fed high fat-high fructose diet (HFFD) and also tested its free-radical scavenging property in vitro. Rats were fed either control diet or HFFD for 15 days, following which the diet was fortified with CQEt at a dose of 10 g/100g diet. After 60 days, HFFD caused deleterious metabolic effects, including hyperglycemia, IR and liver dysfunction. Rats fed HFFD alone showed increased activities of hepatocellular enzymes in plasma, lipid deposition, significant decline in antioxidants, and elevated lipid peroxidation indices and protein carbonyl in liver. CQEt addition significantly improved insulin sensitivity, reduced liver damage and oxidative changes, and brought back the antioxidants and lipids towards normal. Histopathology of the liver confirmed the changes induced by HFFD and the heptoprotective effect of CQEt. The effects of CQEtin vivo were comparable with that of standard drug, metformin. Through in vitro assays, CQEt was found to contain large quantities of polyphenols, vitamins C and E. CQEt exhibited radical scavenging ability in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that CQEt affords hepatoprotection by its antioxidant and insulin-sensitizing activities. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Green tea decoction improves glucose tolerance and reduces weight gain of rats fed normal and high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Snoussi, Chahira; Ducroc, Robert; Hamdaoui, Mohamed Hédi; Dhaouadi, Karima; Abaidi, Houda; Cluzeaud, Francoise; Nazaret, Corinne; Le Gall, Maude; Bado, André

    2014-05-01

    Green tea containing polyphenols exerts antidiabetic and antiobesity effects, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, we first analyzed and compared polyphenol compounds [epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC)] in decoction of green tea leaves versus usual green tea extracts. Second, the effects of acute (30 min) or chronic (6 weeks) oral administration of green tea decoction (GTD) on intestinal glucose absorption were studied in vitro in Ussing chamber, ex vivo using isolated jejunal loops and in vivo through glucose tolerance tests. Finally, we explore in rat model fed normal or high-fat diet the effects of GTD on body weight, blood parameters and on the relative expression of glucose transporters SGLT-1, GLUT2 and GLUT4. GTD cooked for 15 min contained the highest amounts of phenolic compounds. In fasted rats, acute administration of GTD inhibited SGLT-1 activity, increased GLUT2 activity and improved glucose tolerance. Similarly to GTD, acute administration of synthetic phenolic compounds (2/3 EGCG+1/3 EGC) inhibited SGLT-1 activity. Chronic administration of GTD in rat fed high-fat diet reduced body weight gain, circulating triglycerides and cholesterol and improved glucose tolerance. GTD-treated rats for 6 weeks display significantly reduced SGLT-1 and increased GLUT2 mRNA levels in the jejunum mucosa. Moreover, adipose tissue GLUT4 mRNA levels were increased. These results indicate that GTD, a traditional beverage rich in EGCG and EGC reduces intestinal SGLT-1/GLUT2 ratio, a hallmark of regulation of glucose absorption in enterocyte, and enhances adipose GLUT4 providing new insights in its possible role in the control of glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) improves insulin sensitivity by increasing skeletal muscle insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, M G; Vinayagamoorthi, R; Arul Suyambunathan, V; Bobby, Z; Selvaraj, N

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this present study was to investigate the effect of bitter gourd extract on insulin sensitivity and proximal insulin signalling pathways in high-fat-fed rats. High-fat feeding of male Wistar rats for 10 weeks decreased the glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity compared to chow-fed control rats. Bitter gourd extract supplementation for 2 weeks (9th and 10th) of high-fat feeding improved the glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. In addition bitter gourd extract reduced the fasting insulin (43 (se 4.4) v. 23 (se 5.2) microU/ml, P < 0.05), TAG (134 (se 12) v. 96 (se 5.5) mg/dl, P < 0.05), cholesterol (97 (se 6.3) v. 72 (se 5.2) mg/dl, P < 0.05) and epidydimal fat (4.8 (se 0.29) v. 3.6 (se 0.24) g, P < 0.05), which were increased by high-fat diet (HFD). High-fat feeding and bitter gourd supplementation did not have any effect on skeletal muscle insulin receptor, insulin receptor subtrate-1 (IRS-1) and insulin- stimulated insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation compared to chow-fed control rats. However high-fat feeding for 10 weeks reduced the insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation compared to control rats. Bitter gourd supplementation together with HFD for 2 weeks improved the insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation compared to rats fed with HFD alone. Our results show that bitter gourd extract improves insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance and insulin signalling in HFD-induced insulin resistance. Identification of potential mechanism(s) by which bitter gourd improves insulin sensitivity and insulin signalling in high-fat-fed rats may open new therapeutic targets for the treatment of obesity/dyslipidemia-induced insulin resistance.

  6. Electrical vagus nerve stimulation decreases food consumption and weight gain in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Gil, Krzysztof; Bugajski, A; Thor, P

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has a suppressive effect on both short- and long-term feeding in animal models. We previously showed that long-term VNS (102 days) with low-frequency electrical impulses (0.05 Hz) decreased food intake and body weight in rats. In the present study, we investigated the effect of high frequency (10 Hz) VNS on feeding behavior and appetite in rats fed a high-fat diet; peptide secretion and other parameters were assessed as well. Adult male Wistar rats were each implanted subcutaneously with a microstimulator (MS) and fed a high-fat diet throughout the entire study period (42 days). The left vagus nerve was stimulated by rectangular electrical pulses (10 ms, 200 mV, 10 Hz, 12 h a day) generated by the MS. Body weight and food intake were measured each morning. At the end of the experimental period, animals were euthanized and blood samples were taken. Serum levels of ghrelin, leptin and nesfatin-1 were assessed using radioimmunoassays. Adipose tissue content was evaluated by weighing epididymal fat pads, which were incised at the time of sacrifice. To determine whether VNS activated the food-related areas of the brain, neuronal c-Fos induction in the nuclei of the solitary tract (NTS) was assessed. Chronic vagus nerve stimulation significantly decreased food intake, body weight gain and epididymal fat pad weight in animals that received VNS compared with control animals. Significant neuronal responses in the NTS were observed following VNS. Finally, serum concentrations of ghrelin were increased, while serum levels of leptin were decreased. Although not significant, serum nesfatin-1 levels were also elevated. These results support the theory that VNS leads to reductions in food intake, body weight gain and adipose tissue by increasing brain satiety signals conducted through the vagal afferents. VNS also evoked a feed-related hormonal response, including elevated blood concentrations of nesfatin-1.

  7. Regulation of hepatic branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Yoshihiro; Toyoda, Takanari; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Adams, Sean H; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2013-12-01

    Branched-chain α-ketoacid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) regulates branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at the level of BCKA catabolism. It has been demonstrated that the activity of hepatic BCKDC is markedly decreased in type 2 diabetic animal models. In this study, we examined the regulation of hepatic BCKDC in rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Rats were fed a control or a 60% of energy high-fat diet (HFD) for twelve weeks. Concentrations of blood components and the activities and protein amounts of hepatic BCKDC and its specific kinase (BDK) were measured. The concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, and corticosterone were significantly elevated in DIO rats compared to those fed the control diet, suggestive of insulin resistance. Blood BCAA concentrations were not increased. The activity of hepatic BCKDC that was present in the active form in the liver was higher in DIO rats compared to controls, although the total activity and the enzyme amount were not different between two diet groups. The activity of hepatic BDK and the abundance of BDK bound to the BCKDC were decreased in DIO rats. The total amount of hepatic BDK was also significantly decreased in DIO rats. In rats made obese through HFD feeding, in contrast to prior studies in rat models of type 2 diabetes, hepatic BDK was down-regulated and thereby hepatic BCKDC was activated, suggesting that DIO promotes liver BCKA catabolism. In this model there was no evidence that increased blood BCAAs drive DIO-associated insulin resistance, since concentrations of BCAAs were not altered by DIO.

  8. Effect of curcumin on hepatic heme oxygenase 1 expression in high fat diet fed rats: is there a triangular relationship?

    PubMed

    Öner-İyidoğan, Yildiz; Tanrıkulu-Küçük, Sevda; Seyithanoğlu, Muhammed; Koçak, Hikmet; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Aydin, A Fatih; Beyhan-Özdaş, Şule; Yapişlar, Hande; Koçak-Toker, Necla

    2014-10-01

    High fat diet (HFD) is associated with oxidative stress induced fatty liver. Curcumin, an extract of Curcuma longa, has been shown to possess potent antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of curcumin treatment on hepatic heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression along with pro-oxidant-antioxidant status and lipid accumulation in rats fed an HFD. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed among 4 groups: Group 1, which was fed the control diet (10% of total calories from fat); Group 2, which was fed the HFD (60% of total calories from fat); and groups 3 and 4, which received the HFD supplemented with curcumin and the control diet supplemented with curcumin (1 g/kg diet; w/w), respectively, for 16 weeks. HFD caused increases in hepatic lipid levels, production of reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation. Further, HO-1 expression was significantly decreased. Histopathological examination showed hepatic fat accumulation and slight fibrotic changes. Curcumin treatment reduced hepatic lipids and oxidative stress parameters, and HO-1 expression was significantly increased. These findings suggest that increased HO-1 expression, along with suppressed oxidative stress as well as reduced hepatic fat accumulation and fibrotic changes, contribute to the beneficial effects of curcumin in attenuating the pathogenesis of fatty liver induced metabolic diseases.

  9. Anti-aggregatory effect of boswellic acid in high-fat fed rats: involvement of redox and inflammatory cascades

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A high-fat diet is one of the main dietary factors promoting platelet aggregation. The present study was conducted to elucidate the involvement of boswellic acid (BA) on the platelet hyperaggregability in HFD-fed rats. As platelet hyperaggregability in HFD rats is closely linked to inflammation and enhanced free radical production, the present study was extended to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect of BA on HFD-promoted platelet aggregation. Material and methods Rats were assigned to normal, HFD-fed, aspirin-treated (30 mg/kg), and BA-treated (250 and 500 mg/kg) groups. Results Boswellic acid administration in a high dose was effective in attenuating the severity of hyperlipidemia and platelet aggregation, indicated by lower collagen/epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation, as evidenced by the significant increase (p < 0.05) in the circulating platelet count and reduction in the number of thrombi in the lungs. Moreover, it attenuated the oxidative stress and the intensity of inflammatory mediators associated with platelet hyperaggregability, as evidenced by the inhibitory effects on interlukin-1β, COX-2 and tumor necrosis factor-α, indicating that the antiplatelet activity of BA is likely a consequence of controlling oxidative stress and inflammation. Conclusions The present data suggest that BA shows a promising anti-aggregatory effect by attenuating the enhanced hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and inflammation associated with HFD. PMID:27904529

  10. Anti-hyperlipidemic and cardioprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum L. fixed oil in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Suanarunsawat, Thamolwan; Boonnak, Theewara; Na Ayutthaya, Watcharaporn Devakul; Thirawarapan, Suwan

    2010-01-01

    Ocimum sanctum (OS) has a lipid-lowering action in both normal and diabetic animals. Because OS leaves are rich in oil, the present study was conducted to explain the anti-hyperlipidemic and organ-protective effect of OS fixed oil in rats fed with a high fat (HF) diet. OS fixed oil was extracted by hexane and the fatty acids composition identified by GC-MS. Four groups of male Wistar rats included a normal control group, a high fat fed-diet (HF) group, a HF group treated with OS fixed oil, and a HF group treated with a reference drug simvastatin. The results show that OS fixed oil contains five kinds of fatty acids, of which alpha-linolenic acid was the major fatty acid. OS fixed oil depressed high serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, and AI, whereas no significant effect on HDL-C was observed. OS fixed oil also suppressed high levels of liver cholesterol and triglyceride with no significant effect on both lipids in feces. In addition, OS fixed oil normalized the high serum levels of LDH and CK-MB but no significant effect on high serum levels of ALT, AST, and ALP was obtained. We conclude that treatment with OS fixed oil during the last three weeks of HF diet feeding decreased the high serum lipid profile and expressed antiartherogenic and cardioprotective actions against hyperlipidemia. The anti-hyperlipidemic action of OS fixed oil was mainly resulted from the suppression of liver lipid synthesis. Linolenic acid and linoleic acid contained in OS fixed oil were possibly responsible for both lipid-lowering and cardiac protective action against hyperlipidemia.

  11. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  12. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Guilherme L.; Crisp, Alex H.; de Oliveira, Maria R. M.; da Silva, Carlos A.; Silva, Jadson O.; Duarte, Ana C. G. O.; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Verlengia, Rozangela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): control standard diet (CS), control high-fat diet (CH), continuous training standard diet (CTS), continuous training high-fat diet (CTH), interval training standard diet (ITS), and interval training high-fat diet (ITH). The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH) on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats. PMID:26904718

  13. Effect of High Intensity Interval and Continuous Swimming Training on Body Mass Adiposity Level and Serum Parameters in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Guilherme L; Crisp, Alex H; de Oliveira, Maria R M; da Silva, Carlos A; Silva, Jadson O; Duarte, Ana C G O; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Verlengia, Rozangela

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of interval and continuous training on the body mass gain and adiposity levels of rats fed a high-fat diet. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups, standard diet and high-fat diet, and received their respective diets for a period of four weeks without exercise stimuli. After this period, the animals were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): control standard diet (CS), control high-fat diet (CH), continuous training standard diet (CTS), continuous training high-fat diet (CTH), interval training standard diet (ITS), and interval training high-fat diet (ITH). The interval and continuous training consisted of a swimming exercise performed over eight weeks. CH rats had greater body mass gain, sum of adipose tissues mass, and lower serum high density lipoprotein values than CS. The trained groups showed lower values of feed intake, caloric intake, body mass gain, and adiposity levels compared with the CH group. No significant differences were observed between the trained groups (CTS versus ITS and CTH versus ITH) on body mass gains and adiposity levels. In conclusion, both training methodologies were shown to be effective in controlling body mass gain and adiposity levels in high-fat diet fed rats.

  14. Thyroidectomy stimulates glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion and attenuates hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong Yeon; Kim, Mikyung; Kang, Yuna; Lee, Wonmok; Ha, Tae Kyung; Seo, Ji Hae; Son, Young Gil; Ha, Eunyoung

    2017-09-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) as a therapeutic intervention to treat obesity has been tried but the effect of THs on body weight and the mechanistic details of which are far from clear. This study was designed to determine and elucidate the mechanistic details of metabolic action of THs in high-fat diet (HFD) fed Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Rats were made surgically hypothyroid (thyroidectomy, Thx). Body weights and food and water intake profoundly decreased in HFD fed thyroidectomized group (HN Thx). Results showed that delayed insulin response, increased total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein in HN Thx. Unexpectedly, however, Thx reduced serum and hepatic triglyceride concentrations. Further studies revealed that Thx dramatically increased circulating GLP-1 as well as increased expressions of GLP-1 in small intestine. Diminished hepatic expressions of lipogenic genes, were observed in HN Thx group. Beta-catenin and glutamine synthetase, a known target of β-catenin, were up-regulated in the liver of HN Thx group. The expressions of gluconeogenic genes G6P and PCK were reduced in the liver of HN Thx group. The results may suggest that surgery-induced hypothyroidism increases GLP-1, the actions of which may in part be responsible for the reduction in water intake, appetite and hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Fructus xanthii improves lipid homeostasis in the epididymal adipose tissue of rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    LI, XIUMIN; YANG, MINGXING; LI, ZHIPENG; XUE, MEI; SHANGGUAN, ZHAOSHUI; OU, ZHIMIN; LIU, MING; LIU, SUHUAN; YANG, SHUYU; LI, XUEJUN

    2016-01-01

    High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity triggers common features of human metabolic syndrome in rats. Our previous study showed that Fructus xanthii (FX) attenuates HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of FX on lipid metabolism in epididymal fat (EF), and examine its underlying mechanisms. Aqueous extraction fractions of FX or vehicle were orally administered by gavage for 6 weeks to rats fed either a HFD or a normal chow diet (NCD). The levels of circulating free fatty acid (FFA) were determined in plasma, and the expression levels of lipid metabolism- and inflammation-associated genes in the EF were measured using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The general morphology, size and number of adipocytes in the EF, and the levels of macrophage infiltration were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin staining or immunohistochemical staining. FX decreased circulating levels of FFA, increased the expression levels of sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein-1c, FAS, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase and lipoprotein lipase lipogenic genes in the EF. FX increased the numbers of adipocytes in the EF, and featured a shift towards smaller adipocyte size. Compared with the vehicle-treated rats, positive staining of F4/80 was more dispersed in the FX-treated rats, and the percentage of F4/80 positive cells was significantly decreased. FX attenuated HFD-induced lipid dyshomeostasis in the epididymal adipose tissue. PMID:26648271

  16. Olive leaf extract attenuates cardiac, hepatic, and metabolic changes in high carbohydrate-, high fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Poudyal, Hemant; Campbell, Fiona; Brown, Lindsay

    2010-05-01

    Olive oil, an important component of the Mediterranean diet, produces cardioprotective effects, probably due to both oleic acid and the polyphenols such as oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. Our aim in this study was to assess whether a polyphenol-enriched extract from the leaves of Olea europaea L. with oleuropein as the major component attenuated the cardiovascular, hepatic, and metabolic signs of a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF) diet (carbohydrate, 52%; fat, 24%, 25% fructose in drinking water) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed either a cornstarch diet (CS) or a HCHF diet for a total of 16 wk. Diets of the treatment groups [CS+olive leaf extract (OLE) and HCHF+OLE] were supplemented with 3% OLE after 8 wk of being fed their respective CS or HCHF diets for a further 8 wk. After 16 wk, HCHF rats developed signs of metabolic syndrome, including elevated abdominal and hepatic fat deposition, collagen deposition in heart and liver, cardiac stiffness, and oxidative stress markers (plasma malondialdehyde and uric acid concentrations), with diminished aortic ring reactivity, abnormal plasma lipid profile, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypertension. Compared with HCHF rats, those in the HCHF+OLE group had improved or normalized cardiovascular, hepatic, and metabolic signs with the exception of elevated blood pressure. These results strongly suggest that an OLE containing polyphenols such as oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol reverses the chronic inflammation and oxidative stress that induces the cardiovascular, hepatic, and metabolic symptoms in this rat model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes without changing blood pressure.

  17. Physical exercise remodels visceral adipose tissue and mitochondrial lipid metabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Rodrigues, Sílvia; Rodríguez, Amaia; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Gonçalves, Inês O; Beleza, Jorge; Frühbeck, Gema; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José

    2017-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of two physical exercise models, voluntary physical activity (VPA) and endurance training (ET) as preventive and therapeutic strategies, respectively, on lipid accumulation regulators and mitochondrial content in VAT of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old, n=60) were assigned into sedentary and VPA groups fed isoenergetic diets: standard (S, 35 kcal% fat) or HFD (71 kcal% fat). The VPA groups had free access to wheel running during the entire protocol. After 9 weeks, half of the sedentary animals were exercised on a treadmill while maintaining the dietary treatments. The HFD induced no changes in plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol levels and decreased oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunit IV and increased truncated/full-length sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1c (SREBP1c) ratio in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). VPA decreased plasma glycerol levels, aquaglyceroporin 7 (AQP7) and increased subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) protein, in standard diet fed animals. Eight weeks of ET decreased body weight, visceral adiposity and adipocyte size and plasma NEFA and glycerol levels, as well as AQP7 protein expression in eWAT. ET increased fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36), mitochondrial content of complexes IV and V subunits, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamic (mitofusins and optic atrophy 1)-related proteins. Moreover, lipogenesis-related markers (SREBP1c and acetyl CoA carboxylase) were reduced after 8 weeks of ET. In conclusion, ET-induced alterations reflect a positive effect on mitochondrial function and the overall VAT metabolism of HFD-induced obese rats. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Brown (BAT) and white (WAT) adipose tissue in high-fat junk food (HFJF) and chow-fed rats with dorsomedial hypothalamic lesions (DMNL rats).

    PubMed

    Bernardis, L L; Bellinger, L L

    1991-05-15

    Male weanling rats received dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus lesions (DMNL) or sham operations and were fed for 173 postoperative days a high-fat diet and given a 32% sucrose solution as drinking fluid. This was supplemented with chocolate chip cookies, potato chips and marshmallows. Other DMNL and sham-operated controls were fed lab chow instead of the above high-fat junk food diet (HFJF) and given tap water instead of 32% sucrose solution. All animals were killed on postoperative day 174. Caloric intake per 100 g body weight was similar in all groups; however, the HFJF fed control and DMNL rats had significantly elevated carcass fat. Since HFJF-DMNL rats were not nearly as obese as the HFJF control animals, it appears that the DMNL offered some protection against the HFJF-diet-produced obesity. When their smaller body size is considered. DMN lesions had no effect on brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass in chow-fed or HFJF fed rats, whereas BAT size was significantly enlarged in HFJF-fed control animals. This suggests but does not prove that HFJF-fed controls, but not DMNL rats, may be using dietary-induced thermogenesis (DIT) to attenuate their obesity. We hypothesize that the HFJF-fed DMNL may not be enhancing DIT as reflected in normal BAT size, because they had not attained a degree of fatness to activate this system, or the DMN lesions impaired its activation. Both HFJF-fed groups showed reduced linear growth compared to their counterparts. The reason for stunting is uncertain, but may be related to their low plasma insulin concentrations.

  19. Resveratrol Increases Nephrin and Podocin Expression and Alleviates Renal Damage in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing-Rong; Ren, Yan-Long; Zhu, Jia-Jia; Hu, Yan-Jin; Zheng, Jin-Su; Fan, Hui; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Guang; Liu, Wen-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol is well known for its anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties, and has been shown to be effective in alleviating the development of obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the effect of resveratrol on renal damage in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and its possible mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, HFD, and HFD plus resveratrol (treated with 100 mg/kg/day resveratrol). Body weight, serum and urine metabolic parameters, and kidney histology were measured. Meanwhile, the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), and the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), nephrin and podocin in kidney were detected. Our work showed that resveratrol alleviated dyslipidemia and renal damage induced by HFD, decreased MDA level and increased SOD activity. Furthermore, the elevated NF-κB activity, increased TNF-α and MCP-1 levels, and reduced expressions of nephrin and podocin induced by HFD were significantly reversed by resveratrol. These results suggest resveratrol could ameliorate renal injury in rats fed a HFD, and the mechanisms are associated with suppressing oxidative stress and NF-κB signaling pathway that in turn up-regulate nephrin and podocin protein expression. PMID:25025298

  20. Effects of dietary carbohydrate replaced with wild rice (Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz) on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Shufen; Zhang, Hong; Qin, Liqiang; Zhai, Chengkai

    2013-02-15

    Wild rice (WR) is a very nutritious grain that has been used to treat diabetes in Chinese medicinal practice. City diet (CD) is based on the diet consumed by Asian area residents in modern society, which is rich in saturated fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of replacing white rice and processed wheat starch of CD with WR as the chief source of dietary carbohydrates on insulin resistance in rats fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet. Except the rats of the low-fat (LF) diet group, the rats of the other three groups, including to high-fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet, CD and WR diet, were fed with high-fat/cholesterol diets for eight weeks. The rats fed with CD exhibited higher weight gain and lower insulin sensitivity compared to the rats consuming a HFC diet. However, WR suppressed high-fat/cholesterol diet-induced insulin resistance. WR decreased liver homogenate triglyceride and free fatty acids levels, raised serum adiponectin concentration and reduced serum lipocalin-2 and visfatin concentrations. In addition, the WR diet potently augmented the relative expressions of adiponectin receptor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, alpha and gamma, and abated relative expressions of leptin and lipocalin-2 in the tissues of interest. These findings indicate that WR is effective in ameliorating abnormal glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rats, even when the diet consumed is high in fat and cholesterol.

  1. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low aerobic capacity rats fed an acute high fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that low capacity running (LCR) rats fed acute high fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with...

  2. Ameliorating effect and potential mechanism of Rehmannia glutinosa oligosaccharides on the impaired glucose metabolism in chronic stress rats fed with high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruxue; Zhou, Jun; Li, Maoxing; Ma, Haigang; Qiu, Jianguo; Luo, Xiaohong; Jia, Zhengping

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the Rehmannia glutinosa oligosaccharides (ROS) ameliorate the impaired glucose metabolism and the potential mechanism in chronic stress rats fed with high-fat diet. The rats were fed by a high-fat diet and simultaneously stimulated by chronic stress over 5 weeks. Body weight, fasting plasma glucose, intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), plasma lipids, gluconeogenesis test (GGT), glycogen content, and corticosterone, insulin and leptin levels were measured. The results showed that ROS administration (100, 200 mg/kg, i.g.) for 5 weeks exerted the effects of increasing the organ weights of thymus and spleen, lowering the fasting plasma glucose level, improving impaired glucose tolerance, increasing the contents of liver and muscle glycogen, decreasing the gluconeogenesis ability, plasma-free fatty acid's level, as well as plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in chronic stress and high-fat fed rats, especially in the group of 200mg/kg; while the plasma corticosterone level was decreased, and plasma leptin level was increased. These results suggest that ROS exert an ameliorating effect of impaired glucose metabolism in chronic stress rats fed with high-fat diet, and the potential mechanism may be mediated through rebuilding the glucose homeostasis in the neuroendocrine immuno-modulation (NIM) network through multilinks and multitargets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of telmisartan and olmesartan on insulin sensitivity and renal function in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Hayato; Ushijima, Kentaro; Arakawa, Yusuke; Aizawa, Ken-Ichi; Fujimura, Akio

    2016-07-01

    Although telmisartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), has an agonistic action for proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in vitro, it remains to be determined whether telmisartan exerts such an action in vivo using a non-toxic dose (<5 mg/kg in rats). To address the issue, telmisartan (2 mg/kg) and olmesartan (2 mg/kg), another ARB without PPAR-γ agonistic action, were given to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) fed a high fat diet (HFD). HFD decreased plasma adiponectin, and caused insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage, which were improved by ARBs. Protective effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ. In addition, in vitro study showed that 1 μM of telmisartan did not elevate the mRNA expression of adipose protein 2, which is a PPAR-γ-stimulated adipogenic marker gene, in preadipocytes with 3% albumin. To obtain 1 μM of plasma concentration, oral dose of telmisartan was calculated to be 6 mg/kg, which indicates that PPAR-γ agonistic action is negligible with a non-toxic dose of telmisartan (<5 mg/kg) in rats. This study showed that 2 mg/kg of telmisartan and olmesartan ameliorated insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and renal damage in SHR fed a HFD. As beneficial effects of telmisartan and olmesartan did not significantly differ, these were mediated through the PPAR-γ-independent actions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in Gut Microbiota in Rats Fed a High Fat Diet Correlate with Obesity-Associated Metabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Christopher A.; Raipuria, Mukesh; Huinao, Karina D.; Mitchell, Hazel M.; Morris, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD) at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks) to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (P<0.0001), this being compensated by an increase in abundance of propionate/acetate producing species. To further understand the influence of these species on the development of the obese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD. PMID:25992554

  5. Changes in gut microbiota in rats fed a high fat diet correlate with obesity-associated metabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Virginie; Kaakoush, Nadeem O; Maloney, Christopher A; Raipuria, Mukesh; Huinao, Karina D; Mitchell, Hazel M; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD) at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks) to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (P<0.0001), this being compensated by an increase in abundance of propionate/acetate producing species. To further understand the influence of these species on the development of the obese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD.

  6. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Machida, Tatsuya; Miyai, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kouhei; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-01

    Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 18) were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water) and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity. PMID:28098768

  7. Preventive Effects of Drinking Hydrogen-Rich Water on Gingival Oxidative Stress and Alveolar Bone Resorption in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Ekuni, Daisuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Machida, Tatsuya; Miyai, Hisataka; Fujimori, Kouhei; Morita, Manabu

    2017-01-13

    Obesity induces gingival oxidative stress, which is involved in the progression of alveolar bone resorption. The antioxidant effect of hydrogen-rich water may attenuate gingival oxidative stress and prevent alveolar bone resorption in cases of obesity. We examined whether hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 18) were divided into three groups of six rats each: a control group (fed a regular diet and drinking distilled water) and two experimental groups (fed a high-fat diet and drinking distilled water or hydrogen-rich water). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was determined to evaluate oxidative stress. The bone mineral density of the alveolar bone was analyzed by micro-computerized tomography. Obese rats, induced by a high-fat diet, showed a higher gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and a lower level of alveolar bone density compared to the control group. Drinking hydrogen-rich water suppressed body weight gain, lowered gingival level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and reduced alveolar bone resorption in rats on a high-fat diet. The results indicate that hydrogen-rich water could suppress gingival oxidative stress and alveolar bone resorption by limiting obesity.

  8. Sesamin exerts renoprotective effects by enhancing NO bioactivity in renovascular hypertensive rats fed with high-fat-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang-Qi; Kong, Xiang; Zhou, Yong; Huang, Kai; Yang, Jie-Ren; Li, Xin-Li

    2012-05-15

    In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of sesamin on kidney damage and renal endothelial dysfunction in two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertensive rats fed with a high-fat-sucrose diet (2K1C rats on HFS diet). Sesamin was intragastrically administered to 2K1C rats on HFS diet for eight weeks. Then, we measured the levels of serum hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), total antioxidant capability (T-AOC), renal malonaldehyde (MDA), total-erythrocuprein (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P(X)). The expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), nitrotyrosine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit p47(phox) in the left and right renal cortexes were detected by Western blotting. Pathological changes in the left and right renal cortexes were observed by periodic acid-schiff staining (PAS) and Masson's staining. Treatment with sesamin (120 and 60mg/kg⁻¹·d⁻¹) in 2K1C rats on HFS diet improved renal function, corrected structural abnormalities, and attenuated renal oxidative stress. Furthermore, sesamin increased eNOS protein expression and reduced nitrotyrosine and p47phox protein expression. These results demonstrated that long-term treatment with sesamin had renoprotective effect and improved renal endothelial dysfunction via upregulation of eNOS expression and reduction of NO oxidative inactivation in both clipped and contralateral kidneys of 2K1C rats on HFS diet, and sesamin may have a favorably therapeutic value in treating chronic kidney disease in patients with hypertension and hyperlipemia.

  9. Rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients reduces atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to cardiovascular system, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the refining process. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients on the atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet. Methods The rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO) or fortified refined rapeseed oil with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients (L-, M- and H-FRRO). Forty male SD rats were divided into four groups. One group received RRO diet and other groups received L-, M- and H-FRRO diet for 10 weeks. Results Micronutrients supplementation significantly increased plasma antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of GPx, CAT and SOD as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These micronutrients also reduced the plasma contents of TG, TC and LDL-C and increased the ratio of HDL-C/LDL-C. In addition, in parallel with the enhancement of these micronutrients, plasma levels of IL-6 and CRP declined remarkably. Conclusion Rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent atherogenesis by ameliorating plasma oxidative stress, lipid profile and inflammation. PMID:21663699

  10. Pancreatic Fat Accumulation, Fibrosis, and Acinar Cell Injury in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat Fed a Chronic High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Akiko; Makino, Naohiko; Tozawa, Tomohiro; Shirahata, Nakao; Honda, Teiichiro; Ikeda, Yushi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ito, Miho; Kakizaki, Yasuharu; Akamatsu, Manabu; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kawata, Sumio

    2014-01-01

    Objective The histological alteration of the exocrine pancreas in obesity has not been clarified. In the present study, we investigated biochemical and histological changes in the exocrine pancreas of obese model rats. Methods Zucker lean rats were fed a standard diet, and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were divided into 2 groups fed a standard diet and a high-fat diet, respectively. These experimental groups were fed each of the diets from 6 weeks until 12, 18, 24 weeks of age. We performed blood biochemical assays and histological analysis of the pancreas. Results In the ZDF rats fed a high-fat diet, the ratio of accumulated pancreatic fat area relative to exocrine gland area was increased significantly at 18 weeks of age in comparison with the other 2 groups (P < 0.05), and lipid droplets were observed in acinar cells. Subsequently, at 24 weeks of age in this group, pancreatic fibrosis and the serum exocrine pancreatic enzyme levels were increased significantly relative to the other 2 groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions In ZDF rats fed a chronic high-fat diet, fat accumulates in pancreatic acinar cells, and this fatty change seems to be related to subsequent pancreatic fibrosis and acinar cell injury. PMID:24717823

  11. Antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Du, Huan; You, Jeong-Soon; Zhao, Xu; Park, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-08-24

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaf has been used to treat obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Four week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups with 8 rats in each group for a period of 6 weeks (normal diet, N group; high fat diet, HF group; high fat diet + lotus leaf hot water extract, HFL group; high fat diet + lotus leaf hot water extract + taurine, HFLT group). Lotus leaf hot water extract was orally administrated to HFL and HFLT groups and the same amount of distilled water was orally administered (400 mg/kg/day) to N and HF groups. Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v). The body weight gain and relative weights of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues were significantly lower in N, HFL and HFLT groups compared to HF group. HFL and HFLT groups showed lower concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum. HFLT group showed higher the ratio of high density lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol compared to HFL group. HFLT group showed better blood lipid profiles compared to HFL group. Lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation showed antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects in high fat diet-induced obese rats, which was more effective than lotus leaf hot water extract alone.

  12. Antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaf has been used to treat obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Methods Four week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups with 8 rats in each group for a period of 6 weeks (normal diet, N group; high fat diet, HF group; high fat diet + lotus leaf hot water extract, HFL group; high fat diet + lotus leaf hot water extract + taurine, HFLT group). Lotus leaf hot water extract was orally administrated to HFL and HFLT groups and the same amount of distilled water was orally administered (400 mg/kg/day) to N and HF groups. Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v). Results The body weight gain and relative weights of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues were significantly lower in N, HFL and HFLT groups compared to HF group. HFL and HFLT groups showed lower concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum. HFLT group showed higher the ratio of high density lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol compared to HFL group. HFLT group showed better blood lipid profiles compared to HFL group. Conclusions Lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation showed antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects in high fat diet-induced obese rats, which was more effective than lotus leaf hot water extract alone. PMID:20804619

  13. Additional effect of metformin and celecoxib against lipid dysregulation and adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat fed rats with insulin resistance and fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chieh-Hua; Hung, Yi-Jen; Hsieh, Po-Shiuan

    2016-10-15

    We investigated the effects of metformin and celecoxib on obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation, insulin resistance (IR), fatty liver, and high blood pressure in high-fat (HF) fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either regular or HF diet for 8 weeks. Rats fed with regular diet were treated with vehicle for further 4 weeks. HF fed rats were divided into 6 groups, namely, vehicle, celecoxib (30mg/kg/day), metformin (300mg/kg/day), metformin (150mg/kg/day), metformin (300mg/kg/day) with celecoxib (30mg/kg/day), and metformin (150mg/kg/day) with celecoxib (15mg/kg/day) for additional 4 weeks. Increased body weight in HF fed rats was significantly reduced by metformin alone and metformin combined with celecoxib. The increases in the HOMA-IR value and the area under the curve of glucose following an oral glucose tolerance test, systolic blood pressure, and adipocyte size were significantly diminished in treated rats, especially rats undergoing combined treatment. Treatments with either celecoxib or in combination with metformin resulted in a reduction in AT macrophage infiltration and decreases in levels of adipose tissue TNF-α, MCP-1, and leptin levels in high-fat (HF) fed rats. Furthermore, the elevated hepatic triglycerides content was significantly decreased in the combined treatment group compared to that of groups of celecoxib or metformin alone. Celecoxib exerts a synergistic beneficial effect with metformin on and obesity-associated metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in high-fat fed rats.

  14. Liraglutide prevents microvascular insulin resistance and preserves muscle capillary density in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Chai, Weidong; Fu, Zhuo; Aylor, Kevin W; Barrett, Eugene J; Liu, Zhenqi

    2016-09-01

    Muscle microvasculature critically regulates endothelial exchange surface area to facilitate transendothelial delivery of insulin, nutrients, and oxygen to myocytes. Insulin resistance blunts insulin-mediated microvascular recruitment and decreases muscle capillary density; both contribute to lower microvascular blood volume. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and its analogs are able to dilate blood vessels and stimulate endothelial cell proliferation. In this study, we aim to determine the effects of sustained stimulation of the GLP-1 receptors on insulin-mediated capillary recruitment and metabolic insulin responses, small arterial endothelial function, and muscle capillary density. Rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 wk with or without simultaneous administration of liraglutide and subjected to a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp for 120 min after an overnight fast. Insulin-mediated muscle microvascular recruitment and muscle oxygenation were determined before and during insulin infusion. Muscle capillary density was determined and distal saphenous artery used for determination of endothelial function and insulin-mediated vasodilation. HFD induced muscle microvascular insulin resistance and small arterial vessel endothelial dysfunction and decreased muscle capillary density. Simultaneous treatment of HFD-fed rats with liraglutide prevented all of these changes and improved insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. These were associated with a significantly increased AMPK phosphorylation and the expressions of VEGF and its receptors. We conclude that GLP-1 receptor agonists may exert their salutary glycemic effect via improving microvascular insulin sensitivity and muscle capillary density during the development of insulin resistance, and early use of GLP-1 receptor agonists may attenuate metabolic insulin resistance as well as prevent cardiovascular complications of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Antioxidant and hepatic protective effects of lotus root hot water extract with taurine supplementation in rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Du, Huan; Zhao, Xu; You, Jeong-Soon; Park, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chang, Kyung-Ja

    2010-08-24

    Nelumbo nucifera, known as sacred lotus, is a well-known medicinal plant and this lotus root is commonly used as food compared to different parts of this plant. This study was conducted to investigate the antioxidant and hepatic protective effects of lotus root hot water extract with taurine supplementation in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats (4-week-old) were randomly divided into four groups (n=8) for 6 weeks (normal diet, N group; high fat diet, HF group; high fat diet + lotus root hot water extract, HFR group; high fat diet + lotus root hot water extract + taurine, HFRT group). Lotus root hot water extract was orally administrated (400 mg/kg/day) to HFR and HFRT groups and the same amount of distilled water was orally administered to N and HF groups. Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v). The activities of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in serum were lower in HFR and HFRT groups compared to HF group. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance contents in all groups fed a high fat diet were higher compared to N group. The activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes were higher in HFR and HFRT groups compared to HF group. These results suggest that lotus root hot water extract with taurine supplementation shows antioxidant and hepatic protective effects in high fat diet-induced obese rats.

  16. High-viscosity dietary fibers reduce adiposity and decrease hepatic steatosis in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Brockman, David A; Chen, Xiaoli; Gallaher, Daniel D

    2014-09-01

    Viscous dietary fiber consumption lowers the postprandial glucose curve and may decrease obesity and associated comorbidities such as insulin resistance and fatty liver. We determined the effect of 2 viscous fibers, one fermentable and one not, on the development of adiposity, fatty liver, and metabolic flexibility in a model of diet-induced obesity. Rats were fed a normal-fat (NF) diet (26% energy from fat), a high-fat diet (60% energy from fat), each containing 5% fiber as cellulose (CL; nonviscous and nonfermentable), or 5% of 1 of 2 highly viscous fibers-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC; nonfermentable) or guar gum (GG; fermentable). After 10 wk, fat mass percentage in the NF (18.0%; P = 0.03) and GG groups (17.0%; P < 0.01) was lower than the CL group (20.7%). The epididymal fat pad weight of the NF (3.9 g; P = 0.04), HPMC (3.9 g; P = 0.03), and GG groups (3.6 g; P < 0.01) was also lower than the CL group (5.0 g). The HPMC (0.11 g/g liver) and GG (0.092 g/g liver) groups had lower liver lipid concentrations compared with the CL group (0.14 g/g liver). Fat mass percentage, epididymal fat pad weight, and liver lipid concentration were not different among the NF, HPMC, and GG groups. The respiratory quotient was higher during the transition from the diet-deprived to fed state in the GG group (P = 0.002) and tended to be higher in the HPMC group (P = 0.06) compared with the CL group, suggesting a quicker shift from fatty acid (FA) to carbohydrate oxidation. The HPMC group [15.1 nmol/(mg ⋅ h)] had higher ex vivo palmitate oxidation in muscle compared with the GG [11.7 nmol/(mg ⋅ h); P = 0.04] and CL groups [10.8 nmol/(mg ⋅ h); P < 0.01], implying a higher capacity to oxidize FAs. Viscous fibers can reduce the adiposity and hepatic steatosis that accompany a high-fat diet, and increase metabolic flexibility, regardless of fermentability.

  17. Nerium oleander Distillate Improves Fat and Glucose Metabolism in High-Fat Diet-Fed Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bas, Ahmet Levent; Demirci, Sule; Yazihan, Nuray; Uney, Kamil; Ermis Kaya, Ezgi

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg bw) in all rats of five groups after being fed for 2 weeks high-fat diet. Type 2 diabetic Nerium-oleander- (NO-) administered groups received the NO distillate at a dose of 3.75, 37.5, and 375 μg/0.5 mL of distilled water (NO-0.1, NO-1, NO-10, resp.); positive control group had 0.6 mg glibenclamide/kg bw/d by gavage daily for 12 weeks. Type 2 diabetic negative control group had no treatment. NO distillate administration reduced fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, atherogenic index, triglyceride-HDL ratio, insulin, and leptin levels. Improved beta cell function and HDL concentration were observed by NO usage. HDL percentage in total cholesterol of all NO groups was similar to healthy control. NO-10 distillate enhanced mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor- (PPAR-) α, β, and γ in adipose tissue and PPAR-α–γ in liver. The findings from both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that the considerable beneficial effect of NO distillate administration at a dose of 375 μg/0.5 mL of distilled water may offer new approaches to treatment strategies that target both fat and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23251156

  18. Fish oil supplementation to rats fed high-fat diet during pregnancy prevents development of impaired insulin sensitivity in male adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Albert, Benjamin B; Vickers, Mark H; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M; Segovia, Stephanie A; Derraik, José G B; Garg, Manohar L; Cameron-Smith, David; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2017-07-17

    We examined whether maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy could prevent development of insulin resistance in adult male offspring of rat dams fed a high-fat diet. Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rat dams were randomised into four treatment groups: Con-Con, dams fed a control diet (fat: 15% kcal) and administered water by gavage; Con-FO, control diet with unoxidised fish oil by gavage; HF-Con, high-fat diet (fat: 45% kcal) and water by gavage; and HF-FO, high-fat diet and unoxidised fish oil by gavage. Dams were fed the allocated diet ad libitum during pregnancy and lactation, but daily gavage occurred only during pregnancy. After weaning, male offspring consumed a chow diet ad libitum until adulthood. Maternal high-fat diet led to increased food consumption, adiposity, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides and plasma leptin in adult HF-Con offspring. HF-Con offspring also exhibited lower insulin sensitivity than Con-Con rats. Male offspring from HF-FO group were similar to HF-Con regarding food consumption and most metabolic parameters. However, insulin sensitivity in the HF-FO group was improved relative to the HF-Con offspring. Supplementation with unoxidised n-3 PUFA rich oils in the setting of a maternal obesogenic diet improved insulin sensitivity, but had no impact on body composition of adult male offspring.

  19. Silk and silkworm pupa peptides suppress adipogenesis in preadipocytes and fat accumulation in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Hee; Park, Dongsun; Yang, Goeun; Bae, Dae-Kwon; Yang, Yun-Hui; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kim, Dajeong; Kyung, Jangbeen; Yeon, Sungho; Koo, Kyo Chul; Lee, Jeong-Yong; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Joo, Seong Soo; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to confirm the anti-obesity activity of a silk peptide (SP) and a silkworm pupa peptide (SPP) in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and to elucidate their action mechanism(s) in a preadipocyte culture system. In an in vitro mechanistic study, the differentiation and maturation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were stimulated with insulin (5 μg/mL), and effects of SP and SPP on the adipogenesis of mature adipocytes were assessed. In an in vivo anti-obesity study, male C57BL/6 mice were fed an HFD containing SP or SPP (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0%) for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. Hormonal stimulation of preadipocytes led to a 50-70% increase in adipogenesis. Polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses revealed increases in adipogenesis-specific genes (leptin and Acrp30) and proteins (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and Acrp30). The hormone-induced adipogenesis and activated gene expression was substantially inhibited by treatment with SP and SPP (1-50 μg/mL). The HFD markedly increased body weight gain by increasing the weight of epididymal and mesenteric fat. Body and fat weights were significantly reduced by SP and SPP, in which decreases in the area of abdominal adipose tissue and the size of epididymal adipocytes were confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and microscopic examination, respectively. Long-term HFD caused hepatic lipid accumulation and increased blood triglycerides and cholesterol, in addition to their regulatory factors Acrp30 and leptin. However, SP and SPP recovered the concentrations of Acrp30 and leptin, and attenuated steatosis. SP and SPP inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes and adipogenesis by modulating signal transduction pathways and improve HFD-induced obesity by reducing lipid accumulation and the size of adipocytes.

  20. Effect of different exercise protocols on metabolic profiles and fatty acid metabolism in skeletal muscle in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Youqing; Xu, Xiangfeng; Yue, Kai; Xu, Guodong

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of mild-intensity endurance, high-intensity interval, and concurrent exercise on preventing high-fat diet-induced obesity. Male rats were divided into five groups, control diet/sedentary group, high-fat diet/sedentary, high-fat diet/endurance exercise, high-fat diet/interval exercise (HI), and high-fat diet/concurrent exercise. All exercise groups were made to exercise for 10 weeks, with matched running distances. Body weight, fat content, blood metabolites, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and adipocyte and liver lipid droplet size were assessed, and the expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes was quantified. All exercise protocols reduced body weight, adiposity, serum triglycerides, and fasting glucose and also improved QUICKI to some extent. However, only HI prevented obesity and its associated pathologies completely. The expression of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 was elevated in all rats fed a high-fat diet whereas carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) expression was increased with exercise. Rev-erbα expression was elevated only in the HI group, which also had the highest level of CPT1 expression. The HI-induced increase in Rev-erbα and CPT1 expression was associated with the complete prevention of diet-induced obesity. Moreover, the increased caloric expenditure achieved with this protocol was preferential over other exercise regimens, and might be used to improve lipid metabolism. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  1. Hypoglycaemic effects of fermented mycelium of Paecilomyces farinosus (G30801) on high-fat fed rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huai-En; Jian, Chien-Huei; Chen, Shu-Fen; Chen, Tse-Min; Lee, Son-Tay; Chang, Chun-Sheng; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2010-05-01

    Paceilomyces farinosus is an entomogenous fungus with a powerful insecticidal activity against the larvae of Lipidoptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. However, the hypoglycaemic activity of P. farinosus extract has not been studied. This study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and anti-diabetic effects of P. farinosus (G30801) in rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes given a high-fat and compared with normal rats. Rats fed with high fat diet for 2 months and injected with (30 or 50 mg STZ/kg bw) showed raised level of plasma triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, D-glucose concentration and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) %. The STZ-induced type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in rats was further confirmed using glucose tolerance test and insulin-glucose tolerance test. P. farinosus (G30801) was fermented in different media [soybean (S), black bean (B), and rice (R)] and their extracts were tested for hypoglycaemic effect using T1DM and T2DM rats. STZ (30 and 50 mg/kg bw) could successfully induce T2DM and T1DM in rats, respectively. No change in blood glucose levels were noted in P. farinosus (R medium) treated normal rats (P < 0.05). In addition, STZ-high fat fed diabetic (T1DM and T2DM) rats when treated with P. farinosus (R medium) showed decreased blood glucose level as compared with P. farinosus extracted from B and S medium. Our findings showed hypoglycaemic effect of fermented P. farinosus (G30801) in experimental diabetes rat model fed with high fat diet.

  2. Wholegrain barley β-glucan fermentation does not improve glucose tolerance in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Belobrajdic, Damien P; Jobling, Stephen A; Morell, Matthew K; Taketa, Shin; Bird, Anthony R

    2015-02-01

    Fermentation of oat and barley β-glucans is believed to mediate in part their metabolic health benefits, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that barley β-glucan fermentation raises circulating incretin hormone levels and improves glucose control, independent of other grain components. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and then randomly allocated to 1 of 3 dietary treatments for 2 weeks. The low- (LBG, 0% β-glucan) and high- (HBG, 3% β-glucan) β-glucan diets contained 25% wholegrain barley and similar levels of insoluble dietary fiber, available carbohydrate, and energy. A low-fiber diet (basal) was included for comparison. Immediately prior to the dietary intervention, gastric emptying rate (using the (13)C-octanoic breath test) and postprandial glycemic response of each diet were determined. At the end of the study, circulating gut hormone levels were determined; and a glucose tolerance test was performed. The rats were then killed, and indices of cecal fermentation were assessed. Diet did not affect live weight; however, the HBG diet, compared to basal and LBG, reduced food intake, tended to slow gastric emptying, increased cecal digesta mass and individual and total short-chain fatty acid pools, and lowered digesta pH. In contrast, circulating levels of glucose, insulin, gastric-inhibitory peptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucose tolerance were unaffected by diet. In conclusion, wholegrain barley β-glucan suppressed feed intake and increased cecal fermentation but did not improve postprandial glucose control or insulin sensitivity. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Il-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE) and Nopal dry power (NADP) in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1) nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control); (2) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control); (3) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE); and (4) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone). In results, NPWE and NADP had IC50 values of 67.33 and 86.68 μg/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05 μg/mL) while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model (P < 0.05). Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement. PMID:28303158

  4. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Il-Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE) and Nopal dry power (NADP) in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1) nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control); (2) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control); (3) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE); and (4) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone). In results, NPWE and NADP had IC50 values of 67.33 and 86.68 μg/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05 μg/mL) while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model (P < 0.05). Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement.

  5. Anti-obesity and hypolipidaemic effects of Nelumbo nucifera seed ethanol extract in human pre-adipocytes and rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2014-02-01

    We conducted this investigation in order to examine the anti-obesity and hypolipidaemic effects of Nelumbo nucifera seed ethanol extract (NSEE) in vitro and in vivo. To study the anti-obesity effect of NSEE in vitro and in vivo, human pre-adipocytes were treated with NSEE, and male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat diet with or without NSEE, respectively. In vitro treatment with NSEE resulted in inhibition of lipid accumulation and decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and leptin in cultured human adipocytes, indicating that it inhibited the differentiation of pre-adipocytes into adipocytes. Administration of NSEE resulted in significantly reduced body weight gain and adipose tissue weights in rats. Serum triglyceride and leptin level of the high-fat diet + NSEE group was significantly lower, compared to the high-fat group. These results demonstrate an inhibitory effect of NSEE on adipogenesis. In addition, NSEE had a beneficial effect, reducing adipose tissue weights, ameliorating blood lipid profile, and modulating serum leptin level in rats fed a high-fat diet. Therefore, we suggest that lotus seed has a potential to be developed as an effective agent against obesity-related diseases. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Anti-oxidant effects of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) bark and greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum) seeds in rats fed high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Dhuley, J N

    1999-03-01

    In order to gain insight into the antioxidant effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum; Lauraceae) and cardamom (Amomum subulatum; Zingiberaceae) hepatic and cardiac antioxidant enzymes, glutathione (GSH) content and lipid conjugated dienes were studied in rats fed high fat diet along with cinnamon or cardamom. The antioxidant enzyme activities were found to be significantly enhanced whereas GSH content was markedly restored in rats fed a fat diet with spices. In addition, these spices partially counteracted increase in lipid conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides, the primary products of lipid peroxidation. Thus, it appears that these spices exert antioxidant protection through their ability to activate the antioxidant enzymes.

  7. Beneficial effect of a low dose of ethanol on liver function and serum urate in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Aimi; Okazaki, Yukako; Kimoto, Akiko; Izu, Hanae; Kato, Norihisa

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the consumption of 1% or 2% (v/v) ethanol in drinking water for 12 wk on rats fed a high-fat diet. Body weight gain, food intake, and fluid intake were unaffected by ethanol intake. Adipose tissue weight, and serum glucose and lipids were unaffected. Compared to the control (no ethanol), 1% ethanol intake significantly reduced serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ammonia (p<0.05), whereas 2% ethanol intake did so to a lesser extent. Serum urate was significantly lower in both the 1% and 2% ethanol groups than that in the control group (p<0.05). The results suggest a low dose of ethanol has beneficial effects on liver function and serum urate in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  8. Ethanol Extract of Persimmon Tree Leaves Improves Blood Circulation and Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ri; Kim, Hye-Jin; Moon, Byeongseok; Jung, Un Ju; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Dong Gun; Ryoo, ZaeYoung; Park, Yong Bok

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The leaves of the persimmon tree (PL) are known to have beneficial effects on hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We recently demonstrated that PL had antithrombotic properties in vitro. However, little is known about the antiplatelet and anticoagulant properties of PL in vivo. Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA)-containing fish oil has been widely prescribed to improve blood circulation. This study compared the effects of dietary supplementation with an ethanol extract of PL or n-3 FA on blood coagulation, platelet activation, and lipid levels in vivo. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with either PL ethanol extract (0.5% w/w) or n-3 FA (2.5% w/w) for 9 weeks. Coagulation was examined by monitoring the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time. We examined plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2), serotonin, and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) levels. The aPTT was significantly prolonged in the PL and n-3 FA supplement groups. PL also attenuated the TXB2 level and lowered arterial serotonin transporter mRNA expression, although it did not alter plasma serotonin or sP-selectin levels. C-reactive protein and leptin levels were significantly reduced by PL and n-3 FA supplementation. In addition, PL decreased plasma total- and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, as did n-3 FA treatment. These results indicated that the PL ethanol extract may have the potential to improve circulation by inhibiting blood coagulation and platelet activation and by reducing plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:26061228

  9. Resistant starch intake partly restores metabolic and inflammatory alterations in the liver of high-fat-diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Polakof, Sergio; Díaz-Rubio, María Elena; Dardevet, Dominique; Martin, Jean-François; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Scalbert, Augustin; Sebedio, Jean-Louis; Mazur, Andrzej; Comte, Blandine

    2013-11-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) constitutes the most important feature of the metabolic syndrome, whose prevalence is highly associated to the consumption of Western diets. Resistant starch (RS) consumption has been shown to have beneficial metabolic effects, including improved insulin sensitivity, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. However, the mechanisms (especially at the molecular level) by which this takes place are still not completely known. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the role of the liver in the ameliorated high-fat (HF)-induced IR status by RS. Thus, three groups of rats were fed either a control diet, or an HF diet containing or not RS. After 9 weeks of feeding, we evaluated the whole-body insulin sensitivity, and the hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism at the biochemical and molecular levels and the metabolome of the cecum content. We demonstrated for the first time that at least part of the beneficial effects of RS consumption in the context of an HF feeding can be driven by changes elicited at the hepatic level. The ability of the RS to correct the HF-induced dyslipidemia and the associated IR resulted from the return to the basal expression levels of transcription factors involved in lipogenesis (SREBP-1c), cholesterol metabolism (SREBP-2, LXRs) and fatty acid oxidation (PPARα). Moreover, the RS feeding was able to correct the HF-induced reduction in hepatic glucose phosphorylation and muscle glucose transport, improving glucose tolerance. Finally, as a whole, the improved hepatic metabolism seemed to be the result of an ameliorated inflammatory status.

  10. Ethanol Extract of Persimmon Tree Leaves Improves Blood Circulation and Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ri; Kim, Hye-Jin; Moon, Byeongseok; Jung, Un Ju; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Dong Gun; Ryoo, ZaeYoung; Park, Yong Bok; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2015-07-01

    The leaves of the persimmon tree (PL) are known to have beneficial effects on hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We recently demonstrated that PL had antithrombotic properties in vitro. However, little is known about the antiplatelet and anticoagulant properties of PL in vivo. Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA)-containing fish oil has been widely prescribed to improve blood circulation. This study compared the effects of dietary supplementation with an ethanol extract of PL or n-3 FA on blood coagulation, platelet activation, and lipid levels in vivo. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with either PL ethanol extract (0.5% w/w) or n-3 FA (2.5% w/w) for 9 weeks. Coagulation was examined by monitoring the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time. We examined plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2), serotonin, and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) levels. The aPTT was significantly prolonged in the PL and n-3 FA supplement groups. PL also attenuated the TXB2 level and lowered arterial serotonin transporter mRNA expression, although it did not alter plasma serotonin or sP-selectin levels. C-reactive protein and leptin levels were significantly reduced by PL and n-3 FA supplementation. In addition, PL decreased plasma total- and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, as did n-3 FA treatment. These results indicated that the PL ethanol extract may have the potential to improve circulation by inhibiting blood coagulation and platelet activation and by reducing plasma cholesterol levels.

  11. Fecal excretion pattern of bile acids in rats fed high fat diets and neomycin in induced colon tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Panda, S K; Broitman, S A

    1999-09-06

    Neomycin augments colon tumorigenesis in 1,2 - dimethylhydrazine treated rats fed polyunsaturated fat diet and decreases fecal cholic acid excretion, while it inhibits tumorigenesis with increased cholic acid and decreased deoxycholic acid excretions in rats fed high cholesterol diet. Participation of other fecal bile acids seems to be insignificant in relation to colon carcinogenesis.

  12. A comparison of insulin binding by liver plasma membranes of rats fed a high glucose diet or a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sun, J V; Tepperman, H M; Tepperman, J

    1977-07-01

    The interaction of (125)I-labeled insulin with purified liver plasma membrane from rats fed a high fat (L) diet or a high glucose (G) diet was studied with respect to specific binding, insulin degradation, binding site degradation, and rate of hormone association and dissociation. Scatchard analysis suggested the presence of high and low affinity binding sites for membranes of both G and L diet-adapted rats. However, liver plasma membrane from rats fed the high glucose diet bound 50% more insulin than did membrane from rats fed the high fat diet. Diet did not change insulin binding site degradation. The results suggested that an apparently reduced number of insulin binding sites (G = 10.2 +/- 2.45 x 10(-12) mol/mg membrane protein, L = 4.5 +/- 1.73 x 10(-12) mol/mg membrane protein) associated with fat feeding as compared to glucose feeding was responsible for the reduced insulin binding by membrane from rats fed the high fat diet. The effects of concanavalin A (Con A) on insulin binding to liver plasma membranes were also investigated. Con A enhanced the specific binding of insulin to liver plasma membranes from rats fed either diet at concentrations lower than 50 micro g/ml, whereas at concentrations higher than 50 micro g/ml Con A inhibited insulin binding to these membranes. The stimulatory effect of Con A on insulin binding at low concentrations was greater and inhibition of binding at high concentration was less in the case of membrane prepared from L diet-adapted animals. These results suggested that diet can modify the plasma membrane glycoproteins.

  13. Study of the Effects of Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor on the Promotion of Hepatic Tumorigenesis in Rats Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hamzawy, Magda; Elsaid, Laila; Shams, Asmaa; Rashid, Laila; Mahfouz, Soheir; Sharawy, Nivin

    2015-01-01

    Background/objective Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. The highest prevalence of hepatitis is an important risk factor contributing to development of HCCs. However, an increasing number of cases are associated metabolic disease and steatohepatitis. Inflammation associated with many liver disease, seems to be a necessary pre-requisite for successful tumor initiation. Mechanisms that link high fat diet and inflammation initial stage of HCC are not completely understood. The present work was designed to investigate the effect of fat, through modulation of the insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II), on the promotion of hepatocellular carcinoma, and the role of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Methods two main groups of rats were used: control and HCC groups. The HCC group was further sub-divide in to two subgroups, HCC fed with standard diet and HCC fed with high fat diet. The effects of celecoxib were also investigated in HCC fed with high fat diet. Results We found that high fat diet was associated with significant increases in COX2 and interleukin 6 (IL6) with significant promotion of HCC progression. The significant increase in IGF could contribute partially to the observed effects of high fat diet. In addition, celecoxib was found to significantly reduce HCC progression. Conclusions We conclude that COX2 could play central role in high prevalence of HCC observed with high fat diet. Several triggering factors such as IGF and IL6, together with the direct modulation of fat metabolism could open several novel preventive strategies of celecoxib treatment, and could be useful biomarkers for assessment of its pharmacological effects. PMID:25941430

  14. The role of Odontella aurita, a marine diatom rich in EPA, as a dietary supplement in dyslipidemia, platelet function and oxidative stress in high-fat fed rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary changes are a major factor in determining cardiovascular risk. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms, including the regulation of the lipid metabolism. We therefore investigated the effect of Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in EPA, which is already used as a food supplement, on the risk factors for high-fat diet induced metabolic syndrome in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups and were fed with a standard diet (control); with the standard diet supplemented with 3% freeze-dried O. aurita (COA); with a high-fat diet (HF); or with the high-fat diet supplemented with 3% of freeze-dried O. aurita (HFOA) for 7 weeks. In this study we evaluated the impact of these different diets on the risk factors for metabolic syndrome, such as hyperlipidemia, platelet aggregation, thromboxane B2 production, and oxidative stress. Results After 7 weeks of treatment, high fat feeding had increased final body weight, glycemia, triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol levels in plasma and liver compared to the control diet. Collagen-induced platelet aggregation and basal platelet thromboxane B2 were also higher in the high-fat fed rats than in those in the control group. In the liver, oxidative stress was greater in the HF group than in the control group. O. aurita intake in HFOA-fed rats resulted in lower glycemia and lipid levels in the plasma and liver relative than in the HF group. Thus, in the HFOA group, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the tissues studied (plasma, liver, and platelets) were higher than in the HF group. Platelet hyper-aggregability tended to decrease in HFOA-fed rats as basal platelet thromboxane B2 production decreased. Finally, O. aurita reduced oxidative stress in the liver, with lower malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusions O. aurita is a marine diatom rich in EPA as well as in other bioactive molecules

  15. Rice Protein isolate improves lipid and glucose homeostasis in rats fed high fat/high cholesterol diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hundreds of phytochemicals are bound to rice protein isolate (RPI) and many are bioactive. To determine the metabolic effects of feeding RPI in early development, weanling rats were fed AIN-93G diets made with casein or RPI for 14 d. Reduced growth rate and adiposity prior to puberty in RPI-fed ra...

  16. Carnitine supplementation in high-fat diet-fed rats does not ameliorate lipid-induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Bart; van den Broek, Nicole M A; Ciapaite, Jolita; Houten, Sander M; Wanders, Ronald J A; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J

    2015-10-01

    Muscle lipid overload and the associated accumulation of lipid intermediates play an important role in the development of insulin resistance. Carnitine insufficiency is a common feature of insulin-resistant states and might lead to incomplete fatty acid oxidation and impaired export of lipid intermediates out of the mitochondria. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that carnitine supplementation reduces high-fat diet-induced lipotoxicity, improves muscle mitochondrial function, and ameliorates insulin resistance. Wistar rats were fed either normal chow or a high-fat diet for 15 wk. One group of high-fat diet-fed rats was supplemented with 300 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) L-carnitine during the last 8 wk. Muscle mitochondrial function was measured in vivo by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and ex vivo by high-resolution respirometry. Muscle lipid status was determined by (1)H MRS (intramyocellular lipids) and tandem mass spectrometry (acylcarnitines). High-fat diet feeding induced insulin resistance and was associated with decreases in muscle and blood free carnitine, elevated levels of muscle lipids and acylcarnitines, and an increased number of muscle mitochondria that showed an improved capacity to oxidize fat-derived substrates when tested ex vivo. This was, however, not accompanied by an increase in muscle oxidative capacity in vivo, indicating that in vivo mitochondrial function was compromised. Despite partial normalization of muscle and blood free carnitine content, carnitine supplementation did not induce improvements in muscle lipid status, in vivo mitochondrial function, or insulin sensitivity. Carnitine insufficiency, therefore, does not play a major role in high-fat diet-induced muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo.

  17. Effects of endogenous and exogenous micronutrients in rapeseed oils on the antioxidant status and lipid profile in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qianchun; Yu, Xiao; Xu, Jiqu; Wang, Lan; Huang, Fenghong; Huang, Qingde; Liu, Changsheng; Ma, Fangli

    2014-12-19

    Micronutrients in oil reduce one or more risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, while the contents of micronutrients in oil are relatively poor, which is insufficient to reverse the metabolic disorders at different stages of progress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of endogenous micronutrients in optimized cold-pressed rapeseed oil and restoratively added or fortified micronutrients in traditional refined rapeseed oil (restoring micronutrients to be nearly equal to or significantly higher than levels in crude rapeseed oil) on the antioxidant status and lipid profile in high-fat fed rats. Male Wistar rats were fed high-fat diets containing different rapeseed oils for 4 weeks, including the standard refined rapeseed oil(SRO), optimized cold-pressed rapeseed oil(CRO) and the traditional refined rapeseed oil with restorative addition or fortification of micronutrients (LF, HF-SRO). CRO exhibited significant increases in contents of tocopherols (+13%), phytosterols (+34%), polyphenols (+92%) and phospholipids (+725%) compared with SRO, as well as the total antioxidant capacities (+82-125%) (p<0.05). While the HF-SRO revealed improved antioxidant properties in vitro than the CRO, which was comparable to LF-SRO. Significant improved plasma antioxidant capacities and lipid peroxidation evaluated by T-AOC, GSH, tocopherols and MDA were found in rats fed HF-SRO when compared with CRO and LF-SRO (p<0.05). Furthermore, HF-SRO also decreased the plasma and hepatic TC levels compared to CRO and LF-SRO, accompanying higher fecal cholesterol excretion (p<0.05). The standard refined rapeseed oil with fortification, not restorative addition of micronutrients was comparable to the optimized cold-pressed rapeseed oil in improving the antioxidant status and lipid profile of high-fat fed rats.

  18. Energetic efficiency and brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein of obese Zucker rats fed high-carbohydrate and high-fat diets: the effects of adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Allars, J; Holt, S J; York, D A

    1987-01-01

    The influence of diet on the response of lean and obese fa/fa rats to adrenalectomy has been studied. Adrenalectomized and sham-operated rats were fed either a semi-synthetic high-carbohydrate (HC) or high-fat (HF) diet for 13 days. Energetic efficiency, calculated for measurements of energy storage and energy intake, was increased in obese rats fed both HC and HF diets and reduced close to values of lean rats after adrenalectomy. Brown adipose tissue mitochondrial GDP binding and uncoupling protein concentration were reduced in control obese rats fed both HC and HF diets. After adrenalectomy the level of GDP binding and uncoupling protein concentration were increased to levels of lean rats. Molar ratios of GDP binding to uncoupling protein were similar in lean and obese rats, were unaffected by adrenalectomy, but were elevated in rats fed the HC diet (0.40 +/- 0.02 vs 0.28 +/- 0.03). The data suggests that diet, but not obese genotype, may influence the masking of mitochondrial uncoupling protein.

  19. Vascular- and hepato-protective effects of passion fruit seed extract containing piceatannol in chronic high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ishihata, Akira; Maruki-Uchida, Hiroko; Gotoh, Nozomi; Kanno, Sumika; Aso, Yoshitaka; Togashi, Satoshi; Sai, Masahiko; Ito, Tatsuhiko; Katano, Yumi

    2016-09-14

    The effects of chronic administration of piceatannol-enriched (9.5% w/w) passion fruit seed extract (PFSE) on the cardiovascular damage induced in a high-fat (HF) diet-fed model of Fischer 344 rats were evaluated. Rats were fed the control, HF, or HF diets containing PFSE (0.5% w/w) for 16 weeks, and the effects of the various diets on the tissue weight, serum lipid profile, hepatic fibrosis, hepatic ductular reaction, cardiac function and aortic ring reactivity were examined. HF diet-fed rats developed signs of cardiovascular disease with abnormal serum profiles compared to control diet-fed rats. PFSE supplementation improved the liver hypertrophy and hepatic histology of the HF diet-fed rats. In addition, the triglyceride and cholesterol levels, platelet aggregation, cardiac function, and acetylcholine-mediated relaxation of the aortic ring were improved. These results suggest that the chronic intake of PFSE containing piceatannol prevents HF diet-induced cardiovascular disease in rats.

  20. Docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are positively associated with insulin sensitivity in rats fed high-fat and high-fructose diets.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiung-Pang; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Hung, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Chao-Hung; Hsieh, Po-Shiuan; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Chen, Jan-Kan; Li, Dai-Er; Hung, Li-Man

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare insulin resistance and metabolic changes using a global lipidomic approach. Rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 12 weeks to induce insulin resistance (IR) syndrome. After 12 weeks feeding, physiological and biochemical parameters were examined. Insulin sensitivity and plasma metabolites were evaluated using a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and mass spectrometry, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to investigate the strength of correlations. Rats on both diets developed IR syndrome, characterized by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired fasting glucose, and IR. Compared with HFrD-fed rats, non-esterified fatty acids were lower and body weight and plasma insulin levels were markedly higher in HFD-fed rats. Adiposity and plasma leptin levels were increased in both groups. However, the size of adipocytes was greater in HFD- than HFrD-fed rats. Notably, the lipidomic heat map revealed metabolites exhibiting greater differences in HFD- and HFrD-fed rats compared with controls. Plasma adrenic acid levels were higher in HFD- than HFrD-fed rats. Nevertheless, linoleic and arachidonic acid levels decreased in HFrD-fed rats compared with controls. Plasma concentrations of docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly reduced after feeding of both diets, particularly the HFrD. There was a strong positive correlation between these two fatty acids and the insulin sensitivity index. The systemic lipidomic analysis indicated that a reduction in DHA and DPA was strongly correlated with IR in rats under long-term overnutrition. These results provide a potential therapeutic target for IR and metabolic syndrome. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. aqueous extract improves impaired glucose tolerance in high-fat diet-fed rats by decreasing the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hwan Hee; Nam, Song Yee; Kim, Mi Ju; Kim, Jung Bong; Choi, Jeong Sook; Kim, Haeng Ran; Lee, Young Min

    2017-09-05

    Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. is a medicinal plant with physiological activities such as anti-cancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities and in vitro anti-diabetic activity. However, the effects of aqueous extracts from A. pilosa on insulin-resistant rats have not yet been examined. We investigated the effects of aqueous extract from A. pilosa on impaired glucose metabolism induced by a high-fat diet in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to the following groups: normal-fat diet (NF, n = 9); high-fat diet (HF, n = 9); high-fat diet with 0.1% A. pilosa aqueous extract (HFA, n = 10). Experimental diets were administered for 16 weeks. At the end of the treatment, liver and fat tissues were isolated, and serum was collected for biochemical analysis. The HF group rats had a significantly higher liver weight than the NF group rats did, and increased hepatic lipid accumulation (p < 0.05); however, supplementation with A. pilosa decreased liver weight. Blood glucose levels in the HFA group were lower than levels measured in the HF group 30, 60, and 120 min after glucose administration (p < 0.05). In addition, dietary A. pilosa supplementation decreased tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 levels, while increasing serum adiponectin concentrations (p < 0.05 vs. the HF group). These effects were accompanied by reduced hepatic and adipose tissue expression of inflammation-related genes such as Tnf and Il1b (p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that A. pilosa aqueous extract can ameliorate insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats by decreasing the inflammatory response.

  2. Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation reduces mTORC1 signaling in skeletal muscle from high fat fed, obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuyun; Dungan, Cory M; Carrier, Bradley; Rideout, Todd C; Williamson, David L

    2014-12-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is hyperactive in liver, adipose and skeletal muscle tissues of obese rodents. Alpha-lipoic acid (αLA) has been well accepted as a weight-loss treatment, though there are limited studies on its effect on mTOR signaling in high-fat fed, obese rodents. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine mTOR signaling and oxidative protein alterations in skeletal muscle of high-fat fed, obese rats after αLA supplementation. Phosphorylation of the mTOR substrate, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and eIF4B were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in muscle from αLA supplemented rats. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an mTOR inhibitory kinase, was higher (p < 0.05) in the αLA group. Protein expression of markers of oxidative metabolism, acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX IV), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), and PPAR gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) after αLA supplementation compared to non-supplemented group. Our findings show that αLA supplementation limits the negative ramifications of consuming a high fat diet on skeletal muscle markers of oxidative metabolism and mTORC1 signaling.

  3. Altered Left Ventricular Ion Channel Transcriptome in a High-Fat-Fed Rat Model of Obesity: Insight into Obesity-Induced Arrhythmogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Reza; Yon, Marianne; Pickavance, Lucy; Yanni Gerges, Joseph; Davis, Gershan; Wilding, John; Jian, Kun; Zhang, Henggui; Hart, George; Boyett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity is increasingly common and is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to see whether in obesity there is proarrhythmic gene expression of ventricular ion channels and related molecules. Methods and Results. Rats were fed on a high-fat diet and compared to control rats on a normal diet (n = 8). After 8 weeks, rats on the high-fat diet showed significantly greater weight gain and higher adiposity. Left ventricle samples were removed at 8 weeks and mRNA expression of ion channels and other molecules was measured using qPCR. Obese rats had significant upregulation of Cav1.2, HCN4, Kir2.1, RYR2, NCX1, SERCA2a, and RYR2 mRNA and downregulation of ERG mRNA. In the case of HCN4, it was confirmed that there was a significant increase in protein expression. The potential effects of the mRNA changes on the ventricular action potential and intracellular Ca(2+) transient were predicted using computer modelling. Modelling predicted prolongation of the ventricular action potential and an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) transient, both of which would be expected to be arrhythmogenic. Conclusion. High-fat diet causing obesity results in arrhythmogenic cardiac gene expression of ion channels and related molecules.

  4. Altered Left Ventricular Ion Channel Transcriptome in a High-Fat-Fed Rat Model of Obesity: Insight into Obesity-Induced Arrhythmogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yon, Marianne; Pickavance, Lucy; Yanni Gerges, Joseph; Davis, Gershan; Wilding, John; Jian, Kun; Hart, George; Boyett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity is increasingly common and is associated with an increased prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to see whether in obesity there is proarrhythmic gene expression of ventricular ion channels and related molecules. Methods and Results. Rats were fed on a high-fat diet and compared to control rats on a normal diet (n = 8). After 8 weeks, rats on the high-fat diet showed significantly greater weight gain and higher adiposity. Left ventricle samples were removed at 8 weeks and mRNA expression of ion channels and other molecules was measured using qPCR. Obese rats had significant upregulation of Cav1.2, HCN4, Kir2.1, RYR2, NCX1, SERCA2a, and RYR2 mRNA and downregulation of ERG mRNA. In the case of HCN4, it was confirmed that there was a significant increase in protein expression. The potential effects of the mRNA changes on the ventricular action potential and intracellular Ca2+ transient were predicted using computer modelling. Modelling predicted prolongation of the ventricular action potential and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ transient, both of which would be expected to be arrhythmogenic. Conclusion. High-fat diet causing obesity results in arrhythmogenic cardiac gene expression of ion channels and related molecules. PMID:27747100

  5. Anti-obesity effect of ethanolic extract from Cosmos caudatus Kunth leaf in lean rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Hafeedza Abdul; Sahib, Najla Gooda; Saari, Nazamid; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Hamid, Azizah Abdul

    2017-02-22

    Obesity is a major health concern both in developed and developing countries. The use of herbal medicines became the subject of interest for the management of obesity due to its natural origin, cost effectiveness and minimal side effects. The present study aimed at investigating anti-obesity potential of ethanolic extract from Cosmos caudatus Kunth leaf (EECCL). In this study, the rats were randomly divided into six groups i.e., (1) Normal Diet (ND); (2) Normal Diet and 175 mg/kgBW of EECCL (ND + 175 mg/kgBW); (3) Normal Diet and 350 mg/kgBW of EECCL (ND + 350 mg/kgBW); (4) High Fat Diet (HFD); (5) High Fat Diet and 175 mg/kgBW of EECCL (HFD + 175 mg/kgBW); (6) High Fat Diet and 350 mg/kgBW of EECCL (HFD + 350 mg/kgBW). The anti-obesity potential was evaluated through analyses of changes in body weight, visceral fat weight, and blood biochemicals including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), leptin, insulin, adiponectin, ghrelin and fecal fat content. In addition, metabolite profiling of EECCL was carried out using NMR spectroscopy. Rats receiving EECCL together with HFD showed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in body weight gain compared to rats receiving HFD only. At the end of study, the body weight gain of EECCL treated rats was not significantly (p > 0.05) different with those of ND rats. Other related obesity biomarkers including plasma lipid profiles, insulin, leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin levels also showed significant improvement (p < 0.05). Administration of EECCL caused significant (p < 0.05) increase in fecal fat excretion, which validates the hypothesis of lipase inhibition, an anti-obesity mechanism similar to standard drug of Orlistat. The (1)H-NMR spectra of EECCL ascertained the presence of catechin, quercetin, rutin, kaempherol and chlorogenic acid in the extract. Conclusively, EECCL showed anti-obesity properties by

  6. Supplemental fermented plant product ('Manda Koso') reduces succinate and deoxycholate, as well as elevates IgA and mucin levels, in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongshou; Sitanggang, Novita Vivi; Okazaki, Yukako; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Arita, Kentaro; Ashida, Takayuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2015-11-01

    'Manda Koso' is a commercial fermented plant product (FPP) made from 53 types of fruits and vegetables that have been fermented for >3 years and 3 months. We hypothesized that FPP intake improves the luminal environment of rats fed a high-fat diet. Thus, the present study examined the effects of consumption of 5% FPP diet for 3 weeks on colonic luminal parameters in rats fed a 30% beef tallow diet. Food intake and body weight gain were unaffected. Consumption of the FPP diet did not influence the proportions of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides, Prevotella or Clostridium in cecal contents. However, the FPP diet caused a significant reduction (-88%) in the level of cecal succinate, a putative inflammatory signal (P<0.01), but did not affect the levels of n-butyrate, propionate, acetate and lactate. The fecal levels of deoxycholate and hyodeoxycholate, which are toxic bile acids, were also significantly reduced by the FPP diet (P<0.05). The FPP diet significantly increased fecal immunoglobulin A and mucins responsible for intestinal immune and barrier functions (P<0.05). The results suggest that the consumption of FPP is beneficial for the colonic luminal environment in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  7. Consumption of sericin reduces serum lipids, ameliorates glucose tolerance and elevates serum adiponectin in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Kakehi, Shoko; Xu, Yonghui; Tsujimoto, Kazuhisa; Sasaki, Masahiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kato, Norihisa

    2010-01-01

    The effect was examined of dietary sericin on the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed with a high-fat diet. The rats were fed with a 20% beef tallow diet with or without sericin at the level of 4% for 5 weeks. The final body weight and white adipose tissue weight were unaffected by dietary manipulation. The consumption of sericin significantly reduced the serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, phospholipids and free fatty acids. Serum very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and LDL-phospholipids were also significantly reduced by the sericin intake. Liver triglyceride and the activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme, the lipogenic enzymes, were also reduced by the sericin intake. Dietary sericin caused a marked elevation in serum adiponectin. The consumption of sericin suppressed the increases in plasma glucose and insulin levels after an intraperitoneal glucose injection. These results imply the usefulness of sericin for improving the lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed on a high-fat diet.

  8. Decreased vascular H2S production is associated with vascular oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat western diet.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Trisha A; Nguyen, Jason C D; Hart, Joanne L

    2016-07-01

    A Western-style high-fat diet is known to cause vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress. H2S contributes to the regulation of vascular function and acts as a vasoprotective molecule; however, the effects of high-fat diet on vascular H2S production and function are not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high-fat diet on vascular function and H2S production. Wistar hooded rats were fed a western diet (WD, 21 % fat) or control rat chow (6 % fat) for 12 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the aorta was collected for assessing vascular function and NO and H2S bioavailability. Superoxide anion production was quantitated by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. The expression of NADPH oxidase subunit Nox2 and the H2S-producing protein cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) were examined by Western blotting. WD rats had significantly higher body weight and body fat than control (p < 0.001). Endothelial function and NO bioavailability were significantly reduced in the WD group (p < 0.05), but vascular smooth muscle cell function was unaffected. Vascular superoxide production and Nox2 expression were significantly increased in the aorta from WD rats. L-Cysteine-induced vasorelaxation was reduced in the WD group (p < 0.05) and insensitive to the inhibition of the CSE. In addition, vascular H2S bioavailability and CSE expression were significantly reduced in the aorta from WD rats (p < 0.01). These data show that fat feeding induces vascular oxidative stress and a reduction in endothelial function. Furthermore, there is a reduced capacity for both basal and stimulated vascular H2S production via CSE in fat fed rats.

  9. Dietary phytic acid modulates characteristics of the colonic luminal environment and reduces serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Dietary phytic acid (PA; myo-inositol [MI] hexaphosphate) is known to inhibit colon carcinogenesis in rodents. Dietary fiber, which is a negative risk factor of colon cancer, improves characteristics of the colonic environment, such as the content of organic acids and microflora. We hypothesized that dietary PA would improve the colonic luminal environment in rats fed a high-fat diet. To test this hypothesis, rats were fed diets containing 30% beef tallow with 2.04% sodium PA, 0.4% MI, or 1.02% sodium PA + 0.2% MI for 3 weeks. Compared with the control diet, the sodium PA diet up-regulated cecal organic acids, including acetate, propionate, and n-butyrate; this effect was especially prominent for cecal butyrate. The sodium PA + MI diet also significantly increased cecal butyrate, although this effect was less pronounced when compared with the sodium PA diet. The cecal ratio of Lactobacillales, cecal and fecal mucins (an index of intestinal barrier function), and fecal β-glucosidase activity were higher in rats fed the sodium PA diet than in those fed the control diet. The sodium PA, MI, and sodium PA + MI diets decreased levels of serum tumor necrosis factor α, which is a proinflammatory cytokine. Another proinflammatory cytokine, serum interleukin-6, was also down-regulated by the sodium PA and sodium PA + MI diets. These data showed that PA may improve the composition of cecal organic acids, microflora, and mucins, and it may decrease the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines in rats fed a high-fat, mineral-sufficient diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Resveratrol and caloric restriction prevent hepatic steatosis by regulating SIRT1-autophagy pathway and alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shibin; Jiang, Jinjin; Zhang, Guofu; Bu, Yongjun; Zhang, Guanghui; Zhao, Xiangmei

    2017-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that resveratrol (a natural polyphenol) and caloric restriction activate Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and induce autophagy. Furthermore, autophagy is induced by the SIRT1-FoxO signaling pathway and was recently shown to be a critical protective mechanism against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development. We aimed to compare the effects of resveratrol and caloric restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism and elucidate the mechanism by which resveratrol supplementation and caloric restriction alleviate hepatosteatosis by examining the molecular interplay between SIRT1 and autophagy. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats (40) were divided into four groups: the STD group, which was fed a standard chow diet; the HFD group, which was fed a high-fat diet; HFD-RES group, which was fed a high-fat diet plus resveratrol (200 mg/kg.bw); and the HFD-CR group, which was fed a high-fat diet in portions containing 70% of the mean intake of the HFD group rats. The groups were maintained for 18 weeks. Metabolic parameters, Oil Red O and hematoxylin-eosin staining of the liver, and the mRNA and protein expression of SIRT1, autophagy markers and endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress-associated genes in the liver were assessed after the 18-week treatment. We found that resveratrol (200 mg/kg bw) and caloric restriction (30%) partially prevented hepatic steatosis and hepatocyte ballooning, increased the expression of SIRT1 and autophagy markers while decreasing ER stress markers in the liver and alleviated lipid metabolism disorder. Moreover, caloric restriction provided superior protection against HFD-induced hepatic fatty accumulation compared with resveratrol and the effects were associated with decreased total energy intake and body weight. We conclude that the SIRT1-autophagy pathway and decreased ER stress are universally required for the protective effects of moderate caloric restriction (30%) and resveratrol (a pharmacological SIRT1 activator) supplementation

  11. Longitudinal assessment of food intake, fecal energy loss, and energy expenditure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in high-fat-fed obese rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Andrew C; Zheng, Huiyuan; Townsend, R Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M; Holmes, Gregory M; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-04-01

    The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery to produce weight loss has been well-documented, but few studies have measured the key components of energy balance, food intake, and energy expenditure longitudinally. Male Sprague-Dawley rats on a high-fat diet underwent either RYGB, sham operation, or pair feeding and were compared to chow-fed lean controls. Body weight and composition, food intake and preference, energy expenditure, fecal output, and gastric emptying were monitored before and up to 4 months after intervention. Despite the recovery of initially decreased food intake to levels slightly higher than before surgery and comparable to sham-operated rats after about 1 month, RYGB rats maintained a lower level of body weight and fat mass for 4 months that was not different from chow-fed age-matched controls. Energy expenditure corrected for lean body mass at 1 and 4 months after RYGB was not different from presurgical levels and from all other groups. Fecal energy loss was significantly increased at 6 and 16 weeks after RYGB compared to sham operation, and there was a progressive decrease in fat preference after RYGB. In this rat model of RYGB, sustained weight loss is achieved by a combination of initial hypophagia and sustained increases in fecal energy loss, without change in energy expenditure per lean mass. A shift away from high-fat towards low-fat/high-carbohydrate food preference occurring in parallel suggests long-term adaptive mechanisms related to fat absorption.

  12. Optimized Rapeseed Oils Rich in Endogenous Micronutrients Protect High Fat Diet Fed Rats from Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiqu; Liu, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Zhonghua; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients in rapeseed exert a potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of them are lost during the conventional refining processing. Thus some processing technologies have been optimized to improve micronutrient retention in oil. The aim of this study is to assess whether optimized rapeseed oils (OROs) have positive effects on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by a high-fat diet. Methods: Rats received experiment diets containing 20% fat and refined rapeseed oil or OROs obtained with various processing technologies as lipid source. After 10 weeks of treatment, liver was assayed for lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. Results: All OROs reduced hepatic triglyceride contents. Microwave pretreatment-cold pressing oil (MPCPO) which had the highest micronutrients contents also reduced hepatic cholesterol level. MPCPO significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) expressions, and as a result, MPCPO significantly suppressed acetyl CoA carboxylase and induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. Hepatic catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) contents remarkably increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased in parallel with the increase of micronutrients. Conclusion: OROs had the ability to reduce excessive hepatic fat accumulation and oxidative stress, which indicated that OROs might contribute to ameliorating nonalcoholic fatty liver induced by high-fat diet. PMID:26473919

  13. Micronutrients-fortified rapeseed oil improves hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiqu; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Ma, Jing; Wan, Zhengyang; Yang, Jin'e; Huang, Fenghong

    2013-03-06

    Intake of high-fat diet is associated with increased fatty livers. Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are key pathophysiological mechanisms in this disease. Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to hepatoprotection, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the traditional refining process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether rapeseed oil fortified with these micronutrients can decrease hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress induced by high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats received rodent diet contained 20% fat whose source was refined rapeseed oil (RRO) or fortified RRO with low, middle and high quantities of these micronutrients for 10 weeks. Intake of RRO caused a remarkable hepatic steatosis. Micronutrients supplementation was effective in reducing steatosis as well as total triglyceride and total cholesterol contents in liver. These micronutrients also significantly increased hepatic antioxidant defense capacities, as evaluated by the significant elevation in the activities of SOD and GPx as well as the level of GSH, and the significant decline in lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols may contribute to prevent fatty livers such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by ameliorating hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress.

  14. Multi-Strain Probiotics Inhibit Cardiac Myopathies and Autophagy to Prevent Heart Injury in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chao-Hung; Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Pai, Pei-ying; Chung, Li-Chin; Huang, Chun-Chih; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Liao, Po-Hsiang; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    High-fat diets induce obesity, leading to cardiomyocyte fibrosis and autophagy imbalance. In addition, no previous studies have indicated that probiotics have potential health effects associated with cardiac fibrosis and autophagy in obese rats. This study investigates the effects of probiotics on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and cardiac fibrosis and autophagy in rat hearts. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were separated randomly into five equally sized experimental groups: Normal diet (control) and high-fat (HF) diet groups and groups fed a high-fat diet supplemented with low (HL), medium (HM) or high (HH) doses of multi-strain probiotic powders. These experiments were designed for an 8-week trial period. The myocardial architecture of the left ventricle was evaluated using Masson's trichrome staining and immunohistochemistry staining. Key probiotics-related pathway molecules were analyzed using western blotting. Abnormal myocardial architecture and enlarged interstitial spaces were observed in HF hearts. These interstitial spaces were significantly decreased in groups provided with multi-strain probiotics compared with HF hearts. Western blot analysis demonstrated that key components of the TGF/MMP2/MMP9 fibrosis pathways and ERK5/uPA/ANP cardiac hypertrophy pathways were significantly suppressed in probiotic groups compared to the HF group. Autophagy balance is very important in cardiomyocytes. In this study, we observed that the beclin-1/LC3B/Atg7 autophagy pathway in HF was increased after probiotic supplementation was significantly decreased. Together, these results suggest that oral administration of probiotics may attenuate cardiomyocyte fibrosis and cardiac hypertrophy and the autophagy-signaling pathway in obese rats. PMID:27076784

  15. Multi-Strain Probiotics Inhibit Cardiac Myopathies and Autophagy to Prevent Heart Injury in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chao-Hung; Tsai, Cheng-Chih; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Pai, Pei-ying; Chung, Li-Chin; Huang, Chun-Chih; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Liao, Po-Hsiang; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    High-fat diets induce obesity, leading to cardiomyocyte fibrosis and autophagy imbalance. In addition, no previous studies have indicated that probiotics have potential health effects associated with cardiac fibrosis and autophagy in obese rats. This study investigates the effects of probiotics on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and cardiac fibrosis and autophagy in rat hearts. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were separated randomly into five equally sized experimental groups: Normal diet (control) and high-fat (HF) diet groups and groups fed a high-fat diet supplemented with low (HL), medium (HM) or high (HH) doses of multi-strain probiotic powders. These experiments were designed for an 8-week trial period. The myocardial architecture of the left ventricle was evaluated using Masson's trichrome staining and immunohistochemistry staining. Key probiotics-related pathway molecules were analyzed using western blotting. Abnormal myocardial architecture and enlarged interstitial spaces were observed in HF hearts. These interstitial spaces were significantly decreased in groups provided with multi-strain probiotics compared with HF hearts. Western blot analysis demonstrated that key components of the TGF/MMP2/MMP9 fibrosis pathways and ERK5/uPA/ANP cardiac hypertrophy pathways were significantly suppressed in probiotic groups compared to the HF group. Autophagy balance is very important in cardiomyocytes. In this study, we observed that the beclin-1/LC3B/Atg7 autophagy pathway in HF was increased after probiotic supplementation was significantly decreased. Together, these results suggest that oral administration of probiotics may attenuate cardiomyocyte fibrosis and cardiac hypertrophy and the autophagy-signaling pathway in obese rats.

  16. Nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) protects from metabolic endotoxemia by modifying gut microbiota in obese rats fed high fat/sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Pérez-Cruz, Claudia; Pichardo-Ontiveros, Edgar; Wang, Mei; Donovan, Sharon M; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe

    2017-07-05

    Current efforts are directed to reducing the gut dysbiosis and inflammation produced by obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether consuming nopal, a vegetable rich in dietary fibre, vitamin C, and polyphenols can reduce the metabolic consequences of obesity by modifying the gut microbiota and preventing metabolic endotoxemia in rats fed a high fat and sucrose diet. With this aim, rats were fed a high fat diet with 5% sucrose in the drinking water (HFS) for 7 months and then were fed for 1 month with HFS + 5% nopal (HFS + N). The composition of gut microbiota was assessed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Nopal modified gut microbiota and increased intestinal occludin-1 in the HFS + N group. This was associated with a decrease in metabolic endotoxemia, glucose insulinotropic peptide, glucose intolerance, lipogenesis, and metabolic inflexibility. These changes were accompanied by reduced hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress in adipose tissue and brain, and improved cognitive function, associated with an increase in B. fragilis. This study supports the use of nopal as a functional food and prebiotic for its ability to modify gut microbiota and to reduce metabolic endotoxemia and other obesity-related biochemical abnormalities.

  17. Comparative evaluation of flavone from Mucuna pruriens and coumarin from Ionidium suffruticosum for hypolipidemic activity in rats fed with high Fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is a comparative evaluation of flavone isolated from Mucuna pruriens and coumarin isolated from Ionidium suffruticosum was assessed for the hypolipidemic activity in rats fed with high fat diet. The acute toxicity study was found that flavone (M.pruriens) and coumarin (I.suffruticosum) are safe up to 100mg/kg, so one tenth of this dose (10mg/kg) was consider as a evaluation dose. High fat diet group of rats showed significant (p<0.001) elevation in plasma total and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids. Administration of flavone (M. pruriens) and coumarin isolated from (I.suffruticosum) at the dose of 10mg/kg b.wt/day along with high fat diet significantly (p<0.001) prevented the rise in the plasma total and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids than that of other extracts. However, treatment of coumarin isolated from (I.suffruticosum) had showed more cardio protective effect against hyperlipidemia than that of flavone (M.pruriens). PMID:23031584

  18. Comparative evaluation of flavone from Mucuna pruriens and coumarin from Ionidium suffruticosum for hypolipidemic activity in rats fed with high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Dharmarajan, Satheesh Kumar; Arumugam, Kottai Muthu

    2012-10-02

    The objective of the study is a comparative evaluation of flavone isolated from Mucuna pruriens and coumarin isolated from Ionidium suffruticosum was assessed for the hypolipidemic activity in rats fed with high fat diet. The acute toxicity study was found that flavone (M.pruriens) and coumarin (I.suffruticosum) are safe up to 100 mg/kg, so one tenth of this dose (10 mg/kg) was consider as a evaluation dose. High fat diet group of rats showed significant (p<0.001) elevation in plasma total and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids. Administration of flavone (M. pruriens) and coumarin isolated from (I.suffruticosum) at the dose of 10mg/kg b.wt/day along with high fat diet significantly (p<0.001) prevented the rise in the plasma total and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids than that of other extracts. However, treatment of coumarin isolated from (I.suffruticosum) had showed more cardio protective effect against hyperlipidemia than that of flavone (M.pruriens).

  19. Shugan Xiaozhi Decoction Attenuates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Enhancing PPARα and L-FABP Expressions in High-Fat-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Fu, Wen-Jun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Shugan Xiaozhi decoction (SX) on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced by high-fat diet in rats. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, namely, control, model, fenofibrate, and three different dosage of SX (10, 20, and 40 g/kg/day, p.o.). After establishing the NASH model, at 8 weeks of the experiment, treatments were administrated intragastrically to the fenofibrate and SX groups. All rats were killed after 4 weeks of treatment. Compared with the model group, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) serum in the serum were significantly reduced in all SX treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. Evidence showed that SX could protect the liver by upregulating the gene and protein expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in a dose-dependent manner. Chemical constituents of SX were further analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) and 30 chemicals in the ethanolic extract were tentatively identified. To conclude, our results clearly indicated that SX could protect liver functions and relieve hepatic steatosis and inflammation. PMID:28003852

  20. Effects of black adzuki bean (Vigna angularis, Geomguseul) extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mina; Song, Seok-Bo; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is often considered to result from either excessive food intake or insufficient physical activity. Adzuki beans have been evaluated as potential remedies for various health conditions, and recent studies have reported their effects on the regulation of lipid metabolism, but it remains to be determined whether they may be effective in overcoming obesity by regulating appetite and satiety. Objective This study investigated the effect of black adzuki bean (BAB) extract on body composition and hypothalamic neuropeptide expression in Sprague Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed a high-fat diet. Design The rats were fed for 8 weeks with a control diet containing 10 kcal% from fat (CD), a high-fat diet containing 60 kcal% from fat (HD), or a high-fat diet with 1% or 2% freeze-dried ethanolic extract powder of BAB (BAB-1 and BAB-2). Results The body weights and epididymal fat weights were significantly reduced and the serum lipid profiles were improved in the group fed the diet containing BAB compared to the HD group. The expression of AGRP mRNA significantly decreased in the BAB groups, and treatment with BAB-2 resulted in a marked induction of the mRNA expression of POMC and CART, which are anorexigenic neuropeptides that suppress food intake. Furthermore, mRNA expression levels of ObRb, a gene related to leptin sensitivity in the hypothalamus, were significantly higher in the BAB groups than in the HD group. Conclusions These results suggest that supplementation with BAB has a significant effect on body weight via regulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides. PMID:26493717

  1. Urine and serum metabolite profiling of rats fed a high-fat diet and the anti-obesity effects of caffeine consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyang Yeon; Lee, Mee Youn; Park, Hye Min; Park, Yoo Kyoung; Shon, Jong Cheol; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2015-02-13

    In this study, we investigated the clinical changes induced by a high fat diet (HFD) and caffeine consumption in a rat model. The mean body weight of the HFD with caffeine (HFDC)-fed rat was decreased compared to that of the HFD-fed rat without caffeine. The levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acid, as well as the size of adipose tissue altered by HFD, were improved by caffeine consumption. To investigate the metabolites that affected the change of the clinical factors, the urine and serum of rats fed a normal diet (ND), HFD, and HFDC were analyzed using ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), gas chromatography (GC-TOF-MS), and linear trap quadruple mass spectrometry (LTQ-XL-MS) combined with multivariate analysis. A total of 68 and 52 metabolites were found to be different in urine and serum, respectively. After being fed caffeine, some glucuronide-conjugated compounds, lysoPCs, CEs, DGs, TGs, taurine, and hippuric acid were altered compared to the HFD group. In this study, caffeine might potentially inhibit HFD-induced obesity and we suggest possible biomarker candidates using MS-based metabolite profiling.

  2. Effects of prior or concurrent food restriction on amylin-induced changes in body weight and body composition in high-fat-fed female rats.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jonathan D; Hughes, Heather; Coffey, Todd; Maier, Holly; Trevaskis, James L; Anderson, Christen M

    2007-10-01

    Amylin infusion reduces food intake and slows body weight gain in rodents. In obese male rats, amylin (but not pair feeding) caused a preferential reduction of fat mass with protein preservation despite equal body weight loss in amylin-treated (fed ad libitum) and pair-fed rats. In the present study, the effect of prior or concurrent food restriction on the ability of amylin to cause weight loss was evaluated. Retired female breeder rats were maintained on a high-fat diet (40% fat) for 9 wk. Prior to drug treatment, rats were either fed ad libitum or food restricted for 10 days to lose 5% of their starting body weight. They were then subdivided into treatment groups that received either vehicle or amylin (100 microgxkg(-1)xday(-1) via subcutaneous minipump) and placed under either a restricted or ad libitum feeding schedule (for a total of 8 treatment arms). Amylin 1) significantly reduced body weight compared with vehicle under all treatment conditions, except in always restricted animals, 2) significantly decreased percent body fat in all groups, and 3) preserved lean mass in all groups. These results indicate that amylin's anorexigenic and fat-specific weight loss properties can be extended to a variety of nutritive states in female rats.

  3. Effects of fisetin supplementation on hepatic lipogenesis and glucose metabolism in Sprague-Dawley rats fed on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Ji Hyung; Do, Hyun Ju; Jeon, Hyun Ju; Jin, Taewon; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-08-15

    The modulatory effects of daily fisetin supplementation for 8 weeks on genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia in rats fed a high fat (HF) diet were evaluated. Elevated levels of triglyceride (TG), along with hepatic TG content and glucose concentrations in a high fat diet group were found to be reduced by fisetin supplementation. The high fat diet significantly increased hepatic mRNA expressions of PPARγ, SREBP1C and SCD-1 genes in comparison to the control diet, which was subsequently reversed by supplementation with fisetin. In addition, fisetin supplementation significantly reduced hepatic mRNA abundance of FAS, ATPCL and G6Pase compared to the control group. Finally, epididymal mRNA abundance of GLUT4 was significantly increased by fisetin supplementation, compared to levels in the control and HF groups. Enhancement of GLUT4 expression by fisetin was further confirmed in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Fisetin supplementation decreases cardiovascular risks by ameliorating hepatic steatosis and lowering circulating glucose concentrations.

  4. Abdominal adiposity, insulin and bone quality in young male rats fed a high-fat diet containing soybean or canola oil

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares; Carlos, Aluana Santana; de Sousa dos Santos, Aline; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Nascimento-Saba, Celly Cristina Alves

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with healthy bone properties. However, fatty diets can induce obesity. Our objective was to evaluate intra-abdominal adiposity, insulin, and bone growth in rats fed a high-fat diet containing low ratios of omega-6/omega-3 provided in canola oil. METHODS: After weaning, rats were grouped and fed either a control diet (7S), a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S) or a high-fat diet of canola oil (19C) until they were 60 days old. Differences were considered to be significant if p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 days, the 19S and 19C groups showed more energy intake, body density growth and intra-abdominal fat mass. However, the 19S group had a higher area (200%) and a lower number (44%) of adipocytes, while the 7S and 19C groups did not differ. The serum concentrations of glucose and insulin and the insulin resistance index were significantly increased in the 19C group (15%, 56%, and 78%, respectively) compared to the 7S group. Bone measurements of the 19S and 19C groups showed a higher femur mass (25%) and a higher lumbar vertebrae mass (11%) and length (5%). Computed tomography analysis revealed more radiodensity in the proximal femoral epiphysis and lumbar vertebrae of 19C group compared to the 7S and 19S groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the amount and source of fat used in the diet after weaning increase body growth and fat depots and affect insulin resistance and, consequently, bone health. PMID:22012056

  5. Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract prevent weight gain in Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Jambocus, Najla Gooda Sahib; Ismail, Amin; Khatib, Alfi; Mahomoodally, Fawzi; Saari, Nazamid; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Hamid, Azizah Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Background: Morinda citrifolia L. is widely used as a folk medicinal food plant to manage a panoply of diseases, though no concrete reports on its potential anti-obesity activity. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of M. citrifolia leaf extracts (MLE60) in the prevention of weight gain in vivo and establish its phytochemical profile. Design: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups based on a normal diet (ND) or high fat diet (HFD), with or without MLE60 supplementation (150 and 350 mg/kg body weight) and assessed for any reduction in weight gain. Plasma leptin, insulin, adiponectin, and ghrelin of all groups were determined. (1)H NMR and LCMS methods were employed for phytochemical profiling of MLE60. Results: The supplementation of MLE60 did not affect food intake indicating that appetite suppression might not be the main anti-obesity mechanism involved. In the treated groups, MLE60 prevented weight gain, most likely through an inhibition of pancreatic and lipoprotein activity with a positive influence on the lipid profiles and a reduction in LDL levels . MLE60 also attenuated visceral fat deposition in treated subjects with improvement in the plasma levels of obesity-linked factors . (1)Spectral analysis showed the presence of several bioactive compounds with rutin being more predominant. Conclusion: MLE60 shows promise as an anti-obesity agents and warrants further research.

  6. Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract prevent weight gain in Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Jambocus, Najla Gooda Sahib; Ismail, Amin; Khatib, Alfi; Mahomoodally, Fawzi; Saari, Nazamid; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Hamid, Azizah Abdul

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Morinda citrifolia L. is widely used as a folk medicinal food plant to manage a panoply of diseases, though no concrete reports on its potential anti-obesity activity. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of M. citrifolia leaf extracts (MLE60) in the prevention of weight gain in vivo and establish its phytochemical profile. Design: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups based on a normal diet (ND) or high fat diet (HFD), with or without MLE60 supplementation (150 and 350 mg/kg body weight) and assessed for any reduction in weight gain. Plasma leptin, insulin, adiponectin, and ghrelin of all groups were determined. 1H NMR and LCMS methods were employed for phytochemical profiling of MLE60. Results: The supplementation of MLE60 did not affect food intake indicating that appetite suppression might not be the main anti-obesity mechanism involved. In the treated groups, MLE60 prevented weight gain, most likely through an inhibition of pancreatic and lipoprotein activity with a positive influence on the lipid profiles and a reduction in LDL levels . MLE60 also attenuated visceral fat deposition in treated subjects with improvement in the plasma levels of obesity-linked factors . 1Spectral analysis showed the presence of several bioactive compounds with rutin being more predominant. Conclusion: MLE60 shows promise as an anti-obesity agents and warrants further research. PMID:28814950

  7. Gut microbiota are linked to increased susceptibility to hepatic steatosis in low-aerobic-capacity rats fed an acute high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Panasevich, Matthew R; Morris, E M; Chintapalli, S V; Wankhade, U D; Shankar, K; Britton, S L; Koch, L G; Thyfault, J P; Rector, R S

    2016-07-01

    Poor aerobic fitness is linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and increased all-cause mortality. We previously found that rats with a low capacity for running (LCR) that were fed an acute high-fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal from fat) for 3 days resulted in positive energy balance and increased hepatic steatosis compared with rats that were highly aerobically fit with a high capacity for running (HCR). Here, we tested the hypothesis that poor physiological outcomes in LCR rats following acute HFD feeding are associated with alterations in cecal microbiota. LCR rats exhibited greater body weight, feeding efficiency, 3 days of body weight change, and liver triglycerides after acute HFD feeding compared with HCR rats. Furthermore, compared with HCR rats, LCR rats exhibited reduced expression of intestinal tight junction proteins. Cecal bacterial 16S rDNA revealed that LCR rats had reduced cecal Proteobacteria compared with HCR rats. Microbiota of HCR rats consisted of greater relative abundance of Desulfovibrionaceae and unassigned genera within this family, suggesting increased reduction of endogenous mucins and proteins. Although feeding rats an acute HFD led to reduced Firmicutes in both strains, short-chain fatty acid-producing Phascolarctobacterium was reduced in LCR rats. In addition, Ruminococcae and Ruminococcus were negatively correlated with energy intake in the LCR/HFD rats. Predicted metagenomic function suggested that LCR rats had a greater capacity to metabolize carbohydrate and energy compared with HCR rats. Overall, these data suggest that the populations and metabolic capacity of the microbiota in low-aerobically fit LCR rats may contribute to their susceptibility to acute HFD-induced hepatic steatosis and poor physiologic outcomes.

  8. Kaempferol regulates the lipid-profile in high-fat diet-fed rats through an increase in hepatic PPARα levels.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia Ju; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Liu, I-Min

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and antihyperlipidemic effects of the flavonoid kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone). After being fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for two weeks, rats were dosed orally with kaempferol (75, 150, or 300 mg/kg) or fenofibrate (100 mg/kg) once daily for eight weeks. Fenofibrate is an antilipemic agent that exerts its therapeutic effects through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR α). Kaempferol (300 mg/kg/day) produced effects similar to fenofibrate in reducing body weight gain, visceral fat-pad weights, plasma lipid levels, as well as the coronary artery risk and atherogenic indices of HFD-fed rats. Kaempferol also caused dose-related reductions in hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol content and lowered hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and the size of epididymal adipocytes in HFD-fed rats. Kaempferol and fenofibrate reversed the HFD-induced downregulation of hepatic PPAR α. HFD-induced reductions in the hepatic levels of acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), and cytochrome P450 isoform 4A1 (CYP4A1) proteins were reversed by kaempferol and fenofibrate. The elevated expression of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in HFD-fed rats were lowered by kaempferol and fenofibrate. These results suggest that kaempferol reduced the accumulation of visceral fat and improved hyperlipidemia in HFD-fed obese rats by increasing lipid metabolism through the downregulation of SREBPs and promoting the hepatic expression of ACO and CYP4A1, secondary to a direct upregulation hepatic PPAR α expression.

  9. Green tea polyphenols reduced fat deposits in high fat-fed rats via erk1/2-PPARγ-adiponectin pathway.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chong; Ye, Xiaolei; Zhang, Rui; Long, Jia; Ren, Weiye; Ding, Shibin; Liao, Dan; Jin, Xin; Wu, Hongmei; Xu, Shunqin; Ying, Chenjiang

    2013-01-01

    Hypoadiponectinemia contributes to the development of obesity and related disorders such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases. In this study we investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on adiponectin levels and fat deposits in high fat (HF) fed rats, the mechanism of signaling pathway was explored as well. Male Wistar rats were fed with high-fat diet. GTPs (0.8, 1.6, 3.2 g/L) were administered via drinking water. Serum adiponectin and insulin were measured by ELISA, mRNA levels of adiponectin and PPARγ in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were determined by Real-time PCR, protein levels of PPARγ, phospho (p) - PPARγ, extracellular signal regulated kinase (erk) 1/2 and p-erk1/2 in VAT were determined by western blot. GTPs treatment attenuated the VAT accumulation, hypoadiponectinemia and the decreased mRNA level of adiponectin in VAT induced by HF. Decreased expression and increased phosphorylation of PPARγ (the master regulator of adiponectin), and increased activation of erk1/2 were observed in HF group, and these effects could be alleviated by GTPs treatment. To explore the underlying mechanism, VAT was cultured in DMEM with high glucose to mimic the hyperglycemia condition in vitro. Similar to the results of in vivo study, decreased adiponectin levels, decreased expression and increased phosphorylation of PPARγ, and elevated erk1/2 phosphorylation in cultured VAT were observed. These effects could be ameliorated by co-treatment with GTPs or PD98059 (a selective inhibitor of erk1/2). GTPs reduced fat deposit, ameliorated hypoadiponectinemia in HF-fed rats, and relieved high glucose-induced adiponectin decrease in VAT in vitro. The signaling pathway analysis indicated that PPARγ regulation mediated via erk1/2 pathway was involved.

  10. Hypoglycemic activity of 6-bromoembelin and vilangin in high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Stalin, Antony; Irudayaraj, Santiagu Stephen; Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Balakrishna, Kedike; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-05-15

    This paper investigates the hypoglycemic activity of two derivatives of embelin (1) viz. 6-bromoembelin (2) and vilangin (3), in high-fat diet - STZ induced diabetic rats. The effects of 6-bromoembelin (2) and vilangin (3) on insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and glucose transport in high-fat diet (HFD) fed-streptozotocin (STZ) (40mg/kg) induced type 2 diabetic rats were evaluated. The binding modes of 6-bromoembelin (2) and vilangin (3) into PPARγ, PI3K, Akt, and GLUT4 were also studied using Autodock 4.2 and ADT 1.5.6 programs. At the dose of 30mg/kg, the plasma glucose, plasma insulin and body weight were reduced by both embelin derivatives in diabetic rats. Additionally the altered lipid profiles and hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase levels were brought to normal. Compared to diabetic control group, there was a significant increase in the expression of PPARγ in epididymal adipose tissue. Inhibition of adipogenic activity and mild activation of PPARγ levels in the skeletal muscle and liver were observed. In epididymal adipose tissue, the compounds increased the insulin-mediated glucose uptake through the activation and translocation of GLUT4 in PI3K/p-Akt signaling cascade. The derivatives of embelin such as 6-bromoembelin (2) and vilangin (3) may be useful in the prevention and treatment of obesity-linked type 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Grape pomace and grape pomace extract improve insulin signaling in high-fat-fructose fed rat-induced metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; Perdicaro, Diahann Jeanette; Antoniolli, Andrea; Fontana, Ariel Ramón; Miatello, Roberto Miguel; Bottini, Rubén; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    In this study the effect of diet supplementation with grape pomace (GP) and grape pomace extract (GPE) on insulin sensitive tissues (adipose, liver and muscle) was evaluated in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS was developed by giving a high-fat-fructose (HFF) diet to Wistar rats. Six weeks of HFF diet induced weight gain, which was partially attenuated by GP (1 g per kg per day) and GPE (300 mg per kg per day) supplementation. HFF diet increased systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, insulin resistance (HOMA:IR) and inflammation (c-reactive protein (CRP)). Supplementation with GP prevented SBP, triglycerides and CRP increased and partially attenuated insulin resistance. On the other hand, GPE partially reduced SBP and triglycerides and significantly prevented insulin resistance and inflammation. Also, HFF diet induced higher triglycerides content and enhanced NADPH oxidase activity in the liver. Also, HFF diet increased the epididymal adipose tissue weight, enlarged adipocyte size, and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, probably contributing to a pro-inflammatory cytokine pattern (higher resistin) and lower adiponectin protein expression. These alterations may result in an impairment of insulin signaling cascade observed in adipose, liver and muscle tissue (IRS1, Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2)) from HFF rats. Supplementation with GP and to a greater extent GPE attenuated liver triglyceride content and adiposity and restored adipose, liver and muscle response to insulin. These findings show that supplementation with GP and GPE to a greater extent can counteract adiposity, inflammation, liver damage and impaired insulin signaling associated to MetS, supporting the utilization of winemaking residues in food industry/human health due to their high amount of bioactive compounds.

  12. A high-fat diet fed during different periods of life impairs steroidogenesis of rat Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Fochi, Maria Etelvina; Pytlowanciv, Eloísa Zanin; Reame, Vanessa; Rafacho, Alex; Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a high-fat diet (HFD) during different stages of rat life, associated or not with maternal obesity, on the content of sex steroid hormones and morphophysiology of Leydig cells. The following periods of development were examined: gestation (O1), gestation and lactation (O2), from weaning to adulthood (O3), from lactation to adulthood (O4), gestation to adulthood (O5), and after sexual maturation (O6). The HFD contained 20% unsaturated fat, whereas the control diet had 4% fat. Maternal obesity was induced by feeding HFD 15 weeks before mating. All HFD groups presented increased body weight, hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin sensitivity. Except for O1, all HFD groups exhibited a higher adiposity index, hyperleptinemia, reduced testosterone and estradiol testicular levels, and decreased testicular 17β-HSD enzyme . Morphometrical analyses indicated atrophy of Leydig cells in the O2 group. Myelin vesicles were observed in the mitochondrial matrix of Leydig cells in O3, O4, O5 and O6, and autophagosomes containing mitochondria were found in O5 and O6. In conclusion, HFD feeding, before or after sexual maturation, reduces the functional capacity of rat Leydig cells. Maternal obesity associated with HFD during pregnancy/lactation prejudices Leydig cell steroidogenesis and induces its atrophy in adulthood, even if it is replaced by a conventional diet at later stages of life. Regardless of the life period of exposure to HFD, deregulation of leptin is the main factor related to steroidogenic impairment of Leydig cells, and, in groups exposed for longer periods (O3, O4, O5 and O6), this is worsened by structural damage and mitochondrial degeneration of these cells. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  13. Molecular factors involved in the hypolipidemic- and insulin-sensitizing effects of a ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    de Las Heras, Natalia; Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; López-Farré, Antonio; Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Lahera, Vicente

    2017-02-01

    Hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic properties of ginger in animal models have been reported. However, information related to the mechanisms and factors involved in the metabolic effects of ginger at a hepatic level are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate molecular factors involved in the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of a hydroethanolic ginger extract (GE) in the liver of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The study was conducted in male Wistar rats divided into the following 3 groups: (i) Rats fed a standard diet (3.5% fat), the control group; (ii) rats fed an HFD (33.5% fat); and (iii) rats fed an HFD treated with GE (250 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 5 weeks (HFD+GE). Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipid profile, leptin, and adiponectin were measured. Liver expression of glycerol phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), PPARα and PPARγ, glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2), liver X receptor, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP1c), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and collagen I was measured. Data were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA, followed by a Newman-Keuls test if differences were noted. The study showed that GE improved lipid profile and attenuated the increase of plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and leptin in HFD rats. This effect was associated with a higher liver expression of PPARα, PPARγ, and GLUT-2 and an enhancement of plasma adiponectin levels. Furthermore, GE reduced liver expression of GPAT, SREBP1c, CTGF, and collagen I. The results suggest that GE might be considered as an alternative therapeutic strategy in the management of overweight and hepatic and metabolic-related alterations.

  14. Effects of physical exercise on myokines expression and brown adipose-like phenotype modulation in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Rodrigues, Sílvia; Rodríguez, Amaia; Gouveia, Alexandra M; Gonçalves, Inês O; Becerril, Sara; Ramírez, Beatriz; Beleza, Jorge; Frühbeck, Gema; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José

    2016-11-15

    Exercise-stimulated myokine secretion into circulation may be related with browning in white adipose tissue (WAT), representing a positive metabolic effect on whole-body fat mass. However, limited information is yet available regarding the impact of exercise on myokine-related modulation of adipocyte phenotype in WAT from obese rats. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were divided into sedentary and voluntary physical activity (VPA) groups and fed with standard (35kcal% fat) or high-fat (HFD, 71kcal% fat)-isoenergetic diets. The VPA-groups had unrestricted access to wheel running throughout the protocol. After-9weeks, half of sedentary standard (SS) and sedentary HFD (HS)-fed animals were exercised on treadmill (endurance training, ET) for 8-weeks while maintaining the dietary treatments. The adipocyte hypertrophy induced by HFD were attenuated by VPA and ET. HFD decreased 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity in muscle as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) proteins in eWAT, while not affecting circulating irisin. VPA increased eWAT Tmem26 mRNA levels in the standard diet-fed group, whereas ET increased AMPK, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) protein expression in muscle, but had no impact on circulating irisin protein content. In eWAT, ET increased bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7), Cidea and PGC-1α in both diet-fed animals, whereas BMP7, Prdm16, UCP1 and FNDC5 only in standard diet-fed group. Data suggest that ET-induced myokine production seems to contribute, at least in part, to the "brown-like" phenotype in WAT from rats fed a HFD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective Effect of Dietary Lily Bulb on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Chiji, Hideyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2016-01-01

    Lily bulb is traditionally consumed in East Asia and contains high amounts of glucomannan. This study investigated the effect of dietary lily bulb on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 30% beef tallow with or without 7% steamed lily bulb powder for 17 d. Experimental colitis was induced by replacing drinking water with DSS during the last 7 d. The disease activity index (DAI) was significantly lower in the lily bulb+DSS group than in the DSS group on day 17. The fecal abundance of Bifidobacterium was significantly reduced in the DSS group compared with that in the control group, but it was recovered by lily bulb intake. Cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were significantly higher in the DSS group than in the control group. Dietary lily bulb potentiated the increase in cecal butyrate, fecal mucins, and the ALP activity caused by DSS treatment. These results indicate that lily bulb attenuates DSS-induced colitis by modulating colonic microflora, organic acids, mucins, and ALP activity in HF diet-fed rats.

  16. Longitudinal assessment of food intake, fecal energy loss and energy expenditure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in high-fat fed obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Andrew C.; Zheng, Huiyuan; Townsend, R. Leigh; Patterson, Laurel M.; Holmes, Gregory M.; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Background The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery to produce weight loss has been well documented, but few studies have measured the key components of energy balance, food intake, and energy expenditure longitudinally. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats on a high-fat diet underwent either RYGB, sham operation, or pair feeding, and were compared to chow-fed lean controls. Body weight and composition, food intake and preference, energy expenditure, fecal output, and gastric emptying were monitored before and up to 4 months after intervention. Results Despite recovery of initially decreased food intake to levels slightly higher than before surgery and comparable to sham-operated rats after about 1 month, RYGB rats maintained a lower level of body weight and fat mass for 4 months that was not different from chow-fed age-matched controls. Energy expenditure corrected for lean body mass at 1 and 4 months after RYGB was not different from pre-surgical levels and from all other groups. Fecal energy loss was significantly increased at 6 and 16 weeks after RYGB compared to sham operation, and there was a progressive decrease in fat preference after RYGB. Conclusions In this rat model of RYGB, sustained weight loss is achieved by a combination of initial hypophagia and sustained increases in fecal energy loss, without change in energy expenditure per lean mass. A shift away from high-fat towards low-fat/high-carbohydrate food preference occurring in parallel suggests long term adaptive mechanisms related to fat absorption. PMID:23269513

  17. Role of the Ito cell in liver parenchymal fibrosis in rats fed alcohol and a high fat-low protein diet.

    PubMed Central

    French, S. W.; Miyamoto, K.; Wong, K.; Jui, L.; Briere, L.

    1988-01-01

    Eight pairs of young adult rats were pair-fed a high fat-low protein diet and ethanol or isocaloric glucose by permanent intragastric cannula for up to 6 months. Biopsies of the liver were taken monthly and the fibrosis was quantitated morphometrically using the sirius red polarization method of collagen visualization by light microscopy. Morphometric analysis of the sinusoids and scars were performed on electron micrographs made from the liver biopsies. An increase in the collagen in both the central and portal areas was found when the livers of the alcohol-fed rats were compared with controls. The predominant cell in the scars was the Ito cell. An increase in the percentage of the total Ito cell square area made up of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was noted when the sinusoids of the liver of the ethanol-fed rats were compared with controls. No difference in the RER was found when the sinusoidal Ito cells were compared with the Ito cells located within the scars of the ethanol-fed rats. It was concluded that Ito cell "activation" by chronic ethanol feeding in the sinusoids of rats accurately predicts "activation" of the Ito cells within scars. The Ito cells are diffusely activated even though the scarring is localized. This implies that local factors as well as Ito cell activation are necessary for scar formation. In the case of alcoholic liver disease, scar formation may be initiated by centrilobular necrosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:3394803

  18. Photoperiod regulates lean mass accretion, but not adiposity, in growing F344 rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alexander W; Russell, Laura; Helfer, Gisela; Thomson, Lynn M; Dalby, Matthew J; Morgan, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    In this study the effects of photoperiod and diet, and their interaction, were examined for their effects on growth and body composition in juvenile F344 rats over a 4-week period. On long (16L:8D), relative to short (8L:16D), photoperiod food intake and growth rate were increased, but percentage adiposity remained constant (ca 3-4%). On a high fat diet (HFD), containing 22.8% fat (45% energy as fat), food intake was reduced, but energy intake increased on both photoperiods. This led to a small increase in adiposity (up to 10%) without overt change in body weight. These changes were also reflected in plasma leptin and lipid levels. Importantly while both lean and adipose tissue were strongly regulated by photoperiod on a chow diet, this regulation was lost for adipose, but not lean tissue, on HFD. This implies that a primary effect of photoperiod is the regulation of growth and lean mass accretion. Consistent with this both hypothalamic GHRH gene expression and serum IGF-1 levels were photoperiod dependent. As for other animals and humans, there was evidence of central hyposomatotropism in response to obesity, as GHRH gene expression was suppressed by the HFD. Gene expression of hypothalamic AgRP and CRH, but not NPY nor POMC, accorded with the energy balance status on long and short photoperiod. However, there was a general dissociation between plasma leptin levels and expression of these hypothalamic energy balance genes. Similarly there was no interaction between the HFD and photoperiod at the level of the genes involved in thyroid hormone metabolism (Dio2, Dio3, TSHβ or NMU), which are important mediators of the photoperiodic response. These data suggest that photoperiod and HFD influence body weight and body composition through independent mechanisms but in each case the role of the hypothalamic energy balance genes is not predictable based on their known function.

  19. Alpha-Lipoic Acid Reduces LDL-Particle Number and PCSK9 Concentrations in High-Fat Fed Obese Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carrier, Bradley; Wen, Shin; Zigouras, Sophia; Browne, Richard W.; Li, Zhuyun; Patel, Mulchand S.; Williamson, David L.; Rideout, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    We characterized the hypolipidemic effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LA, R-form) and examined the associated molecular mechanisms in a high fat fed Zucker rat model. Rats (n = 8) were assigned to a high fat (HF) diet or the HF diet with 0.25% LA (HF-LA) for 30 days and pair fed to remove confounding effects associated with the anorectic properties of LA. Compared with the HF controls, the HF-LA group was protected against diet-induced obesity (102.5±3.1 vs. 121.5±3.6,% change BW) and hypercholesterolemia with a reduction in total-C (−21%), non-HDL-C (−25%), LDL-C (−16%), and total LDL particle number (−46%) and an increase in total HDL particles (∼22%). This cholesterol-lowering response was associated with a reduction in plasma PCSK9 concentration (−70%) and an increase in hepatic LDLr receptor protein abundance (2 fold of HF). Compared with the HF-fed animals, livers of LA-supplemented animals were protected against TG accumulation (−46%), likely through multiple mechanisms including: a suppressed lipogenic response (down-regulation of hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase expression); enhanced hepatic fat oxidation (increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase Iα expression); and enhanced VLDL export (increased hepatic diacylglycerol acyltransferase and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein expression and elevated plasma VLDL particle number). Study results also support an enhanced fatty acid uptake (2.8 fold increase in total lipase activity) and oxidation (increased CPT1β protein abundance) in muscle tissue in LA-supplemented animals compared with the HF group. In summary, in the absence of a change in caloric intake, LA was effective in protecting against hypercholesterolemia and hepatic fat accumulation under conditions of strong genetic and dietary predisposition toward obesity and dyslipidemia. PMID:24595397

  20. Chitosan oligosaccharide decreases very-low-density lipoprotein triglyceride and increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in high-fat-diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daxin; Han, Jiju; Yu, Yang; Li, Xueping; Wang, Yun; Tian, Hua; Guo, Shoudong; Jin, Shiguang; Luo, Tian; Qin, Shucun

    2011-09-01

    It is well known that chitosan has beneficial lipid-regulating effects, but it remains unknown whether chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), the chitosan degradation product, has the same lipid benefits. High-fat-diet-fed Wistar rats were administrated with COS by gastric gavage for three weeks. The effects of COS on lipids, lipoprotein components and lipid metabolism related protein activities were investigated. Plasma lipids level assays by an enzyme method showed that COS decreased triglyceride (TG) by 29-31%, and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol by 8-11%, but did not affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Lipid distribution analysis through fast protein liquid chromatography indicated that COS significantly decreased TG content distributed in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)/LDL fractions but increased cholesterol content in HDL fractions. Apolipoprotein analysis through plasma ultracentrifugation and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis displayed that COS decreased apolipoprotein B-100 of LDL and increased apolipoprotein E of LDL and apolipoprotein B-100 of VLDL, but did not change apoA-I content of HDL particles. Lipoprotein formation associated protein determination showed that COS also increased plasma activity of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase but not phospholipid transfer protein. The present study suggests that COS may play a beneficial role in plasma lipid regulation of rats with dyslipidemia induced by high-fat diet. The COS-decreased VLDL/LDL TG and -enhanced HDL cholesterol may be related to the upregulated activity of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase.

  1. Effects of the Polysaccharide from the Sporophyll of Brown Alga Undaria Pinnatifida on Serum Lipid Profile and Fat Tissue Accumulation in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung-Mok; Park, Jae-Ho; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Young-Myung; Jun, Joon-Young; Jeong, In-Hak; Chi, Young-Min

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of the polysaccharide from the sporophyll of a selected brown alga Undaria pinnatifida on serum lipid profile, fat tissue accumulation, and gastrointestinal transit time in rats fed a high-fat diet. The algal polysaccharide (AP) was prepared by the treatment of multiple cellulase-producing fungi Trichoderma reesei and obtained from the sporophyll with a yield of 38.7% (dry basis). The AP was mostly composed of alginate and fucoidan (up to 89%) in a ratio of 3.75:1. The AP was added to the high-fat diet in concentrations of 0.6% and 1.7% and was given to male Sprague-Dawley rats (5-wk-old) for 5 wk. The 1.7% AP addition notably reduced body weight gain and fat tissue accumulation, and it improved the serum lipid profile, including triglycerides, total cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. The effects were associated with increased feces weight and shortened gastrointestinal transit time. In addition, the lipid peroxidation of the liver was decreased in both groups.

  2. Swimming Exercise Alleviated Insulin Resistance by Regulating Tripartite Motif Family Protein 72 Expression and AKT Signal Pathway in Sprague-Dawley Rats Fed with High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jie; Yang, Bo; Ren, Cailing; Fu, Jian; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether swimming exercise could improve insulin resistance (IR) by regulating tripartite motif family protein 72 (TRIM72) expression and AKT signal pathway in rats fed with high-fat diet. Five-week-old rats were classified into 3 groups: standard diet as control (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD plus swimming exercise (Ex-HFD). After 8 weeks, glucose infusion rate (GIR), markers of oxidative stress, mRNA and protein expression of TRIM72, protein of IRS, p-AKT(Ser473), and AKT were determined in quadriceps muscles. Compared with HFD, the GIR, muscle SOD, and GSH-Px were significantly increased (p < 0.05, resp.), whereas muscle MDA and 8-OHdG levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) in Ex-HFD. Expression levels of TRIM72 mRNA and protein in muscles were significantly reduced (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01), whereas protein expression levels of IRS-1, p-AKT(Ser473), and AKT were significantly increased in Ex-HFD compared with HFD (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.05). These results suggest that an 8-week swimming exercise improves HFD-induced insulin resistance maybe through a reduction of TRIM72 in skeletal muscle and enhancement of AKT signal transduction.

  3. Swimming Exercise Alleviated Insulin Resistance by Regulating Tripartite Motif Family Protein 72 Expression and AKT Signal Pathway in Sprague-Dawley Rats Fed with High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether swimming exercise could improve insulin resistance (IR) by regulating tripartite motif family protein 72 (TRIM72) expression and AKT signal pathway in rats fed with high-fat diet. Five-week-old rats were classified into 3 groups: standard diet as control (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD plus swimming exercise (Ex-HFD). After 8 weeks, glucose infusion rate (GIR), markers of oxidative stress, mRNA and protein expression of TRIM72, protein of IRS, p-AKTSer473, and AKT were determined in quadriceps muscles. Compared with HFD, the GIR, muscle SOD, and GSH-Px were significantly increased (p < 0.05, resp.), whereas muscle MDA and 8-OHdG levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) in Ex-HFD. Expression levels of TRIM72 mRNA and protein in muscles were significantly reduced (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01), whereas protein expression levels of IRS-1, p-AKTSer473, and AKT were significantly increased in Ex-HFD compared with HFD (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.05). These results suggest that an 8-week swimming exercise improves HFD-induced insulin resistance maybe through a reduction of TRIM72 in skeletal muscle and enhancement of AKT signal transduction. PMID:27843952

  4. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress. PMID:27642496

  5. Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Upregulates Paraoxonase 1 Gene Expression and Activity with Concomitant Reduction of Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Renata Rebeca; de Abreu, Isabel Cristina Mallosto Emerich; Guerra, Joyce Ferreira da Costa; Lage, Nara Nunes; Lopes, Juliana Márcia Macedo; Silva, Maísa; de Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.), a fruit from the Amazon region, has emerged as a promising source of polyphenols. Açai consumption has been increasing owing to ascribed health benefits and antioxidant properties; however, its effects on hepatic injury are limited. In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant effect of filtered açai pulp on the expression of paraoxonase (PON) isoforms and PON1 activity in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The rats were fed a standard AIN-93M (control) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet containing 25% soy oil and 1% cholesterol with or without açai pulp (2 g/day) for 6 weeks. Our results show that açai pulp prevented low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, increased serum and hepatic PON1 activity, and upregulated the expression of PON1 and ApoA-I in the liver. In HF diet-fed rats, treatment with açai pulp attenuated liver damage, reducing fat infiltration and triglyceride (TG) content. In rats receiving açai, increased serum PON1 activity was correlated with a reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic injury. These findings suggest the use of açai as a potential therapy for liver injuries, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to enhance the defensive systems against oxidative stress.

  6. PPARγ activation alters fatty acid composition in adipose triglyceride, in addition to proliferation of small adipocytes, in insulin resistant high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Daisuke; Oda, Kanako; Kusunoki, Masataka; Nishina, Atsuyoshi; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Feng, Zhonggang; Tsutsumi, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Takao

    2016-02-15

    It was reported that adipocyte size is potentially correlated in part to amount of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and insulin resistance because several long chain PUFAs can be ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). In our previous study, marked reduction of PUFAs was observed in insulin-resistant high-fat fed rats, which may indicate that PUFAs are consumed to improve insulin resistance. Although PPARγ agonist, well known as an insulin sensitizer, proliferates small adipocytes, the effects of PPARγ agonist on FA composition in adipose tissue have not been clarified yet. In the present study, we administered pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, to high-fat fed rats, and measured their FA composition of triglyceride fraction in adipose tissue and adipocyte diameters in pioglitazone-treated (PIO) and non-treated (control) rats. Insulin sensitivity was obtained with hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Average adipocyte diameter in the PIO group were smaller than that in the control one without change in tissue weight. In monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), 14:1n-5, 16:1n-7, and 18:1n-9 contents in the PIO group were lower than those, respectively, in the control group. In contrast, 22:6n-3, 20:3n-6, 20:4n-6, and 22:4n-6 contents in the PIO group were higher than those, respectively, in the control group. Insulin sensitivity was higher in the PIO group than in the control one. These findings suggest that PPARγ activation lowered MUFAs whereas suppressed most of C20 or C22 PUFAs reduction, and that the change of fatty acid composition may be relevant with increase in small adipocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pancreatic insulin secretion in rats fed a soy protein high fat diet depends on the interaction between the amino acid pattern and isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Noriega-López, Lilia; Tovar, Armando R; Gonzalez-Granillo, Marcela; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Escalante, Bruno; Santillán-Doherty, Patricio; Torres, Nimbe

    2007-07-13

    Obesity is frequently associated with the consumption of high carbohydrate/fat diets leading to hyperinsulinemia. We have demonstrated that soy protein (SP) reduces hyperinsulinemia, but it is unclear by which mechanism. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to establish whether SP stimulates insulin secretion to a lower extent and/or reduces insulin resistance, and to understand its molecular mechanism of action in pancreatic islets of rats with diet-induced obesity. Long-term consumption of SP in a high fat (HF) diet significantly decreased serum glucose, free fatty acids, leptin, and the insulin:glucagon ratio compared with animals fed a casein HF diet. Hyperglycemic clamps indicated that SP stimulated insulin secretion to a lower extent despite HF consumption. Furthermore, there was lower pancreatic islet area and insulin, SREBP-1, PPARgamma, and GLUT-2 mRNA abundance in comparison with rats fed the casein HF diet. Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps showed that the SP diet prevented insulin resistance despite consumption of a HF diet. Incubation of pancreatic islets with isoflavones reduced insulin secretion and expression of PPARgamma. Addition of amino acids resembling the plasma concentration of rats fed casein stimulated insulin secretion; a response that was reduced by the presence of isoflavones, whereas the amino acid pattern resembling the plasma concentration of rats fed SP barely stimulated insulin release. Infusion of isoflavones during the hyperglycemic clamps did not stimulate insulin secretion. Therefore, isoflavones as well as the amino acid pattern seen after SP consumption stimulated insulin secretion to a lower extent, decreasing PPARgamma, GLUT-2, and SREBP-1 expression, and ameliorating hyperinsulinemia observed during obesity.

  8. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Chen, Chen-Wen; Kuo, Po-Ling; Chien, Hsu-Min; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2015-12-02

    Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The results show that vanillic acid (VA) demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight) at weeks 13-16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p < 0.05), indicating the protective effects of VA against hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose) in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM.

  9. Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Chen, Chen-Wen; Kuo, Po-Ling; Chien, Hsu-Min; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The results show that vanillic acid (VA) demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight) at weeks 13–16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p < 0.05), indicating the protective effects of VA against hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose) in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM. PMID:26633482

  10. Abresham ameliorates dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and hypertension in high-fat diet fed rats by repressing oxidative stress, TNF-α and normalizing NO production.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Saroj; Malik, Salma; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Bharti, Saurabh; Kumar, Narender; Siddiqui, Khalid Mehmood; Bhatia, Jagriti; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2012-11-01

    This study was aimed to investigate whether standardized hydroalcoholic extract of abresham (AB) ameliorates dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and associated hypertension in rats fed with high-cholesterol/high-fat diet (HFD). HFD (55% calorie from fat and 2% cholesterol) were fed for 45 days to induce dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and associated hypertension. After confirmation of hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol >150 mg/dl) on 30th day, different doses of AB (200-800 mg/kg/day) were administered for next 15 days. HFD administration for 45 days led to cardiometabolic syndrome characterized by significant increase in body weight, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, TNF-α levels along with decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and serum NO level. Furthermore, HFD resulted in significant increase in systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure and mean arterial pressure. In addition, morphological studies revealed hepatic steatosis along with swelling of mitochondria and loss of cristae in hepatocyte and periarteritis in aorta. Treatment with AB for 15 days positively modulated the altered parameters in dose-dependent fashion, though maximum effect was seen at 800 mg/kg. These findings suggest that AB guard against cardiometabolic syndrome in HFD fed rats. It attenuates dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and associated hypertension by decreasing oxidative stress, TNF-α and normalizing NO production.

  11. Structural changes of gut microbiota during berberine-mediated prevention of obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhang, Menghui; Pang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jia; Kang, Chaoying; Li, Meng; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Xiaoying; Ning, Guang; Zhao, Liping

    2012-01-01

    Berberine, a major pharmacological component of the Chinese herb Coptis chinensis, which was originally used to treat bacterial diarrhea, has recently been demonstrated to be clinically effective in alleviating type 2 diabetes. In this study, we revealed that berberine effectively prevented the development of obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats, which showed decreased food intake. Increases in the levels of serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and leptin and decrease in the serum level of adiponectin corrected for body fat in HFD-fed rats were also significantly retarded by the co-administration of berberine at 100 mg/kg body weight. Bar-coded pyrosequencing of the V3 region of 16S rRNA genes revealed a significant reduction in the gut microbiota diversity of berberine-treated rats. UniFrac principal coordinates analysis revealed a marked shift of the gut microbiota structure in berberine-treated rats away from that of the controls. Redundancy analysis identified 268 berberine-responding operational taxonomic units (OTUs), most of which were essentially eliminated, whereas a few putative short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria, including Blautia and Allobaculum, were selectively enriched, along with elevations of fecal SCFA concentrations. Partial least square regression models based on these 268 OTUs were established (Q(2)>0.6) for predicting the adiposity index, body weight, leptin and adiponectin corrected for body fat, indicating that these discrete phylotypes might have a close association with the host metabolic phenotypes. Taken together, our findings suggest that the prevention of obesity and insulin resistance by berberine in HFD-fed rats is at least partially mediated by structural modulation of the gut microbiota, which may help to alleviate inflammation by reducing the exogenous antigen load in the host and elevating SCFA levels in the intestine.

  12. Structural Changes of Gut Microbiota during Berberine-Mediated Prevention of Obesity and Insulin Resistance in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhang, Menghui; Pang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jia; Kang, Chaoying; Li, Meng; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Xiaoying; Ning, Guang; Zhao, Liping

    2012-01-01

    Berberine, a major pharmacological component of the Chinese herb Coptis chinensis, which was originally used to treat bacterial diarrhea, has recently been demonstrated to be clinically effective in alleviating type 2 diabetes. In this study, we revealed that berberine effectively prevented the development of obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats, which showed decreased food intake. Increases in the levels of serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and leptin and decrease in the serum level of adiponectin corrected for body fat in HFD-fed rats were also significantly retarded by the co-administration of berberine at 100 mg/kg body weight. Bar-coded pyrosequencing of the V3 region of 16S rRNA genes revealed a significant reduction in the gut microbiota diversity of berberine-treated rats. UniFrac principal coordinates analysis revealed a marked shift of the gut microbiota structure in berberine-treated rats away from that of the controls. Redundancy analysis identified 268 berberine-responding operational taxonomic units (OTUs), most of which were essentially eliminated, whereas a few putative short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria, including Blautia and Allobaculum, were selectively enriched, along with elevations of fecal SCFA concentrations. Partial least square regression models based on these 268 OTUs were established (Q2>0.6) for predicting the adiposity index, body weight, leptin and adiponectin corrected for body fat, indicating that these discrete phylotypes might have a close association with the host metabolic phenotypes. Taken together, our findings suggest that the prevention of obesity and insulin resistance by berberine in HFD-fed rats is at least partially mediated by structural modulation of the gut microbiota, which may help to alleviate inflammation by reducing the exogenous antigen load in the host and elevating SCFA levels in the intestine. PMID:22880019

  13. Metabolic effects of the iodothyronine functional analogue TRC150094 on the liver and skeletal muscle of high-fat diet fed overweight rats: an integrated proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Elena; Glinni, Daniela; Cioffi, Federica; Moreno, Maria; Lombardi, Assunta; de Lange, Pieter; Senese, Rosalba; Ceccarelli, Michele; Salzano, Anna Maria; Scaloni, Andrea; Lanni, Antonia; Goglia, Fernando

    2012-07-06

    A novel functional iodothyronine analogue, TRC150094, which has a much lower potency toward thyroid hormone receptor (α1/β1) activation than triiodothyronine, has been shown to be effective at reducing adiposity in rats simultaneously receiving a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, by combining metabolic, functional and proteomic analysis, we studied how the hepatic and skeletal muscle phenotypes might respond to TRC150094 treatment in HFD-fed overweight rats. Drug treatment increased both the liver and skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative capacities without altering mitochondrial efficiency. Coherently, in terms of individual respiratory in-gel activity, blue-native analysis revealed an increased activity of complex V in the liver and of complexes II and V in tibialis muscle in TCR150094-treated animals. Subsequently, the identification of differentially expressed proteins and the analysis of their interrelations gave an integrated view of the phenotypic/metabolic adaptations occurring in the liver and muscle proteomes during drug treatment. TRC150094 significantly altered the expression of several proteins involved in key liver metabolic pathways, including amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, and fructose and mannose metabolism. The canonical pathways most strongly influenced by TRC150094 in tibialis muscle included glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, amino acid, fructose and mannose metabolism, and cell signaling. The phenotypic/metabolic influence of TRC150094 on the liver and skeletal muscle of HFD-fed overweight rats suggests the potential clinical application of this iodothyronine analogue in ameliorating metabolic risk parameters altered by diet regimens.

  14. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Moran-Ramos, Sofia; He, Xuan; Chin, Elizabeth L.; Tovar, Armando R.; Torres, Nimbe; Slupsky, Carolyn M.; Raybould, Helen E.

    2017-01-01

    Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF) diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6) and oxidative stress (ROS), modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA), and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG) levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism. PMID:28196086

  15. Nopal feeding reduces adiposity, intestinal inflammation and shifts the cecal microbiota and metabolism in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Moran-Ramos, Sofia; He, Xuan; Chin, Elizabeth L; Tovar, Armando R; Torres, Nimbe; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Raybould, Helen E

    2017-01-01

    Nopal is a cactus plant widely consumed in Mexico that has been used in traditional medicine to aid in the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We previously showed that chronic consumption of dehydrated nopal ameliorated hepatic steatosis in obese (fa/fa) rats; however, description of the effects on other tissues is sparse. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of nopal cladode consumption on intestinal physiology, microbial community structure, adipose tissue, and serum biochemistry in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed either a normal fat (NF) diet or a HF diet containing 4% of dietary fiber from either nopal or cellulose for 6 weeks. Consumption of nopal counteracted HF-induced adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy, and induced profound changes in intestinal physiology. Nopal consumption reduced biomarkers of intestinal inflammation (mRNA expression of IL-6) and oxidative stress (ROS), modfied gut microbiota composition, increasing microbial diversity and cecal fermentation (SCFA), and altered the serum metabolome. Interestingly, metabolomic analysis of dehydrated nopal revealed a high choline content, which appeared to generate high levels of serum betaine, that correlated negatively with hepatic triglyceride (TAG) levels. A parallel decrease in some of the taxa associated with the production of trimethylamine, suggest an increase in choline absorption and bioavailability with transformation to betaine. The latter may partially explain the previously observed effect of nopal on the development of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence on the effects of nopal consumption on normal and HF-diet induced changes in the intestine, the liver and systemic metabolism.

  16. Blunted GABA-mediated inhibition within the dorsomedial hypothalamus potentiates the cardiovascular response to emotional stress in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Abreu, A R; de Abreu, A R; Santos, L T; de Souza, A A; da Silva, L G; Chianca, D A; de Menezes, R C

    2014-03-14

    Rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) present an exaggerated endocrine response to stress conditions, which, like obesity, show a high correlation with cardiovascular diseases. Meanwhile the GABAergic neurotransmission within the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) is involved in the regulation of the physiological responses during emotional stress. Here we evaluated the influence of obesity, induced by a HFD, on the cardiovascular responses induced by air jet stress in rats, and the role of the GABAergic tonus within the DMH in these changes. Our results showed that consumption of a HFD (45% w/w fat) for 9 weeks induced obesity and increases in baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Moreover, obesity potentiated stress responsiveness, evidenced by the greater changes in MAP and HR induced by stress in obese rats. The injection of muscimol into the DMH reduced the maximal increases in HR and MAP induced by stress in both groups; however, the reduction in the maximal increases in MAP in the HFD group was less pronounced. Moreover, the injection of muscimol into the DMH of obese rats was less effective in reducing the stress-induced tachycardia, since the HR attained the same levels at the end of the stress paradigm as after the vehicle injection. Injection of bicuculline into DMH induced increases in MAP and HR in both groups. Nevertheless, obesity shortened the tachycardic response to bicuculline injection. These data show that obesity potentiates the cardiovascular response to stress in rats due to an inefficient GABAA-mediated inhibition within the DMH.

  17. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P < .001), and decreased trabecular separation (P = .021), formation rate (P < .001), and eroded surface (P < .001) at proximal tibia, and insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. There were significant interactions (diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P < .05). This study demonstrates that GTP supplementation for 4 months benefited body composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Consumption of a resistant protein, sericin, elevates fecal immunoglobulin A, mucins, and cecal organic acids in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Kazuhisa; Sasaki, Masahiro; Kato, Norihisa

    2011-11-01

    We previously reported that consumption of a resistant protein, sericin, reduces colon tumorigenesis, constipation, and serum TG in rodents. The present study was conducted to elucidate the effects of dietary sericin on the intestinal luminal environment in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Rats were fed 300 or 50 g/kg of beef tallow with or without 40 g/kg sericin, a protein purified from cocoons of Bombix mori, for 3 wk. Intestinal luminal variables, including IgA (index of intestinal immune function), mucins (index of barrier function), organic acids, microflora, and secondary bile acids, were measured. Dietary sericin markedly elevated fecal IgA in the HF diet group (3-fold, P < 0.05) but not in the low-fat (LF) diet group. Fecal mucin levels were elevated by sericin intake in the HF diet group (P < 0.05). Cecal organic acids, including acetate, propionate, n-butyrate, and succinate, were significantly lower in the HF diet group compared with the LF diet group. Dietary sericin significantly elevated cecal acetate and n-butyrate in the HF diet group but not in the LF diet group. Compared with the LF diet, the HF diet significantly increased serum TG in the untreated group but not in those fed sericin. The HF diet increased lower density lipoprotein (VLDL + IDL + LDL) cholesterol and it was reduced by sericin intake (P < 0.05). There was an inverse correlation between serum TG and cecal acetate (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = -0.63; P < 0.001). The profile of microflora in cecal digesta and fecal secondary bile acids (a risk factor for colon cancer) did not differ between the HF diet and HF diet with sericin groups. These results suggest a novel and favorable effect of sericin on colon health by modulating intestinal immune and barrier functions and fermentation in rats fed a HF diet.

  19. Attenuation of liver pro-inflammatory responses by Zingiber officinale via inhibition of NF-kappa B activation in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Hong; McGrath, Kristine C-Y; Nammi, Srinivas; Heather, Alison K; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment with a ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats suppresses Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-driven hepatic inflammation and to subsequently explore the molecular mechanisms in vitro. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (400 mg/kg) along with a HFD for 6 weeks. Hepatic cytokine mRNA levels, cytokine protein levels and NF-κB activation were measured by real-time PCR, Western blot and an NF-κB nuclear translocation assay, respectively. In vitro, cell culture studies were carried out in human hepatocyte (HuH-7) cells by treatment with Zingiber officinale (100 μg/mL) for 24 hr prior to interleukin-1β (IL-1β, 8 ng/mL)-induced inflammation. We showed that Zingiber officinale treatment decreased cytokine gene TNFα and IL-6 expression in HFD-fed rats, which was associated with suppression of NF-κB activation. In vitro, Zingiber officinale treatment decreased NF-κB-target inflammatory gene expression of IL-6, IL-8 and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1), while it suppressed NF-κB activity, IκBα degradation and IκB kinase (IKK) activity. In conclusion, Zingiber officinale suppressed markers of hepatic inflammation in HFD-fed rats, as demonstrated by decreased hepatic cytokine gene expression and decreased NF-κB activation. The study demonstrates that the anti-inflammatory effect of Zingiber officinale occurs at least in part through the NF-κB signalling pathway.

  20. Anti-diabetic activity of the semi-purified fractions of Averrhoa bilimbi in high fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tan, Benny Kwong Huat; Tan, Chee Hong; Pushparaj, Peter Natesan

    2005-04-29

    The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of the semi-purified fractions of an ethanolic leaf extract of Averrhoa bilimbi (ABe) in high fat diet (HFD)-streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 10 weeks (200-250 g) were fed with a high fat diet obtained from Glen Forrest stock feeders (Western Australia) for 2 weeks prior to intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg). The leaves of A.bilimbi were exhaustively extracted with 80% ethanol, concentrated at 40 degrees C using a rotavapor and partitioned successively with butanol, ethylacetate and hexane to get aqueous (AF), butanol (BuF), ethylacetate (EF), and hexane fractions (HF). The fractions were freeze-dried to obtain powders of each. To investigate the effect of long term administration of the hypoglycemic fractions, diabetic animals were treated with vehicle (distilled water), AF (125 mg/kg), or BuF (125 mg/kg), twice a day for 14 days. The long term administration of AF and BuF at a dose of 125 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05) lowered blood glucose and triglyceride concentrations when compared to the vehicle. The hepatic glycogen content was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in AF-treated rats when compared to diabetic control, however no change was found in the BuF-treated rats. Moreover, AF as well as BuF did not cause any significant change in the total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. There was also no difference in liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and cytochrome P450 values between AF, BuF and vehicle-treated control rats. In conclusion, the results indicate that AF is more potent than BuF in the amelioration of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD fed-STZ diabetic rats. Hence, AF is a potential source for the isolation of active principle(s) for oral anti-diabetic therapy.

  1. Characterization of starter kimchi fermented with Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 and its cholesterol-lowering effects in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Jo, Se Yeon; Choi, Eun A; Lee, Jae Joon; Chang, Hae Choon

    2015-10-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria and kimchi have been demonstrated previously. However, the kimchi fermentation process still relies on naturally present microorganisms. To obtain functional kimchi with consistent quality, we validated the capacity of Leuconostoc kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture to control kimchi fermentation. Moreover, cholesterol-lowering effects of starter kimchi as a health-promoting product were explored. Bacteriocin production by Lc. kimchii GJ2 was highly enhanced in the presence of 5% Lactobacillus sakei NJ1 cell fractions. When kimchi was fermented with bacteriocin-enhanced Lc. kimchii GJ2, Lc. kimchii GJ2 became overwhelmingly predominant (98.3%) at the end of fermentation and maintained its dominance (up to 82%) for 84 days. Growing as well as dead cells of Lc. kimchii GJ2 showed high cholesterol assimilation (in vitro). Rats were fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet supplemented with starter kimchi. The results showed that feeding of starter kimchi significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Additionally, atherogenic index, cardiac risk factor and triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in liver and epididymal adipose tissue decreased significantly in rats fed starter kimchi. Kimchi fermented with Lc. kimchii GJ2 as a starter culture has efficient cholesterol-lowering effects. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The Role of O-GlcNAcylation in Perivascular Adipose Tissue Dysfunction of Offspring of High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zaborska, Karolina E.; Edwards, Gillian; Austin, Clare; Wareing, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), which reduces vascular contractility, is dysfunctional in the male offspring of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), partially due to a reduced NO bioavailability. O-GlcNAcylation of eNOS decreases its activity, thus we investigated the role of O-GlcNAcylation in the prenatal programming of PVAT dysfunction. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a control (10% fat) or an obesogenic HFD (45% fat) diet for 12 weeks prior to mating, and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto the control diet and were killed at 12 and 24 weeks of age. Mesenteric arteries from the 12-week-old offspring of HFD dams (HFDO) contracted less to U46619; these effects were mimicked by glucosamine in control arteries. PVAT from 12- and 24-week-old controls, but not from HFDO, exerted an anticontractile effect. Glucosamine attenuated the anticontractile effect of PVAT in the vessels from controls but not from HFDO. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation (with A769662) partially restored an anticontractile effect in glucosamine-treated controls and HFDO PVAT. Glucosamine decreased AMPK activity and expression in HFDO PVAT, although phosphorylated eNOS expression was only reduced in that from males. The loss of anticontractile effect of HFDO PVAT is likely to result from increased O-GlcNAcylation, which decreased AMPK activity and, in males, decreased NO bioavailability. PMID:28376507

  3. Delayed physical and neurobehavioral development and increased aggressive and depression-like behaviors in the rat offspring of dams fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Giriko, Catherine Ássuka; Andreoli, Carla Albuquerque; Mennitti, Laís Vales; Hosoume, Lilian Fazion; Souto, Tayane Dos Santos; Silva, Alexandre Valotta da; Mendes-da-Silva, Cristiano

    2013-12-01

    Early maternal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) may influence the brain development of rat offspring and consequently affect physiology and behavior. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the somatic, physical, sensory-motor and neurobehavioral development of the offspring of dams fed an HFD (52% calories from fat, mainly saturated) and the offspring of dams fed a control diet (CD - 14.7% fat) during lactation from the 1st to the 21st postnatal day (P). Maternal body weights were evaluated during lactation. In the progeny, somatic (body weight, head and lengths axes) and physical (ear unfolding, auditory conduit opening, eruption of the incisors and eye opening) development and the consolidation of reflex responses (palm grasp, righting, vibrissa placing, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, auditory startle response and free-fall righting) were determined during suckling. Depressive and aggressive behaviors were tested with the forced swimming test (FST) and the "foot-shock" test on days 60 and 110, respectively. The open field test was used to assess motor function. Compared to controls, the HFD-pups exhibited decreases in body weight (P7-P21) and body length (P4-P18), but by days P71 and P95, these pups were overweight. All indicators of physical maturation and the consolidation of the following reflexes, vibrissa placing, auditory startle responses, free-fall righting and negative geotaxis, were delayed in HFD-progeny. In addition, the pups from HFD dam rats also exhibited reduced swimming and climbing times in the FST and increased aggressive behavior. No changes in locomotion were observed. These findings show developmental and neurobehavioral changes in the rat offspring of dams fed the HFD during lactation and suggest possible disruption of physical and sensory-motor maturation and increased susceptibility to depressive and aggressive-like behavior.

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis of fibrotic liver of rats fed high fat diet contained lard versus corn oil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hualin; Sit, Wat-Hung; Tipoe, George Lim; Liu, Zhiguo; Wan, Jennifer Man-Fan

    2017-02-01

    The influences of dietary fatty acids on the progress of chronic liver diseases have attracted lots of attentions, but the mechanisms of the effects of lipids rich in saturated fatty acids or PUFAs on hepatic fibrogenesis remain unclear. Female Fischer 344 rats were fed normal chow or chow plus 20% (w/w) of corn oil or lard, respectively, and injected CCl4 twice a week for 4 weeks to induce liver fibrosis. Masson's staining was adopted to illustrate the fibrosis level. The mRNA expression level of α-SMA and the DNA methylation level of its promoter region were analyzed. A 2-DE gel based proteomic approach was constructed to investigate the differential expression level of hepatic proteome between three diet groups. Histological evaluations and α-SMA expression analysis illustrated the high corn oil intake has no effects on hepatic fibrogenesis, but lard intake aggravated liver fibrosis, partly attributed to DNA demethylation of α-SMA promoter region. 2-DE Gel based proteomic study demonstrated excessive lard consumption elevated the expression of fibrosis related alpha-1-antitrypsin precursor, and endoplasmic reticulum stress related proteins such as heat shock cognate 71 kDa, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A1 and protein disulfide isomerase associated 3. Moreover, unlike corn oil rich in PUFAs, lard had no effects to elevate the expression of glutathione S-transferases, but decreased the expression of iron store related proteins heme binding protein 1 and ferritin. Lard intake aggravates CCl4 induced liver fibrosis via enhancing the expression of fibrogenesis and ER stress related proteins, and disturbing the hepatic transmethylation reaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Green tea polyphenols ameliorate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through upregulating AMPK activation in high fat fed Zucker fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi; Kim, Jane; Cheng, Jing; Ong, Madeleine; Lao, Wei-Guo; Jin, Xing-Liang; Lin, Yi-Guang; Xiao, Linda; Zhu, Xue-Qiong; Qu, Xian-Qin

    2017-06-07

    To investigate protective effects and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. Male ZF rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 wk then treated with GTP (200 mg/kg) or saline (5 mL/kg) for 8 wk, with Zucker lean rat as their control. At the end of experiment, serum and liver tissue were collected for measurement of metabolic parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), inflammatory cytokines and hepatic triglyceride and liver histology. Immunoblotting was used to detect phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c). Genetically obese ZF rats on a HFD presented with metabolic features of hepatic pathological changes comparable to human with NAFLD. GTP intervention decreased weight gain (10.1%, P = 0.052) and significantly lowered visceral fat (31.0%, P < 0.01). Compared with ZF-controls, GTP treatment significantly reduced fasting serum insulin, glucose and lipids levels. Reduction in serum ALT and AST levels (both P < 0.01) were observed in GTP-treated ZF rats. GTP treatment also attenuated the elevated TNFα and IL-6 in the circulation. The increased hepatic TG accumulation and cytoplasmic lipid droplet were attenuated by GTP treatment, associated with significantly increased expression of AMPK-Thr172 (P < 0.05) and phosphorylated ACC and SREBP1c (both P < 0.05), indicating diminished hepatic lipogenesis and triglycerides out flux from liver in GTP treated rats. The protective effects of GTP against HFD-induced NAFLD in genetically obese ZF rats are positively correlated to reduction in hepatic lipogenesis through upregulating the AMPK pathway.

  6. Antiobesity effects of quercetin-rich onion peel extract on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and the adipogenesis in high fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jiyoung; Do, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Oh Yoen; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on anti-differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and the antiobesity in high-fat fed rats. We found that lipid accumulations and TG contents in 3T3-L1 cells were markedly suppressed by OPE. The mRNA levels of activating protein (AP2) were down-regulated and those of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 α (CPT-1α) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) were up-regulated by 75 and 100 μg/ml OPE. Body weight, retroperitoneal and mesenteric fat weights of SD rats were significantly lower in the 8 week high fat (HF) diet+0.72% OPE group than in the HF group. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ mRNA levels were down-regulated in the epididymal fat of OPE than those of control and HF, and significant down-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α mRNA levels in OPE was also observed than the control. The mRNA levels of CPT-1α and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) were up-regulated by the OPE, while those of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were down-regulated in HF and OPE groups compared to control group. These results suggest that quercentin-enriched OPE may have antiobesity effects by suppressing preadipocyte differentiation and inhibiting adipogenesis.

  7. Tocotrienol-Rich Tocomin Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Improves Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation in Aortae from Rats Fed a High-Fat Western Diet

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Saher F.; Nguyen, Jason C. D.; Jenkins, Trisha A.; Woodman, Owen L.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that tocomin, a mixture high in tocotrienol content and also containing tocopherol, acutely preserves endothelial function in the presence of oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether tocomin treatment would preserve endothelial function in aortae isolated from rats fed a high-fat diet known to cause oxidative stress. Wistar hooded rats were fed a western diet (WD, 21% fat) or control rat chow (standard diet, 6% fat) for 12 weeks. Tocomin (40 mg/kg/day sc) or its vehicle (peanut oil) was administered for the last 4 weeks of the feeding regime. Aortae from WD rats showed an impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation that was associated with an increased expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox2 subunit and an increase in the vascular generation of superoxide measured using L-012 chemiluminescence. The increase in vascular oxidative stress was accompanied by a decrease in basal NO release and impairment of the contribution of NO to ACh-induced relaxation. The impaired relaxation is likely contributed to by a decreased expression of eNOS, calmodulin, and phosphorylated Akt and an increase in caveolin. Tocotrienol rich tocomin, which prevented the diet-induced changes in vascular function, reduced vascular superoxide production and abolished the diet-induced changes in eNOS and other protein expression. Using selective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) and calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels we demonstrated that tocomin increased NO-mediated relaxation, without affecting the contribution of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization type relaxation to the endothelium-dependent relaxation. The beneficial actions of tocomin in this diet-induced model of obesity suggest that it may have potential to be used as a therapeutic agent to prevent vascular disease in obesity. PMID:27800483

  8. Nigella sativa Relieves the Altered Insulin Receptor Signaling in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    El-Zeftawy, Marwa; Taha, Nabil; Mandour, Abdel Wahab

    2016-01-01

    The black cumin (Nigella sativa) “NS” or the black seeds have many pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic properties. In this work, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed with a high-fat diet were treated daily with NS oil (NSO) in order to study the effect on the blood glucose, lipid profile, oxidative stress parameters, and the gene expression of some insulin receptor-induced signaling molecules. This treatment was combined also with some drugs (metformin and glimepiride) and the insulin receptor inhibitor I-OMe-AG538. The administration of NSO significantly induced the gene expression of insulin receptor compared to rats that did not receive NSO. Also, it upregulated the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and phosphoinositide-3 kinase, whereas the expression of ADAM-17 was downregulated. The expression of ADAM-17 is corroborated by the analysis of TIMP-3 content. In addition, the NSO significantly reduced blood glucose level, components of the lipid profile, oxidative stress parameters, serum insulin/insulin receptor ratio, and the tumor necrosis factor-α, confirming that NSO has an antidiabetic activity. Thus, the daily NSO treatment in our rat model indicates that NSO has a potential in the management of diabetes as well as improvement of insulin-induced signaling. PMID:27579151

  9. Effect of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) Extract Supplementation in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Ângelo C.; Król, Ewelina; Lemos, Virgínia C.; Santos, Sónia A. O.; Bento, Fernanda P. M. S.; Costa, Carina P.; Almeida, Adelaide; Szczepankiewicz, Dawid; Kulczyński, Bartosz; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Rocha, Sílvia M.

    2016-01-01

    Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) lipophilic and polar extract dietary supplementation effects were evaluated according to diabetes management indices, using an in vivo model. A research pipeline was constructed, that ranged from extract preparation, partial chemical characterization and toxicity evaluation, to examining the elderberry extract dietary supplementation effects on biofluid and tissues. Extracts toxicity was screened using an Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence model. A concentration of up to 60 mg/L was selected, and rat doses for oral supplementation were computed applying the interspecies correlation between A. fischeri and rats. Wistar type 2 diabetic rats, induced by streptozotocin (STZ), were fed a high-fat diet and supplemented for 4 weeks at doses of 190 and 350 mg/kg body weight/day of lipophilic and polar extract, respectively. As far as we know, lipophilic elderberry extract supplementation was assessed for the first time, while polar extract was administrated at higher doses and for a shorter period compared to previous studies, aiming to evaluate subacute supplementation effects. The polar extract modulated glucose metabolism by correcting hyperglycemia, while the lipophilic extract lowered insulin secretion. Both extracts lowered insulin resistance, without remarkable alterations to hematological indices, sera lipids and sera and tissular trace element homeostasis. In conclusion, elderberries are a potential source of bioactive compounds for formulations to be used as co-adjuvants in diabetes management. PMID:28025494

  10. NEU-P11, a novel melatonin agonist, inhibits weight gain and improves insulin sensitivity in high-fat/high-sucrose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    She, Meihua; Deng, Xiaojian; Guo, Zhenyu; Laudon, Moshe; Hu, Zhuowei; Liao, Duanfang; Hu, Xiaobo; Luo, Yi; Shen, Qingyun; Su, Zehong; Yin, Weidong

    2009-04-01

    Evidences indicate that a complex relationship exists among sleep disorders, obesity and insulin resistance. NEU-P11 is a novel melatonin agonist used in treatment of psychophysiological insomnia, and in animal studies NEU-P11 showed sleep-promoting effect. In this study, we applied NEU-P11 on obese rats to assess its potential melatoninergic effects in vivo. Obese models were established using high-fat/high-sucrose-fed for 5 months. NEU-P11 (10mg/kg)/melatonin (4mg/kg)/vehicle were administered by a daily intraperitoneal injection respectively for 8 weeks. Our results showed that NEU-P11 or melatonin inhibited both body weight gain and deposit of abdominal fat with no influence on food intake. The impaired insulin sensitivity and antioxidative potency were improved and the levels of plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) decreased with an increased in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) after NEU-P11 or melatonin administration. These data suggest that NEU-P11, like melatonin, decreased body weight gain and improved insulin sensitivity and metabolic profiles in obese rats. We conclude that NEU-P11 has a melatoninergic effect on regulating body weight in obese rats and also improving metabolic profiles and efficiently enhancing insulin sensitivity.

  11. Retinal upregulation of inflammatory and proangiogenic markers in a model of neonatal diabetic rats fed on a high-fat-diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The contemporary peak of diabetes seems to be related to obesity, sedentary lifestyle and diet. Diabetic retinopathy is the most leading cause of blindness in adulthood in industrialized countries. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of a high-fat-diet (HFD) on the retina of diabetic rats. Methods Two groups of Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) two days after birth using 45 and 90 mg/kg, respectively. At 8 weeks the group on lower doses started to be fed on a HFD. Animals were sacrificed at 37 weeks of diabetes. A control group was made up of non-diabetic rats. Retinal flat mounts were examined using the trypsin digestion technique. Pericytes counts were compared between diabetic and control rats. Cross retinal sections were analyzed by histological techniques and immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent technique. Primary antibodies against inflammatory and proangiogenic mediators such as RAGE, GFAP, 5-LO, VEGF and TNF-α were used for immunohistochemistry and Western Blot (WB) analyses. Results In the two diabetic groups we observed GFAP-positive cells with a morphology and spatial organization similar to those seen in Müller cells. Both diabetic groups had a significantly lower number of pericytes than non-diabetic animals.Increased retinal immunoreactivity of GFAP, RAGE, TNF-α, VEGF and 5-LO was seen in diabetic animals fed on HFD compared to the other groups of animals. WB analysis revealed a higher expression of 5-LO, VEGF, TNF-α and RAGE in the retina of diabetic rats on HFD than in controls and diabetics fed on a normal diet. The percentage of RAGE-stained ganglion cells and ganglion cells was found to be significantly lower in animals on a HFD than in the other animals. Conclusions Diabetic animals fed on a HFD showed an increased upregulation of inflammatory and proangiogenic markers. This animal model may be useful to study mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy and therapeutic targets. PMID:23587252

  12. Adipose tissue stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 index is increased and linoleic acid is decreased in obesity-prone rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatty acid (FA) composition and desaturase indices are associated with obesity and related metabolic conditions. However, it is unclear to what extent desaturase activity in different lipid fractions contribute to obesity susceptibility. Our aim was to test whether desaturase activity and FA composition are linked to an obese phenotype in rats that are either obesity prone (OP) or resistant (OR) on a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods Two groups of Sprague–Dawley rats were given ad libitum (AL-HFD) or calorically restricted (HFD-paired; pair fed to calories consumed by chow-fed rats) access to a HFD. The AL-HFD group was categorized into OP and OR sub-groups based on weight gain over 5 weeks. Five different lipid fractions were examined in OP and OR rats with regard to proportions of essential and very long-chain polyunsaturated FAs: linoleic acid (LA), alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and the stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1) product 16:1n-7. FA ratios were used to estimate activities of the delta-5-desaturase (20:4n-6/20:3n-6), delta-6-desaturase (18:3n-6/18:2n-6), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD-1; 16:1n-7/16:0, SCD-16 and 18:1n-9/18:0, SCD-18), de novo lipogenesis (16:0/18:2n-6) and FA elongation (18:0/16:0). Fasting insulin, glucose, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were measured in plasma. Results After AL-HFD access, OP rats had a significantly higher SCD-16 index and 16:1n-7 proportion, but a significantly lower LA proportion, in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) triacylglycerols, as well as significantly higher insulin and leptin concentrations, compared with OR rats. No differences were found between the two phenotypes in liver (phospholipids; triacylglycerols) or plasma (cholesterol esters; phospholipids) lipid fractions or for plasma glucose or adiponectin concentrations. For the desaturase indices of the HFD-paired rats, the only significant differences compared with the OP or OR rats were higher SCD-16 and

  13. Ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) root exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes and anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    You, Jeong Soon; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2014-03-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera) root, a well-known medicinal plant in Asia, is reported to have various therapeutic benefits, including anti-diabetes, anti-hypertension, and anti-hyperlipidaemia. We hypothesized that the ethanol extract of lotus root (ELR) would exhibit an anti-adipogenic effect in human pre-adipocytes as well as anti-obesity and anti-oxidant effects in rats fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with ELR in human pre-adipocytes resulted in inhibition of lipid accumulation and attenuated expression of adipogenic transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adipocyte marker genes, such as glucose transporter 4 and leptin. Administration of ELR resulted in a significant decrease in relative weights of adipose tissues in rats fed a high-fat diet. Consumption of a high-fat diet resulted in an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels; however, administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the levels of TC and TG. Administration of ELR resulted in a decrease in the level of serum leptin and insulin. Administration of ELR in rats fed a high-fat diet resulted in a decrease in hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substance content, elevated by a high-fat diet and an increase in superoxide dismutase activity and hepatic glutathione content. These results suggest that lotus root exerts anti-oxidant and anti-obesity effects and could be used as a functional and nutraceutical ingredient in combatting obesity-related diseases.

  14. Early postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity in offspring of rat dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Liang, Nu-Chu; Ewald, Erin R; Purcell, Ryan H; Boersma, Gretha J; Yan, Jianqun; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L K

    2013-11-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the metabolic phenotype of the offspring. Here, we determined the effects of postweaning exercise in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on chow or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. All pups were weaned onto chow diet on postnatal day (PND) 21. At 4 wk of age, male pups were given free access to running wheels (RW) or remained sedentary (SED) for 3 wk, after which all rats remained sedentary, resulting in four groups: CHOW-SED, CHOW-RW, HF-SED, and HF-RW. Male HF offspring gained more body weight by PND7 compared with CHOW pups and maintained this weight difference through the entire experiment. Three weeks of postweaning exercise did not affect body weight gain in either CHOW or HF offspring, but reduced adiposity in HF offspring. Plasma leptin was decreased at the end of the 3-wk running period in HF-RW rats but was not different from HF-SED 9 wk after the exercise period ended. At 14 wk of age, intracerebroventricular injection of leptin suppressed food intake in CHOW-SED, CHOW-RW, and HF-RW, while it did not affect food intake in HF-SED group. At death, HF-RW rats also had higher leptin-induced phospho-STAT3 level in the arcuate nucleus than HF-SED rats. Both maternal HF diet and postweaning exercise had effects on hypothalamic neuropeptide and receptor mRNA expression in adult offspring. Our data suggest that postweaning exercise improves central leptin sensitivity and signaling in this model.

  15. A Combination of Flaxseed Oil and Astaxanthin Improves Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and Reduces Oxidative Stress in High Fat-Diet Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiqu; Rong, Shuang; Gao, Hui; Chen, Chang; Yang, Wei; Deng, Qianchun; Huang, Qingde; Xiao, Lingyun; Huang, Fenghong

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are crucial pathophysiological mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we examined the effect of a combination of flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. ASX was dissolved in flaxseed oil (1 g/kg; FO + ASX). Animals were fed diets containing 20% fat, where the source was lard, or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX, or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX, or FO + ASX, for 10 weeks. Substitution of lard with FO + ASX reduced steatosis and reduced hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol. The combination of FO and ASX significantly decreased hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase but increased peroxisome proliferator activated receptor expression. FO + ASX significantly suppressed fatty acid synthase and acetyl CoA carboxylase but induced carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and acyl CoA oxidase expression. FO + ASX also significantly elevated hepatic SOD, CAT and GPx activity and GSH, and markedly reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Thus, FO and ASX may reduce NAFLD by reversing hepatic steatosis and reducing lipid accumulation and oxidative stress. PMID:28335388

  16. Evolution of metabolic disorder in rats fed high sucrose or high fat diet: Focus on redox state and mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Long, Zi; Zhang, Xuesi; Sun, Quangui; Liu, Ying; Liao, Nai; Wu, Hao; Wang, Xin; Hai, Chunxu

    2017-02-01

    Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity are major hallmarks of metabolic disorder. High consumption of fat or carbohydrate rich food is a major risk of metabolic disorder. However, the evolution of high fat or high carbohydrate diet-induced metabolic disorder is not clear. In the study, we tried to find distinguished and common ways involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance induced by high fat (HF) and high sucrose (HS) diet. We found that HS diet induced mild glucose intolerance (2month), followed by a "temporary non-symptom phase" (3month), and then induced significant metabolic abnormality (4month). HF diet induced an early "responsive enhancement phase" (2month), and then gradually caused severe metabolic dysfunction (3-4month). After a mild induction of mitochondrial ROS generation (2month), HS diet resulted in a "temporary non-symptom phase" (3month), and then induced a more significant mitochondrial ROS production (4month). The impairment of mitochondrial function induced by HS diet was progressive (2-4month). HF diet induced gradual mitochondrial ROS generation and hyperpolarization. HF diet induced an early "responsive enhancement" of mitochondrial function (2month), and then gradually resulted in severe decrease of mitochondrial function (3-4month). Despite the patterns of HS and HF diet-induced insulin resistance were differential, final mitochondrial ROS generation combined with mitochondrial dysfunction may be the common pathway. These findings demonstrate a novel understanding of the mechanism of insulin resistance and highlight the pivotal role of mitochondrial ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorder.

  17. Induction of ketosis in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets depends on the relative abundance of dietary fat and protein.

    PubMed

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Menhofer, Dominik; Kirchner, Henriette; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Müller, Timo D; Stock, Peggy; Hempel, Madlen; Stemmer, Kerstin; Pfluger, Paul T; Kienzle, Ellen; Christ, Bruno; Tschöp, Matthias H; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate/high-fat diets (LC-HFDs) in rodent models have been implicated with both weight loss and as a therapeutic approach to treat neurological diseases. LC-HFDs are known to induce ketosis; however, systematic studies analyzing the impact of the macronutrient composition on ketosis induction and weight loss success are lacking. Male Wistar rats were pair-fed for 4 wk either a standard chow diet or one of three different LC-HFDs, which only differed in the relative abundance of fat and protein (percentages of fat/protein in dry matter: LC-75/10; LC-65/20; LC-55/30). We subsequently measured body composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), analyzed blood chemistry and urine acetone content, evaluated gene expression changes of key ketogenic and gluconeogenic genes, and measured energy expenditure (EE) and locomotor activity (LA) during the first 4 days and after 3 wk on the respective diets. Compared with chow, rats fed with LC-75/10, LC-65/20, and LC-55/30 gained significantly less body weight. Reductions in body weight were mainly due to lower lean body mass and paralleled by significantly increased fat mass. Levels of β-hydroxybutyate were significantly elevated feeding LC-75/10 and LC-65/20 but decreased in parallel to reductions in dietary fat. Acetone was about 16-fold higher with LC-75/10 only (P < 0.001). In contrast, rats fed with LC-55/30 were not ketotic. Serum fibroblast growth factor-21, hepatic mRNA expression of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-lyase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1β were increased with LC-75/10 only. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase was downregulated by 50-70% in LC-HF groups. Furthermore, EE and LA were significantly decreased in all groups fed with LC-HFDs after 3 wk on the diets. In rats, the absence of dietary carbohydrates per se does not induce ketosis. LC-HFDs must be high in fat

  18. A High-Dose Shiitake Mushroom Increases Hepatic Accumulation of Triacylglycerol in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet: Underlying Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Handayani, Dian; Meyer, Barbara J.; Chen, Jiezhong; Brown, Simon H. J.; Mitchell, Todd W.; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Shiitake mushroom have been shown to have health benefits including lowering plasma lipids and preventing body weight gain. However, their underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The study aim was to assess the potential underlying mechanism of Shiitake mushrooms in lowering plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) in rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). Forty Wistar rats were divided into control group were given HFD and treatment group were fed HFD, enriched with Shiitake mushroom powder at a low dose (LD-M): 0.7%, medium dose (MD-M): 2%, or high dose (HD-M): 6% (wt:wt) for six weeks. Diets were isocaloric containing ~50% energy from fat. After six weeks’ dietary intervention, the rats were sacrificed, and blood and tissue samples were collected. The HD-M group showed a significantly higher ratio of liver weight to 100 g body weight (p < 0.05), a more severe hepatic steatosis marker, such as hepatocyte ballooning (p < 0.0001), and more liver triacylglycerol content than LD-M and MD-M (p < 0.05). HD-M also showed a significantly decreased ratio of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) compared to HFD (p < 0.05), however, there were no differences compared to HD-M and MD-M. Our results also showed a positive association between the dosage, liver TAG, and liver ballooning histology. A negative association was found between the mushroom dosage and the ratio of liver PC to PE. This study showed the mechanism of how high-dose Shiitake mushroom (HD-M) prevents obesity by increasing TAG accumulation in the liver, rather than adipose tissue. PMID:24566434

  19. Regular tart cherry intake alters abdominal adiposity, adipose gene transcription, and inflammation in obesity-prone rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Seymour, E M; Lewis, Sarah K; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Tanone, Ignasia I; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2009-10-01

    Obesity, systemic inflammation, and hyperlipidemia are among the components of metabolic syndrome, a spectrum of phenotypes that can precede the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Animal studies show that intake of anthocyanin-rich extracts can affect these phenotypes. Anthocyanins can alter the activity of tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect energy substrate metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown if physiologically relevant, anthocyanin-containing whole foods confer similar effects to concentrated, anthocyanin extracts. The effect of anthocyanin-rich tart cherries was tested in the Zucker fatty rat model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. For 90 days, rats were pair-fed a higher fat diet supplemented with either 1% (wt/wt) freeze-dried, whole tart cherry powder or with a calorie- and macronutrient-matched control diet. Tart cherry intake was associated with reduced hyperlipidemia, percentage fat mass, abdominal fat (retroperitoneal) weight, retroperitoneal interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Tart cherry diet also increased retroperitoneal fat PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma mRNA (P = .12), decreased IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA, and decreased nuclear factor kappaB activity. In conclusion, in at-risk obese rats fed a high fat diet, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and reduced both systemic and local inflammation. Tart cherries may reduce the degree or trajectory of metabolic syndrome, thereby reducing risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

  20. High molecular weight poly-gamma-glutamic acid regulates lipid metabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet and humans.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Ho; Choi, Jae-Chul; Sung, Moon-Hee; Kang, Jae-Heon; Chang, Moon-Jeong

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the effect of high molecular weight polygamma- glutamic acid (hm gamma-PGA) on adiposity and lipid metabolism of rats in the presence of an obesity-inducing diet. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a normal-fat (11.4% kcal fat, NFC) or high-fat (51% kcal fat, HFC) diet. After 5 weeks, half of each diet-fed group was treated with hm gamma-PGA (NFP or HFP) for 4 weeks. The HFC group had significantly higher body weight, visceral fat mass, fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and leptin, and lower serum HDL cholesterol level compared with those of the NFC group (p < 0.05). Treatment with hm gamma-PGA decreased body weight gain and perirenal fat mass (p<0.05), fasting serum total cholesterol, and mRNA expression of glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), regardless of dietary fat contents (p < 0.01). However, hm gamma-PGA increased serum HDL cholesterol in the HFC group (p < 0.05). In vitro, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A (HMGCoA) reductase activity was suppressed by the addition of hm gamma-PGA. In agreement with observations in animal study, the supplementation of hm gamma-PGA (150 mg/day) to 20 female subjects in an 8-week double-blind, placebocontrolled study resulted in a tendency to decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations. We thus conclude that dietary supplementation of hm gamma-PGA may act as a hypocholestrolemic agent, secondary to its inhibitor effect on HMG-CoA reductase, and decrease abdominal adiposity by decreasing hepatic lipogenesis. The present study is an important first step in establishing the effect of hm gamma-PGA on cholesterol levels in rats and humans.

  1. Intermittent hypoxia upregulates hepatic heme oxygenase-1 and ferritin-1, thereby limiting hepatic pathogenesis in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hideyuki; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is prevalent in patients with sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). Intermittent hypoxia (IH) and a high-fat diet (HFD) reproduce SAS and NAFLD, respectively, in rodents. In this study, rats were fed either an HFD or a standard diet (SD) for 2 weeks, and breathed either IH air or normoxic air for 4 days (early phase) or 6 weeks (late phase), with the same diets maintained during the exposure. HFD increased hepatic lipid accumulation, as detected by oil-red staining and triglyceride content. However, IH exposure reversed the hepatic steatosis at the late phase in these HFD-rats. IH exposure also increased hepatic expression of HO-1 and iron-binding protein ferritin-1 at the late phase, in association with increase in serum iron, bilirubin, and hepatic levels of lipid peroxides, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). IH exposure increased serum levels of hemoglobin (Hb) at the early phase and immunofluorescence of Hb and HO-1 in CD68-positive Kupffer cells (KCs) at the late phase. These findings support that IH induces erythrocytosis, erythro-phagocytosis, and generation of Hb in the KCs. The Hb promotes HO-1 expression in KCs, thereby produces iron, bilirubin, and carbon monoxide (CO). The iron would be either sequestrated by ferritin-1, transferred to the bone marrow for erythropoiesis, or would produce hydroxyradicals and HNE in the liver of rats fed an HFD. HNE might also contribute to the upregulation of HO-1, transferrin-1, and IκB, thereby limiting hepatic steatosis and inflammation via inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) activation.

  2. Regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase expression by Zingiber officinale in the liver of high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Nammi, Srinivas; Kim, Moon S; Gavande, Navnath S; Li, George Q; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2010-05-01

    Zingiber officinale has been used to control lipid disorders and reported to possess remarkable cholesterol-lowering activity in experimental hyperlipidaemia. In the present study, the effect of a characterized and standardized extract of Zingiber officinale on the hepatic lipid levels as well as on the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase was investigated in a high-fat diet-fed rat model. Rats were treated with an ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (400 mg/kg) extract along with a high-fat diet for 6 weeks. The extract of Zingiber officinale significantly decreased hepatic triglyceride and tended to decrease hepatic cholesterol levels when administered over 6 weeks to the rats fed a high-fat diet. We found that in parallel, the extract up-regulated both LDL receptor mRNA and protein level and down-regulated HMG-CoA reductase protein expression in the liver of these rats. The metabolic control of body lipid homeostasis is in part due to enhanced cholesterol biosynthesis and reduced expression of LDL receptor sites following long-term consumption of high-fat diets. The present results show restoration of transcriptional and post-transcriptional changes in low-density lipoprotein and HMG CoA reductase by Zingiber officinale administration with a high-fat diet and provide a rational explanation for the effect of ginger in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  3. Uninephrectomized High-Fat-Fed Nicotinamide-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Model for the Investigation of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Dmitriev, Yuri V.; Chefu, Svetlana G.; Pchelin, Ivan Yu.; Bairamov, Alekber A.; Alexeyeva, Nina P.; Shatalov, Ivan S.

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (DM2) could be reproduced in rats with alimentary obesity by using low doses of streptozotocin (LD-STZ) as well as STZ in high doses with preliminary nicotinamide (NA) administration. However, STZ could induce tubulotoxicity. Aim. To develop rat model of DN in NA-STZ-induced DM2 and compare it with LD-STZ-model in order to choose the most relevant approach for reproducing renal glomerular and tubular morphofunctional diabetic changes. Starting at 3 weeks after uninephrectomy, adult male Wistar rats were fed five-week high-fat diet and then received intraperitoneally either LD-STZ (40 mg/kg) or NA (230 mg/kg) followed by STZ (65 mg/kg). Control uninephrectomized vehicle-injected rats received normal chow. At weeks 10, 20, and 30 (the end of the study), metabolic parameters, creatinine clearance, albuminuria, and urinary tubular injury markers (NGAL, KIM-1) were evaluated as well as renal ultrastructural and light microscopic changes at weeks 20 and 30. NA-STZ-group showed higher reproducibility and stability of metabolic parameters. By week 10, in NA-STZ-group NGAL level was significantly lower compared to LD-STZ-group. By week 30, diabetic groups showed early features of DN. However, morphofunctional changes in NA-STZ-group appeared to be more pronounced than those in STZ-group despite lower levels of KIM-1 and NGAL. We proposed a new rat model of DM2 with DN characterized by stable metabolic disorders, typical renal lesions, and lower levels of tubular injury markers as compared to LD-STZ-induced diabetes. PMID:28090542

  4. Activation of β3-adrenoceptors increases in vivo free fatty acid uptake and utilization in brown but not white fat depots in high-fat-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Amy; Kjellstedt, Ann; Carreras, Alba; Böttcher, Gerhard; Peng, Xiao-Rong; Seale, Patrick; Oakes, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) present potential new therapies for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here, we examined the effects of β3-adrenergic stimulation on tissue-specific uptake and storage of free fatty acids (FFA) and its implications for whole body FFA metabolism in diet-induced obese rats using a multi-radiotracer technique. Male Wistar rats were high fat-fed for 12 wk and administered β3-agonist CL316,243 (CL, 1 mg·kg−1·day−1) or saline via osmotic minipumps during the last 3 wk. The rats were then fasted and acutely infused with a tracer mixture ([14C]palmitate and the partially metabolized R-[3H]bromopalmitate) under anesthesia. CL infusion decreased body weight gain and fasting plasma glucose levels. While core body temperature was unaffected, infrared thermography showed an increase in tail heat dissipation following CL infusion. Interestingly, CL markedly increased both FFA storage and utilization in interscapular and perirenal BAT, whereas the flux of FFA to skeletal muscle was decreased. In this rat model of obesity, only sporadic populations of beige adipocytes were detected in the epididymal WAT depot of CL-infused rats, and there was no change in FFA uptake or utilization in WAT following CL infusion. In summary, β3-agonism robustly increased FFA flux to BAT coupled with enhanced utilization. Increased BAT activation most likely drove the increased tail heat dissipation to maintain thermostasis. Our results emphasize the quantitative role of brown fat as the functional target of β3-agonism in obesity. PMID:27780820

  5. Activation of β3-adrenoceptors increases in vivo free fatty acid uptake and utilization in brown but not white fat depots in high-fat-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Warner, Amy; Kjellstedt, Ann; Carreras, Alba; Böttcher, Gerhard; Peng, Xiao-Rong; Seale, Patrick; Oakes, Nicholas; Lindén, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) present potential new therapies for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here, we examined the effects of β3-adrenergic stimulation on tissue-specific uptake and storage of free fatty acids (FFA) and its implications for whole body FFA metabolism in diet-induced obese rats using a multi-radiotracer technique. Male Wistar rats were high fat-fed for 12 wk and administered β3-agonist CL316,243 (CL, 1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline via osmotic minipumps during the last 3 wk. The rats were then fasted and acutely infused with a tracer mixture ([(14)C]palmitate and the partially metabolized R-[(3)H]bromopalmitate) under anesthesia. CL infusion decreased body weight gain and fasting plasma glucose levels. While core body temperature was unaffected, infrared thermography showed an increase in tail heat dissipation following CL infusion. Interestingly, CL markedly increased both FFA storage and utilization in interscapular and perirenal BAT, whereas the flux of FFA to skeletal muscle was decreased. In this rat model of obesity, only sporadic populations of beige adipocytes were detected in the epididymal WAT depot of CL-infused rats, and there was no change in FFA uptake or utilization in WAT following CL infusion. In summary, β3-agonism robustly increased FFA flux to BAT coupled with enhanced utilization. Increased BAT activation most likely drove the increased tail heat dissipation to maintain thermostasis. Our results emphasize the quantitative role of brown fat as the functional target of β3-agonism in obesity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Inhibition of fetal bone development through epigenetic down-regulation of HoxA10 in obese rats fed high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Ran; Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Kang, Ping; Blackburn, Michael L; Ronis, Martin J J; Badger, Thomas M; Shankar, Kartik

    2012-03-01

    Epidemiological studies show that maternal obesity during intrauterine and early postnatal life increases the risk of low bone mass and fracture later in life. Here, we show that bone development is inhibited in gestational embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5) embryos from rat dams made obese by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD). Moreover, fetal rat osteogenic calvarial cells (FOCCs) from these obese dams have significantly less potential to develop into mature osteoblasts compared to cells from AIN-93G diet-fed controls. Profiling of transcriptional genes for osteogenesis revealed a profound decrease in the homeodomain-containing factor A10 (HoxA10) in FOCCs from fetuses of HFD-induced obese dams. Significant methylation of the HoxA10 promoter was found in those FOCCs, as well as in mouse ST2 cells treated with a mixture of free fatty acids similar to that found in serum from HFD-induced obese rats. This was accompanied by lower expression of osteogenic markers, but higher levels of PPARγ. Control FOCCs depleted of the HoxA10 gene (shRNA) ex vivo behave similarly to cells from fetuses of obese dams; conversely, overexpression of HoxA10 gene in FOCCs from HFD rats exhibit the same phenotype as controls. Treatment of FOCCs from control rats or of ST2 cells with an artificial mixture of free fatty acids significantly down-regulated HoxA10 protein expression, and cells exhibited adipocyte-like properties. These results suggest that maternal obesity impairs fetal skeletal development through down-regulation of the HoxA10 gene, which may lead to an increase in the prevalence of low bone mass in the offspring later in life.

  7. The anti-obesity effect of green tea polysaccharides, polyphenols and caffeine in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Zhang, Min; Wu, Tao; Dai, ShengDong; Xu, Jinling; Zhou, Zhongkai

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) extracts against obesity have been reported; however, the anti-obesity ability of the major components of green tea, polysaccharides, polyphenols and caffeine is not clear. Therefore, experiments with total green tea extracts, polyphenols, polysaccharides, caffeine, and a complex of polysaccharide and polyphenol at a dose of 400 or 800 mg kg⁻¹ were conducted on high-fat diet fed rats for 6 weeks to investigate their anti-obesity effects. The results indicated that polyphenols and polysaccharides were responsible for the suppressive effect of green tea extracts on body weight increase and fat accumulation. Moreover, polyphenols, polysaccharides, or caffeine can improve blood lipid and antioxidant levels, and effectively reduce rat serum leptin levels, inhibit the absorption of fatty acids, and markedly reduce the expression levels of the IL-6 and TNF-α gene. Furthermore, it was shown that polysaccharides and polyphenols were synergistic in reduction of serum leptin levels and in anti-inflammatory activity. These results suggest that the polysaccharide combination with polyphenols might be a potential therapy against obesity.

  8. Rice Bran Protein Hydrolysates Improve Insulin Resistance and Decrease Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Rats Fed a High Carbohydrate-High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Boonloh, Kampeebhorn; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Thawornchinsombut, Supawan; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan

    2015-08-03

    A high carbohydrate-high fat (HCHF) diet causes insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS). Rice bran has been demonstrated to have anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherogenic properties in an obese mouse model. In the present study, we investigated the beneficial effects of rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP) in HCHF-induced MS rats. After 12 weeks on this diet, the HCHF-fed group was divided into four subgroups, which were orally administered RBP 100 or 500 mg/kg, pioglitazone 10 mg/kg, or tap water for a further 6 weeks. Compared with normal diet control group, the MS rats had elevated levels of blood glucose, lipid, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Treatment with RBP significantly alleviated all those changes and restored insulin sensitivity. Additionally, RBP treatment increased adiponectin and suppressed leptin levels. Expression of Ppar-γ mRNA in adipose tissues was significantly increased whereas expression of lipogenic genes Srebf1 and Fasn was significantly decreased. Levels of mRNA of proinflammatory cytokines, Il-6, Tnf-α, Nos-2 and Mcp-1 were significantly decreased. In conclusion, the present findings support the consumption of RBP as a functional food to improve insulin resistance and to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

  9. The effect of dietary curcumin and capsaicin on hepatic fetuin-A expression and fat accumulation in rats fed on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Seyithanoğlu, Muhammed; Öner-İyidoğan, Yıldız; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Tanrıkulu-Küçük, Sevda; Koçak, Hikmet; Beyhan-Özdaş, Şule; Koçak-Toker, Necla

    2016-01-01

    Effects of curcumin (turmeric) and capsaicin (red pepper) on hepatic fat accumulation and fetuin-A expression in rats fed high-fat diet (HFD) is aimed to be investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received HFD (60% of total calories from fat) and 0.15 g capsaicin/kg HFD and/or 1.5 g curcumin/kg HFD for 16 weeks. Hepatic AMPK, p-AMPK and fetuin-A expressions were determined by western blotting, liver lipid levels were measured with colorimetric methods and serum fetuin-A, insulin, leptin and adiponectin levels were detected using commercial ELISA kits. HFD increased hepatic lipid levels, fetuin-A expression and serum leptin, insülin and fetuin-A levels. Curcumin and capsaicin treatments significantly reduced hepatic fat accumulation and leptin levels; liver fetuin-A expression was decreased significantly by the curcumin treatment. Curcumin and capsaicin treatments attenuated hepatic fat accumulation and increased leptin levels related to inflammation. The suppression of hepatic fetuin-A expression is observed to be especially sensitive to curcumin.

  10. Grape seed and skin extract reduces pancreas lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in high fat diet fed rats.

    PubMed

    Aloui, Faten; Charradi, Kamel; Hichami, Aziz; Subramaniam, Selvakumar; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is related to an elevated risk of diabetes and the mechanisms whereby fat adversely affects the pancreas are poorly understood. We studied the effect of a high fat diet (HFD) on pancreas steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the putative protection afforded by grape seed and skin extract (GSSE). HFD induced body weight gain, without affecting insulinemia, nor glycemia and dropped adiponectemia. HFD also provoked the ectopic deposition of cholesterol and triglyceride, and an oxidative stress characterized by increased lipoperoxidation and carbonylation, inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities such as CAT, GPx and SOD, depletion of zinc and a concomitant increase in calcium and H2O2. HFD induced pro-inflammatory chemokines mRNA as RANTES and MCP1 as well as cytokines expression as TNFα, IL6 and IL1β. Importantly GSSE counteracted all the deleterious effects of HFD on pancreas in vivo i-e lipotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation. In conclusion, GSSE could find potential applications in fat-induced pancreas lipotoxicity and dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Variations in the efficacy of resistant maltodextrin on body fat reduction in rats fed different high-fat models.

    PubMed

    Chu, Hui-Fang; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Tseng, Yu-Han; Wang, William Wei-Li; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-08

    Many studies have utilized a variety of methods to induce obesity in rodents, but they often received inconsistent results. The present study intended to use resistant maltodextrin (RMD) as a means to investigate the variations in its efficacy on body fat accumulation under the influence of four high-fat (HF) models of 23% or 40% total fat, comprising soybean oil, lard, and/or condensed milk. Results indicated that integrating condensed milk into the diets could help increase diet intake, boost energy intake, increase weight gain, and enhance fat formation. Supplementation of RMD (2.07 g/kg) notably reduced total body fat levels in three HF models, with the exception of a condensed-milk-added 40%-fat diet that may have misrepresented the functions of RMD. The uses of the 23% HF diets, with and without milk, and the milk-free 40% HF diet were therefore recommended as suitable models for antiobesity evaluations of RMD, or other fiber-rich products.

  12. Ethanol Extract of Peanut Sprout Lowers Blood Triglyceride Levels, Possibly Through a Pathway Involving SREBP-1c in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kang, Nam E; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2015-08-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that peanut sprout extracts (PSE) could reduce fat accumulation through activating the transcription of SREBP-1c genes. Sprague-Dawley (SD) were randomly assigned into two groups and fed the following diet for 4 weeks; 10 normal fat (NF, 7 g of fat/100 g diet) and 30 high fat (HF, 20 g of fat/100 g diet). After 4 weeks, the HF group was divided into three groups; HF, HF with 15 mg of PSE/kg diet (HF+low PSE, 0.025% resveratrol), and HF with 30 mg of PSE/kg diet (HF+high PSE, 0.05% resveratrol) and fed for an additional 5 weeks. The HF+high PSE group had significantly lower weight gain than the HF group. Plasma triglyceride (TG) level and the hepatic total lipid level were significantly lower in the HF+high PSE group compared to the HF group. Fecal excretions of total lipids, cholesterol, and TG in the HF+high PSE group tended to be higher than in the HF group, but these differences were not significant. The mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and sterol regulatory element binding protein-c (SREBP-1c) were significantly lower in the HF+high PSE group than in the HF group. The mRNA expressions of hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase were significantly lower in the HF+high PSE groups compared to the HF group. The mRNA expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase1 was significantly higher than the HF group in both the HF+low PSE and HF+high PSE groups, with much greater increase observed in the HF+high PSE group. In conclusion, consumption of PSE was effective for improving blood lipid levels, possibly by suppressing the expression of SREBP-1c, in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  13. Phytosterol esters attenuate hepatic steatosis in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lihua; Qu, Dan; Zhang, Qing; jiang, Jing; Zhou, Haiyue; Jiang, Rui; Li, Yating; Zhang, Yao; Yan, Hongli

    2017-01-01

    Given the adverse effects of drugs used for NAFLD treatment, identifying novel and effective natural compound to prevent NAFLD is urgently needed. In the present study, the effects of phytosterol esters (PSEs) on NAFLD were explored. Adult SD rats were randomized into five groups: normal chow diet (NC), high-fat diet (HF), low-, medium- and high-dose PSE treatment plus high-fat diet groups (PSEL, PSEM, and PSEH). Our results showed that the levels of LDL-C in the PSEL group and hepatic TG, TC, and FFA in the three PSEs groups were significantly decreased. Notably, the uric acid (UA) level was significantly decreased by PSEs intervention. The hepatic inflammatory stress was ameliorated via the inhibition of the cytokines, including TGF-β, IL-6, IL-10 and CRP in the PSEs intervention groups. Further, the oxidative status was improved by PSE treatment through adjusting the enzyme activity (SOD and XOD) and decreasing the MDA level. These beneficial effects of PSE may have been partly due to its regulation on the expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TNF-α, UCP-2, PPAR-α and PPAR-γ in hepatic tissue at both mRNA and protein level. The results of this study suggest that PSEs may be used as therapeutic agents for the prevention and progression of NAFLD and that hyperuricemia is induced by high-fat diet consumption. PMID:28169366

  14. Effects of swim training on liver carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats fed a low-fat or high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Aguiar e Silva, Marco Aurélio; Vechetti-Junior, Ivan José; Nascimento, André Ferreira do; Furtado, Kelly Silva; Azevedo, Luciana; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Barbisan, Luis Fernando

    2012-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of swim training on the promotion-progression stages of rat liver carcinogenesis. Male Wistar rats were submitted to chemically induced liver carcinogenesis and allocated into 4 major groups, according their dietary regimen (16 weeks) and swim training of 5 days per week (8 weeks): 2 groups were fed low-fat diet (LFD, 6% fat) and trained or not trained and 2 groups were fed high-fat diet (HFD, 21% fat) and trained or not trained. At week 20, the animals were killed and liver samples were processed for histological analyses; immunohistochemical detection of persistent or remodeling preneoplastic lesions (pPNL and rPNL) expressing placental glutathione S-transferase (GST-P) enzyme; or proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cleaved caspase-3, and bcl-2 protein levels by Western blotting or malonaldehyde (MDA) and total glutathione detection by HPLC. Overall analysis indicated that swim training reduced the body weight and body fat in both LFD and HFD groups, normalized total cholesterol levels in the HFD group while decreased the MDA levels, increased glutathione levels and both number of GST-P-positive pPNL and hepatocellular adenomas in LFD group. Also, a favorable balance in PCNA, cleaved caspase-3, and bcl-2 levels was detected in the liver from the LFD-trained group in relation to LFD-untrained group. The findings of this study indicate that the swim training protocol as a result of exercise postconditioning may attenuate liver carcinogenesis under an adequate dietary regimen with lowered fat intake.

  15. Large Litter Rearing Improves Leptin Sensitivity and Hypothalamic Appetite Markers in Offspring of Rat Dams Fed High-Fat Diet During Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Song, Lin; Tamashiro, Kellie L. K.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the offspring's metabolic phenotype. Here, we determined the effects of large litter (LL) rearing in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on standard chow (CHOW) or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. Pups were raised in normal litters (NLs) (10 pups/dam) or LLs (16 pups/dam) during lactation, resulting in 4 groups: CHOW-NL, CHOW-LL, HF-NL, and HF-LL. The offspring were weaned onto to either CHOW or HF diet on postnatal day 21. Male and female pups with maternal HF diet (HF-NL) had greater body weight and adiposity, higher plasma leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, abnormal hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways (lower leptin receptor-b [OB-Rb] and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 mRNA expression) and appetite markers (lower neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide mRNA expression), and reduced phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 level in response to leptin in the arcuate nucleus at weaning, whereas LL rearing normalized these differences. When weaned onto CHOW diet, adult male offspring from HF diet-fed dams continued to have greater adiposity, higher leptin levels, and lower hypothalamic OB-Rb, and LL rearing improved them. When weaned onto HF diet, both adult male and female offspring with maternal HF diet had greater body weight and adiposity, higher leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, lower OB-Rb, and higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in hypothalamus compared with those of CHOW dams, whereas LL rearing improved most of them except male OB-Rb expression. Our data suggest that LL rearing improves hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways and appetite markers in an age- and sex-specific manner in this model. PMID:24926823

  16. Large litter rearing improves leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic appetite markers in offspring of rat dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Song, Lin; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Moran, Timothy H; Yan, Jianqun

    2014-09-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet has long-term consequences on the offspring's metabolic phenotype. Here, we determined the effects of large litter (LL) rearing in offspring of rat dams fed HF diet during gestation and lactation. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on standard chow (CHOW) or HF diet throughout gestation and lactation. Pups were raised in normal litters (NLs) (10 pups/dam) or LLs (16 pups/dam) during lactation, resulting in 4 groups: CHOW-NL, CHOW-LL, HF-NL, and HF-LL. The offspring were weaned onto to either CHOW or HF diet on postnatal day 21. Male and female pups with maternal HF diet (HF-NL) had greater body weight and adiposity, higher plasma leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, abnormal hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways (lower leptin receptor-b [OB-Rb] and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 mRNA expression) and appetite markers (lower neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide mRNA expression), and reduced phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 level in response to leptin in the arcuate nucleus at weaning, whereas LL rearing normalized these differences. When weaned onto CHOW diet, adult male offspring from HF diet-fed dams continued to have greater adiposity, higher leptin levels, and lower hypothalamic OB-Rb, and LL rearing improved them. When weaned onto HF diet, both adult male and female offspring with maternal HF diet had greater body weight and adiposity, higher leptin levels, impaired glucose tolerance, lower OB-Rb, and higher suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in hypothalamus compared with those of CHOW dams, whereas LL rearing improved most of them except male OB-Rb expression. Our data suggest that LL rearing improves hypothalamic leptin signaling pathways and appetite markers in an age- and sex-specific manner in this model.

  17. Independent and Combined Effects of Lactitol, Polydextrose, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron on Postprandial Metabolism and Body Weight in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Olli, Kaisa; Saarinen, Markku T.; Forssten, Sofia D.; Madetoja, Mari; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Tiihonen, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is related to the consumption of energy-dense foods in addition to changes in the microbiome where a higher abundance of gut Bacteroidetes can be found in lean subjects or after weight loss. Lactitol, a sweet-tasting sugar alcohol, is a common sugar-replacement in foods. Polydextrose (PDX), a highly branched glucose polymer, is known to reduce energy intake. Here, we test if the combined effects of lactitol or PDX in combination with Bacteroides species will have a beneficial metabolic response in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. A total of 175 male Wistar rats were fed either a LF or HF diet. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (1010 bacteria/animal/day) was orally administered with or without lactitol (1.6−2 g/animal/day) or PDX (2 g/animal/day) for 8 days. Postprandial blood samples, cecal digesta, and feces were collected on the last day. Measurements included: body weight, feed consumption, cecal short-chain fatty acids, fecal dry matter and heat value, blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and satiety hormone concentrations. Lactitol and PDX decreased the mean body weight when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron or when lactitol was administered alone. Levels of postprandial plasma triglycerides declined with lactitol and PDX when administered with B. thetaiotaomicron. For intestinal hormone release, lactitol – alone or with B. thetaiotaomicron – increased the release of gastrointestinal peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) as well as the area under the curve (AUC) measured for PYY (0–8 h). In addition, levels of insulin AUC (0–8 h) decreased in the lactitol and PDX-supplemented groups. Lactitol and PDX may both provide additional means to regulate postprandial metabolism and weight management, whereas the addition of B. thetaiotaomicron in the tested doses had only minor effects on the measured parameters. PMID:27376068

  18. [Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on gut microbiota and endotoxin levels in portal vein of rats fed with high-fat diet].

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhan-jiang; Yu, Jian-chun; Kang, Wei-ming; Ma, Zhi-qiang; Ye, Xin; Tian, Shu-bo

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) on gut microbiota and endotoxin levels in portal vein of rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups and fed with normal control diet (CD), HFD, CD supplemented with n-3PUFAs, and HFD supplemented with n-3PUFAs, respectively. Fresh fecal samples were collected to analyze the gut microbiota 10 weeks after feeding. DNA was exacted from the fresh fecal samples. Quantitative PCR was used to detect the composition of the gut microbiota. The endotoxin levels were detected through modified azo chromogenic substrate limulus amebocyte lysate assay. The differences in body weight before breeding in each group were not statistically significant among these four groups (P=0.613). The increase in the body weight was significantly larger in the HFD group than in the CD group (P=0.0002), CD+n-3PUFAs group (P=0.0001), and HFD+n-3PUFAs group (P=0.022). There were significantly more firmicutes (P=0.002) and enterobacteriales (P=0.022) and significantly less bacteroidetes (P=0.026) and bifidobactera (P=0.034) in the gut of rats from HFD group than those from the CD group. There were significantly more bacteroidetes in the fecal samples of the rats from the CD+n-3PUFAs group compared to those from the CD group (P=0.043). There were significantly more firmicutes (P=0.044)and enterobacteriales (P=0.012) and less bacteroidetes (P=0.042) in the fecal samples of the rats from HFD group compared to those from the HFD+n-3PUFAs group. The endotoxin in plasma form portal vein of rats in HFD group were significantly higher than in CD group (P=0.007) and HFD+n-3PUFAs group (P=0.042) but showed no significant difference between CD+n-3PUFAs and CD group (P=0.210). HFD can increase body weight and change gut microbiota. Supplementation of n-3PUFAs can partially counteract such gut dysbiosis, lower endotoxin level in portal vein blood, and improve the body

  19. Oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet and preventive effect of polyphenols: Involvement of mitochondrial and NAD(P)H oxidase systems.

    PubMed

    Feillet-Coudray, C; Sutra, T; Fouret, G; Ramos, J; Wrutniak-Cabello, C; Cabello, G; Cristol, J P; Coudray, C

    2009-03-01

    Mitochondrial and NADPH oxidase systems and oxidative stress were investigated in 12 week high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS) diet-fed rats. A protective effect of wine polyphenol (PP) extract was also examined. In liver, maximal activities of CII and CII+III mitochondrial complexes were decreased but NADPH oxidase expression (p22(phox) and p47(phox)) and NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide anion production were not modified, whereas oxidative stress (lipid and protein oxidation products and antioxidant systems) was increased with HFHS diet. In muscle, anion superoxide production was slightly increased while mitochondrial complex activities and lipid and protein oxidation products were not modified with HFHS diet. In heart, NADPH oxidase expression and superoxide anion production were increased, and maximal activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes or oxidative stress parameters were not modified. Wine polyphenol extract had an inhibiting effect on liver oxidative stress and on heart NADPH oxidase expression and superoxide anion production, and on induction of hepatic steatosis with HFHS diet. Induction of mitochondrial dysfunction could be a primary event in the development of oxidative stress in liver, while in skeletal muscle and in heart the NADPH oxidase system seems to be mainly involved in oxidative stress. Wine polyphenol extract was shown to partially prevent oxidative stress in liver and heart tissues and to nearly completely prevent steatosis development in liver.

  20. Consumption of vitamin B(6) reduces fecal ratio of lithocholic acid to deoxycholic acid, a risk factor for colon cancer, in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Utama, Zaki; Suidasari, Sofya; Zhang, Peipei; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Sakaguchi, Ei; Kato, Norihisa

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effect of supplemental dietary vitamin B(6) on the colonic luminal environment, growing male rats were fed a high-fat diet containing 1, 7, or 35 mg pyridoxine HCl/kg diet for 6 wk. Food intake and growth were unaffected by the dietary treatment. Supplemental dietary vitamin B(6) significantly reduced the production of a fecal secondary bile acid, lithocholic acid (the most toxic secondary bile acid and a risk factor for colon cancer), and markedly reduced the ratio of lithocholic acid to deoxycholic acid (a less toxic secondary bile acid) in feces (p<0.05). Increasing dietary vitamin B(6) increased fecal mucin levels (a marker of intestinal barrier function) in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05) but did not affect fecal immunoglobulin A levels (an index of intestinal immune function). Cecal levels of organic acids were not significantly affected by supplemental dietary vitamin B(6). These results suggest the possibility that dietary vitamin B(6) affects the colonic luminal environment by altering the production of secondary bile acids and mucins.

  1. Investigation of thymol effect on learning and memory impairment induced by intrahippocampal injection of amyloid beta peptide in high fat diet- fed rats.

    PubMed

    Asadbegi, Masoumeh; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Salehi, Iraj; Komaki, Alireza; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh

    2017-03-02

    Obesity and consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) are known to increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we have examined the protective and therapeutic effects of thymol (main monoterpene phenol found in thyme essential oil) on a HFD-fed rat model of AD. Fourty adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups:(n = 8 rats/group): group 1, control, consumed an ordinary diet, group 2 consumed a HFD for 8 weeks, then received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) via intrahippocampal (IHP) injection, group 3 consumed HFD for 8 weeks, then received beta-amyloid (Aβ)1-42 via IHP injections to induce AD, group 4 consumed HFD for 8 weeks, then received Aβ1-42, and was treated by thymol (30 mg/kg in sunflower oil) daily for 4 weeks, and group 5 consumed HFD for 8 week, then received Aβ1-42 after what sunflower oil was administered by oral gavage daily for 4 weeks. Biochemical tests showed an impaired lipid profile and higher glucose levels upon consumption of HFD, which was ameliorated by thymol treatment. In behavioral results, spatial memory in group 3 was significantly impaired, but groups treated with thymol showed better spatial memory compared to group 3 (p ≤ 0.01). In histological results, formation of Aβ plaque in hippocampus of group 3 increased significantly compared to group 1 and group 2 (p ≤ 0.05), but group 4 showed decreased Aβ plaques compared to group 3 (p ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, thymol decreased the effects of Aβ on memory and could be considered as neuroprotective.

  2. A high fat diet does not affect the iron bioavailability in Wistar rats fed with chia and increases gene expression of iron metabolism proteins.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; Matyelka, Jéssika Camila da Silva; Moreira, Maria Eliza de Castro; Toledo, Renata Celi Lopes; Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte

    2016-12-07

    This study evaluated the effect of chia on the iron bioavailability and gene expression of proteins involved in iron metabolism in animals fed with a high fat diet and a standard diet. Four experimental groups were tested (n = 8): standard diet + ferrous sulfate (SD + FS), standard diet + chia (SD + C), high fat diet + ferrous sulfate (HFD + FS), high fat diet + chia (HFD + C). The hemoglobin gain, hemoglobin regeneration efficiency, biological relative value of HRE, serum ferritin and transferrin, liver iron concentration and gene expression of proteins were evaluated. The SD + C group showed lower transferrin expression when compared to the control group. The control group showed serum transferrin concentration higher than the other groups. Serum ferritin and liver iron concentration did not differ among the animals that received chia ferritin and hephaestin expression was lower in experimental groups when compared with the control group. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor expression was higher in animals fed with SD + C than in the control group. The expression of duodenal cytochrome B and divalent metal transporter 1 in the HFD + C group was higher and ferroportin was lower in the groups containing chia. Animals fed with chia showed similar iron bioavailability compared to animals fed with ferrous sulfate.

  3. The Ameliorative Effects of a Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction on the AGE-RAGE Axis and Hypertension in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ton, So Ha; Tan, Joash Ban Lee; Abdul Kadir, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    The clinical value of tocotrienols is increasingly appreciated because of the unique therapeutic effects that are not shared by tocopherols. However, their effect on metabolic syndrome is not well-established. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) from palm oil in high-fat-diet-treated rats. Male, post-weaning Sprague Dawley rats were provided high-fat (60% kcal) diet for eight weeks followed by a TRF (60 mg/kg) treatment for another four weeks. Physical, metabolic, and histological changes were compared to those on control and high-fat diets respectively. High-fat feeding for eight weeks induced all hallmarks of metabolic syndrome. The TRF reversed systolic and diastolic hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hepatic steatosis, impaired antioxidant defense, and myeloperoxidase hyperactivity triggered by the high-fat diet. It also conferred an inhibitory effect on protein glycation to reduce glycated hemoglobin A1c and advanced glycation end products (AGE). This was accompanied by the suppression of the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE) expression in the liver. The treatment effects on visceral adiposity, glycemic control, triglyceride level, as well as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ expression were negligible. To conclude, treatment with a TRF exhibited protective effects on the cardiovascular and liver health in addition to the amelioration of plasma redox imbalance and AGE-RAGE activation. Further investigation as a therapy for metabolic syndrome is therefore worthwhile. PMID:28880217

  4. Inhibition of fetal bone development through epigenetic down- regulation of HoxA10 in obese rats fed high fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Epidemiological studies show that maternal obesity during intrauterine and early postnatal life increases the risk of low bone mass and fracture later in life. Here, we show that bone development is inhibited in GED 18.5 embryos from rat dams made obese by feeding a high fat diet (HFD). Moreover, fe...

  5. Myrciaria cauliflora peel flour had a hypolipidemic effect in rats fed a moderately high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Clináscia R R; Esteves, Elizabethe A; Dessimoni-Pinto, Nísia A V; Batista, Angela G

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic effects of Myrciaria cauliflora peel flour (MPF) in rats. Previously, it was determined the proximate composition, total phenolics, and anthocyanins of MPF. Then, groups of male rats were randomly assigned to one of the five treatment groups. The standard group received a basal diet as recommended by the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN93M). The control group (CTRL) received the AIN93M diet, which added 7% of pork lard. The jaboticaba groups had their diets similar to CTRL, but added MPF at 7 (JAB1), 10 (JAB2), or 15% (JAB3). Serum and liver cholesterol as well as serum levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), and glucose were evaluated. Fecal output of lipids was also measured. MPF had expressive amounts of fibers (25.28±2.52 g/100 g), total phenolics (18.95±5.27 mg/100 g), and anthocyanins (6.82±0.18 mg/100 g). The inclusion of the MPF at three ratios, reduced serum cholesterol and TG compared with CTRL. JAB3 raised serum HDL and reduced liver cholesterol compared with CTRL. JAB3 and JAB2 reduced serum glucose compared with CTRL. JAB groups eliminated more feces and had pH values lower than CTRL. However, there was no difference in lipid fecal output between all groups. MPF has a hypolipidemic potential, especially on reducing serum cholesterol and TG. These effects can be attributed, at least in part, to its fiber and phenolic composition.

  6. Protective effect of Tuscan black cabbage sprout extract against serum lipid increase and perturbations of liver antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Melega, S; Canistro, D; De Nicola, G R; Lazzeri, L; Sapone, A; Paolini, M

    2013-09-28

    A diet rich in fat is considered a primary risk factor for CVD, cancer and failures in metabolism and endocrine functions. Hyperlipidaemia generates oxidative stress and weakens antioxidant defences as well as metabolic detoxification systems. Brassicaceae are vegetables rich in glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, affecting enzymatic antioxidant as well as phase II enzymes and conceivably counteracting high-fat diet (HFD)-associated pathologies. The protective role of Tuscan black cabbage (a variety of kale) sprout extract (TBCSE) intake against HFD alterations was here studied. The effects on rat hepatic antioxidant as well as detoxifying enzymes, and serum lipid- and body weightlowering properties of TBCSE, were investigated. Feeding the animals with a HFD for 21 d increased body as well as liver weights, and induced hyperlipidaemia, as confirmed by a higher serum lipid profile v. control diet. Daily intragastric administration of TBCSE to HFD-fed rats lowered serum total cholesterol, TAG and NEFA. Body and liver weight gains were also reduced. Antioxidant (catalase, NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, oxidised glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase) and phase II (glutathione S-transferase and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase) enzymes were down-regulated by the HFD, while the extract restored normal levels in most groups. Generation of toxic intermediates, and membrane fatty acid composition changes by the HFD, might account for the altered hepatic antioxidant and detoxifying enzyme functions. The recovering effects of TBCSE could be attributed to high flavonoid, phenolic and organosulphur compound content, which possess free-radical-scavenging properties, enhance the antioxidant status and stimulate lipid catabolism. TBCSE intake emerges to be an effective alimentary strategy to counteract the perturbations associated with a diet rich in fat.

  7. Doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, decreased visceral fat accumulation and adipocyte size in rats fed with high fat diet more effectively than nonfermented soybeans.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Park, Sang Chul; Song, Kye Yong

    2012-01-01

    Soybean is known to have an anti-obesity effect. We compared the anti-obesity effect of doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, with that of nonfermented soybeans in rats. Steamed soybeans and doenjang (steamed soybeans fermented and aged for 10 months) were sampled and freeze-dried. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed basal (BA) (5% fat), high fat (HF) (30% fat), HF+steamed soybeans (SOY), or HF+doenjang (DJ) diet ad libitum for 8 weeks. HF significantly increased body weight gain, liver weight, hepatic triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol levels, and epididymal fat pad weight compared with BA. Compared with HF, body weight gain and hepatic TG and cholesterol levels were significantly lower in SOY and DJ groups, but they were not significantly different from each other. DJ significantly reduced visceral fat weight and epididymal adipocyte size compared with HF, whereas SOY resulted in a mild reduction without significance. This was possibly because DJ showed lowered fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity and elevated carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1 activity in liver tissue more than SOY. SOY and DJ did not affect serum total and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels compared with HF; however, DJ significantly lowered the atherogenic index and serum leptin level. In conclusion, doenjang, a fermented soybean product, was more effective than soybeans for preventing diet-induced visceral fat accumulation, possibly because of its greater effects on CPT-1 activity stimulation and FAS activity suppression. These effects may be due in part to the higher content of aglycone isoflavones in doenjang.

  8. The anti-osteoporotic and anti-atherogenic effects of alendronate and simvastatin in ovariectomized rats fed high fat diet: A comparative study of combination therapy versus monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Maha Tarek; Abuelezz, Sally A; Atalla, Suzi Sobhy; El Aziz, Lobna Fouad Abd; Gorge, Sonia Salib

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest a possible link between osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. Mevalonate pathway was pointed to as a part of this link. This study was done to investigate the effects of Alendronate (Al) and Simvastatin (Sim), both act on the mevalonate pathway, on osteoporosis, dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic changes in ovariectomized (OVX) rats fed high fat diet (HFD). 60 female albino rats were equally divided into 5 groups: control sham, OVX-HFD untreated, OVX -HFD treated with Al (3mg/kg/d) or/and Sim (6mg/kg/d). Treatments were taken for 4 weeks by oral gavage and were started 8 weeks after ovariectomy. OVX-HFD untreated group exhibited a significant negative alteration in lipid profile and on different bone markers e.g. alkaline phosphatase, hydroxyproline and osteocalcin. A significant increase in body weights and on serum levels of TNFα, iNOS and leptin were also found compared to control sham group. Vascular reactivity studies revealed a significant decrease in effective concentration 50 of phenylephrine and in acetylcholine% of relaxation and a significant increase in maximum contractile response of phenylephrine. The atherosclerotic and osteoporotic changes were further confirmed histopathologically. Treatment of OVX-HFD with Al or/and Sim significantly improved these deleterious effects compared to OVX-HFD untreated group. Comparing the combination therapy versus the mono-therapy exhibited a significant improvement in different tested parameters which came in favor of the combination therapy. Al and Sim have anti-osteoporotic, anti-dyslipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic beneficial effects. Their combination has more promising effects in treatment of osteoporosis, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion is increased during the progression of glucose intolerance and obesity in high-fat/high-sucrose diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Shingo; Hira, Tohru; Hara, Hiroshi

    2015-05-14

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted by distal enteroendocrine cells in response to luminal nutrients, and exerts insulinotropic and anorexigenic effects. Although GLP-1 secretory responses under established obese or diabetic conditions have been studied, it has not been investigated whether or how postprandial GLP-1 responses were affected during the progression of diet-induced obesity. In the present study, a meal tolerance test was performed every week in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet to evaluate postprandial glycaemic, insulin and GLP-1 responses. In addition, gastric emptying was assessed by the acetaminophen method. After 8 weeks of HF/HS treatment, portal vein and intestinal mucosa were collected to examine GLP-1 production. Postprandial glucose in response to normal meal ingestion was increased in the HF/HS group within 2 weeks, and its elevation gradually returned close to that of the control group until day 50. Slower postprandial gastric emptying was observed in the HF/HS group on days 6, 13 and 34. Postprandial GLP-1 and insulin responses were increased in the HF/HS group at 7 weeks. Higher portal GLP-1 and insulin levels were observed in the HF/HS group, but mucosal gut hormone mRNA levels were unchanged. These results revealed that the postprandial GLP-1 response to meal ingestion is enhanced during the progression of diet-induced glucose intolerance and obesity in rats. The boosted postprandial GLP-1 secretion by chronic HF/HS diet treatment suggests increased sensitivity to luminal nutrients in the gut, and this may slow the establishment of glucose intolerance and obesity.

  10. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) combined with swimming training improved the lipid profile in rats fed with high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Antonio E.; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Paolillo, Fernanda R.; Duarte, Fernanda O.; Oishi, Jorge C.; Pena, Airton A.; Duarte, Ana C. G. O.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Parizotto, Nivaldo A.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and associated dyslipidemia is the fastest growing health problem throughout the world. The combination of exercise and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) could be a new approach to the treatment of obesity and associated disease. In this work, the effects of LLLT associated with exercises on the lipid metabolism in regular and high-fat diet rats were verified. We used 64 rats divided in eight groups with eight rats each, designed: SC, sedentary chow diet; SCL, sedentary chow diet laser, TC, trained chow diet; TCL, trained chow diet laser; SH, sedentary high-fat diet; SHL, sedentary high-fat diet laser; TH, trained high-fat diet; and THL, trained high-fat diet laser. The exercise used was swimming during 8 weeks/90 min daily and LLLT (GA-Al-As, 830 nm) dose of 4.7 J/point and total energy 9.4 J per animal, applied to both gastrocnemius muscles after exercise. We analyzed biochemical parameters, percentage of fat, hepatic and muscular glycogen and relative mass of tissue, and weight percentage gain. The statistical test used was ANOVA, with post hoc Tukey–Kramer for multiple analysis between groups, and the significant level was p<0.001, p<0.01, and p<0.05. LLLT decreased the total cholesterol (p<0.05), triglycerides (p<0.01), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.05), and relative mass of fat tissue (p<0.05), suggesting increased metabolic activity and altered lipid pathways. The combination of exercise and LLLT increased the benefits of exercise alone. However, LLLT without exercise tended to increase body weight and fat content. LLLT may be a valuable addition to a regimen of diet and exercise for weight reduction and dyslipidemic control. PMID:23151893

  11. POMC and NPY mRNA expression during development is increased in rat offspring brain from mothers fed with a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Klein, Marianne Orlandini; MacKay, Harry; Edwards, Alexander; Park, Su-Bin; Kiss, Ana Carolina Inhasz; Felicio, Luciano Freitas; Abizaid, Alfonso

    2017-03-18

    Developmental programing is influenced by perinatal nutrition and it has long-lasting impacts on adult metabolism in the offspring. In particular, maternal high fat diet has been associated with increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders during adulthood in the descendants. These effects may be due to the effects of the high fat diet on the development of the systems that regulate food intake and energy balance in the offspring hypothalamus. The arcuate nucleus (ARC) may be a particularly sensitive region to it as this nucleus contains the POMC and AgRP/NPY neurons that integrate the melanocortin system. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal high fat diet during pregnancy on the transcription factors that regulate hypothalamic development in the offspring as a potential mechanism that may result in altered neuronal expression of POMC, NPY and/or AgRP. To this end, pregnant females exposed to high fat diet (60% fat diet since day 0 of pregnancy) or standard rat chow were sacrificed on days 12, 14, 16 and 18 of gestation to obtain brains from their developing fetuses and examine the mRNA expression of transcription factors associated with the development of cells in the ARC. Results show that, while no changes in transcription factor expression between groups were observed, POMC and NPY mRNA expression were higher on embryonic day 18 in the high fat group. These results suggest that POMC and NPY expression are altered by in utero exposure to a high fat diet, but these changes in gene expression are not associated with changes in the expression of transcription factors known to determine the fate of ARC cells. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in intestinal barrier function and gut microbiota in high-fat diet-fed rats are dynamic and region dependent.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, M Kristina; Boudry, Gaëlle; Lemay, Danielle G; Raybould, Helen E

    2015-05-15

    A causal relationship between the pathophysiological changes in the gut epithelium and altered gut microbiota with the onset of obesity have been suggested but not defined. The aim of this study was to determine the temporal relationship between impaired intestinal barrier function and microbial dysbiosis in the small and large intestine in rodent high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Rats were fed HF diet (45% fat) or normal chow (C, 10% fat) for 1, 3, or 6 wk; food intake, body weight, and adiposity were measured. Barrier function ex vivo using FITC-labeled dextran (4,000 Da, FD-4) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) probes in Ussing chambers, gene expression, and gut microbial communities was assessed. After 1 wk, there was an immediate but reversible increase in paracellular permeability, decrease in IL-10 expression, and decrease in abundance of genera within the class Clostridia in the ileum. In the large intestine, HRP flux and abundance of genera within the order Bacteroidales increased with time on the HF diet and correlated with the onset of increased body weight and adiposity. The data show immediate insults in the ileum in response to ingestion of a HF diet, which were rapidly restored and preceded increased passage of large molecules across the large intestinal epithelium. This study provides an understanding of microbiota dysbiosis and gut pathophysiology in diet-induced obesity and has identified IL-10 and Oscillospira in the ileum and transcellular flux in the large intestine as potential early impairments in the gut that might lead to obesity and metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran in rats fed a high-fat and -cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Xin; Li, Yang; Sun, An-Min; Wang, Feng-Jiao; Yu, Guo-Ping

    2014-09-16

    The aqueous enzymatic extract from rice bran (AEERB) was rich in protein, γ-oryzanol and tocols. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AEERB on the regulation of lipid metabolism and the inhibition of oxidative damage. The antioxidant activity of AEERB in vitro was measured in terms of radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing ability power (FRAP) and linoleic acid emulsion system-ferric thiocyanate method (FTC). Male Wistar rats were fed with a normal diet and a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet with or without AEERB. After treatment, biochemical assays of serum, liver and feces lipid levels, the antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl were determined. AEERB is completely soluble in water and rich in hydrophilic and lipophilic functional ingredients. AEERB scavenged DPPH• and ABTS•+ and exhibited antioxidant activity slightly lower than that of ascorbic acid in the linoleic acid system. The administration of AEERB reduced serum lipid levels and the atherogenic index compared with those of the hyperlipidemic diet group (HD). The administration of AEERB significantly lowered liver lipid levels, inhibited hepatic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase activity, and efficiently promoted the fecal excretion of total lipids and total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.05). Dietary AEERB enhanced antioxidant status in the serum, liver and brain by increasing the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and decreasing the content of MDA and protein carbonyl. The results indicated that AEERB might act as a potent hypolipidemic and antioxidant functional food.

  14. Changes in intestinal barrier function and gut microbiota in high-fat diet-fed rats are dynamic and region dependent

    PubMed Central

    Boudry, Gaëlle; Lemay, Danielle G.

    2015-01-01

    A causal relationship between the pathophysiological changes in the gut epithelium and altered gut microbiota with the onset of obesity have been suggested but not defined. The aim of this study was to determine the temporal relationship between impaired intestinal barrier function and microbial dysbiosis in the small and large intestine in rodent high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Rats were fed HF diet (45% fat) or normal chow (C, 10% fat) for 1, 3, or 6 wk; food intake, body weight, and adiposity were measured. Barrier function ex vivo using FITC-labeled dextran (4,000 Da, FD-4) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) probes in Ussing chambers, gene expression, and gut microbial communities was assessed. After 1 wk, there was an immediate but reversible increase in paracellular permeability, decrease in IL-10 expression, and decrease in abundance of genera within the class Clostridia in the ileum. In the large intestine, HRP flux and abundance of genera within the order Bacteroidales increased with time on the HF diet and correlated with the onset of increased body weight and adiposity. The data show immediate insults in the ileum in response to ingestion of a HF diet, which were rapidly restored and preceded increased passage of large molecules across the large intestinal epithelium. This study provides an understanding of microbiota dysbiosis and gut pathophysiology in diet-induced obesity and has identified IL-10 and Oscillospira in the ileum and transcellular flux in the large intestine as potential early impairments in the gut that might lead to obesity and metabolic disorders. PMID:25747351

  15. Reshaping faecal gut microbiota composition by the intake of trans-resveratrol and quercetin in high-fat sucrose diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, U; Arias, N; Boqué, N; Macarulla, M T; Portillo, M P; Martínez, J A; Milagro, F I

    2015-06-01

    Diet-induced obesity is associated to an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota composition. Resveratrol and quercetin, widely known for their health beneficial properties, have low bioavailability, and when they reach the colon, they are targets of the gut microbial ecosystem. Hence, the use of these molecules in obesity might be considered as a potential strategy to modulate intestinal bacterial composition. The purpose of this study was to determine whether trans-resveratrol and quercetin administration could counteract gut microbiota dysbiosis produced by high-fat sucrose diet (HFS) and, in turn, improve gut health. Wistar rats were randomised into four groups fed an HFS diet supplemented or not with trans-resveratrol [15 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day], quercetin (30 mg/kg BW/day) or a combination of both polyphenols at those doses. Administration of both polyphenols together prevented body weight gain and reduced serum insulin levels. Moreover, individual supplementation of trans-resveratrol and quercetin effectively reduced serum insulin levels and insulin resistance. Quercetin supplementation generated a great impact on gut microbiota composition at different taxonomic levels, attenuating Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and inhibiting the growth of bacterial species previously associated to diet-induced obesity (Erysipelotrichaceae, Bacillus, Eubacterium cylindroides). Overall, the administration of quercetin was found to be effective in lessening HFS-diet-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis. In contrast, trans-resveratrol supplementation alone or in combination with quercetin scarcely modified the profile of gut bacteria but acted at the intestinal level, altering the mRNA expression of tight-junction proteins and inflammation-associated genes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  17. Effects of a Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 based synbiotic on steatosis, insulin signaling and toll-like receptor expression in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Raso, Giuseppina Mattace; Simeoli, Raffaele; Iacono, Anna; Santoro, Anna; Amero, Paola; Paciello, Orlando; Russo, Roberto; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Di Costanzo, Margherita; Canani, Roberto Berni; Calignano, Antonio; Meli, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) has been identified as crucial pathophysiological factor in the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although mounting evidence suggests that perturbation of gut microflora exacerbates the severity of chronic liver diseases, therapeutic approaches using synbiotic has remained overlooked. Here, we show that a synbiotic composed by Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 plus arabinogalactan and fructo-oligosaccharides lessens NAFLD progression in a rat model of high fat feeding. IR and steatosis were induced by administration of high fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks. Steatosis and hepatic inflammation, Toll-like receptor (TLR) pattern, glucose tolerance, insulin signaling and gut permeability were studied. Liver inflammatory markers were down-regulated in rats receiving the synbiotic, along with an increased expression of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and expression of downstream target genes. The synbiotic improved many aspects of IR, such as fasting response, hormonal homeostasis and glycemic control. Indeed it prevented the impairment of hepatic insulin signaling, reducing the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 in Ser 307 and down-regulating suppressor of cytokine signaling 3. Gene expression analysis revealed that in the liver the synbiotic reduced cytokines synthesis and restored the HFD-dysregulated TLR 2, 4 and 9 mRNAs toward a physiological level of expression. The synbiotic preserved gut barrier integrity and reduced the relative amount of Gram-negative Enterobacteriales and Escherichia coli in colonic mucosa. Overall, our data indicate that the L. paracasei B21060 based synbiotic is effective in reducing the severity of liver injury and IR associated with high fat intake, suggesting its possible therapeutic/preventive clinical utilization.

  18. Long-term supplementation of high pigmented rice bran oil (Oryza sativa L.) on amelioration of oxidative stress and histological changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed a high fat diet; Riceberry bran oil.

    PubMed

    Posuwan, Juthathip; Prangthip, Pattaneeya; Leardkamolkarn, Vijittra; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Surasiang, Ruethaithip; Charoensiri, Rin; Kongkachuichai, Ratchanee

    2013-05-01

    Diabetes is a serious health problem. Searching for alternative natural antioxidants is considered important strategy to manage diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of Riceberry bran oil (RBBO) supplementation on oxidative stress and organ histology in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed a high fat (HF) diet. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with hyperglycemia were divided into four groups: DM group fed a HF diet alone; DMRL group fed a HF diet and 5% RBBO; DMRM group fed a HF diet and 7.5% RBBO; DMRH group fed a HF diet and 15% RBBO. Normal rats were used as normal control and were divided into NC and NR group fed a normal diet containing either 5% corn oil or 5% RBBO, respectively. After 12 weeks, RBBO significantly decreased malondialdehyde and restored superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, coenzyme Q(10) and ORAC levels in diabetic rats. RBBO additionally improved the regenerative changes of the pancreas, kidneys, heart and liver. These findings indicate that pigmented RBBO could provide beneficial effect on diabetes by decreasing oxidative stress and recovering organ histology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate:fat intake.

    PubMed

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Grégory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire; Even, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HFD but in which protein (100%) was available separately from the carbohydrate:fat (50:50%) mixture. Under this second regimen, all rats maintained their previous protein intake, whereas intake of fat and carbohydrate was reduced by 50%. This increased protein intake to 26% and decreased fat intake to 37%. Adiposity gain was prevented in both FR and FS rats, and gain in fat-free mass was increased only in FS rats. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a protein meal, and their tissues and organs were collected for analysis of body composition and measurement of mRNA levels in the liver, adipose tissue, arcuate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens. FS rats had a higher expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the liver and white adipose tissue. These results show that FS rats strongly reduced food intake and adiposity gain through macronutrient selection, despite maintenance of a relatively high-fat intake and overexpression of genes favoring lipogenesis.

  20. Effects of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on Hepatic CYP2B1 and in Vivo Bupropion Disposition in Rats Fed a High-Fat or Methionine/Choline-Deficient Diet.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Joon; Kim, Sang-Bum; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Chong, Saeho; Chung, Suk-Jae; Kang, Il-Mo; Lee, Jangik Ike; Yoon, In-Soo; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2016-07-13

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to hepatic pathologies, including simple fatty liver (SFL), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and cirrhosis, that may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma. These liver disease states may affect the activity and expression levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes, potentially resulting in an alteration in the pharmacokinetics, therapeutic efficacy, and safety of drugs. This study investigated the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B1-modulating effect of a specific NAFLD state in dietary rat models. Sprague-Dawley rats were given a methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) or high-fat (HF) diet to induce NASH and SFL, respectively. The induction of these disease states was confirmed by plasma chemistry and liver histological analysis. Both the protein and mRNA levels of hepatic CYP2B1 were considerably reduced in MCD diet-fed rats; however, they were similar between the HF diet-fed and control rats. Consistently, the enzyme-kinetic and pharmacokinetic parameters for CYP2B1-mediated bupropion metabolism were considerably reduced in MCD diet-fed rats; however, they were also similar between the HF diet-fed and control rats. These results may promote a better understanding of the influence of NAFLD on CYP2B1-mediated metabolism, which could have important implications for the safety and pharmacokinetics of drug substrates for the CYP2B subfamily in patients with NAFLD.

  1. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Activities of Curculigo latifolia Fruit:Root Extract in High Fat Fed Diet and Low Dose STZ Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ishak, Nur Akmal; Ismail, Maznah; Hamid, Muhajir; Ahmad, Zalinah; Abd Ghafar, Siti Aisyah

    2013-01-01

    Curculigo latifolia fruit is used as alternative sweetener while root is used as alternative treatment for diuretic and urinary problems. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of C. latifolia fruit:root aqueous extract in high fat diet (HFD) and 40 mg streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats through expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were investigated. Diabetic rats were treated with C. latifolia fruit:root extract for 4 weeks. Plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, lipid profiles, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), urea, and creatinine levels were measured before and after treatments. Regulations of selected genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolisms were determined. Results showed the significant (P < 0.05) increase in body weight, high density lipoprotein (HDL), insulin, and adiponectin levels and decreased glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine, ALT, and GGT levels in diabetic rats after 4 weeks treatment. Furthermore, C. latifolia fruit:root extract significantly increased the expression of IRS-1, IGF-1, GLUT4, PPARα, PPARγ, AdipoR1, AdipoR2, leptin, LPL, and lipase genes in adipose and muscle tissues in diabetic rats. These results suggest that C. latifolia fruit:root extract exerts antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects through altering regulation genes in glucose and lipid metabolisms in diabetic rats. PMID:23762147

  2. Short-term moderate exercise provides long-lasting protective effects against metabolic dysfunction in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Tófolo, Laize Peron; da Silva Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Malta, Ananda; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Gomes, Rodrigo Mello; de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa; de Almeida, Douglas Lopes; Trombini, Amanda Bianchi; da Silva Franco, Claudinéia Conationi; Pavanello, Audrei; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; Rinaldi, Wilson; Barella, Luiz Felipe; de Freitas Mathias, Paulo Cezar; Palma-Rigo, Kesia

    2015-12-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and high-fat feeding are risk factors for cardiometabolic disorders. This study determined whether moderate exercise training prevents the cardiometabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Sixty-day-old rats were subjected to moderate exercise three times a week for 30 days. After that, trained rats received a HFD (EXE-HFD) or a commercial normal diet (EXE-NFD) for 30 more days. Sedentary animals also received the diets (SED-HFD and SED-NFD). Food intake and body weight were measured weekly. After 120 days of life, analyses were performed. Data were analysed with two-way ANOVA and the Tukey post-test. Body weight gain induced by HFD was attenuated in trained animals. HFD reduced food intake by approximately 30% and increased body fat stores by approximately 75%. Exercise attenuated 80% of the increase in fat pads and increased 24% of soleus muscle mass in NFD animals. HFD induced a hyper-response to glucose injection, and exercise attenuated this response by 50%. Blood pressure was increased by HFD, and the beneficial effect of exercise in reducing blood pressure was inhibited by HFD. HFD increased vagal activity by 65% in SED-HFD compared with SED-NFD rats, and exercise blocked this increase. HFD reduced sympathetic activity and inhibited the beneficial effect of exercise on ameliorating sympathetic activity. Four weeks of moderate exercise at low frequency was able to prevent the metabolic changes induced by a HFD but not the deleterious effects of diet on the cardiovascular system.

  3. Exendin-4 shows no effects on the prostatic index in high-fat-diet-fed rat with benign prostatic hyperplasia by improving insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J-X; Xiao, Y-C; Hu, Y-R; Hao, M; Kuang, H-Y

    2015-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease globally, and accumulating evidence has indicated an association between BPH, insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. Exendin-4 is widely used in clinics, which could enhance the proliferation of pancreatic β cells. The ability of exendin-4 to promote tumorigenesis has been of concern, and whether exendin-4 would enhance the propagation of BPH is not fully understood. We aimed to determine whether glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) were expressed in rat prostate and to determine the effect of exendin-4 on prostate of BPH. Male Wistar rats were used and assigned to six groups: normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD + exendin-4, HFD + BPH, HFD + BPH + exendin-4 and HFD + BPH + rosiglitazone group. After castration, steroids were injected subcutaneously for 4 weeks to induce BPH. Rats were kept on high-fat diet to induce IR. Treatment groups were treated with exendin-4 and rosiglitazone. Prostatic index and HOMA-IR index were used to evaluate the prostatic hyperplasia status and the degree of IR respectively. The expression of GLP-1R was indicated not only by immunohistochemistry, but also by Western blot analysis. The expression of GLP-1R was significantly higher, and HOMA-IR index and body weight significantly decreased after administration of exendin-4. However, no significant differences in the prostatic index were observed between exendin-4 treatment groups and non-exendin-4 treatment groups. Prostatic index was not influenced by exendin-4 maybe by improving IR and weight loss.

  4. Dietary high-fat lard intake induces thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Shan-shan; Zhao, Yuan-fei; Song, Yong-feng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Jian-mei; Xuan, Shi-meng; Yan, Hui-li; Yu, Chun-xiao; Zhao, Meng; Xu, Jin; Zhao, Jia-jun

    2014-11-01

    Excess dietary fat intake can induce lipotoxicity in non-adipose tissues. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of dietary high-fat lard intake on thyroid in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat lard diet for 24 weeks, and then the rats were fed a normal control diet (acute dietary modification) or the high-fat lard diet for another 6 weeks. The serum lipid profile, total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were determined at the 12, 18, 24 and 30 weeks. High-frequency ultrasound scanning of the thyroid glands was performed at the 24 or 30 weeks. After the rats were sacrificed, the thyroid glands were collected for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. The high-fat lard diet significantly increased triglyceride levels in both the serum and thyroid, and decreased serum TT4 and FT4 levels in parallel with elevated serum TSH levels. Ultrasonic imaging revealed enlarged thyroid glands with lowered echotexture and relatively heterogeneous features in the high-fat lard fed rats. The thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats exhibited enlarged follicle cavities and flattened follicular epithelial cells under light microscopy, and dilated endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, twisted nuclei, fewer microvilli and secretory vesicles under transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats showed markedly low levels of thyroid hormone synthesis-related proteins TTF-1 and NIS. Acute dietary modification by withdrawal of the high-fat lard diet for 6 weeks failed to ameliorate the high-fat lard diet-induced thyroid changes. Dietary high-fat lard intake induces significant thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats, which can not be corrected by short-term dietary modification.

  5. Dietary high-fat lard intake induces thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Shan-shan; Zhao, Yuan-fei; Song, Yong-feng; Xu, Chao; Yang, Jian-mei; Xuan, Shi-meng; Yan, Hui-li; Yu, Chun-xiao; Zhao, Meng; Xu, Jin; Zhao, Jia-jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Excess dietary fat intake can induce lipotoxicity in non-adipose tissues. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of dietary high-fat lard intake on thyroid in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat lard diet for 24 weeks, and then the rats were fed a normal control diet (acute dietary modification) or the high-fat lard diet for another 6 weeks. The serum lipid profile, total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin (TSH) levels were determined at the 12, 18, 24 and 30 weeks. High-frequency ultrasound scanning of the thyroid glands was performed at the 24 or 30 weeks. After the rats were sacrificed, the thyroid glands were collected for histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Results: The high-fat lard diet significantly increased triglyceride levels in both the serum and thyroid, and decreased serum TT4 and FT4 levels in parallel with elevated serum TSH levels. Ultrasonic imaging revealed enlarged thyroid glands with lowered echotexture and relatively heterogeneous features in the high-fat lard fed rats. The thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats exhibited enlarged follicle cavities and flattened follicular epithelial cells under light microscopy, and dilated endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, twisted nuclei, fewer microvilli and secretory vesicles under transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the thyroid glands from the high-fat lard fed rats showed markedly low levels of thyroid hormone synthesis-related proteins TTF-1 and NIS. Acute dietary modification by withdrawal of the high-fat lard diet for 6 weeks failed to ameliorate the high-fat lard diet-induced thyroid changes. Conclusion: Dietary high-fat lard intake induces significant thyroid dysfunction and abnormal morphology in rats, which can not be corrected by short-term dietary modification. PMID:25263336

  6. Influences of dietary vitamin D restriction on bone strength, body composition and muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of mRNA expression of MyoD in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Oku, Yuno; Tanabe, Rieko; Nakaoka, Kanae; Yamada, Asako; Noda, Seiko; Hoshino, Ayumi; Haraikawa, Mayu; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation and development. The present study investigated the influences of vitamin D restriction on the body composition, bone and skeletal muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley strain male rats (11weeks old) were divided into four groups and fed experimental diets: a basic control diet (Cont.), a basic control diet with vitamin D restriction (DR), a high-fat diet (F) and a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction (FDR). At 28days after starting the experimental diets, the visceral fat mass was significantly increased in the F group compared with Cont. group, and the muscle mass tended to decrease in the DR group compared with Cont. group. The total volume of the femur was significantly lower in the DR group compared with Cont. group, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur was significantly lower in the FDR group compared with F group. MyoD is one of the muscle-specific transcription factors. The levels of mRNA expression of MyoD of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from the DR group were reduced markedly compared with those from the Cont. group. In conclusion, our findings revealed the influences of a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet on the bone strength, body composition and muscle. Further studies on vitamin D insufficiency in the regulation of muscle as well as fat and bone metabolism would provide valuable data for the prevention of lifestyle-related disorders, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia.

  7. Evaluation of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant effects on hyperglycemia, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and kidney function in rats fed on high-fat-high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Raida; Hamden, Khaled; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Chaabouni, Khansa; Makni-Ayadi, Fatma; Sallemi, Fahima; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated the protective and the curative effects of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 crude lipopeptide biosurfactant in alleviating induced obesity complications in rats fed on high-fat-high-fructose diet (HFFD). Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups with the following treatment schedule: normal diet-fed rats (CD), HFFD-fed rats, HFFD-fed rats supplemented with SPB1 biosurfactant from the first day of the experiment (HFFD + Bios1), rats fed on HFFD receiving standard drug (HFFD + Torva), or SPB1 biosurfactant (HFFD + Bios2) during the last 4 weeks of the study. HFFD induced hyperglycemia, manifested by a significant (p < 0.001) increase (20%) in the levels of glucose and α-amylase activity in the plasma, when compared with CD. The administration of SPB1 biosurfactant to rats fed on HFFD reverted back normal blood glucose and α-amylase activity levels. Also, the findings clearly showed that acute oral administration of SPB1 biosurfactant reduced significantly (34%) the peak of blood glucose concentration 60 min after glucose administration, as compared with untreated rats fed on HFFD. Furthermore, renal dysfunction indices such as creatinine and urea as well as the level of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) exhibited remarkable increases in serum of rats fed on HFFD by 28.35%, 46%, and 92%,. Interestingly, SPB1 lipopeptides treatments decreased the creatinine and urea levels significantly (p < 0.001) near normal values, as compared with that of the HFFD group, and also showed an improvement of the kidney cortex architecture. Moreover, SPB1 biosurfactant displayed a potent inhibition of ACE activity in vitro (CI50  value= 1.37 mg/mL) as well as in vivo in obese rats by 42% and 27.25% with HFFD + Bios1 and HFFD + Bios2 treatments, respectively, and comparatively with the HFFD group. Besides, SPB1 lipopeptides treatments improved some of serum electrolytes such as Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+ ), and Mg(2+). The results

  8. Barley malt increases hindgut and portal butyric acid, modulates gene expression of gut tight junction proteins and Toll-like receptors in rats fed high-fat diets, but high advanced glycation end-products partially attenuate the effects.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yadong; Teixeira, Cristina; Marungruang, Nittaya; Sae-Lim, Watina; Tareke, Eden; Andersson, Roger; Fåk, Frida; Nyman, Margareta

    2015-09-01

    Barley malt, a product of controlled germination, has been shown to produce high levels of butyric acid in the cecum and portal serum of rats and may therefore have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the study was to investigate how four barley malts, caramelized and colored malts, 50-malt and 350-malt, differing in functional characteristics concerning beta-glucan content and color, affect short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), barrier function and inflammation in the hindgut of rats fed high-fat diets. Male Wistar rats were given malt-supplemented high-fat diets for four weeks. Low and high-fat diets containing microcrystalline cellulose were incorporated as controls. All diets contained 70 g kg(-1) dietary fiber. The malt-fed groups were found to have had induced higher amounts of butyric and propionic acids in the hindgut and portal serum compared with controls, while cecal succinic acid only increased to a small extent. Fat increased the mRNA expression of tight junction proteins and Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the small intestine and distal colon of the rats, as well as the concentration of some amino acids in the portal plasma, but malt seemed to counteract these adverse effects to some extent. However, the high content of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in caramelized malt tended to prohibit the positive effects on occludin in the small intestine and plasma amino acids seen with the other malt products. In conclusion, malting seems to be an interesting process for producing foods with positive health effects, but part of these effects may be destroyed if the malt contains a high content of AGE.

  9. A prescribed Chinese herbal medicine improves glucose profile and ameliorates oxidative stress in Goto-Kakisaki rats fed with high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Li, Xiang; Zhu, Hongguang; Xu, Ping; Gao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in hyperglycemia induced islet β cell dysfunction, however, studies on classic anti-oxidants didn't show positive results in treating diabetes. We previously demonstrated that the prescribed Chinese herbal medicine preparation "Qing Huo Yi Hao" (QHYH) improved endothelial function in type 2 diabetic patients. QHYH protected endothelial cells from high glucose-induced damages by scavenging superoxide anion and reducing production of reactive oxygen species. Its active component protected C2C12 myotubes against palmitate-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. In the present study, we investigated whether QHYH protected islet β cell function exacerbated by high fat diet (HFD) in hyperglycemic GK rats. 4-week-old male rats were randomly divided into high HFD feeding group (n = 20) and chow diet feeding group (n = 10). Each gram of HFD contained 4.8 kcal of energy, 52% of which from fat. Rats on HFD were further divided into 2 groups given either QHYH (3 ml/Kg/d) or saline through gastric tube. After intervention, serum glucose concentrations were monitored; IPGTTs were performed without anesthesia on 5 fasting rats randomly chosen from each group on week 4 and 16. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations and activities of serum antioxidant enzymes were measured on week 4 and 16. Islet β cell mass and OS marker staining was done by immunohistochemistry on week 16. QHYH prevented the exacerbation of hyperglycemia in HFD feeding GK rats for 12 weeks. On week 16, it improved the exacerbated glucose tolerance and prevented the further loss of islet β cell mass induced by HFD. QHYH markedly decreased serum MDA concentration, increased serum catalase (CAT) and SOD activities on week 4. However, no differences of serum glucose concentration or OS were observed on week 16. We concluded that QHYH decreased hyperglycemia exacerbated by HFD in GK rats by improving β cell function partly via its antioxidant effect.

  10. Chronic CNS oxytocin signaling preferentially induces fat loss in high-fat diet-fed rats by enhancing satiety responses and increasing lipid utilization.

    PubMed

    Blevins, James E; Thompson, Benjamin W; Anekonda, Vishwanath T; Ho, Jacqueline M; Graham, James L; Roberts, Zachary S; Hwang, Bang H; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Nelson, Jarrell; Kaiyala, Karl J; Havel, Peter J; Bales, Karen L; Morton, Gregory J; Schwartz, Michael W; Baskin, Denis G

    2016-04-01

    Based largely on a number of short-term administration studies, growing evidence suggests that central oxytocin is important in the regulation of energy balance. The goal of the current work is to determine whether long-term third ventricular (3V) infusion of oxytocin into the central nervous system (CNS) is effective for obesity prevention and/or treatment in rat models. We found that chronic 3V oxytocin infusion between 21 and 26 days by osmotic minipumps both reduced weight gain associated with the progression of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and elicited a sustained reduction of fat mass with no decrease of lean mass in rats with established diet-induced obesity. We further demonstrated that these chronic oxytocin effects result from 1) maintenance of energy expenditure at preintervention levels despite ongoing weight loss, 2) a reduction in respiratory quotient, consistent with increased fat oxidation, and 3) an enhanced satiety response to cholecystokinin-8 and associated decrease of meal size. These weight-reducing effects persisted for approximately 10 days after termination of 3V oxytocin administration and occurred independently of whether sucrose was added to the HFD. We conclude that long-term 3V administration of oxytocin to rats can both prevent and treat diet-induced obesity.

  11. Dairy Attenuates Weight Gain to a Similar Extent as Exercise in Rats Fed a High-Fat, High-Sugar Diet.

    PubMed

    Trottier, Sarah K; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Knuth, Carly M; Townsend, Logan K; Peppler, Willem T; Mikhaeil, John S; Leveille, Cam F; LeBlanc, Paul J; Shearer, Jane; Reimer, Raylene A; Wright, David C

    2017-08-07

    To compare the individual and combined effects of dairy and endurance exercise training in reducing weight gain and adiposity in a rodent model of diet-induced obesity. An 8-week feeding intervention of a high-fat, high-sugar diet was used to induce obesity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were then assigned to one of four groups for 6 weeks: (1) casein sedentary (casein-S), (2) casein exercise (casein-E), (3) dairy sedentary (dairy-S), and (4) dairy exercise (dairy-E). Rats were exercise trained by treadmill running 5 d/wk. Dairy-E prevented weight gain to a greater extent than either dairy or exercise alone. Adipose tissue and liver mass were reduced to a similar extent in dairy-S, casein-E, and dairy-E groups. Differences in weight gain were not explained by food intake or total energy expenditure. The total amount of lipid excreted was greater in the dairy-S compared to casein-S and dairy-E groups. This study provides evidence that dairy limits weight gain to a similar extent as exercise training and the combined effects are greater than either intervention alone. While exercise training reduces weight gain through increases in energy expenditure, dairy appears to increase lipid excretion in the feces. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  12. Chronic CNS oxytocin signaling preferentially induces fat loss in high-fat diet-fed rats by enhancing satiety responses and increasing lipid utilization

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Benjamin W.; Anekonda, Vishwanath T.; Ho, Jacqueline M.; Graham, James L.; Roberts, Zachary S.; Hwang, Bang H.; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wolden-Hanson, Tami; Nelson, Jarrell; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Havel, Peter J.; Bales, Karen L.; Morton, Gregory J.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Baskin, Denis G.

    2016-01-01

    Based largely on a number of short-term administration studies, growing evidence suggests that central oxytocin is important in the regulation of energy balance. The goal of the current work is to determine whether long-term third ventricular (3V) infusion of oxytocin into the central nervous system (CNS) is effective for obesity prevention and/or treatment in rat models. We found that chronic 3V oxytocin infusion between 21 and 26 days by osmotic minipumps both reduced weight gain associated with the progression of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and elicited a sustained reduction of fat mass with no decrease of lean mass in rats with established diet-induced obesity. We further demonstrated that these chronic oxytocin effects result from 1) maintenance of energy expenditure at preintervention levels despite ongoing weight loss, 2) a reduction in respiratory quotient, consistent with increased fat oxidation, and 3) an enhanced satiety response to cholecystokinin-8 and associated decrease of meal size. These weight-reducing effects persisted for approximately 10 days after termination of 3V oxytocin administration and occurred independently of whether sucrose was added to the HFD. We conclude that long-term 3V administration of oxytocin to rats can both prevent and treat diet-induced obesity. PMID:26791828

  13. Differential effects of low-fat and high-fat diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression in obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Heden, Timothy D; Morris, E Matthew; Kearney, Monica L; Liu, Tzu-Wen; Park, Young-Min; Kanaley, Jill A; Thyfault, John P

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term low-fat (LF) and high-fat (HF) diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) secretion, the content of proteins involved in TAG assembly and secretion, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and the fatty acid profile of stored TAG. Using selectively bred obese-prone Sprague-Dawley rats, we directly measured fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, using Tyloxapol (a lipoprotein lipase inhibitor) and a standardized oral mixed meal (45% carbohydrate, 40% fat, 15% protein) bolus in animals fed a HF or LF diet for 2 weeks, after which the rats were maintained on their respective diet for 1 week (washout) prior to the liver being excised to measure protein content, FAO, and TAG fatty acid profiles. Hepatic DGAT-1 protein expression was ∼27% lower in HF- than in LF-fed animals (p < 0.05); the protein expression of all other molecules was similar in the 2 diets. The fed-state hepatic TAG secretion rate was ∼39% lower (p < 0.05) in HF- (4.62 ± 0.18 mmol·h(-1)) than in LF- (7.60 ± 0.57 mmol·h(-1)) fed animals. Hepatic TAG content was ∼2-fold higher (p < 0.05) in HF- (1.07 ± 0.15 nmol·g(-1) tissue) than in LF- (0.50 ± 0.16 nmol·g(-1) tissue) fed animals. In addition, the fatty acid profile of liver TAG in HF-fed animals closely resembled the diet, whereas in LF-fed animals, the fatty acid profile consisted of mostly de novo synthesized fatty acids. FAO was not altered by diet. LF and HF diets differentially alter fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression.

  14. Differential effects of low-fat and high-fat diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression in obese-prone Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Heden, Timothy D.; Morris, E. Matthew; Kearney, Monica L.; Liu, Tzu-Wen; Park, Young-min; Kanaley, Jill A.; Thyfault, John P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term low-fat (LF) and high-fat (HF) diets on fed-state hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) secretion, the content of proteins involved in TAG assembly and secretion, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and the fatty acid profile of stored TAG. Using selectively bred obese-prone Sprague–Dawley rats, we directly measured fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, using Tyloxapol (a lipoprotein lipase inhibitor) and a standardized oral mixed meal (45% carbohydrate, 40% fat, 15% protein) bolus in animals fed a HF or LF diet for 2 weeks, after which the rats were maintained on their respective diet for 1 week (washout) prior to the liver being excised to measure protein content, FAO, and TAG fatty acid profiles. Hepatic DGAT-1 protein expression was ~27% lower in HF- than in LF-fed animals (p < 0.05); the protein expression of all other molecules was similar in the 2 diets. The fed-state hepatic TAG secretion rate was ~39% lower (p < 0.05) in HF- (4.62 ± 0.18 mmol·h−1) than in LF- (7.60 ± 0.57 mmol·h−1) fed animals. Hepatic TAG content was ~2-fold higher (p < 0.05) in HF- (1.07 ± 0.15 nmol·g−1 tissue) than in LF- (0.50 ± 0.16 nmol·g−1 tissue) fed animals. In addition, the fatty acid profile of liver TAG in HF-fed animals closely resembled the diet, whereas in LF-fed animals, the fatty acid profile consisted of mostly de novo synthesized fatty acids. FAO was not altered by diet. LF and HF diets differentially alter fed-state hepatic TAG secretion, hepatic fatty acid profiles, and DGAT-1 protein expression. PMID:24669989

  15. The Physico-Chemical Properties of Dietary Fibre Determine Metabolic Responses, Short-Chain Fatty Acid Profiles and Gut Microbiota Composition in Rats Fed Low- and High-Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Kulcinskaja, Evelina; Marungruang, Nittaya; Matziouridou, Chrysoula; Nilsson, Ulf; Stålbrand, Henrik; Nyman, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how physico-chemical properties of two dietary fibres, guar gum and pectin, affected weight gain, adiposity, lipid metabolism, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and the gut microbiota in male Wistar rats fed either low- or high-fat diets for three weeks. Both pectin and guar gum reduced weight gain, adiposity, liver fat and blood glucose levels in rats fed a high-fat diet. Methoxylation degree of pectin (low, LM and high (HM)) and viscosity of guar gum (low, medium or high) resulted in different effects in the rats, where total blood and caecal amounts of SCFA were increased with guar gum (all viscosities) and with high methoxylated (HM) pectin. However, only guar gum with medium and high viscosity increased the levels of butyric acid in caecum and blood. Both pectin and guar gum reduced cholesterol, liver steatosis and blood glucose levels, but to varying extent depending on the degree of methoxylation and viscosity of the fibres. The medium viscosity guar gum was the most effective preparation for prevention of diet-induced hyperlipidaemia and liver steatosis. Caecal abundance of Akkermansia was increased with high-fat feeding and with HM pectin and guar gum of all viscosities tested. Moreover, guar gum had distinct bifidogenic effects independent of viscosity, increasing the caecal abundance of Bifidobacterium ten-fold. In conclusion, by tailoring the viscosity and possibly also the degree of methoxylation of dietary fibre, metabolic effects may be optimized, through a targeted modulation of the gut microbiota and its metabolites. PMID:25973610

  16. A water-alcohol extract of Citrus grandis whole fruits has beneficial metabolic effects in the obese Zucker rats fed with high fat/high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Raasmaja, Atso; Lecklin, Anne; Li, Xiang Ming; Zou, Jianqiang; Zhu, Guo-Guang; Laakso, Into; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that citrus fruits and compounds such as flavonoids, limonoids and pectins have health promoting effects. Our aim was to study the effects of Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck var. tomentosa hort. fruit extract on the energy metabolism. A whole fruit powder from dry water and alcohol extracts of C. grandis containing 19% naringin flavonoid was prepared. The effects of the citrus extract were followed in the obese Zucker rats fed with the HFD. The circulatory levels of GLP-1 decreased significantly by the extract in comparison to the HFD group, whereas the decreased ghrelin levels were reversed. The levels of PYY were decreased in all HFD groups. The leptin amounts decreased but not significantly whereas insulin and amylin were unchanged. The cholesterol and glucose levels were somewhat but not systematically improved in the HFD fed rats. Further studies are needed to identify the active compounds and their mechanisms.

  17. Amelioration of oxidative stress and insulin resistance by soy isoflavones (from Glycine max) in ovariectomized Wistar rats fed with high fat diet: the molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sankar, P; Zachariah, Bobby; Vickneshwaran, V; Jacob, Sajini Elizabeth; Sridhar, M G

    2015-03-01

    Estrogen deficiency after menopause accelerates the redox imbalance and insulin signaling, leading to oxidative stress (OS) and insulin resistance (IR). The molecular mechanisms by which the loss of ovarian hormone leads to OS and IR remain unclear. In the present study we found that rats when subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) resulted in reduction of whole blood antioxidants and elevation of oxidant markers. The expression of anti-oxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) was suppressed whereas the pro-oxidative enzyme NADPH oxidase (NOX4) and mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases ERK 1/2 and p38 were increased at different tissues. Treatment with soy (SIF, 150 mg/kg BW for 12 weeks) extract markedly reversed these metabolic changes and improved OS. Ovariectomized rats also displayed glucose intolerance (GI) and IR as evident from the impaired glucose tolerance test, and reduced expression of adipose and hepatic insulin receptor beta (IRβ) and adipose tissue GLUT4. Treatment with SIF reversed the ovariectomy induced GI and IR. On the other hand, all these metabolic changes were further augmented when ovariectomy was followed by a high fat diet, and these changes were also reversed by SIF. Taken together, these findings emphasized the antioxidant property and anti-diabetic effects of soy isoflavones suggesting the use of this natural phytoestrogen as a strategy for relieving oxidative stress and insulin resistance in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Safety and Health Benefits of Novel Dietary Supplements Consisting Multiple Phytochemicals, Vitamins, Minerals and Essential Fatty Acids in High Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine safety and efficacy of health supplements "Beyond Tangy Tangerine," a multivitamin/mineral complex and combination of multivitamin/mineral complex, "Osteofx," a bone healthy supplement and "Ultimate Essential Fatty Acids" in Sprague Dawley rats consuming high-fat diets. Initially a pilot study was conducted which confirmed palatability and acceptability of supplements. In a second study, rats (n = 15/group) were randomized to Control; Multivitamin/mineral complex (2 g/kg BW) or Combination (2 g Multivitamin/mineral complex, 1.5 g Bone healthy supplement and 0.34 g Essential fatty acids/kg BW). No differences were observed in BW change, feed intake, organ weights or bone mineral composition with supplementations compared to control. Multivitamin/mineral complex supplementation decreased abdominal white adipose tissue weights (WAT) (p = .005), total (p = .033) and fat mass (p = .040), plasma IL-6 (p = .016) and ALKP (p = .038) and elevated plasma calcium (p < .001), phosphorus (p = .038), total protein (p = .002), albumin (p = .014) and globulin (p = .018), compared to control. Similarly, combination supplementation reduced WAT (p < .001), total (p = .023) and fat mass (p = .045), plasma triglycerides (p = .018), IL-6 (p = .002) and ALKP (p < .001) with increases in plasma calcium (p = .031), phosphorus (p < .001) compared to control. Results indicate that consuming either supplement can be considered safe and improves overall health by reducing inflammation, abdominal fat mass and plasma triglycerides, as well as promote bone health.

  19. Cooking enhances beneficial effects of pea seed coat consumption on glucose tolerance, incretin, and pancreatic hormones in high-fat-diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Zohre; Yang, Kaiyuan; Yang, Han; Jin, Alena; Ozga, Jocelyn; Chan, Catherine B

    2015-04-01

    Pulses, including dried peas, are nutrient- and fibre-rich foods that improve glucose control in diabetic subjects compared with other fibre sources. We hypothesized feeding cooked pea seed coats to insulin-resistant rats would improve glucose tolerance by modifying gut responses to glucose and reducing stress on pancreatic islets. Glucose intolerance induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with high-fat diet (HFD; 10% cellulose as fibre) was followed by 3 weeks of HFD with fibre (10%) provided by cellulose, raw-pea seed coat (RP), or cooked-pea seed coat (CP). A fourth group consumed low-fat diet with 10% cellulose. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (oGTT, ipGTT) were done. CP rats had 30% and 50% lower glucose and insulin responses in oGTT, respectively, compared with the HFD group (P < 0.05) but ipGTT was not different. Plasma islet and incretin hormone concentrations were measured. α- and β-cell areas in the pancreas and density of K- and L-cells in jejunum and ileum were quantified. Jejunal expression of hexose transporters was measured. CP feeding increased fasting glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-stimulated gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses (P < 0.05), but K- and L-cells densities were comparable to HFD, as was abundance of SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA. No significant difference in β-cell area between diet groups was observed. α-cell area was significantly smaller in CP compared with RP rats (P < 0.05). Overall, our results demonstrate that CP feeding can reverse adverse effects of HFD on glucose homeostasis and is associated with enhanced incretin secretion and reduced α-cell abundance.

  20. Ameliorative effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves on hyperlipidemia in rats fed a high-fat diet: induction of fatty acid oxidation, inhibition of lipogenesis, and suppression of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Miyazawa, Maki; Kamei, Asuka; Abe, Keiko; Kojima, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves on hyperlipidemia, we performed gene expression profiling of the liver. Rats were fed a high-fat diet and administered mulberry leaves for 7 weeks. Plasma triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid levels were significantly lower in the rats treated with mulberry leaves as compared with the untreated rats. DNA microarray analysis revealed that mulberry leaves upregulated expression of the genes involved in α-, β- and ω-oxidation of fatty acids, mainly related to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway, and downregulated the genes involved in lipogenesis. Furthermore, treatment with mulberry leaves upregulated expression of the genes involved in the response to oxidative stress. These results indicate that consumption of fatty acids and inhibition of lipogenesis are responsible for the reduction in plasma lipids caused by mulberry administration. In addition, mulberry treatment maintains the body's oxidative state at a low level despite enhancing fatty acid oxidation.

  1. Evaluation of the Effects and Mechanism of L-Citrulline on Anti-obesity by Appetite Suppression in Obese/Diabetic KK-Ay Mice and High-Fat Diet Fed SD Rats.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Maya; Yoshitomi, Hisae; Momoo, Maki; Suguro, Shiori; Yamagishi, Yoshie; Gao, Ming

    2017-01-01

    L-Citrulline (L-Cit), a free amino acid from watermelon, has effects on hypertension and anti-oxidization; however, there are few reports of effects related to obesity. This study investigated the effects and mechanism of L-Cit on anti-obesity in obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice and high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. L-Cit induced significant reduction of food intake, body weight and fat tissue mass in obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice. Moreover, blood glucose level did not change but free fatty acid level and serum insulin level were significantly decreased by treatment with L-Cit, suggesting that L-Cit improved glucose and fatty metabolism in obesity model mice. As well as obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice, there was a significant decrease in food intake and a tendency of body weight to decrease in high-fat diet fed SD rats treated with L-Cit. Also, levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), a food intake suppression peptide, increased in the hypothalamus. Our study suggests that L-Cit improves metabolic syndrome through decreased body weight by appetite suppression.

  2. Specific Inhibition of Acyl-CoA Oxidase-1 by an Acetylenic Acid Improves Hepatic Lipid and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Metabolism in Rats Fed a High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jia; Deng, Senwen; Wang, Yiping; Li, Ping; Tang, Lian; Pang, Yefeng

    2017-03-03

    A chronic high fat diet results in hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation (FAO); whether specific inhibition of peroxisomal FAO benefits mitochondrial FAO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism remains unclear. In this study a specific inhibitor for the rate-limiting enzyme involved in peroxisomal FAO, acyl-CoA oxidase-1 (ACOX1) was developed and used for the investigation of peroxisomal FAO inhibition upon mitochondrial FAO and ROS metabolism. Specific inhibition of ACOX1 by 10,12-tricosadiynoic acid increased hepatic mitochondrial FAO via activation of the SIRT1-AMPK (adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase) pathway and proliferator activator receptor α and reduced hydrogen peroxide accumulation in high fat diet-fed rats, which significantly decreased hepatic lipid and ROS contents, reduced body weight gain, and decreased serum triglyceride and insulin levels. Inhibition of ACOX1 is a novel and effective approach for the treatment of high fat diet- or obesity-induced metabolic diseases by improving mitochondrial lipid and ROS metabolism.

  3. Effect of chronic treatment with conventional and organic purple grape juices (Vitis labrusca) on rats fed with high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Marcia Gilceane; Medeiros, Niara; Lacerda, Denise dos Santos; de Almeida, Daniela Campos; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Dani, Caroline; Funchal, Cláudia

    2013-11-01

    Serra Gaucha is described as the most important wine region of Brazil. Regarding cultivars widespread in the Serra Gaucha, about 90 % of the area is occupied by vines of Vitis labrusca that is the most important specie used in grape juice production. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of chronic intake of purple grape juice (organic and conventional) from Bordo variety (V. labrusca) on oxidative stress in different brain regions of rats supplemented with high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 months. A total of 40 male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group 1 received a standard diet and water, group 2 HFD and water, group 3 HFD and conventional grape juice (CGJ), and group 4 HFD and organic grape juice (OGJ). All groups had free access to food and drink and after 3 months of treatment the rats were euthanized by decapitation and the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum isolated and homogenized on ice for oxidative stress analysis. We observed that the consumption of calories in HFD and control groups, were higher than the groups supplemented with HFD and grape juices and that HFD diet group gain more weight than the other animals. Our results also demonstrated that HDF enhanced lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein damage (carbonyl) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus, reduced the non-enzymatic antioxidants defenses (sulfhydryl) in cerebral cortex and cerebellum, reduced catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in all brain tissues and enhanced nitric oxide production in all cerebral tissues. CGJ and OGJ were able to ameliorate these oxidative alterations, being OGJ more effective in this protection. Therefore, grape juices could be useful in the treatment of some neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative damage.

  4. Tripterygium Glycosides Tablet Ameliorates Renal Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis via the Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor Kappa B Signaling Pathway in High-Fat Diet Fed and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ze-jun; Zhang, Xiao-na; Li, Li; Yang, Wei; Wang, Shan-shan; Guo, Xin; Sun, Pei; Chen, Li-ming

    2015-01-01

    Tripterygium glycosides tablet (TGT) is a Chinese traditional medicine that has been shown to protect podocytes from injury and reduce the proteinuria. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TGT on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and its potential mechanism in high-fat diet fed and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Rats were randomly divided into normal control rats (NC group), diabetic rats without drug treatment (DM group), and diabetic rats treated with TGT (1, 3, or 6 mg/kg/day, respectively) for 8 weeks. The results showed that 24 h proteinuria and urinary N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG) in diabetic rats were decreased by TGT treatment without affecting blood glucose. Masson's trichrome stains showed that apparent renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis was found in DM group, which was ameliorated by TGT treatment. The expression of α-SMA was significantly decreased, accompanied by increased expression of E-cadherin in TGT-treated rats, but not in untreated DM rats. Further studies showed that TGT administration markedly reduced expression of TLR4, NF-κB, IL-1β, and MCP-1 in TGT-treated diabetic rats. These results showed that TGT could ameliorate renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, the mechanism which may be at least partly associated with the amelioration of EMT through suppression of the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. PMID:26347890

  5. The pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) and its oil and polyphenolic fractions differentially modulate lipid metabolism and the antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Avila, Jesús A; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; López-Díaz, José A; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E; Gómez-García, María Del Consuelo; de la Rosa, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Tree nuts such as pecans (Carya illinoinensis) contain mostly oil but are also a source of polyphenols. Nut consumption has been linked to a reduction in serum lipid levels and oxidative stress. These effects have been attributed to the oil while overlooking the potential contribution of the polyphenols. Because the evidence regarding each fraction's bioactivity is scarce, we administered high-fat (HF) diets to male Wistar rats, supplementing them with pecan oil (HF+PO), pecan polyphenols (HF+PP) or whole pecans (HF+WP), and analysed the effects of each fraction. The HF diet increased the serum leptin and total cholesterol (TC) with respect to the control levels. The HF+WP diet prevented hyperleptinemia and decreased the TC compared with the control. The HF+WP diet upregulated the hepatic expression of apolipoprotein B and LDL receptor mRNAs with respect to the HF levels. The HF+PO diet reduced the level of triacylglycerols compared with the control. The HF+PP diet stimulated the hepatic expression of liver X receptor alpha mRNA. The HF+WP diet increased the activities of hepatic catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S transferase compared with the control, and decreased the degree of lipid peroxidation compared with the HF diet. The most bioactive diet was the WP diet.

  6. Canagliflozin potentiates GLP-1 secretion and lowers the peak of GIP secretion in rats fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Hira, Tohru; Koga, Toshiki; Sasaki, Kazuyo; Hara, Hiroshi

    2017-10-14

    The glucose-induced secretion of incretins, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), is dependent on luminal glucose levels and transport of glucose via the sodium-glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) in the small intestine. Because GLP-1 and GIP function in decreasing and increasing the body weight, respectively, we aimed to analyze the effect of transient inhibition of SGLT1 by canagliflozin on incretin secretion in an obese rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a high-fat high-sucrose diet for 6-7 weeks, and plasma GLP-1 and GIP levels were measured during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). In addition, GLP-1 secretion was examined in a murine GLP-1 producing enteroendocrine cell line, GLUTag. Concomitant administration of 10 mg/kg canagliflozin with glucose loading suppressed glucose excursion, increased total GLP-1 levels, and reduced total GIP levels in systemic circulation, as revealed in the OGTT. Total and active GLP-1 levels were increased in portal blood, whereas total and active GIP levels tended to be decreased 15 min after the administration of canagliflozin with glucose. Canagliflozin (at 0.1-30 μM) did not directly affect release of GLP-1 in vitro. These results suggest that the oral administration of canagliflozin suppresses GIP secretion via the inhibition of SGLT1 in the upper part of the intestine and enhances GLP-1 secretion by increasing the glucose delivery to the lower part of the small intestine in an obese rodent model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Saponins, especially platycodin D, from Platycodon grandiflorum modulate hepatic lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed rats and high glucose-exposed HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Choi, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Song, Gye Young; Nam, Myoung Soo; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Young Chun; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2013-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) pathway. Saponins, particularly platycodin D, from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Changkil saponins, CKS) have a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CKS on hepatic lipogenesis and on the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, and the mechanisms involved. CKS attenuated fat accumulation and the induction of the lipogenic genes encoding SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase in the livers of HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. Blood biochemical analyses and histopathological examinations showed that CKS prevented liver injury. CKS and platycodin D each increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in HFD-fed rats and HepG2 cells. The use of specific inhibitors showed that platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells. This study demonstrates that CKS or platycodin D alone can regulate hepatic lipogenesis via an AMPK-dependent signalling pathway. - Highlights: ► CKS attenuated fat accumulation in HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. ► CKS and its major component, platycodin D, inhibited the levels of SREBP-1 and FAS. ► CKS and platycodin D increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. ► Platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells.

  8. Hypolipidemic, antiobesity and cardioprotective effects of sardinelle meat flour and its hydrolysates in high-fat and fructose diet fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Jemil, Ines; Abdelhedi, Ola; Nasri, Rim; Mora, Leticia; Marrekchi, Rim; Jamoussi, Kamel; ElFeki, Abdelfattah; Hajji, Mohamed; Toldrá, Fidel; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-05-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the antiobesity, hypolipidemic and cardioprotective effects of fermented sardinelle (Sardinella aurita) protein hydrolysates (FSPHs) produced with two proteolytic bacteria, Bacillus subtilis A26 (FSPH-A26) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 (FSPH-An6). Wistar rats were fed during 10weeks a standard laboratory diet, a high caloric diet (HCD) and a HCD coupled with the oral administration of sardinelle meat flour (SMF) or FSPHs. HCD caused hyperlipidemia and increased body weight (BW). The daily oral administration of FSPHs or SMF reduced the total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) serum levels, and increased the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). Nevertheless, FSPHs were found to be more efficient than SMF. FSPHs also lowered hepatic TC and TG content and decreased the pancreatic lipase activity. Further, the administration of FSPHs or SMF decreased the BW gain, the food intake and the relative epididymal adipose tissue weight. FSPHs exhibited a potent cardioprotective effect against heart attack, which was demonstrated by returning atherogenic indexes to their normal levels and the conservation of standard histological structure of the heart and aorta. The overall results indicate that FSPHs contained bioactive peptides which significantly attenuated hyperlipidemia, and might reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rats fed HCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of leptin in combination with a cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist, AM 251, or cannabidiol on food intake and body weight in rats fed a high-fat or a free-choice high sugar diet.

    PubMed

    Wierucka-Rybak, M; Wolak, M; Bojanowska, E

    2014-08-01

    High intake of fats and sugars has prompted a rapid growth in the number of obese individuals worldwide. To further investigate whether simultaneous pharmacological intervention in the leptin and cannabinoid system might change food and water intake, preferences for palatable foods, and body weight, we have examined the effects of concomitant intraperitoneal administration of leptin and AM 251, a cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist, or cannabidiol (CBD), a plant cannabinoid, in rats maintained on either a high-fat (HF) diet (45% energy from fat) or free-choice (FC) diet consisting of high-sucrose and normal rat chow (83% and 61% energy from carbohydrates, respectively). Leptin at a dose of 100 μg/kg injected individually for 3 subsequent days to rats fed a HF diet reduced significantly the daily caloric intake and inhibited body weight gain. The hormone had no significant effects, however, on either caloric intake, body weight or food preferences in rats fed an FC diet. Co-injection of leptin and 1 mg/kg AM 251 resulted in a further significant decrease in HF diet intake and a profound reduction in body weight gain both in HF diet- and FC diet-fed rats. This drug combination, however, had no effect on the consumption of high-sucrose chow. In contrast, 3mg/kg of CBD co-injected with leptin did not modify leptin effects on food intake in rats maintained on an FC or HF diet. None of the drug combinations affected water consumption. It is concluded that the concomitant treatment with leptin and AM 251 attenuated markedly body weight gain in rats maintained on high-calorie diets rich in fat and carbohydrates but did not affect preferences for sweet food.

  10. Protective effect of Caralluma fimbriata against high-fat diet induced testicular oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Gujjala, Sudhakara; Putakala, Mallaiah; Gangarapu, Venkatanarayana; Nukala, Srinivasulu; Bellamkonda, Ramesh; Ramaswamy, Rajendran; Desireddy, Saralakumari

    2016-10-01

    High-fat diet (HFD) promotes the oxidative stress formation, which in turn has hazardous effects on reproductive system and fertility. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Caralluma fimbriata on high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress in the testis of rat. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: Control (C), Control treated with CFE (C+ CFE), High fat diet fed (HFD), High fat diet fed treated with CFE (HFD+CFE) and High fat diet fed treated with Metformin (HFD+Met). CFE was orally administered (200mg/kg body weight) for 90days to groups-C+CFE and HFD+CFE rats. The effects of HF-diet on the reproductive organs were determined by measuring relative and absolute testes and epididymal fat pads weights. Regarding testes antioxidant status, high-fat fed rats showed higher levels of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, polyol pathway enzymes and lower GSH levels and lower activities of antioxidants, while CFE treatment prevented all these observed abnormalities. The present study clearly indicates that CFE offers a significant protection against HF-diet induced testicular oxidative stress in rats.

  11. The Effects of Yerba Maté (Ilex Paraguariensis) consumption on IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 production by bone marrow cells in wistar rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Carmo, Luciana Simão; Rogero, Marcelo Macedo; Cortez, Mayara; Yamada, Monica; Jacob, Patrícia Silva; Bastos, Deborah Helena Markowicz; Borelli, Primavera; Ambrósio Fock, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    An excessive consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) results in becoming overweight or obese, which triggers a chronic inflammatory condition that is associated with a high white blood cell count. Because of the potential for yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis) (YM) to impact obesity, this study aimed to investigate the effects of YM consumption on the hematological response and on the production of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-10 by bone marrow cells from Wistar rats fed a HFD. Male Wistar rats were fed a control (CON) or HFD diet for twelve weeks. At the end of this period, the rats received YM (1 g/kg/day body weight) for 4 weeks. After euthanasia, hemograms and myelograms were evaluated, while the bone marrow cells were cultured in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evaluate the production of IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10. The consumption of YM reduced the body weight, the body adiposity, and the cholesterol levels in HFD-fed rats. Bone marrow cells from the HFD group produced more IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α, and less IL-10, when compared to cells from the control group, and YM consumption reduced the IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α production by the cells. However, cells from the HFD rats that were stimulated with LPS increased their IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α production, but YM consumption did not change this result. In summary, the consumption of YM affects the production of IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α by bone marrow cells, promotes weight loss, decreases the number of white blood cells, and significantly improves serum cholesterol level in HFD-fed rats. However, the bone marrow cells from the HFD+YM-fed rats challenged with LPS did not show improvement in the inflammatory response compared to the cells from animals fed only a HFD that were also challenged with LPS.

  12. Histopathological changes in rat pancreas and skeletal muscle associated with high fat diet induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Ickin Gulen, M; Guven Bagla, A; Yavuz, O; Hismiogullari, A A

    2015-01-01

    The effects of a high fat diet on the development of diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and secretion have been widely investigated. We investigated the effects of a high fat diet on the pancreas and skeletal muscle of normal rats to explore diet-induced insulin resistance mechanisms. Forty-four male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: a control group fed standard chow, a group fed a 45% fat diet and a group fed a 60% fat diet for 3 weeks to measure acute effects; an additional three groups were fed the same diet regimens for 8 weeks to measure chronic effects. The morphological effects of the two high fat diets were examined by light microscopy. Insulin in pancreatic islets was detected using immunohistochemistry. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index and insulin staining intensity in islets increased significantly with acute administration of high fat diets, whereas staining intensity decreased with chronic administration of the 45% fat diet. Islet areas increased significantly with chronic administration. High fat diet administration led to islet degeneration, interlobular adipocyte accumulation and vacuolization in the pancreatic tissue, as well as degeneration and lipid droplet accumulation in the skeletal muscle tissue. Vacuolization in the pancreas and lipid droplets in skeletal muscle tissue increased significantly with chronic high fat diet administration. We suggest that the glucolipotoxic effects of high fat diet administration depend on the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acid content in the diet and to the total fat content of the diet.

  13. A high-fat diet inhibits the progression of diabetes mellitus in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yukihito; Ohta, Takeshi; Sasase, Tomohiko; Morinaga, Hisayo; Hata, Takahiro; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Katusda, Yoshiaki; Masuyama, Taku; Shinohara, Masami; Kakutani, Makoto; Matsushita, Mutsuyoshi

    2010-07-01

    It is well known that rats and mice, when fed a high-fat diet, develop obesity associated with abnormal glycolipid metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of a high-fat diet on a diabetic rat model, Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT), which develops diabetes due to decreased insulin production and secretion with age. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would accelerate the induction of diabetes in this model. The SDT rats were divided into 2 groups, which were fed a high-fat diet or standard diet for 16 weeks. The group fed a high-fat diet developed obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia until 16 weeks of age. Before 16 weeks of age, hyperglycemia accompanied by hypoinsulinemia developed in the group on a standard diet, but serum glucose levels were comparable in both groups. After 16 weeks of age, the group on a standard diet showed an increase in serum glucose levels and a decrease in serum insulin levels. Unexpectedly, in the group on the high-fat diet, we observed a suppressed of the progression of hyperglycemia/hypoinsulinemia. Histopathological observation revealed more pancreatic beta cells in the group on the high-fat diet. This study suggests that feeding SDT rats a high-fat diet induces obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia, but not hyperglycemia, until 16 weeks of age. Thereafter, age-dependent progress of hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia was delayed by a high-fat diet. The hyperfunction of pancreatic beta cells induced by a high-fat diet before the onset of hyperglycemia appears to suppress development of hyperglycemia/hypoinsulinemia. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Decreased beige adipocyte number and mitochondrial respiration coincide with reduced FGF21 gene expression in Sprague Dawley rats fed prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have shown that protein malnutrition during fetal growth followed by postnatal high-fat diets results in a rapid increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue mass in the offspring contributing to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that the absence of a key transcr...

  15. Chia Oil-Enriched Restructured Pork Effects on Oxidative and Inflammatory Status of Aged Rats Fed High Cholesterol/High Fat Diets.

    PubMed

    Santos-López, Jorge Arturo; Garcimartín, Alba; López-Oliva, María Elvira; Bautista-Ávila, Mirandeli; González-Muñoz, María José; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco José

    2017-05-01

    Chia oil has the highest recognized α-linolenic acid (ALA) content. ALA is associated with beneficial changes in plasma lipids and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Present article aims to analyze the effect of Chia oil-enriched restructured pork (RP) on aged rats in a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model. Groups of six male Wistar rats (1-year old) were fed the experimental diets: control RP diet (C) noncholesterol high saturated; cholesterol-enriched high-saturated fat/high-cholesterol control RP diet (HC) with added cholesterol and cholic acid; and Chia oil- or Hydroxytyrosol RP cholesterol-enriched high-saturated fat/high cholesterol (CHIA and HxT). Total cholesterol, hepatosomatic index, Nrf2, antioxidant, and inflammation markers were determined. CHIA reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect by lowering levels similar to C; also, ameliorated redox index. CHIA, despite high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content, reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and induced the lowest SOD protein synthesis but not a reduction on its activity. Chia oil activated the Nrf2 to arrest the pro-oxidative response to cholesterol and aging. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) system was lower in HxT than in CHIA, suggesting its antiatherogenic activity and related protective effect against high PUFA. Increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) was partially blocked by CHIA. Chia oil has the ability to prevent oxidative damage and modify the inflammatory response, suggesting adequate regulation of the antioxidant system. Results stress the importance of incorporating ALA into the diet.

  16. Insulin-sensitizing effect of LXR agonist T0901317 in high-fat fed rats is associated with restored muscle GLUT4 expression and insulin-stimulated AS160 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Marcin; Zabielski, Piotr; Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka U; Harasim, Ewa; Chabowski, Adrian; Górski, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that were shown to stimulate hepatic lipogenesis leading to liver steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. Despite their pro-lipogenic action, LXR activators normalize glycemia and improve insulin sensitivity in rodent models of type 2 diabetes. Antidiabetic action of LXR agonists is thought to result from suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, it remains unclear whether LXR activation affects muscle insulin sensitivity. In the present study we attempted to answer this question. The experiments were performed on male Wistar rats fed for 5 weeks on either standard chow or high fat diet. The latter group was further divided into two subgroups receiving either selective LXR agonist - T0901317 (10mg/kg/d) or vehicle during the last week of the experiment. All animals were then anaesthetized and samples of the soleus as well as red and white sections of the gastrocnemius muscle were excised. As expected, administration of T0901317 to high-fat fed rats augmented diet-induced hyperlipidemia. Nevertheless, it also normalized glucose tolerance and improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in isolated soleus muscle. In addition, LXR agonist completely restored glucose transporter 4 expression and insulin-stimulated Akt substrate of 160 kDa phosphorylation in all investigated muscles. Insulin-sensitizing effect of T0901317 was not related to changes in intramuscular level of lipid mediators of insulin resistance, since neither diacylglycerols nor ceramide content was affected by the treatment. We conclude that improvement in muscle insulin sensitivity is one of the mechanisms underlying the antidiabetic action of LXR activators. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Synthesis, Spectral Characterization, and Biochemical Evaluation of Antidiabetic Properties of a New Zinc-Diosmin Complex Studied in High Fat Diet Fed-Low Dose Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Type 2 Diabetes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Veerasamy; Iyyam Pillai, Subramanian; Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai

    2015-01-01

    In view of the established antidiabetic properties of zinc, the present study was aimed at evaluating the hypoglycemic properties of a new zinc-diosmin complex in high fat diet fed-low dose streptozotocin induced experimental type 2 diabetes in rats. Zinc-diosmin complex was synthesized and characterized by various spectral studies. The complexation between zinc ions and diosmin was further evidenced by pH-potentiometric titrations and Job's plot. Diabetic rats were orally treated with zinc-diosmin complex at a concentration of 20 mg/kg b.w./rat/day for 30 days. At the end of the experimental period, the rats were subjected to oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, HOMA-IR and various biochemical parameters related to glucose homeostasis were analyzed. Treatment with zinc-diosmin complex significantly improved the glucose homeostasis in diabetic rats. Treatment with zinc-diosmin complex significantly improved insulin sensitivity, at least in part, through enhancing protein metabolism and alteration in the levels of muscle and liver glycogen. The assay of clinical marker enzymes revealed the nontoxic nature of the complex. Determination of renal tissue markers such as blood urea and serum creatinine indicates the renoprotective nature of the complex. These findings suggest that zinc-diosmin complex is nontoxic and has complimentary potential to develop as an antihyperglycemic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26783461

  18. Fructose supplementation worsens the deleterious effects of short-term high-fat feeding on hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Tussellino, Margherita; Carotenuto, Rosa; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the short-term effect of high-fat or high-fat-high-fructose feeding on hepatic lipid metabolism and mitochondrial function in adult sedentary rats. Adult male rats were fed a high-fat or high-fat-high-fructose diet for 2 weeks. Body and liver composition, hepatic steatosis, plasma lipid profile and hepatic insulin sensitivity, together with whole-body and hepatic de novo lipogenesis, were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial mass, functionality, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense were also measured. Rats fed the high-fat-high-fructose diet exhibited significantly higher plasma triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids, insulin and indexes of hepatic insulin resistance compared with rats fed a low-fat or a high-fat diet. Hepatic triglycerides and ceramide, as well as the degree of steatosis and necrosis, were significantly higher, while liver p-Akt was significantly lower, in rats fed high-fat-high-fructose diet than in rats fed high-fat diet. A significant increase in non-protein respiratory quotient and hepatic fatty acid synthase and stearoyl CoA desaturase activity was found in rats fed the high-fat-high-fructose diet compared with those fed the high-fat diet. Significantly lower mitochondrial oxidative capacity but significantly higher oxidative stress was found in rats fed high-fat and high-fat-high-fructose diets compared with rats fed low-fat diet, while mitochondrial mass significantly increased only in rats fed high-fat-high-fructose diet. In conclusion, short-term consumption of a Western diet, rich in saturated fats and fructose, is more conducive to the development of liver steatosis and deleterious to glucose homeostasis than a high-fat diet. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  19. Effects of electric stress on glucose metabolism, glucose-stimulated cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate accumulation and 45 Ca++ efflux in isolated pancreatic islets from rats fed with a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, K; Goko, H; Matsuoka, A

    1979-10-01

    The effects of the electric stress on glucose oxidation, cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (AMP) accumulation and 45Ca++ efflux in response to glucose were studied in pancreatic islets isolated from rats fed on a control (C) or a high fat diet (F) for 12 weeks. The half of rats on each diet were subjected to electrical shocks in the random time schedule for 1 hr per day for the last 3 weeks of the feeding period (group C-S and F-S). The remaining rats were not given any shocks (group C-NS and F-NS). The rats in F-S group had the high levels of plasma epinephrine, dopamine and blood glucose. The basal content of cyclic AMP after 20 min of incubation with 2.8 mM glucose was decreased in islets from F-S group without affecting insulin release. After 20 min of incubation with 25 mM glucose, the cyclic AMP content in islets from F-S group, which was identical with that in F-NS group, was only 50% of that in C-S group. Insulin release in response to high glucose was significantly inhibited in islets from F-S group. In spite of a remarkable increase of cyclic AMP content in islets from C-S group, insulin release did not differ from that in C-NS group. Glucose (16.7 mM)-stimulated 45Ca++ efflux from the perfused islets was greatly inhibited by the high fat diet rather than by stress. The rate of glucose oxidation with 16.7 mM glucose was decreased in islets from F-S group. It is suggested that the decreased insulin release in response to glucose provoked by the combined effects of the feeding of a high fat diet and electric stress may be mediated by changes of the adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP system on the plasma membrane of the B-cell or be related to changes in glucose metabolism in islets.

  20. Glucomannan consumption elevates colonic alkaline phosphatase activity by up-regulating the expression of IAP-I, which is associated with increased production of protective factors for gut epithelial homeostasis in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Katayama, Tetsuyuki

    2017-07-01

    We previously reported that consumption of glucomannan-containing food (lily bulb) modulates gut microbiota and increases gut immunoglobulin A (IgA, index of intestinal immune function), mucins (index of intestinal barrier function), and colonic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Small intestinal ALP has an established protective effect in inflammatory diseases, whereas little is known about the function of colonic ALP activity. We hypothesized that dietary glucomannan would increase colonic ALP activity and the gene expression in rats fed an HF diet. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 30% lard with or without 4% high or low viscous glucomannan (HGM or LGM) for 2 weeks. Dietary HGM and LGM significantly increased colonic ALP activity without affecting ALP activity in the small intestine. The colonic expression of IAP-I, an ALP gene expressed throughout the intestine, was significantly higher in the HGM and LGM groups when compared with the control group. The colonic expression of Akp3 and Alpl, other ALP genes, were not affected by HGM and LGM. Dietary HGM and LGM significantly elevated fecal levels of IgA and mucins and cecal organic acids, including n-butyrate, propionate, and lactate. Colon ALP correlated with fecal IgA, mucins, and cecal organic acids. The present study showed that dietary glucomannan elevates colonic ALP activity by up-regulation of the expression of IAP-I, which might be important for protection of gut epithelial homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Green tea, black tea, and epigallocatechin modify body composition, improve glucose tolerance, and differentially alter metabolic gene expression in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nora; Bezzina, Rebecca; Hinch, Edward; Lewandowski, Paul A; Cameron-Smith, David; Mathai, Michael L; Jois, Markandeya; Sinclair, Andrew J; Begg, Denovan P; Wark, John D; Weisinger, Harrison S; Weisinger, Richard S

    2009-11-01

    The mechanisms of how tea and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) lower body fat are not completely understood. This study investigated long-term administration of green tea (GT), black tea (BT), or isolated EGCG (1 mg/kg per day) on body composition, glucose tolerance, and gene expression related to energy metabolism and lipid homeostasis; it was hypothesized that all treatments would improve the indicators of metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed a 15% fat diet for 6 months from 4 weeks of age and were supplied GT, BT, EGCG, or water. GT and BT reduced body fat, whereas GT and EGCG increased lean mass. At 16 weeks GT, BT, and EGCG improved glucose tolerance. In the liver, GT and BT increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis (SREBP-1c, FAS, MCD, ACC) and oxidation (PPAR-alpha, CPT-1, ACO); however, EGCG had no effect. In perirenal fat, genes that mediate adipocyte differentiation were suppressed by GT (Pref-1, C/EBP-beta, and PPAR-gamma) and BT (C/EBP-beta), while decreasing LPL, HSL, and UCP-2 expression; EGCG increased expression of UCP-2 and PPAR-gamma genes. Liver triacylglycerol content was unchanged. The results suggest that GT and BT suppressed adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid uptake into adipose tissue, while increasing fat synthesis and oxidation by the liver, without inducing hepatic fat accumulation. In contrast, EGCG increased markers of thermogenesis and differentiation in adipose tissue, while having no effect on liver or muscle tissues at this dose. These results show novel and separate mechanisms by which tea and EGCG may improve glucose tolerance and support a role for these compounds in obesity prevention.

  2. Long-Term Administration of Dehydroepiandrosterone Accelerates Glucose Catabolism via Activation of PI3K/Akt-PFK-2 Signaling Pathway in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jian; Ge, Chongyang; Yu, Lei; Li, Longlong; Ma, Haitian

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has a fat-reducing effect, while little information is available on whether DHEA regulates glucose metabolism, which would in turn affect fat deposition. To investigate the effects of DHEA on glucose metabolism, rats were administered a high-fat diet containing either 0 (HCG), 25 (HLG), 50 (HMG), or 100 (HHG) mg·kg-1 DHEA per day via gavage for 8 weeks. Results showed that long-term administration of DHEA inhibited body weight gain in rats on a high-fat diet. No statistical differences in serum glucose levels were observed, whereas hepatic glycogen content in HMG and HHG groups and muscle glycogen content in HLG and HMG groups were higher than those in HCG group. Glucokinase, malate dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase-2 activities in HMG and HHG groups, pyruvate kinase and succinate dehydrogenase activities in HMG group, and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in all DHEA treatment groups were increased compared with those in HCG group. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogen phosphorylase mRNA levels were decreased in HMG and HHG groups, whereas glycogen synthase-2 mRNA level was increased in HMG group compared with those in HCG. The abundance of Glut2 mRNA in HMG and HHG groups and Glut4 mRNA in HMG group was higher than that in HCG group. DHEA treatment increased serum leptin content in HMG and HHG groups compared with that in HCG group. Serum insulin content and insulin receptor mRNA level in HMG group and insulin receptor substrate-2 mRNA level in HMG and HHG group were increased compared with those in HCG group. Furthermore, Pi3k mRNA level in HMG and Akt mRNA level in HMG and HHG groups were significantly increased than those in HCG group. These data showed that DHEA treatment could enhance glycogen storage and accelerate glucose catabolism in rats fed a high-fat diet, and this effect may be associated with the activation of PI3K/Akt-PFK-2 signaling pathway. PMID:27410429

  3. Diets enriched in whey or casein improve energy balance and prevent morbidity and renal damage in salt-loaded and high-fat-fed spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arashdeep; Pezeshki, Adel; Zapata, Rizaldy C; Yee, Nicholas J; Knight, Cameron G; Tuor, Ursula I; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2016-11-01

    High-fat diets induce obesity and increase risks of diabetes and cardiovascular and renal disorders. Whey- or casein-enriched diets decrease food intake and weight gain; however, their cardiovascular and renal benefits are unclear. We determined whether whey- and casein-enriched diets improve energy balance and are protective against renal damage and morbidity associated with stroke in an obesogenic and hypertensive experimental setting. We also assessed whether the hypophagic effects of these diets were due to reduced diet preference. In experiment 1, spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats were randomized to (a) control (CON; 14% kcal protein, 33% fat), (b) whey (WHY; 40% protein, 33% fat), (c) casein (CAS; 40% protein, 33% fat) or (d) chow (CHW; 24% protein, 13% fat) for 12 weeks with 1% salt in drinking water for CON, WHY and CAS groups. Our results demonstrated that both WHY and CAS produced short-term hypophagia, moderately increased energy expenditure and decreased respiratory quotient, body weight and lean mass, with effects of WHY being more prolonged. Further, only WHY decreased fat mass and blood pressure. Importantly, both WHY and CAS prevented morbidity associated with stroke and decreased indices of renal inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6) and damage (osteopontin, renal lesions). In experiment 2, following four initial conditioning trials, the preference for CON, WHY or CAS diet was determined. Both WHY and CAS decreased food intake during conditioning and decreased preference. In conclusion, diets enriched in whey or casein improved energy balance, increased survival and prevented renal damage in salt-loaded and high-fat-fed spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exercise Improves Glucose Disposal and Insulin Signaling in Pregnant Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lindsay G; Ngo Tenlep, Sara Y; Woollett, Laura A; Pearson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Physical activity has been suggested as a non-pharmacological intervention that can be used to improve glucose homeostasis in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of voluntary exercise on glucose tolerance and body composition in pregnant high fat diet fed mice. Methods Female mice were put on a standard diet or high fat diet for two weeks. The mice were then split into 4 groups; control standard diet fed, exercise standard diet fed, control high fat diet fed, and exercise high fat diet fed. Exercise mice had voluntary access to a running wheel in their home cage one week prior to mating, during mating, and throughout pregnancy. Glucose tolerance and body composition were measured during pregnancy. Akt levels were quantified in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue isolated from saline or insulin injected pregnant dams as a marker for insulin signaling. Results Consumption of the high fat diet led to significantly increased body weight, fat mass, and impaired glucose tolerance in control mice. However, voluntary running in the high fat diet fed dams significantly reduced weight gain and fat mass and ultimately improved glucose tolerance compared to control high fat diet fed dams. Further, body weight, fat mass, and glucose disposal in exercise high fat diet dams were indistinguishable from control dams fed the standard diet. High fat diet fed exercise dams also had significantly increased insulin stimulated phosphorylated Akt expression in adipose tissue, but not skeletal muscle, compared to control dams on high fat diet. Conclusion The use of voluntary exercise improves glucose homeostasis and body composition in pregnant female mice. Thus, future studies could investigate potential long-term health benefits in offspring born to obese exercising dams. PMID:26966635

  5. Prenatal food restriction induces poor-quality articular cartilage in female rat offspring fed a post-weaning high-fat diet and its intra-uterine programming mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yang; Wu, Yunpeng; Ni, Qubo; Deng, Yu; Li, Jing; Wang, Linlong; Shen, Lang; Liu, Yansong; Magdalou, Jacques; Wang, Hui; Chen, Liaobin

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological data show that osteoarthritis (OA) is significantly associated with lower birth weight, and that OA may be a type of fetal-originated adult disease. The present study aimed to investigate the prenatal food-restriction (PFR) effect on the quality of articular cartilage in female offspring to explore the underlying mechanisms of fetal-originated OA. Maternal rats were fed a restricted diet from gestational day (GD) 11 to 20 to induce intra-uterine growth retardation. Female fetuses and female adult offspring fed a post-weaning high-fat diet were killed at GD20 and postnatal week 24, respectively. Serum and knee cartilage samples from fetuses and adult female offspring were collected and examined for cholesterol metabolism and histology. Fetal serum corticosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the PFR group were lower than those of the control, but the serum cholesterol level was not changed. The lower expression of IGF-1 in the PFR group lasted into adulthood. The expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes, including type II collagen, aggrecan and cholesterol efflux genes including liver X receptor, were significantly induced, but the ATP-binding-cassette transporter A1 was unchanged. PFR could induce a reduction in ECM synthesis and impaired cholesterol efflux in female offspring, and eventually led to poor quality of articular cartilage and OA.

  6. Structural lesions and changing pattern of expression of genes encoding cardiac muscle proteins are associated with ventricular myocyte dysfunction in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Frank C; Qureshi, Muhammad A; Sobhy, Zahra H H; Parekh, Khatija; Yammahi, Salem R R K D; Adrian, Thomas E; Adeghate, Ernest

    2011-08-01

    Given the clinical prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity and their association with high mortality linked to cardiovascular disease, the aim of the study was to investigate the effects of feeding type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats either high- or low-fat diets on cardiomyocyte structure and function. The GK rats were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD) or a low-fat diet (LFD) from the age of 2 months for a period of 7 months. The GK-HFD rats gained more weight, ate less food and drank less water compared with GK-LFD rats. At 7 months, non-fasting blood glucose was higher in GK-LFD (334 ± 35 mg dl(-1)) compared with GK-HFD rats (235 ± 26 mg dl(-1)). Feeding GK rats with a HFD had no significant effect on glucose clearance following a glucose challenge. Time-to-peak (t(peak)) shortening was reduced in myocytes from GK-HFD (131.8 ± 2.1 ms) compared with GK-LFD rats (144.5 ± 3.0 ms), and time-to-half (t(1/2)) relaxation of shortening was also reduced in myocytes from GK-HFD (71.7 ± 6.9 ms) compared with GK-LFD rats (86.1 ± 3.6 ms). The HFD had no significant effect on the amplitude of shortening. The HFD had no significant effect on t(peak), t(1/2) decay, amplitude of the Ca(2+) transient, myofilament sensitivity to Ca(2+), sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) content, fractional release of Ca(2+) and the rate of Ca(2+) uptake. Structurally, ventricular myocytes from GK-HFD rats showed extensive mitochondrial lesions, including swelling, loss of cristae, and loss of inner and outer membranes, resulting in gross vacuolarization and deformation of ventricular mitochondria with a subsequent reduction in mitochondrial density. Expression of genes encoding various L-type Ca(2+) channel proteins (Cacnb2) and cardiac muscle proteins (Myl2 and Atp2a1) were downregulated in GK-HFD compared with GK-LFD rats. Structural lesions and changed expression of genes encoding various cardiac muscle proteins might partly underlie the altered time course of myocyte shortening and

  7. Diets containing soy or rice protein isolate increase insulin sensitivity and improve lipid homeostasis in weanling rats fed high fat, high cholesterol Western diets as a result of activation of PPAR and LXR-mediated pathways

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The current study examined the effects of feeding soy protein isolate (SPI) and rice protein isolate (RPI) on insulin sensitivity and fat breakdown in weanling rats consuming high fat/high cholesterol diets. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on semi-purified diets containing the milk protein case...

  8. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Yan, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding (TRF) reduces high-fat diet-induced increase in adiposity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G or the high-fat diet ad libitum (ad lib); TRF of the high-fat diet for 12 or 8hours during the dark cycle was initiated when high-fat diet-fed mice exhibited significant increases in body weight. Energy intake of the TRF 12-hour group was not different from that of the high-fat ad lib group, although that of the TRF 8-hour group was slightly but significantly lower. Restricted feeding of the high-fat diet reduced body fat mass and body weight compared with mice fed the high-fat diet ad lib. There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio (RER) among TRF and high-fat ad lib groups, but the RER of these groups was lower than that of the AIN93G group. Energy expenditure of the TRF groups was slightly but significantly lower than that of the high-fat ad lib group. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were increased in TRF groups compared with both AIN93G and high-fat ad lib groups. Elevations of plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 by high-fat ad lib feeding were reduced by TRF to the levels of mice fed the AIN93G diet. In conclusion, TRF during the dark cycle reduces high-fat diet-induced increases in adiposity and proinflammatory cytokines. These results indicate that circadian timing of food intake may prevent obesity and abate obesity-related metabolic disturbance.

  9. Effect of a high-fat diet on diabetic mother rats and their offspring through three generations.

    PubMed

    Nasu, Ritsuko; Seki, Koji; Nara, Misa; Murakami, Masami; Kohama, Tomoko

    2007-08-01

    Pregnant diabetic Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet starting at the first gestational day. The effect of the high-fat diet on the growth of the female, her offspring, and the offspring's offspring was studied. Pregnant rats (first generation) were divided into the Diabetic streptozotocin-induced group and the control group. Diabetic streptozotocin-induced rats and control rats were fed either a control diet (5% fat in diet) or high-fat diet (32% fat in diet), and observed up to the third generation. In each generation, after weaning, the pups were fed the respective diet. The fat content was mainly animal lard. Diabetic rats fed the high-fat diet were infertile, and the pregnant first-generation and diabetic rats fed the control diet had a stillbirth rate of 27.5 +/- 22.0% (mean +/- SE). In the first generation, the diabetic rats fed the control diet had a significantly lower body weight increase during the pregnancy than the control rats fed the control diet. The second-generation diabetic rats fed the control diet had a high blood glucose level at birth, and their triglyceride level was higher than that in the other two groups. The third-generation diabetic rats fed the control diet had a triglyceride level higher than that of control rats. Delivery was most difficult in diabetic rats fed the high-fat diet. Pups of diabetic rats fed the control diet had growth retardation and increased blood glucose levels. We conclude that when the mother rat had diabetes, the next generation was also affected.

  10. [Effect of early high fat diet on pancreatic β cellularity and insulin sensibility in young rats].

    PubMed

    Xie, Kun-Xia; Xiao, Yan-Feng; Xu, Er-Di; Yin, Chun-Yan; Yi, Xiao-Qing; Chang, Ming

    2010-09-01

    To study the effects of early high fat diet on sugar metaboliam, insulin sensibility and pancreatic β cellularity in young rats. Sixty male weaned young rats were randomly fed with high fat diet (high fat group) and normal diet (control group). The body weight, viscus fattiness and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were measured after 3, 6 and 9 weeks. Serum insulin level was measured with radioimmunoassay. The ultrastructure of pancreas was observed under an electricmicroscope. The high fat group had significantly higher body weight and visceral fat weight than the control group after 3 weeks. There were no significant differences in the FPG level between the two groups at all time points. The levels of fasting insulin and HOMAIR in the high fat group were significantly higher than those in the control group after 3, 6 and 9 weeks (P<0.01). Dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mild swelling of mitochondria of islet β-cells were observed in the high fat group after 6 weeks. Early high fat diet may induce a reduction in insulin sensitivity and produce insulin resistance in young rats. Endoplasmic reticulum expansion in β-cells may be an early sign of β-cell damage due to obesity.

  11. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy from corn oil) ad libitum (ad l...

  12. Rapid loss of adiponectin-stimulated fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle of rats fed a high fat diet is not due to altered muscle redox state.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Ian R W; Dyck, David J

    2012-01-01

    A high fat (HF) diet rapidly impairs the ability of adiponectin (Ad) to stimulate fatty acid (FA) oxidation in oxidative soleus muscle, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Mere days of HF feeding also increase the muscle's production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and shift cellular redox to a more oxidized state. It seems plausible that this shift towards a more oxidized state might act as negative feedback to suppress the ability of Ad to stimulate FA oxidation and generate more ROS. Therefore, we sought to determine whether i) a shift towards a more oxidized redox state (reduction in GSH/2GSSG) coincided with impaired Ad-stimulated palmitate oxidation in oxidative and glycolytic rodent muscle after 5 days of HF feeding (60% kCal), and ii) if supplementation with the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could prevent the HF-diet induced impairment in Ad-response. Globular Ad (gAd) increased palmitate oxidation in isolated soleus and EDL muscles by 42% and 34%, respectively (p<0.05) but this was attenuated with HF feeding in both muscles. HF feeding decreased total GSH (-26%, p<0.05) and GSH/2GSSG (-49%, p<0.05) in soleus, but not EDL. Supplementation with NAC prevented the HF diet-induced reductions in GSH and GSH/2GSSG in soleus, but did not prevent the loss of Ad response in either muscle. Furthermore, direct incubations with H(2)O(2) did not impair Ad-stimulated FA oxidation in either muscle. In conclusion, our data indicates that skeletal muscle Ad resistance is rapidly induced in both oxidative and glycolytic muscle, independently of altered cellular redox state.

  13. Maternal obesity and post-natal high fat diet disrupt hepatic circadian rhythm in rat offspring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Offspring of obese (Ob) rat dams gain greater body wt and fat mass when fed high-fat diet (HFD) as compared to controls. Alterations of diurnal circadian rhythm are known to detrimentally impact metabolically active tissues such as liver. We sought to determine if maternal obesity (MOb) leads to p...

  14. Hesperidin and naringin attenuate hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production in high fat fed/streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ayman M; Ashour, Mohamed B; Abdel-Moneim, Adel; Ahmed, Osama M

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal regulation of glucose and impaired carbohydrate utilization that result from a defective or deficient insulin are the key pathogenic events in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study was hypothesized to investigate the beneficial effects of hesperidin and naringin on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage in HFD/STZ-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by feeding rats with an HFD for 2 weeks followed by an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (35 mg/kg body weight). An oral dose of 50mg/kg hesperidin or naringin was daily given for 4 weeks after diabetes induction. At the end of the experimental period, blood was obtained from jugular vein and livers were rapidly excised and homogenized for biochemical assays. In the diabetic control group, levels of glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c%), MDA, NO, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly increased, while serum insulin, GSH, vitamin C, and vitamin E levels were decreased. Both hesperidin and naringin administration significantly reversed these alterations. Moreover, supplementation with either compound significantly ameliorated serum and liver MDA, NO and glutathione, and liver antioxidant enzymes. Although detailed studies are required for the evaluation of the exact mechanism of the ameliorative effects of hesperidin and naringin against diabetic complications, these preliminary experimental findings demonstrate that both hesperidin and naringin exhibit antidiabetic effects in a rat model of T2DM by potentiating the antioxidant defense system and suppressing proinflammatory cytokine production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Inhibitory Activities of Zygophyllum album: A Natural Weight-Lowering Plant on Key Enzymes in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mnafgui, Kais; Hamden, Khaled; Ben Salah, Hichem; Kchaou, Mouna; Nasri, Mbarek; Slama, Sadok; Derbali, Fatma; Allouche, Noureddine; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem that increased risk for many complications, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The results showed EZA, which found rich in flavonoids and phenolic compounds, exhibited an inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase in vitro with IC50 of 91.07 μg/mL. In vivo administration of this extract to HFD-rats lowered body weight and serum leptin level; and inhibited lipase activity of obese rats by 37% leading to notable decrease of T-Ch, TGs and LDL-c levels accompanied with an increase in HDL-c concentration in serum and liver of EZA treated HFD-rats. Moreover, the findings revealed that EZA helped to protect liver tissue from the appearance of fatty cysts. Interestingly, supplementation of EZA modulated key enzyme related to hypertension such as ACE by 36% in serum of HFD animals and improve some of serum electrolytes such as Na+, K+, Cl−, Ca2+ and Mg2+. Moreover, EZA significantly protected the liver-kidney function by reverted back near to normal the values of the liver-kidney dysfunction indices AST&ALT, ALP, CPK and GGT activities, decreased T-Bili, creat, urea and uric acid rates. In conclusion, these results showed a strong antihypelipidemic effect of EZA which can delay the occurrence of dislipidemia and hypertension. PMID:23258993

  16. Hypolipidemic effects of crude extract of adlay seed (Coix lachrymajobi var. mayuen) in obesity rat fed high fat diet: relations of TNF-alpha and leptin mRNA expressions and serum lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ok; Yun, Su-Jin; Jung, Bomi; Lee, Eunjoo H; Hahm, Dae-Hyun; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hye-Jung

    2004-07-30

    To find out whether the expressions of these adipocyte markers are influenced by oriental medicine, obesity rats induced by high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks were injected with 50 mg/100 g body weight adlay seed crude extract (ACE), daily for 4 weeks. The results are summarized as follows: HFD + ACE group significantly reduced food intakes and body weights. Weights of epididymal and peritoneal fat were dramatically increased in HFD groups compared with those of normal diet (ND) group but significantly decreased more in HFD + ACE group than those of HFD + saline group (sham). Those of brown adipocytes were increased in HFD + ACE group compared to ND and sham groups but there was no significant difference. The sizes in white adipose tissue (WAT) by microscope were markedly larger in HFD groups than ND group but considerably reduced in HFD + ACE group compared with sham group. The levels of triglyceride, total-cholesterol and leptin in blood serum were significantly decreased in HFD + ACE group compared to those of sham group. Leptin and TNF-alpha mRNA expressions in WAT of rats were remarkably increased more in sham group than in those of ND group. Those of HFD + ACE group were significantly decreased compared with those of sham group, especially. TNF-alpha mRNA expression in HFD + ACE group was declined more than that of ND group. In conclusion, treatments of ACE modulated expressions of leptin and TNF-alpha and reduced body weights, food intake, fat size, adipose tissue mass and serum hyperlipidemia in obesity rat fed HFD. Accordingly, the oriental medicine extract, adlay seed crude extract, can be considered for obesity therapies controlling.

  17. Impact of chromium histidinate on high fat diet induced obesity in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chromium (Cr) is an essential trace element that has garnered interest for use as a weight loss aid, but its molecular mechanism in obesity is not clear. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effects of chromium histidinate (CrHis) on glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65) and the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal adducts (HNE) expressions in liver of rats fed high fat diet (HFD). Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 40, 8 wk-old) were divided into four groups. Group I was fed a standard diet (12% of calories as fat); Group II was fed a standard diet and supplemented with 110 μg CrHis/kg BW/d; Group III was fed a HFD (40% of calories as fat); Group IV was fed HFD and supplemented with 110 μg CrHis/kg BW/d. Results Rats fed HFD possessed greater serum insulin (40 vs.33 pmol/L) and glucose (158 vs. 143 mg/dL) concentration and less liver Cr (44 vs.82 μg/g) concentration than rats fed the control diet. However, rats supplemented with CrHis had greater liver Cr and serum insulin and lower glucose concentration in rats fed HFD (P < 0.05). The hepatic nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65) and HNE were increased in high fat group compared to control group, but reduced by the CrHis administration (P < 0.05). The levels of hepatic Nrf2 and HO-1 were increased by supplementation of CrHis (P < 0.05). Conclusion These findings demonstrate that supplementation of CrHis is protective against obesity, at least in part, through Nrf2-mediated induction of HO-1 in rats fed high fat diet. PMID:21539728

  18. [Effect of chronic high-fat diet on predation behavior in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenhao; Jia, Yan; Cao, Shuhui; Chen, Yaru; Duan, Liting; Li, Changqi

    2014-12-01

    To observe the eff ect and mechanism of chronic high-fat diet on predation behavior in rats. Ten female SD rats with 4-week-old were randomly divided into a normal control group (NC group, n=5) and a chronic high-fat diet group (HF group, n=5). The rats in the NC group received the regular diet while rats in the HF group were fed with high-fat diet. Fift een weeks later, the predation behavior of rats was evaluated by open fi eld test and food foraging tests. At the end of experiments, the rats were killed and brain tissues were collected for evaluation of c-Fos protein expression in anterior cingulate cortex by immunohistochemical assay. Th e predation behavior of rats in the HF group was signifi cantly impaired in the competitive or non-competitive food foraging test compared with the control rats (P< 0.001). Th e c-fos protein expression in anterior cingulate cortex of rats from the HF group was signifi cantly decreased (P< 0.001). Long time high-fat diet can aff ect the predation behavior of rats, which is related to dysfunction of neuron in anterior cingulate cortex.

  19. Serum levels of appetite-regulating hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines are ameliorated by a CLA diet and endurance exercise in rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kangok; Kwon, Daekeun; Park, Jaeyong; Song, Youngju

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined whether conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation and endurance exercise affect appetite-regulating hormones and pro-inflammatory cytokines in rats. [Methods] Seven-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into the high-fat diet sedentary group (HS, n=8), the 1.0% CLA supplemented high-fat diet sedentary group (CS, n=8), and the 1.0% CLA supplemented high-fat diet exercise group (CE, n=8). Rats in the CE group swam 60 min/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. [Results] Leptin and insulin levels in the CS and CE groups were significantly lower than those in the HS group (p<0.001), whereas leptin (p<0.01) and insulin (p<0.05) levels decreased significantly in the CE compared to those in the CS group. Interleukin (IL)-1β (p<0.001) and IL-6 (p<0.01) levels in the CS and CE groups decreased significantly compared to those in the HS group. Leptin (IL-1β: r=0.835, p<0.001), IL-6 (r=0.607, p<0.05), insulin (IL-1β: r=0.797, p<0.01), and IL-6 (r=0.827, p<0.01) levels were positively related with pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. [Conclusion] Endurance exercise may play an important role during CLA supplementation of rats on a high-fat diet. PMID:27274463

  20. Hemin improves insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle in high fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Ju, Tae-Jin; Kwon, Woo-Young; Kim, Yong-Woon; Kim, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Dae; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, So-Young

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether hemin could prevent the development of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in the liver and skeletal muscle using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. A four-week high-fat feeding to mice increased the body weight, fat mass, and plasma levels of insulin and lipid, which were reduced by hemin. High-fat diet reduced whole body glucose uptake, which were increased by hemin. Insulin-stimulated hepatic glucose production (HGP) was increased by high-fat diet, but hemin had no significant effect on HGP. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake was reduced by high-fat diet, and hemin normalized the glucose uptake. High-fat diet increased triglyceride levels and mRNA levels of lipogenic enzymes, and decreased mRNA levels of enzymes involved in lipid β-oxidation, which was reversed by hemin. Phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase levels were increased in the skeletal muscle of high fat-fed hemin-injected mice. High-fat diet reduced mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and increased mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and nitrotyrosine levels, which was normalized by hemin in the skeletal muscle. However, hemin had no significant effect on these factors in the liver. These results suggest that hemin prevents the development of high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance by increased insulin sensitivity in the skeletal muscle.

  1. Sex-dependent effects of high-fat-diet feeding on rat pancreas oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Pérez, Yolanda; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel; Proenza, Ana M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether sex differences in oxidative stress-associated insulin resistance previously reported in rats could be attributed to a possible sex dimorphism in pancreas redox status. Fifteen-month-old male and female Wistar rats were fed a control diet or a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. Serum glucose, lipids, and hormone levels were measured. Insulin immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis of islets were performed. Pancreas triglyceride content, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were determined. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) levels were also measured. Male rats showed a more marked insulin resistance profile than females. In control female rats, pancreas Mn-superoxide dismutase activity and UCP2 levels were higher, and oxidative damage was lower compared with males. High-fat-diet feeding decreased pancreas triglyceride content in female rats and UCP2 levels in male rats. High-fat-diet female rats showed larger islets than both their control and sex counterparts. These results confirm the existence of a sex dimorphism in pancreas oxidative status in both control and high-fat-diet feeding situations, with female rats showing higher protection against oxidative stress, thus maintaining pancreatic function and contributing to a lower risk of insulin resistance.

  2. The effect of high-fat--high-fructose diet on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Cigliano, Luisa; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-03-01

    To study the effect of isoenergetic administration to adult rats of high-fat or high-fat--high-fructose diet for 2 weeks on skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic. Body and skeletal muscle composition, energy balance, plasma lipid profile and glucose tolerance were measured, together with mitochondrial functionality, oxidative stress and antioxidant defense. Rats fed high-fat--high-fructose diet exhibited significantly higher plasma triglycerides and non-esterified fatty acids, together with significantly higher plasma glucose and insulin response to glucose load. Skeletal muscle triglycerides and ceramide were significantly higher in rats fed high-fat--high-fructose diet. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic efficiency and uncoupling protein 3 content were significantly higher, while adenine nucleotide translocase content was significantly lower, in rats fed high-fat or high-fat--high-fructose diet. The results suggest that a high-fat--high-fructose diet even without hyperphagia is able to increase lipid flow to skeletal muscle and mitochondrial energetic efficiency, with two detrimental effects: (a) energy sparing that contributes to the early onset of obesity and (b) reduced oxidation of fatty acids and lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle, which could generate insulin resistance.

  3. Oral Angiotensin-(1-7) prevented obesity and hepatic inflammation by inhibition of resistin/TLR4/MAPK/NF-κB in rats fed with high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sérgio Henrique Sousa; Andrade, João Marcus Oliveira; Fernandes, Luciana Rodrigues; Sinisterra, Ruben D M; Sousa, Frederico B; Feltenberger, John David; Alvarez-Leite, Jaqueline Izaura; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is characterized by a pro-inflammatory state commonly associated with type 2 diabetes and fat-liver disease. In the last few years, different studies pointed out the role of Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) in the metabolic regulation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oral-administration of Ang-(1-7) in metabolism and inflammatory state of high-fat feed rats. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: High Fat Diet (HFD); Standard Diet (ST); High Fat Diet+Angiotensin-(1-7) [HFD+Ang-(1-7)]. Glycemic profile was evaluated by glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests, plasmatic glucose and insulin. Cholesterol, HDL and triglycerides analyses presented lipidic profile. RT-PCR evaluated mRNA expression to ACE, ACE2, resistin, TLR4, IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB genes. The main results showed that oral Ang-(1-7) decreased body weight and abdominal fat-mass. In addition, HFD+Ang-(1-7) treated rats presented enhanced glucose tolerance, insulin-sensitivity and decreased plasma-insulin levels, as well as a significant decrease in circulating lipid levels. These alterations were accompanied by a marked decreased expression of resistin, TLR4, ACE and increased ACE2 expression in liver. Furthermore, Ang-(1-7) decreases phosphorylation of MAPK and increases NF-κB expression. These alterations diminished expression of interleukin-6 and TNF-α, ameliorate inflammatory state in liver. In summary, the present study showed that oral-treatment with Ang-(1-7) in high-fat feed rats improved metabolism down-regulating resistin/TLR4/NF-κB-pathway.

  4. Derangement of ghrelin secretion after long-term high-fat diet feeding in rats.

    PubMed

    Sugiishi, Aya; Kimura, Masaki; Kamiya, Ryo; Ueki, Satomi; Yoneya, Mikiko; Saito, Yoshimasa; Saito, Hidetsugu

    2013-10-01

    Appetite control is an important goal for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity; however, little is known about how hormones concerning appetite regulation are affected by long-term consumption of a high-fat diet. We investigated the effect of high-fat diet on secretory regulation of ghrelin and leptin in rats. Rats were fed a control or a high-fat diet for 18 weeks and then killed. Before being killed, a glucose tolerance test was performed. Weight, total calorie intake and blood glucose levels were measured, and the plasma levels of total and active ghrelin, and leptin were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Body and fat weight and total calorie intake were significantly higher in the high-fat diet group than in the control, although blood glucose levels did not differ. Plasma leptin was significantly higher in the high-fat diet group, and a significant positive correlation was observed between bodyweight and leptin levels in both groups. The levels of active and total ghrelin were not significantly changed by high-fat diet, and active ghrelin levels in the control group significantly correlated negatively with bodyweight, while its correlation was lost in the high-fat diet group. The glucose tolerance test showed that ghrelin levels were significantly higher than those of controls even 60 min after glucose loading. These results indicate that secretion of ghrelin, but not leptin, are deranged by consumption of a high-fat diet, and active ghrelin levels lose their correlation with bodyweight and food intake. © 2013 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  5. Long-term exposure to [Cr3O(O2CCH2CH3)6(H2O)3]+ in Wistar rats fed normal or high-fat diets does not alter glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Betty J.; Logsdon, Amanda L.; Lockard, Jarrett E.; Miller, Brittany M.; Kim, Hanna; Calderon, Eric A.; Vincent, John B.; Bailey, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    The essentiality of chromium(III) has been the subject of much debate, particularly in healthy subjects. Chromium(III)-containing supplements are widely used for body mass loss, building of lean muscle mass, and improving glucose and lipid metabolism. [Cr3O(O2CCH2CH3)6(H2O)3]+, Cr3, is one of the most-studied chromium nutritional supplements. The current study evaluates the effects of long-term (15 months) supplementation with Cr3 on body mass and glucose metabolism in Wistar rats on traditional and cafeteria-style (high fat, high carbohydrate) diets. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: 1) control diet (milled Harlan Teklad LM-485 rodent diet), 2) control diet + 1 mg Cr3/kg body mass/day, 3) a cafeteria-style (CAF) diet (high fat, high carbohydrate), or 4) CAF diet + 1 mg Cr3/kg/day. Cr3 supplementation had no effect on fasting blood glucose levels or blood glucose levels in response to glucose and insulin challenges. Rats consuming the CAF + Cr3 diet tended to have a significantly higher body mass than rats consuming the CAF diet, but necropsy results showed no difference in visceral fat or body wall thickness between groups. These data suggest that long-term Cr3 supplementation does not significantly affect body mass in rats consuming a normal diet or glucose levels or metabolism in rats consuming either diet. PMID:23271681

  6. Long-term exposure to [Cr(3)O(O (2)CCH (2)CH (3)) (6)(H (2)O) (3)] (+) in Wistar rats fed normal or high-fat diets does not alter glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Herring, Betty J; Logsdon, Amanda L; Lockard, Jarrett E; Miller, Brittany M; Kim, Hanna; Calderon, Eric A; Vincent, John B; Bailey, Melissa M

    2013-03-01

    The essentiality of chromium(III) has been the subject of much debate, particularly in healthy subjects. Chromium(III)-containing supplements are widely used for body mass loss, building of lean muscle mass, and improving glucose and lipid metabolism. [Cr(3)O(O(2)CCH(2)CH(3))(6)(H(2)O)(3)](+), Cr3, is one of the most-studied chromium nutritional supplements. The current study evaluates the effects of long-term (15 months) supplementation with Cr3 on body mass and glucose metabolism in Wistar rats on traditional and cafeteria-style (high fat, high carbohydrate) diets. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: (1) control diet (milled Harlan Teklad LM-485 rodent diet), (2) control diet+1 mg Cr3/kg body mass/day, (3) a cafeteria-style (CAF) diet (high fat, high carbohydrate), or (4) CAF diet+1 mg Cr3/kg/day. Cr3 supplementation had no effect on fasting blood glucose levels or blood glucose levels in response to glucose and insulin challenges. Rats consuming the CAF+Cr3 diet tended to have a significantly higher body mass than rats consuming the CAF diet, but necropsy results showed no difference in visceral fat or body wall thickness between groups. These data suggest that long-term Cr3 supplementation does not significantly affect body mass in rats consuming a normal diet or glucose levels or metabolism in rats consuming either diet.

  7. High-fat diets affect energy and bone metabolism in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Macri, Elisa V; Gonzales Chaves, Macarena M; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Mandalunis, Patricia; Zeni, Susana; Lifshitz, Fima; Friedman, Silvia M

    2012-06-01

    High-fat diets are usually associated with greater weight (W) gain and body fat (BF). However, it is still unclear whether the type and amount of fat consumed influence BF. Additionally, dietary fat intake may also have consequences on skeletal health. To evaluate in healthy growing rats the effects of high-fat diets and type of dietary fat intake (saturated or vegetable oils) on energy and bone metabolism. At weaning, male Wistar rats (n = 50) were fed either a control diet (C; fat = 7% w/w) or a high-fat diet (20% w/w) containing either: soybean oil, corn oil (CO), linseed oil (LO), or beef tallow (BT) for 8 weeks. Zoometric parameters, BF, food intake and digestibility, and total and bone alkaline phosphatase (b-AP) were assessed. Total skeleton bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC), BMC/W, spine BMD, and bone volume (static-histomorphometry) were measured. Animals fed BT diet achieved lower W versus C. Rats fed high-fat vegetable oil diets showed similar effects on the zoometric parameters but differed in BF. BT showed the lowest lipid digestibility and BMC. In contrast, high vegetable oil diets produced no significant differences in BMC, BMC/W, BMD, spine BMD, and bone volume. Marked differences were observed for LO and BT groups in b-AP and CO and BT groups in bone volume. BT diet rich in saturated fatty acids had decreased digestibility and adversely affected energy and bone metabolisms, in growing healthy male rats. There were no changes in zoometric and bone parameters among rats fed high vegetable oil diets.

  8. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism.

  9. Krill Oil Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunctions in Rats Treated with High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Zara, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies focused their attention on the role of dietary fats in the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. It has been demonstrated that a high-fat diet is able to induce hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On the other hand, krill oil, a novel dietary supplement of n-3 PUFAs, has the ability to improve lipid and glucose metabolism, exerting possible protective effects against hepatic steatosis. In this study we have investigated the effects of krill oil on mitochondrial energetic metabolism in animals fed a high-fat diet. To this end, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed for 4 weeks with a standard diet (control group), a diet with 35% fat (HF group), or a high-fat diet supplemented with 2.5% krill oil (HF+KO group). The obtained results suggest that krill oil promotes the burning of fat excess introduced by the high-fat diet. This effect is obtained by stimulating mitochondrial metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, Krebs cycle, and respiratory chain complexes activity. Modulation of the expression of carrier proteins involved in mitochondrial uncoupling was also observed. Overall, krill oil counteracts the negative effects of a high-fat diet on mitochondrial energetic metabolism. PMID:26301251

  10. Effect of high-fat diet during gestation, lactation, or postweaning on physiological and behavioral indexes in borderline hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Anaya; Alvers, Kristin M.; Crump, Erica M.; Rowland, Neil E.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity is becoming more prevalent. We used borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) to investigate whether a high-fat diet at different stages of development has adverse programming consequences on metabolic parameters and blood pressure. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 wk before mating with spontaneously hypertensive males and during the ensuing pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to a dam from the same diet group as during gestation or to the alternate diet condition. Female offspring were weaned on either control or “junk food” diets until about 6 mo of age. Rats fed the high-fat junk food diet were hyperphagic relative to their chow-fed controls. The junk food-fed rats were significantly heavier and had greater fat pad mass than those rats maintained on chow alone. Importantly, those rats suckled by high-fat dams had heavier fat pads than those suckled by control diet dams. Fasting serum leptin and insulin levels differed as a function of the gestational, lactational, and postweaning diet histories. Rats gestated in, or suckled by high-fat dams, or maintained on the junk food diet were hyperleptinemic compared with their respective controls. Indirect blood pressure did not differ as a function of postweaning diet, but rats gestated in the high-fat dams had lower mean arterial blood pressures than those gestated in the control diet dams. The postweaning dietary history affected food-motivated behavior; junk food-fed rats earned less food pellets on fixed (FR) and progressive (PR) ratio cost schedules than chow-fed controls. In conclusion, the effects of maternal high-fat diet during gestation or lactation were mostly small and transient. The postweaning effects of junk food diet were evident on the majority of the parameters measured, including body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin and insulin levels, and operant performance. PMID:18971351

  11. Effect of high-fat diet during gestation, lactation, or postweaning on physiological and behavioral indexes in borderline hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Anaya; Alvers, Kristin M; Crump, Erica M; Rowland, Neil E

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity is becoming more prevalent. We used borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) to investigate whether a high-fat diet at different stages of development has adverse programming consequences on metabolic parameters and blood pressure. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 wk before mating with spontaneously hypertensive males and during the ensuing pregnancy. At birth, litters were fostered to a dam from the same diet group as during gestation or to the alternate diet condition. Female offspring were weaned on either control or "junk food" diets until about 6 mo of age. Rats fed the high-fat junk food diet were hyperphagic relative to their chow-fed controls. The junk food-fed rats were significantly heavier and had greater fat pad mass than those rats maintained on chow alone. Importantly, those rats suckled by high-fat dams had heavier fat pads than those suckled by control diet dams. Fasting serum leptin and insulin levels differed as a function of the gestational, lactational, and postweaning diet histories. Rats gestated in, or suckled by high-fat dams, or maintained on the junk food diet were hyperleptinemic compared with their respective controls. Indirect blood pressure did not differ as a function of postweaning diet, but rats gestated in the high-fat dams had lower mean arterial blood pressures than those gestated in the control diet dams. The postweaning dietary history affected food-motivated behavior; junk food-fed rats earned less food pellets on fixed (FR) and progressive (PR) ratio cost schedules than chow-fed controls. In conclusion, the effects of maternal high-fat diet during gestation or lactation were mostly small and transient. The postweaning effects of junk food diet were evident on the majority of the parameters measured, including body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin and insulin levels, and operant performance.

  12. The organ specificity in pathological damage of chronic intermittent hypoxia: an experimental study on rat with high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Tian, Jian-li; Feng, Shu-zhi; Sun, Ning; Chen, Bao-yuan; Zhang, Yun

    2013-09-01

    It is known today that sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and its characteristic chronic intermittent hypoxia can cause damages to multiple organs, including the cardiovascular system, urinary system, and liver. It is still unclear, however, whether the damage caused by sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome and the severity of the damage are organ-specific. This research observed the pathological effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia on rat's thoracic aorta, myocardium, liver, and kidney, under the condition of lipid metabolism disturbance, through establishing the rat model of chronic intermittent hypoxia with high-fat diet by imitating the features of human sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. In this model, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group fed by regular diet, a high-fat group fed by high-fat diet, and a high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group fed by high-fat diet and treated with intermittent hypoxia 7 h a day. At the end of the ninth week, the pathological changes of rat's organs, including the thoracic aorta, myocardium, liver, and kidney are observed (under both optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy). As the result of the experiment shows, while there was no abnormal effect observed on any organs of the control group, slight pathological changes were found in the organs of the high-fat group. For the high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group, however, remarkably severer damages were found on all the organs. It also showed that the severity of the damage varies by organ in the high-fat plus intermittent hypoxia group, with the thoracic aorta being the worst, followed by the liver and myocardium, and the kidney being the slightest. Chronic intermittent hypoxia can lead to multiple-organ damage to rat with high-fat diet. Different organs appear to have different sensitivity to chronic intermittent hypoxia.

  13. Exercise and a High Fat Diet Synergistically Increase the Pantothenic Acid Requirement in Rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kei; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that both exercise and dietary composition increase the utilization of, and thus the requirement for, certain water-soluble vitamins. However, there have been no studies evaluating the combined impacts of exercise and dietary composition on vitamin utilization. In this experiment, rats were fed a pantothenic acid (PaA)-restricted (0.004 g PaA-Ca/kg diet) diet containing 5% (ordinary amount of dietary fat) or 20% fat (high fat), and were forced to swim until exhaustion every other day for 22 d. PaA status was assessed by urinary excretion, which reflects body stores of water-soluble vitamins. The urinary excretion of PaA in rats fed a 5% fat diet was not affected by swimming (5% fat + non-swimming vs. 5% fat + swim; p>0.05). Excretion of PaA was decreased by the high-fat diet (5% fat + non-swim vs. 20% fat + non-swim; p<0.05) and synergistically decreased by exercise (20% fat + non-swim vs. 20% fat + swim; p<0.05). There was a significant interaction between exercise and a high-fat diet. Plasma PaA concentrations showed changes similar to those seen for urinary excretion. The experiment was then repeated using rats fed a PaA-sufficient (0.016 g PaA-Ca/kg diet) diet, and PaA excretion was again synergistically decreased by the combination of exercise and a high-fat diet (p<0.05). These results suggest that the combination of exercise and a high-fat diet synergistically increases the requirement for PaA.

  14. Differential expression of apolipoprotein D in male reproductive system of rats by high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lim, W; Bae, H; Song, G

    2016-11-01

    Apolipoprotein D, a 29-kDa secreted glycoprotein that belongs to the lipocalin superfamily, is widely expressed in various tissues and associated with lipid metabolism as a component of high-density lipoproteins. Although Apolipoprotein D binds to small hydrophobic ligands including cholesterol, little is known about effects of high-fat diet with cholesterol on expression of Apolipoprotein D in the male reproductive tract. Therefore, we investigated Apod expression in penises, prostate glands, and testes from rats fed a high-fat diet including a high amount of cholesterol. Our previous research indicated that a high-fat diet induces dyslipidemia leading to histological changes and dysfunction of male reproduction in rats. Consistent with these results, Apod mRNA expression was significantly (p < 0.001) decreased in penises and prostate glands (p < 0.01) and testes (p < 0.01) from rats fed a high-fat diet as compared with normal diet. In addition, Apod mRNA and protein were detected predominantly in urethral epithelium and penile follicle from rats. Moreover, changes in expression of specific microRNAs (miR-229b-3p, miR-423-3p, and miR-490-3p) regulating Apod in the penises and prostate glands were negatively associated with Apod expression. Collectively, results of this study suggest that Apod is a novel regulatory gene in the male reproductive system, especially in penises of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, and that expression of Apod is regulated at the posttranscriptional level by target microRNAs.

  15. High-fat diet changes the temporal profile of GLP-1 receptor-mediated hypophagia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Joram D.; Begg, Denovan P.; Barrera, Jason G.; Li, Bailing; Matter, Emily K.; D'Alessio, David A.; Woods, Stephen C.; Seeley, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    Overconsumption of a high-fat diet promotes weight gain that can result in obesity and associated comorbidities, including Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Consumption of a high-fat diet also alters gut-brain communication. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an important gastrointestinal signal that modulates both short- and long-term energy balance and is integral in maintenance of glucose homeostasis. In the current study, we investigated whether high-fat diets (40% or 81% kcal from fat) modulated the ability of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1r) agonists exendin-4 (Ex4) and liraglutide to reduce food intake and body weight. We observed that rats maintained on high-fat diets had a delayed acute anorexic response to peripheral administration of Ex4 or liraglutide compared with low-fat diet-fed rats (17% kcal from fat). However, once suppression of food intake in response to Ex4 or liraglutide started, the effect persisted for a longer time in the high-fat diet-fed rats compared with low-fat diet-fed rats. In contrast, centrally administered Ex4 suppressed food intake similarly between high-fat diet-fed and low-fat diet-fed rats. Chronic consumption of a high-fat diet did not change the pharmacokinetics of Ex4 but increased intestinal Glp1r expression and decreased hindbrain Glp1r expression. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that dietary composition alters the temporal profile of the anorectic response to exogenous GLP-1r agonists. PMID:23616105

  16. High-fat diet changes the temporal profile of GLP-1 receptor-mediated hypophagia in rats.

    PubMed

    Mul, Joram D; Begg, Denovan P; Barrera, Jason G; Li, Bailing; Matter, Emily K; D'Alessio, David A; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J; Sandoval, Darleen A

    2013-07-01

    Overconsumption of a high-fat diet promotes weight gain that can result in obesity and associated comorbidities, including Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Consumption of a high-fat diet also alters gut-brain communication. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an important gastrointestinal signal that modulates both short- and long-term energy balance and is integral in maintenance of glucose homeostasis. In the current study, we investigated whether high-fat diets (40% or 81% kcal from fat) modulated the ability of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1r) agonists exendin-4 (Ex4) and liraglutide to reduce food intake and body weight. We observed that rats maintained on high-fat diets had a delayed acute anorexic response to peripheral administration of Ex4 or liraglutide compared with low-fat diet-fed rats (17% kcal from fat). However, once suppression of food intake in response to Ex4 or liraglutide started, the effect persisted for a longer time in the high-fat diet-fed rats compared with low-fat diet-fed rats. In contrast, centrally administered Ex4 suppressed food intake similarly between high-fat diet-fed and low-fat diet-fed rats. Chronic consumption of a high-fat diet did not change the pharmacokinetics of Ex4 but increased intestinal Glp1r expression and decreased hindbrain Glp1r expression. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that dietary composition alters the temporal profile of the anorectic response to exogenous GLP-1r agonists.

  17. Coacervate whey protein improves inflammatory milieu in mice fed with high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional foods with bioactive properties may help in treat obesity, as they can lead to a decreased risks of inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chitosan coacervate whey protein on the proinflammatory processes in mice fed with high-fat diet. Methods Mice were divided into two groups receiving either a normolipidic or high-fat diet; the animals in each of the two diet groups were given a diet supplement of either coacervate (gavage, 36 mg protein/kg of body weight) or tap water for four weeks [groups: normolipidic diet plus water (C); normolipidic diet and coacervate (CC); high-fat diet and water (H); and high-fat diet and coacervate (HC)]. Results The high-fat diet promoted inflammation, possibly by decreased adiponectin/sum of adipose tissues ratio and increased phosphorylation of NF-κB p50. In HC we observed a positive correlation between IL-10 and TNF-α in mesenteric adipose tissue, retroperitoneal adipose tissue and liver tissue. We also observed a positive correlation between lipopolisaccharide with IL-10 in the liver tissue. Conclusions High-fat diet treatment promoted metabolic alterations and inflammation, and chitosan coacervate whey protein modulated inflammatory milieu. PMID:24673809

  18. Germinated brown rice ameliorates obesity in high-fat diet induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, See Meng; Goh, Yong Meng; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Loh, Su Peng

    2016-05-23

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a novel functional food that is high in fiber and bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. This study aims to evaluate anti-obesity effects of GBR in obese rats fed high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity. The rats were then administrated with GBR where the source of dietary carbohydrate of HFD was replaced by either 25 % GBR, 50 % GBR or 100 % GBR for another 8 weeks. Changes in anthropometry, dietary status, biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver and adipose tissue were measured. Rats fed with HFD were showed elevation in body weight gain and in white adipose tissue mass compared with rats consumed commercial diet. The GBR administration in 50 % GBR and 100 % GBR were significantly decreased body weight gains and food intakes as well as improved lipid profiles in obese rats. In addition, the administration of GBR  had reduced adiposity by showing declination in white adipose tissue mass, adipocytes size and leptin level concomitantly with a higher ratio of fat excretion into feces. Micro- and macrovesicular steatosis were evidently attenuated in obese rats fed GBR. These findings demonstrated that GBR exhibited anti-obesity effects through suppression of body weight gain and food intake, improvement of lipid profiles and reduction of leptin level and white adipose tissue mass in obese rats fed HFD.

  19. High fat diet disrupts endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Wires, Emily S; Trychta, Kathleen A; Bäck, Susanne; Sulima, Agnieszka; Rice, Kenner C; Harvey, Brandon K

    2017-07-17

    Disruption to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis has been implicated in obesity, however, the ability to longitudinally monitor ER calcium fluctuations has been challenging with prior methodologies. We recently described the development of a Gaussia luciferase (GLuc)-based reporter protein responsive to ER calcium depletion (GLuc-SERCaMP) and investigated the effect of a high fat diet on ER calcium homeostasis. A GLuc-based reporter cell line was treated with palmitate, a free fatty acid. Rats intrahepatically injected with GLuc-SERCaMP reporter were fed a cafeteria diet or high fat diet. The liver and plasma were examined for established markers of steatosis and compared to plasma levels of SERCaMP activity. Palmitate induced GLuc-SERCaMP release in vitro, indicating ER calcium depletion. Consumption of a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets correlated with alterations to hepatic ER calcium homeostasis in rats, shown by increased GLuc-SERCaMP release. Access to ad lib high fat pellets also led to a corresponding decrease in microsomal calcium ATPase activity and an increase in markers of hepatic steatosis. In addition to GLuc-SERCaMP, we have also identified endogenous proteins (endogenous SERCaMPs) with a similar response to ER calcium depletion. We demonstrated the release of an endogenous SERCaMP, thought to be a liver esterase, during access to a high fat diet. Attenuation of both GLuc-SERCaMP and endogenous SERCaMP was observed during dantrolene administration. Here we describe the use of a reporter for in vitro and in vivo models of high fat diet. Our results support the theory that dietary fat intake correlates with a decrease in ER calcium levels in the liver and suggest a high fat diet alters the ER proteome. Lay Summary: ER calcium dysregulation was observed in rats fed a cafeteria diet or high fat pellets, with fluctuations in sensor release correlating with fat intake. Attenuation of sensor release, as well as food intake was observed during

  20. Dietary trimethylamine N-oxide exacerbates impaired glucose tolerance in mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Liu, Xiaofang; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Xue, Yong; Wang, Yuming

    2014-10-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is an oxidation product of trimethylamine (TMA) and is present in many aquatic foods. Here, we investigated the effects of TMAO on glucose tolerance in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the control, high fat (HF), and TMAO groups. The HF group was fed a diet containing 25% fat, and the TMAO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO for 4 weeks. After 3 weeks of feeding, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Dietary TMAO increased fasting insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and exacerbated the impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. These effects were associated with the expression of genes related to the insulin signal pathway, glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis and glucose transport in liver. mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine MCP-1 increased significantly and of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 greatly decreased in adipose tissue. Our results suggest that dietary TMAO exacerbates impaired glucose tolerance, obstructs the hepatic insulin signaling pathway, and causes adipose tissue inflammation in mice fed a high fat diet.

  1. Subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondrial responses to short-term high-fat feeding in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Coppola, Paola; Mazzoli, Arianna; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the alterations in mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle that were elicited by short-term high-fat feeding in sedentary rats. Two groups of rats were pair-fed for 1 wk and received a low-fat or high-fat diet. Body composition, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis were measured. Mitochondrial mass, oxidative capacity, and energetic efficiency as well as parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense were evaluated in subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria from the skeletal muscle. Body energy, lipid content, and metabolic efficiency were significantly higher and energy expenditure was significantly decreased among rats that were fed a high-fat diet, as compared with controls. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic efficiency, oxidative capacity for lipid substrates, and antioxidant defense were significantly increased in rats that were fed a high-fat diet as compared with controls. Acute isocaloric high-fat feeding is able to induce increased phosphorylation efficiency in skeletal muscle subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria. This modification implies a reduced oxidation of energy substrates that may contribute to the early onset of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Soy protein isolate inhibits hepatic tumor promotion in mice fed a high-fat liquid diet.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Kelly E; Pulliam, Casey F; Pedersen, Kim B; Hennings, Leah; Ronis, Martin Jj

    2017-03-01

    Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases are risk factors for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. On the other hand, ingestion of soy-containing diets may oppose the development of certain cancers. We previously reported that replacing casein with a soy protein isolate reduced tumor promotion in the livers of mice with alcoholic liver disease after feeding a high fat ethanol liquid diet following initiation with diethylnitrosamine. Feeding soy protein isolate inhibited processes that may contribute to tumor promotion including inflammation, sphingolipid signaling, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We have extended these studies to characterize liver tumor promotion in a model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease produced by chronic feeding of high-fat liquid diets in the absence of ethanol. Mice treated with diethylnitrosamine on postnatal day 14 were fed a high-fat liquid diet made with casein or SPI as the sole protein source for 16 weeks in adulthood. Relative to mice fed normal chow, a high fat/casein diet led to increased tumor promotion, hepatocyte proliferation, steatosis, and inflammation. Replacing casein with soy protein isolate counteracted these effects. The high fat diets also resulted in a general increase in transcripts for Wnt/β-catenin pathway components, which may be an important mechanism, whereby hepatic tumorigenesis is promoted. However, soy protein isolate did not block Wnt signaling in this nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model. We conclude that replacing casein with soy protein isolate blocks development of steatosis, inflammation, and tumor promotion in diethylnitrosamine-treated mice fed high fat diets. Impact statement The impact of dietary components on cancer is a topic of great interest for both the general public and the scientific community. Liver cancer is currently the second leading form of cancer deaths worldwide. Our study has addressed the effect of the protein

  3. Effects of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside lignan-enriched flaxseed powder on body weight, visceral fat, lipid profile, adipokines, and blood pressure in rats fed a high-fructose and high-fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential effects of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) lignan-enriched flaxseed powder LEFP) on body weight, visceral fat, lipid profile, adipokines, and blood pressure were investigated using Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into three groups (n=8) that were fed either a norm...

  4. Adipokine production in mice fed high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study compared high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats with various levels of linoleic acid (18:2n6, LA) and a-linolenic acid (18:3n3, ALA) on adipokine production in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week old mice were fed AIN93G diet (15% of energy from corn oil, control) or ...

  5. Argan oil reduces, in rats, the high fat diet-induced metabolic effects of obesity.

    PubMed

    Sour, S; Belarbi, M; Sari, N; Benammar, C H; Baghdad, C H; Visioli, F

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a multi-factorial disorder which is of worldwide concern. In addition to calorie control, some specific dietary components might help resolving some of the complication of obesity, by providing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. We investigated the effect of argan oil supplementation on plasma lipid profile and oxidant-antioxidant status of rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity compared with rats fed a normal diet (ND). We used an animal model of high fat diet-induced obesity to study the metabolic effects of argan oil and we measured several markers lipid and redox statuses. Consumption of a high-fat diet led to an increase in serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and triacylglycerols (TAG) concentrations; however, argan oil blunted the increases of TC, LDL-C and TG, glucose, and insulin. Plasma total antioxidant capacity, erythrocyte catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were lower, whereas plasma hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, and susceptibility of LDL to copper-induced oxidation were higher in obese rats compared with normal rats. Administration of argan oil ameliorated all these indices of redox status. Proper diet and lifestyle should be foremost implemented to reduce the lipoprotein metabolism and oxidant/antioxidant status alterations brought about by obesity. In addition, argan oil reduces the metabolic effects of obesity and its use might be promoted within the context of a balanced diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Telmisartan improves insulin resistance and modulates adipose tissue macrophage polarization in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Fujisaka, Shiho; Usui, Isao; Kanatani, Yukiko; Ikutani, Masashi; Takasaki, Ichiro; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Bukhari, Agussalim; Yamazaki, Yu; Suzuki, Hikari; Senda, Satoko; Aminuddin, Aminuddin; Nagai, Yoshinori; Takatsu, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Masashi; Tobe, Kazuyuki

    2011-05-01

    Diet-induced obesity is reported to induce a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophages from an antiinflammatory M2 state to a proinflammatory M1 state. Telmisartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist, reportedly has more beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity than other angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. In this study, we studied the effects of telmisartan on the adipose tissue macrophage phenotype in high-fat-fed mice. Telmisartan was administered for 5 wk to high-fat-fed C57BL/6 mice. Insulin sensitivity, macrophage infiltration, and the gene expressions of M1 and M2 markers in visceral adipose tissues were then examined. An insulin- or a glucose-tolerance test showed that telmisartan treatment improved insulin resistance, decreasing the body weight gain, visceral fat weight, and adipocyte size without affecting the amount of energy intake. Telmisartan reduced the mRNA expression of CD11c and TNF-α, M1 macrophage markers, and significantly increased the expressions of M2 markers, such as CD163, CD209, and macrophage galactose N-acetyl-galactosamine specific lectin (Mgl2), in a quantitative RT-PCR analysis. A flow cytometry analysis showed that telmisartan decreased the number of M1 macrophages in visceral adipose tissues. In conclusion, telmisartan improves insulin sensitivity and modulates adipose tissue macrophage polarization to an antiinflammatory M2 state in high-fat-fed mice.

  7. Preventive effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia) against insulin resistance and diabetes are associated with the inhibition of NF-κB and JNK pathways in high-fat-fed OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Soo Jin; Choi, Jung Mook; Park, Se Eun; Rhee, Eun Jung; Lee, Won Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Park, Cheol-Young

    2015-03-01

    Bitter melon (BM; Momordica charantia) has been used as a treatment method for various diseases including cancer and diabetes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether BM has preventive effects against insulin resistance and diabetes and to identify the underlying mechanism by which BM ameliorates insulin resistance in obese and diabetic rats. The rats were separated into three groups as follows: (a) high-fat (HF) diet control, (b) HF diet and 1% BM and (c) HF diet and 3% BM. After 6 weeks of assigned treatments, body weight and food intake were not altered by BM administration. Bitter melon treatment significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly down-regulated in liver, muscle and epididymal fats from BM-treated rats. The activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in the liver and muscle was decreased by BM compared with HF controls. The 3% BM supplementation significantly increased the levels of phospho-insulin receptor substrate-1 (Tyr612) and phospho-Akt (Ser473). It also significantly decreased the levels of phospho-NF-κB (p65) (Ser536) and phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) (Thr183/Tyr185) in liver, muscle and epididymal fats. The findings of this study indicate that BM exerted preventive effects against insulin resistance and diabetes through the modulation of NF-κB and JNK pathways. Therefore, BM may be useful in the prevention of insulin resistance and diabetes.

  8. CCK(1) receptor is essential for normal meal patterning in mice fed high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Michael J; Paulino, Gabriel; Raybould, Helen E

    2007-12-05

    Cholecystokinin (CCK), released by lipid in the intestine, initiates satiety by acting at cholecystokinin type 1 receptors (CCK(1)Rs) located on vagal afferent nerve terminals located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we determined the role of the CCK(1)R in the short term effects of a high fat diet on daily food intake and meal patterns using mice in which the CCK(1)R gene is deleted. CCK(1)R(-/-) and CCK(1)R(+/+) mice were fed isocaloric high fat (HF) or low fat (LF) diets ad libitum for 18 h each day and meal size, meal frequency, intermeal interval, and meal duration were determined. Daily food intake was unaltered by diet in the CCK(1)R(-/-) compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice. However, meal size was larger in the CCK(1)R(-/-) mice compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice when fed a HF diet, with a concomitant decrease in meal frequency. Meal duration was increased in mice fed HF diet regardless of phenotype. In addition, CCK(1)R(-/-) mice fed a HF diet had a 75% decrease in the time to 1st meal compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice following a 6 h fast. These data suggest that lack of the CCK(1)R results in diminished satiation, causing altered meal patterns including larger, less frequent meals when fed a high fat diet. These results suggest that the CCK(1)R is involved in regulating caloric intake on a meal to meal basis, but that other factors are responsible for regulation of daily food intake.

  9. The effects of two Lactobacillus plantarum strains on rat lipid metabolism receiving a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Salaj, Rastislav; Stofilová, Jana; Soltesová, Alena; Hertelyová, Zdenka; Hijová, Emília; Bertková, Izabela; Strojný, Ladislav; Kružliak, Peter; Bomba, Alojz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the different probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96, on lipid metabolism and body weight in rats fed a high fat diet. Compared with the high fat diet group, the results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 reduced serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 decreased triglycerides and VLDL, while there was no change in the serum HDL level and liver lipids. Both probiotic strains lowered total bile acids in serum. Our strains have no significant change in body weight, gain weight, and body fat. These findings indicate that the effect of lactobacilli on lipid metabolism may differ among strains and that the Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 can be used to improve lipid profile and can contribute to a healthier bowel microbial balance.

  10. The Effects of Two Lactobacillus plantarum Strains on Rat Lipid Metabolism Receiving a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Salaj, Rastislav; Štofilová, Jana; Šoltesová, Alena; Hertelyová, Zdenka; Hijová, Emília; Bertková, Izabela; Strojný, Ladislav; Kružliak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of the different probiotic strains, Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96, on lipid metabolism and body weight in rats fed a high fat diet. Compared with the high fat diet group, the results showed that Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 reduced serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 decreased triglycerides and VLDL, while there was no change in the serum HDL level and liver lipids. Both probiotic strains lowered total bile acids in serum. Our strains have no significant change in body weight, gain weight, and body fat. These findings indicate that the effect of lactobacilli on lipid metabolism may differ among strains and that the Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and Lactobacillus plantarum Biocenol LP96 can be used to improve lipid profile and can contribute to a healthier bowel microbial balance. PMID:24470789

  11. Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater drinking water in high-fat/cholesterol fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Lin; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Chiu, Chih-Hsien; Yang, Kuo-Tai; Wang, Yu; Fu, Shih-Guei; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2011-08-01

    Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater (DSW) drinking water was assessed using high-fat/cholesterol-fed hamsters in this study. All hamsters were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet (12% fat/0.2% cholesterol), and drinking solutions were normal distiled water (NDW, hardness: 2.48ppm), DSW300 (hardness: 324.5ppm), DSW900 (hardness: 858.5ppm), and DSW1500 (hardness: 1569.0ppm), respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, body weight, heart rates, and blood pressures of hamsters were not influenced by DSW drinking waters. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), atherogenic index, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased (p<0.05) in the DSW-drinking-water groups, as compared to those in the NDW group. Additionally, increased (p<0.05) serum Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and faecal TC, TAG, and bile acid outputs were measured in the DSW-drinking-water groups. Hepatic low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor) and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene expressions were upregulated (p<0.05) by DSW drinking waters. These results demonstrate that DSW drinking water benefits the attenuation of high-fat/cholesterol-diet-induced cardiovascular disorders in hamsters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal exercise modifies body composition and energy substrates handling in high-fat/high-sucrose diet fed male offspring.

    PubMed

    Quiclet, Charline; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Berthon, Phanélie; Sanchez, Hervé; Vial, Guillaume; Siti, Farida; Fontaine, Eric; Batandier, Cécile; Couturier, Karine

    2017-10-03

    Maternal exercise during gestation has been reported to modify offspring metabolism and health. Whether these effects are exacerbated when offspring is under high-fat diet remains rather unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of maternal exercise before and during gestation on the offspring fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF), by assessing its body composition, pancreatic function and the energy substrates handling by two major glucose-utilizing tissues: liver and muscle. Fifteen week-old nulliparous female Wistar rats exercised 4 weeks before as well as during gestation at a constant submaximal intensity (TR) or remained sedentary (CT). At weaning, pups from each group were fed either a standard diet (TRCD or CTCD) or a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (TRHF or CTHF) for 10 weeks. Offspring from TR dams gained less weight compared to those from CT dams. Selected fat depots were larger with HF diet compared to CD but significantly smaller in TRHF compared to CTHF. Surprisingly, insulin secretion index was higher in islets from HF offspring compared to CD. TR offspring showed a higher muscle insulin sensitivity estimated by the pPKB/PKB ratio compared with CT offspring (+48%, P < 0.05). With CD, permeabilized isolated muscle fibres from TR rats displayed a lower apparent affinity constant (Km ) for pyruvate and palmitoyl Co-A as substrates compared to the CT group (-46% and -58% respectively, P < 0.05). These results suggest that maternal exercise has positive effects on young adult offspring body composition and on muscle carbohydrate and lipid metabolism depending on the nutritional status. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Proinsulin-producing, hyperglycemia-induced adipose tissue macrophages underlie insulin resistance in high fat-fed diabetic mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adipose tissue macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of obese type 2 diabetes. High-fat diet-induced obesity has been shown to lead to adipose tissue macrophages accumulation in rodents;however, the impact of hyperglycemia on adipose tissue macrophages dynamics in high-fat diet-fed ...

  14. Effect of high-fat diet on stress responsiveness in borderline hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Mitra, A; Crump, E M; Alvers, K M; Robertson, K L; Rowland, N E

    2011-01-01

    Stress in combination with genetic susceptibility is a factor in the development of hypertension. We used borderline hypertensive rats to investigate whether exposure to high-fat and/or junk-food diet at different stages of ontogeny has programing consequences on stress responses. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 weeks prior to mating with spontaneously hypertensive males, and during gestation. At birth, litters were fostered either to a dam in the same or an alternative diet condition as during gestation. After weaning, male offspring were fed either a control-chow diet or an intermittent junk food fatty diet. Between postnatal days 57-61, half of the rats in each dietary group received daily social defeat sessions using a resident-intruder protocol, and the other half were unstressed controls. Blood pressure was measured indirectly both before and after each defeat session. On the final day, rats were killed for physiological measures. Socially defeated rats showed large increases in serum corticosterone concentration and adrenal hypertrophy, indicating the effectiveness of this non-adapting stressor. Serum corticosterone level was also higher in rats fed with the junk-food diet post-weaning compared with those fed with chow only, but there were no significant effects of gestational or lactational dietary history.

  15. Effect of a high fat diet on rat adipocyte lipolysis: responses to epinephrine, forskolin, methylisobutylxanthine, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, insulin and nicotinic acid.

    PubMed

    Tepperman, H M; Dewitt, J; Tepperman, J

    1986-10-01

    An earlier report from this laboratory showed that feeding rats a high fat diet decreased epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis in their adipose tissue. Experiments were designed to explore further the effects of such diets on adipocyte response to epinephrine and to several other lipolytic and antilipolytic agents. Rats were fed diets with 67% of energy consisting of glucose or lard for 5 to 7 d. Adipocytes were prepared from epididymal fat pads and lipolysis measured by the release of glycerol into the medium during 1-h incubations. The cells from the rats fed the high fat diet showed lower lipolytic responses to stimulation by epinephrine, forskolin and dibutyryl cyclic AMP than those from rats fed the high glucose diet. The lard diet effect on the lipolytic response to isobutylmethylxanthine varied among experiments, but it also decreased it in some of them. However, the high fat diet did not induce decreased sensitivity or responsiveness to the antilipolytic effect of insulin, although previous reports have demonstrated resistance to other actions of insulin in rats fed a high fat diet. The antilipolytic effect of nicotinic acid was also similar in cells from rats fed a high fat diet to that found for cells from rats fed the high glucose diet.

  16. Antihyperlipidemic activity of adenosine triphosphate in rabbits fed a high-fat diet and hyperlipidemic patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianshan; Liang, Libin; Tong, Tong; Qin, Yuguo; Xu, Yanping; Tong, Xinglong

    2016-10-01

    Context Recently, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was occasionally found to decrease the triglyceride (TG) levels in several hyperlipidemic patients in our clinical practice. Objective The study investigates the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of ATP in a high-fat fed rabbit model and hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and methods Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into three groups of eight animals each as follows: normal diet, high-fat diet and high-fat diet + ATP group. ATP supplementation (40 mg/day) was started at the 20th day and lasted for 10 days. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), TG, LDL-C, HDL-C were measured on the 20th day and 30th day. Heart, liver and aorta were subjected histopathological examination. Twenty outpatients diagnosed primary hyperlipidemia took ATP at a dose of 60 mg twice a day for 1 week. Results Feeding rabbits with a high-fat diet resulted in a significant elevation of lipid parameters including TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C compared to the normal diet group (p < 0.01). ATP treatment significantly decreased serum TG level (p < 0.01), whilst other parameters remained statistically unaltered. Meanwhile, ATP significantly reduced the thickness of fat layer in cardiac epicardium (p < 0.05) and pathological gradation of ballooning degeneration in hepatocytes (p < 0.05). After taking ATP for 1 week, hyperlipidemia patients exhibited a significant decrease of TG (p < 0.01), but other lipid parameters had no significant change. Discussion and conclusion The study indicates that ATP selectively decreases serum TG levels in high-fat diet rabbits and hyperlipidemic patients. Therefore, ATP supplementation may provide an effective approach to control TG level.

  17. Dietary krill oil supplementation reduces hepatic steatosis, glycemia, and hypercholesterolemia in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Tandy, Sally; Chung, Rosanna W S; Wat, Elaine; Kamili, Alvin; Berge, Kjetil; Griinari, Mikko; Cohn, Jeffrey S

    2009-10-14

    Krill oil (KO) is rich in n-3 fatty acids that are present in phospholipids rather than in triglycerides. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary KO on cardiometabolic risk factors in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice (n = 6-10 per group) were fed for 8 weeks either: (1) a nonpurified chow diet (N); (2) a high-fat semipurified diet containing 21 wt % buttermilk + 0.15 wt % cholesterol (HF); (3) HF supplemented with 1.25 wt % KO (HFKO1.25); (4) HF with 2.5 wt % KO (HFKO2.5); or (5) HF with 5 wt % KO (HFKO5.0). Dietary KO supplementation caused a significant reduction in liver wt (i.e., hepatomegaly) and total liver fat (i.e., hepatic steatosis), due to a dose-dependent reduction in hepatic triglyceride (mean +/- SEM: 35 +/- 6, 47 +/- 4, and 51 +/- 5% for HFKO1.25, -2.5, and -5.0 vs HF, respectively, P < 0.001) and cholesterol (55 +/- 5, 66 +/- 3, and 71 +/- 3%, P < 0.001). Serum cholesterol levels were reduced by 20 +/- 3, 29 +/- 4, and 29 +/- 5%, and blood glucose was reduced by 36 +/- 5, 34 +/- 6, and 42 +/- 6%, respectively. Serum adiponectin was increased in KO-fed animals (HF vs HFKO5.0: 5.0 +/- 0.2 vs 7.5 +/- 0.6 microg/mL, P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that dietary KO is effective in improving metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-fat diet, suggesting that KO may be of therapeutic value in patients with the metabolic syndrome and/or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  18. [Effect of equipotent doses of bupivacaine and ropivacaine in high-fat diet fed neonatal rodent model].

    PubMed

    Lian, Ying-Dong; Chen, Zong-Xiang; Zhu, Kang-Ru; Sun, Shu-Yin; Zhu, Li-Ping

    The increase in the prevalence of obesity presents a significant health and economic problem. Obesity has been reported to be a major contributor to variety of chronic diseases. Childhood obesity has been rising over the past decades leading to various complications in health. Millions of infants and children undergo surgery every year on various health grounds. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of spinal anesthesia of equipotent doses of ropivacaine and bupivacaine on over-weight neonatal rats. The Sprague-Dawley rat pups were overfed on high fat diet to induce obesity. Behavioral assessments for sensory and motor blockade was made by evaluating thermal and mechanical withdrawal latencies at various time intervals following intrathecal injections of bupivacaine (5.0mg·kg(-1)) and ropivacaine (7.5mg·kg(-1)) in P14 rats. Spinal tissue was analyzed for apoptosis by determination of activated caspase-3 using monoclonal anti-activated caspase-3 and Fluoro-Jade C staining. Long-term spinal function in P30 rat pups was evaluated. Exposure to intrathecal anesthesia in P14 increased thermal and mechanical latencies and was observed to increase apoptosis as presented by increase in activated caspase-3 and Fluro-Jade C positive cells. Significant alterations in spinal function were observed in high fat diet-fed pups as against non-obese control pups that were on standard diet. Bupivacaine produced more pronounced apoptotic effects on P14 pups; ropivacaine however produced long lasting effects as evidenced in motor function tests at P30. Ropivacaine and bupivacaine induced spinal toxicity that was more pronounced in over-fed rat pups as against normal controls. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of equipotent doses of bupivacaine and ropivacaine in high-fat diet fed neonatal rodent model.

    PubMed

    Lian, Ying-Dong; Chen, Zong-Xiang; Zhu, Kang-Ru; Sun, Shu-Yin; Zhu, Li-Ping

    The increase in the prevalence of obesity presents a significant health and economic problem. Obesity has been reported to be a major contributor to variety of chronic diseases. Childhood obesity has been rising over the past decades leading to various complications in health. Millions of infants and children undergo surgery every year on various health grounds. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of spinal anesthesia of equipotent doses of ropivacaine and bupivacaine on over-weight neonatal rats. The Sprague-Dawley rat pups were overfed on high fat diet to induce obesity. Behavioral assessments for sensory and motor blockade was made by evaluating thermal and mechanical withdrawal latencies at various time intervals following intrathecal injections of bupivacaine (5.0mg·kg(-1)) and ropivacaine (7.5mg·kg(-1)) in P14 rats. Spinal tissue was analyzed for apoptosis by determination of activated caspase-3 using monoclonal anti-activated caspase-3 and Fluoro-Jade C staining. Long-term spinal function in P30 rat pups was evaluated. Exposure to intrathecal anesthesia in P14 increased thermal and mechanical latencies and was observed to increase apoptosis as presented by increase in activated caspase-3 and Fluro-Jade C positive cells. Significant alterations in spinal function were observed in high fat diet-fed pups as against non-obese control pups that were on standard diet. Bupivacaine produced more pronounced apoptotic effects on P14 pups; ropivacaine however produced long lasting effects as evidenced in motor function tests at P30. Ropivacaine and bupivacaine induced spinal toxicity that was more pronounced in over-fed rat pups as against normal controls. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Gallic acid attenuates high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced insulin resistance via partial agonism of PPARγ in experimental type 2 diabetic rats and enhances glucose uptake through translocation and activation of GLUT4 in PI3K/p-Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Gopalsamy Rajiv; Jothi, Gnanasekaran; Antony, Poovathumkal James; Balakrishna, Kedike; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Stalin, Antony; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the therapeutic efficacy of gallic acid from Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. (Fabaceae) beans was examined against high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced experimental type 2 diabetic rats. Molecular-dockings were done to determine the putative binding modes of gallic acid into the active sites of key insulin-signaling markers. Gallic acid (20 mg/kg) given to high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced rats lowered body weight gain, fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin in diabetic rats. It further restored the alterations of biochemical parameters to near normal levels in diabetic treated rats along with cytoprotective action on pancreatic β-cell. Histology of liver and adipose tissues supported the biochemical findings. Gallic acid significantly enhanced the level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression in the adipose tissue of treated rat compared to untreated diabetic rat; it also slightly activated PPARγ expressions in the liver and skeletal muscle. Consequently, it improved insulin-dependent glucose transport in adipose tissue through translocation and activation of glucose transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt) dependent pathway. Gallic acid docked with PPARγ; it exhibited promising interactions with the GLUT4, glucose transporter protein 1 (GLUT1), PI3K and p-Akt. These findings provided evidence to show that gallic acid could improve adipose tissue insulin sensitivity, modulate adipogenesis, increase adipose glucose uptake and protect β-cells from impairment. Hence it can be used in the management of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Exercise Increases and Browns Muscle Lipid in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Tiffany L.; Galior, Kornelia; McGrath, Cody; Wu, Xin; Uzer, Gunes; Uzer, Guniz Bas; Sen, Buer; Xie, Zhihui; Tyson, David; Rubin, Janet; Styner, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Muscle lipid increases with high-fat feeding and diabetes. In trained athletes, increased muscle lipid is not associated with insulin resistance, a phenomenon known as the athlete’s paradox. To understand if exercise altered the phenotype of muscle lipid, female C57BL/6 mice fed CTL or high-fat diet (HFD for 6 or 18 weeks) were further divided into sedentary or exercising groups (CTL-E or HFD-E) with voluntary access to running wheels for the last 6 weeks of experiments, running 6 h/night. Diet did not affect running time or distance. HFD mice weighed more than CTL after 18 weeks (p < 0.01). Quadriceps muscle TG was increased in running animals and in sedentary mice fed HFD for 18 weeks (p < 0.05). In exercised animals, markers of fat, Plin1, aP2, FSP27, and Fasn, were increased significantly in HFD groups. Ucp1 and Pgc1a, markers for brown fat, increased with exercise in the setting of high fat feeding. Fndc5, which encodes irisin, and CytC were sensitive to exercise regardless of diet. Plin5 was increased with HFD and unaffected by exercise; the respiratory exchange ratio was 15% lower in the 18-week HFD group compared with CTL (p < 0.001) and 10% lower in 18 weeks HFD-E compared with CTL-E (p < 0.001). Increased Ucp1 and Pgc1a in exercised muscle of running mice suggests that a beige/brown fat phenotype develops, which differs from the fat phenotype that induces insulin resistance in high fat feeding. This suggests that increased muscle lipid may develop a “brown” phenotype in the setting of endurance exercise training, a shift that is further promoted by HFD. PMID:27445983

  2. Inhibitory effects of cardiotonic pills on platelet function in dogs fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Jun; Li, Hui-Min; Meng, Yong-Xia

    2006-06-01

    Insulin resistance and the consequent metabolic disorders are associated with a state of platelet hyperactivity. Oxidative stress is responsible for the persistent platelet activation. We sought to study the inhibitory effect of cardiotonic pills, an oral herbal component, on platelet function in a dog model with insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding. We fed 18 dogs with a high-fat diet and six dogs with normal chow as control for 6 months. Then, six dogs were fed with a high-fat diet and received additional aspirin (250 mg/day), and another six dogs received additional cardiotonic pills (1,000 mg/day) for 4 months. Time-course changes in metabolic parameters and platelet function were detected. After high-fat feeding for 6 months, 18 dogs developed a series of metabolic disorders including obesity, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. In addition, a platelet hyperactivity state, characterized by increased agonist (arachidonic acid, ADP and collagen) induced platelet aggregation, platelet expression of adhesion molecules (P-selectin and GP IIb/IIIa), and platelet intracellular calcium concentration, was indicated. Cardiotonic pills showed a significant antioxidative activity by presenting an increase in plasma superoxide dismutase and decrease in erythrocyte glutathione, as well as a lipid-lowering effect (decrease in both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride). Either aspirin or cardiotonic pills could significantly reverse the platelet hypersensitivity and hyperfunction. Compared with aspirin, cardiotonic pills showed a more exaggerated inhibitory effect on platelet function (a significantly decreased collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation, and expression of adhesion molecules). In conclusion, cardiotonic pills inhibited platelet hyperfunction in dogs with insulin resistance. This inhibitory effect may mainly be explained by antioxidative activity and metabolic control.

  3. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of fermented red ginseng against high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeong-Hwan; Lee, Eun-Jin; Cheon, Jeong-Mu; Nam, Ki-Jun; Oh, Tae-Ho; Kim, Kil-Soo

    2016-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of fermented red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer; FRG) on high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups of seven: normal control, NC; high-fat diet control, HFC; high-fat diet-0.5% FRG, HF-FRGL; and high-fat diet-1% FRG, HF-FRGH. All rats were fed a high-fat diet for eight weeks, except those in the NC group, while rats in the FRG treatment groups received drinking water containing 0.5% or 1% FRG. After eight weeks of treatment, levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in the serum were measured. The concentration of the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA), and activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in rat liver were evaluated. Histological analysis of the liver was performed using hematoxylin and eosin. The high-fat diet markedly increased serum levels of ALT, AST, TC, TG, and LDL-C and hepatic MDA levels, while administration of FRG to the hyperlipidemic rats resulted in a significant decline in the levels of these parameters. Furthermore, the decline in the levels of serum HDL-C and hepatic SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px induced by the high-fat diet was attenuated by FRG treatment. In addition, histopathological analysis of liver sections suggested that FRG treatment also provided protection against liver damage. These results suggested that FRG improved lipid profiles, inhibited lipid peroxidation, and played a protective role against liver injury in hyperlipidemic rats.

  4. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of fermented red ginseng against high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myeong-Hwan; Lee, Eun-Jin; Cheon, Jeong-Mu; Nam, Ki-Jun; Oh, Tae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of fermented red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer; FRG) on high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups of seven: normal control, NC; high-fat diet control, HFC; high-fat diet–0.5% FRG, HF-FRGL; and high-fat diet–1% FRG, HF-FRGH. All rats were fed a high-fat diet for eight weeks, except those in the NC group, while rats in the FRG treatment groups received drinking water containing 0.5% or 1% FRG. After eight weeks of treatment, levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in the serum were measured. The concentration of the oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA), and activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in rat liver were evaluated. Histological analysis of the liver was performed using hematoxylin and eosin. The high-fat diet markedly increased serum levels of ALT, AST, TC, TG, and LDL-C and hepatic MDA levels, while administration of FRG to the hyperlipidemic rats resulted in a significant decline in the levels of these parameters. Furthermore, the decline in the levels of serum HDL-C and hepatic SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px induced by the high-fat diet was attenuated by FRG treatment. In addition, histopathological analysis of liver sections suggested that FRG treatment also provided protection against liver damage. These results suggested that FRG improved lipid profiles, inhibited lipid peroxidation, and played a protective role against liver injury in hyperlipidemic rats. PMID:28053615

  5. Beneficial effects of Plantago albicans on high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Samout, Noura; Ettaya, Amani; Bouzenna, Hafsia; Ncib, Sana; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a one of the main global public health problems associated with chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and cancer. As a solution to obesity, we suggest Plantago albicans, which is a medicinal plant with several biological effects. This study assesses the possible anti-obesity protective properties of Plantago albicans in high fat diet-fed rats. 28 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups; a group which received normal diet (C), the second group was fed HDF diet (HDF), the third group was given normal diet supplemented with Plantago albicans (P.AL), and the fourth group received HDF supplemented with Plantago albicans (HDF+P.AL) (30mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks. Our results showed an increase in body weight of HDF rats by ∼16% as compared to the control group with an increase in the levels of total cholesterol (TC) as well as LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) in serum. Also, the concentration of TBARS increased in the liver and heart of HDF-fed rats as compared to the control group. The oral gavage of Plantago albicans extract to obese rats induced a reduction in their body weight, lipid accumulation in liver and heart tissue, compared to the high-fat diet control rats. The obtained results proved that the antioxidant potency of Plantago albicans extracts was correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The antioxidant capacity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH test (as EC50=250±2.12μg/mL) and FRAP tests (as EC50=27.77±0.14μg/mL). These results confirm the phytochemical and antioxidant impact of Plantago albicans extracts. Plantago albicans content was determined using validated HPLC methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased Aβ pathology in aged Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Nizari, Shereen; Carare, Roxana O; Hawkes, Cheryl A

    2016-02-25

    Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes, obesity and premature death in adult offspring. Mid-life diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia are risk factors for the development of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). A key pathogenic feature of AD is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high fat diet feeding during early life on Aβ pathology in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Female mice were fed a standard (C) or high fat (HF) diet before mating and during gestation and lactation. At weaning, male offspring were fed a C diet. Significantly higher levels of guanidine-soluble Aβ and plaque loads were observed in the hippocampi of 11-month old Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a HF diet. Changes in the extracellular matrix led to increased retention of Aβ within the parenchyma. These data support a role for maternal and gestational health on the health of the aged brain and pathologies associated with AD and may provide a novel target for both the prevention and treatment of AD.

  7. Increased Aβ pathology in aged Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Nizari, Shereen; Carare, Roxana O.; Hawkes, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes, obesity and premature death in adult offspring. Mid-life diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia are risk factors for the development of sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A key pathogenic feature of AD is the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of high fat diet feeding during early life on Aβ pathology in the Tg2576 mouse model of AD. Female mice were fed a standard (C) or high fat (HF) diet before mating and during gestation and lactation. At weaning, male offspring were fed a C diet. Significantly higher levels of guanidine-soluble Aβ and plaque loads were observed in the hippocampi of 11-month old Tg2576 mice born to mothers fed a HF diet. Changes in the extracellular matrix led to increased retention of Aβ within the parenchyma. These data support a role for maternal and gestational health on the health of the aged brain and pathologies associated with AD and may provide a novel target for both the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:26911528

  8. Changes in environmental temperature influence leptin responsiveness in low- and high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ruth B S; Mitchell, Tiffany D; Kelso, Emily W; Flatt, W P

    2007-07-01

    Loss of body fat in leptin-treated animals has been attributed to reduced energy intake, increased thermogenesis, and preferential fatty acid oxidation. Leptin does not decrease food intake or body fat in leptin-resistant high-fat (HF)-fed mice, possibly due to a failure of leptin to activate hypothalamic receptors. We measured energy expenditure of male C57BL/6 mice adapted to low-fat (LF) or HF diet and infused them for 13 days with PBS or 10 mug leptin/day from an intraperitoneal mini-osmotic pump to test whether leptin resistance prevented leptin-induced increases in energy expenditure and fatty acid oxidation. There was no effect of low-dose leptin infusions on either of these measures in LF-fed or HF-fed mice, even though LF-fed mice lost body fat. Experiment 2 tested leptin responsiveness in LF-fed and HF-fed mice housed at different temperatures (18 degrees C, 23 degrees C, 27 degrees C), assuming that the cold would increase and the hot environment would inhibit food intake and thermogenesis, which could potentially interfere with leptin action. LF-fed mice housed at 23 degrees C were the only mice that lost body fat during leptin infusion, suggesting that an ability to modify energy expenditure is essential to the maintenance of leptin responsiveness. HF-fed mice in cold or warm environments did not respond to leptin. HF-fed mice in the hot environment were fatter than other HF-fed mice, and, surprisingly, leptin caused a further increase in body fat, demonstrating that the mice were not totally leptin resistant and that partial leptin resistance in a hot environment favors positive energy balance and fat deposition.

  9. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  10. Niacin Increases Adiponectin and Decreases Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wanders, Desiree; Graff, Emily C.; White, B. Douglas; Judd, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity. Materials and Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD) and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2−/− (niacin receptor−/−) mice. Results Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2−/− mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription) in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion). However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice. Conclusions Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner. PMID:23967184

  11. Expression of Selenoprotein Genes Is Affected by Obesity of Pigs Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua; Li, Ke; Tang, Jia-Yong; Zhou, Ji-Chang; Wang, Kang-Ning; Xia, Xin-Jie; Lei, Xin Gen

    2015-07-01

    Relations of the 25 mammalian selenoprotein genes with obesity and the associated inflammation remain unclear. This study explored impacts of high-fat diet-induced obesity on inflammation and expressions of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 10 tissues of pigs. Plasma and 10 tissues were collected from pigs (n = 10) fed a corn-soy-based control diet or that diet containing 3-7% lard from weanling to finishing (180 d). Plasma concentrations (n = 8) of cytokines and thyroid hormones and tissue mRNA abundance (n = 4) of 25 selenoprotein genes and 16 obesity-related genes were compared between the pigs fed the control and high-fat diets. Stepwise regression was applied to analyze correlations among all these measures, including the previously reported body physical and plasma biochemical variables. The high-fat diet elevated (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, leptin, and leptin receptor by 29-42% and affected (P < 0.05-0.1) tissue mRNA levels of the selenoprotein and obesity-related genes in 3 patterns. Specifically, the high-fat diet up-regulated 12 selenoprotein genes in 6 tissues, down-regulated 13 selenoprotein genes in 7 tissues, and exerted no effect on 5 genes in any tissue. Body weights and plasma triglyceride concentrations of pigs showed the strongest regressions to tissue mRNA abundances of selenoprotein and obesity-related genes. Among the selenoprotein genes, selenoprotein V and I were ranked as the strongest independent variables for the regression of phenotypic and plasma measures. Meanwhile, agouti signaling protein, adiponectin, and resistin genes represented the strongest independent variables of the obesity-related genes for the regression of tissue selenoprotein mRNA. The high-fat diet induced inflammation in pigs and affected their gene expression of selenoproteins associated with thioredoxin and oxidoreductase systems, local tissue thyroid hormone activity, endoplasmic reticulum protein degradation

  12. Mice Chronically Fed High-Fat Diet Have Increased Mortality and Disturbed Immune Response in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Strandberg, Louise; Verdrengh, Margareta; Enge, Maria; Andersson, Niklas; Amu, Sylvie; Önnheim, Karin; Benrick, Anna; Brisslert, Mikael; Bylund, Johan; Bokarewa, Maria; Nilsson, Staffan; Jansson, John-Olov

    2009-01-01

    Background Sepsis is a potentially deadly disease that often is caused by gram-positive bacteria, in particular Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). As there are few effective therapies for sepsis, increased basic knowledge about factors predisposing is needed. Methodology/Principal Findings The purpose of this study was to study the effect of Western diet on mortality induced by intravenous S. aureus inoculation and the immune functions before and after bacterial inoculation. Here we show that C57Bl/6 mice on high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks, like genetically obese Ob/Ob mice on low-fat diet (LFD), have increased mortality during S. aureus-induced sepsis compared with LFD-fed C57Bl/6 controls. Bacterial load in the kidneys 5–7 days after inoculation was increased 10-fold in HFD-fed compared with LFD-fed mice. At that time, HFD-fed mice had increased serum levels and fat mRNA expression of the immune suppressing cytokines interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-10 compared with LFD-fed mice. In addition, HFD-fed mice had increased serum levels of the pro-inflammatory IL-1β. Also, HFD-fed mice with and without infection had increased levels of macrophages in fat. The proportion and function of phagocytosing granulocytes, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by peritoneal lavage cells were decreased in HFD-fed compared with LFD-fed mice. Conclusions Our findings imply that chronic HFD disturb several innate immune functions in mice, and impairs the ability to clear S. aureus and survive sepsis. PMID:19865485

  13. High-fat diets rich in soy or fish oil distinctly alter hypothalamic insulin signaling in rats.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Gustavo D; Dornellas, Ana P S; Rosa, José C; Lira, Fábio S; Cunha, Cláudio A; Boldarine, Valter T; de Souza, Gabriel I H; Hirata, Aparecida E; Nascimento, Cláudia M O; Oyama, Lila M; Watanabe, Regina L H; Ribeiro, Eliane B

    2012-07-01

    Hypothalamic insulin inhibits food intake, preventing obesity. High-fat feeding with polyunsaturated fats may be obesogenic, but their effect on insulin action has not been elucidated. The present study evaluated insulin hypophagia and hypothalamic signaling after central injection in rats fed either control diet (15% energy from fat) or high-fat diets (50% energy from fat) enriched with either soy or fish oil. Soy rats had increased fat pad weight and serum leptin with normal body weight, serum lipid profile and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Fish rats had decreased body and fat pad weight, low leptin and corticosterone levels, and improved serum lipid profile. A 20-mU dose of intracerebroventricular (ICV) insulin inhibited food intake in control and fish groups, but failed to do so in the soy group. Hypothalamic protein levels of IR, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, mTOR, p70S6K and AMPK were similar among groups. ICV insulin stimulated IR tyrosine phosphorylation in control (68%), soy (36%) and fish (34%) groups. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the pp185 band was significantly stimulated in control (78%) and soy (53%) rats, but not in fish rats. IRS-1 phosphorylation was stimulated only in control rats (94%). Akt serine phosphorylation was significantly stimulated only in control (90%) and fish (78%) rats. The results showed that, rather than the energy density, the fat type was a relevant aspect of high-fat feeding, since blockade of hypothalamic insulin signal transmission and insulin hypophagia was promoted only by the high-fat soy diet, while they were preserved in the rats fed with the high-fat fish diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Swimming improves high-fat induced insulin resistance by regulating lipid and energy metabolism and the insulin pathway in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, An; Wang, Chao; Ren, Luping; Zhao, Jiajun

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the preventive and therapeutic effects of swimming on insulin resistance in high-fat-fed rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups and fed for 8 weeks as follows: i) the control (Con) group fed a control diet; ii) the high-fat (HF) group fed a high-fat diet; iii) the treatment (ST) group fed a high-fat diet and trained with swimming from the 4th week; and iv) the prevention (SP) group fed a high-fat diet and trained with swimming from the 1st week of the experiment. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was used to evaluate the insulin sensitivity of the rats. The ultrastructure of the liver cells was observed by electron microscopy. Hepatic lipid accumulation was observed by Oil Red O staining. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis were performed to detect the expression of proteins related to lipid metabolism, energy metabolism and insulin signaling transduction. After 8 weeks of feeding, compared with the Con group, the glucose infusion rate (GIR) was significantly decreased; a significant lipid accumulation was observed in the liver, while the ultrastructure of the liver cells was damaged in the HF group. Proteins related to lipid metabolism in the liver and skeletal muscle, including FAT and FABP were upregulated, while CPT1 and PPAR levels were downregulated in the HF group. The levels of the energy-metabolism-related molecules, AMPKα2, PGC1α, PGC1β and MFN2 were downregulated in skeletal muscle in the HF group. The expression levels of insulin signaling transduction molecules, INSR, IRS1, PI3K/p85, AKT2 and GLUT4, as well as the phosphorylation levels of INSR, IRS1, PI3K/p85 and AKT2 were lower in skeletal muscles in the HF rats. Compared with HF group, the GIR levels were significantly increased in the ST and SP groups. Lipid accumulation and damage to the ultrastructure of the liver cells were improved in both groups. The expression of molecules related to lipid metabolism in the liver and skeletal

  15. Fasting and sampling time affect liver gene expression of high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, C Y

    2010-05-01

    Several physiological and biological variables are known to affect peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α-dependent signaling pathway and plasma biochemical profiles. However, less is known about the effect of these variables on high-fat diet-fed mice. In a 5-week study, C57BL/6 mice were divided into control (C) and high-fat diet-fed (H) groups, whereby before dissection, each group was subdivided into non-fasted (nC and nH) and a 15-h fasted mice (fC and fH) killed in the early light cycle, and a 15-h fasted mice (eC and eH) killed in the late phase of the light cycle. Liver and blood from the vena cava were collected. Non-fasted nC and nH mice have a marginal difference in their body weight gain, whereas significant differences were found for fasted mice. In nH mice, PPAR-α, acyl-CoA oxidase and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein expressions were significantly elevated, in contrast to fatty acid synthase (Fasn), stearoyl CoA-desaturase (SCD)-1, and elongase (ELOVL)-6 expressions. Fasn was profoundly induced in fH mice, while decreased sterol regulatory-binding protein-1 and SCD-1 were found only in eH mice. Different from the gene expression profiles, plasma total cholesterol level of the eH mice was higher than controls, whereas nH mice have increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids. Only glucose level of the fH mice was higher than that observed for controls. Results showed that fasting and sampling time have significantly affected liver gene expression and plasma biochemical indices of the high-fat diet-treated mice. An overlook in these aspects can cause serious discrepancies in the experimental data and their interpretations.

  16. [Cyanidin-3-glucoside attenuates body weight gain, serum lipid concentrations and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ren-Qiang; Wu, Xiao-You; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Jing; Ma, Lu-Yi

    2014-05-01

    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) is the main active ingredient of anthocyanidin. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of C3G on body weight gain, visceral adiposity, lipid profiles and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group (n=8) and a high fat diet group (n=22), and were fed with standard diet or high fat diet. Five weeks later, 17 high-fat diet-induced obese rats were randomly given C3G [100 mg/(kg·d)] or normal saline via intragastric administration for 5 weeks. Five weeks later, body weight, visceral adiposity and food intake were measured. Blood samples were collected for detecting fasting glucose, serum insulin, lipid profiles and adiponectin. Insulin resistance index, atherosclerosis index and average feed efficiency ratio were calculated. C3G supplementation markedly decreased body weight, visceral adiposity, average feed efficiency ratio, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index and atherosclerosis index in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. C3G supplementation normalized serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Cyanidin-3-glucoside can reduce body weight gain, and attenuate obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed rats via up-regulating serum adiponectin level.

  17. Effect of high fat, fiber and caloric restriction on rat mammary tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D.; Van Sant, J.; Butler, B.

    1986-03-05

    Female rats given 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) were placed on diets of control fat (CF-4.5%) or high fat (HF-20%) with either control fiber (6%) or high fiber (FB-12%). A 60% reduction in the CF diet was used to study the effects of caloric restriction on tumorigenesis. Results showed that HF diets had a shorter latency period than CF rats. The respective average number of tumors per rat and tumor volume were 7.3 +/- 1.3 and 23694 mm/sup 2/ for rats on a HF diet and 5.1+/-1.1 and 9144 mm/sup 3/ for CF rats. Addition of high fiber to the diets reduced the tumor incidence from 95% to 70% in the CF group but did not reduce the incidence in HF group. Although tumor number was reduced to 3.7+/-1.5 in CF+FB rats, the tumor volumes were not reduced (8950 mm/sup 3/). Rats fed HF+FB did not have fewer tumors (7.0+/-1.1), but did show a 53% reduction in tumor load. The estrogen dependent enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was not affected by dietary levels of fat, which suggests that the promotional effects of fat may not be through estrogen stimulation. None of the caloric restricted rats had tumors 12 weeks post-DMBA. These restricted rats all had significantly elevated levels of serum corticosterone.

  18. Dietary Cocoa Reduces Metabolic Endotoxemia and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High-Fat Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan; Park, Jong Yung; Harvatine, Kevin; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    In diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue (AT) is in a chronic state of inflammation predisposing the development of metabolic syndrome. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a polyphenol-rich food with putative anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we examined the impact and underlying mechanisms of action of cocoa on AT inflammation in high fat-fed mice. In the present study, male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat diet (HF), a HF diet with 8% (w/w) unsweetened cocoa powder (HFC), or a low-fat diet (LF) for 18 wk. Cocoa supplementation decreased AT mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 by 40 – 60% compared to HF group, and this was accompanied by decreased nuclear protein levels of nuclear factor-κB. Cocoa treatment reduced the levels of arachidonic acid in the AT by 33% compared to HF controls. Moreover, cocoa treatment also reduced protein levels of the eicosanoid-generating enzymes, adipose-specific phospholipase A2 and cycloxygenase-2 by 53% and 55%, respectively, compared to HF-fed mice. Finally, cocoa treatment ameliorated metabolic endotoxemia (40% reduction in plasma endotoxin) and improved gut barrier function (as measured by increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-2). In conclusion, the present study has shown for the first time that long-term cocoa supplementation can reduce AT inflammation in part by modulating eicosanoid metabolism and metabolic endotoxemia. PMID:24561154

  19. Dietary cocoa reduces metabolic endotoxemia and adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat fed mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yeyi; Yu, Shan; Park, Jong Yung; Harvatine, Kevin; Lambert, Joshua D

    2014-04-01

    In diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue (AT) is in a chronic state of inflammation predisposing the development of metabolic syndrome. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a polyphenol-rich food with putative anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we examined the impact and underlying mechanisms of action of cocoa on AT inflammation in high fat-fed mice. In the present study, male C57BL/6 J mice were fed a high fat diet (HF), a HF diet with 8% (w/w) unsweetened cocoa powder (HFC), or a low-fat diet (LF) for 18 weeks. Cocoa supplementation decreased AT mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 by 40-60% compared to HF group, and this was accompanied by decreased nuclear protein levels of nuclear factor-κB. Cocoa treatment reduced the levels of arachidonic acid in the AT by 33% compared to HF controls. Moreover, cocoa treatment also reduced protein levels of the eicosanoid-generating enzymes, adipose-specific phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase-2 by 53% and 55%, respectively, compared to HF-fed mice. Finally, cocoa treatment ameliorated metabolic endotoxemia (40% reduction in plasma endotoxin) and improved gut barrier function (as measured by increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide-2). In conclusion, the present study has shown for the first time that long-term cocoa supplementation can reduce AT inflammation in part by modulating eicosanoid metabolism and metabolic endotoxemia.

  20. Impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis in hexabromocyclododecane-exposed mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Rie; Koike, Eiko; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yamamoto, Megumi; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-03-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is an additive flame retardant used in the textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacturing. Because of its lipophilicity and persistency, HBCD accumulates in adipose tissue and thus has the potential of causing metabolic disorders through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the association between HBCD and obesity remains unclear. We investigated whether exposure to HBCD contributes to initiation and progression of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction in mice fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD (62.2 kcal% fat) or a ND and treated orally with HBCD (0, 1.75, 35, or 700 μg/kg body weight) weekly from 6 to 20 weeks of age. We examined body weight, liver weight, blood biochemistry, histopathological changes, and gene expression profiles in the liver and adipose tissue. In HFD-fed mice, body and liver weight were markedly increased in mice treated with the high (700 μg/kg) and medium (35 μg/kg) doses of HBCD compared with vehicle. This effect was more prominent in the high-dose group. These increases were paralleled by increases in random blood glucose and insulin levels and enhancement of microvesicular steatosis and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. HBCD-treated HFD-fed mice also had increased mRNA levels of Pparg (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) in the liver and decreased mRNA levels of Glut4 (glucose transporter 4) in adipose tissue compared with vehicle-treated HFD-fed mice. Our findings suggest that HBCD may contribute to enhancement of diet-induced body weight gain and metabolic dysfunction through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis, resulting in accelerated progression of obesity. Yanagisawa R, Koike E, Win-Shwe TT, Yamamoto M, Takano H. 2014. Impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis in hexabromocyclododecane-exposed mice fed a high-fat diet. Environ Health Perspect 122:277-283; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307421.

  1. Impaired Lipid and Glucose Homeostasis in Hexabromocyclododecane-Exposed Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Koike, Eiko; Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Yamamoto, Megumi; Takano, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is an additive flame retardant used in the textile industry and in polystyrene foam manufacturing. Because of its lipophilicity and persistency, HBCD accumulates in adipose tissue and thus has the potential of causing metabolic disorders through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the association between HBCD and obesity remains unclear. Objectives: We investigated whether exposure to HBCD contributes to initiation and progression of obesity and related metabolic dysfunction in mice fed a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD (62.2 kcal% fat) or a ND and treated orally with HBCD (0, 1.75, 35, or 700 μg/kg body weight) weekly from 6 to 20 weeks of age. We examined body weight, liver weight, blood biochemistry, histopathological changes, and gene expression profiles in the liver and adipose tissue. Results: In HFD-fed mice, body and liver weight were markedly increased in mice treated with the high (700 μg/kg) and medium (35 μg/kg) doses of HBCD compared with vehicle. This effect was more prominent in the high-dose group. These increases were paralleled by increases in random blood glucose and insulin levels and enhancement of microvesicular steatosis and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. HBCD-treated HFD-fed mice also had increased mRNA levels of Pparg (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ) in the liver and decreased mRNA levels of Glut4 (glucose transporter 4) in adipose tissue compared with vehicle-treated HFD-fed mice. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that HBCD may contribute to enhancement of diet-induced body weight gain and metabolic dysfunction through disruption of lipid and glucose homeostasis, resulting in accelerated progression of obesity. Citation: Yanagisawa R, Koike E, Win-Shwe TT, Yamamoto M, Takano H. 2014. Impaired lipid and glucose homeostasis in hexabromocyclododecane-exposed mice fed a high-fat diet. Environ Health

  2. Metabolic and Testicular Effects of the Long-Term Administration of Different High-Fat Diets in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Silva, Pamella; Furriel, Angelica; Costa, Waldemar S.; Sampaio, Francisco J. B.; Gregório, Bianca M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effects of different high-fat diets on body mass, carbohydrate metabolism and testicular morphology in rats seven months old. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow), HF-S (high fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids), HF-P (high fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids), HF-SP (high fat diet rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids). The rats were fed for 16 weeks. Blood samples, testes and genital fat deposits were collected for analysis. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test, considering p<0.05 as statistically significant. Results: Different high-fat diets promoted an increase in the body mass (p<0.0001). The genital fat deposits were higher in the high-fat groups (HF-S, HF-P, HF-SP) (p=0.0004). Regarding serum parameters, the animals in the HF-S and HF-SP groups presented hyperglycemia (p=0.0060), hyperinsulinemia (p=0.0030) and hypercholesterolemia (p=0.0021). All of the hyperlipidemic groups showed hyperleptinemia (p=0.0019). Concerning the testis, the HF-S group showed a reduction on the seminiferous epithelium height (p=0.0003) and cell proliferation (p=0.0450). Seminiferous tubule diameter was lower in the HF-SP than in the SC group (p=0.0010). Conclusions: The high fat diet administration, independent of the lipid quality, promotes overweight. Diet rich in saturated fatty acids (lard) alters the carbohydrate metabolism and the testicular morphology with reductions of seminiferous epithelium height, seminiferous tubule diameter and cell proliferation which could be related to a disturbance of spermatogenesis. PMID:26200553

  3. Effects of adrenalectomy on energy balance in obese (ob/ob) mice fed high carbohydrate or high fat diets.

    PubMed

    Grogan, C K; Kim, H K; Romsos, D R

    1987-06-01

    We reported previously that adrenalectomy reduced the energy density of body weight gain (an indicator of proportional gain in lean and fat tissue) and the efficiency of energy retention in obese (ob/ob) mice to values approximating those in lean mice, but that adrenalectomy had much less influence on these parameters in ob/ob mice fed a purified high fat diet. To determine if fat was the exclusive factor in the purified high fat diet that negated effects of adrenalectomy, ob/ob mice were fed a purified high carbohydrate (glucose) diet identical in composition to the high fat diet, except for the fat/carbohydrate ratio. Responses of adrenalectomized ob/ob mice fed the purified high glucose diet from 4 to 7 wk of age mimicked those of mice fed the purified high fat diet, not those of mice fed the high carbohydrate nonpurified diet. Plasma glucose responses to a glucose load in adrenalectomized ob/ob mice paralleled the diet-dependent changes in energy balance. These results demonstrate that diet composition interacts with adrenal secretions to influence energy and glucose metabolism in ob/ob mice; consumption of either a purified high glucose or high fat diet negates the beneficial effects of adrenalectomy on energy and glucose metabolism observed when adrenalectomized ob/ob mice consume a nonpurified diet.

  4. Salicornia herbacea prevents weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation in obese ICR mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Pichiah, P B Tirupathi; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Foods that are rich in fat and or sodium chloride promote obesity and associated diseases, whereas intake of dietary fiber averts obesity development. Salicornia herbacea (SH) is a rich source of dietary fiber and high in sodium chloride; therefore, we investigated whether replacing common salt with SH in a high-fat diet could prevent obesity development. Mice were divided into five groups: group ND was fed a normal diet, group HD was fed a high-fat diet, group HD-NaCl was fed a high fat diet with sodium chloride 10 g kg(-1) , group HD-CL was fed a high-fat diet with cellulose 30 g kg(-1) and group HD-SH was fed a high-fat diet with SH powder 50 g kg(-1) . The amount of sodium chloride and cellulose added in the respective diet was equivalent to their amount in SH. Data from our study showed that, SH supplementation significantly decreased body weight gain, liver weight, hepatic triglyceride, serum leptin and insulin, along with the mRNA level of key lipid anabolic genes such as SREBP-1c, PPARγ and FAS compared to the HD group. The results of this study demonstrated that SH is a potential natural anti-obesity agent that can be used in place of sodium chloride. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Effects of fermented pepper powder on body fat accumulation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Kim, Soo-Ki; Kim, Jong Moon; Lee, Si-Kyung; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of non-pungent pepper powder fermented by Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 on the fat accumulation in mice. Four weeks of feeding a high-fat diet with fermented pepper powder resulted in a significantly decreased hepatic total-lipid level and increased serum HDL-cholesterol, and tended to lower the fat weight. These results suggest that fermented pepper powder inhibited fat accumulation and improved lipid metabolism in mice fed the high-fat diet.

  6. Decreased beige adipocyte number and mitochondrial respiration coincide with increased histone methyl transferase (G9a) and reduced FGF21 gene expression in Sprague Dawley rats fed prenatal low protein and postnatal high fat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have shown that protein malnutrition during fetal growth followed by postnatal high-fat diets results in a rapid increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue mass in the offspring contributing to development of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown that the absence of a key transcr...

  7. Bromocriptine increased operant responding for high fat food but decreased chow intake in both obesity-prone and resistant rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Cho, J. Kim, R.; Michaelides, M.; Primeaux, S.; Bray, G.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-10-27

    Dopamine (DA) and DAD{sub 2} receptors (D2R) have been implicated in obesity and are thought to be involved in the rewarding properties of food. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are susceptible to diet induced obesity (DIO) while S5B/P (S5B) rats are resistant when given a high-fat diet. Here we hypothesized that the two strains would differ in high-fat food self-administration (FSA) and that the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differently affect their behavior. Ad-libitum fed OM and S5B/P rats were tested in a FSA operant chamber and were trained to lever press for high-fat food pellets under a fixed-ratio (FR1) and a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. After sixteen days of PR sessions, rats were treated with three different doses of BC (1, 10 and 20 mg/kg). No significant differences were found between the two strains in the number of active lever presses. BC treatment (10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) increased the number of active lever presses (10 mg/kg having the strongest effect) whereas it decreased rat chow intake in the home cage with equivalent effects in both strains. These effects were not observed on the day of BC administration but on the day following its administration. Our results suggest that these two strains have similar motivation for procuring high fat food using this paradigm. BC increased operant responding for high-fat pellets but decreased chow intake in both strains, suggesting that D2R stimulation may have enhanced the motivational drive to procure the fatty food while correspondingly decreasing the intake of regular food. These findings suggest that susceptibility to dietary obesity (prior to the onset of obesity) may not affect operant motivation for a palatable high fat food and that differential susceptibility to obesity may be related to differential sensitivity to D2R stimulation.

  8. Triticale Bran Alkylresorcinols Enhance Resistance to Oxidative Stress in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Agil, Rania; Patterson, Zachary R.; Mackay, Harry; Abizaid, Alfonso; Hosseinian, Farah

    2016-01-01

    Triticale (× Triticosecale Whitm.) is a cereal grain with high levels of alkyresorcinols (AR) concentrated in the bran. These phenolic lipids have been shown to reduce or inhibit triglyceride accumulation and protect against oxidation; however, their biological effects have yet to be evaluated in vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of ARs extracted from triticale bran (TB) added to a high–fat diet on the development of obesity and oxidative stress. CF-1 mice were fed a standard low-fat (LF) diet, a 60% high-fat diet (HF) and HF diets containing either 0.5% AR extract (HF-AR), 10% TB (HF-TB), or 0.5% vitamin E (HF-VE). Energy intake, weight gain, glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, and body composition were determined. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and glutathione (GSH) assays were performed on mice liver and heart tissues. The findings suggest that ARs may serve as a preventative measure against risks of oxidative damage associated with high-fat diets and obesity through their application as functional foods and neutraceuticals. Future studies aim to identify the in vivo mechanisms of action of ARs and the individual homologs involved in their favorable biological effects. PMID:28231100

  9. Anti-obesity effect of alkaline reduced water in high fat-fed obese mice.

    PubMed

    Ignacio, Rosa Mistica Coles; Kang, Tae-Young; Kim, Cheol-Su; Kim, Soo-Ki; Yang, Young-Chul; Sohn, Joon-Hyung; Lee, Kyu-Jae

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not alkaline reduced water (ARW) has a positive effect on obesity is unclear. This study aims to prove the positive effect of ARW in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO) in C57BL/6 mice model. Toward this, obesity was induced by feeding the C57BL/6 male mice with high-fat diet (w/w 45% fat) for 12 weeks. Thereafter, the animals were administered with either ARW or tap water. Next, the degree of adiposity and DIO-associated parameters were assessed: clinico-pathological parameters, biochemical measurements, histopathological analysis of liver, the expression of cholesterol metabolism-related genes in the liver, and serum levels of adipokine and cytokine. We found that ARW-fed mice significantly ameliorated adiposity: controlled body weight gain, reduced the accumulation of epididymal fats and decreased liver fats as compared to control mice. Accordingly, ARW coordinated the level of adiponectin and leptin. Further, mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP)7A1 was upregulated. In summary, our data shows that ARW intake inhibits the progression of HF-DIO in mice. This is the first note on anti-obesity effect of ARW, clinically implying the safer fluid remedy for obesity control.

  10. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Sesamum indicum L. in rabbits fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Najafi, Somayeh; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol), hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame seed (10%), and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame oil (5%). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P < 0.05). Supplementation with sesame seed did not cause any significant alteration in lipid profile parameters, apolipoproteins, hepatic transaminases, glucose and insulin as compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P < 0.05), whilst concentrations of TG, apoA, apoB, insulin and glucose remained unaltered compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  11. Exercise training promotes cardioprotection through oxygen-sparing action in high fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Lund, J; Hafstad, A D; Boardman, N T; Rossvoll, L; Rolim, N P; Ahmed, M S; Florholmen, G; Attramadal, H; Wisløff, U; Larsen, T S; Aasum, E

    2015-04-15

    Although exercise training has been demonstrated to have beneficial cardiovascular effects in diabetes, the effect of exercise training on hearts from obese/diabetic models is unclear. In the present study, mice were fed a high-fat diet, which led to obesity, reduced aerobic capacity, development of mild diastolic dysfunction, and impaired glucose tolerance. Following 8 wk on high-fat diet, mice were assigned to 5 weekly high-intensity interval training (HIT) sessions (10 × 4 min at 85-90% of maximum oxygen uptake) or remained sedentary for the next 10 constitutive weeks. HIT increased maximum oxygen uptake by 13%, reduced body weight by 16%, and improved systemic glucose homeostasis. Exercise training was found to normalize diastolic function, attenuate diet-induced changes in myocardial substrate utilization, and dampen cardiac reactive oxygen species content and fibrosis. These changes were accompanied by normalization of obesity-related impairment of mechanical efficiency due to a decrease in work-independent myocardial oxygen consumption. Finally, we found HIT to reduce infarct size by 47% in ex vivo hearts subjected to ischemia-reperfusion. This study therefore demonstrated for the first time that exercise training mediates cardioprotection following ischemia in diet-induced obese mice and that this was associated with oxygen-sparing effects. These findings highlight the importance of optimal myocardial energetics during ischemic stress. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sesamum indicum L. in Rabbits Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Najafi, Somayeh; Heidarian, Esfandiar

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol), hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame seed (10%), and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame oil (5%). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P < 0.05). Supplementation with sesame seed did not cause any significant alteration in lipid profile parameters, apolipoproteins, hepatic transaminases, glucose and insulin as compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P < 0.05), whilst concentrations of TG, apoA, apoB, insulin and glucose remained unaltered compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet. PMID:24082850

  13. Oxyresveratrol Supplementation to C57bl/6 Mice Fed with a High-Fat Diet Ameliorates Obesity-Associated Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui Yuan; Tse, Iris Mei Ying; Li, Edmund Tsze Shing; Wang, Mingfu

    2017-02-16

    Oxyresveratrol has been proven effective in inhibiting adipogenesis in a 3T3-L1 cell model. We investigated the preventive effect of oxyresveratrol supplementation on obesity development in high-fat diet-fed mice. Male C57bl/6 mice were randomly subjected to control (5% fat by weight, LF), high-fat (30% fat by weight, HF), and high-fat supplemented with 0.25% and 0.5% oxyresveratrol (OXY1 and OXY2, respectively) diet groups for eight weeks. Oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively alleviated obesity-associated symptoms such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice. Compared to the high-fat diet group, oxyresveratrol supplementation suppressed expression of glucose-6-phosphatase, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1, fatty acid synthase and CCAAT/Enhancer-binding proteins α, and elevated AMP-activated protein kinase (α2-catalytic subunit) level in liver, upregulated insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4 level in adipose tissue, and increased expression of insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4, AMP-activated protein kinase α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, and sirtuin 1 in muscle to regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis in these tissues. This study demonstrated that oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively ameliorated obesity-associated symptoms in high-fat diet-fed mice, presumably attributed to mediating critical regulators involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis in liver, visceral fat, and muscle.

  14. Oxyresveratrol Supplementation to C57bl/6 Mice Fed with a High-Fat Diet Ameliorates Obesity-Associated Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui Yuan; Tse, Iris Mei Ying; Li, Edmund Tsze Shing; Wang, Mingfu

    2017-01-01

    Oxyresveratrol has been proven effective in inhibiting adipogenesis in a 3T3-L1 cell model. We investigated the preventive effect of oxyresveratrol supplementation on obesity development in high-fat diet-fed mice. Male C57bl/6 mice were randomly subjected to control (5% fat by weight, LF), high-fat (30% fat by weight, HF), and high-fat supplemented with 0.25% and 0.5% oxyresveratrol (OXY1 and OXY2, respectively) diet groups for eight weeks. Oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively alleviated obesity-associated symptoms such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice. Compared to the high-fat diet group, oxyresveratrol supplementation suppressed expression of glucose-6-phosphatase, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1, fatty acid synthase and CCAAT/Enhancer-binding proteins α, and elevated AMP-activated protein kinase (α2-catalytic subunit) level in liver, upregulated insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4 level in adipose tissue, and increased expression of insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4, AMP-activated protein kinase α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, and sirtuin 1 in muscle to regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis in these tissues. This study demonstrated that oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively ameliorated obesity-associated symptoms in high-fat diet-fed mice, presumably attributed to mediating critical regulators involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis in liver, visceral fat, and muscle. PMID:28212343

  15. Changes in the small intestine of Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Alba Cristina Miranda de Barros; Neves, Renata Heisler; de Oliveira, Albanita Viana; Machado-Silva, José Roberto

    2012-05-01

    The consumption of a high-fat diet modifies both the morphology of the small intestine and experimentally tested effects of schistosomiasis mansoni. However, whether a schistosomiasis infection associated with a high-fat diet causes injury to the small intestine has never been investigated. Mice were fed either a high-fat or a standard-fat diet for 6 months and were then infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Physical characteristics of the intestinal tissue (mucosal thickness, small intestinal villi length and height, and abundance of goblet cells and enterocytes on the villous surface) and the distribution of granulomas along the intestinal segments and their developmental stage were measured at the time of sacrifice (9 or 17 weeks post-infection). The group fed a high-fat diet exhibited different granuloma stages, whereas the control group possessed only exudative granulomas. The chronically infected mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited higher granuloma and egg numbers than the acutely infected group. Exudative, exudative/exudative-productive and exudative-productive granulomas were present irrespective of diet. Computer-aided morphometric analysis confirmed that villus length, villus width, muscular height and submucosal height of the duodenal and jejunal segments were affected by diet and infection. In conclusion, a high-fat diet and infection had a significant impact on the small intestine morphology and morphometry among the animals tested.

  16. Three dissimilar high fat diets differentially regulate lipid and glucose metabolism in obesity-resistant Slc:Wistar/ST rats.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yoko; Yamada, Kazuyo; Tsushima, Hiromi; Miyazawa, Daisuke; Mori, Mayumi; Nishio, Koji; Ohkubo, Takeshi; Hibino, Hidehiko; Ohara, Naoki; Okuyama, Harumi

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiologic and ecologic studies suggest that dietary fat plays an important role in the development of obesity. Certain Wistar rat strains do not become obese when fed high-fat diets unlike others. In a preliminary study, we confirmed that Slc:Wistar/ST rats did not become obese when fed high-fat diets. The mechanisms governing the response of hepatic lipid-metabolizing enzymes to large quantities of dietary lipids consumed by obesity-resistant animals are unknown. The aim of the present study is to examine how obesity-resistant animals metabolize various types of high-fat diets and why they do not become obese. For this purpose, male Slc:Wistar/ST rats were fed a control low-fat diet (LS) or a high-fat diet containing fish oil (HF), soybean oil (HS), or lard (HL) for 4 weeks. We observed their phenotypes and determined lipid profiles in plasma and liver as well as mRNA expression levels in liver of genes related to lipid and glucose metabolism using DNA microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain analyses. The body weights of all dietary groups were similar due to isocaloric intakes, whereas the weight of white adipose tissues in the LS group was significantly lower. The HF diet lowered plasma lipid levels by accelerated lipolysis in the peroxisomes and suppressed levels of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion. The HS diet promoted hepatic lipid accumulation by suppressed lipolysis in the peroxisomes and normal levels of VLDL secretion. The lipid profiles of rats fed the LS or HL diet were similar. The HL diet accelerated lipid and glucose metabolism.

  17. [Effect of maternal high-fat diet before and during pregnancy on bone growth of neonatal offspring rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Feng; Cheng, Pan-Gui; Zhang, Zhi-Xin; Pan, Lin; Zhang, Fang; Liu, Yan-Ni; Li, Hong

    2014-11-01

    To explore the mechanism and effect of maternal high-fat diet before and during pregnancy on bone growth of neonatal offspring rats. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into high-fat diet and control groups (n=20) that were fed with 35% high-fat diet and standard chow, respectively. After 8 weeks, 8 female rats from each group were sacrificed for liver pathological examinations and the other female rats were mated with male rats and fed continuously with 35% high-fat diet and standard chow throughout gestation, respectively. The body lengths (from apex nasi to end of tail) of the offspring rats from both groups were measured within 24 hours after birth. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum insulin-like growth factor (IFG-I) levels. Liver pathological changes were observed under a light microscope. The expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and phosphorylation IRS-1 (Phospho-IRS-1) in tibia and femur samples were detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphorylation MAPK (Phospho-MAPK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphorylation PI3K (Phospho-PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT1) and phosphorylation AKT1 (Phospho-AKT1) in tibia and femur samples were detected by Western blot. The offspring rats from the high-fat diet group showed a significant shorter body length compared with those from the control group (P<0.05). The level of serum IGF-I in offspring rats from the high-fat diet group decreased by 20.1% in comparison to those from the control group, but there was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). Fatty degeneration was found in livers of both high-fat diet-fed maternal rats and their offspring rats under a light microscope. There were no significant differences in IRS-1 and Phospho-IRS-1 expression in chondrocytes of tibia and femur samples between the offspring rats of the two groups (P>0.05). The protein expression of MAPK in

  18. Oxidative Modification in the Salivary Glands of High Fat-Diet Induced Insulin Resistant Rats