Science.gov

Sample records for high-field autosolitons formation

  1. Longitudinal autosoliton motion across p-InSb in a transverse magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Kamilov, I. K.; Stepurenko, A. A.; Gummetov, A. E.; Kovalev, A. S.

    2007-03-15

    It is experimentally shown that a longitudinal autosoliton excited by an electric field in nonequilibrium electron-hole plasma in p-InSb moves towards the sample periphery under the effect of a transverse magnetic field. This sample region is characterized by a lowered temperature and by the fact that the unstable existence of the autosoliton leads to a cyclic process causing current oscillations in the sample circuit. An average velocity of the autosoliton motion amounts to 2 x 10{sup 2}-3 x 10{sup 3} cm/s in a magnetic field within the range of 5962.5-22657.5 A/m.

  2. Effect of transverse magnetic field on the behavior of longitudinal autosolitons in p-InSb

    SciTech Connect

    Kamilov, I. K.; Stepurenko, A. A. Gummetov, A. E.; Kovalev, A. S.

    2008-04-15

    The behavior of a longitudinal autosolitons created in excited nonequilibrium electron-hole plasma in compensated p-InSb in crossed magnetic and electric fields is studied experimentally. It is shown that, in magnetic fields ranging from 6.7 x 10{sup 2} to 3.2 x 10{sup 4} A/m, a longitudinal autosoliton is in a state of motion with the average velocity 2 x 10{sup 2}-3 x 10{sup 3} cm/s towards the sample periphery, where the temperature is reduced and the autosoliton is unstable, making the process cyclic and giving rise to oscillations of the current in the external circuit of the sample. In this case, the amplitude and frequency of the oscillations (2144-26855 Hz) depend on the magnetic field. With increasing electric and magnetic fields, the instability of the longitudinal autosoliton current takes on synergetic properties.

  3. Simulation of autosoliton optical pulses in high-speed fibreoptic communication systems

    SciTech Connect

    Latkin, A I

    2005-03-31

    The propagation of a pulse in a fibreoptic communication link with periodically included regenerators - nonlinear optical loop mirrors, is studied. The autosoliton propagation regime of the optical pulse is revealed. It is shown that the inclusion of a ring mirror to the communication link leads to a substantial increase in the transmission distance of the pulse at a small negative average dispersion in the link. (optical communication)

  4. Rossby autosoliton and stationary model of the Jovian Great Red SPOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipov, S. V.; Nezlin, M. V.; Snezhkin, E. N.; Trubnikov, A. S.

    1986-09-01

    A theory proposed about 10 years ago claimed that the jovian Great Red Spot (GRS) was a solitary wave vortex (Rossby soliton) kept stationary by counter-streaming zonal winds. The authors have attempted to verify this soliton theory experimentally. The jovian atmosphere is modelled by a rotating thin parabolic layer of fluid (shallow water) with a free surface in which counter-streaming (zonal) flows are excited mechanically. It is found that instability of these flows can generate a Rossby autosoliton, that is, an undamped stationary solitary vortex which is alone on the perimeter of the system. This result can be considered to support the soliton theory of the GRS.

  5. Nonlinear theory of pattern formation in ferrofluid films at high field strengths.

    PubMed

    Richardi, J; Pileni, M P

    2004-01-01

    When a magnetic field is applied to a thin layer of a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles (ferrofluid), the formation of labyrinthine and hexagonal patterns is observed. We introduce a theory to describe ferrofluid patterns at high field, where a nonlinear relationship between field and magnetization is expected. The computational difficulties due to the use of a nonlinear magnetization curve are solved by a reformulation of the magnetic energy equation. The evolution of the pattern size at intermediate and very high fields can be understood by an analysis of limiting cases of the magnetization curve. In particular, at a very high field the pattern size reaches a constant saturation value which has been recently confirmed by experiments. The field for the onset of a nonlinear behavior is shifted to higher field strength due to a demagnetization effect. This can partially explain the ability of linear approaches to reproduce experimental data even at a high field. Finally, the impact of the nonlinearity of the magnetization curve on the transition between hexagonal and labyrinthine patterns is discussed.

  6. Formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs from common envelopes.

    PubMed

    Nordhaus, Jason; Wellons, Sarah; Spiegel, David S; Metzger, Brian D; Blackman, Eric G

    2011-02-22

    The origin of highly magnetized white dwarfs has remained a mystery since their initial discovery. Recent observations indicate that the formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs is intimately related to strong binary interactions during post-main-sequence phases of stellar evolution. If a low-mass companion, such as a planet, brown dwarf, or low-mass star, is engulfed by a post-main-sequence giant, gravitational torques in the envelope of the giant lead to a reduction of the companion's orbit. Sufficiently low-mass companions in-spiral until they are shredded by the strong gravitational tides near the white dwarf core. Subsequent formation of a super-Eddington accretion disk from the disrupted companion inside a common envelope can dramatically amplify magnetic fields via a dynamo. Here, we show that these disk-generated fields are sufficiently strong to explain the observed range of magnetic field strengths for isolated, high-field magnetic white dwarfs. A higher-mass binary analogue may also contribute to the origin of magnetar fields.

  7. Formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs from common envelopes

    PubMed Central

    Nordhaus, Jason; Wellons, Sarah; Spiegel, David S.; Metzger, Brian D.; Blackman, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of highly magnetized white dwarfs has remained a mystery since their initial discovery. Recent observations indicate that the formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs is intimately related to strong binary interactions during post-main-sequence phases of stellar evolution. If a low-mass companion, such as a planet, brown dwarf, or low-mass star, is engulfed by a post-main-sequence giant, gravitational torques in the envelope of the giant lead to a reduction of the companion’s orbit. Sufficiently low-mass companions in-spiral until they are shredded by the strong gravitational tides near the white dwarf core. Subsequent formation of a super-Eddington accretion disk from the disrupted companion inside a common envelope can dramatically amplify magnetic fields via a dynamo. Here, we show that these disk-generated fields are sufficiently strong to explain the observed range of magnetic field strengths for isolated, high-field magnetic white dwarfs. A higher-mass binary analogue may also contribute to the origin of magnetar fields. PMID:21300910

  8. Impact of in Vivo High-Field-Strength and Ultra-High-Field-Strength MR Imaging on DNA Double-Strand-Break Formation in Human Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Reddig, Annika; Fatahi, Mahsa; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Ricke, Jens; Reinhold, Dirk; Speck, Oliver; Friebe, Björn

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of different magnetic field strengths (1, 1.5, 3, and 7 T) and the effect of contrast agent on DNA double-strand-break (DSB) formation in patients undergoing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods This in vivo study was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from each patient. To analyze the level of DNA DSBs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from blood samples drawn directly before, as well as 5 minutes and 30 minutes after MR imaging examination. After performing γH2AX immunofluorescence staining, DSBs were quantified with automated digital microscopy. MR group consisted of 43 patients (22 women, 21 men; mean age, 46.1 years; range, 20-77 years) and was further subdivided according to the applied field strength and administration of contrast agent. Additionally, 10 patients undergoing either unenhanced or contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) served as positive control subjects. Statistical analysis was performed with Friedman test. Results Whereas DSBs in lymphocytes increased after CT exposure (before MR imaging: 0.14 foci per cell ± 0.05; 5 minutes after: 0.26 foci per cell ± 0.07; 30 minutes after: 0.24 foci per cell ± 0.07; P ≤ .05), no alterations were observed in patients examined with MR imaging (before MR imaging: 0.13 foci per cell ± 0.02; 5 minutes after: 0.12 foci per cell ± 0.02; 30 minutes after: 0.11 foci per cell ± 0.02; P > .05). Differentiated analysis of MR imaging subgroups again revealed no significant changes in γH2AX level. Conclusion Analysis of γH2AX foci showed no evidence of DSB induction after MR examination, independent of the applied field strength and administration of gadolinium-based contrast agent.

  9. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Nation, John A.; Greenwald, Shlomo

    1989-01-01

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle.

  10. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Nation, J.A.; Greenwald, S.

    1989-05-30

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications is disclosed. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle. 10 figs.

  11. High Field Electrophoresis: Computer Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, M. J.; Kopeć, M.; Kułakowski, K.

    2003-04-01

    We describe for the first time the results, obtained by means of a new version of the cellular automaton, designed for the simulation of gel electrophoresis. A special purpose of the automaton is to reproduce the geometration effect, i.e. subsequent hookings and release of the molecules of DNA at gel fibres at high electric fields. The starting point is the reptation model [1], where the molecule is represented as a chain of N rigid units, so-called reptons, connected by flexible bonds. The features of the former, one-dimensional version [2] of the automaton are: simultaneous movements of many reptons and the conformation-dependent length of the time step. The present two-dimensional version enables also the formation of so-called hernias, i.e. fragments of the DNA molecule locally perpendicular to the molecule. The calculations are performed up to N = 350 reptons. The results are: i) more molecules are trapped at gel fibres, ii) the velocity of the moving fraction of DNA is almost two times smaller, and iii) the diffusion coefficient is about 25 times greater than in the one-dimensional version. In both cases, the velocity of the moving fraction is inversely proportional to the molecule length, and the diffusion coefficient is proportional to the molecule length. The fraction of trapped molecules decreases with N. The simulation allows for direct observation of the geometration effect.

  12. High field electrophoresis—computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, M. J.; Kułakowski, K.

    2004-11-01

    We describe for the first time the results, obtained by means of a new two-dimensional version of a cellular automaton (2DA), designed for the simulation of the gel electrophoresis at high fields. The calculations are performed up to N=442 reptons. The results are compared with those from a modified version of the one-dimensional automaton (1DA), which has been constructed previously. The modification is that the movements of different parts of a molecule of DNA are treated as statistically independent events. This approach is applied also for 2DA. Main results are: (i) for long molecules (N≫1) the velocity v tends to a constant both for 1DA and 2DA; (ii) the diffusion coefficient D for 2DA increases with N; (iii) 2DA enables the formation of so-called hernias, i.e. fragments of DNA locally perpendicular to the molecule, and (iv) a direct observation of the geometration effect. The results (i) and (ii) mimic the experimental behavior at high electric fields. We also calculate a dimensionless quantity y=D/(Lv), where L=Na is the molecule length and a is the stiffness length. The discussion of y reveals the role of the length fluctuations.

  13. High field solenoids for muon cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Eyssa, Y.; Kenny, S.; Miller, J.R.; Prestemon, S.

    1999-09-08

    The proposed cooling system for the muon collider will consist of a 200 meter long line of alternating field straight solenoids interspersed with bent solenoids. The muons are cooled in all directions using a 400 mm long section liquid hydrogen at high field. The muons are accelerated in the forward direction by about 900 mm long, 805 MHz RF cavities in a gradient field that goes from 6 T to -6 T in about 300 mm. The high field section in the channel starts out at an induction of about 2 T in the hydrogen. As the muons proceed down the cooling channel, the induction in the liquid hydrogen section increases to inductions as high as 30 T. The diameter of the liquid hydrogen section starts at 750 mm when the induction is 2 T. As the induction in the cooling section goes up, the diameter of the liquid hydrogen section decreases. When the high field induction is 30 T, the diameter of the liquid hydrogen section is about 80 mm. When the high field solenoid induction is below 8.5 T or 9T, niobium titanium coils are proposed for generating .the magnetic field. Above 8.5 T or 9 T to about 20 T, graded niobium tin and niobium titanium coils would be used at temperatures down to 1.8 K. Above 20 T, a graded bybrid magnet system is proposed, where the high field magnet section (above 20 T) is either a conventional water cooled coil section or a water cooled Bitter type coil. Two types of superconducting coils have been studied. They include; epoxy impregnated intrinsically stable coils, and cable in conduit conductor (CICC) coils with helium in the conduit.

  14. Space applications of superconductivity - High field magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fickett, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses developments in superconducting magnets and their applications in space technology. Superconducting magnets are characterized by high fields (to 15T and higher) and high current densities combined with low mass and small size. The superconducting materials and coil design are being improved and new high-strength composites are being used for magnet structural components. Such problems as maintaining low cooling temperatures (near 4 K) for long periods of time and degradation of existing high-field superconductors at low strain levels can be remedied by research and engineering. Some of the proposed space applications of superconducting magnets include: cosmic ray analysis with magnetic spectrometers, energy storage and conversion, energy generation by magnetohydrodynamic and thermonuclear fusion techniques, and propulsion. Several operational superconducting magnet systems are detailed.

  15. High-field dipoles for future accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Wipf, S.L.

    1984-09-01

    This report presents the concept for building superconducting accelerator dipoles with record high fields. Economic considerations favor the highest possible current density in the windings. Further discussion indicates that there is an optimal range of pinning strength for a superconducting material and that it is not likely for multifilamentary conductors to ever equal the potential performance of tape conductors. A dipole design with a tape-wound, inner high-field winding is suggested. Methods are detailed to avoid degradation caused by flux jumps and to overcome problems with the dipole ends. Concerns for force support structure and field precision are also addressed. An R and D program leading to a prototype 11-T dipole is outlined. Past and future importance of superconductivity to high-energy physics is evident from a short historical survey. Successful dipoles in the 10- to 20-T range will allow interesting options for upgrading present largest accelerators.

  16. Single-layer high field dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim V. Kashikhin and Alexander V. Zlobin

    2001-07-30

    Fermilab is developing high field dipole magnets for post-LHC hadron colliders. Several designs with a nominal field of 10-12 T, coil bore size of 40-50 mm based on both shell-type and block-type coil geometry are currently under consideration. This paper presents a new approach to magnet design, based on simple and robust single-layer coils optimized for the maximum field, good field quality and minimum number of turns.

  17. Strain sensors for high field pulse magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Christian; Zheng, Yan; Easton, Daniel; Farinholt, Kevin M; Park, Gyuhae

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an investigation into several strain sensing technologies that are being considered to monitor mechanical deformation within the steel reinforcement shells used in high field pulsed magnets. Such systems generally operate at cryogenic temperatures to mitigate heating issues that are inherent in the coils of nondestructive, high field pulsed magnets. The objective of this preliminary study is to characterize the performance of various strain sensing technologies at liquid nitrogen temperatures (-196 C). Four sensor types are considered in this investigation: fiber Bragg gratings (FBG), resistive foil strain gauges (RFSG), piezoelectric polymers (PVDF), and piezoceramics (PZT). Three operational conditions are considered for each sensor: bond integrity, sensitivity as a function of temperature, and thermal cycling effects. Several experiments were conducted as part of this study, investigating adhesion with various substrate materials (stainless steel, aluminum, and carbon fiber), sensitivity to static (FBG and RFSG) and dynamic (RFSG, PVDF and PZT) load conditions, and sensor diagnostics using PZT sensors. This work has been conducted in collaboration with the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), and the results of this study will be used to identify the set of sensing technologies that would be best suited for integration within high field pulsed magnets at the NHMFL facility.

  18. Antenna development for high field plasma imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, X.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.

    2010-10-15

    Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) and microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) are two microwave nonperturbing plasma visualization techniques that employ millimeter-wave imaging arrays with lens-coupled planar antennas, yielding time-resolved images of temperature (via ECEI) and electron density (via MIR) fluctuations within high temperature magnetic fusion plasmas. A series of new planar antennas have been developed that extend this technology to frequencies as high as 220 GHz for use on high field plasma devices with toroidal fields in excess of 3 T. Antenna designs are presented together with theoretical calculations, simulations, and experimental measurements.

  19. Antenna development for high field plasma imaginga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, X.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.

    2010-10-01

    Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) and microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) are two microwave nonperturbing plasma visualization techniques that employ millimeter-wave imaging arrays with lens-coupled planar antennas, yielding time-resolved images of temperature (via ECEI) and electron density (via MIR) fluctuations within high temperature magnetic fusion plasmas. A series of new planar antennas have been developed that extend this technology to frequencies as high as 220 GHz for use on high field plasma devices with toroidal fields in excess of 3 T. Antenna designs are presented together with theoretical calculations, simulations, and experimental measurements.

  20. Antenna development for high field plasma imaging.

    PubMed

    Kong, X; Domier, C W; Luhmann, N C

    2010-10-01

    Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) and microwave imaging reflectometry (MIR) are two microwave nonperturbing plasma visualization techniques that employ millimeter-wave imaging arrays with lens-coupled planar antennas, yielding time-resolved images of temperature (via ECEI) and electron density (via MIR) fluctuations within high temperature magnetic fusion plasmas. A series of new planar antennas have been developed that extend this technology to frequencies as high as 220 GHz for use on high field plasma devices with toroidal fields in excess of 3 T. Antenna designs are presented together with theoretical calculations, simulations, and experimental measurements.

  1. High-field/high-pressure ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, T.; Okubo, S.; Ohta, H.

    2017-07-01

    We present a historical review of high-pressure ESR systems with emphasis on our recent development of a high-pressure, high-field, multi-frequency ESR system. Until 2000, the X-band system was almost established using a resonator filled with dielectric materials or a combination of the anvil cell and dielectric resonators. Recent developments have shifted from that in the low-frequency region, such as X-band, to that in multi-frequency region. High-pressure, high-field, multi-frequency ESR systems are classified into two types. First are the systems that use a vector network analyzer or a quasi-optical bridge, which have high sensitivity but a limited frequency region; the second are like our system, which has a very broad frequency region covering the THz region, but lower sensitivity. We will demonstrate the usefulness of our high-pressure ESR system, in addition to its experimental limitations. We also discuss the recent progress of our system and future plans.

  2. Gun requirements to achieve high field spheromaks

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T K

    1999-03-04

    It is shown that a gun similar to that in the SSPX could demonstrate the high fields required for Pulsed Spheromak reactors merely by prolonging the pulse. Important considerations are choosing the voltage to exceed ohmic losses; designing the gun to avoid wasteful short-circuiting of current within the gun; and the injection efficiency factor, f, determined by the ''sag'' in the profile of {lambda} = {mu}{sub o}j/B. Typically f = 0.75 in experiments, giving an overall efficiency > 50 % if short-circuiting is avoided. Theoretical transport models agree qualitatively with the need for a finite gradient in h to pump in helicity by current-driven tearing modes and suggest that pressure-driven resistive modes would not compete with current-driven modes during a buildup to ohmic ignition.

  3. 24 segment high field permanent sextupole magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliev, A.; Nelyubin, V.; Koptev, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Lorentz, B.; Marik, H. J.; Mikirtytchiants, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Rathmann, F.; Paetz gen. Schieck, H.; Seyfarth, H.; Steffens, E.

    2000-09-01

    We report on the design, construction, and magnetic field measurements of a system of high field sextupole magnets made from NdFeB compounds. The magnets are utilized as a focusing system for neutral hydrogen (or deuterium) atoms in a polarized atomic beam source based on Stern-Gerlach spin separation. Each magnet consists of 24 segments of permanently magnetized material differing in remanence and coercivity to reduce demagnetization. According to quadratic extrapolation to the pole tip the magnetic flux density reaches values of up to B0=1.69 T. Three-dimensional field calculations using the MAFIA code were carried out to optimize the magnet performance and to avoid demagnetization by selecting appropriate materials for the individual segments. Measurements of the radial, azimuthal, and longitudinal magnetic flux density distributions were carried out by means of a small Hall probe (100×200×15 μm3). The measurements with the small probe permitted to extract experimentally higher order multipole components very close (˜100 μm) to the inner surface. Experimental values obtained are compared to predictions based on MAFIA calculations and on the Halbach formalism.

  4. Structural alloys for high field superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1985-08-01

    Research toward structural alloys for use in high field superconducting magnets is international in scope, and has three principal objectives: the selection or development of suitable structural alloys for the magnet support structure, the identification of mechanical phenomena and failure modes that may influence service behavior, and the design of suitable testing procedures to provide engineering design data. This paper reviews recent progress toward the first two of these objectives. The structural alloy needs depend on the magnet design and superconductor type and differ between magnets that use monolithic and those that employ force-cooled or ICCS conductors. In the former case the central requirement is for high strength, high toughness, weldable alloys that are used in thick sections for the magnet case. In the latter case the need is for high strength, high toughness alloys that are used in thin welded sections for the conductor conduit. There is productive current research on both alloy types. The service behavior of these alloys is influenced by mechanical phenomena that are peculiar to the magnet environment, including cryogenic fatigue, magnetic effects, and cryogenic creep. The design of appropriate mechanical tests is complicated by the need for testing at 4/sup 0/K and by rate effects associated with adiabatic heating during the tests. 46 refs.

  5. "Molecular" MR imaging at high fields.

    PubMed

    Gore, John C; Zu, Zhongliang; Wang, Ping; Li, Hua; Xu, Junzhong; Dortch, Richard; Gochberg, Daniel F

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) have contributed considerably to clinical radiology, and a variety of MR techniques have been developed to evaluate pathological processes as well as normal tissue biology at the cellular and molecular level. However, in comparison to nuclear imaging, MRI has relatively poor sensitivity for detecting true molecular changes or for detecting the presence of targeted contrast agents, though these remain under active development. In recent years very high field (7T and above) MRI systems have been developed for human studies and these provide new opportunities and technical challenges for molecular imaging. We identify 5 types of intrinsic contrast mechanisms that do not require the use of exogenous agents but which can provide molecular and cellular information. We can derive information on tissue composition by (i) imaging different nuclei, especially sodium (ii) exploiting chemical shift differences as in MRS (iii) exploiting specific relaxation mechanisms (iv) exploiting tissue differences in the exchange rates of molecular species such as amides or hydroxyls and (v) differences in susceptibility. The increased signal strength at higher fields enables higher resolution images to be acquired, along with increased sensitivity to detecting subtle effects caused by molecular changes in tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Engineered Ceramic Insulators for High Field Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, J. A.

    2006-03-01

    High field magnet coils made from brittle A15 superconductors need to be rigidly contained by their support structure but yet be electrically insulated from it. Current insulators (end shoes, pole pieces, spacers, mandrels, etc.) are often made from coated metallic shapes that satisfy the mechanical and thermal requirements but are electrically unreliable. The insulating coating on the metal core too often chips or flakes, causing electrical shorts. Any replacement insulator materials must manage the thermal expansion mismatch to control the stress within the coil enabling the achievement of ultimate magnet performance. A novel ceramic insulator has been developed that eliminates the potential for shorting while maintaining high structural integrity and thermal performance. The insulator composition can be engineered to provide a thermal expansion that matches the coil expansion, minimizing detrimental stress on the superconductor. These ceramic insulators are capable of surviving high temperature heat treatments and are radiation resistant. The material can withstand high mechanical loads generated during magnet operation. These more robust insulators will lower the magnet production costs, which will help enable future devices to be constructed within budgetary restrictions.

  7. High Field Magnet Developments for the Future of High Field Compact Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, G.; Coppi, B.

    2014-10-01

    The adoption of ``All Superconducting Hybrid'' (ASH) magnets for the design of new high field confinement machines with relatively long plasma current pulses has been considered. These consist of MgB2 superconducting coils, in the outer portion of the magnet, that operate at about 10 K like those adopted for the Ignitor vertical field coils, but can produce up to 10 T as in the case of the hybrid magnet with a copper core under construction at Grenoble. In the case of the envisioned ASH magnets the inner core will be made of high temperature superconductors capable of operating at very high fields. The inclusion of advanced solutions such as that concerning the coupled toroidal magnet and central solenoid system for new advanced machines is envisioned. Sponsored in part by the US DOE.

  8. High field superconductor development and understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Larbalestier, David C.; Lee, Peter J.; Tarantini, Chiara

    2014-09-28

    All present circular accelerators use superconducting magnets to bend and to focus the particle beams. The most powerful of these machines is the large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN. The main ring dipole magnets of the LHC are made from Nb-Ti but, as the machine is upgraded to higher luminosity, more powerful magnets made of Nb3Sn will be required. Our work addresses how to make the Nb3Sn conductors more effective and more suitable for use in the LHC. The most important property of the superconducting conductor used for an accelerator magnet is that it must have very high critical current density, the property that allows the generation of high magnetic fields in small spaces. Nb3Sn is the original high field superconductor, the material which was discovered in 1960 to allow a high current density in the field of about 9 T. For the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC, much higher current densities in fields of about 12 Tesla will be required. The critical value of the current density is of order 2600 A/mm2 in a field of 12 Tesla. But there are very important secondary factors that complicate the attainment of this critical current density. The first is that the effective filament diameter must be no larger than about 40 µm. The second factor is that 50% of the cross-section of the Nb3Sn conductor that is pure copper must be protected from any poisoning by any Sn leakage through the diffusion barrier that protects the package of niobium and tin from which the Nb3Sn is formed by a high temperature reaction. These three, somewhat conflicting requirements, mean that optimization of the conductor is complex. The work described in this contract report addresses these conflicting requirements. They show that very sophisticated characterizations can uncover the way to satisfy all 3 requirements and they also suggest that the ultimate optimization of Nb3Sn is still not yet in sight

  9. Investigating High Field Gravity using Astrophysical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, Elliott D.; /SLAC

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to introduce particle physicists to astrophysical techniques. These techniques can help us understand certain phenomena important to particle physics that are currently impossible to address using standard particle physics experimental techniques. As the subject matter is vast, compromises are necessary in order to convey the central ideas to the reader. Many general references are included for those who want to learn more. The paragraphs below elaborate on the structure of these lectures. I hope this discussion will clarify my motivation and make the lectures easier to follow. The lectures begin with a brief review of more theoretical ideas. First, elements of general relativity are reviewed, concentrating on those aspects that are needed to understand compact stellar objects (white dwarf stars, neutron stars, and black holes). I then review the equations of state of these objects, concentrating on the simplest standard models from astrophysics. After these mathematical preliminaries, Sec. 2(c) discusses 'The End State of Stars'. Most of this section also uses the simplest standard models. However, as these lectures are for particle physicists, I also discuss some of the more recent approaches to the equation of state of very dense compact objects. These particle-physics-motivated equations of state can dramatically change how we view the formation of black holes. Section 3 focuses on the properties of the objects that we want to characterize and measure. X-ray binary systems and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are stressed because the lectures center on understanding very dense stellar objects, black hole candidates (BHCs), and their accompanying high gravitational fields. The use of x-ray timing and gamma-ray experiments is also introduced in this section. Sections 4 and 5 review information from x-ray and gamma-ray experiments. These sections also discuss the current state of the art in x-ray and gamma-ray satellite experiments and

  10. High field CdS detector for infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyagi, R. C.; Robertson, J. B.; Boer, K. W.; Hadley, H. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An infrared radiation detector including a cadmium sulfide platelet having a cathode formed on one of its ends and an anode formed on its other end is presented. The platelet is suitably doped such that stationary high-field domains are formed adjacent the cathode when based in the negative differential conductivity region. A negative potential is applied to the cathode such that a high-field domain is formed adjacent to the cathode. A potential measuring probe is located between the cathode and the anode at the edge of the high-field domain and means are provided for measuring the potential at the probe whereby this measurement is indicative of the infrared radiation striking the platelet.

  11. HIGH FIELD Q-SLOPE AND THE BAKING EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2009-11-01

    The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing RF losses (high-field Q-slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by a low temperature (100-140 °C, 12-48h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q-slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated at high temperature in the presence of a small partial pressure of nitrogen. Improvement of the cavity performances have been obtained, while surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.

  12. A High Field Magnet Design for A Future Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.; Chow, K.; Dietderich, D.; Gourlay, S.; Millos, G.; McInturff, A.; Scanlan, R.

    1998-09-01

    US high energy physics community is exploring the possibilities of building a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) after the completion of LHC. This paper presents a high field magnet design option based on Nb{sub 3}Sn technology. A preliminary magnetic and mechanical design of a 14-16 T, 2-in-1 dipole based on the 'common coil design' approach is presented. The computer code ROXIE has been upgraded to perform the field quality optimization of magnets based on the racetrack coil geometry. A magnet R&D program to investigate the issues related to high field magnet designs is also outlined.

  13. High field CdS detector for infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyagi, R. C.; Boer, K. W.; Hadley, H. C.; Robertson, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    New and highly sensitive method of detecting infrared irradiation makes possible solid state infrared detector which is more sensitive near room temperature than usual photoconductive low band gap semiconductor devices. Reconfiguration of high field domains in cadmium sulphide crystals provides basis for discovery.

  14. National Program on High Field Accelerator Magnet R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Apollinari, G.; Cooley, L.; Zlobin, A. V.; Caspi, S.; Gourlay, S.; Prestemon, S.; Larbalestier, D.; Gupta, R.; Wanderer, P.

    2014-09-26

    A National High-Field Magnet (HFM) Program is proposed as a thrust of the updated DOE-HEP General Accelerator R&D Program. The program responds to Recommendation 24 of the 2014 Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) Report.

  15. High field superconductor development and understanding project, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Larbalestier, David C.; Lee, Peter J.

    2009-07-15

    Over 25 years the Applied Superconductivity Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provided a vital technical resource to the High Energy Physics community covering development in superconducting strand for HEP accelerator magnet development. In particular the work of the group has been to develop the next generation of high field superconductors for high field application. Grad students Mike Naus, Chad Fischer, Arno Godeke and Matt Jewell improved our understanding of the microstructure and microchemistry of Nb3Sn and their impact on the physical and mechanical properties. The success of this work has led to the continued funding of this work at the ASC after it moved to the NHMFL and also to direct funding from BNL for some aspects of Nb3Sn cable evaluation.

  16. High field dielectric properties of anisotropic polymer-ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Tomer, V.; Randall, C. A.

    2008-10-01

    Using dielectrophoretic assembly, we create anisotropic composites of BaTiO{sub 3} particles in a silicone elastomer thermoset polymer. We study a variety of electrical properties in these composites, i.e., permittivity, dielectric breakdown, and energy density as function of ceramic volume fraction and connectivity. The recoverable energy density of these electric-field-structured composites is found to be highly dependent on the anisotropy present in the system. Our results indicate that x-y-aligned composites exhibit higher breakdown strengths along with large recoverable energy densities when compared to 0-3 composites. This demonstrates that engineered anisotropy can be employed to control dielectric breakdown strengths and nonlinear conduction at high fields in heterogeneous systems. Consequently, manipulation of anisotropy in high-field dielectric properties can be exploited for the development of high energy density polymer-ceramic systems.

  17. Developments in materials for high-field magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.R.; Hill, M.A.; Walsh, R.P.

    1993-10-01

    Results of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory`s program of characterization of materials and fabrication techniques used in the construction of high-field pulsed magnets are reported. High-field pulsed magnets require conductors with high mechanical strength (750 MPa or greater YS at 77K) and high electrical conductivity (70% IACS or greater at RT). Electrical insulation and resin systems for vacuum impregnation with high compressive strength (500 MPa at 77K) and moderate thermal conductivity (1kW/mK at 77K) are also required. Developments and future plans for the characterization of new magnet material systems are discussed. Testing result are reported: Mechanical and fatigue testing, electrical conductivity testing and thermal expansion measurements of high strength, high conductivity conductors at cryogenic and room temperature, mechanical testing of a coil support material at cryogenic and room temperature, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity tests of an electrical insulating system at cryogenic temperatures.

  18. High-field magnetization of Dy2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetization of powdered samples of Dy2O3 has been measured at temperatures between 1.45 and 4.2 K, in applied magnetic fields ranging to 70 kilogauss. A linear dependence of magnetization on applied field is observable in the high-field region, the slope of which is independent of temperature over the range investigated. The extrapolated saturation magnetic moment is about 2.77 Bohr magnetons per ion.

  19. High-field magnetization of Dy2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetization of powdered samples of Dy2O3 has been measured at temperatures between 1.45 deg and 4.2 K, in applied magnetic fields ranging to 7 Teslas. A linear dependence of magnetization on applied field is observable in high field region, the slope of which is independent of temperature over the range investigated. The extrapolated saturation magnetic moment is 2.77 + or - 0.08 Bohr magnetons per ion.

  20. Collaboration of academia and industry for high field science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Close collaboration between academia and industry is essential for opening frontiers of both science and industry. High performance photon detectors developed at industry are playing vital roles in science such as astronomy and high energy physics. Alternatively many advanced industrial and medical products came out of research in basic science. For advancement of high field science, closer collaboration between academia and industry is necessary to develop next generation high power lasers, which will also meet the needs in industry, medicine and energy.

  1. High-field Magnet Development toward the High Luminosity LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Apollinari, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    The upcoming Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) will rely on the use of Accelerator Quality Nb3Sn Magnets which have been the focus of an intense R&D effort in the last decade. This contribution will describe the R&D and results of Nb3Sn Accelerator Quality High Field Magnets development efforts, with emphasis on the activities considered for the HL-LHC upgrades.

  2. Development project of high-field facilities at NRIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, K.; Kiyoshi, T.; Asano, T.; Itoh, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Wada, H.; Maeda, H.

    1990-06-01

    Several high field facilities are now being developed at the National Research Institute for Metals. The systems of a 80 T class long-pulsed magnet and a 20 T class large-bore superconducting magnet are under construction. The primary design of a 40 T class hybrid magnet with relevant facilities has been worked out as a result of the first stage research and development study.

  3. Homogenous BSCCO-2212 Round Wires for Very High Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Scott Campbell Dr. Terry Holesinger Dr. Ybing Huang

    2012-06-30

    The performance demands on modern particle accelerators generate a relentless push towards higher field magnets. In turn, advanced high field magnet development places increased demands on superconducting materials. Nb3Sn conductors have been used to achieve 16 T in a prototype dipole magnet and are thought to have the capability for {approx}18 T for accelerator magnets (primarily dipoles but also higher order multipole magnets). However there have been suggestions and proposals for such magnets higher than 20 T. The High Energy Physics Community (HEP) has identified important new physics opportunities that are enabled by extremely high field magnets: 20 to 50 T solenoids for muon cooling in a muon collider (impact: understanding of neutrinos and dark matter); and 20+ T dipoles and quadrupoles for high energy hadron colliders (impact: discovery reach far beyond present). This proposal addresses the latest SBIR solicitation that calls for grant applications that seek to develop new or improved superconducting wire technologies for magnets that operate at a minimum of 12 Tesla (T) field, with increases up to 15 to 20 T sought in the near future (three to five years). The long-term development of accelerator magnets with fields greater than 20 T will require superconducting wires having significantly better high-field properties than those possessed by current Nb{sub 3}Sn or other A15 based wires. Given the existing materials science base for Bi-2212 wire processing, we believe that Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212) round wires can be produced in km-long piece lengths with properties suitable to meet both the near term and long term needs of the HEP community. The key advance will be the translation of this materials science base into a robust, high-yield wire technology. While the processing and application of A15 materials have advanced to a much higher level than those of the copper oxide-based, high T{sub c} (HTS) counterparts, the HTS materials have

  4. T1 and susceptibility contrast at high fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelavalli, Jaladhar

    Clinical imaging at high magnetic field strengths (≥ 3Tesla) is sought after primarily due to the increased signal strength available at these fields. This increased SNR can be used to perform: (a) high resolution imaging in the same time as at lower field strengths; (b) the same resolution imaging with much faster acquisition; and (c) functional MR imaging (fMRI), dynamic perfusion and diffusion imaging with increased sensitivity. However they are also associated with increased power deposition (SAR) due to increase in imaging frequency and longer T1 relaxation times. Longer T1s mean longer imaging times for generating good T1 contrast images. On the other hand for faster imaging, at high fields fast spin echo or magnetization prepared sequences are conventionally proposed which are, however, associated with high SAR values. Imaging with low SAR is more and more important as we move towards high fields and particularly for patients with metallic implants like pacemakers or deep brain stimulator. The SAR limit acceptable for these patients is much less than the limit acceptable for normal subjects. A new method is proposed for imaging at high fields with good contrast with simultaneous reduction in power deposition. Further, T1 based contrast optimization problem in FLASH imaging is considered for tissues with different T1s but same spin densities. The solution providing optimal imaging parameters is simplified for quick and easy computation in a clinical setting. The efficacy of the simplification is evaluated and practical limits under which the simplification can be applied are worked out. The phase difference due to variation in magnetic susceptibility property among biological tissues is another unique source of contrast which is different from the conventional T1, T2 and T2* contrast. This susceptibility based phase contrast has become more and more important at high fields, partly due to contrast generation issues due to longer T 1s and shorter T2s and

  5. High Field Magnet R&D in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Gourlay, Stephen A.

    2003-06-24

    Accelerator magnet technology is currently dominated by the use of NbTi superconductor. New and more demanding applications for superconducting accelerator magnets require the use of alternative materials. Several programs in the US are taking advantage of recent improvements in Nb{sub 3}Sn to develop high field magnets for new applications. Highlights and challenges of the US R&D program are presented along with the status of conductor development. In addition, a new R&D focus, the US LHC Accelerator Research Program, will be discussed.

  6. High Field Magnet R&D in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Gourlay, S.A.

    2003-10-01

    Accelerator magnet technology is currently dominated by the use of NbTi superconductor. New and more demanding applications for superconducting accelerator magnets require the use of alternative materials. Several programs in the US are taking advantage of recent improvements in Nb{sub 3}Sn to develop high field magnets for new applications. Highlights and challenges of the US R and D program are presented along with the status of conductor development. In addition, a new R and D focus, the US LHC Accelerator Research Program, will be discussed.

  7. The Mechanical Design Optimization of a High Field HTS Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Lalitha, SL; Gupta, RC

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the conceptual design optimization of a large aperture, high field (24 T at 4 K) solenoid for a 1.7 MJ superconducting magnetic energy storage device. The magnet is designed to be built entirely of second generation (2G) high temperature superconductor tape with excellent electrical and mechanical properties at the cryogenic temperatures. The critical parameters that govern the magnet performance are examined in detail through a multiphysics approach using ANSYS software. The analysis results formed the basis for the performance specification as well as the construction of the magnet.

  8. High-field small animal magnetic resonance oncology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High-field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging and hyperpolarized 13C MRS as well as diffusion-weighted, blood oxygen level dependent contrast imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies.

  9. High field magnetic resonance imaging of rodents in cardiovascular research.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Laetitia; Gerber, Bernhard L; Gallez, Bernard; Po, Chrystelle; Magat, Julie; Jean-Luc, Balligand; Feron, Olivier; Moniotte, Stéphane

    2016-07-01

    Transgenic and gene knockout rodent models are primordial to study pathophysiological processes in cardiovascular research. Over time, cardiac MRI has become a gold standard for in vivo evaluation of such models. Technical advances have led to the development of magnets with increasingly high field strength, allowing specific investigation of cardiac anatomy, global and regional function, viability, perfusion or vascular parameters. The aim of this report is to provide a review of the various sequences and techniques available to image mice on 7-11.7 T magnets and relevant to the clinical setting in humans. Specific technical aspects due to the rise of the magnetic field are also discussed.

  10. High field pulse plating; Gold on platinum electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, C.C.; Chase, A.B. ); Young, A.M. )

    1992-06-01

    In this paper a electrodeposition technique, high field pulse plating (HFPP), is explored over a wide range of experimental parameters. The experimental setup is fully described. Results are presented for gold plated onto platinum using pulse widths varying from 100-500 ns, at voltages between 10-40 V, and using repetition rates between 10-100 kHz. A conceptual model is presented for use in understanding trends that are experimentally observed. Scanning electronmicrograph photographs and optical reflectivity results demonstrate that a smoother surface is obtained with the HFPP process compared to dc plating.

  11. Background field coils for the High Field Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Zbasnik, J.P.; Cornish, D.N.; Scanlan, R.M.; Jewell, A.M.; Leber, R.L.; Rosdahl, A.R.; Chaplin, M.R.

    1980-09-22

    The High Field Test Facility (HFTF), presently under construction at LLNL, is a set of superconducting coils that will be used to test 1-m-o.d. coils of prototype conductors for fusion magnets in fields up to 12 T. The facility consists of two concentric sets of coils; the outer set is a stack of Nb-Ti solenoids, and the inner set is a pair of solenoids made of cryogenically-stabilized, multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor, developed for use in mirror-fusion magnets. The HFTF system is designed to be parted along the midplane to allow high-field conductors, under development for Tokamak fusion machines, to be inserted and tested. The background field coils were wound pancake-fashion, with cold-welded joints at both the inner and outer diameters. Turn-to-turn insulation was fabricated at LLNL from epoxy-fiberglass strip. The coils were assembled and tested in our 2-m-diam cryostat to verify their operation.

  12. High field – low energy muon ionization cooling channel

    DOE PAGES

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal; Palmer, Robert B.; Neuffer, David

    2015-09-04

    Muon beams are generated with large transverse and longitudinal emittances. In order to achieve the low emittances required by a muon collider, within the short lifetime of the muons, ionization cooling is required. Cooling schemes have been developed to reduce the muon beam 6D emittances to ≈ 300 μm–rad in transverse and ≈ 1–1.5 mm in longitudinal dimensions. The transverse emittance has to be further reduced to ≈ 50–25 μm–rad with an upper limit on the longitudinal emittance of ≈ 76 mm in order to meet the high-energy muon collider luminosity requirements. Earlier studies of the transverse cooling of lowmore » energy muon beams in high field magnets showed a promising performance, but did not include transverse or longitudinal matching between the stages. In this study we present the first complete design of the high field-low energy ionization cooling channel with transverse and longitudinal matching. The channel design was based on strong focusing solenoids with fields of 25–30 T and low momentum muon beam starting at 135 MeV/c and gradually decreasing. The cooling channel design presented here is the first to reach ≈ 50 micron scale emittance beam. As a result, we present the channel’s optimized design parameters including the focusing solenoid fields, absorber parameters and the transverse and longitudinal matching.« less

  13. Understanding and manipulating the RF fields at high field MRI

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Tamer S.; Hue, YiK-Kiong; Tang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a complete overview of the electromagnetics (radiofrequency aspect) of MRI at low and high fields. Using analytical formulations, numerical modeling (computational electromagnetics), and ultrahigh field imaging experiments, the physics that impacts the electromagnetic quantities associated with MRI, namely (1) the transmit field, (2) receive field, and (3) total electromagnetic power absorption, is analyzed. The physical interpretation of the above-mentioned quantities is investigated by electromagnetic theory, to understand ‘What happens, in terms of electromagnetics, when operating at different static field strengths?’ Using experimental studies and numerical simulations, this paper also examines the physical and technological feasibilities by which all or any of these specified electromagnetic quantities can be manipulated through techniques such as B1 shimming (phased array excitation) and signal combination using a receive array in order to advance MRI at high field strengths. Pertinent to this subject and with highly coupled coils operating at 7 T, this paper also presents the first phantom work on B1 shimming without B1 measurements. PMID:19621335

  14. High-field ESR in TDAE-C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinc, R.; Cevc, P.; Arčon, D.; Omerzu, A.; Mehring, M.; Knorr, S.; Grupp, A.; Barra, A.-L.; Chouteau, G.

    1998-12-01

    The ESR spectra of TDAE-C60 single crystals have been measured between 30 MHz and 245 GHz both above and below Tc=16 K. No separate TDAE+ ESR signal has been seen even at high fields suggesting that the TDAE+ and C-60 spins are either strongly exchange coupled or that spin cancellation and charge separation of the TDAE ions take place. The nonlinear variation of the resonance frequency versus resonance field relation characteristic of ferromagnetic resonance has been observed only in the radio frequency but not in the microwave region. No second ``hard'' mode characteristic for a spin-canted ``weak'' ferromagnet could be observed between 0 and 100 kG. The additional fine structure seen in the high-field ESR spectra below Tc is due to standing spin-wave resonance. It allows for the determination of the exchange coupling constant J=60 K. The exchange field HE=448 kG is thus much larger than the anisotropy field HK=29 G determined from the ferromagnetic resonance data. The temperature dependence of the magnetization determined from the spin-wave resonance data can be indeed described by the Bloch T3/2 law as expected for an isotropic or nearly isotropic Heisenberg ferromagnet.

  15. Volcanic sanidinites: an example for the mobilization of high field strength elements (HFSE) in magmatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aßbichler, Donjá; Heuss-Aßbichler, Soraya; Müller, Dirk; Kunzmann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In earth science the mobility of high field strength elements (HFSE) is generally discussed in context of hydrothermal processes. Recent investigations mainly address processes in (late) magmatic-, metamorphic- and submarine hydrothermal systems. They have all in common that H2O is main solvent. The transport of HFSE is suggested to be favored by volatiles, like boron, fluorine, phosphate and sulfate (Jiang et al., 2005). In this study processes in magmatic system are investigated. Sanidinites are rare rocks of igneous origin and are found as volcanic ejecta of explosive volcanoes. They consist mainly of sanidine and minerals of the sodalite group. The very porous fabric of these rocks is an indication of their aggregation from a gaseous magmatic phase. The large sanidine crystals (up to several centimeters) are mostly interlocking, creating large cavities between some crystals. In these pores Zr crystallizes as oxide (baddeleyite, ZrO2) or silicate (zircon, ZrSiO4). The euhedral shape of these minerals is a further indication of their formation out of the gas phase. Furthermore, bubbles in glass observed in some samples are evidence for gas-rich reaction conditions during the formation of the sanidinites. The formation of sanidinites is suggested to be an example for solvothermal processes in natural systems. Solvothermal processes imply the solvation, transport and recrystallization of elements in a gas phase. Results obtained from whole rock analysis from sanidinites from Laacher See (Germany) show a positive correlation between LOI, sulfate, Cl, and Na with the HFSE like Zr. Na-rich conditions seem to ameliorate the solvothermal transport of Zr. All these features point to the formation of sanidinites in the upper part of a magma chamber, where fluid consisting of SO3 and Cl compounds in addition to H2O, CO2 and HFSE (high field strength elements) like Zr accumulate.

  16. Spontaneous Radiation Emission from Short, High Field Strength Insertion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2005-09-15

    Since the earliest papers on undulaters were published, it has been known how to calculate the spontaneous emission spectrum from ''short'' undulaters when the magnetic field strength parameter is small compared to unity, or in ''single'' frequency sinusoidal undulaters where the magnetic field strength parameter is comparable to or larger than unity, but where the magnetic field amplitude is constant throughout the undulater. Fewer general results have been obtained in the case where the insertion device is both short, i.e., the magnetic field strength parameter changes appreciably throughout the insertion device, and the magnetic field strength is high enough that ponderomotive effects, radiation retardation, and harmonic generation are important physical phenomena. In this paper a general method is presented for calculating the radiation spectrum for short, high-field insertion devices. It is used to calculate the emission from some insertion device designs of recent interest.

  17. Magnetostructural transitions in a frustrated magnet at high fields.

    PubMed

    Tsurkan, V; Zherlitsyn, S; Felea, V; Yasin, S; Skourski, Yu; Deisenhofer, J; von Nidda, H-A Krug; Lemmens, P; Wosnitza, J; Loidl, A

    2011-06-17

    Ultrasound and magnetization studies of bond-frustrated ZnCr(2)S(4) spinel are performed in static magnetic fields up to 18 T and in pulsed fields up to 62 T. At temperatures below the antiferromagnetic transition at T(N1)≈14  K, the sound velocity as a function of the magnetic field reveals a sequence of steps followed by plateaus indicating a succession of crystallographic structures with constant stiffness. At the same time, the magnetization evolves continuously with a field up to full magnetic polarization without any plateaus in contrast to geometrically frustrated chromium oxide spinels. The observed high-field magnetostructural states are discussed within a H-T phase diagram taking into account the field and temperature evolution of three coexisting spin structures and subsequent lattice transformations induced by the magnetic field.

  18. Topical Developments in High-Field Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Kiesewetter, Matthew K.; Frantz, Derik K.; Walish, Joseph J.; Ravera, Enrico; Luchinat, Claudio; Swager, Timothy M.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    We report our recent efforts directed at improving high-field DNP experiments. We investigated a series of thiourea nitroxide radicals and the associated DNP enhancements ranging from ε = 25 to 82 that demonstrate the impact of molecular structure on performance. We directly polarized low-gamma nuclei including 13C, 2H, and 17O using trityl via the cross effect. We discuss a variety of sample preparation techniques for DNP with emphasis on the benefit of methods that do not use a glass-forming cryoprotecting matrix. Lastly, we describe a corrugated waveguide for use in a 700 MHz / 460 GHz DNP system that improves microwave delivery and increases enhancements up to 50%. PMID:25977588

  19. Internal Stresses in Wires for High Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.; Lawson, A.C.; Von Dreele, R.B.; Wood, J.T.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.

    1998-10-01

    The codeformation of Cu-Ag or Cu-Nb composite wires used for high field magnets has a number of important microstructural consequences, including the production of very fine scale structures, the development of very high internal surface area to volume ratios during the drawing and the storage of defects at interphase interfaces. In addition, the fabrication and codeformation of phases which differ in crystal structure, thermal expansion, elastic modulus and lattice parameter lead to the development of short wavelength internal stresses. These internal stresses are measured by neutron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy as a function of the imposed drawing strain. The internal stresses lead to important changes in elastic plastic response which can be related to both magnet design and service life and these aspects will be described in detail.

  20. Whole-globe biomechanics using high-field MRI.

    PubMed

    Voorhees, Andrew P; Ho, Leon C; Jan, Ning-Jiun; Tran, Huong; van der Merwe, Yolandi; Chan, Kevin; Sigal, Ian A

    2017-07-01

    The eye is a complex structure composed of several interconnected tissues acting together, across the whole globe, to resist deformation due to intraocular pressure (IOP). However, most work in the ocular biomechanics field only examines the response to IOP over smaller regions of the eye. We used high-field MRI to measure IOP induced ocular displacements and deformations over the whole globe. Seven sheep eyes were obtained from a local abattoir and imaged within 48 h using MRI at multiple levels of IOP. IOP was controlled with a gravity perfusion system and a cannula inserted into the anterior chamber. T2-weighted imaging was performed to the eyes serially at 0 mmHg, 10 mmHg, 20 mmHg and 40 mmHg of IOP using a 9.4 T MRI scanner. Manual morphometry was conducted using 3D visualization software to quantify IOP-induced effects at the globe scale (e.g. axial length and equatorial diameters) or optic nerve head scale (e.g. canal diameter, peripapillary sclera bowing). Measurement sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine measurement precision. High-field MRI revealed an outward bowing of the posterior sclera and anterior bulging of the cornea due to IOP elevation. Increments in IOP from 10 to 40 mmHg caused measurable increases in axial length in 6 of 7 eyes of 7.9 ± 5.7% (mean ± SD). Changes in equatorial diameter were minimal, 0.4 ± 1.2% between 10 and 40 mmHg, and in all cases less than the measurement sensitivity. The effects were nonlinear, with larger deformations at normal IOPs (10-20 mmHg) than at elevated IOPs (20-40 mmHg). IOP also caused measurable increases in the nasal-temporal scleral canal diameter of 13.4 ± 9.7% between 0 and 20 mmHg, but not in the superior-inferior diameter. This study demonstrates that high-field MRI can be used to visualize and measure simultaneously the effects of IOP over the whole globe, including the effects on axial length and equatorial diameter, posterior sclera displacement and bowing, and even

  1. High Field Small Animal Magnetic Resonance Oncology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) imaging, and hyperpolarized 13C MR spectroscopy as well as diffusion-weighted, Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies. PMID:24374985

  2. High-Gain High-Field Fusion Plasma.

    PubMed

    Li, Ge

    2015-10-28

    A Faraday wheel (FW)-an electric generator of constant electrical polarity that produces huge currents-could be implemented in an existing tokamak to study high-gain high-field (HGHF) fusion plasma, such as the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). HGHF plasma can be realized in EAST by updating its pulsed-power system to compress plasma in two steps by induction fields; high gains of the Lawson trinity parameter and fusion power are both predicted by formulating the HGHF plasma. Both gain rates are faster than the decrease rate of the plasma volume. The formulation is checked by earlier ATC tests. Good agreement between theory and tests indicates that scaling to over 10 T at EAST may be possible by two-step compressions with a compression ratio of the minor radius of up to 3. These results point to a quick new path of fusion plasma study, i.e., simulating the Sun by EAST.

  3. Stepped Impedance Resonators for High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Akgun, Can E.; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J.; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) multi-element transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections referred to as stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) is investigated. Single element simulation results in free space and in a phantom at 7 tesla (298 MHz) demonstrate the rationale and feasibility of the SIR design strategy. Simulation and image results at 7 tesla in a phantom and human head illustrate the improvements in transmit magnetic field, as well as, RF efficiency (transmit magnetic field versus SAR) when two different SIR designs are incorporated in 8-element volume coil configurations and compared to a volume coil consisting of microstrip elements. PMID:23508243

  4. High-field magnetic resonance imaging using solenoid radiofrequency coils.

    PubMed

    Vegh, Viktor; Gläser, Philipp; Maillet, Donald; Cowin, Gary J; Reutens, David C

    2012-10-01

    High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging using dedicated high-field radiofrequency micro-coils at 16.4 T (700 MHz) was investigated. Specific solenoid coils primarily using silver and copper as conductors with enamel and polyurethane coatings were built to establish which coil configuration produces the best image. Image quality was quantified using signal-to-noise ratio and signal variation over regions of interest. Benchmarking was conducted using 5-mm diameter coils, as this size is comparable to an established coil of the same size. Our 1.4-mm-diameter coils were compared directly to each other, from which we deduce performance as a function of conductor material and coating. A variety of materials and conductor coatings allowed us to choose an optimal design, which we used to image a kidney section at 10-micron resolution. We applied zero-fill extrapolation to achieve 5-micron resolution.

  5. High-field capture section for SLC positron source

    SciTech Connect

    Hoag, H.A.; Deruyter, H.; Kramer, J.; Yao, C.G.

    1986-05-01

    The positron source for SLC is being installed at the two-thirds point on the SLAC linac. Electron bunches at 33 GeV impinge upon a Tantalum/Tungsten target, producing showers of positrons with energies extending from approximately 2 to 20 MeV, with most positrons at the low end of this range. Positrons with low energies and finite transverse momenta slip phase during the processes of reacceleration and reinjection into the SLC system, increasing the energy spread and reducing the overall yield of the positron source. This reduction in yield has to be minimized by ''capturing'' the positrons with a high-field accelerator section placed as soon after the target as possible. The design, fabrication and RF testing of this accelerator section are described.

  6. Chemical preparation of high-field zinc oxide varistors

    SciTech Connect

    Dosch, R.G.; Kimball, K.M.

    1985-09-01

    Chemical preparation methods were developed for high-field ZnO varistors in which precipitation techniques were used to prepare precursor powders. Varistors were made by sintering uniaxially pressed pellets in the range of 675 to 740/sup 0/C in air. Varistor properties included electric fields(E) in the 10 to 100 kV/cm range at current densities(J) of 5A/cm/sup 2/, nonlinearity coefficients(..cap alpha..) greater than 30 at 2.5 less than or equal to J less than or equal to 5.0 A/cm/sup 2/, and densities in the range of 65 to 99% of theoretical depending both on sintering temperature and composition.

  7. Aluminum doping studies on high field ZnO varistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, K.M.; Doughty, D.H.

    1987-08-01

    We have investigated the effect of Al doping on the physical and electronic properties of high field ZnO varistors. For this study, varistors containing 98.94 m/o ZnO, 0.25 m/o CoO, 0.25 m/o MnO, 0.56 m/o Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and 0 to 200 ppM Al were prepared from powders obtained from solution precipitation techniques. Because of the amphoteric nature of aluminum oxides, precise control of pH and metal concentrations was necessary to assure complete incorporation of dopants. We observed inhibition of grain growth during sintering of varistor pellets at aluminum concentrations of 50 ppM and above. The measured electrical properties show increased switching fields and increased nonlinearity coefficients for Al doping levels of 50 to 200 ppM.

  8. Stepped impedance resonators for high-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Akgun, Can E; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high-field magnetic resonance imaging. In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections, referred to as stepped impedance resonators (SIRs), is investigated. Single-element simulation results in free space and in a phantom at 7 T (298 MHz) demonstrate the rationale and feasibility of the SIR design strategy. Simulation and image results at 7 T in a phantom and human head illustrate the improvements in a transmit magnetic field, as well as RF efficiency (transmit magnetic field versus specific absorption rate) when two different SIR designs are incorporated in 8-element volume coil configurations and compared to a volume coil consisting of microstrip elements.

  9. REVIEW OF HIGH FIELD Q SLOPE, CAVITY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gianluigi Ciovati

    2008-01-23

    One of the most interesting phenomenon occurring in superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of bulk niobium is represented by a sharp decrease of the quality factor above peak surface magnetic field of about 90 mT and is referred to as "high field Q-slope" or "Q-drop". This phenomenon was observed first in 1997 and since then some effort was devoted to the understanding of the causes behind it. Still, no clear physical interpretation of the Q-drop has emerged, despite several attempts. In this contribution, I will review the experimental results for various cavities measured in many laboratories and I will try to identify common features and differences related to the Q-drop.

  10. REVIEW OF HIGH FIELD Q SLOPE, CAVITY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gianluigi Ciovati

    2008-01-23

    One of the most interesting phenomenon occurring in superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of bulk niobium is represented by a sharp decrease of the quality factor above peak surface magnetic field of about 90 mT and is referred to as "high field Q-slope" or "Q-drop". This phenomenon was observed first in 1997 and since then some effort was devoted to the understanding of the causes behind it. Still, no clear physical interpretation of the Q-drop has emerged, despite several attempts. In this contribution, I will review the experimental results for various cavities measured in many laboratories and I will try to identify common features and differences related to the Q-drop.

  11. High-field transport in two-dimensional graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Tian; Konar, Aniruddha; Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep

    2011-09-01

    Transport of carriers in two-dimensional graphene at high electric fields is investigated by combining semianalytical and Monte Carlo methods. A semianalytical high-field transport model based on the high rate of optical phonon emission provides useful estimates of the saturation currents in graphene. For developing a more accurate picture, the nonequilibrium (hot) phonon effect and the role of electron-electron scattering were studied using Monte Carlo simulations. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the hot phonon effect plays a dominant role in current saturation, and electron-electron scattering strongly thermalizes the hot carrier population in graphene. We also find that electron-electron scattering removes negative differential resistance in graphene. Transient phenomenon such as velocity overshoot can be used to speed up graphene-based high-speed electronic devices by shrinking the channel length below 80 nm if electrostatic control can be exercised in the absence of a band gap.

  12. Bi-2212 round wire development for high field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, H.; Huang, Y.; Hong, S.; Gerace, M.; Parrell, J.

    2014-05-01

    Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) has been continuously improving Bi-2212 round wire performance because of its potential for application in high-field magnets (> 25 T). We focused on Bi-2212 wire configuration design, filament densification and reducing carbon and hydrogen contamination to improve the engineering critical current density (JE). Several wire configurations have been developed to meet different wire diameter and operating current requirements. The swaging, cold isostatic pressing (CIP) and over-pressure heat treatment processes have been demonstrated to effectively increase Bi-2212 filament mass density in the final wire and result in high performance over long length. The JE values exceeding 550 A/mm2 at 4.2 K, 15 T have been achieved on the CIPed 1 m long sample using a 10 bar over-pressure (OP) heat treatment. The twisted Bi-2212 wire significantly reduced ac loss without the critical current degradation.

  13. Rapid brain MRI acquisition techniques at ultra-high fields

    PubMed Central

    Setsompop, Kawin; Feinberg, David A.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    Ultra-high-field MRI provides large increases in signal-to-noise ratio as well as enhancement of several contrast mechanisms in both structural and functional imaging. Combined, these gains result in a substantial boost in contrast-to-noise ratio that can be exploited for higher spatial resolution imaging to extract finer-scale information about the brain. With increased spatial resolution, however, is a concurrent increased image encoding burden that can cause unacceptably long scan times for structural imaging and slow temporal sampling of the hemodynamic response in functional MRI—particularly when whole-brain imaging is desired. To address this issue, new directions of imaging technology development—such as the move from conventional 2D slice-by-slice imaging to more efficient Simultaneous MultiSlice (SMS) or MultiBand imaging (which can be viewed as “pseudo-3D” encoding) as well as full 3D imaging—have provided dramatic improvements in acquisition speed. Such imaging paradigms provide higher SNR efficiency as well as improved encoding efficiency. Moreover, SMS and 3D imaging can make better use of coil sensitivity information in multi-channel receiver arrays used for parallel imaging acquisitions through controlled aliasing in multiple spatial directions. This has enabled unprecedented acceleration factors of an order of magnitude or higher in these imaging acquisition schemes, with low image artifact levels and high SNR. Here we review the latest developments of SMS and 3D imaging methods and related technologies at ultra-high field for rapid high-resolution functional and structural imaging of the brain. PMID:26835884

  14. Fuzzy cluster analysis of high-field functional MRI data.

    PubMed

    Windischberger, Christian; Barth, Markus; Lamm, Claus; Schroeder, Lee; Bauer, Herbert; Gur, Ruben C; Moser, Ewald

    2003-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast today is an established brain research method and quickly gains acceptance for complementary clinical diagnosis. However, neither the basic mechanisms like coupling between neuronal activation and haemodynamic response are known exactly, nor can the various artifacts be predicted or controlled. Thus, modeling functional signal changes is non-trivial and exploratory data analysis (EDA) may be rather useful. In particular, identification and separation of artifacts as well as quantification of expected, i.e. stimulus correlated, and novel information on brain activity is important for both, new insights in neuroscience and future developments in functional MRI of the human brain. After an introduction on fuzzy clustering and very high-field fMRI we present several examples where fuzzy cluster analysis (FCA) of fMRI time series helps to identify and locally separate various artifacts. We also present and discuss applications and limitations of fuzzy cluster analysis in very high-field functional MRI: differentiate temporal patterns in MRI using (a) a test object with static and dynamic parts, (b) artifacts due to gross head motion artifacts. Using a synthetic fMRI data set we quantitatively examine the influences of relevant FCA parameters on clustering results in terms of receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) and compare them with a commonly used model-based correlation analysis (CA) approach. The application of FCA in analyzing in vivo fMRI data is shown for (a) a motor paradigm, (b) data from multi-echo imaging, and (c) a fMRI study using mental rotation of three-dimensional cubes. We found that differentiation of true "neural" from false "vascular" activation is possible based on echo time dependence and specific activation levels, as well as based on their signal time-course. Exploratory data analysis methods in general and fuzzy cluster analysis in particular may

  15. High-Gain High-Field Fusion Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ge

    2015-01-01

    A Faraday wheel (FW)—an electric generator of constant electrical polarity that produces huge currents—could be implemented in an existing tokamak to study high-gain high-field (HGHF) fusion plasma, such as the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). HGHF plasma can be realized in EAST by updating its pulsed-power system to compress plasma in two steps by induction fields; high gains of the Lawson trinity parameter and fusion power are both predicted by formulating the HGHF plasma. Both gain rates are faster than the decrease rate of the plasma volume. The formulation is checked by earlier ATC tests. Good agreement between theory and tests indicates that scaling to over 10 T at EAST may be possible by two-step compressions with a compression ratio of the minor radius of up to 3. These results point to a quick new path of fusion plasma study, i.e., simulating the Sun by EAST. PMID:26507314

  16. High field superconducting window-frame beam transport magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Allinger, J.; Carroll, A.; Danby, G.; Devito, B.; Jackson, J.; Leonhardt, W.; Prodell, A.; Skarita, J.

    1983-05-01

    The window-frame design for high field superconducting beam transport magnets was first applied to two, 2 m long, 4 T modules of an 8/sup 0/ bending magnet which has operated for nine years in the primary proton beam line at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). The design of two 1.5 m long, 7.6 cm cold bore superconducting window-frame magnets, described in this paper, intended for the external proton beam transport system at the AGS incorporated evolutionary changes. These magnets generated a maximum aperture field of 6.8 T with a peak field in the dipole coil of 7.1 T. Measured fields are very accurate and are compared to values calculated using the computer programs LINDA and POISSON. Results of quench propagation studies demonstrate the excellent thermal stability of the magnets. The magnets quench safely without energy extraction at a maximum current density, J = 130 kA/cm/sup 2/ in the superconductor, correspoding to J = 57.6 kA/cm/sup 2/ overall in the conductor at B = 6.7 T.

  17. [Problems and chances of high field magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Ladd, M E; Bock, M

    2013-05-01

    The spatial, temporal and spectral resolution in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is in many cases currently not sufficient to detect submillimeter lesions or to image the dynamics of the beating heart. At present MRI systems at 1.5 T and 3 T are the standard units for clinical imaging. The use of ultrahigh magnetic fields of 7 T and higher increases the signal-to-noise ratio, which holds promise for a significant improvement of the spatial and/or temporal resolution as well as for new contrast mechanisms. With 7 T MRI, images of the brain have been acquired routinely with a spatial resolution of 0.3 mm. The theoretical improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio is often not fully realized due to B1 inhomogeneities and contrast variations. With MRI at 7 T a notable increase in spatial resolution can be achieved. Methods such as time-of-flight MR angiography and susceptibility-weighted imaging (e.g. neurofunctional MRI, fMRI) profit especially from the higher field strengths. Transmission field inhomogeneities are still a major challenge for ultrahigh field (UHF) MRI and are also a partially unsolved safety problem. The use of UHF MRI is currently limited to special applications and the expected gain of the high field must be weighed against technical limitations in both image acquisition and interpretation.

  18. High-Field Transport in Semiconducting Material and Devices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    1990-01-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Considering the developments and most recent technological innovations of semiconductor devices, it is important to investigate the ramifications of charge carrier transport in high electric field in modern semiconductor microstructures, where the electric fields are found to be necessarily high. The fundamental ideas of transport theory including the mobility -limiting scattering mechanisms are reviewed. The ideas of linear transport are extended and the derivation of the high-field distribution is described in a single-valley model appropriate for the band structures of silicon and germanium. The velocity-field profile obtained from this distribution function is compared with the experimental results on bulk (3-dimensional) samples of silicon and germanium. The two-band model of intrinsic transport in a high electric field is also included. The single valley distribution is applied to the multi-valley structures of CaAs and (InGa)As to explain the experimentally observed negative differential resistivity in bulk samples. The calculations are further extended to two dimensional quantum -well microstructures of GaAs and (InGa)As. The conditions necessary for negative differential resistivity in these microstructures to be observable is also discussed. The applications of the above ideas in modelling submicron -length channel field effect transistors (MOSFET's and MODFET's) is discussed. Suggestions for further future applications of the analysis are offered.

  19. Towards Integrated Design and Modeling of High Field Accelerator Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.

    2006-06-01

    The next generation of superconducting accelerator magnets will most likely use a brittle conductor (such as Nb{sub 3}Sn), generate fields around 18 T, handle forces that are 3-4 times higher than in the present LHC dipoles, and store energy that starts to make accelerator magnets look like fusion magnets. To meet the challenge and reduce the complexity, magnet design will have to be more innovative and better integrated. The recent design of several high field superconducting magnets have now benefited from the integration between CAD (e.g. ProE), magnetic analysis tools (e.g. TOSCA) and structural analysis tools (e.g. ANSYS). Not only it is now possible to address complex issues such as stress in magnet ends, but the analysis can be better detailed an extended into new areas previously too difficult to address. Integrated thermal, electrical and structural analysis can be followed from assembly and cool-down through excitation and quench propagation. In this paper we report on the integrated design approach, discuss analysis results and point out areas of future interest.

  20. High field transport of high performance black phosphorus transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tiaoyang; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Li, Xuefei; Huang, Mingqiang; Li, Sichao; Li, Shengman; Wu, Yanqing

    2017-04-01

    Black phosphorus is a layered material stacked together by weak van der Waals force with a direct bandgap and highly anisotropic electrical characteristics. Most of the previous reports focus on the low-field mobility of transistors based on SiO2 back gate dielectrics. Recently, black phosphorus transistors encapsulated with hexagonal boron nitride have been demonstrated with greatly improved mobility at low temperatures. However, this approach requires multiple dry transfer methods using both black phosphorus and boron nitride flakes, which are only available in small crystal sizes. Here, we demonstrated high performance black phosphorus transistors using atomic layer deposited high-κ HfO2 as a back gate dielectric. The maximum drain current density reaches 480 μA/μm at 300 K and a record high drain current 906 μA/μm at 20 K in a short channel 100 nm device based on HfO2, exhibiting excellent current-carrying capability and high field strength. Moreover, a side-by-side comparison on important figures-of-merit is carried out systematically for transistors based on HfO2 with those based on conventional SiO2, showing more than 50% performance improvement in mobility and over 8 times reduction in interface trap density.

  1. Disruptions generated runaways in the FTU high field tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, F. M.; Esposito, B.; Maddaluno, G.; Martin-Solis, J. R.

    2001-10-01

    Disruptions in FTU are usually accompanied by the generation of a strong pulse of photoneutrons (YN 10^12n/s), resulting from photonuclear reactions induced by the bremsstrahlung radiation emitted when runaway electrons (REs) strike the plasma facing components. Measurements of YN during major disruptions on TS [1] showed variations of three orders of magnitude when the toroidal field Bt increases from 1.8T to 3.9T. Similar results were found on JT-60 [2], where no REs are produced for low Bt (<2.2T) and a large YN was measured for higher fields (up to 4T). The range of Bt available in FTU (4T-8T) allows to extend such analysis so that useful predictions can be obtained for operation in next-step high field tokamaks (IGNITOR, ITER). The dependence of YN on Bt is investigated in several FTU disruptions. YN increases with Bt for B_t=4T-6T, while no variation is found for B_t=6T-8T: the role played by ne and Ip on such trend is discussed. [1]P.Joyer,G.Martin,Contr.Fusion and Plasma Heating,Proc.17^thEPS Conf.Amsterdam(1990) [2]R.Yoshino et al.,Nucl.Fus.39 151 (1999)

  2. Ultra-high field magnets for whole-body MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Rory

    2016-09-01

    For whole-body MRI, an ultra-high field (UHF) magnet is currently defined as a system operating at 7 T or above. Over 70 UHF magnets have been built, all with the same technical approach originally developed by Magnex Scientific Ltd. The preferred coil configuration is a compensated solenoid. In this case, the majority of the field is generated by a simple long solenoid that stretches the entire length of the magnet. Additional coils are wound on a separate former outside the main windings with the purpose of balancing the homogeneity. Most of the magnets currently in operation are passively shielded systems where the magnet is surrounded by a steel box of 200-870 tonnes of carbon steel. More recently actively shielded magnets have been built for operation at 7 T; in this case the stray field is controlled by with reverse turns wound on a separate former outside the primary coils. Protection against quench damage is much more complex with an actively shielded magnet design due to the requirement to prevent the stray field from increasing during a quench. In the case of the 7 T 900 magnet this controlled by combining some of the screening coils into each section of the protection circuit. Correction of the field variations caused by manufacturing tolerances and environmental effects are made with a combination of superconducting shims and passive shims. Modern UHF magnets operate in zero boil-off mode with the use of cryocoolers with cooling capacity at 4.2 K. Although there are no cryogen costs associated with normal operation UHF magnets require a significant volume (10 000-20 000 l) of liquid helium for the cool-down. Liquid helium is expensive therefore new methods of cool-down using high-power cryocoolers are being implemented to reduce the requirement.

  3. Microcalorimetry: Wide Temperature Range, High Field, Small Sample Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellman, Frances

    2000-03-01

    We have used Si micromachining techniques to fabricate devices for measuring specific heat or other calorimetric signals from microgram-quantity samples over a temperature range from 1 to 900K in magnetic fields to date up to 8T. The devices are based on a relatively robust silicon nitride membrane with thin film heaters and thermometers. Different types of thermometers are used for different purposes and in different temperature ranges. These devices are particularly useful for thin film samples (typically 200-400 nm thick at present) deposited directly onto the membrane through a Si micromachined evaporation mask. They have also been used for small single crystal samples attached by conducting grease or solder, and for powder samples dissolved in a solvent and dropped onto devices. The measurement technique used (relaxation method) is particularly suited to high field measurements because the thermal conductance can be measured once in zero field and is field independent, while the time constant of the relaxation does not depend on thermometer calibration. Present development efforts include designs which show promise for time-resolved calorimetry measurements of biological samples in small amounts of water. Samples measured to date include amorphous magnetic thin films (a-TbFe2 and giant negative magnetoresistance a-Gd-Si alloys), empty and filled fullerenes (C_60, K_3C_60, C_82, La@C_82, C_84, and Sc_2@C_84), single crystal manganites (La_1-xSr_xMnO_3), antiferromagnetic multilayers (NiO/CoO, NiO/MgO, and CoO/MgO), and nanoparticle magnetic materials (CoO in a Ag matrix).

  4. Developments at the High Field Magnet Laboratory in Nijmegen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perenboom, J. A. A. J.; Maan, J. C.; van Breukelen, M. R.; Wiegers, S. A. J.; den Ouden, A.; Wulffers, C. A.; van der Zande, W. J.; Jongma, R. T.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Redlich, B.

    2013-03-01

    The High Field Magnet Laboratory at the Radboud University Nijmegen is rapidly expanding its capabilities. The developments encompass both organizational changes and new possibilities for research. The organization of the HFML was strengthened as a consequence of stronger participation of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), and an increase of the core-funding. This change makes that HFML is now considered on a national level as large research facility that operates at an international scale. At the same time work is underway to build new and powerful magnets, and provide electromagnetic radiation for magneto-spectroscopic studies. Electromagnetic radiation in the infrared and far-infrared spectrum will soon be available in the HFML with wavelengths between 3 μm and 1.5 mm, produced by the `FELIX' facility, comprising the long-wavelength free electron laser `FLARE' that in September 2011 produced its first light and the free electron lasers that have been moved from Rijnhuizen to Nijmegen. In magnet technology great strides are made to make magnets available for the user community with unprecedented performance: late in 2012 we hope to commission a new all-resistive magnet system that will generate a steady magnetic field as high as 38 T, by fully exploiting the maximum power of the installation, i.e. 20 MW, and using all available improvements in the design and construction of `Florida-Bitter' resistive magnets. We are also well underway with the design of a 45 T hybrid magnet system, using Nb3Sn superconductors and wind-and-react Cable-in-Conduit technology.

  5. Fast Growth of Highly Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays on Si Substrate under High-Field Anodization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jingnan; Zheng, Maojun; Zhang, Bin; Li, Qiang; Wang, Faze; Ma, Liguo; Li, Yanbo; Zhu, Changqing; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2017-04-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTAs) on Si substrate possess broad applications due to its high surface-to-volume ratio and novel functionalities, however, there are still some challenges on facile synthesis. Here, we report a simple and cost-effective high-field (90-180 V) anodization method to grow highly ordered TiO2 NTAs on Si substrate, and investigate the effect of anodization time, voltage, and fluoride content on the formation of TiO2 NTAs. The current density-time curves, recorded during anodization processes, can be used to determine the optimum anodization time. It is found that the growth rate of TiO2 NTAs is improved significantly under high field, which is nearly 8 times faster than that under low fields (40-60 V). The length and growth rate of the nanotubes are further increased with the increase of fluoride content in the electrolyte.

  6. High-field magnetic resonance imaging of the human temporal lobe☆

    PubMed Central

    Colon-Perez, Luis M.; King, Michael; Parekh, Mansi; Boutzoukas, Angelique; Carmona, Eduardo; Couret, Michelle; Klassen, Rosemary; Mareci, Thomas H.; Carney, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Emerging high-field diffusion weighted MR imaging protocols, along with tractography, can elucidate microstructural changes associated with brain disease at the sub-millimeter image resolution. Epilepsy and other neurological disorders are accompanied by structural changes in the hippocampal formation and associated regions; however, these changes can be subtle and on a much smaller scale than the spatial resolution commonly obtained by current clinical magnetic resonance (MR) protocols in vivo. Methods We explored the possibility of studying the organization of fresh tissue with a 17.6 Tesla magnet using diffusion MR imaging and tractography. The mesoscale organization of the temporal lobe was estimated using a fresh unfixed specimen obtained from a subject who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy for medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Following ex vivo imaging, the tissue was fixed, serial-sectioned, and stained for correlation with imaging. Findings We resolved tissue microstructural organizational features in the temporal lobe from diffusion MR imaging and tractography in fresh tissue. Conclusions Fresh ex vivo MR imaging, along with tractography, revealed complex intra-temporal structural variation corresponding to neuronal cell body layers, dendritic fields, and axonal projection systems evident histologically. This is the first study to describe in detail the human temporal lobe structural organization using high-field MR imaging and tractography. By preserving the 3-dimensional structures of the hippocampus and surrounding structures, specific changes in anatomy may inform us about the changes that occur in TLE in relation to the disease process and structural underpinnings in epilepsy-related memory dysfunction. PMID:26413472

  7. High-field magnetic white dwarfs as the progeny of early-type stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, P. D.; Külebi, B.; Casewell, S. L.; Burleigh, M. R.; Parker, Q. A.; Baxter, R.; Lawrie, K. A.; Jordan, S.; Koester, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the newly resolved components of two hot, double-degenerate systems, SDSS J074853.07+302543.5 + J074852.95+302543.4 and SDSS J150813.24+394504.9 + J150813.31+394505.6 (CBS 229). We confirm that each system has widely separated components (a > 100 au) consisting of a H-rich, non-magnetic white dwarf and a H-rich, high-field magnetic white dwarf (HFMWD). The masses of the non-magnetic degenerates are found to be larger than typical of field white dwarfs. We use these components to estimate the total ages of the binaries and demonstrate that both magnetic white dwarfs are the progeny of stars with Minit > 2 M⊙. We briefly discuss the traits of all known hot, wide, magnetic + non-magnetic double degenerates in the context of HFMWD formation theories. These are broadly consistent (chance probability, P ≈ 0.065) with HFMWDs forming primarily from early-type stars and, in the most succinct interpretation, link their magnetism to the fields of their progenitors. Our results do not, however, rule out that HFMWDs can form through close binary interactions and studies of more young, wide double degenerates are required to reach firm conclusions on these formation pathways.

  8. Theoretical Studies of High Field Transport in III-V Semiconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    AD-A123 947 THEORETICAL STUDIES OF HIGH FIELD TRANSPORT IN Ill-V- 1/2 SENXCONDUCTORS(U) ILLINOIS UNIV AT URBANA COORDINATED SCIENCE LAB H SHICHIJO...CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitleo S. TYPE Of REPORT & PERIOD COVERED THEORETICAL STUDIES OF HIGH FIELD TRANSPORT Technical Report IN IllI-V...Continue on reverse aide It necessary and identitfy by block number) High field transport , 3-5 semicopductors, Monte Carlo simulation 20. ABSTRACT

  9. High-field electron transport in GaN under crossed electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochelap, V. A.; Korotyeyev, V. V.; Syngayivska, G. I.; Varani, L.

    2015-10-01

    High-field electron transport studied in crossed electric and magnetic fields in bulk GaN with doping of 1016 cm-3, compensation around 90% at the low lattice temperature (30 K). It was found the range of the magnetic and electric fields where the non-equilibrium electron distribution function has a complicated topological structure in the momentum space with a tendency to the formation of the inversion population. Field dependences of dissipative and Hall components of the drift velocity were calculated for the samples with short- and open- circuited Hall contacts in wide ranges of applied electric (0 — 20 kV/cm) and magnetic (1 — 10 T) fields. For former sample, field dependences of dissipative and Hall components of the drift velocity have a non-monotonic behavior. The dissipative component has the inflection point which corresponds to the maximum point of the Hall component. For latter sample, the drift velocity demonstrate a usual sub-linear growth without any critical points. We found that GaN samples with controlled resistance of the Hall circuit can be utilized as a electronic high-power switch.

  10. Intermediate length scale organisation in tin borophosphate glasses: new insights from high field correlation NMR.

    PubMed

    Tricot, G; Saitoh, A; Takebe, H

    2015-11-28

    The structure of tin borophosphate glasses, considered for the development of low temperature sealing glasses or anode materials for Li-batteries, has been analysed at the intermediate length scale by a combination of high field standard and advanced 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The nature and extent of B/P mixing were analysed using the (11)B((31)P) dipolar heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence NMR sequence and the data interpretation allowed (i) detecting the presence and analysing the nature of the B-O-P linkages, (ii) re-interpreting the 1D (31)P spectra and (iii) extracting the proportion of P connected to borate species. Interaction between the different borate species was analysed using the (11)B double quantum-simple quantum experiment to (i) investigate the presence and nature of the B-O-B linkage, (ii) assign the different borate species observed all along the composition line and (iii) monitor the borate network formation. In addition, (119)Sn static NMR was used to investigate the evolution of the chemical environment of the tin polyhedra. Altogether, the set of data allowed determining the structural units constituting the glass network and quantifying the extent of B/P mixing. The structural data were then used to explain the non-linear and unusual evolution of the glass transition temperature.

  11. High-field study of muonium states in HfO2 and ZrO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, R. B. L.; Vilão, R. C.; Alberto, H. V.; Gil, J. M.; Weidinger, A.; Baker, B. B.; Mengyan, P. W.; Lichti, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    We present high-transverse field measurements, as a function of temperature, in monoclinic ZrO2 and HfO2. In monoclinic zirconia and hafnia, a diamagnetic component had been previously reported in low-transverse-fields, but a significant fraction of the total muon polarization was missing in these experiments. We now characterize this missing fraction using the high-field capabilities at TRIUMF: a high relaxation component (above 100 μs-1 in monoclinic ZrO2, about 10 μs-1 in HfO2) is observed, which we relate to the formation of compact muonium in these materials. A model for the formation of muonium in these materials is presented.

  12. High field tunneling as a limiting factor of maximum energy density in dielectric energy storage capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qin; Wang, Yong; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Q. M.; Zhang, Shihai

    2008-04-01

    In several low loss dielectric materials, it was observed that the energy loss remains very small under low and medium electric fields but dramatically increases at high field which is believed to be due to tunneling current. The increase of tunneling current at high field is due to the decrease of barrier width and height and is a universal phenomenon in all dielectric materials. Due to the requirement of high energy efficiency, high field conduction places a limit for the maximum operation field, which could be lower than the breakdown field and act as the limiting factor of energy density.

  13. High Field Magnetization measurements of uranium dioxide single crystals (P08358- E003-PF)

    SciTech Connect

    Gofryk, K.; Harrison, N.; Jaime, M.

    2014-12-01

    Our preliminary high field magnetic measurements of UO2 are consistent with a complex nature of the magnetic ordering in this material, compatible with the previously proposed non-collinear 3-k magnetic structure. Further extensive magnetic studies on well-oriented (<100 > and <111>) UO2 crystals are planned to address the puzzling behavior of UO2 in both antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic states at high fields.

  14. Correlating Hemodynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging with high-field Intracranial Vessel Wall Imaging in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Weston; Donahue, Manus J.; van der Kolk, Anja G.; Rane, Swati; Strother, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field (7 Tesla) can be used to visualize vascular lesions noninvasively and holds potential for improving stroke-risk assessment in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. We present the first multi-modal comparison of such high-field vessel wall imaging with more conventional (i) 3 Tesla hemodynamic magnetic resonance imaging and (ii) digital subtraction angiography in a 69-year-old male with a left temporal ischemic infarct. PMID:25426229

  15. Correlating hemodynamic magnetic resonance imaging with high-field intracranial vessel wall imaging in stroke.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Weston; Donahue, Manus J; van der Kolk, Anja G; Rane, Swati; Strother, Megan K

    2014-06-01

    Vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field (7 Tesla) can be used to visualize vascular lesions noninvasively and holds potential for improving stroke-risk assessment in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. We present the first multi-modal comparison of such high-field vessel wall imaging with more conventional (i) 3 Tesla hemodynamic magnetic resonance imaging and (ii) digital subtraction angiography in a 69-year-old male with a left temporal ischemic infarct.

  16. Multicomponent analysis of radiolytic products in human body fluids using high field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grootveld, Martin C.; Herz, Herman; Haywood, Rachel; Hawkes, Geoffrey E.; Naughton, Declan; Perera, Anusha; Knappitt, Jacky; Blake, David R.; Claxson, Andrew W. D.

    1994-05-01

    High field proton Hahn spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been employed to investigate radiolytic damage to biomolecules present in intact human body fluids. γ-Radiolysis of healthy or rheumatoid human serum (5.00 kGy) in the presence of atmospheric O 2 gave rise to reproducible elevations in the concentration of NMR-detectable acetate which are predominantly ascribable to the prior oxidation of lactate to pyruvate by hydroxyl radical (·OH) followed by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate by radiolytically-generated hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) and/or further ·OH radical. Increases in the serum levels of non-protein-bound, low-molecular-mass components such as citrate and glutamine were also observed subsequent to γ-radiolysis, an observation which may reflect their mobilisation from protein binding-sites by ·OH radical, superoxide anion and/or H 2O 2. Moreover, substantial radiolytically-mediated elevations in the concentration of serum formate were also detectable. In addition to the above modifications, γ-radiolysis of inflammatory knee-joint synovial fluid (SF) generated a low-molecular-mass oligosaccharide species derived from the radiolytic fragmentation of hyaluronate. The radiolytically-mediated production of acetate in SF samples was markedly greater than that observed in serum samples, a consequence of the much higher levels of ·OH radical-scavenging lactate present. Indeed, increases in SF acetate concentration were detectable at doses as low as 48 Gy. We conclude that high field proton NMR analysis provides much useful information regarding the relative radioprotectant abilities of endogenous components and the nature, status and levels of radiolytic products generated in intact biofluids. We also suggest that NMR-detectable radiolytic products with associated toxicological properties (e.g. formate) may play a role in contributing to the deleterious effects observed following exposure of living organisms to sources of

  17. Alpha channeling with high-field launch of lower hybrid waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, I. E.; Bertelli, N.; Fisch, N. J.

    2015-11-04

    Although lower hybrid waves are effective at driving currents in present-day tokamaks, they are expected to interact strongly with high-energy particles in extrapolating to reactors. In the presence of a radial alpha particle birth gradient, this interaction can take the form of wave amplification rather than damping. While it is known that this amplification more easily occurs when launching from the tokamak high-field side, the extent of this amplification has not been made quantitative. Here, by tracing rays launched from the high- field-side of a tokamak, the required radial gradients to achieve amplification are calculated for a temperature and density regime consistent with a hot-ion-mode fusion reactor. As a result, these simulations, while valid only in the linear regime of wave amplification, nonetheless illustrate the possibilities for wave amplification using high-field launch of the lower hybrid wave.

  18. Alpha channeling with high-field launch of lower hybrid waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, I. E.; Bertelli, N.; Fisch, N. J.

    2015-11-15

    Although lower hybrid waves are effective at driving currents in present-day tokamaks, they are expected to interact strongly with high-energy particles in extrapolating to reactors. In the presence of a radial alpha particle birth gradient, this interaction can take the form of wave amplification rather than damping. While it is known that this amplification more easily occurs when launching from the tokamak high-field side, the extent of this amplification has not been made quantitative. Here, by tracing rays launched from the high-field-side of a tokamak, the required radial gradients to achieve amplification are calculated for a temperature and density regime consistent with a hot-ion-mode fusion reactor. These simulations, while valid only in the linear regime of wave amplification, nonetheless illustrate the possibilities for wave amplification using high-field launch of the lower hybrid wave.

  19. Alpha channeling with high-field launch of lower hybrid waves

    DOE PAGES

    Ochs, I. E.; Bertelli, N.; Fisch, N. J.

    2015-11-04

    Although lower hybrid waves are effective at driving currents in present-day tokamaks, they are expected to interact strongly with high-energy particles in extrapolating to reactors. In the presence of a radial alpha particle birth gradient, this interaction can take the form of wave amplification rather than damping. While it is known that this amplification more easily occurs when launching from the tokamak high-field side, the extent of this amplification has not been made quantitative. Here, by tracing rays launched from the high- field-side of a tokamak, the required radial gradients to achieve amplification are calculated for a temperature and densitymore » regime consistent with a hot-ion-mode fusion reactor. As a result, these simulations, while valid only in the linear regime of wave amplification, nonetheless illustrate the possibilities for wave amplification using high-field launch of the lower hybrid wave.« less

  20. Alpha channeling with high-field launch of lower hybrid waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, I. E.; Bertelli, N.; Fisch, N. J.

    2015-11-01

    Although lower hybrid waves are effective at driving currents in present-day tokamaks, they are expected to interact strongly with high-energy particles in extrapolating to reactors. In the presence of a radial alpha particle birth gradient, this interaction can take the form of wave amplification rather than damping. While it is known that this amplification more easily occurs when launching from the tokamak high-field side, the extent of this amplification has not been made quantitative. Here, by tracing rays launched from the high-field-side of a tokamak, the required radial gradients to achieve amplification are calculated for a temperature and density regime consistent with a hot-ion-mode fusion reactor. These simulations, while valid only in the linear regime of wave amplification, nonetheless illustrate the possibilities for wave amplification using high-field launch of the lower hybrid wave.

  1. Nb3Sn High Field Magnets for the High Luminosity LHC Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, Giorgio

    2015-06-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN requires a new generation of high field superconducting magnets. High field large aperture quadrupoles (MQXF) are needed for the low-beta triplets close to the ATLAS and CMS detectors, and high field two-in-one dipoles (11 T dipoles) are needed to make room for additional collimation. The MQXF quadrupoles, with a field gradient of 140 T/m in 150 mm aperture, have a peak coil field of 12.1 T at nominal current. The 11 T dipoles, with an aperture of 60 mm, have a peak coil field of 11.6 T at nominal current. Both magnets require Nb3Sn conductor and are the first applications of this superconductor to actual accelerator magnets.

  2. The high-field state at the Dirac Point in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuan Ong, N.

    2009-03-01

    The discovery of the quantum Hall Effect in graphene has generated considerable interest in the state at the Dirac Point in a magnetic field H. In intense H, the 4-fold degeneracy of the n=0 Landau Level (LL) is lifted by the enhanced exchange energy. Among the broken symmetry states proposed are the quantum Hall ferromagnet, the quantum Hall insulator state, excitonic condensation, and charge-density-wave formation. A subset of these theories propose counter-propagating edge states that remain conducting in large H. We have performed measurements of the resistance Rxx and Hall resistance Rxy to fields of 33 T at temperatures T from 0.3 to 50 K in ˜6 graphene samples. We find that, as T decreases below 10 K, R0 (= Rxx at the Dirac Point) undergoes a steep increase with a divergence consistent with a field-driven transition to an insulating high-field state. The divergence in R0 fits well to the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) form (b/√h-1) with h=H/Hc and b˜1.4. The critical field Hc is sample dependent (12 T to 33 T ), and correlates with the disorder as measured by the offset gate voltage V0 and the zero-H mobility. The divergence in R0 is strictly confined to the n=0 LL (bracketed by the sublevels ν= ±1). The peaks with n=±1 remain near the values h/e^2. Using an ultralow-power (3 fW), voltage-regulated technique, we show that the KT-fit to R0 is valid over 3 decades (40 kφ to 40 Mφ). The steepness of the R0 vs. T curves implies a bulk gap δ of magnitude 15-20 K that decreases when H falls below Hc. We compare our findings with the various proposed models. We will also report thermopower and Nernst measurements taken to fields of 14 T.[4pt] Refs. J. G. Checkelsky, L. Li and N. P. Ong, prl 100, 206801 (2008); ibid. cond-mat arXiv:0808.0906v1.

  3. DOUBLE DEGENERATE MERGERS AS PROGENITORS OF HIGH-FIELD MAGNETIC WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Berro, Enrique; Loren-Aguilar, Pablo; Aznar-Siguan, Gabriela; Torres, Santiago; Camacho, Judit

    2012-04-10

    High-field magnetic white dwarfs have been long suspected to be the result of stellar mergers. However, the nature of the coalescing stars and the precise mechanism that produces the magnetic field are still unknown. Here, we show that the hot, convective, differentially rotating corona present in the outer layers of the remnant of the merger of two degenerate cores can produce magnetic fields of the required strength that do not decay for long timescales. Using a state-of-the-art Monte Carlo simulator, we also show that the expected number of high-field magnetic white dwarfs produced in this way is consistent with that found in the solar neighborhood.

  4. High-field magnets using high-critical-temperature superconducting thin films

    DOEpatents

    Mitlitsky, F.; Hoard, R.W.

    1994-05-10

    High-field magnets fabricated from high-critical-temperature superconducting ceramic (HTSC) thin films which can generate fields greater than 4 Tesla are disclosed. The high-field magnets are made of stackable disk-shaped substrates coated with HTSC thin films, and involves maximizing the critical current density, superconducting film thickness, number of superconducting layers per substrate, substrate diameter, and number of substrates while minimizing substrate thickness. The HTSC thin films are deposited on one or both sides of the substrates in a spiral configuration with variable line widths to increase the field. 4 figures.

  5. High-field magnets using high-critical-temperature superconducting thin films

    DOEpatents

    Mitlitsky, Fred; Hoard, Ronald W.

    1994-01-01

    High-field magnets fabricated from high-critical-temperature superconducting ceramic (HTSC) thin films which can generate fields greater than 4 Tesla. The high-field magnets are made of stackable disk-shaped substrates coated with HTSC thin films, and involves maximizing the critical current density, superconducting film thickness, number of superconducting layers per substrate, substrate diameter, and number of substrates while minimizing substrate thickness. The HTSC thin films are deposited on one or both sides of the substrates in a spiral configuration with variable line widths to increase the field.

  6. Measurement of nonlinear coefficients of crystals at terahertz frequencies via High Field THzat the FELIX FEL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-03

    plane. As the sample moves along the z-axis, the intensity of the incident radiation increases in a known fashion, and, at high intensities , a...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0027 Measurement of nonlinear coefficients of crystals at terahertz frequencies via High - Field THz at the FELIX FEL Mira...coefficients of crystals at terahertz frequencies via High - Field THz at the FELIX FEL 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-15-C-0068 5b.  GRANT NUMBER 5c.  PROGRAM

  7. The spheromak as a prototype for ultra-high-field superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.; Jardin, S.C.

    1987-08-01

    In view of current progress in the development of superconductor materials, the ultimate high-field limit of superconducting magnets is likely to be set by mechanical stress problems. Maximum field strength should be attainable by means of approximately force-free magnet windings having favorable ''MHD'' stability properties (so that small winding errors will not grow). Since a low-beta finite-flux-hole spheromak configuration qualifies as a suitable prototype, the theoretical and experimental spheromak research effort of the past decade has served to create a substantial technical basis for the design of ultra-high-field superconducting coils. 11 refs.

  8. A high field optical-pumping spin-exchange polarized deuterium source

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, K.P.; Holt, R.J.; Kinney, E.R.; Kowalczyk, R.S.; Poelker, M.; Potterveld, D.H.; Young, L.; Zeidman, B. ); Toporkov, D. . Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1992-01-01

    Recent results from a prototype high field optical-pumping spin-exchange polarized deuterium source are presented. Atomic polarization as high as 62% have been observed with an intensity of 6.3 [times] 10[sup 17] atoms-sec[sup [minus]1] and 65% dissociation fraction.

  9. U.S. EPA High-Field NMR Facility with Remote Accessibility

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s High-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Research Facility housed in Athens, GA has two Varian 600 MHz NMR spectrometers used for conducting sophisticated experiments in environmental science. Off-site users can ship their samples and perform their NMR experiments remotely fr...

  10. 15 Years of R&D on high field accelerator magnets at FNAL

    DOE PAGES

    Barzi, Emanuela; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2016-07-01

    The High Field Magnet (HFM) Program at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) has been developing Nb3Sn superconducting magnets, materials and technologies for present and future particle accelerators since the late 1990s. This paper summarizes the main results of the Nb3Sn accelerator magnet and superconductor R&D at FNAL and outlines the Program next steps.

  11. U.S. EPA High-Field NMR Facility with Remote Accessibility

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s High-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Research Facility housed in Athens, GA has two Varian 600 MHz NMR spectrometers used for conducting sophisticated experiments in environmental science. Off-site users can ship their samples and perform their NMR experiments remotely fr...

  12. Anisotropic electronic structure of orthorhombic RbC60: A high-field ESR investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmer, J.; Grupp, A.; Mehring, M.; Hone, J.; Zettl, A.

    2001-02-01

    The full anisotropy of the electronic g tensor of a RbC60 single crystal was determined by applying high-field ESR. The principal values of the g tensor gxx=2.0014, gyy=2.0012, and gzz=2.0019 reflect the orthorhombic symmetry and 3D nature of this polymeric phase.

  13. Ultra-high field MRI: Advancing systems neuroscience towards mesoscopic human brain function.

    PubMed

    Dumoulin, Serge O; Fracasso, Alessio; van der Zwaag, Wietske; Siero, Jeroen C W; Petridou, Natalia

    2017-01-16

    Human MRI scanners at ultra-high magnetic field strengths of 7 T and higher are increasingly available to the neuroscience community. A key advantage brought by ultra-high field MRI is the possibility to increase the spatial resolution at which data is acquired, with little reduction in image quality. This opens a new set of opportunities for neuroscience, allowing investigators to map the human cortex at an unprecedented level of detail. In this review, we present recent work that capitalizes on the increased signal-to-noise ratio available at ultra-high field and discuss the theoretical advances with a focus on sensory and motor systems neuroscience. Further, we review research performed at sub-millimeter spatial resolution and discuss the limits and the potential of ultra-high field imaging for structural and functional imaging in human cortex. The increased spatial resolution achievable at ultra-high field has the potential to unveil the fundamental computations performed within a given cortical area, ultimately allowing the visualization of the mesoscopic organization of human cortex at the functional and structural level.

  14. Retinotopic mapping in cat visual cortex using high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Olman, Cheryl; Ronen, Itamar; Ugurbil, Kamil; Kim, Dae-Shik

    2003-12-30

    In the field of neuroscience, there has always been a need for imaging techniques that provide high-resolution, large field-of-view measurements of neural activity. Functional MRI has this capability, but the link between the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal and neural activity is indirect. High magnetic field strengths (>3 T) improve the strength and specificity of the BOLD signal, but there are additional concerns about imaging artifacts at high field. We have tested the capabilities of ultra high field fMRI in the anesthetized juvenile cat, demonstrating rapid, non-invasive retinotopic mapping of early visual areas. Maps of topographic organization and measured cortical magnification factors are in good agreement with electrophysiological studies. Measurement precision was estimated at 1 mm. This mapping, performed with an MRI scanner at ultra high field (9.4 T), demonstrates the capabilities of high-resolution functional mapping of the visual system at ultra high field.

  15. Eliminating a Major Cause of Wire Drawing Breakage in A-15 High-Field Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Austen, Alfred R.

    2003-05-20

    Eliminating a Major Cause of Wire Drawing Breakage in A-15 High-Field Superconductors Phase 1 Summary Purpose of the research: The Phase 1 goal was to make a significant improvement in the wire drawing technology used for difficult to draw superconductor precursor composites. Many ductile Nb-Al and Nb-Sn precursor wire composites have experienced the onset of wire drawing breakage at about 1.5 mm diameter. Phase 1 focused on evaluating the role that precision rigid guidance of the wire into the drawing die and the hydrostatic stress state at the die entrance played in preventing wire breakage. Research carried out: The research performed depended upon the construction of both a mechanical wire guide and a hydrostatic pressure stiffened wire guidance system. Innovare constructed the two wire guidance systems and tested them for their ability to reduce wire drawing breakage. One set of hardware provided rigid alignment of the wires to their wire drawing die axes within 0.35 degrees using ''hydrostatic pressure stiffening'' to enable the precision guidance strategy to be implemented for these highly flexible small diameter wires. This apparatus was compared to a guide arrangement that used short span mechanical guide alignment with a misalignment limit of about 0.75 degrees. Four A-15 composite wires with breakage histories were drawn to evaluate the use of these wire guiding systems to reduce and/or eliminate wire breakage. Research findings and results: In Phase 1, a breakthrough in wire drawing technology for A-15 superconductor composites was achieved by dramatically limiting or eliminating breakage in four different A-15 composite precursor wire designs during the drawing of these very desirable composites that previously could not be drawn to near final size. Research results showed that the proposed Phase 1 mechanical wire guides were sufficiently effective and successful in eliminating breakage when used along with other advanced wire drawing technology to

  16. High-field magnetization measurements on a ferromagnetic amorphous alloy from 295 to 5K

    SciTech Connect

    Szymczak, P. ); Graham, C.D. Jr. ); Gibbs, M.R.J. )

    1994-11-01

    Magnetization measurements on an amorphous ferromagnetic alloy Fe[sub 78](SiB)[sub 22] have been made over the temperature range from 5 to 295K and in fields to 5T, using a SQUID magnetometer and a superconducting magnet. As-received and field-annealed samples were measured. Having data over a range of temperatures allows the spin-wave contribution to the magnetization to be determined, and then subtracted. When the spin-wave contribution is removed, a substantial high-field susceptibility remains, which is independent of temperature. Attempts to fit the corrected curves to one of two theoretical equations were not conclusive, but the best fit seems to be to M = M[sub 0] + aH[sup [minus]0.5] + bH. The annealing treatment has no significant effect on the high-field magnetization.

  17. Next-generation heteronuclear decoupling for high-field biomolecular NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Franz; Warner, Lisa R; Gershenzon, Naum I; Skinner, Thomas E; Sattler, Michael; Glaser, Steffen J

    2014-04-22

    Ultra-high-field NMR spectroscopy requires an increased bandwidth for heteronuclear decoupling, especially in biomolecular NMR applications. Composite pulse decoupling cannot provide sufficient bandwidth at practical power levels, and adiabatic pulse decoupling with sufficient bandwidth is compromised by sideband artifacts. A novel low-power, broadband heteronuclear decoupling pulse is presented that generates minimal, ultra-low sidebands. The pulse was derived using optimal control theory and represents a new generation of decoupling pulses free from the constraints of periodic and cyclic sequences. In comparison to currently available state-of-the-art methods this novel pulse provides greatly improved decoupling performance that satisfies the demands of high-field biomolecular NMR spectroscopy.

  18. NMR spectroscopy of hyperpolarized ^129Xe at high fields: Maintaining spin polarization after optical pumping.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Brian; Kuzma, Nicholas N.; Lisitza, Natalia V.; Happer, William

    2003-05-01

    Spin-polarized ^129Xe has become an invaluable tool in nuclear magnetic resonance research, with applications ranging from medical imaging to high-resolution spectroscopy. High-field NMR studies using hyperpolarized xenon as a spectroscopic probe benefit from the high signal-to-noise ratios and large chemical shifts typical of optically-pumped noble gases. The experimental sensitivity is ultimately determined by the absolute polarization of the xenon in the sample, which can be substantially decreased during purification and transfer. NMR of xenon at high fields (9.4 Tesla) will be discussed, and potential mechanisms of spin relaxation during the distillation, storage(N. N. Kuzma, B. Patton, K. Raman, and W. Happer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88), 147602 (2002)., and delivery of hyperpolarized xenon will be analyzed.

  19. Development of a patch antenna array RF coil for ultra-high field MRI.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Manabu; Nakajima, Iwao; Obayashi, Shigeru; Nagai, Yuji; Obata, Takayuki; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Ikehira, Hiroo

    2007-01-01

    In radiofrequency (RF) coil design for ultra-high-field magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, short RF wavelengths present various challenges to creating a big volume coil. When imaging a human body using an ultra-high magnetic field MR imaging system (magnetic flux density of 7 Tesla or more), short wavelength may induce artifacts from dielectric effect and other factors. To overcome these problems, we developed a patch antenna array coil (PAAC), which is a coil configured as a combination of patch antennas. We prototyped this type of coil for 7T proton MR imaging, imaged a monkey brain, and confirmed the coil's utility as an RF coil for ultra-high-field MR imaging.

  20. Narrowband Emission in Compton/Thomson Sources Operating in the High-Field Regime

    DOE PAGES

    Terzic, Balsa; Deitrick, Kirsten E.; Hofler, Alicia S.; ...

    2014-02-21

    We present a novel and quite general analysis of the interaction of a high-field chirped laser pulse and a relativistic electron, in which exquisite control of the spectral brilliance of the upshifted Thomson-scattered photon is shown to be possible. Normally, when Thomson scattering occurs at high field strengths, there is ponderomotive line broadening in the scattered radiation. This effect makes the bandwidth too large for some applications, and reduces the spectral brilliance. In this paper we show that such broadening can be corrected and eliminated by suitable frequency modulation of the incident laser pulse. Further, we suggest a practical realizationmore » of this compensation idea in terms of a chirped-beam driven FEL oscillator configuration, and show that significant compensation can occur, even with the imperfect matching to be expected in these conditions.« less

  1. Narrowband Emission in Compton/Thomson Sources Operating in the High-Field Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Terzic, Balsa; Deitrick, Kirsten E.; Hofler, Alicia S.; Kraff, Geoffrey A.

    2014-02-21

    We present a novel and quite general analysis of the interaction of a high-field chirped laser pulse and a relativistic electron, in which exquisite control of the spectral brilliance of the upshifted Thomson-scattered photon is shown to be possible. Normally, when Thomson scattering occurs at high field strengths, there is ponderomotive line broadening in the scattered radiation. This effect makes the bandwidth too large for some applications, and reduces the spectral brilliance. In this paper we show that such broadening can be corrected and eliminated by suitable frequency modulation of the incident laser pulse. Further, we suggest a practical realization of this compensation idea in terms of a chirped-beam driven FEL oscillator configuration, and show that significant compensation can occur, even with the imperfect matching to be expected in these conditions.

  2. Open Science CBS Neuroimaging Repository: Sharing ultra-high-field MR images of the brain.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Christine Lucas; Schäfer, Andreas; Trampel, Robert; Villringer, Arno; Turner, Robert; Bazin, Pierre-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging at ultra high field opens the door to quantitative brain imaging at sub-millimeter isotropic resolutions. However, novel image processing tools to analyze these new rich datasets are lacking. In this article, we introduce the Open Science CBS Neuroimaging Repository: a unique repository of high-resolution and quantitative images acquired at 7 T. The motivation for this project is to increase interest for high-resolution and quantitative imaging and stimulate the development of image processing tools developed specifically for high-field data. Our growing repository currently includes datasets from MP2RAGE and multi-echo FLASH sequences from 28 and 20 healthy subjects respectively. These datasets represent the current state-of-the-art in in-vivo relaxometry at 7 T, and are now fully available to the entire neuroimaging community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quench Protection of High Field Nb{sub 3}Sn Magnets for VLHC

    SciTech Connect

    Linda Imbasciati et al.

    2001-07-30

    Fermilab is developing high field magnets for a possible future VLHC. The high levels of stored energy in these magnets present significant challenges to the magnet quench protection. Simulation programs have been developed and used to analyze temperature and voltage distributions during a quench and to performed parametric studies on conductor and quench-heater requirements. This paper concludes with a proposal for a set of quench protection parameters for the VLHC magnets.

  4. Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging of the basal ganglia and related structures

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Birgit R.; Temel, Yasin; Roebroeck, Alard; Uludağ, Kâmil; Ivanov, Dimo; Kuijf, Mark L.; ter Haar Romenij, Bart M.

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation is a treatment for Parkinson's disease and other related disorders, involving the surgical placement of electrodes in the deeply situated basal ganglia or thalamic structures. Good clinical outcome requires accurate targeting. However, due to limited visibility of the target structures on routine clinical MR images, direct targeting of structures can be challenging. Non-clinical MR scanners with ultra-high magnetic field (7T or higher) have the potential to improve the quality of these images. This technology report provides an overview of the current possibilities of visualizing deep brain stimulation targets and their related structures with the aid of ultra-high field MRI. Reviewed studies showed improved resolution, contrast- and signal-to-noise ratios at ultra-high field. Sequences sensitive to magnetic susceptibility such as T2* and susceptibility weighted imaging and their maps in general showed the best visualization of target structures, including a separation between the subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra, the lamina pallidi medialis and lamina pallidi incompleta within the globus pallidus and substructures of the thalamus, including the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim). This shows that the visibility, identification, and even subdivision of the small deep brain stimulation targets benefit from increased field strength. Although ultra-high field MR imaging is associated with increased risk of geometrical distortions, it has been shown that these distortions can be avoided or corrected to the extent where the effects are limited. The availability of ultra-high field MR scanners for humans seems to provide opportunities for a more accurate targeting for deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease and related disorders. PMID:25414656

  5. Trap Characterization in High Field, High Temperature Stressed Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    CHARACTERIZATION IN HIGH FIELD, HIGH TEMPERATURE STRESSED GALLIUM NITRIDE HIGH ELECTRON MOBILITY TRANSISTORS by Kevin B. Pham March 2013 Thesis...TEMPERATURE STRESSED GALLIUM NITRIDE HIGH ELECTRON MOBILITY TRANSISTORS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Kevin B. Pham 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Gallium Nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) offer higher power output over existing technology. However

  6. Lattices for a high-field 30 TeV hadron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S.; Dell, F.; Harrison, M.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.

    1996-12-01

    Long arc cells would lead to major cost savings in a high field high T{sub c} hadron collider, operating in the regime of significant synchrotron radiation. Two such lattices, with half cell lengths of 110 and 260 m, are compared. Both allow flexible tuning, and have large dynamic apertures when dominated by chromatic sextupoles. Lattices with longer cells are much more sensitive to systematic magnet errors, which are expected to dominate.

  7. 15 Years of R&D on high field accelerator magnets at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Barzi, Emanuela; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2016-07-01

    The High Field Magnet (HFM) Program at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) has been developing Nb3Sn superconducting magnets, materials and technologies for present and future particle accelerators since the late 1990s. This paper summarizes the main results of the Nb3Sn accelerator magnet and superconductor R&D at FNAL and outlines the Program next steps.

  8. High field superconducting magnets (12 T and greater) for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.R.; Summers, L.T.; Kerns, J.A.

    1986-07-09

    The technology for producing high fields in large superconducting magnets has increased greatly in recent years, but must increase still more in the future. In this paper, we examine the present state of the art vis-a-vis the needs of a next-generation fusion machine and outline a program to provide for those needs. We also highlight recent developments that suggest the program goals are within reach.

  9. Technical Note: Experimental results from a prototype high-field inline MRI-linac.

    PubMed

    Liney, G P; Dong, B; Begg, J; Vial, P; Zhang, K; Lee, F; Walker, A; Rai, R; Causer, T; Alnaghy, S J; Oborn, B M; Holloway, L; Metcalfe, P; Barton, M; Crozier, S; Keall, P

    2016-09-01

    The pursuit of real-time image guided radiotherapy using optimal tissue contrast has seen the development of several hybrid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-treatment systems, high field and low field, and inline and perpendicular configurations. As part of a new MRI-linac program, an MRI scanner was integrated with a linear accelerator to enable investigations of a coupled inline MRI-linac system. This work describes results from a prototype experimental system to demonstrate the feasibility of a high field inline MR-linac. The magnet is a 1.5 T MRI system (Sonata, Siemens Healthcare) was located in a purpose built radiofrequency (RF) cage enabling shielding from and close proximity to a linear accelerator with inline (and future perpendicular) orientation. A portable linear accelerator (Linatron, Varian) was installed together with a multileaf collimator (Millennium, Varian) to provide dynamic field collimation and the whole assembly built onto a stainless-steel rail system. A series of MRI-linac experiments was performed to investigate (1) image quality with beam on measured using a macropodine (kangaroo) ex vivo phantom; (2) the noise as a function of beam state measured using a 6-channel surface coil array; and (3) electron contamination effects measured using Gafchromic film and an electronic portal imaging device (EPID). (1) Image quality was unaffected by the radiation beam with the macropodine phantom image with the beam on being almost identical to the image with the beam off. (2) Noise measured with a surface RF coil produced a 25% elevation of background intensity when the radiation beam was on. (3) Film and EPID measurements demonstrated electron focusing occurring along the centerline of the magnet axis. A proof-of-concept high-field MRI-linac has been built and experimentally characterized. This system has allowed us to establish the efficacy of a high field inline MRI-linac and study a number of the technical challenges and solutions.

  10. 15 Years of R&D on high field accelerator magnets at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Barzi, Emanuela; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2016-07-01

    The High Field Magnet (HFM) Program at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) has been developing Nb3Sn superconducting magnets, materials and technologies for present and future particle accelerators since the late 1990s. This paper summarizes the main results of the Nb3Sn accelerator magnet and superconductor R&D at FNAL and outlines the Program next steps.

  11. Perspectives for the high field approach in fusion research and advances within the Ignitor Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, B.; Airoldi, A.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Belforte, G.; Boggio-Sella, E.; Cardinali, A.; Cenacchi, G.; Conti, F.; Costa, E.; D'Amico, A.; Detragiache, P.; De Tommasi, G.; DeVellis, A.; Faelli, G.; Ferraris, P.; Frattolillo, A.; Giammanco, F.; Grasso, G.; Lazzaretti, M.; Mantovani, S.; Merriman, L.; Migliori, S.; Napoli, R.; Perona, A.; Pierattini, S.; Pironti, A.; Ramogida, G.; Rubinacci, G.; Sassi, M.; Sestero, A.; Spillantini, S.; Tavani, M.; Tumino, A.; Villone, F.; Zucchi, L.

    2015-05-01

    The Ignitor Program maintains the objective of approaching D-T ignition conditions by incorporating systematical advances made with relevant high field magnet technology and with experiments on high density well confined plasmas in the present machine design. An additional objective is that of charting the development of the high field line of experiments that goes from the Alcator machine to the ignitor device. The rationale for this class of experiments, aimed at producing poloidal fields with the highest possible values (compatible with proven safety factors of known plasma instabilities) is given. On the basis of the favourable properties of high density plasmas produced systematically by this line of machines, the envisioned future for the line, based on novel high field superconducting magnets, includes the possibility of investigating more advanced fusion burn conditions than those of the D-T plasmas for which Ignitor is designed. Considering that a detailed machine design has been carried out (Coppi et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 104013), the advances made in different areas of the physics and technology that are relevant to the Ignitor project are reported. These are included within the following sections of the present paper: main components issues, assembly and welding procedures; robotics criteria; non-linear feedback control; simulations with three-dimensional structures and disruption studies; ICRH and dedicated diagnostics systems; anomalous transport processes including self-organization for fusion burning regimes and the zero-dimensional model; tridimensional structures of the thermonuclear instability and control provisions; superconducting components of the present machine; envisioned experiments with high field superconducting magnets.

  12. Quantification of local geometric distortion in structural magnetic resonance images: Application to ultra-high fields.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jonathan C; Khan, Ali R; Zeng, Tony Y; MacDougall, Keith W; Parrent, Andrew G; Peters, Terry M

    2017-01-06

    Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides superior visualization of brain structures compared to lower fields, but images may be prone to severe geometric inhomogeneity. We propose to quantify local geometric distortion at ultra-high fields in in vivo datasets of human subjects scanned at both ultra-high field and lower fields. By using the displacement field derived from nonlinear image registration between images of the same subject, focal areas of spatial uncertainty are quantified. Through group and subject-specific analysis, we were able to identify regions systematically affected by geometric distortion at air-tissue interfaces prone to magnetic susceptibility, where the gradient coil non-linearity occurs in the occipital and suboccipital regions, as well as with distance from image isocenter. The derived displacement maps, quantified in millimeters, can be used to prospectively evaluate subject-specific local spatial uncertainty that should be taken into account in neuroimaging studies, and also for clinical applications like stereotactic neurosurgery where accuracy is critical. Validation with manual fiducial displacement demonstrated excellent correlation and agreement. Our results point to the need for site-specific calibration of geometric inhomogeneity. Our methodology provides a framework to permit prospective evaluation of the effect of MRI sequences, distortion correction techniques, and scanner hardware/software upgrades on geometric distortion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. High-field magnetization of Heusler compound Fe2Mn1 -xVxSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroi, Masahiko; Tazoko, Tomoya; Sano, Hiroaki; Shigeta, Iduru; Koyama, Keiichi; Kondo, Akihiro; Kindo, Koich; Manaka, Hirotaka; Terada, Norio

    2017-01-01

    Fe2MnSi exhibits a ferromagnetic transition at TC˜230 K and another transition to a phase with antiferromagnetic components at TA˜60 K. By substituting V for Mn, so as to obtain Fe2Mn1 -xVxSi , TA is revealed to decrease with x and then vanish around x ˜0.2 . In this study, the phase boundary of the transition at TA in the high-field range is found for 0 ≤x ≤0.15 with pulsed fields up to ˜70 T. The magnetization of Fe2Mn1 -xVxSi slowly increases even at the highest field of ˜70 T, though it occurs more gradually as x increases. We compare the magnetization for 0 ≤x ≤0.20 at 62 T with the Slater-Pauling rule, which holds when a Heusler compound is a half-metal, and find fairly good agreement. This suggests an intimate relation between the high-field phase and the half-metallic electronic structure, and that at the high-field limit the phase approaches the half-metallic state, which has been predicted by band-structure calculations.

  14. Ultra-High Field Template-Assisted Target Selection for Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lau, Jonathan C; MacDougall, Keith W; Arango, Miguel F; Peters, Terry M; Parrent, Andrew G; Khan, Ali R

    2017-07-01

    Template and atlas guidance are fundamental aspects of stereotactic neurosurgery. The recent availability of ultra-high field (7 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging has enabled in vivo visualization at the submillimeter scale. In this Doing More with Less article, we describe our experiences with integrating ultra-high field template data into the clinical workflow to assist with target selection in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgical planning. The creation of a high-resolution 7T template is described, generated from group data acquired at our center. A computational workflow was developed for spatially aligning the 7T template with standard clinical data and furthermore, integrating the derived imaging volumes into the surgical planning workstation. We demonstrate that our methodology can be effective for assisting with target selection in 2 cases: unilateral internal pallidum DBS for painful dystonia and bilateral subthalamic nucleus DBS for Parkinson's disease. In this article, we have described a workflow for the integration of high-resolution in vivo ultra-high field templates into the surgical navigation system as a means to assist with DBS planning. The method does not require any additional cost or time to the patient. Future work will include prospectively evaluating different templates and their impact on target selection. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The High Field Compact Approach in Nuclear Fusion: Present and Foreseeable Developments vs. Damnatio Memoriae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillantini, P.; Coppi, B.; Grasso, G.

    2016-10-01

    A confirmation of the fact that the most promising approach, in the effort to demonstrate experimentally that fusion burning D-T plasmas can reach near-ignition conditions, is that of high field compact (HFC) machines, has come from recent analyses of confinement experiments conducted over the years. In fact, this approach can be adopted to begin investigations of D-D and D-3 He burning regimes. An important development that can be used in these experiments is that of high field super-conductor technology. This technology was pioneered with the adoption and design of the largest (vertical field) coils of the Ignitor machine using MgB2 super-conductors cooled to about 10oK. The use of hybrid magnets combining MgB2 and high temperature super-conductors to reach the needed high fields for all the machine components has been proposed also with a specific configuration for envisioned future experiments. A surprising occurrence, related to the ideas at the basis of the HFC machine approach has been the practice of the ``damnatio memoriae'' inflicted on their originators. Sponsored in part by the U.S. D.O.E.

  16. Cortical mapping and frameless stereotactic navigation in the high-field intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging suite

    PubMed Central

    Weingarten, David M.; Asthagiri, Ashok R.; Butman, John A.; Sato, Susumu; Wiggs, Edythe A.; Damaska, Bonita; Heiss, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Frameless stereotactic neuronavigation provides tracking of surgical instruments on radiographic images and orients the surgeon to tumor margins at surgery. Bipolar electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) delineates safe limits for resection of brain tumors adjacent to eloquent cortex. These standard techniques could complement the capability of intraoperative MR (iMR) imaging to evaluate for occult residual disease during surgery and promote more complete tumor removal. The use of frameless neuronavigation in the high-field iMR imaging suite requires that a few pieces of standard equipment be replaced by nonferromagnetic instruments. Specific use of ESM in a high-field iMR imaging suite has not been reported in the literature. To study whether frameless neuronavigation and electrical stimulation mapping could be successfully integrated in the high-field iMR imaging suite, the authors employed these modalities in 10 consecutive cases involving patients undergoing conscious craniotomy for primary brain tumors located in or adjacent to eloquent cortices. Equipment included a custom high-field MR imaging–compatible head holder and dynamic reference frame attachment, a standard MR imaging–compatible dynamic reference frame, a standard MR imaging machine with a table top that could be translated to a pedestal outside the 5-gauss line for the operative intervention, and standard neuronavigational and cortical stimulation equipment. Both ESM and frameless stereotactic guidance were performed outside the 5-gauss line. The presence of residual neoplasm was evaluated using iMR imaging; resection was continued until eloquent areas were encountered or iMR imaging confirmed complete removal of any residual tumor. Mapping identified essential language (5 patients), sensory (6), and motor (7) areas. The combined use of frameless stereotactic navigation, ESM, and iMR imaging resulted in complete radiographic resection in 7 cases and resection to an eloquent margin in 3 cases

  17. Stress management as an enabling technology for high-field superconducting dipole magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holik, Eddie Frank, III

    This dissertation examines stress management and other construction techniques as means to meet future accelerator requirement demands by planning, fabricating, and analyzing a high-field, Nb3Sn dipole. In order to enable future fundamental research and discovery in high energy accelerator physics, bending magnets must access the highest fields possible. Stress management is a novel, propitious path to attain higher fields and preserve the maximum current capacity of advanced superconductors by managing the Lorentz stress so that strain induced current degradation is mitigated. Stress management is accomplished through several innovative design features. A block-coil geometry enables an Inconel pier and beam matrix to be incorporated in the windings for Lorentz Stress support and reduced AC loss. A laminar spring between windings and mica paper surrounding each winding inhibit any stress transferral through the support structure and has been simulated with ALGORRTM. Wood's metal filled, stainless steel bladders apply isostatic, surface-conforming preload to the pier and beam support structure. Sufficient preload along with mica paper sheer release reduces magnet training by inhibiting stick-slip motion. The effectiveness of stress management is tested with high-precision capacitive stress transducers and strain gauges. In addition to stress management, there are several technologies developed to assist in the successful construction of a high-field dipole. Quench protection has been designed and simulated along with full 3D magnetic simulation with OPERARTM. Rutherford cable was constructed, and cable thermal expansion data was analysed after heat treatment. Pre-impregnation analysis techniques were developed due to elemental tin leakage in varying quantities during heat treatment from each coil. Robust splicing techniques were developed with measured resistivites consistent with nO joints. Stress management has not been incorporated by any other high field dipole

  18. Inverse field-based approach for simultaneous B₁ mapping at high fields - a phantom based study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jin; Liu, Feng; Zuo, Zhentao; Xue, Rong; Li, Mingyan; Li, Yu; Weber, Ewald; Crozier, Stuart

    2012-04-01

    Based on computational electromagnetics and multi-level optimization, an inverse approach of attaining accurate mapping of both transmit and receive sensitivity of radiofrequency coils is presented. This paper extends our previous study of inverse methods of receptivity mapping at low fields, to allow accurate mapping of RF magnetic fields (B(1)) for high-field applications. Accurate receive sensitivity mapping is essential to image domain parallel imaging methods, such as sensitivity encoding (SENSE), to reconstruct high quality images. Accurate transmit sensitivity mapping will facilitate RF-shimming and parallel transmission techniques that directly address the RF inhomogeneity issue, arguably the most challenging issue of high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The inverse field-based approach proposed herein is based on computational electromagnetics and iterative optimization. It fits an experimental image to the numerically calculated signal intensity by iteratively optimizing the coil-subject geometry to better resemble the experiments. Accurate transmit and receive sensitivities are derived as intermediate results of the optimization process. The method is validated by imaging studies using homogeneous saline phantom at 7T. A simulation study at 300MHz demonstrates that the proposed method is able to obtain receptivity mapping with errors an order of magnitude less than that of the conventional method. The more accurate receptivity mapping and simultaneously obtained transmit sensitivity mapping could enable artefact-reduced and intensity-corrected image reconstructions. It is hoped that by providing an approach to the accurate mapping of both transmit and receive sensitivity, the proposed method will facilitate a range of applications in high-field MRI and parallel imaging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fast Spectroscopic Imaging and Field Compensation Using Frequency Modulation at Ultra-High-Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Albert Woo Ju

    The high energy phosphates (HEP) in the myocardium, which are critical to understanding the cardiac function in both normal and pathophysiologic states, can be assessed non-invasively in vivo using phosphorus-31 (31P) spectroscopy. Compared to proton, for the same volume and magnetic field strength, the available signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio of the HEP metabolites is orders of magnitude lower mainly due to its intrinsically low concentration. Hence, cardiac spectroscopy greatly benefits when performed at ultra-high-fields (UHF, ≥ 7 T), both in terms of increased SNR and increased spectroscopic resolution. However, at ultra-high-field strengths, complications arise from the RF transmit wavelength becoming comparable or smaller than the field-of-view (FOV), thus exhibiting wave-like behavior. Furthermore, even with the spectroscopic resolution afforded at UHF, measuring myocardial inorganic phosphate (Pi) is still a challenge and has been a major barrier in extracting the ATP turnover rate. Recently, an indirect way of extracting the ATP hydrolysis rate forgoing direct measurement of Pi was established. In this work, we combine this method with the T1 nom method to monitor the transmural distribution of forward creatine kinase reaction (kf,CK) and ATP hydrolysis rate (kr,ATPase) of the myocardium, effectively reducing data acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude. In addition, a new class of 2D FM pulses and multidimensional adiabatic pulses are presented, which can compensate for B1 inhomogeneity through its spatiotemporal properties. These pulses should be valuable for spectroscopic applications at ultra-high-fields.

  20. ADVANCED MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF CEREBRAL CAVERNOUS MALFORMATIONS: I. HIGH FIELD IMAGING OF EXCISED HUMAN LESIONS

    PubMed Central

    Shenkar, Robert; Venkatasubramanian, Palamadai N.; Zhao, Jin-cheng; Batjer, H. Hunt; Wyrwicz, Alice M.; Awad, Issam A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We hypothesized that structural details would be revealed in cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) through the use of high field magnetic resonance (MR) and confocal microscopy, which have not been described previously. The structural details of CCMs excised from human patients were sought by examination with high field MR imaging, and correlated with confocal microscopy of the same specimens. Novel features of CCM structure are outlined, including methodological limitations, venues for future research and possible clinical implications. Methods CCM lesions excised from four patients were fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde and subjected to high resolution MR imaging at 9.4 or 14.1 Tesla by spin-echo and gradient recalled echo methods. Histological validation of angioarchitecture was conducted on thick sections of CCM lesions using fluorescent probes to endothelium under confocal microscopy. Results Images of excised human CCM lesions were acquired with proton density-weighted, T1-weighted, T2-weighted spin echo and T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo MR. These images revealed large “bland” regions with thin walled caverns, and “honeycombed” regions with notable capillary proliferation and smaller caverns surrounding larger caverns. Proliferating capillaries and caverns of various sizes were also associated with the wall of apparent larger blood vessels in the lesions. Similar features were confirmed within thick sections of CCMs by confocal microscopy. MR relaxation times in different regions of interest suggested the presence of different states of blood breakdown products in areas with apparent angiogenic proliferative activity. Conclusions The high field MR imaging techniques demonstrate novel features of CCM angioarchitecture, visible at near histological resolution, including regions with apparently different biologic activity. These preliminary observations will motivate future research, correlating lesion biologic and clinical activity with

  1. A HIGH FIELD PULSED SOLENOID MAGNET FOR LIQUID METAL TARGET STUDIES.

    SciTech Connect

    KIRK,H.G.IAROCCI,M.SCADUTO,J.WEGGEL,R.J.MULHOLLAND,G.MCDONALD,K.T.

    2003-05-12

    The target system for a muon collider/neutrino factory requires the conjunction of an intense proton beam, a high-Z liquid target and a high-field solenoid magnet. We describe here the design parameters for a pulsed solenoid, including the magnet cryogenic system and power supply, that can generate transient fields of greater than 10T with a flat-tops on the order of 1 second. It is envisioned to locate this device at the Brookhaven AGS for proof-of-principle testing of a liquid-jet target system with pulses of le13 protons.

  2. Generation of high-field narrowband terahertz radiation by counterpropagating plasma wakefields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, I. V.; Annenkov, V. V.; Volchok, E. P.

    2017-10-01

    It is found that nonlinear interaction of plasma wakefields driven by counterpropagating laser or particle beams can efficiently generate high-power electromagnetic radiation at the second harmonic of the plasma frequency. Using a simple analytical theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we show that this phenomenon can be attractive for producing high-field ( ˜10 MV/cm) tunable terahertz radiation with a narrow line width. For laser drivers produced by existing petawatt-class systems, this nonlinear process opens the way to the generation of gigawatt, multi-millijoule terahertz pulses which are not presently available for any other generating schemes.

  3. Single-shot spatiotemporal measurements of high-field terahertz pulses

    SciTech Connect

    van Tilborg, Jeroen; Schroeder, Carl; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, Cameron; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2011-06-17

    The electric field profiles of broad-bandwidth coherent terahertz (THz) pulses, emitted by laser-wakefield-accelerated electron bunches, are studied. The near-single-cycle THz pulses are measured with two single-shot techniques in the temporal and spatial domains. Spectra of 0-6 THz and peak fields up to {approx_equal} 0.4 MV cm{sup -1} are observed. The measured field substructure demonstrates the manifestation of spatiotemporal coupling at focus, which affects the interpretation of THz radiation as a bunch diagnostic and in high-field pump-probe experiments.

  4. High field magnetic resonance imaging of normal and pathologic human medulla oblongata.

    PubMed

    Vandersteen, M; Beuls, E; Gelan, J; Adriaensens, P; Vanormelingen, L; Palmers, Y; Freling, G

    1994-02-01

    High field proton magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been applied to depict the MR appearance of the normal excised human cervicomedullary junction, based on which neuropathologic specimens can be described. More specifically, two normal cases and one case of Chiari deformity were imaged in the transverse, sagittal, and coronal dimensions using a 9.4 Tesla vertical bore magnet. The MR images of the normal specimens reveal most of the neuroanatomical microstructures described in literature. An accurate description of the Chiari deformity could be made by comparing the MR reference images with those of the pathologic specimen. All MR detected abnormalities were confirmed by histopathology, by which no additional lesions could be found.

  5. Observation of Thermoelectric Currents in High-Field Superconductor-Ferromagnet Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolenda, S.; Wolf, M. J.; Beckmann, D.

    2016-03-01

    We report on the experimental observation of spin-dependent thermoelectric currents in superconductor-ferromagnet tunnel junctions in high magnetic fields. The thermoelectric signals are due to a spin-dependent lifting of the particle-hole symmetry, and are found to be in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions. The maximum Seebeck coefficient inferred from the data is about -100 μ V /K , much larger than commonly found in metallic structures. Our results directly prove the coupling of spin and heat transport in high-field superconductors.

  6. Quench problems of Nb3 Sn cosine theta high field dipole model magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Ryuji; Wake, Masayoshi; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2004-12-01

    We have developed and tested several cosine theta high field dipole model magnets for accelerator application, utilizing Nb{sub 3}Sn strands made by MJR method and PIT method. With Rutherford cables made with PIT strand we achieved 10.1 Tesla central field at 2.2 K operation, and 9.5 Tesla at 4.5 K operation. The magnet wound with the MJR cable prematurely quenched at 6.8 Tesla at 4.5 K due to cryo-instability. Typical quench behaviors of these magnets are described for both types of magnets, HFDA-04 of MJR and HFDA-05 of PIT. Their characteristics parameters are compared on d{sub eff}, RRR, thermal conductivity and others, together with other historical Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets. It is suggested a larger RRR value is essential for the stability of the epoxy impregnated high field magnets made with high current density strands. It is shown that a magnet with a larger RRR value has a longer MPZ value and more stable, due to its high thermal conductivity and low resistivity.

  7. Widespread inflammation in CLIPPERS syndrome indicated by autopsy and ultra-high-field 7T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Blaabjerg, Morten; Ruprecht, Klemens; Sinnecker, Tim; Kondziella, Daniel; Niendorf, Thoralf; Kerrn-Jespersen, Bjørg Morell; Lindelof, Mette; Lassmann, Hans; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Paul, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine if there is widespread inflammation in the brain of patients with chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) syndrome by using histology and ultra-high-field MRI at 7.0T. Methods: We performed a detailed neuropathologic examination in 4 cases, including 1 autopsy case, and studied 2 additional patients by MRI at 7.0T to examine (1) extension of inflammation to areas appearing normal on 3.0T MRI, (2) potential advantages of 7.0T MRI compared to 3.0T MRI in reflecting widespread inflammation, perivascular pathology, and axonal damage, and (3) the possibility of lymphoma. Results: In the autopsy case, perivascular inflammation dominated by CD4+ T cells was not only detected in the brainstem and cerebellum but also in brain areas with normal appearance on 3.0T MRI, including supratentorial regions and cranial nerve roots. There was no evidence of lymphoma in any of the 4 patients. The 7.0T MRI in clinical remission also revealed supratentorial lesions and perivascular pathology in vivo with contrast-enhancing lesions centered around a small venous vessel. Ultra-high-field MRI at 7.0T disclosed prominent T1 hypointensities in the brainstem, which were not seen on 3.0T MRI. This corresponded to neuropathologic detection of axonal injury in the autopsy case. Conclusion: Our findings suggest more widespread perivascular inflammation and postinflammatory axonal injury in patients with CLIPPERS. PMID:27144217

  8. Ideal charge-density-wave order in the high-field state of superconducting YBCO

    PubMed Central

    Jang, H.; Lee, W.-S.; Nojiri, H.; Matsuzawa, S.; Yasumura, H.; Nie, L.; Maharaj, A. V.; Gerber, S.; Liu, Y.-J.; Mehta, A.; Bonn, D. A.; Liang, R.; Hardy, W. N.; Burns, C. A.; Islam, Z.; Song, S.; Hastings, J.; Devereaux, T. P.; Shen, Z.-X.; Kivelson, S. A.; Kao, C.-C.; Zhu, D.; Lee, J.-S.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of charge-density-wave (CDW) correlations in cuprate superconductors has now been established. However, the nature of the CDW ground state has remained uncertain because disorder and the presence of superconductivity typically limit the CDW correlation lengths to only a dozen unit cells or less. Here we explore the field-induced 3D CDW correlations in extremely pure detwinned crystals of YBa2Cu3O2 (YBCO) ortho-II and ortho-VIII at magnetic fields in excess of the resistive upper critical field (Hc2) where superconductivity is heavily suppressed. We observe that the 3D CDW is unidirectional and possesses a long in-plane correlation length as well as significant correlations between neighboring CuO2 planes. It is significant that we observe only a single sharply defined transition at a critical field proportional to Hc2, given that the field range used in this investigation overlaps with other high-field experiments including quantum oscillation measurements. The correlation volume is at least two to three orders of magnitude larger than that of the zero-field CDW. This is by far the largest CDW correlation volume observed in any cuprate crystal and so is presumably representative of the high-field ground state of an “ideal” disorder-free cuprate. PMID:27930313

  9. Prostate MR imaging at high-field strength: evolution or revolution?

    PubMed

    Rouvière, Olivier; Hartman, Robert P; Lyonnet, Denis

    2006-02-01

    As 3 T MR scanners become more available, body imaging at high field strength is becoming the subject of intensive research. However, little has been published on prostate imaging at 3 T. Will high-field imaging dramatically increase our ability to depict and stage prostate cancer? This paper will address this question by reviewing the advantages and drawbacks of body imaging at 3 T and the current limitations of prostate imaging at 1.5 T, and by detailing the preliminary results of prostate 3 T MRI. Even if slight adjustments of imaging protocols are necessary for taking into account the changes in T1 and T2 relaxation times at 3 T, tissue contrast in T2-weighted (T2w) imaging seems similar at 1.5 T and 3 T. Therefore, significant improvement in cancer depiction in T2w imaging is not expected. However, increased spatial resolution due to increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) may improve the detection of minimal capsular invasion. Higher field strength should provide increased spectral and spatial resolution for spectroscopic imaging, but new pulse sequences will have to be designed for overcoming field inhomogeneities and citrate J-modulation issues. Finally, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is the method of imaging that is the most likely to benefit from the increased SNR, with a significantly better trade-off between temporal and spatial resolution.

  10. Sample-Induced RF Perturbations in High-Field, High-Resolution NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crozier, Stuart; Brereton, Ian M.; Zelaya, Fernando O.; Roffmann, Wolfgang U.; Doddrell, David M.

    1997-05-01

    Conducting dielectric samples are often used in high-resolution experiments at high field. It is shown that significant amplitude and phase distortions of the RF magnetic field may result from perturbations caused by such samples. Theoretical analyses demonstrate the spatial variation of the RF field amplitude and phase across the sample, and comparisons of the effect are made for a variety of sample properties and operating field strengths. Although the effect is highly nonlinear, it tends to increase with increasing field strength, permittivity, conductivity, and sample size. There are cases, however, in which increasing the conductivity of the sample improves the homogeneity of the amplitude of the RF field across the sample at the expense of distorted RF phase. It is important that the perturbation effects be calculated for the experimental conditions used, as they have the potential to reduce the signal-to-noise ratio of NMR experiments and may increase the generation of spurious coherences. The effect of RF-coil geometry on the coherences is also modeled, with the use of homogeneous resonators such as the birdcage design being preferred. Recommendations are made concerning methods of reducing sample-induced perturbations. Experimental high-field imaging and high-resolution studies demonstrate the effect.

  11. An FEM approach for the characterization of the RF field homogeneity at high field.

    PubMed

    Guclu, C; Kashmar, G; Hacinliyan, A; Nalcioglu, O

    1997-01-01

    High field magnetic resonance offers new opportunities because of its high SNR and better spectral resolution for MRI and MRS. However, new problems also emerge at high field. As the field strength increases, the wavelength in the tissue becomes shorter and comparable with the body dimensions. This perturbs the field and also causes standing waves within the patient as a result of the impedance mismatching at the tissue interfaces. Due to the complexity of the boundary conditions and the solution of Maxwell's equations, an exact analytical calculation for a loaded RF resonator has not been possible. In this paper, we present a birdcage coil simulation study based on a 3D finite element method (FEM) model for the characterization of the field within the tissue. First, the accuracy of the FEM solutions is validated by the 2D analytical solutions at 64 and 223 MHz. In these solutions, the frequency dependence of the conductivity and permittivity is also taken into account. Then, a more realistic 3D model is studied. The results are compared with the experimental measurements. It is shown that the 3D model makes it possible to explore the effects of the end rings in the presence of a tissue sample inside the coil.

  12. Hippocampal subfields at ultra high field MRI: An overview of segmentation and measurement methods.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Alessia; Donatelli, Graziella; Cosottini, Mirco; Tosetti, Michela; Retico, Alessandra; Fantacci, Maria Evelina

    2017-02-11

    The hippocampus is one of the most interesting and studied brain regions because of its involvement in memory functions and its vulnerability in pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative processes. In the recent years, the increasing availability of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners that operate at ultra-high field (UHF), that is, with static magnetic field strength ≥7T, has opened new research perspectives. Compared to conventional high-field scanners, these systems can provide new contrasts, increased signal-to-noise ratio and higher spatial resolution, thus they may improve the visualization of very small structures of the brain, such as the hippocampal subfields. Studying the morphometry of the hippocampus is crucial in neuroimaging research because changes in volume and thickness of hippocampal subregions may be relevant in the early assessment of pathological cognitive decline and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The present review provides an overview of the manual, semi-automated and fully automated methods that allow the assessment of hippocampal subfield morphometry at UHF MRI, focusing on the different hippocampal segmentation produced. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Ideal charge-density-wave order in the high-field state of superconducting YBCO.

    PubMed

    Jang, H; Lee, W-S; Nojiri, H; Matsuzawa, S; Yasumura, H; Nie, L; Maharaj, A V; Gerber, S; Liu, Y-J; Mehta, A; Bonn, D A; Liang, R; Hardy, W N; Burns, C A; Islam, Z; Song, S; Hastings, J; Devereaux, T P; Shen, Z-X; Kivelson, S A; Kao, C-C; Zhu, D; Lee, J-S

    2016-12-20

    The existence of charge-density-wave (CDW) correlations in cuprate superconductors has now been established. However, the nature of the CDW ground state has remained uncertain because disorder and the presence of superconductivity typically limit the CDW correlation lengths to only a dozen unit cells or less. Here we explore the field-induced 3D CDW correlations in extremely pure detwinned crystals of YBa2Cu3O2 (YBCO) ortho-II and ortho-VIII at magnetic fields in excess of the resistive upper critical field ([Formula: see text]) where superconductivity is heavily suppressed. We observe that the 3D CDW is unidirectional and possesses a long in-plane correlation length as well as significant correlations between neighboring CuO2 planes. It is significant that we observe only a single sharply defined transition at a critical field proportional to [Formula: see text], given that the field range used in this investigation overlaps with other high-field experiments including quantum oscillation measurements. The correlation volume is at least two to three orders of magnitude larger than that of the zero-field CDW. This is by far the largest CDW correlation volume observed in any cuprate crystal and so is presumably representative of the high-field ground state of an "ideal" disorder-free cuprate.

  14. High Field Pulsed Magnets for Neutron Scattering at the Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granroth, G. E.; Lee, J.; Fogh, E.; Christensen, N. B.; Toft-Petersen, R.; Nojiri, H.

    2015-03-01

    A High Field Pulsed Magnet (HFPM) setup, is in use at the Spallation Nuetron Source(SNS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory. With this device, we recently measured the high field magnetic spin structure of LiNiPO4. The results of this study will be highlighted as an example of possible measurements that can be performed with this device. To further extend the HFPM capabilities at SNS, we have learned to design and wind these coils in house. This contribution will summarize the magnet coil design optimization procedure. Specifically by varying the geometry of the multi-layer coil, we arrive at a design that balances the maximum field strength, neutron scattering angle, and the field homogeneity for a specific set of parameters. We will show that a 6.3kJ capacitor bank, can provide a magnetic field as high as 30T for a maximum scattering angle around 40° with homogeneity of +/- 4 % in a 2mm diameter spherical volume. We will also compare the calculations to measurements from a recently wound test coil. This work was supported in part by the Lab Directors' Research and Development Fund of ORNL.

  15. Design of a High Field Nb3Al Common Coil Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qingjin; Sasaki, Kenichi; Nakamoto, Tatsushi; Terashima, Akio; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Yamamoto, Akira; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Takeuchi, Takao; Sabbi, GianLuca; Caspi, Shlomo; Ferracin, Paolo; Felice, Helene; Hafalia, Ray; Zlobin, Alexander; Barzi, Emauela; Yamada, Ryuji

    2009-10-19

    A high field Nb{sub 3}Al common coil magnet is under development as an R&D of 'Advanced Superconducting Magnets for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade', in the framework of the CERN-KEK cooperation program. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of high field magnet wound with Nb{sub 3}Al cable. The common coil approach and the shell-based structure were adopted in the design of this magnet. Besides three Nb{sub 3}Al coils, two Nb{sub 3}Sn coils were included to increase the peak field of the whole magnet. The two types of coils were designed with different straight lengths to reduce the peak field of the Nb{sub 3}Sn coils. The peak fields of the Nb{sub 3}Al and Nb{sub 3}Sn coils are 13.1 T and 11.8 T respectively. An aluminum shell together with four aluminum rods applies stress to the coils to overcome the Lorenz force during excitation. Two different support structures for the superconducting coils were introduced in this paper. The development status is also presented.

  16. The design and test of a new volume coil for high field imaging.

    PubMed

    Wen, H; Chesnick, A S; Balaban, R S

    1994-10-01

    A major problem in the development of high field (> 100 MHz) large volume (> 6000 cm3) MR coils is the interaction of the coil with the subject as well as the radiation loss to the environment. To reduce subject perturbation of the coil resonance modes, a volume coil that uses an array of freely rotating resonant elements radially mounted between two concentric cylinders was designed for operation at 170 MHz. Substantial electromagnetic energy is stored in the resonant elements outside the sample region without compromising the efficiency of the overall coil. This stored energy reduces the effect of the subject on the circuit and maintains a high Q, facilitating the tuning and matching of the coil. The unloaded Q of the coil is 680; when loaded with a head, it was 129. The ratio of 5.3 of the unloaded to loaded Q supports the notion that the efficiency of the coil was maintained in comparison with previous designs. The power requirement and signal-to-noise performance are significantly improved. The coil is tuned by a mechanism that imparts the same degree of rotation on all of the elements simultaneously, varying their degree of mutual coupling and preserving the overall coil symmetry. A thin radiofrequency shield is an integral part of the coil to reduce the radiation effect, which is a significant loss mechanism at high fields. MR images were collected at 4T using this coil design with high sensitivity and B1 homogeneity.

  17. The conceptual design of a robust, compact, modular tokamak reactor based on high-field superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyte, D. G.; Bonoli, P.; Barnard, H.; Haakonsen, C.; Hartwig, Z.; Kasten, C.; Palmer, T.; Sung, C.; Sutherland, D.; Bromberg, L.; Mangiarotti, F.; Goh, J.; Sorbom, B.; Sierchio, J.; Ball, J.; Greenwald, M.; Olynyk, G.; Minervini, J.

    2012-10-01

    Two of the greatest challenges to tokamak reactors are 1) large single-unit cost of each reactor's construction and 2) their susceptibility to disruptions from operation at or above operational limits. We present an attractive tokamak reactor design that substantially lessens these issues by exploiting recent advancements in superconductor (SC) tapes allowing peak field on SC coil > 20 Tesla. A R˜3.3 m, B˜9.2 T, ˜ 500 MW fusion power tokamak provides high fusion gain while avoiding all disruptive operating boundaries (no-wall beta, kink, and density limits). Robust steady-state core scenarios are obtained by exploiting the synergy of high field, compact size and ideal efficiency current drive using high-field side launch of Lower Hybrid waves. The design features a completely modular replacement of internal solid components enabled by the demountability of the coils/tapes and the use of an immersion liquid blanket. This modularity opens up the possibility of using the device as a nuclear component test facility.

  18. High field (14 T) magneto transport of Sm/PrFeAsO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena, R. S.; Singh, Shiva Kumar; Pal, Anand; Kumar, Anuj; Jha, R.; Rao, K. V. R.; Du, Y.; Wang, X. L.; Awana, V. P. S.

    2012-04-01

    We report high field magneto transport of Sm/PrFeAsO. Below spin density wave transition (TSDW), the magneto-resistance (MR) of Sm/PrFeAsO is positive and increasing with decreasing temperature. The MR of SmFeAsO is found to be 16%, whereas it is 21.5% in the case of PrFeAsO, at 2.5 K under applied magnetic field of 14 Tesla (T). In the case of SmFeAsO, the variation of isothermal MR with field below 20 K is nonlinear at lower magnetic fields (<2 T) and it is linear at moderately higher magnetic fields (H ≥ 3.5 T). On the other hand, PrFeAsO shows almost linear MR at all temperatures below 20 K. The anomalous behavior of MR being exhibited in PrFeAsO is originated from Dirac cone states. The stronger interplay of Fe and Pr ordered moments is responsible for this distinct behavior. PrFeAsO also shows a hump in resistivity (R-T) with a possible conduction band (FeAs) mediated ordering of Pr moments at around 12 K. However, the same is absent in SmFeAsO even down to 2 K. Our results of high field magneto-transport of up to 14 T brings about clear distinction between ground states of SmFeAsO and PrFeAsO.

  19. Using High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Estimate Distensibility of the Middle Cerebral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Warnert, Esther A.H.; Verbree, Jasper; Wise, Richard G.; van Osch, Matthias J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although cerebral arterial stiffness may be an important marker for cerebrovascular health, there is not yet a measurement that accurately reflects the distensibility of major intracranial arteries. Herein, we aim to noninvasively measure distension of the human middle cerebral artery (MCA). Methods Ten healthy volunteers (age: 30.3 ± 10.8 years) underwent ultra-high-field (7-tesla) MRI scanning. Time-of-flight angiography and phase-contrast flow imaging were used to locate the M1 segment of the MCA and to determine the occurrence of systole and diastole. High-resolution cross-sectional cardiac triggered T2-weighted images of the M1 segment of the MCA were acquired in systole and diastole. Results The average distension of the MCA area from diastole to systole was 2.58% (range: 0.08%-6.48%). There was no significant correlation between MCA distension and the pulsatility index, calculated from the phase-contrast flow velocity profiles. Conclusion These results lead to the first noninvasive image-based estimation of distensibility of the MCA (approx. 5.8 × 10-4 mm Hg-1) and demonstrate that ultra-high-field MRI could be a promising tool for investigating distensibility of intracranial arteries in relation to cerebrovascular pathology. PMID:27449212

  20. ADX: a high field, high power density, Advanced Divertor test eXperiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, R.; Labombard, B.; Marmar, E.; Irby, J.; Shiraiwa, S.; Terry, J.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D. G.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.; ADX Team

    2014-10-01

    The MIT PSFC and collaborators are proposing an advanced divertor experiment (ADX) - a tokamak specifically designed to address critical gaps in the world fusion research program on the pathway to FNSF/DEMO. This high field (6.5 tesla, 1.5 MA), high power density (P/S ~ 1.5 MW/m2) facility would utilize Alcator magnet technology to test innovative divertor concepts for next-step DT fusion devices (FNSF, DEMO) at reactor-level boundary plasma pressures and parallel heat flux densities while producing high performance core plasma conditions. The experimental platform would also test advanced lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and ion-cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) actuators and wave physics at the plasma densities and magnetic field strengths of a DEMO, with the unique ability to deploy launcher structures both on the low-magnetic-field side and the high-field side - a location where energetic plasma-material interactions can be controlled and wave physics is most favorable for efficient current drive, heating and flow drive. This innovative experiment would perform plasma science and technology R&D necessary to inform the conceptual development and accelerate the readiness-for-deployment of FNSF/DEMO - in a timely manner, on a cost-effective research platform. Supported by DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  1. Modified van Vaals-Bergman coaxial cable coil (lambda coil) for high-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, H; Nakada, T

    1996-03-01

    An easily constructed, low-capacitive coupling volume coil based on the van Vaals-Bergman coaxial cable coil for high field imaging is described. The coil (designated "lambda coil") was constructed using two 5/4 length 50 omega coaxial cables matched to a 50 omega transmission line with LC bridge balun. The standing wave on the single 5/4 lambda length coaxial cable provides two points of current maxima in oppositional direction. Therefore, the four current elements necessary for effective B1 field generation can be obtained by two 5/4 lambda length coaxial cables arranged analogous to 1/2 lambda T-antenna. Capacitive coupling between the coil elements and conductive samples (i.e. animals) is minimized by simply retaining the shield of the coaxial cable for the area of voltage maxima. The lambda coil exhibited excellent performance as a volume coil with a high quality factor and highly homogeneous rf fields. Because of its dramatically simple architecture and excellent performance, the lambda coil configuration appears to be an economical alternative to the original van Vaals-Bergman design, especially for research facilities with a high field magnet and limited bore space.

  2. Ideal charge-density-wave order in the high-field state of superconducting YBCO

    DOE PAGES

    Jang, H.; Lee, W. -S.; Nojiri, H.; ...

    2016-12-05

    Here, the existence of charge-density-wave (CDW) correlations in cuprate superconductors has now been established. However, the nature of the CDW ground state has remained uncertain because disorder and the presence of superconductivity typically limit the CDW correlation lengths to only a dozen unit cells or less. Here we explore the field-induced 3D CDW correlations in extremely pure detwinned crystals of YBa2Cu3O2 (YBCO) ortho-II and ortho-VIII at magnetic fields in excess of the resistive upper critical field (Hc2) where superconductivity is heavily suppressed. We observe that the 3D CDW is unidirectional and possesses a long in-plane correlation length as well asmore » significant correlations between neighboring CuO2 planes. It is significant that we observe only a single sharply defined transition at a critical field proportional to Hc2, given that the field range used in this investigation overlaps with other high-field experiments including quantum oscillation measurements. The correlation volume is at least two to three orders of magnitude larger than that of the zero-field CDW. This is by far the largest CDW correlation volume observed in any cuprate crystal and so is presumably representative of the high-field ground state of an “ideal” disorder-free cuprate.« less

  3. Ideal charge-density-wave order in the high-field state of superconducting YBCO

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, H.; Lee, W. -S.; Nojiri, H.; Matsuzawa, S.; Yasumura, H.; Nie, L.; Maharaj, A. V.; Gerber, S.; Liu, Y. -J.; Mehta, A.; Bonn, D. A.; Liang, R.; Hardy, W. N.; Burns, C. A.; Islam, Z.; Song, S.; Hastings, J.; Devereaux, T. P.; Shen, Z. -X.; Kivelson, S. A.; Kao, C. -C.; Zhu, D.; Lee, J. -S.

    2016-12-05

    Here, the existence of charge-density-wave (CDW) correlations in cuprate superconductors has now been established. However, the nature of the CDW ground state has remained uncertain because disorder and the presence of superconductivity typically limit the CDW correlation lengths to only a dozen unit cells or less. Here we explore the field-induced 3D CDW correlations in extremely pure detwinned crystals of YBa2Cu3O2 (YBCO) ortho-II and ortho-VIII at magnetic fields in excess of the resistive upper critical field (Hc2) where superconductivity is heavily suppressed. We observe that the 3D CDW is unidirectional and possesses a long in-plane correlation length as well as significant correlations between neighboring CuO2 planes. It is significant that we observe only a single sharply defined transition at a critical field proportional to Hc2, given that the field range used in this investigation overlaps with other high-field experiments including quantum oscillation measurements. The correlation volume is at least two to three orders of magnitude larger than that of the zero-field CDW. This is by far the largest CDW correlation volume observed in any cuprate crystal and so is presumably representative of the high-field ground state of an “ideal” disorder-free cuprate.

  4. A method to assess the loss of a dipole antenna for ultra-high-field MRI.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Collins, Christopher M; Sodickson, Daniel K; Wiggins, Graham C

    2017-06-19

    To describe a new bench measurement based on quality (Q) factors to estimate the coil noise relative to the sample noise of dipole antennas at 7 T. Placing a dipole antenna close to a highly conductive sample surrogate (HCSS) greatly reduces radiation loss, and using QHCSS gives a more accurate estimate of coil resistance than Qunloaded . Instead of using the ratio of unloaded and sample-loaded Q factors, the ratio of HCSS-loaded and sample-loaded Q factors should be used at ultra-high fields. A series of simulations were carried out to analyze the power budget of sample-loaded or HCSS-loaded dipole antennas. Two prototype dipole antennas were also constructed for bench measurements to validate the simulations. Simulations showed that radiation loss was suppressed when the dipole antenna was HCSS-loaded, and coil loss was largely the same as when the dipole was loaded by the sample. Bench measurements also showed good alignment with simulations. Using the ratio QHCSS /Qloaded gives a good estimate of the coil loss for dipole antennas at 7 T, and provides a convenient bench measurement to predict the body noise dominance of dipole antenna designs. The new approach also applies to conventional surface loop coils at ultra-high fields. Magn Reson Med 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Combined acquisition technique (CAT) for high-field neuroimaging with reduced RF power.

    PubMed

    Choli, Morwan; Blaimer, Martin; Breuer, Felix A; Ehses, Philipp; Speck, Oliver; Bartsch, Andreas J; Jakob, Peter M

    2013-08-01

    Clinical 3 T MRI systems are rapidly increasing and MRI systems with a static field of 7 T or even more have been installed. The RF power deposition is proportional to the square of the static magnetic field strength and is characterized by the specific absorption rate (SAR). Therefore, there exist defined safety limits to avoid heating of the patient. Here, we describe a hybrid method to significantly reduce the SAR compared to a turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequence. We investigate the potential benefits of a combined acquisition technique (CAT) for high-field neuroimaging at 3 and 7 T. The TSE/EPI CAT experiments were performed on volunteers and patients and compared with standard TSE and GRASE protocols. Problems and solutions regarding T2 weighted CAT imaging are discussed. We present in vivo images with T2 and proton density contrast obtained on 3 and 7 T with significant SAR reduction (up to 60%) compared with standard TSE. Image quality is comparable to TSE but CAT shows fewer artifacts than a GRASE sequence. CAT is a promising candidate for neuroimaging at high fields up to 7 T. The SAR reduction allows one to shorten the waiting time between two excitations or to image more slices thereby reducing the overall measurement time.

  6. The impact of ultra-high field MRI on Cognitive and Computational Neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    De Martino, Federico; Yacoub, Essa; Kemper, Valentin; Moerel, Michelle; Uludag, Kamil; De Weerd, Peter; Ugurbil, Kamil; Goebel, Rainer; Formisano, Elia

    2017-04-07

    The ability to measure functional brain responses non-invasively with ultra high field MRI (7 T and above) represents a unique opportunity in advancing our understanding of the human brain. Compared to lower fields (3 T and below), ultra high field MRI has an increased sensitivity, which can be used to acquire functional images with greater spatial resolution, and greater specificity of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal to the underlying neuronal responses. Together, increased resolution and specificity enable investigating brain functions at a submillimeter scale, which so far could only be done with invasive techniques. At this mesoscopic spatial scale, perception, cognition and behavior can be probed at the level of fundamental units of neural computations, such as cortical columns, cortical layers, and subcortical nuclei. This represents a unique and distinctive advantage that differentiates ultra high from lower field imaging and that can foster a tighter link between fMRI and computational modeling of neural networks. So far, functional brain mapping at submillimeter scale has focused on the processing of sensory information and on well-known systems for which extensive information is available from invasive recordings in animals. It remains an open challenge to extend this methodology to uniquely human functions and, more generally, to systems for which animal models may be problematic. To succeed, the possibility to acquire high-resolution functional data with large spatial coverage, the availability of computational models of neural processing as well as accurate biophysical modeling of neurovascular coupling at mesoscopic scale all appear necessary.

  7. Ideal charge-density-wave order in the high-field state of superconducting YBCO

    DOE PAGES

    Jang, H.; Lee, W. -S.; Nojiri, H.; ...

    2016-12-05

    The existence of charge-density-wave (CDW) correlations in cuprate superconductors has now been established. However, the nature of the CDW ground state has remained uncertain because disorder and the presence of superconductivity typically limit the CDW correlation lengths to only a dozen unit cells or less. Here we explore the field-induced 3D CDW correlations in extremely pure detwinned crystals of YBa2Cu3O2 (YBCO) ortho-II and ortho-VIII at magnetic fields in excess of the resistive upper critical field (Hc2) where superconductivity is heavily suppressed. We observe that the 3D CDW is unidirectional and possesses a long in-plane correlation length as well as significantmore » correlations between neighboring CuO2 planes. It is significant that we observe only a single sharply defined transition at a critical field proportional to Hc2, given that the field range used in this investigation overlaps with other high-field experiments including quantum oscillation measurements. The correlation volume is at least two to three orders of magnitude larger than that of the zero-field CDW. Furthermore, this is by far the largest CDW correlation volume observed in any cuprate crystal and so is presumably representative of the high-field ground state of an “ideal” disorder-free cuprate.« less

  8. Superior high-field current density in slightly Mg-deficient MgB2 tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, C. H.; Nakane, T.; Kumakura, H.

    2005-12-01

    A series of Fe-clad MgxB2 tapes with x varying from 0.5 to 1.2 was prepared by the in situ powder-in-tube method. Slightly Mg-deficient samples showed higher Jc in high magnetic fields, whereas samples with stoichiometric Mg or a slight excess of Mg exhibited better Jc in the low-field region. The sample with x =0.9 showed the best Jc in the applied magnetic field. The MgB2 core was porous in Mg-deficient tapes but with smaller grain sizes than the samples with a slight Mg excess due to insufficient grain growth. Some fine nanometer size grains were also observed in the B-rich samples. The enhanced grain boundary pinning due to the smaller grain size may explain the superior high-field Jc property of the slightly Mg-deficient MgB2 tapes. Our results indicate that preparing MgB2 samples with a slight excess of Mg may not be advantageous when developing devices for high-field applications.

  9. Tricritical point from high-field magnetoelastic and metamagnetic effects in UN

    DOE PAGES

    Shrestha, K.; Antonio, D.; Jaime, M.; ...

    2017-07-26

    Uranium nitride (UN) is one of the most studied actinide materials as it is a promising fuel for the next generation of nuclear reactors. Despite large experimental and theoretical efforts, some of the fundamental questions such as degree of 5 f–electron localization/delocalization and its relationship to magneto-vibrational properties are not resolved yet. We show that the magnetostriction of UN measured in pulsed magnetic fields up to 65 T and below the Néel temperature is large and exhibits complex behavior with two transitions. While the high field anomaly is a field-induced metamagnetic-like transition and affects both magnetisation and magnetostriction, the lowmore » field anomaly does not contribute to the magnetic susceptibility. Our data suggest a change in the nature of the metamagnetic transition from first to second order-like at a tricritical point at T tri ~24 K and H tri ~52 T. The induced magnetic moment at 60 T might suggest that only one subset of magnetic moments has aligned along the field direction. Using the results obtained here we have constructed a magnetic phase diagram of UN. Our studies demonstrate that dilatometry in high fields is an effective method to investigate the magneto-structural coupling in actinide materials.« less

  10. Initial experience of using high field strength intraoperative MRI for neurosurgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Raheja, Amol; Tandon, Vivek; Suri, Ashish; Sarat Chandra, P; Kale, Shashank S; Garg, Ajay; Pandey, Ravindra M; Kalaivani, Mani; Mahapatra, Ashok K; Sharma, Bhawani S

    2015-08-01

    We report our initial experience to optimize neurosurgical procedures using high field strength intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (IOMRI) in 300 consecutive patients as high field strength IOMRI rapidly becomes the standard of care for neurosurgical procedures. Three sequential groups (groups A, B, C; n=100 each) were compared with respect to time management, complications and technical difficulties to assess improvement in these parameters with experience. We observed a reduction in the number of technical difficulties (p<0.001), time to induction (p<0.001) and total anesthesia time (p=0.007) in sequential groups. IOMRI was performed for neuronavigation guidance (n=252) and intraoperative validation of extent of resection (EOR; n=67). Performing IOMRI increased the EOR over and beyond the primary surgical attempt in 20.5% (29/141) and 18% (11/61) of patients undergoing glioma and pituitary surgery, respectively. Overall, EOR improved in 59.7% of patients undergoing IOMRI (40/67). Intraoperative tractography and real time navigation using re-uploaded IOMRI images (accounting for brain shift) helps in intraoperative planning to reduce complications. IOMRI is an asset to neurosurgeons, helping to augment the EOR, especially in glioma and pituitary surgery, with no significant increase in morbidity to the patient.

  11. High field MREIT: setup and tissue phantom imaging at 11 T

    PubMed Central

    Sadleir, Rosalind; Grant, Samuel; Zhang, Sung Uk; Oh, Suk Hoon; Lee, Byung Il; Woo, Eung Je

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) has the potential to provide conductivity and current density images with high spatial resolution and accuracy. Recent experimental studies at a field strength of 3 T showed that the spatial resolution of conductivity and current density images may be similar to that of conventional MR images as long as enough current is injected, at least 20 mA when the object being imaged has a size similar to the human head. To apply the MREIT technique to image small conductivity changes using less injection current, we performed MREIT studies at 11 T field strength, where noise levels in measured magnetic flux density data are significantly lower. In this paper we present the experimental results of imaging biological tissues with different conductivity values using MREIT at 11 T. We describe technical difficulties encountered in using high-field MREIT systems and possible solutions. High-field MREIT is suggested as a research tool for obtaining accurate conductivity data from tissue samples and animal subjects. PMID:16636417

  12. Office-based versus high-field strength MRI: diagnostic and technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Cardoso, Fabiano; Chen, Lina; Chung, Christine

    2009-03-01

    Low-field office magnetic resonance scanners have been an exciting, innovative, and controversial development in medical imaging. These units boost cost efficiency, with ease of installation and no additional external radiofrequency shielding necessary. The open design enables imaging of those who are claustrophobic and overweight, and offer the potential of dynamic imaging for athletes. Experienced centers have reported that the diagnostic accuracy obtained with office-based systems is satisfactory and comparable with that of high-field systems. However, with the advantages afforded by these convenient units, some significant limitations owing primarily to decreased signal-to-noise ratio of low-field MR imaging and lower image quality compared with conventional high-field magnetic resonance scanners. In this article, we comprehensively reviewed the literature focusing on the diagnostic accuracy of low-field imaging with respect to individual joints and the major pathology that occur in these joints. According to most studies, there are still a number of patients in whom clinical treatment is affected owing to under or misdiagnosis by low-field MR imaging. For clinicians and radiologists who are an integral part of this office-based diagnostic system, it is important to be knowledgeable of the potential limitations of these low-field scanners compared with conventional systems. Specialized training and expertize is required to optimize imaging parameters, and provide quality control and accurate interpretation.

  13. Characterization of Plasma Discharges in a High-Field Magnetic Tandem Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.

    1998-01-01

    High density magnetized plasma discharges in open-ended geometries, like Tandem Mirrors, have a variety of space applications. Chief among them is the production of variable Specific Impulse (I(sub sp)) and variable thrust in a magnetic nozzle. Our research group is pursuing the experimental characterization of such discharges in our high-field facility located at the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL). These studies focus on identifying plasma stability criteria as functions of density, temperature and magnetic field strength. Plasma heating is accomplished by both Electron and Ion Cyclotron Resonance (ECR and ICR) at frequencies of 2-3 Ghz and 1-30 Mhz respectively, for both Hydrogen and Helium. Electron density and temperature has measured by movable Langmuir probes. Macroscopic plasma stability is being investigated in ongoing research.

  14. Evaluation of the dielectric constant for RF shimming at high field MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayatilake, Mohan; Storrs, Judd; Chu, Wen-Jang; Lee, Jing-Huei

    2010-10-01

    Optimal image quality for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) at high fields requires a homogeneous RF (B1) field; however, the dielectric properties of the human brain result in B1 field inhomogeneities and signal loss at the periphery of the head. These result from constructive and destructive RF interactions of complex wave behaviour, which become worse with increasing magnetic field strength. Placement of a shim object with high-dielectric constant adjacent to the body has been proposed as a method for reducing B1 inhomogeneity by altering wave propagation within the volume of interest. Selecting the appropriate permittivity and quantity of material for the shim is essential. Whereas previous work has determined the dielectric properties of the shim empirically, this work introduces an improved theoretical framework for determining the requisite dielectric constant of the passive shim material directly by increasing the axial or minimizing the radial propagation constant.

  15. The primary motor area for voluntary diaphragmatic motion identified by high field fMRI.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Takahiro; Fujii, Yukihiko; Suzuki, Kiyotaka; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2004-06-01

    In order to identify the precise location of the primary motor area for the diaphragm with respect to the classical motor homunculus, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments were performed utilizing independent component-cross correlation- sequential epoch (ICS) analysis on a high-field (3.0 Tesla) system. Activations which correlated with voluntary diaphragmatic motion mapped onto the area anterolateral to that for voluntary hand motion (internal control in ICS analysis). Multiple subject analysis yielded the primary motor cortex for the diaphragm to be (+/-48, -4, 47) in the Talairach and Tournoux coordinates. The results were highly consistent with the previously reported cortical area for the diaphragm determined by transcranial electrical/magnetic stimulation.

  16. Intense THz radiation produced in organic salt crystals for high-field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicario, C.; Ruchert, C.; Hauri, C. P.

    2013-03-01

    Organic stilbazolium salt crystals pumped by intense, ultrashort mid-infrared laser have been investigated for efficient THz generation by optical rectification. In this paper we present our latest results in view of the generation of single-cycle and high-field THz transient in the THz gap (0.1-10 THz). The organic rectifiers like DAST, OH1 and DSTMS combine extremely large optical susceptibility with excellent velocity matching between the infrared pump and the THz radiation. Our simple collinear conversion scheme provides THz beams with excellent focusing properties and single cycle electric field larger than 1.5 MV/cm and magnetic field strength beyond 0.5 Tesla. The source can potentially cover the full THz gap at field strength which is barely provided by other THz sources. The THz pulse is carrier-envelope phase stable and the polarity of the field can be easily inverted.

  17. A high-field adiabatic fast passage ultracold neutron spin flipper for the UCNA experiment.

    PubMed

    Holley, A T; Broussard, L J; Davis, J L; Hickerson, K; Ito, T M; Liu, C-Y; Lyles, J T M; Makela, M; Mammei, R R; Mendenhall, M P; Morris, C L; Mortensen, R; Pattie, R W; Rios, R; Saunders, A; Young, A R

    2012-07-01

    The UCNA collaboration is making a precision measurement of the β asymmetry (A) in free neutron decay using polarized ultracold neutrons (UCN). A critical component of this experiment is an adiabatic fast passage neutron spin flipper capable of efficient operation in ambient magnetic fields on the order of 1 T. The requirement that it operate in a high field necessitated the construction of a free neutron spin flipper based, for the first time, on a birdcage resonator. The design, construction, and initial testing of this spin flipper prior to its use in the first measurement of A with UCN during the 2007 run cycle of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center's 800 MeV proton accelerator is detailed. These studies determined the flipping efficiency of the device, averaged over the UCN spectrum present at the location of the spin flipper, to be ̅ε=0.9985(4).

  18. A high-field adiabatic fast passage ultracold neutron spin flipper for the UCNA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley, A. T.; Broussard, L. J.; Davis, J. L.; Hickerson, K.; Ito, T. M.; Liu, C.-Y.; Lyles, J. T. M.; Makela, M.; Mammei, R. R.; Mendenhall, M. P.; Morris, C. L.; Mortensen, R.; Pattie, R. W.; Rios, R.; Saunders, A.; Young, A. R.

    2012-07-01

    The UCNA collaboration is making a precision measurement of the β asymmetry (A) in free neutron decay using polarized ultracold neutrons (UCN). A critical component of this experiment is an adiabatic fast passage neutron spin flipper capable of efficient operation in ambient magnetic fields on the order of 1 T. The requirement that it operate in a high field necessitated the construction of a free neutron spin flipper based, for the first time, on a birdcage resonator. The design, construction, and initial testing of this spin flipper prior to its use in the first measurement of A with UCN during the 2007 run cycle of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center's 800 MeV proton accelerator is detailed. These studies determined the flipping efficiency of the device, averaged over the UCN spectrum present at the location of the spin flipper, to be overline{ɛ }=0.9985(4).

  19. On the nature of high field charge transport in reinforced silicone dielectrics: Experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanhui; Schadler, Linda S.

    2016-08-01

    The high field charge injection and transport properties in reinforced silicone dielectrics were investigated by measuring the time-dependent space charge distribution and the current under dc conditions up to the breakdown field and were compared with the properties of other dielectric polymers. It is argued that the energy and spatial distribution of localized electronic states are crucial in determining these properties for polymer dielectrics. Tunneling to localized states likely dominates the charge injection process. A transient transport regime arises due to the relaxation of charge carriers into deep traps at the energy band tails and is successfully verified by a Monte Carlo simulation using the multiple-hopping model. The charge carrier mobility is found to be highly heterogeneous due to the non-uniform trapping. The slow moving electron packet exhibits a negative field dependent drift velocity possibly due to the spatial disorder of traps.

  20. High-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals metabolic effects of normal brain aging.

    PubMed

    Harris, Janna L; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Swerdlow, Russell H; Choi, In-Young; Lee, Phil; Brooks, William M

    2014-07-01

    Altered brain metabolism is likely to be an important contributor to normal cognitive decline and brain pathology in elderly individuals. To characterize the metabolic changes associated with normal brain aging, we used high-field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo to quantify 20 neurochemicals in the hippocampus and sensorimotor cortex of young adult and aged rats. We found significant differences in the neurochemical profile of the aged brain when compared with younger adults, including lower aspartate, ascorbate, glutamate, and macromolecules, and higher glucose, myo-inositol, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, total choline, and glutamine. These neurochemical biomarkers point to specific cellular mechanisms that are altered in brain aging, such as bioenergetics, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell membrane turnover, and endogenous neuroprotection. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy may be a valuable translational approach for studying mechanisms of brain aging and pathology, and for investigating treatments to preserve or enhance cognitive function in aging.

  1. An exactly solvable Ogston model of gel electrophoresis: X. Application to high-field separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Michel G; Slater, Gary W

    2003-01-01

    Recently, we generalized our lattice model of gel electrophoresis to study the net velocity of particles being pulled by a high-intensity electric field through an arbitrary distribution of immobile obstacles (Gauthier, M. G., Slater, G. W., J. Chem. Phys. 2002, 117, 6745-6756). In this article, we show how the high-field version of our model can be used to compare the velocity of particles with different electric charges and/or physical sizes. We then investigate specific two-dimensional distributions of obstacles that can be used to separate particles, e.g., in a microfluidic device. More precisely, we compare the velocity of differently charged or sized analytes in sieving, trapping and deflecting systems to model various electrophoretic separation techniques. In particular, we study the nonlinear effects present in ratchet systems and how they can be combined with time-asymmetric pulsed fields to provide new modes of separation.

  2. New high homogeneity 55T pulsed magnet for high field NMR.

    PubMed

    Orlova, A; Frings, P; Suleiman, M; Rikken, G L J A

    2016-07-01

    Pulsed magnets can produce magnetic fields largely exceeding those achieved with resistive or even hybrid magnets. This kind of magnet is indispensable in studies of field-induced phenomena which occur only in high magnetic field. A new high homogeneous pulsed magnet capable of producing field up to 55T and specially designed for NMR experiments was built and tested. Experimentally observed homogeneity of magnetic field in central part of the magnet is 10ppm over a sample volume of 2-3mm(3) at 12T and 30ppm at 47T, which are the best values ever reported for a pulsed magnet. Reasons which affect the field profile and reduce homogeneity at high field are discussed.

  3. High field terahertz emission from relativistic laser-driven plasma wakefields

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Pukhov, Alexander

    2015-10-15

    We propose a method to generate high field terahertz (THz) radiation with peak strength of GV/cm level in the THz frequency gap range of 1–10 THz using a relativistic laser interaction with a gaseous plasma target. Due to the effect of local pump depletion, an initially Gaussian laser pulse undergoes leading edge erosion and eventually evolves to a state with leading edge being step function. Interacting with such a pulse, electrons gain transverse residual momentum and excite net transverse currents modulated by the relativistic plasma frequency. These currents give rise to the low frequency THz emission. We demonstrate this process with one and two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  4. Scaling of high-field transport and localized heating in graphene transistors.

    PubMed

    Bae, Myung-Ho; Islam, Sharnali; Dorgan, Vincent E; Pop, Eric

    2011-10-25

    We use infrared thermal imaging and electrothermal simulations to find that localized Joule heating in graphene field-effect transistors on SiO(2) is primarily governed by device electrostatics. Hot spots become more localized (i.e., sharper) as the underlying oxide thickness is reduced, such that the average and peak device temperatures scale differently, with significant long-term reliability implications. The average temperature is proportional to oxide thickness, but the peak temperature is minimized at an oxide thickness of ∼90 nm due to competing electrostatic and thermal effects. We also find that careful comparison of high-field transport models with thermal imaging can be used to shed light on velocity saturation effects. The results shed light on optimizing heat dissipation and reliability of graphene devices and interconnects.

  5. On the nature of high field charge transport in reinforced silicone dielectrics: Experiment and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yanhui Schadler, Linda S.

    2016-08-07

    The high field charge injection and transport properties in reinforced silicone dielectrics were investigated by measuring the time-dependent space charge distribution and the current under dc conditions up to the breakdown field and were compared with the properties of other dielectric polymers. It is argued that the energy and spatial distribution of localized electronic states are crucial in determining these properties for polymer dielectrics. Tunneling to localized states likely dominates the charge injection process. A transient transport regime arises due to the relaxation of charge carriers into deep traps at the energy band tails and is successfully verified by a Monte Carlo simulation using the multiple-hopping model. The charge carrier mobility is found to be highly heterogeneous due to the non-uniform trapping. The slow moving electron packet exhibits a negative field dependent drift velocity possibly due to the spatial disorder of traps.

  6. Monitoring of pistachio (Pistacia Vera) ripening by high field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Fabio; Avanzato, Damiano; Vaccaro, Angela; Capuani, Giorgio; Spagnoli, Mariangela; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Tzareva, Irina Nikolova; Delfini, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic profiling of pistachio (Pistacia vera) aqueous extracts from two different cultivars, namely 'Bianca' and 'Gloria', was monitored over the months from May to September employing high field NMR spectroscopy. A large number of water-soluble metabolites were assigned by means of 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The change in the metabolic profiles monitored over time allowed the pistachio development to be investigated. Specific temporal trends of amino acids, sugars, organic acids and other metabolites were observed and analysed by multivariate Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis. Statistical analysis showed that while in the period from May to September there were few differences between the two cultivars, the ripening rate was different.

  7. Disorder-induced domain wall velocity shift at high fields in perpendicularly magnetized thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voto, Michele; Lopez-Diaz, Luis; Torres, Luis; Moretti, Simone

    2016-11-01

    Domain wall dynamics in a perpendicularly magnetized system is studied by means of micromagnetic simulations in which disorder is introduced as a dispersion of both the easy-axis orientation and the anisotropy constant over regions reproducing a granular structure of the material. High field dynamics show a linear velocity-field relationship and an additional grain size dependent velocity shift, weakly dependent on both applied field and intrinsic Gilbert's damping parameter. We find the origin of this velocity shift in the nonhomogeneous in-plane effective field generated by the tilting of anisotropy easy axis introduced by disorder. We show that a one-dimensional analytical approach cannot predict the observed velocities and we augment it with the additional dissipation of energy arising from internal domain wall dynamics triggered by disorder. This way we prove that the main cause of higher velocity is the ability of the domain wall to irradiate energy into the domains, acquired with a precise feature of disorder.

  8. Development of superconducting magnet for high-field MR systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zanming; van Oort, Johannes M.; Zou, Mark X.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we describe the development of superconducting magnets for high-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) by various businesses and institutions in China. As the Chinese MR market rapidly expands, many foreign and domestic companies and research institutions are joining the race to meet the burgeoning demand by developing key MRI components for various magnetic field configurations. After providing a brief introduction to research on MRI superconducting magnets that dates back to the 1980s, the first large-bore 1.5 T superconducting magnet with 50-cm DSV for whole-body MRI - successfully developed and manufactured by AllTech Medical Systems in Chengdu, China-is presented and its specifications are described.

  9. Shielding assessment of high field (QED) experiments at the ELI-NP 10 PW laser system.

    PubMed

    Popovici, M A; Mitu, I O; Căta-Danil, Gh; Negoit Ă, F; Ivan, C

    2017-03-20

    High field quantum electrodynamics experiments will be conducted in the E6 experimental area of the Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics building. Here electrons and protons will be accelerated up to relativistic energies by multi-petawatt laser beam-target interactions. In this respect, the requirements for radiological safety measures are similar to those associated with the operation of conventional high energy accelerators. The paper presents a FLUKA simulation approach to the shielding assessment of the individual experiments. Updated source terms were used in order to compute ambient dose equivalent rates throughout E6 and neighbouring areas and check the compliance of the results with legal dose constraints. We investigated the effectiveness of an 'all-purpose' beam dump at E6 and the practicality of local muon shielding.

  10. Cryogenic Design of the New High Field Magnet Test Facility at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benda, V.; Pirotte, O.; De Rijk, G.; Bajko, M.; Craen, A. Vande; Perret, Ph.; Hanzelka, P.

    In the framework of the R&D program related to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrades, a new High Field Magnet (HFM) vertical test bench is required. This facility located in the SM18 cryogenic test hall shall allow testing of up to 15 tons superconducting magnets with energy up to 10 MJ in a temperature range between 1.9 K and 4.5 K. The article describes the cryogenic architecture to be inserted in the general infrastructure of SM18 including the process and instrumentation diagram, the different operating phases including strategy for magnet cool down and warm up at controlled speed and quench management as well as the design of the main components.

  11. An atomistic description of the high-field degradation of dielectric polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Bealing, Clive R.; Ramprasad, R.

    2013-11-07

    A microscopic mechanism governing the initiating step in the high-field aging of crystalline polyethylene is proposed, based on density functional calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. It is assumed that electrons, holes, and excitons are present in the system. While the additional individual electrons or holes are not expected to lead to significant degradation, the presence of triplet excitons are concluded to be rather damaging. The electron and hole states of the exciton localize on a distorted region of polyethylene, significantly weakening nearby C–H bonds and facilitating C–H bond scission. The barrier to cleavage of the weakened C–H bonds is estimated and is comparable to the thermal energy, suggesting that this mechanism may be responsible for the degradation of polyethylene when placed under electrical stress, e.g., in high-voltage cables.

  12. Research activities on high-intensity laser and high field physics at APRI-GIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Tae Moon

    2015-05-01

    The performance of a 0.1-Hz-repetition-rate, 30-fs, 1.5-PW Ti:sapphire laser which is using for research on high field physics in APRI-GIST is presented. The charged particles (electrons and protons) are accelerated and an efficient x-ray generation is demonstrated using the PW laser. Protons are accelerated up to 80 MeV when an ultra-thin polymer target is irradiated by a circularly-polarized PW laser pulse. Electrons are accelerated to multi-GeV level with a help of injector and accelerator scheme. In the relativistic harmonic generation experiment, the harmonic order is dramatically extended, by optimizing the intensity of pre-pulse level, up to 164th that corresponds to 4.9 nm in wavelength and the experimental results can be explained by the oscillatory flying mirror model. The upgrade of the PW laser to the multi-PW level is under way.

  13. High field septum magnet using a superconducting shield for the Future Circular Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barna, Dániel

    2017-04-01

    A zero-field cooled superconducting shield is proposed to realize a high-field (3-4 T) septum magnet for the Future Circular Collider hadron-hadron (FCC-hh) ring. Three planned prototypes using different materials and technical solutions are presented, which will be used to evaluate the feasibility of this idea as a part of the FCC study. The numerical simulation methods are described to calculate the field patterns around such a shield. A specific excitation current configuration is presented that maintains a fairly homogeneous field outside of a rectangular shield in a wide range of field levels from 0 to 3 Tesla. It is shown that a massless septum configuration (with an opening in the shield) is also possible and gives satisfactory field quality with realistic superconducting material properties.

  14. A process for the chemical preparation of high-field ZnO varistors

    DOEpatents

    Brooks, R.A.; Dosch, R.G.; Tuttle, B.A.

    1986-02-19

    Chemical preparation techniques involving co-precipitation of metals are used to provide microstructural characteristics necessary in order to produce ZnO varistors and their precursors for high field applications. The varistors produced have homogeneous and/or uniform dopant distributions and a submicron average grain size with a narrow size distribution. Precursor powders are prepared via chemical precipitation techniques and varistors made by sintering uniaxially and/or isostatically pressed pellets. Using these methods, varistors were made which were suitable for high-power applications, having values of breakdown field, E/sub B/, in the 10 to 100 kV/cm range, ..cap alpha.. > 30 and densities in the range of 65 to 99% of theoretical, depending on both composition and sintering temperature.

  15. Process for the chemical preparation of high-field ZnO varistors

    DOEpatents

    Brooks, Robert A.; Dosch, Robert G.; Tuttle, Bruce A.

    1987-01-01

    Chemical preparation techniques involving co-precipitation of metals are used to provide micro-structural characteristics necessary in order to produce ZnO varistors and their precursors for high field applications. The varistors produced have homogeneous and/or uniform dopant distributions and a submicron average grain size with a narrow size distribution. Precursor powders are prepared via chemical precipitation techniques and varistors made by sintering uniaxially and/or isostatically pressed pellets. Using these methods, varistors were made which were suitable for high-power applications, having values of breakdown field, E.sub.B, in the 10-100 kV/cm range, .alpha.>30 and densities in the range of 65-99% of theoretical, depending on both composition and sintering temperature.

  16. A COMMON COIL DESIGN FOR HIGH FIELD 2 IN 1 ACCELERATOR MAGNETS.

    SciTech Connect

    GUPTA,R.

    2002-05-12

    A common coil design concept for 2-in-1 superconducting accelerator magnets is presented. It practically eliminates the major problems in the ends of high field magnets built with either high temperature superconductors (HTS) or conventional superconductors. Racetrack coils, consisting of rectangular blocks built with either superconducting tapes or cables, are common to both apertures with each aperture containing one half of each coil. The ends are easy to wind with the conductors experiencing little strain. The overall magnet design, construction and tooling are also expected to be simpler than in the conventional cosine theta magnets. The concept is also suitable for superferric and combined function magnet designs. A modular design for an HTS based R&D magnet is also presented.

  17. Efficient high-frequency body coil for high-field MRI.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, J T; Adriany, G; Snyder, C J; Tian, J; Thiel, T; Bolinger, L; Liu, H; DelaBarre, L; Ugurbil, K

    2004-10-01

    The use of body coils is favored for homogeneous excitation, and such coils are often paired with surface coils or arrays for sensitive reception in many MRI applications. While the body coil's physical size and resultant electrical length make this circuit difficult to design for any field strength, recent efforts to build efficient body coils for applications at 3T and above have been especially challenging. To meet this challenge, we developed an efficient new transverse electromagnetic (TEM) body coil and demonstrated its use in human studies at field strengths up to 4 T. Head, body, and breast images were acquired within peak power constraints of <8 kW. Bench studies indicate that these body coils are feasible to 8 T. RF shimming was used to remove a high-field-related cardiac imaging artifact in these preliminary studies. P41RR13230

  18. Spectral features and voltage effects in high-field electroluminescence of AlN filamentary nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, I. A.; Vokhmintsev, A. S.; Chaikin, D. V.; Afonin, Yu. D.

    2016-11-01

    The high-field electroluminescence (EL) spectra for Al-rich AlN nanowhiskers varying applied voltage were studied. The observed 2.70 eV emission, which can be considered as superposition of two Gaussian bands in 2.75 and 2.53 eV, was analyzed. It was shown that Fowler-Nordheim effect took place in EL mechanism with participation of capturing levels of ON- and VN-centers when AlN nanowhiskers were exposed to an external field of 2.5 ÷ 10 V/μm. Obtained results and made conclusions are in a good agreement with independent electron field emission measurements for different one-dimensional AlN nanostructures.

  19. Low-field MRI can be more sensitive than high-field MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, Aaron M.; Truong, Milton L.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2013-12-01

    MRI signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is the key factor for image quality. Conventionally, SNR is proportional to nuclear spin polarization, which scales linearly with magnetic field strength. Yet ever-stronger magnets present numerous technical and financial limitations. Low-field MRI can mitigate these constraints with equivalent SNR from non-equilibrium ‘hyperpolarization' schemes, which increase polarization by orders of magnitude independently of the magnetic field. Here, theory and experimental validation demonstrate that combination of field independent polarization (e.g. hyperpolarization) with frequency optimized MRI detection coils (i.e. multi-turn coils using the maximum allowed conductor length) results in low-field MRI sensitivity approaching and even rivaling that of high-field MRI. Four read-out frequencies were tested using samples with identical numbers of 1H and 13C spins. Experimental SNRs at 0.0475 T were ∼40% of those obtained at 4.7 T. Conservatively, theoretical SNRs at 0.0475 T 1.13-fold higher than those at 4.7 T were possible despite an ∼100-fold lower detection frequency, indicating feasibility of high-sensitivity MRI without technically challenging, expensive high-field magnets. The data at 4.7 T and 0.0475 T was obtained from different spectrometers with different RF probes. The SNR comparison between the two field strengths accounted for many differences in parameters such as system noise figures and variations in the probe detection coils including Q factors and coil diameters.

  20. High-field superconducting solenoids for the TIBER II PF (poloidal-field) system

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, J.A.; Miller, J.R.; Summers, L.T.

    1987-10-07

    The poloidal-field (PF) coil set for the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Engineering Reactor (TIBER-II) consists of 24 solenoid modules, 16 of which are stacked inside the toroidal-field (TF) system at the center of the machine. These central solenoid modules operate at high-current densities, and maximum fields at the windings approach 14 T. Although TIBER-II is designed for steady-state operation with noninductive current drive, other operating scenarios are also considered. In the pulsed or inductive mode, PF coil currents are ramped to induce plasma current. In this mode, peak fields approaching 14 T appear on the central solenoid modules at the ends of the stack; the required current densities in these modules approach 40 A . mm/sup 2/. The central solenoid modules are layer wound using cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) with (NbTi)/sub 3/Sn composite strands for improved high-field performance. Layer winding permits grading the conductor for maximum overall winding-pack current density and also results in less wasted space in the radial build of the machine. Cooling connections may be made at each layer of a module as needed. Current leads to the modules are routed through the high-field central bore. The central solenoid modules can easily support the centering load of the PF system, reducing the overall radial build of the machine and greatly increasing the limit on the number of pulse cycles imposed by fatigue considerations in the central solenoid. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. High-Field EPR Spectroscopy on Transfer Proteins in Biological Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möbius, K.; Schnegg, A.; Plato, M.; Fuchs, M. R.; Savitsky, A.

    2006-08-01

    In the last decade joint efforts of biologists, chemists, and physicists were made to understand the dominant factors determining specificity and directionality of transmembrane transfer processes in proteins. Characteristic examples of such factors are time varying specific H-bonding patterns and/or polarity effects of the microenvironment. In this overview, a few large paradigm biosystems are surveyed which have been explored lately in our laboratory. Taking advantage of the improved spectral and temporal resolution of high-frequency/high-field EPR at 95 GHz/3.4 T and 360 GHz/12.9 T, as compared to conventional X-band EPR (9.5 GHz/0.34 T), three transfer proteins in action are characterized with respect to structure and dynamics: (1) light-induced electron-transfer intermediates in wild-type and mutant reaction-centre proteins from photosynthetic bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides, (2) light-driven proton-transfer intermediates of site-specifically nitroxide spin-labelled mutants of bacteriorhodopsin proteins from Halobacterium salinarium, (3) refolding intermediates of site-specifically nitroxide spin-labelled mutants of the channel-forming protein domain of Colicin A bacterial toxin produced in Escherichia coli. The information obtained is complementary to that of protein crystallography, solid-state NMR, infrared and optical spectroscopy techniques. A unique strength of high-field EPR is particularly noteworthy: it can provide detailed information on transient intermediates of proteins in biological action. They can be observed and characterized while staying in their working states on biologically relevant time scales.

  2. High-field EPR study of carotenoid and chlorophyll cation radicals in photosystem II.

    SciTech Connect

    Lakshmi, K. V.; Reifler, M. J.; Brudvig, G. W.; Poluektov, O. G.; Wagner, A. M.; Thurnuaer, M. C.; Chemistry; Yale Univ.

    2000-11-16

    In photosystem II (PS II), chlorophyll, {beta}-carotene, and cytochrome b{sub 559} are alternate electron donors that may be involved in a photoprotection mechanism. The present study describes the use of high-field EPR spectroscopy to characterize the low-temperature photooxidation of Chl{sub z} and Car cofactors in PS II. The EPR signals of the individual species, previously not resolved at X-band frequency (9 GHz), are resolved at higher D-band frequency (130 GHz) in deuterated Synechococcus lividus PS II. Deuteration of PS II results in significant narrowing of the EPR lines, yielding well-resolved EPR spectra of the Car{sup +} and Chl{sub z}{sup +} radicals at 130 GHz. The g tensors of the individual species were determined by EPR spectral simulations. The g tensor determined for the Car{sup +} radical (g{sub xx} = 2.00335, g{sub yy} = 2.00251, g{sub zz} = 2.00227) is similar to that previously observed for a canthaxanthin cation radical but with a slightly rhombic tensor. The Chl{sub z}{sup +} g tensor (g{sub xx} = 2.00312, g{sub yy} = 2.00263, g{sub zz} = 2.00202) is similar to that of a chlorophyll a cation radical. This study shows that both the carotenoid and chlorophyll radicals are generated in PS II by illumination at temperatures from 6 to 190 K and that there is no interconversion of Car{sup +} and Chl{sub z}{sup +} radicals upon dark annealing at temperatures up to 160 K. This study also establishes the feasibility of using deuteration and high-field EPR to resolve previously unresolvable cofactor signals in PS II.

  3. INTERCOMPARISON OF PERFORMANCE OF RF COIL GEOMETRIES FOR HIGH FIELD MOUSE CARDIAC MRI

    PubMed Central

    Constantinides, Christakis; Angeli, S.; Gkagkarellis, S.; Cofer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-turn spiral surface coils are constructed in flat and cylindrical arrangements and used for high field (7.1 T) mouse cardiac MRI. Their electrical and imaging performances, based on experimental measurements, simulations, and MRI experiments in free space, and under phantom, and animal loading conditions, are compared with a commercially available birdcage coil. Results show that the four-turn cylindrical spiral coil exhibits improved relative SNR (rSNR) performance to the flat coil counterpart, and compares fairly well with a commercially available birdcage coil. Phantom experiments indicate a 50% improvement in the SNR for penetration depths ≤ 6.1 mm from the coil surface compared to the birdcage coil, and an increased penetration depth at the half-maximum field response of 8 mm in the 4-spiral cylindrical coil case, in contrast to 2.9 mm in the flat 4-turn spiral case. Quantitative comparison of the performance of the two spiral coil geometries in anterior, lateral, inferior, and septal regions of the murine heart yield maximum mean percentage rSNR increases of the order of 27–167% in vivo post-mortem (cylindrical compared to flat coil). The commercially available birdcage outperforms the cylindrical spiral coil in rSNR by a factor of 3–5 times. The comprehensive approach and methodology adopted to accurately design, simulate, implement, and test radiofrequency coils of any geometry and type, under any loading conditions, can be generalized for any application of high field mouse cardiac MRI. PMID:23204945

  4. Ideal charge-density-wave order in the high-field state of superconducting YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, H.; Lee, W.-S.; Nojiri, H.; Matsuzawa, S.; Yasumura, H.; Nie, L.; Maharaj, A. V.; Gerber, S.; Liu, Y.-J.; Mehta, A.; Bonn, D. A.; Liang, R.; Hardy, W. N.; Burns, C. A.; Islam, Z.; Song, S.; Hastings, J.; Devereaux, T. P.; Shen, Z.-X.; Kivelson, S. A.; Kao, C.-C.; Zhu, D.; Lee, J.-S.

    2016-12-01

    The existence of charge-density-wave (CDW) correlations in cuprate superconductors has now been established. However, the nature of the CDW ground state has remained uncertain because disorder and the presence of superconductivity typically limit the CDW correlation lengths to only a dozen unit cells or less. Here we explore the field-induced 3D CDW correlations in extremely pure detwinned crystals of YBa2Cu3O2 (YBCO) ortho-II and ortho-VIII at magnetic fields in excess of the resistive upper critical field (Hc2Hc2) where superconductivity is heavily suppressed. We observe that the 3D CDW is unidirectional and possesses a long in-plane correlation length as well as significant correlations between neighboring CuO2 planes. It is significant that we observe only a single sharply defined transition at a critical field proportional to Hc2Hc2, given that the field range used in this investigation overlaps with other high-field experiments including quantum oscillation measurements. The correlation volume is at least two to three orders of magnitude larger than that of the zero-field CDW. This is by far the largest CDW correlation volume observed in any cuprate crystal and so is presumably representative of the high-field ground state of an “ideal” disorder-free cuprate.

  5. Image homogenization using pre-emphasis method for high field MRI.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Wang, Chunsheng; Yu, Baiying; Vigneron, Daniel; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2013-08-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) field (B 1) inhomogeneity due to shortened wavelength at high field is a major cause of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nonuniformity in high dielectric biological samples (e.g., human body). In this work, we propose a method to improve the B 1 and MRI homogeneity by using pre-emphasized non-uniform B 1 distribution. The intrinsic B 1 distribution that could be generated by a RF volume coil, specifically a microstrip transmission line (MTL) coil used in this work, was pre-emphasized in the sample's periphery region of interest to compensate for the central brightness induced by high frequency interference effect due to shortened wave length. This pre-emphasized non-uniform B 1 can be realized by varying the parameters of microstrip elements, such as the substrate thickness of MTL volume coil. Both numerical simulation and phantom MR imaging studies were carried out to investigate the feasibility and merit of the proposed method in achieving homogeneous MR images. The simulation results demonstrate that by using a pre-emphasized B 1 distribution generated by the MTL volume coil, relatively uniform B 1 distribution and homogeneous MR image (98% homogeneity) within the spherical phantom (15 cm diameter) were achieved with 4.5 mm thickness. The B 1 and MRI intensity distributions of a 16-element MTL volume coil with fixed substrate thickness and five varied saline loads were modeled and experimentally tested. Similar results from both simulation and experiments were obtained, suggesting substantial improvements of B 1 and MRI homogeneities within the phantom containing 125 mM saline. The overall results demonstrate an efficient B 1 shimming approach for improving high field MRI.

  6. NMR in High Fields and Field Gradients up to 42 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, Eric E.

    2002-03-01

    We describe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments performed in fields as high as 42 T. This work was done at Northwestern University and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) with superconducting magnets, resistive Bitter-style electromagnets, and a superconducting-resistive hybrid magnet. After reviewing crucial probe and spectrometer design features, we describe the scientific and technical advantages that high field provides for two experiments. First, we studied the mixed state of the high-temperature superconductor YBa_2Cu_3O_7-x through ^17O NMR.[1] The NMR spectrum gives the field distribution associated with vortices which we use to selectively inspect regions inside and outside the vortex core. We use the spin-lattice relaxation rate (T_1-1) to probe the electronic density-of-states in this spatially resolved fashion. Second, we have studied ultraslow diffusion in glass-forming liquids such as glycerol. These studies use the high magnetic field gradient at the edge of the solenoid, which can exceed 200 T/m for the resistive magnets at the NHMFL. We employed a 4 K inductive shield to stabilize the fluctuations in the resistive magnets' applied field over the necessarily long timescales of a slow diffusion NMR experiment. We have also made use of fast frequency jumping to enhance signal-to-noise by circumventing the finite spatial excitation bandwidth imposed by the large gradient. We show NMR experiments of slow diffusion in glass-formers up to high field (H0 = 21 T, G = 220 T/m) that have resolved diffusivities as low as 10-10 cm^2/s. [1] V. F. Mitrovic et.al., Nature 413, 501-504 (2001).

  7. A feasibility study of high-strength Bi-2223 conductor for high-field solenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godeke, A.; Abraimov, D. V.; Arroyo, E.; Barret, N.; Bird, M. D.; Francis, A.; Jaroszynski, J.; Kurteva, D. V.; Markiewicz, W. D.; Marks, E. L.; Marshall, W. S.; McRae, D. M.; Noyes, P. D.; Pereira, R. C. P.; Viouchkov, Y. L.; Walsh, R. P.; White, J. M.

    2017-03-01

    We performed a feasibility study on a high-strength Bi{}2-xPb x Sr2Ca2Cu3O{}10-x(Bi-2223) tape conductor for high-field solenoid applications. The investigated conductor, DI-BSCCO Type HT-XX, is a pre-production version of Type HT-NX, which has recently become available from Sumitomo Electric Industries. It is based on their DI-BSCCO Type H tape, but laminated with a high-strength Ni-alloy. We used stress–strain characterizations, single- and double-bend tests, easy- and hard-way bent coil-turns at various radii, straight and helical samples in up to 31.2 T background field, and small 20-turn coils in up to 17 T background field to systematically determine the electro-mechanical limits in magnet-relevant conditions. In longitudinal tensile tests at 77 K, we found critical stress- and strain-levels of 516 MPa and 0.57%, respectively. In three decidedly different experiments we detected an amplification of the allowable strain with a combination of pure bending and Lorentz loading to ≥slant 0.92 % (calculated elastically at the outer tape edge). This significant strain level, and the fact that it is multi-filamentary conductor and available in the reacted and insulated state, makes DI-BSCCO HT-NX highly suitable for very high-field solenoids, for which high current densities and therefore high loads are required to retain manageable magnet dimensions.

  8. Susceptibility Contrast in High Field MRI of Human Brain as a Function of Tissue Iron Content

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bing; Li, Tie-Qiang; van Gelderen, Peter; Shmueli, Karin; de Zwart, Jacco A.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility provides an important contrast mechanism for MRI. Increasingly, susceptibility-based contrast is being exploited to investigate brain tissue microstructure and to detect abnormal levels of brain iron as these have been implicated in a variety of neuro-degenerative diseases. However, it remains unclear to what extent magnetic susceptibility-related contrast at high field relates to actual brain iron concentrations. In this study, we performed susceptibility weighted imaging as a function of field strength on healthy brains in vivo and post-mortem brain tissues at 1.5T, 3T and 7T. Iron histology was performed on the tissue samples for comparison. The calculated susceptibility-related parameters R2* and signal frequency shift in four iron-rich regions (putamen, globus pallidus, caudate, and thalamus) showed an almost linear dependence (r=0.90 for R2*; r=0.83 for phase, p<0.01) on field strength, suggesting that potential ferritin saturation effects are not relevant to susceptibility-weighted contrast for field strengths up to 7T. The R2* dependence on the putative (literature-based) iron concentration was 0.048 Hz/Tesla/ppm. The histological data from brain samples confirmed the linear dependence of R2* on field strength and showed a slope against iron concentration of 0.0099 Hz/Tesla/ppm dry-weight, which is equivalent to 0.05 Hz/Tesla/ppm wet-weight and closely matched the calculated value in vivo. These results confirm the validity of using susceptibility-weighted contrast as an indicator of iron content in iron-rich brain regions. The absence of saturation effects opens the way to exploit the benefits of MRI at high field strengths for the detection of iron distributions with high sensitivity and resolution. PMID:19027861

  9. Low-field MRI can be more sensitive than high-field MRI

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Aaron M.; Truong, Milton

    2014-01-01

    MRI signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is the key factor for image quality. Conventionally, SNR is proportional to nuclear spin polarization, which scales linearly with magnetic field strength. Yet ever-stronger magnets present numerous technical and financial limitations. Low-field MRI can mitigate these constraints with equivalent SNR from non-equilibrium ‘hyperpolarization’ schemes, which increase polarization by orders of magnitude independently of the magnetic field. Here, theory and experimental validation demonstrate that combination of field independent polarization (e.g. hyperpolarization) with frequency optimized MRI detection coils (i.e. multi-turn coils using the maximum allowed conductor length) results in low-field MRI sensitivity approaching and even rivaling that of high-field MRI. Four read-out frequencies were tested using samples with identical numbers of 1H and 13C spins. Experimental SNRs at 0.0475 T were ∼40% of those obtained at 4.7 T. Conservatively, theoretical SNRs at 0.0475 T 1.13-fold higher than 4.7 T were possible despite an ∼100-fold lower detection frequency, indicating feasibility of high-sensitivity MRI without technically challenging, expensive high-field magnets. The data at 4.7 T and 0.0475 T was obtained from different spectrometers with different RF probes. The SNR comparison between the two field strengths accounted for many differences in parameters such as system noise figures and variations in the probe detection coils including Q factors and coil diameters. PMID:24239701

  10. Development and manufacture of a Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor for the high-field test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlan, R.M.; Cornish, D.N.; Spencer, C.R.; Gregory, E.; Adam, E.

    1981-10-20

    The High-Field Test Facility (HFTF) project has two primary goals. The first is to establish manufacturing capability for a Nb/sub 3/Sn conductor suitable for use in a mirror fusion coil. The second is to provide a test facility for evaluating other fusion conductor designs at high fields. This paper describes some of the problems encountered and the solutions devised in working toward the first goal. Construction of the test facility coils will be described in a subsequent paper.

  11. Intense Plasma Waveguide Terahertz Sources for High-Field THz Probe Science with Ultrafast Lasers for Solid State Physics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-25

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0029 Intense Plasma-Waveguide Terahertz Sources for High - Field THz probe science with ultrafast lasers for Solid State Physics...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14.  ABSTRACT Project finished successfully 15.  SUBJECT TERMS High - Field THz probe, INTENSE PLASMA-WAVEGUIDE TERAHERTZ SOURCES, Solid State...an existing high energy laser system, has been applied to the study of intense terahertz radiation generated in gaseous plasmas in purpose

  12. ADX: a high field, high power density, advanced divertor and RF tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBombard, B.; Marmar, E.; Irby, J.; Terry, J. L.; Vieira, R.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D. G.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.; Baek, S.; Beck, W.; Bonoli, P.; Brunner, D.; Doody, J.; Ellis, R.; Ernst, D.; Fiore, C.; Freidberg, J. P.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Hartwig, Z. S.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Kessel, C.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Leccacorvi, R.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Mahajan, S.; Minervini, J.; Mumgaard, R.; Nygren, R.; Parker, R.; Poli, F.; Porkolab, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Rice, J.; Rognlien, T.; Rowan, W.; Shiraiwa, S.; Terry, D.; Theiler, C.; Titus, P.; Umansky, M.; Valanju, P.; Walk, J.; White, A.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, G.; Zweben, S. J.

    2015-05-01

    The MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center and collaborators are proposing a high-performance Advanced Divertor and RF tokamak eXperiment (ADX)—a tokamak specifically designed to address critical gaps in the world fusion research programme on the pathway to next-step devices: fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF), fusion pilot plant (FPP) and/or demonstration power plant (DEMO). This high-field (⩾6.5 T, 1.5 MA), high power density facility (P/S ˜ 1.5 MW m-2) will test innovative divertor ideas, including an ‘X-point target divertor’ concept, at the required performance parameters—reactor-level boundary plasma pressures, magnetic field strengths and parallel heat flux densities entering into the divertor region—while simultaneously producing high-performance core plasma conditions that are prototypical of a reactor: equilibrated and strongly coupled electrons and ions, regimes with low or no torque, and no fuelling from external heating and current drive systems. Equally important, the experimental platform will test innovative concepts for lower hybrid current drive and ion cyclotron range of frequency actuators with the unprecedented ability to deploy launch structures both on the low-magnetic-field side and the high-magnetic-field side—the latter being a location where energetic plasma-material interactions can be controlled and favourable RF wave physics leads to efficient current drive, current profile control, heating and flow drive. This triple combination—advanced divertors, advanced RF actuators, reactor-prototypical core plasma conditions—will enable ADX to explore enhanced core confinement physics, such as made possible by reversed central shear, using only the types of external drive systems that are considered viable for a fusion power plant. Such an integrated demonstration of high-performance core-divertor operation with steady-state sustainment would pave the way towards an attractive pilot plant, as envisioned in the ARC concept

  13. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI at ultra-high field: artifact prevention and safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Jorge, João; Grouiller, Frédéric; Ipek, Özlem; Stoermer, Robert; Michel, Christoph M; Figueiredo, Patrícia; van der Zwaag, Wietske; Gruetter, Rolf

    2015-01-15

    The simultaneous recording of scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can provide unique insights into the dynamics of human brain function, and the increased functional sensitivity offered by ultra-high field fMRI opens exciting perspectives for the future of this multimodal approach. However, simultaneous recordings are susceptible to various types of artifacts, many of which scale with magnetic field strength and can seriously compromise both EEG and fMRI data quality in recordings above 3T. The aim of the present study was to implement and characterize an optimized setup for simultaneous EEG-fMRI in humans at 7 T. The effects of EEG cable length and geometry for signal transmission between the cap and amplifiers were assessed in a phantom model, with specific attention to noise contributions from the MR scanner coldheads. Cable shortening (down to 12 cm from cap to amplifiers) and bundling effectively reduced environment noise by up to 84% in average power and 91% in inter-channel power variability. Subject safety was assessed and confirmed via numerical simulations of RF power distribution and temperature measurements on a phantom model, building on the limited existing literature at ultra-high field. MRI data degradation effects due to the EEG system were characterized via B0 and B1(+) field mapping on a human volunteer, demonstrating important, although not prohibitive, B1 disruption effects. With the optimized setup, simultaneous EEG-fMRI acquisitions were performed on 5 healthy volunteers undergoing two visual paradigms: an eyes-open/eyes-closed task, and a visual evoked potential (VEP) paradigm using reversing-checkerboard stimulation. EEG data exhibited clear occipital alpha modulation and average VEPs, respectively, with concomitant BOLD signal changes. On a single-trial level, alpha power variations could be observed with relative confidence on all trials; VEP detection was more limited, although

  14. Polarizing agents and mechanisms for high-field dynamic nuclear polarization of frozen dielectric solids.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kan-Nian

    2011-09-01

    This article provides an overview of polarizing mechanisms involved in high-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of frozen biological samples at temperatures maintained using liquid nitrogen, compatible with contemporary magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Typical DNP experiments require unpaired electrons that are usually exogenous in samples via paramagnetic doping with polarizing agents. Thus, the resulting nuclear polarization mechanism depends on the electron and nuclear spin interactions induced by the paramagnetic species. The Overhauser Effect (OE) DNP, which relies on time-dependent spin-spin interactions, is excluded from our discussion due the lack of conducting electrons in frozen aqueous solutions containing biological entities. DNP of particular interest to us relies primarily on time-independent, spin-spin interactions for significant electron-nucleus polarization transfer through mechanisms such as the Solid Effect (SE), the Cross Effect (CE) or Thermal Mixing (TM), involving one, two or multiple electron spins, respectively. Derived from monomeric radicals initially used in high-field DNP experiments, bi- or multiple-radical polarizing agents facilitate CE/TM to generate significant NMR signal enhancements in dielectric solids at low temperatures (<100 K). For example, large DNP enhancements (∼300 times at 5 T) from a biologically compatible biradical, 1-(TEMPO-4-oxy)-3-(TEMPO-4-amino)propan-2-ol (TOTAPOL), have enabled high-resolution MAS NMR in sample systems existing in submicron domains or embedded in larger biomolecular complexes. The scope of this review is focused on recently developed DNP polarizing agents for high-field applications and leads up to future developments per the CE DNP mechanism. Because DNP experiments are feasible with a solid-state microwave source when performed at <20K, nuclear polarization using lower microwave power (<100 mW) is possible by forcing a high proportion of biradicals to

  15. Two high-field thermodynamically stable conductivity states in photoconductive CdS, one n-type and one p-type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böer, Karl W.

    2015-08-01

    Photoconductive CdS is known to be n-type and develops high-field domains in the range of negative differential conductivities. These domains have been extensively discussed, and when remaining attached to the electrodes have been renamed Böer domains (a broader definition suggested earlier is misleading) [K. Thiessen, Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 2775 (2011)]. They are occurring at high applied voltage in a range at which the current becomes highly non-ohmic that is conventionally described as N-shaped when the conductance decreases with increasing bias or as S-shaped when the current starts to increase again. In this paper only such cases will be discussed in which the current stays below significant Joule heating (no current channel formation), and only for stationary electrode-attached high-field domains. These are the cathode-attached domains that are maintained by field-quenching and are thermodynamically stable. Their finding is summarized in the first segment of this paper. When the applied voltage is increased, an anode-attached hyper-high-field domain develops that is stabilized by a hole blocking anode and will be analyzed in more detail below. It will be shown that they are a thermodynamically stable p-type photoconductive state of CdS. These two new states can be used to determine the carrier densities and mobilities as function of the field and the effective work function in dependence of the spectral distribution of the optical excitation. In a thin slab adjacent to a blocking cathode, the quasi-Fermi levels are spread to a precise amount and are kept there in the entire high-field region. This opens the opportunity to analyze with small modulation of the excitation the trap transition coefficients near these quasi-Fermi levels separately, without broadening interference from other signals. This has already resulted in the discovery of an unusually sharp electron quenching level when the CdS was in a p-type state with an anode adjacent domain. It is

  16. Two high-field thermodynamically stable conductivity states in photoconductive CdS, one n-type and one p-type

    SciTech Connect

    Böer, Karl W.

    2015-08-28

    Photoconductive CdS is known to be n-type and develops high-field domains in the range of negative differential conductivities. These domains have been extensively discussed, and when remaining attached to the electrodes have been renamed Böer domains (a broader definition suggested earlier is misleading) [K. Thiessen, Phys. Status Solidi B 248, 2775 (2011)]. They are occurring at high applied voltage in a range at which the current becomes highly non-ohmic that is conventionally described as N-shaped when the conductance decreases with increasing bias or as S-shaped when the current starts to increase again. In this paper only such cases will be discussed in which the current stays below significant Joule heating (no current channel formation), and only for stationary electrode-attached high-field domains. These are the cathode-attached domains that are maintained by field-quenching and are thermodynamically stable. Their finding is summarized in the first segment of this paper. When the applied voltage is increased, an anode-attached hyper-high-field domain develops that is stabilized by a hole blocking anode and will be analyzed in more detail below. It will be shown that they are a thermodynamically stable p-type photoconductive state of CdS. These two new states can be used to determine the carrier densities and mobilities as function of the field and the effective work function in dependence of the spectral distribution of the optical excitation. In a thin slab adjacent to a blocking cathode, the quasi-Fermi levels are spread to a precise amount and are kept there in the entire high-field region. This opens the opportunity to analyze with small modulation of the excitation the trap transition coefficients near these quasi-Fermi levels separately, without broadening interference from other signals. This has already resulted in the discovery of an unusually sharp electron quenching level when the CdS was in a p-type state with an anode adjacent domain. It is

  17. High-field, high-current-density, stable superconducting magnets for fusion machines

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, J.W.; Dresner, L.; Lubell, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Designs for large fusion machines require high-performance superconducting magnets to reduce cost or increase machine performance. By employing force-flow cooling, cable-in-conduit conductor configuration, and NbTi superconductor, it is now possible to design superconducting magnets that operate a high fields (8-12 T) with high current densities (5-15 kA/cm/sup 2/ over the winding pack) in a stable manner. High current density leads to smaller, lighter, and thus less expensive coils. The force-flow cooling provides confined helium, full conductor insulation, and a rigid winding pack for better load distribution. The cable-in-conduit conductor configuration ensures a high stability margin for the magnet. The NbTi superconductor has reached a good engineering material standard. Its strain-insensitive critical parameters are particularly suitable for complex coil windings of a stellarator machine. The optimization procedure for such a conductor design, developed over the past decade, is summarized here. If desired a magnet built on the principles outlines in this paper can be extended to a field higher than the design value without degrading its stability by simply lowering the operating temperature below 4.2 K. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Structural correlates of formal thought disorder in schizophrenia: An ultra-high field multivariate morphometry study

    PubMed Central

    Palaniyappan, Lena; Mahmood, Jenaid; Balain, Vijender; Mougin, Olivier; Gowland, Penny A.; Liddle, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Persistent formal thought disorder (FTD) is one of the most characteristic features of schizophrenia. Several neuroimaging studies report spatially distinct neuroanatomical changes in association with FTD. Given that most studies so far have employed a univariate localisation approach that obscures the study of covarying interregional relationships, the present study focussed on the multivariate systemic pattern of anatomical changes that contribute to FTD. Methods Speech samples from nineteen medicated clinically stable schizophrenia patients and 20 healthy controls were evaluated for subtle formal thought disorder. Ultra high-field (7 T) anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans were obtained from all subjects. Multivariate morphometric patterns were identified using an independent component approach (source based morphometry). Using multiple regression analysis, the morphometric patterns predicting positive and negative FTD scores were identified. Results Morphometric variations in grey matter predicted a substantial portion of inter-individual variance in negative but not positive FTD. A pattern of concomitant striato-insular/precuneus reduction along with frontocingular grey matter increase had a significant association with negative FTD. Conclusions These results suggest that concomitant increase and decrease in grey matter occur in association with persistent negative thought disorder in clinically stable individuals with schizophrenia. PMID:26232240

  19. Resting State Connectivity of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis at Ultra-high Field

    PubMed Central

    Torrisi, Salvatore; O'Connell, Katherine; Davis, Andrew; Reynolds, Richard; Balderston, Nick; Fudge, Julie; Grillon, Christian; Ernst, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a portion of the ‘extended amygdala’, is implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety and addiction disorders. Its small size and connection to other small regions prevents standard imaging techniques from easily capturing it and its connectivity with confidence. Seed-based resting state functional connectivity is an established method for mapping functional connections across the brain from a region of interest. We therefore mapped the BNST resting state network with high spatial resolution using 7 Tesla fMRI, demonstrating the in vivo reproduction of many human BNST connections previously described only in animal research. We identify strong BNST functional connectivity in amygdala, hippocampus and thalamic subregions, caudate, periaqueductal gray, hypothalamus and cortical areas such as the medial PFC and precuneus. This work, which demonstrates the power of ultra-high field for mapping functional connections in the human, is an important step towards elucidating cortical and subcortical regions and subregions of the BNST network. PMID:26178381

  20. High-field superconducting window-frame beam-transport magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Allinger, J.; Carroll, A.; Danby, G.; DeVito, B.; Jackson, J.; Leonhardt, W.; Prodell, A.; Skarita, J.

    1982-01-01

    The window-frame design for high-field superconducting beam-transport magnets was first applied to two, 2-m-long, 4-T modules of an 8/sup 0/ bending magent which has operated for nine years in the primary proton beam line at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). The design of two 1.5-m long, 7.6-cm cold-bore superconducting windowframe magnets, described in this paper, intended for the external proton beam transport system at the AGS incorporated evolutionary changes. These magnets generated a maximum aperture field of 6.8 T with a peak field in the dipole coil of 7.1 T. Measured fields are very accurate and are compared to values calculated using the computer programs LINDA and POISSON. Results of quench-propagation studies demonstrate the excellent thermal stability of the magnets. The magnets quench safely without energy extraction at a maximum current density, J = 130 kA/cm/sup 2/ in the superconductor, corresponding to J = 57.6 kA/cm/sup 2/ overall the conductor at B = 6.7 T.

  1. Advances in high-field magnetic resonance spectroscopy in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningnannan; Song, Xiaowei; Bartha, Robert; Beyea, Steven; D'Arcy, Ryan; Zhang, Yunting; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects several important molecules in brain metabolism. The resulting neurochemical changes can be quantified non-invasively in localized brain regions using in vivo single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SV 1H MRS). Although the often heralded diagnostic potential of MRS in AD largely remains unfulfilled, more recent use of high magnetic fields has led to significantly improved signal-to-noise ratios and spectral resolutions, thereby allowing clinical applications with increased measurement reliability. The present article provides a comprehensive review of SV 1H MRS studies on AD at high magnetic fields (3.0 Tesla and above). This review suggests that patterned regional differences and longitudinal alterations in several neurometabolites are associated with clinically established AD. Changes in multiple metabolites are identifiable even at early stages of AD development. By combining information of neurochemicals in different brain regions revealing either pathological or compensatory changes, high field MRS can be evaluated in AD diagnosis and in the detection of treatment effects. To achieve this, standardization of data acquisition and analytical approaches is needed.

  2. Ultra-high field parallel imaging of the superior parietal lobule during mental maze solving.

    PubMed

    Jerde, Trenton A; Lewis, Scott M; Goerke, Ute; Gourtzelidis, Pavlos; Tzagarakis, Charidimos; Lynch, Joshua; Moeller, Steen; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Adriany, Gregor; Trangle, Jeran; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2008-06-01

    We used ultra-high field (7 T) fMRI and parallel imaging to scan the superior parietal lobule (SPL) of human subjects as they mentally traversed a maze path in one of four directions (up, down, left, right). A counterbalanced design for maze presentation and a quasi-isotropic voxel (1.46 x 1.46 x 2 mm thick) collection were implemented. Fifty-one percent of single voxels in the SPL were tuned to the direction of the maze path. Tuned voxels were distributed throughout the SPL, bilaterally. A nearest neighbor analysis revealed a "honeycomb" arrangement such that voxels tuned to a particular direction tended to occur in clusters. Three-dimensional (3D) directional clusters were identified in SPL as oriented centroids traversing the cortical depth. There were 13 same-direction clusters per hemisphere containing 22 voxels per cluster, on the average; the mean nearest-neighbor, same-direction intercluster distance was 9.4 mm. These results provide a much finer detail of the directional tuning in SPL, as compared to those obtained previously at 4 T (Gourtzelidis et al. Exp Brain Res 165:273-282, 2005). The more accurate estimates of quantitative clustering parameters in 3D brain space in this study were made possible by the higher signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios afforded by the higher magnetic field of 7 T as well as the quasi-isotropic design of voxel data collection.

  3. Ultra-high field parallel imaging of the superior parietal lobule during mental maze solving

    PubMed Central

    Jerde, Trenton A.; Lewis, Scott M.; Goerke, Ute; Gourtzelidis, Pavlos; Tzagarakis, Charidimos; Lynch, Joshua; Moeller, Steen; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Adriany, Gregor; Trangle, Jeran; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.

    2014-01-01

    We used ultra-high field (7 T) fMRI and parallel imaging to scan the superior parietal lobule (SPL) of human subjects as they mentally traversed a maze path in one of four directions (up, down, left, right). A counterbalanced design for maze presentation and a quasi-isotropic voxel (1.46 × 1.46 × 2 mm thick) collection were implemented. Fifty-one percent of single voxels in the SPL were tuned to the direction of the maze path. Tuned voxels were distributed throughout the SPL, bilaterally. A nearest neighbor analysis revealed a “honeycomb” arrangement such that voxels tuned to a particular direction tended to occur in clusters. Three-dimensional (3D) directional clusters were identified in SPL as oriented centroids traversing the cortical depth. There were 13 same-direction clusters per hemisphere containing 22 voxels per cluster, on the average; the mean nearest-neighbor, same-direction intercluster distance was 9.4 mm. These results provide a much finer detail of the directional tuning in SPL, as compared to those obtained previously at 4 T (Gourtzelidis et al. Exp Brain Res 165:273–282, 2005). The more accurate estimates of quantitative clustering parameters in 3D brain space in this study were made possible by the higher signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios afforded by the higher magnetic field of 7 T as well as the quasi-isotropic design of voxel data collection. PMID:18305932

  4. High-field (95) Mo and (183) W static and MAS NMR study of polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Haouas, Mohamed; Trébosc, Julien; Roch-Marchal, Catherine; Cadot, Emmanuel; Taulelle, Francis; Martineau-Corcos, Charlotte

    2017-10-01

    The potential of high-field NMR to measure solid-state (95) Mo and (183) W NMR in polyoxometalates (POMs) is explored using some archetypical structures like Lindqvist, Keggin and Dawson as model compounds that are well characterized in solution. NMR spectra in static and under magic angle spinning (MAS) were obtained, and their analysis allowed extraction of the NMR parameters, including chemical shift anisotropy and quadrupolar coupling parameters. Despite the inherent difficulties of measurement in solid state of these low-gamma NMR nuclei, due mainly to the low spectral resolution and poor signal-to-noise ratio, the observed global trends compare well with the solution-state NMR data. This would open an avenue for application of solid-state NMR to POMs, especially when liquid-state NMR is not possible, e.g., for poorly soluble or unstable compounds in solution, and for giant molecules with slow tumbling motion. This is the case of Keplerate where we provide here the first NMR characterization of this class of POMs in the solid state. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Scoping study for compact high-field superconducting net energy tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumgaard, R. T.; Greenwald, M.; Freidberg, J. P.; Wolfe, S. M.; Hartwig, Z. S.; Brunner, D.; Sorbom, B. N.; Whyte, D. G.

    2016-10-01

    The continued development and commercialization of high temperature superconductors (HTS) may enable the construction of compact, net-energy tokamaks. HTS, in contrast to present generation low temperature superconductors, offers improved performance in high magnetic fields, higher current density, stronger materials, higher temperature operation, and simplified assembly. Using HTS along with community-consensus confinement physics (H98 =1) may make it possible to achieve net-energy (Q>1) or burning plasma conditions (Q>5) in DIII-D or ASDEX-U sized, conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. It is shown that, by operating at high plasma current and density enabled by the high magnetic field (B>10T), the required triple products may be achieved at plasma volumes under 20m3, major radii under 2m, with external heating powers under 40MW. This is at the scale of existing devices operated by laboratories, universities and companies. The trade-offs in the core heating, divertor heat exhaust, sustainment, stability, and proximity to known plasma physics limits are discussed in the context of the present tokamak experience base and the requirements for future devices. The resulting HTS-based design space is compared and contrasted to previous studies on high-field copper experiments with similar missions. The physics exploration conducted with such HTS devices could decrease the real and perceived risks of ITER exploitation, and aid in quickly developing commercially-applicable tokamak pilot plants and reactors.

  6. High-Field High-Repetition-Rate Sources for the Coherent THz Control of Matter

    DOE PAGES

    Green, B.; Kovalev, S.; Asgekar, V.; ...

    2016-02-29

    Ultrashort flashes of THz light with low photon energies of a few meV, but strong electric or magnetic field transients have recently been employed to prepare various fascinating nonequilibrium states in matter. Here we present a new class of sources based on superradiant enhancement of radiation from relativistic electron bunches in a compact electron accelerator that we believe will revolutionize experiments in this field. Our prototype source generates high-field THz pulses at unprecedented quasi-continuous-wave repetition rates up to the MHz regime. We demonstrate parameters that exceed state-of-the-art laser-based sources by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The peak fields andmore » the repetition rates are highly scalable and once fully operational this type of sources will routinely provide 1 MV/cm electric fields and 0.3 T magnetic fields at repetition rates of few 100 kHz. In conclusion, we benchmark the unique properties by performing a resonant coherent THz control experiment with few 10 fs resolution.« less

  7. High-Field High-Repetition-Rate Sources for the Coherent THz Control of Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Green, B.; Kovalev, S.; Asgekar, V.; Geloni, G.; Lehnert, U.; Golz, T.; Kuntzsch, M.; Bauer, C.; Hauser, J.; Voigtlaender, J.; Wustmann, B.; Koesterke, I.; Schwarz, M.; Freitag, M.; Arnold, A.; Teichert, J.; Justus, M.; Seidel, W.; Ilgner, C.; Awari, N.; Nicoletti, D.; Kaiser, S.; Laplace, Y.; Rajasekaran, S.; Zhang, L.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Schay, G.; Lorincz, I.; Rauscher, A. A.; Radu, I.; Mährlein, S.; Kim, T. H.; Lee, J. S.; Kampfrath, T.; Wall, S.; Heberle, J.; Malnasi-Csizmadia, A.; Steiger, A.; Müller, A. S.; Helm, M.; Schramm, U.; Cowan, T.; Michel, P.; Cavalleri, A.; Fisher, A. S.; Stojanovic, N.; Gensch, M.

    2016-02-29

    Ultrashort flashes of THz light with low photon energies of a few meV, but strong electric or magnetic field transients have recently been employed to prepare various fascinating nonequilibrium states in matter. Here we present a new class of sources based on superradiant enhancement of radiation from relativistic electron bunches in a compact electron accelerator that we believe will revolutionize experiments in this field. Our prototype source generates high-field THz pulses at unprecedented quasi-continuous-wave repetition rates up to the MHz regime. We demonstrate parameters that exceed state-of-the-art laser-based sources by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The peak fields and the repetition rates are highly scalable and once fully operational this type of sources will routinely provide 1 MV/cm electric fields and 0.3 T magnetic fields at repetition rates of few 100 kHz. In conclusion, we benchmark the unique properties by performing a resonant coherent THz control experiment with few 10 fs resolution.

  8. Influence of electrode geometry on the high-field characteristics of photoconductive silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Madangarli, V.P.; Gradinaru, G.; Korony, G.; Sudarshan, T.S.; Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Patterson, P.E.

    1994-07-01

    A series of experiment were conducted to study the influence of electrode geometry on the prebreakdown (and breakdown) characteristics of high resistivity ({rho} > 30 k{Omega}-cm), p-type Si wafers under quasi-uniform and non-uniform electric field configurations. In the quasi-uniform field configuration, the 1mm thick Si wafer was mounted between the slots of two plane parallel stainless steel disc electrodes (parallel), while the non-uniform field was obtained by mounting the wafer between two pillar-type electrodes with a hemispherical tip (pillar). The main objective of the above investigation was to verify if the uniform field configuration under a parallel system has a positive influence by reducing the field enhancement at the contact region, as opposed to the definite field enhancement present in the case of the non-uniform pillar system. Also, it was proposed to study the effect of the contact profile on the field distribution over the wafer surface and hence its influence on the high-field performance of the Si wafers.

  9. Spin pair geometry revealed by high-field DEER in the presence of conformational distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyhach, Ye.; Godt, A.; Bauer, C.; Jeschke, G.

    2007-03-01

    Orientation selection on two nitroxide-labelled shape-persistent molecules is demonstrated by high-field pulsed electron-electron double resonance experiments at a frequency of 95 GHz with a commercial spectrometer. The experiments are performed with fixed observer and pump frequencies by variation of the magnetic field, so that the variation of both the dipolar frequencies and the modulation depths can be analyzed. By applying the deadtime-free four-pulse double electron-electron resonance (DEER) sequence, the lineshapes of the dipolar spectra are obtained. In the investigated linear biradical and equilateral triradical the nitroxide labels undergo restricted dynamics, so that their relative orientations are not fixed, but are correlated to some extent. In this situation, the general dependence of the dipolar spectra on the observer field can be satisfyingly modelled by simple geometrical models that involve only one rotational degree of freedom for the biradical and two rotational degrees of freedom for the triradical. A somewhat better agreement of the dipolar lineshapes for the biradical is obtained by simulations based on a molecular dynamics trajectory. For the triradical, small but significant deviations of the lineshape are observed with both models, indicating that the technique can reveal deficiencies in modelling of the conformational ensemble of a macromolecule.

  10. The high-field polar RX J1007.5-2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, H.-C.; Beuermann, K.; Reinsch, K.; Schwope, A. D.; Burwitz, V.

    2012-10-01

    We report optical and X-ray observations of the high-field polar RX J1007.5-2017 performed between 1990 and 2012. It has an orbital period of 208.60 min determined from the ellipsoidal modulation of the secondary star in an extended low state. The spectral flux of the dM3 - secondary star yields a distance of 790 ± 105 pc. At low accretion levels, RX J1007.5-2017 exhibits pronounced cyclotron emission lines. The second and third harmonic fall in the optical regime and yield a field strength in the accretion spot of 94 MG. The source is highly variable on a year-to-year basis and was encountered at visual magnitudes between V ~ 20 and V ~ 16. In the intermediate state of 1992 and 2000, the soft X-ray luminosity exceeds the sum of the luminosities of the cyclotron source, the hard X-ray source, and the accretion stream by an order of magnitude. An X-ray high state, corresponding to the brightest optical level, has apparently not been observed so far.

  11. SAR simulations for high-field MRI: how much detail, effort, and accuracy is needed?

    PubMed

    Wolf, S; Diehl, D; Gebhardt, M; Mallow, J; Speck, O

    2013-04-01

    Accurate prediction of specific absorption rate (SAR) for high field MRI is necessary to best exploit its potential and guarantee safe operation. To reduce the effort (time, complexity) of SAR simulations while maintaining robust results, the minimum requirements for the creation (segmentation, labeling) of human models and methods to reduce the time for SAR calculations for 7 Tesla MR-imaging are evaluated. The geometric extent of the model required for realistic head-simulations and the number of tissue types sufficient to form a reliable but simplified model of the human body are studied. Two models (male and female) of the virtual family are analyzed. Additionally, their position within the head-coil is taken into account. Furthermore, the effects of retuning the coils to different load conditions and the influence of a large bore radiofrequency-shield have been examined. The calculation time for SAR simulations in the head can be reduced by 50% without significant error for smaller model extent and simplified tissue structure outside the coil. Likewise, the model generation can be accelerated by reducing the number of tissue types. Local SAR can vary up to 14% due to position alone. This must be considered and sets a limit for SAR prediction accuracy. All these results are comparable between the two body models tested.

  12. Identification and minimization of sources of temporal instabilities in high field (>23 T) resistive magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soghomonian, Victoria; Sabo, M.; Powell, A.; Murphy, P.; Rosanske, Richard; Cross, T. A.; Schneider-Muntau, H. J.

    2000-07-01

    Resistive magnets offer very high field strengths, unmatched by superconducting technology. However, the spatial and temporal characteristics of raw magnetic fields generated by resistive high powered and water cooled magnets, are unadapted to most nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory has installed a 24 T (˜1 GHz 1H), 32 mm bore, 13 MW resistive magnet to study the feasibility of utilizing such fields for NMR applications. Herein we present our efforts in identifying, characterizing, and improving the temporal properties of the magnets. The temporal instabilities arise mainly from two sources: power supply ripple and inlet cooling water temperature variations. To compensate for power supply ripple, flux stabilization was employed, whereas for long term variations, arising from variations in the water temperature, a field frequency lock unit was utilized. Moreover, a novel flow based water temperature control scheme was implemented. The stabilization and improved control reduced the initial 16 ppm peak-to-peak variation to ˜2 ppm. Implementation of a field frequency lock unit further reduced the temporal variation to 0.8 ppm peak-to-peak. Sharp NMR linewidths — 1.7 ppm at full width at half height of 2H in liquid D2O — are observed in small volume samples, enabling moderate resolution NMR experiments to be performed at 24 T.

  13. Progress in High-Field Optical Pumping of Alkali Metal Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, B.; Ishikawa, K.; Jau, Y.-Y.; Happer, W.

    2006-05-01

    We present preliminary results of an attempt to polarize alkali metal nuclei via optical pumping in a large (9.4-tesla) magnetic field. NMR measurements of ^87Rb and ^133Cs films in optical cells will be reported. Depopulation pumping of alkalis can easily produce electron polarizations of order unity, as measured during spin-exchange optical pumping of noble gases [1]. At low magnetic fields (< ˜1 kG), the strong hyperfine coupling between the alkali electron and nucleus allows angular momentum exchange from one to the other, resulting in nuclear polarization enhancement through optical pumping. In the high magnetic fields required for NMR, however, this interaction is largely decoupled and electron-nuclear spin exchange must rely upon the δA I .S interaction induced by buffer gas collisions (also called the ``Carver rate''). High-field optical pumping experiments may allow for a more precise measurement of this rate, as well as yielding insight into the transfer of angular momentum from the polarized alkali vapor to the bulk alkali metal on the cell walls. The technical challenges of high-resolution NMR of alkali metals at 9.4 tesla will be discussed. 1. E. Babcock, I. Nelson, S. Kadlecek, et al., Physical Review Letters 91, 123003 (2003).

  14. Demountable, High field High-Temperature Superconductor TF coils for flexible steady-state fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Phillip; Bromberg, Leslie; Vieira, Rui; Minervini, Joseph; Galea, Christopher; Hensley, Sarah; Whyte, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    The excellent properties of HTS materials (e.g., YBCO) at high fields and elevated temperatures (>20 K), offer operational advantages for fusion machines, but results in challenges. For fusion devices, the ability to disassemble the TF coil is very attractive as it provides direct access to maintain the vacuum vessel, first wall and other components in a timely manner. High current conductors, made from multiple thin tapes, are not available but are being developed. Quench protection is a serious issue with HTS magnets, and novel means are needed to detect normal zones and to quickly discharge the magnet. Potential cables designs, demountable magnets and solutions to quench and protection issues for an HTS TF magnet for the Vulcan device (long term PMI studies) will be described. We also describe means for making continuous, persistent loops with HTS tapes. These loops offer an alternative to expensive monoliths for field control for complex geometries, such as stellarator-like fields. Partially supported by US DOE DE-FC02-93ER54186.

  15. A low-cost, high-field-strength magnetic resonance imaging-compatible actuator.

    PubMed

    Secoli, Riccardo; Robinson, Matthew; Brugnoli, Michele; Rodriguez y Baena, Ferdinando

    2015-03-01

    To perform minimally invasive surgical interventions with the aid of robotic systems within a magnetic resonance imaging scanner offers significant advantages compared to conventional surgery. However, despite the numerous exciting potential applications of this technology, the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging-compatible robotics has been hampered by safety, reliability and cost concerns: the robots should not be attracted by the strong magnetic field of the scanner and should operate reliably in the field without causing distortion to the scan data. Development of non-conventional sensors and/or actuators is thus required to meet these strict operational and safety requirements. These demands commonly result in expensive actuators, which mean that cost effectiveness remains a major challenge for such robotic systems. This work presents a low-cost, high-field-strength magnetic resonance imaging-compatible actuator: a pneumatic stepper motor which is controllable in open loop or closed loop, along with a rotary encoder, both fully manufactured in plastic, which are shown to perform reliably via a set of in vitro trials while generating negligible artifacts when imaged within a standard clinical scanner.

  16. Slotted cage resonator for high-field magnetic resonance imaging of rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrufo, O.; Vasquez, F.; Solis, S. E.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2011-04-01

    A variation of the high-frequency cavity resonator coil was experimentally developed according to the theoretical frame proposed by Mansfield in 1990. Circular slots were used instead of cavities to form the coil endplates and it was called the slotted cage resonator coil. The theoretical principles were validated via a coil equivalent circuit and also experimentally with a coil prototype. The radio frequency magnetic field, B1, produced by several coil configurations was numerically simulated using the finite-element approach to investigate their performances. A transceiver coil, 8 cm long and 7.6 cm in diameter, and composed of 4 circular slots with a 15 mm diameter on both endplates, was built to operate at 300 MHz and quadrature driven. Experimental results obtained with the slotted cage resonator coil were presented and showed very good agreement with the theoretical expectations for the resonant frequency as a function of the coil dimensions and slots. A standard birdcage coil was also built for performance comparison purposes. Phantom images were then acquired to compute the signal-to-noise ratio of both coils showing an important improvement of the slotted cage coil over the birdcage coil. The whole-body images of the mouse were also obtained showing high-quality images. Volume resonator coils can be reliably built following the physical principles of the cavity resonator design for high-field magnetic resonance imaging applications of rodents.

  17. High-field studies of the Pd-based Superconductor Ta4Pd3Te16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helm, Toni; Moll, Philip J. W.; Kealhofer, Robert; Analytis, James G.

    2015-03-01

    The layered Pd-based ternary chalcogenide Ta4Pd3Te16 (TPT) has not gotten much of attention since its first synthesis in 1997. Recently, TPT was found to turn superconducting (SC) below a critical temperature of Tc = 4 . 5 K and up to 6 . 5 K under pressure. The layered material has an orthorhombic crystal structure and the main conduction channel is suspected to run along one dimensional (1D) PdTe-chains. Band structure calculations find multiple bands at the Fermi level including 1D sheets. One of the striking features in the family of M2PdxQ5 (M =Nb and Ta, Q =S and Se) is a very enhanced upper SC critical field Hc 2. To understand the mechanism behind this enhancement TPT is of special interest since it has a similarly complex structure but much lower Hc 2. Anomalous thermal transport properties and a significant anisotropy in Hc 2 have been interpret in terms of an unconventional SC ground state present in TPT. Here we report studies of normal-state magnetotransport and magnetic torque in high fields that disclose details of TPT's electronic structure enabling us to speculate about the origin of SC in this compound. Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

  18. Peak deconvolution in high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) to characterize macromolecular conformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Errol W.; Sellon, Rachel E.; Williams, Evan R.

    2007-01-01

    Protonated poly(ethylene glycol), produced by electrospray ionization (ESI), with molecular weights ranging from 0.3 to 5 kDa and charge states from 1+ to 7+ were characterized using high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS). Results for all but some of the 3+ and 4+ charge states are consistent with a single gas-phase conformer or family of unresolved conformers for each of these charge states. The FAIMS compensation voltage scans resulted in peaks that could be accurately fit with a single Gaussian for each peak. The peak widths increase linearly with compensation voltage for maximum ion transmission but do not depend on m/z or molecular weight. Fitting parameters obtained from the poly(ethylene glycol) data were used to analyze conformations of oxidized and reduced lysozyme formed from different solutions. For oxidized lysozyme formed from a buffered aqueous solution, a single conformer (or group of unresolved conformers) was observed for the 7+ and 8+ charge states. Two conformers were observed for the 9+ and 10+ charge states formed from more denaturing solutions. Data for the fully reduced form indicate the existence of up to three different conformers for each charge state produced directly by ESI and a general progression from a more extended to a more folded structure with decreasing charge state. These results are consistent with those obtained previously by proton-transfer reactivity and drift tube ion mobility experiments, although more conformers were identified for the fully reduced form of lysozyme using FAIMS.

  19. High field strength following the Kauai R-N geomagnetic reversal

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, H.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The paleomagnetism of superposed lava flows on Kauai, Hawaii shows that the ancient geomagnetic field was unusually strong following a reverse-to-normal polarity transition that occurred about 4 million years ago. Paleointensities were determined by a standard experimental procedure (Thelliers' method) that recreates the process of remanence acquisition in volcanic rocks. This experiment makes it possible to infer the strength of the geomagnetic field present with each lava flow formed, thus producing an accurate picture of the ancient field's behavior after the reversal. Samples from 10 volcanic units yielded virtual dipole moments (VDMs) ranging from 7.4 [times] 10[sup 22] Am[sup 2] to 14.5 [times] 10[sup 22] Am[sup 2] with an average of 11.1[times]10[sup 22] Am[sup 2]. This value is high in comparisons to the average VDM for the past 5 m.y., approximately 8.7[times]10[sup 22] Am[sup 2]. In contrast to the highly variable dipole moment observed following a 15 m.y. old reversal at Steen s Mountain, Oregon, the field following the Kauai transition was relatively steady. Surprisingly, the maximum dipole moments following the two reversals were nearly equal. This similarity hints that high field strength may be a systematic feature of the geodynamo immediately following a polarity reversal.

  20. High-Field High-Repetition-Rate Sources for the Coherent THz Control of Matter.

    PubMed

    Green, B; Kovalev, S; Asgekar, V; Geloni, G; Lehnert, U; Golz, T; Kuntzsch, M; Bauer, C; Hauser, J; Voigtlaender, J; Wustmann, B; Koesterke, I; Schwarz, M; Freitag, M; Arnold, A; Teichert, J; Justus, M; Seidel, W; Ilgner, C; Awari, N; Nicoletti, D; Kaiser, S; Laplace, Y; Rajasekaran, S; Zhang, L; Winnerl, S; Schneider, H; Schay, G; Lorincz, I; Rauscher, A A; Radu, I; Mährlein, S; Kim, T H; Lee, J S; Kampfrath, T; Wall, S; Heberle, J; Malnasi-Csizmadia, A; Steiger, A; Müller, A S; Helm, M; Schramm, U; Cowan, T; Michel, P; Cavalleri, A; Fisher, A S; Stojanovic, N; Gensch, M

    2016-02-29

    Ultrashort flashes of THz light with low photon energies of a few meV, but strong electric or magnetic field transients have recently been employed to prepare various fascinating nonequilibrium states in matter. Here we present a new class of sources based on superradiant enhancement of radiation from relativistic electron bunches in a compact electron accelerator that we believe will revolutionize experiments in this field. Our prototype source generates high-field THz pulses at unprecedented quasi-continuous-wave repetition rates up to the MHz regime. We demonstrate parameters that exceed state-of-the-art laser-based sources by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The peak fields and the repetition rates are highly scalable and once fully operational this type of sources will routinely provide 1 MV/cm electric fields and 0.3 T magnetic fields at repetition rates of few 100 kHz. We benchmark the unique properties by performing a resonant coherent THz control experiment with few 10 fs resolution.

  1. Ultra-high field MRI for primate imaging using the travelling-wave concept.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Johannes; Herrmann, Tim; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Stadler, Joerg; Mylius, Judith; Brosch, Michael; Bernarding, Johannes

    2013-08-01

    Ultra-high field (UHF) neuroimaging is usually conducted with volume transmit (Tx) and phased array receive (Rx) coils, both tightly enclosing the object. The travelling-wave (TW) concept allows a remote excitation offering more flexible experimental setups. To investigate the feasibility of primate MRI in horizontal UHF MRI, we first compared the distribution of the electromagnetic fields in an oil phantom and then verified the concept with an in vivo experiment. In the phantom experiments an in-house circularly polarized hybrid birdcage coil and a self-developed patch antenna were used for Tx and an eight-element phased array antenna for Rx. B1+ fields were calculated and measured for both approaches. For in vivo experiments the Rx part was replaced with an optimized three-element phased array head coil. The SAR was calculated using field simulation. In the phantom the field distribution was homogenous in a central volume of interest of about 10 cm diameter. The TW concept showed a slightly better homogeneity. Examination of a female crab-eating macaque led to homogeneous high-contrast images with a good delineation of anatomical details. The TW concept opens up a new approach for MRI of medium-sized animals in horizontal UHF scanners.

  2. High field side lower hybrid launch leads to wave amplification on alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Ian; Bertelli, Nicola; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2015-11-01

    Although lower hybrid waves have been shown to be effective in driving plasma current in present-day tokamaks, they are predicted to strongly interact with the energetic α particles born from fusion reactions in eventual tokamak reactors. However, in the presence of the expected steep α particle birth gradient, this interaction can produce wave amplification rather than wave damping. Here, we identify the flexibilities in achieving this amplification effect through a consideration of symmetries in the channeling interaction, in the wave propagation, and in the tokamak field configuration. Interestingly, for current drive that supports the poloidal magnetic field, we find that wave amplification through α channeling is fundamentally coupled to the elusive | kl | upshift. In so doing, we show that wave launch from the tokamak high-field side is favorable both for α-channeling and for achieving the | kl | upshift. We then present a simple linear model to calculate the required radial gradients to achieve amplification. Combining this model with ray tracing simulations, we demonstrate the potential for substantial wave amplification in a regime consistent with a hot-ion-mode fusion reactor.

  3. High-field functional magnetic resonance imaging of vocalization processing in marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Sadagopan, Srivatsun; Temiz-Karayol, Nesibe Z.; Voss, Henning U.

    2015-01-01

    Vocalizations are behaviorally critical sounds, and this behavioral importance is reflected in the ascending auditory system, where conspecific vocalizations are increasingly over-represented at higher processing stages. Recent evidence suggests that, in macaques, this increasing selectivity for vocalizations might culminate in a cortical region that is densely populated by vocalization-preferring neurons. Such a region might be a critical node in the representation of vocal communication sounds, underlying the recognition of vocalization type, caller and social context. These results raise the questions of whether cortical specializations for vocalization processing exist in other species, their cortical location, and their relationship to the auditory processing hierarchy. To explore cortical specializations for vocalizations in another species, we performed high-field fMRI of the auditory cortex of a vocal New World primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Using a sparse imaging paradigm, we discovered a caudal-rostral gradient for the processing of conspecific vocalizations in marmoset auditory cortex, with regions of the anterior temporal lobe close to the temporal pole exhibiting the highest preference for vocalizations. These results demonstrate similar cortical specializations for vocalization processing in macaques and marmosets, suggesting that cortical specializations for vocal processing might have evolved before the lineages of these species diverged. PMID:26091254

  4. Development of High-Field Permanent Magnetic Circuits for NMRI/MRI and Imaging on Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangxin; Xie, Huantong; Hou, Shulian; Chen, Wei; Yang, Xiuhong

    2016-01-01

    The high-field permanent magnetic circuits of 1.2 T and 1.5 T with novel magnetic focusing and curved-surface correction are developed. The permanent magnetic circuit comprises a magnetic yoke, main magnetic steel, nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles, plugging magnetic steel, and side magnetic steel. In this work, a novel shimming method is proposed for the effective correction of base magnetic field (B 0) inhomogeneities, which is based on passive shimming on the telescope aspheric cutting, grinding, and fine processing technology of the nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles and active shimming adding higher-order gradient coils. Meanwhile, the magnetic resonance imaging dedicated alloy with high-saturation magnetic field induction intensity and high electrical resistivity is developed, and nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles which are made of the dedicated alloy have very good anti-eddy-current effect. In addition, the large temperature coefficient problem of permanent magnet can be effectively controlled by using a high quality temperature controller and deuterium external locking technique. Combining our patents such as gradient coil, RF coil, and integration computer software, two kinds of small animal Micro-MRI instruments are developed, by which the high quality MRI images of mice were obtained.

  5. Mass spectrometric characterization of a high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purves, Randy W.; Guevremont, Roger; Day, Stephen; Pipich, Charles W.; Matyjaszczyk, Matthew S.

    1998-12-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has become an important method for the detection of many compounds because of its high sensitivity and amenability to miniaturization for field-portable monitoring; applications include detection of narcotics, explosives, and chemical warfare agents. High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) differs from IMS in that the electric fields are applied using a high-frequency periodic asymmetric waveform, rather than a dc voltage. Furthermore, in FAIMS the compounds are separated by the difference in the mobility of ions at high electric field relative to low field, rather than by compound to compound differences in mobility at low electric field (IMS). We report here the first cylindrical-geometry-FAIMS interface with mass spectrometry (FAIMS-MS) and the MS identification of the peaks observed in a FAIMS compensation voltage (CV) spectrum. Using both an electrometer-based-FAIMS (FAIMS-E) and FAIMS-MS, several variables that affect the sensitivity of ion detection were examined for two (polarity reversed) asymmetric waveforms (modes 1 and 2) each of which yields a unique spectrum. An increase in the dispersion voltage (DV) was found to improve the sensitivity and separation observed in the FAIMS CV spectrum. This increase in sensitivity and the unexpected dissimilarity in modes 1 and 2 suggest that atmospheric pressure ion focusing is occurring in the FAIMS analyzer. The sensitivity and peak locations in the CV spectra were affected by temperature, gas flow rates, operating pressure, and analyte concentration.

  6. High Field Emission Current Density from Patterned Carbon Nanotube Field Emitter Arrays with Random Growth.

    PubMed

    Khaneja, Mamta; Ghosh, Santanu; Gautam, Seema; Kumar, Prashant; Rawat, J S; Chaudhury, P K; Vankar, V D; Kumar, Vikram

    2015-05-01

    High field emission (FE) current density from carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays grown on lithographically patterned silicon substrates is reported. A typical patterned field emitter array consists of bundles of nanotubes separated by a fixed gap and spread over the entire emission area. Emission performance from such an array having randomly oriented nanotube growth within each bundle is reported for different bundle sizes and separations. One typical sample with aligned CNTs within the bundle is also examined for comparison. It is seen that the current density from an array having random nanotube growth within the bundles is appreciably higher as compared to its aligned counterpart. The influence of structure on FE current densities as revealed by Raman spectroscopy is also seen. It is also observed that current density depends on edge length and increases with the same for all samples under study. Highest current density of -100 mA cm(-2) at an applied field of 5 V/μm is achieved from the random growth patterned sample with a bundle size of 2 μm and spacing of 4 μm between the bundles.

  7. Resting state connectivity of the human habenula at ultra-high field.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Nord, Camilla L; Balderston, Nicholas L; Roiser, Jonathan P; Grillon, Christian; Ernst, Monique

    2017-02-15

    The habenula, a portion of the epithalamus, is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, anxiety and addiction disorders. Its small size and connection to other small regions prevent standard human imaging from delineating its structure and connectivity with confidence. Resting state functional connectivity is an established method for mapping connections across the brain from a seed region of interest. The present study takes advantage of 7T fMRI to map, for the first time, the habenula resting state network with very high spatial resolution in 32 healthy human participants. Results show novel functional connections in humans, including functional connectivity with the septum and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Results also show many habenula connections previously described only in animal research, such as with the nucleus basalis of Meynert, dorsal raphe, ventral tegmental area (VTA), and periaqueductal grey (PAG). Connectivity with caudate, thalamus and cortical regions such as the anterior cingulate, retrosplenial cortex and auditory cortex are also reported. This work, which demonstrates the power of ultra-high field for mapping human functional connections, is a valuable step toward elucidating subcortical and cortical regions of the habenula network.

  8. High-Field Dynamic Nuclear Polarization for Solid and Solution Biological NMR

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, A.B.; Paëpe, G. De; van der Wel, P.C.A.; Hu, K.-N.; Joo, C.-G.; Bajaj, V.S.; Mak-Jurkauskas, M.L.; Sirigiri, J.R.; Herzfeld, J.; Temkin, R.J.; Griffin, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) results in a substantial nuclear polarization enhancement through a transfer of the magnetization from electrons to nuclei. Recent years have seen considerable progress in the development of DNP experiments directed towards enhancing sensitivity in biological nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This review covers the applications, hardware, polarizing agents, and theoretical descriptions that were developed at the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology for high-field DNP experiments. In frozen dielectrics, the enhanced nuclear polarization developed in the vicinity of the polarizing agent can be efficiently dispersed to the bulk of the sample via 1H spin diffusion. This strategy has been proven effective in polarizing biologically interesting systems, such as nanocrystalline peptides and membrane proteins, without leading to paramagnetic broadening of the NMR signals. Gyrotrons have been used as a source of high-power (5–10 W) microwaves up to 460 GHz as required for the DNP experiments. Other hardware has also been developed allowing in situ microwave irradiation integrated with cryogenic magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR. Advances in the quantum mechanical treatment are successful in describing the mechanism by which new biradical polarizing agents yield larger enhancements at higher magnetic fields. Finally, pulsed methods and solution experiments should play a prominent role in the future of DNP. PMID:19194532

  9. Early Knee Changes in Dancers Identified by Ultra High Field 7 Tesla MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Gregory; Diamond, Matthew; Nevsky, Gregory; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Weiss, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to determine whether a unique, ultra high-field 7 Tesla (T) MRI scanner could detect occult cartilage and meniscal injuries in asymptomatic female dancers. Materials and Methods This study had institutional review board approval. We recruited eight pre-professional female dancers and nine non-athletic, female controls. We scanned the dominant knee on a 7T MRI scanner using a 3D-FLASH sequence and a proton density, fast spin-echo sequence to evaluate cartilage and menisci, respectively. Two radiologists scored cartilage (International Cartilage Repair Society classification) and meniscal (Stoller classification) lesions. We applied two-tailed z- and t-tests to determine statistical significance. Results There were no cartilage lesions in dancers or controls. For the medial meniscus, the dancers compared to controls demonstrated higher mean MRI score (2.38±0.61 vs. 1.0±0.97, p<0.0001) and higher frequency of mean grade 2 lesions (88% vs. 11%, p<0.01). For the lateral meniscus, there was no difference in score (0.5±0.81 vs. 0.5±0.78, p=0.78) in dancers compared to controls. Discussion Asymptomatic dancers demonstrate occult medial meniscal lesions. Because this has been described in early osteoarthritis, close surveillance of dancers’ knee symptoms and function with appropriate activity modification may help maintain their long-term knee health. PMID:23346987

  10. A Method to Localize RF B1 Field in High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, B0 fields of 7 and 9.4 T, the RF field shows greater inhomogeneity compared to clinical MRI systems with B0 fields of 1.5 and 3.0 T. In multichannel RF coils, the magnitude and phase of the input to each coil element can be controlled independently to reduce the nonuniformity of the RF field. The convex optimization technique has been used to obtain the optimum excitation parameters with iterative solutions for homogeneity in a selected region of interest. The pseudoinverse method has also been used to find a solution. The simulation results for 9.4- and 7-T MRI systems are discussed in detail for the head model. Variation of the simulation results in a 9.4-T system with the number of RF coil elements for different positions of the regions of interest in a spherical phantom are also discussed. Experimental results were obtained in a phantom in the 9.4-T system and are compared to the simulation results and the specific absorption rate has been evaluated. PMID:22929360

  11. High-field transport and terahertz generation in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, A.; Ridley, B. K.

    2008-12-01

    The conduction-band structure of GaN suggests that electron transport at high fields should exhibit a negative differential resistance (NDR) either via the transferred-electron effect or as a consequence of the negative effective mass beyond the inflection point. In order to discuss these possibilities we use a simple model of the band structure and obtain analytical expressions for the density of states and scattering rates due to the interaction with polar-optical phonons. Estimates of the cutoff frequencies for the Gunn effect in GaN and AlN are obtained. The negative-mass NDR is described in terms of a hydrodynamic model and the result is compared with that of Esaki and Tsu [IBM J. Res. Dev. 14, 61 (1970)]. We explore the effect in short diodes of length and transit time on the frequency-dependent NDR associated with quasiballistic motion and conclude with a discussion of transport when the electrons are localized by Bragg reflection.

  12. Development of High-Field Permanent Magnetic Circuits for NMRI/MRI and Imaging on Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangxin; Xie, Huantong; Hou, Shulian; Chen, Wei; Yang, Xiuhong

    2016-01-01

    The high-field permanent magnetic circuits of 1.2 T and 1.5 T with novel magnetic focusing and curved-surface correction are developed. The permanent magnetic circuit comprises a magnetic yoke, main magnetic steel, nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles, plugging magnetic steel, and side magnetic steel. In this work, a novel shimming method is proposed for the effective correction of base magnetic field (B 0) inhomogeneities, which is based on passive shimming on the telescope aspheric cutting, grinding, and fine processing technology of the nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles and active shimming adding higher-order gradient coils. Meanwhile, the magnetic resonance imaging dedicated alloy with high-saturation magnetic field induction intensity and high electrical resistivity is developed, and nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles which are made of the dedicated alloy have very good anti-eddy-current effect. In addition, the large temperature coefficient problem of permanent magnet can be effectively controlled by using a high quality temperature controller and deuterium external locking technique. Combining our patents such as gradient coil, RF coil, and integration computer software, two kinds of small animal Micro-MRI instruments are developed, by which the high quality MRI images of mice were obtained. PMID:27034951

  13. Wall scanning probe for high-field side plasma measurements on Alcator C-Mod.

    PubMed

    Smick, Noah; LaBombard, Brian

    2009-02-01

    A new, high-field side scanning probe has been added to Alcator C-Mod's complement of edge diagnostics. The wall scanning probe is designed to provide all the benefits of a linear plunge, multielectrode scanning probe while working from the confined space of the inner tokamak wall. The drive mechanism is an embedded coil which produces a torque with the ambient toroidal magnetic field when energized, thus allowing the probe to plunge to different preprogramed depths at different times during a plasma discharge. The probe tip is designed for easy replacement and is presently configured to operate as a modified, high heat-flux "Gundestrup-type" probe with four tungsten electrodes. The probe has demonstrated the ability to obtain cross-field profiles for electron temperature, density, floating potential, and plasma flow information (parallel and perpendicular to B) up to a depth of a few millimiters inside the last-closed flux surface in standard C-Mod discharges. The tungsten-tipped probe has proved very robust and shows little or no damage though it routinely handles surface heat fluxes on the order of 100 MW/m(2) at peak insertion.

  14. Microstructure and jc Improvements in Multifilamentary Bi-2212/Ag Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, H.; Meinesz, M.; Czabaj, B.; Parrell, J.; Hong, S.

    2008-03-01

    Bi-2212/Ag conductor is one of the most promising materials for extending the field strength of superconducting magnets over present low temperature superconductor systems. From the view point of practical application, Bi-2212/Ag round wires have significant advantages over more typical HTS tape conductors, such as no anisotropy, and easier handling and coil winding, which allows considerable flexibility in the magnet design. Recent development efforts at Oxford Superconducting Technology have been aimed at manufacturing high quality multifilamentary Bi-2212/Ag round wires with the varied sizes to fabricate HTS insert coils for high field magnet applications. However, further improvement of critical current density (Jc) and engineering current density (JE) in larger diameter wires is desirable for practical applications. Recent results show a strong dependence of the wire JE and Jc performance on its microstructure, in particularly, the interface of Bi-2212/Ag. Significant improvements of microstructure and Jc have resulted from the optimization of wire size and filament numbers, but not obviously on starting powder fill factors. The highest JE of 320 A/mm2 (non-Ag Jc of 1103 A/mm2) at 4.2 K, 25 T was obtained in 1.15 mm wire with 85×19 filament configuration.

  15. High-field Zeeman and Paschen-Back effects at high pressure in oriented ruby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, Marius; Broto, Jean-Marc; Gonzalez, Jesus

    2008-10-01

    High-field Zeeman and Paschen-Back effects have been observed in single crystals of ruby submitted to hydrostatic pressure up to 10 GPa. A specific setup with a miniature diamond-anvil cell has been developed to combine high pressure and pulsed magnetic fields and to perform magnetophotoluminescence measurements. Careful analysis of low-temperature (4.2 and 77 K) photoluminescence spectra with a 56 T magnetic field applied along the c axis allows for the rectification of the assignment of observed emission lines to corresponding Zeeman-split levels. Besides, the intrinsic Zeeman-splitting factors of excited states reveal a linear pressure-induced increase. This enhancement is a signature of an increase in trigonal distortion induced by hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, spectra with magnetic field perpendicular to crystallographic c axis exhibit a Paschen-Back effect reflecting the progressive alignment of Cr3+ ions spin along the applied field. However, no pressure modification is observed in this compound, contrarily to the Heisenberg-to-Ising spin character pressure-induced transition observed in alexandrite.

  16. High-Field High-Repetition-Rate Sources for the Coherent THz Control of Matter

    PubMed Central

    Green, B.; Kovalev, S.; Asgekar, V.; Geloni, G.; Lehnert, U.; Golz, T.; Kuntzsch, M.; Bauer, C.; Hauser, J.; Voigtlaender, J.; Wustmann, B.; Koesterke, I.; Schwarz, M.; Freitag, M.; Arnold, A.; Teichert, J.; Justus, M.; Seidel, W.; Ilgner, C.; Awari, N.; Nicoletti, D.; Kaiser, S.; Laplace, Y.; Rajasekaran, S.; Zhang, L.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Schay, G.; Lorincz, I.; Rauscher, A. A.; Radu, I.; Mährlein, S.; Kim, T. H.; Lee, J. S.; Kampfrath, T.; Wall, S.; Heberle, J.; Malnasi-Csizmadia, A.; Steiger, A.; Müller, A. S.; Helm, M.; Schramm, U.; Cowan, T.; Michel, P.; Cavalleri, A.; Fisher, A. S.; Stojanovic, N.; Gensch, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrashort flashes of THz light with low photon energies of a few meV, but strong electric or magnetic field transients have recently been employed to prepare various fascinating nonequilibrium states in matter. Here we present a new class of sources based on superradiant enhancement of radiation from relativistic electron bunches in a compact electron accelerator that we believe will revolutionize experiments in this field. Our prototype source generates high-field THz pulses at unprecedented quasi-continuous-wave repetition rates up to the MHz regime. We demonstrate parameters that exceed state-of-the-art laser-based sources by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The peak fields and the repetition rates are highly scalable and once fully operational this type of sources will routinely provide 1 MV/cm electric fields and 0.3 T magnetic fields at repetition rates of few 100 kHz. We benchmark the unique properties by performing a resonant coherent THz control experiment with few 10 fs resolution. PMID:26924651

  17. Quantifying unfrozen water in frozen soil by high-field 2H NMR.

    PubMed

    Sparrman, Tobias; Oquist, Mats; Klemedtsson, Leif; Schleucher, Jürgen; Nilsson, Mats

    2004-10-15

    To understand wintertime controls of biogeochemical processes in high latitude soils it is essential to distinguish between direct temperature effects and the effects of changes in water availability mediated by freezing. Efforts to separate these controls are hampered by a lack of adequate methods to determine the proportion of unfrozen water. In this study we present a high-field 2H2O NMR method for quantifying unfrozen water content in frozen soil. The experimental material consisted of the humic layer of a boreal spruce forest soil mixed with varying proportions of quartz sand and humidified with deuterium-enriched water. The relative standard deviation of unfrozen water content (measured as NMR signal integral) was less than 2% for repeated measurements on a given sample and 3.5% among all samples, based on a total of 16 measurements. As compared to 1H NMR, this 2H NMR method was found to be superior for several reasons: it is less sensitive to field inhomogeneity and paramagnetic impurities, it gives a bigger line shape difference between the ice and liquid signal, it shows a sharper response to water fusion, and it excludes the possibility of hydrogen in the organic material interfering with the measurement.

  18. Sintering behavior of doped ZnO powders for high field varistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirlanda, M.

    1990-08-01

    The sintering of ZnO varistor precursor powders, doped with Co, Mn and different concentrations of Bi and Al, is investigated and discussed in relation with sintering models. One purpose of the present study is to provide information valuable for the fabrication of high field varistors. As the fundamental parameter of these electronic components is the breakdown voltage per unit of thickness, which is determined by the number of grain boundaries per linear dimension, the grain size and the sintered density are crucial variables, and the sintering is a central step in the manufacturing of such varistors. Sintering experiments performed at constant heating rate in a loading dilatometer provide data on the densification and creep of the compacted powders. Another goal of the present study is to provide an experimental basis for the interpretation of the evolution of the ratio between densification rate and creep rate in terms of competition between densification and microstructure coarsening. This is accomplished by taking advantage of the variety of sintering behaviors that takes place in the system ZnO-Bi-Al: the comparison of these behaviors allows us to correlate the macroscopic sintering parameters to the evolution of the microstructure. It results that, while in non-doped powders densification and coarsening develop in a balanced way, resulting in the constancy of the ratio between densification rate and creep rate, the effect of the dopants on the sintering kinetics alters such a balance, leading this ratio to vary. 17 figs.

  19. Separation and Identification of Isomeric Glycopeptides by High Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of intact glycopeptides by mass spectrometry is challenging due to the numerous possibilities for isomerization, both within the attached glycan and the location of the modification on the peptide backbone. Here, we demonstrate that high field asymmetric wave ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), also known as differential ion mobility, is able to separate isomeric O-linked glycopeptides that have identical sequences but differing sites of glycosylation. Two glycopeptides from the glycoprotein mucin 5AC, GT(GalNAc)TPSPVPTTSTTSAP and GTTPSPVPTTST(GalNAc)TSAP (where GalNAc is O-linked N-acetylgalactosamine), were shown to coelute following reversed-phase liquid chromatography. However, FAIMS analysis of the glycopeptides revealed that the compensation voltage ranges in which the peptides were transmitted differed. Thus, it is possible at certain compensation voltages to completely separate the glycopeptides. Separation of the glycopeptides was confirmed by unique reporter ions produced by supplemental activation electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry. These fragments also enable localization of the site of glycosylation. The results suggest that glycan position plays a key role in determining gas-phase glycopeptide structure and have implications for the application of FAIMS in glycoproteomics. PMID:22280549

  20. Tracking superparamagnetic iron oxide labeled monocytes in brain by high-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zelivyanskaya, Marina L; Nelson, Jay A; Poluektova, Larissa; Uberti, Mariano; Mellon, Melissa; Gendelman, Howard E; Boska, Michael D

    2003-08-01

    Inflammatory cells, most notably mononuclear phagocytes (MP; macrophages and microglia), play a critical role in brain homeostasis, repair and disease. One important event in cellular biodynamics is how MP move in and throughout the nervous system. Prior studies have focused principally on cell migration across the blood-brain barrier during neuroinflammatory processes with little work done on cell movement within the brain. During the past decade our laboratories have studied the role of MP in HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). In HAD MP incite sustained glial inflammatory reactions causing significant neuronal damage. To extend these works we investigated cell movement in brain and its influence for disease in a novel co-registration system integrating neuropathology with high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Human monocytes labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles were injected into the brain of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. MRI was recorded 1, 7, and 14 days after cell injection. MRI co-registered with histology verified that the MRI signal modification was due to the labeled cells. MRI showed human monocyte-derived macrophages along the injection site, the corpus callosum, the ventricular system and in other brain sites. These data support the idea that cell migration can be monitored in vivo and provides an opportunity to assess monocyte mobility in brain and its affects on neurodegenerative processes and notably HAD.

  1. Project Overview of HTS Magnet for Ultra-high-field MRI System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosaka, Taizo; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Iwai, Sadanori; Otani, Yasumi; Takahashi, Masahiko; Tasaki, Kenji; Nomura, Shunji; Kurusu, Tsutomu; Ueda, Hiroshi; Noguchi, So; Ishiyama, Atsushi; Urayama, Shinichi; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    A project to develop an ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system based on HTS magnets using (RE)Ba2Cu3O7 (REBCO; RE=rear earth) coils is underway. The project is supported by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and aims to establish magnet technologies for a whole-body 9.4 T MRI system. REBCO wires have high critical current density in high magnetic fields and high strength against hoop stresses, and therefore, MRI magnets using REBCO coils are expected to have cryogenic systems that are smaller, lighter, and simpler than the conventional ones. A major problem in using REBCO coils for MRI magnets is the huge irregular magnetic field generated by the screening current in REBCO tapes. Thus, the main purpose of this project is to make the influence of this screening current predictable and controllable. Fundamental technologies, including treatment of the screening currents, were studied via experiments and numerical simulations using small coils. Two types of model magnets are planned to be manufactured, and the knowledge gained in the development of the model magnets will be reflected in the magnet design of a whole-body 9.4 T MRI system.

  2. Low-Field and High-Field Characterization of THUNDER Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ounaies, Z.; Mossi, K.; Smith, R.; Bernd, J.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    THUNDER (THin UNimorph DrivER) actuators are pre-stressed piezoelectric devices developed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) that exhibit enhanced strain capabilities. As a result, they are of interest in a variety of aerospace applications. Characterization of their performance as a function of electric field, temperature and frequency is needed in order to optimize their operation. Towards that end, a number of THUNDER devices were obtained from FACE International Co. with a stainless steel substrate varying in thickness from 1 mil to 20 mils. The various devices were evaluated to determine low-field and high-field displacement its well as the polarization hysteresis loops. The thermal stability of these drivers was evaluated by two different methods. First, the samples were thermally cycled under electric field by systematically increasing the maximum temperature from 25 C to 200 C while the displacement was being measured. Second, the samples were isothermally aged at 0 C, 50 C, 100 C. and 150 C in air, and the isothermal decay of the displacement was measured at room temperature as a function of time.

  3. Use of Exotic Coordinate Systems in the Design of RF Resonators for High-Field MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterworth, Edward

    2008-10-01

    High field human MRI (11.7 Tesla is FDC approved for human research) renders standard RF coil design inadequate because the resonant wavelength in human soft tissue (about 8 cm at 500 MHz) is significantly smaller than the physical size of the human body. I propose optimizing the design of such RF coils using coordinate systems appropriate to human body parts, as has been done with ellipticalootnotetextCrozier et al, Concepts Magn Reson 1997; 9:195-210. and Cassinian ovalootnotetextDe Zanche et al, Magn Reson Med 2005; 53:201-211. cross sections. I have computed analytically the magnetic fields produced by a device of toroidal cross section using a cascade of conformal transformations.ootnotetextButterworth & Gore, J Magn Reson 2005; 175:114-123. Building upon these efforts, I will use the eleven coordinate systems of Moon & Spencer,ootnotetextMoon & Spencer, Field Theory Handbook, Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1971. along with other possible coordinate systems and conformal transformations, to identify a small number of configurations that have the highest probability of being useful as RF coil designs for ultrahigh-field MRI.

  4. High field nuclear magnetic resonance in transition metal substituted BaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garitezi, T. M.; Lesseux, G. G.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Adriano, C.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P. L.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Urbano, R. R.

    2014-05-01

    We report high field 75As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on Co and Cu substituted BaFe2As2 single crystals displaying same structural/magnetic transition T0≃128 K. From our anisotropy studies in the paramagnetic state, we strikingly found virtually identical quadrupolar splitting and consequently the quadrupole frequency νQ≃2.57(1) MHz for both compounds, despite the claim that each Cu delivers 2 extra 3d electrons in BaFe2As2 compared to Co substitution. These results allow us to conclude that a subtle change in the crystallographic structure, particularly in the Fe-As tetrahedra, must be the most probable tuning parameter to determine T0 in this class of superconductors rather than electronic doping. Furthermore, our NMR data around T0 suggest coexistence of tetragonal/paramagnetic and orthorhombic/antiferromagnetic phases between the structural and the spin density wave magnetic phase transitions, similarly to what was reported for K-doped BaFe2As2 [Urbano et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 107001 (2010)].

  5. Traveling Internal Plane-wave Synthesis (TIPS) for uniform B1 in high field MRI.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Adam W

    2017-02-01

    A new target-field approach to generating uniform radio frequency (RF) fields within the human body for high field MRI is described. The method involves producing a set of external fields which, after interaction with a dielectric object, superimpose to produce a traveling plane wave, exposing all spins to the same RF amplitude (B1) over a cycle of the harmonic field. Conceptually this is similar to conventional RF shimming, but uses a different RF source design, input data, and objective function. The method requires a detailed knowledge of the coupling between exterior field modes, produced by an array of RF sources, and field modes within the body. Given an estimate of the coupling matrix, the linear superposition of external modes that produces a desired internal target field can be determined. The new method is termed Traveling Internal Plane-wave Synthesis (TIPS). A simple design of a coil array is described that can, in principle, generate the required field modes. Simulations demonstrate that radio frequency magnetic fields of nearly uniform (<1% variation) magnitude can be produced within dielectric objects larger than a wavelength in size. If the dielectric medium has non-zero conductivity, traveling waves are attenuated as they traverse the object, but field uniformity within planar slices is preserved. For general 3D imaging, a superposition of plane waves can provide field focusing to balance conductive losses, thereby achieving nearly uniform-magnitude B1+ magnetic fields over a volume of interest.

  6. Rapid and effective correction of RF inhomogeneity for high field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M S; DuBois, R M; Zeineh, M M

    2000-08-01

    The well-known variability in the distribution of high frequency electromagnetic fields in the human body causes problems in the analysis of structural information in high field magnetic resonance images. We describe a method of compensating for the purely intensity-based effects. In our simple and rapid correction algorithm, we first use statistical means to determine the background image noise level and the edges of the image features. We next populate all "noise" pixels with the mean signal intensity of the image features. These data are then smoothed by convolution with a gaussian filter using Fourier methods. Finally, the original data that are above the noise level are normalized to the smoothed images, thereby eliminating the lowest spatial frequencies in the final, corrected data. Processing of a 124 slice, 256 x 256 volume dataset requires under 70 sec on a laptop personal computer. Overall, the method is less prone to artifacts from edges or from sensitivity to absolute head position than are other correction techniques. Following intensity correction, the images demonstrated obvious qualitative improvement and, when subjected to automated segmentation tools, the accuracy of segmentation improved, in one example, from 35.3% to 84.7% correct, as compared to a manually-constructed gold standard.

  7. Numerical evaluation of E-fields induced by body motion near high-field MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Crozier, S; Liu, F

    2004-01-01

    In modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both patients and radiologists are exposed to strong, nonuniform static magnetic fields inside or outside of the scanner, in which the body movement may be able to induce electric currents in tissues which could be possibly harmful. This paper presents theoretical investigations into the spatial distribution of induced E-fields in the human model when moving at various positions around the magnet. The numerical calculations are based on an efficient, quasistatic, finite-difference scheme and an anatomically realistic, full-body, male model. 3D field profiles from an actively-shielded 4 T magnet system are used and the body model projected through the field profile with normalized velocity. The simulation shows that it is possible to induce E-fields/currents near the level of physiological significance under some circumstances and provides insight into the spatial characteristics of the induced fields. The results are easy to extrapolate to very high field strengths for the safety evaluation at a variety of field strengths and motion velocities.

  8. Pioneering Structural Solutions for Compact High Field Experiments Developed for the Alcator and the Ignitor Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvetti, M.; Coppi, B.

    2015-11-01

    Recently there has been an increased awareness of the fact that the line of research based on compact high field machines is the most promising to approach ignition conditions in DT burning plasmas and has acquired new perspectives for its applications. Then the technological solutions that have made these machines possible have become subject to new attention and, in some cases, to rediscovery. The Alcator Program and, followed by Ignitor Program, has led to invent the coupled air-core former poloidal field system that has made compact machine possible and has been adopted on all advanced toroidal machines that came after Alcator. A recently rediscovered solution aimed at reducing the mechanical stresses in the inner legs of the toroidal magnet coils is the ``Upper and Lower Bracing Rings'' system that has had a key role in the design of the Ignitor machine and its evolution. Another solution to minimize the machine dimensions while maintaining high toroidal fields, in order to achieve high plasma current densities, is that of ``bucking and wedging'' of the toroidal magnet by coupling it mechanically to the central solenoid. Sponsored in part by the U.S. DoE.

  9. Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kennth Marken

    2006-08-11

    the project start and that date a substantial shift in the MRI marketplace occurred, with rapid growth for systems at higher fields (1.5 T and above) and a consequent decline in the low field market (<1.0 T). While the project aim appeared technically attainable at that time, the conclusion was reached that the system and market economics do not warrant additional investment. The program was redirected to develop BSCCO 2212 multifilament wire development for high field superconducting magnets for NMR and other scientific research upon an agreement between DOE and Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology. The work t took place between September, 2004 and the project end in early 2006 was focused on 2212 multifilamentary wire. This report summarizes the technical achievements both in 2212 dip coated for an HTS MRI system and in BSCCO 2212 multifilamentary wire for high field magnets.

  10. Understanding the dynamics of superparamagnetic particles under the influence of high field gradient arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnsley, Lester C.; Carugo, Dario; Aron, Miles; Stride, Eleanor

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the behaviour of superparamagnetic particles in magnetic drug targeting (MDT) schemes. A 3-dimensional mathematical model was developed, based on the analytical derivation of the trajectory of a magnetized particle suspended inside a fluid channel carrying laminar flow and in the vicinity of an external source of magnetic force. Semi-analytical expressions to quantify the proportion of captured particles, and their relative accumulation (concentration) as a function of distance along the wall of the channel were also derived. These were expressed in terms of a non-dimensional ratio of the relevant physical and physiological parameters corresponding to a given MDT protocol. The ability of the analytical model to assess magnetic targeting schemes was tested against numerical simulations of particle trajectories. The semi-analytical expressions were found to provide good first-order approximations for the performance of MDT systems in which the magnetic force is relatively constant over a large spatial range. The numerical model was then used to test the suitability of a range of different designs of permanent magnet assemblies for MDT. The results indicated that magnetic arrays that emit a strong magnetic force that varies rapidly over a confined spatial range are the most suitable for concentrating magnetic particles in a localized region. By comparison, commonly used magnet geometries such as button magnets and linear Halbach arrays result in distributions of accumulated particles that are less efficient for delivery. The trajectories predicted by the numerical model were verified experimentally by acoustically focusing magnetic microbeads flowing in a glass capillary channel, and optically tracking their path past a high field gradient Halbach array.

  11. Lesion heterogeneity on high-field susceptibility MRI is associated with multiple sclerosis severity

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Daniel M.; Li, Xu; Liu, Hongjun; Jones, Craig K.; Caffo, Brian; Calabresi, Peter A.; van Zijl, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Susceptibility MRI contrast variations reflect alterations in brain iron and myelin content- making this imaging tool relevant to studies of multiple sclerosis lesion heterogeneity. In this study we aimed to characterize the relationship of high-field, susceptibility contrasts in multiple sclerosis lesions to clinical outcomes. Materials and Methods Twenty-four subjects with multiple sclerosis underwent 7-tesla MRI of the brain, disability exams, and a fatigue inventory. R2*, frequency, and relative susceptibility (from quantitative susceptibility mapping) were analyzed in 306 white matter lesions. Results Most lesions were hypointense on R2* (88% without a rim, 5% with). Lesions that were hyperintense on quantitative susceptibility mapping were more frequent in relapsing-remitting than progressive multiple sclerosis (54% vs. 35%, p = 0.018). Hyperintense lesion rims on quantitative susceptibility maps were more common in progressive multiple sclerosis and higher levels of disability and fatigue. Mean lesion R2* was inversely related to disability and fatigue and significantly reduced in progressive multiple sclerosis. Relative susceptibility was lower lesions in progressive multiple sclerosis (median -0.018 ppm, range -0.070 – 0.022) than relapsing-remitting (median -0.010 ppm, range -0.062 – 0.052, p = 0.003). Conclusion A progressive clinical phenotype, greater disability, and fatigue were associated with lower R2* and relative susceptibility values (suggestive of low iron due to oligodendrocyte loss) and rimmed lesions (suggestive of chronic inflammation) in this multiple sclerosis cohort. Lesion heterogeneity on susceptibility MRI may help explain disability in multiple sclerosis and provide a window into the processes of demyelination, oligodendrocyte loss, and chronic lesion inflammation. PMID:26939635

  12. Small grains: a key to high-field applications of granular Ba-122 superconductors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecher, J.; Baumgartner, T.; Weiss, J. D.; Tarantini, C.; Yamamoto, A.; Jiang, J.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Larbalestier, D. C.; Eisterer, M.

    2016-02-01

    The grain boundaries (GBs) of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) intrinsically limit the maximum achievable inter-grain current density ({J}{{c}}), when the misalignment between the crystallographic axes of adjacent grains exceeds a certain value. A prominent effect resulting from large-angle GBs is a hysteresis of {J}{{c}} between the increasing and decreasing field branches. Here, we investigate this feature for K- and Co-doped Ba-122 polycrystalline bulks with systematically varied grain size and find that the widely accepted explanation for this effect—the return field of the grains—fails. We use large-area scanning Hall-probe microscopy to distinguish {J}{{c}} from the intra-granular current density ({J}{{G}}) in order to clarify their interactions. Measurements on Ba-122 bulks reveal that a large {J}{{c}} results from a small {J}{{G}} as well as small grains. An extended version of the model proposed by Svistunov and D’yachenko is successfully applied to quantitatively evaluate this behavior. The excellent agreement between the model and experiments suggests that the GBs limit the macroscopic current in all of the samples and that the inter-grain coupling is governed by Josephson tunneling. The predictions of the model are promising in view of realizing high-field HTS magnets. Our main result is that the field dependence of the {J}{{c}} of an untextured wire can be significantly reduced by reducing the grain size, which results in much higher currents at high magnetic fields. This result is not limited to the investigated iron-based materials and is therefore of interest in the context of other HTS materials.

  13. Generation and evaluation of an ultra-high-field atlas with applications in DBS planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Brian T.; Poirier, Stefan; Guo, Ting; Parrent, Andrew G.; Peters, Terry M.; Khan, Ali R.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a common treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) and involves the use of brain atlases or intrinsic landmarks to estimate the location of target deep brain structures, such as the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi). However, these structures can be difficult to localize with conventional clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and thus targeting can be prone to error. Ultra-high-field imaging at 7T has the ability to clearly resolve these structures and thus atlases built with these data have the potential to improve targeting accuracy. Methods T1 and T2-weighted images of 12 healthy control subjects were acquired using a 7T MR scanner. These images were then used with groupwise registration to generate an unbiased average template with T1w and T2w contrast. Deep brain structures were manually labelled in each subject by two raters and rater reliability was assessed. We compared the use of this unbiased atlas with two other methods of atlas-based segmentation (single-template and multi-template) for subthalamic nucleus (STN) segmentation on 7T MRI data. We also applied this atlas to clinical DBS data acquired at 1.5T to evaluate its efficacy for DBS target localization as compared to using a standard atlas. Results The unbiased templates provide superb detail of subcortical structures. Through one-way ANOVA tests, the unbiased template is significantly (p <0.05) more accurate than a single-template in atlas-based segmentation and DBS target localization tasks. Conclusion The generated unbiased averaged templates provide better visualization of deep brain nuclei and an increase in accuracy over single-template and lower field strength atlases.

  14. Feasibility study of Nb3Al Rutherford cable for high field accelerator magnet application

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, R.; Kikuchi, A.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Cooper, C.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Novitski, I.; Takeuchi, T.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Verweij, A.P.; Wake, M.; Willering, G; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    Feasibility study of Cu stabilized Nb{sub 3}Al strand and Rutherford cable for the application to high field accelerator magnets are being done at Fermilab in collaboration with NIMS. The Nb{sub 3}Al strand, which was developed and manufactured at NIMS in Japan, has a non-copper Jc of about 844 A/mm{sup 2} at 15 Tesla at 4.2 K, a copper content of 50%, and filament size of about 50 microns. Rutherford cables with 27 Nb{sub 3}Al strands of 1.03 mm diameter were fabricated and tested. Quench tests on a short cable were done to study its stability with only its self field, utilizing a high current transformer. A pair of 2 meter long Nb{sub 3}Al cables was tested extensively at CERN at 4.3 and 1.9 K up to 11 Tesla including its self field with a high transport current of 20.2 kA. In the low field test we observed instability near splices and in the central region. This is related to the flux-jump like behavior, because of excessive amount of Nb in the Nb{sub 3}Al strand. There is possibility that the Nb in Nb{sub 3}Al can cause instability below 2 Tesla field regions. We need further investigation on this problem. Above 8 Tesla, we observed quenches near the critical surface at fast ramp rate from 1000 to 3000 A/sec, with quench velocity over 100 m/sec. A small racetrack magnet was made using a 14 m of Rutherford cable and successfully tested up to 21.8 kA, corresponding to 8.7 T.

  15. Heat flux mitigation by impurity seeding in high-field tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinke, M. L.

    2017-03-01

    The ability for tokamaks to exhaust power in the boundary via impurity radiation is explored using empirical scalings and a simple 0D exhaust model, focusing on the scaling with toroidal field and major radius. By combining a scaling for the heat flux width and the L-H threshold power, the parallel heat flux in the SOL is shown to scale strongly with magnetic field, {{q}\\parallel}∼ B\\text{T}2.52 while having little to no scaling with machine size, {{q}\\parallel}∼ {{R}0.16} . Despite the increased heat flux at high field, it is shown that target temperatures relevant to detachment can be reached with finite main-ion dilution for a variety of impurity seeding gases, although non-equilibrium ionization balance is required in most cases. The necessary impurity fractions are estimated to scale like {{f}Z}∼ B\\text{T}0.88{{R}1.33} , a result that is facilitated by an increase in upstream temperature at high {{q}\\parallel} relative to peaks in the impurity cooling-curves. This scaling indicates that for optimizing reactors, minimizing device size while maximizing toroidal field, an approach shown to be consistent with energy confinement scaling, will also maximize the feasibility of reaching detachment at the lowest dilution. Despite this, analysis suggests an increase in the impurity fractions relative to existing devices will be required to exhaust power in a reactor-scale tokamak, with validation of impurity radiation physics required before both simple and detailed models can make reliable predictions of absolute f Z .

  16. High-Field Functional Imaging of Pitch Processing in Auditory Cortex of the Cat

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Blake E.; Hall, Amee J.; Lomber, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    The perception of pitch is a widely studied and hotly debated topic in human hearing. Many of these studies combine functional imaging techniques with stimuli designed to disambiguate the percept of pitch from frequency information present in the stimulus. While useful in identifying potential “pitch centres” in cortex, the existence of truly pitch-responsive neurons requires single neuron-level measures that can only be undertaken in animal models. While a number of animals have been shown to be sensitive to pitch, few studies have addressed the location of cortical generators of pitch percepts in non-human models. The current study uses high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the feline brain in an attempt to identify regions of cortex that show increased activity in response to pitch-evoking stimuli. Cats were presented with iterated rippled noise (IRN) stimuli, narrowband noise stimuli with the same spectral profile but no perceivable pitch, and a processed IRN stimulus in which phase components were randomized to preserve slowly changing modulations in the absence of pitch (IRNo). Pitch-related activity was not observed to occur in either primary auditory cortex (A1) or the anterior auditory field (AAF) which comprise the core auditory cortex in cats. Rather, cortical areas surrounding the posterior ectosylvian sulcus responded preferentially to the IRN stimulus when compared to narrowband noise, with group analyses revealing bilateral activity centred in the posterior auditory field (PAF). This study demonstrates that fMRI is useful for identifying pitch-related processing in cat cortex, and identifies cortical areas that warrant further investigation. Moreover, we have taken the first steps in identifying a useful animal model for the study of pitch perception. PMID:26225563

  17. High-field MRI and mercury release from dental amalgam fillings.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, S M J; Neghab, M; Anoosheh, S M H; Bahaeddini, N; Mortazavi, G; Neghab, P; Rajaeifard, A

    2014-04-01

    Mercury is among the most toxic nonradioactive elements which may cause toxicity even at low doses. Some studies showed release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings in individuals who used mobile phone. This study was conducted to assess the effect of high-field MRI on mercury release from dental amalgam filling. We studied two groups of students with identical tooth decays requiring a similar pattern of restorative dentistry. They were exposed to a magnetic flux density of 1.5 T produced by a MRI machine. 16 otherwise healthy students with identical dental decay participated in this study. They underwent similar restorative dentistry procedures and randomly divided into two groups of MRI-exposed and control arms. Urinary concentrations of mercury in the control subjects were measured before (hour 0) and 48 and 72 hrs after amalgam restoration, using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Urinary concentrations of mercury in exposed individuals were determined before (hour 0), and 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs after amalgam restoration. Unlike control subjects, they underwent conventional brain MRI (15 min, 99 slices), 24 hrs after amalgam restoration. The mean±SD urinary mercury levels in MRI-exposed individuals increased linearly from a baseline value of 20.70±17.96 to 24.83±22.91 μg/L 72 hrs after MRI. In the control group, the concentration decreased linearly from 20.70±19.77 to 16.14±20.05 μg/L. The difference between urinary mercury in the exposed and control group, 72 hrs after MRI (96 h after restoration),was significant (p=0.046). These findings provide further support for the noxious effect of MRI (exposure to strong magnetic field)and release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings.

  18. Early knee changes in dancers identified by ultra-high-field 7 T MRI.

    PubMed

    Chang, G; Diamond, M; Nevsky, G; Regatte, R R; Weiss, D S

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to determine whether a unique, ultra-high-field 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner could detect occult cartilage and meniscal injuries in asymptomatic female dancers. This study had Institutional Review Board approval. We recruited eight pre-professional female dancers and nine non-athletic, female controls. We scanned the dominant knee on a 7 T MRI scanner using a three-dimensional fast low-angle shot sequence and a proton density, fast spin-echo sequence to evaluate cartilage and menisci, respectively. Two radiologists scored cartilage (International Cartilage Repair Society classification) and meniscal (Stoller classification) lesions. We applied two-tailed z- and t-tests to determine statistical significance. There were no cartilage lesions in dancers or controls. For the medial meniscus, the dancers demonstrated higher mean MRI score (2.38 ± 0.61 vs 1.0 ± 0.97, P < 0.0001) and higher frequency of mean grade 2 lesions (88% vs 11%, P < 0.01) compared with the controls. For the lateral meniscus, there was no difference in score (0.5 ± 0.81 vs 0.5 ± 0.78, P = 0.78) in dancers compared with the control groups. Asymptomatic dancers demonstrate occult medial meniscal lesions. Because this has been described in early osteoarthritis, close surveillance of dancers' knee symptoms and function with appropriate activity modification may help maintain their long-term knee health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. High-field electrical transport in amorphous phase-change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaes, Matthias; Le Gallo, Manuel; Sebastian, Abu; Salinga, Martin; Krebs, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Electrical transport in chalcogenide-based phase change materials is an active area of research owing to the prominent role played by these materials in the field of information technology. Here, we present transport measurements (IV curves) obtained on line-cells of as-deposited amorphous phase change materials (Ge2Sb2Te5, GeTe, Ag4In3Sb66Te27) over a wide voltage and temperature range (300 K to 160 K). The well defined geometry of our devices enables a description of the transport behavior in terms of conductivity vs. electric field. At higher temperatures (300 K ≥ T ≥ 220 K) and low to intermediate fields (F < 20 V/μm), the data can be described within the framework of a previously developed model, which is based on multiple trapping transport together with 3D Poole-Frenkel emission from a two-center Coulomb potential. Based on this model, we observe a temperature dependence of the inter-trap distance, which we can relate to a temperature dependence in the occupation of the defect creating the Coulomb potential governing Poole-Frenkel emission. At higher fields and lower temperatures, the dependency of the IV curve on the electric field can be described by ln(I/I0) = (F/Fc)2. By combining this contribution with that of the Poole-Frenkel emission, we can show that the slope at high fields, Fc, is independent of temperature. We argue that models based on direct tunneling or thermally assisted tunneling from a single defect into the valence band cannot explain the observed behavior quantitatively.

  20. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy editing techniques of coupled spin systems at high field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Jeff

    , the effect of radiofrequency interference effects was studied at high field to investigate signal losses due to reduced excitation and refocusing in spectroscopic images. Possible differences between coupled and uncoupled spin systems were investigated in spectroscopic imaging at 4.7 T.

  1. Assessment of Abdominal Fat Using High-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters.

    PubMed

    Al-Radaideh, Ali; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Fayomi, Kholoud; Nimer, Nisreen; Malkawi, Amer; Al-Zu Bi, Rana; Agraib, Lana; Athamneh, Imad; Hijjawi, Nawal

    2016-12-01

    To measure the abdominal subcutaneous fat (SF) and visceral fat (VF) volumes using high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate their association with selected anthropometric and biochemical parameters among obese and nonobese apparently healthy participants. A cross-sectional study was conducted by recruiting 167 healthy participants. Abdominal scans were acquired at 3T MRI, and the SF and VF were segmented and their volumes were calculated. Selected anthropometric and biochemical measurements were also determined. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between normal body weight and overweight and obese participants for SF and VF, total abdominal fat volumes, leptin, resistin, adiponectin and waist circumference. Waist circumferences were measured by tape and MRI. Findings revealed that MRI-measured fat volumes were different between males and females and had a significant (P < 0.01) strong positive correlation with body mass index, leptin, resistin and WC and had a negative correlation with adiponectin level. MRI-measured fat volumes were found to correlate moderately with interleukin-6 and weakly with cholesterol, serum triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein. Except for cholesterol, all measured biochemical variables and abdominal fat volumes in the current study were significantly associated with body mass index. All anthropometric and biochemical parameters showed weak-to-strong associations with the MRI-measured fat volumes. Abdominal fat distribution was different between males and females and their correlations with some lipid profiles were found to be sex dependent. These findings revealed that MRI can be used as an alternative tool for obesity assessment. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High-field magnetization and magnetic phase diagram of α -Cu2V2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitgeatpong, G.; Suewattana, M.; Zhang, Shiwei; Miyake, A.; Tokunaga, M.; Chanlert, P.; Kurita, N.; Tanaka, H.; Sato, T. J.; Zhao, Y.; Matan, K.

    2017-06-01

    High-field magnetization of the spin-1 /2 antiferromagnet α -Cu2V2O7 was measured in pulsed magnetic fields of up to 56 T in order to study its magnetic phase diagram. When the field was applied along the easy axis (the a axis), two distinct transitions were observed at Hc 1=6.5 T and Hc 2=18.0 T. The former is a spin-flop transition typical for a collinear antiferromagnet and the latter is believed to be a spin-flip transition of canted moments. The canted moments, which are induced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, anti-align for Hc 1

  3. An intra-neural microstimulation system for ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging and magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Glover, Paul M; Watkins, Roger H; O'Neill, George C; Ackerley, Rochelle; Sanchez-Panchuelo, Rosa; McGlone, Francis; Brookes, Matthew J; Wessberg, Johan; Francis, Susan T

    2017-10-01

    Intra-neural microstimulation (INMS) is a technique that allows the precise delivery of low-current electrical pulses into human peripheral nerves. Single unit INMS can be used to stimulate individual afferent nerve fibres during microneurography. Combining this with neuroimaging allows the unique monitoring of central nervous system activation in response to unitary, controlled tactile input, with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) providing exquisite spatial localisation of brain activity and magnetoencephalography (MEG) high temporal resolution. INMS systems suitable for use within electrophysiology laboratories have been available for many years. We describe an INMS system specifically designed to provide compatibility with both ultra-high field (7T) fMRI and MEG. Numerous technical and safety issues are addressed. The system is fully analogue, allowing for arbitrary frequency and amplitude INMS stimulation. Unitary recordings obtained within both the MRI and MEG screened-room environments are comparable with those obtained in 'clean' electrophysiology recording environments. Single unit INMS (current <7μA, 200μs pulses) of individual mechanoreceptive afferents produces appropriate and robust responses during fMRI and MEG. This custom-built MRI- and MEG-compatible stimulator overcomes issues with existing INMS approaches; it allows well-controlled switching between recording and stimulus mode, prevents electrical shocks because of long cable lengths, permits unlimited patterns of stimulation, and provides a system with improved work-flow and participant comfort. We demonstrate that the requirements for an INMS-integrated system, which can be used with both fMRI and MEG imaging systems, have been fully met. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding the dynamics of superparamagnetic particles under the influence of high field gradient arrays.

    PubMed

    Barnsley, Lester C; Carugo, Dario; Aron, Miles; Stride, Eleanor

    2017-03-21

    The aim of this study was to characterize the behaviour of superparamagnetic particles in magnetic drug targeting (MDT) schemes. A 3-dimensional mathematical model was developed, based on the analytical derivation of the trajectory of a magnetized particle suspended inside a fluid channel carrying laminar flow and in the vicinity of an external source of magnetic force. Semi-analytical expressions to quantify the proportion of captured particles, and their relative accumulation (concentration) as a function of distance along the wall of the channel were also derived. These were expressed in terms of a non-dimensional ratio of the relevant physical and physiological parameters corresponding to a given MDT protocol. The ability of the analytical model to assess magnetic targeting schemes was tested against numerical simulations of particle trajectories. The semi-analytical expressions were found to provide good first-order approximations for the performance of MDT systems in which the magnetic force is relatively constant over a large spatial range. The numerical model was then used to test the suitability of a range of different designs of permanent magnet assemblies for MDT. The results indicated that magnetic arrays that emit a strong magnetic force that varies rapidly over a confined spatial range are the most suitable for concentrating magnetic particles in a localized region. By comparison, commonly used magnet geometries such as button magnets and linear Halbach arrays result in distributions of accumulated particles that are less efficient for delivery. The trajectories predicted by the numerical model were verified experimentally by acoustically focusing magnetic microbeads flowing in a glass capillary channel, and optically tracking their path past a high field gradient Halbach array.

  5. Integration of ultra-high field MRI and histology for connectome based research of brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shan; Yang, Zhengyi; Fischer, Karin; Zhong, Kai; Stadler, Jörg; Godenschweger, Frank; Steiner, Johann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Bogerts, Bernhard; Mawrin, Christian; Reutens, David C.; Speck, Oliver; Walter, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) became increasingly relevant for in vivo neuroscientific research because of improved spatial resolutions. However, this is still the unchallenged domain of histological studies, which long played an important role in the investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders. While the field of biological psychiatry strongly advanced on macroscopic levels, current developments are rediscovering the richness of immunohistological information when attempting a multi-level systematic approach to brain function and dysfunction. For most studies, histology sections lost information on three-dimensional reconstructions. Translating histological sections to 3D-volumes would thus not only allow for multi-stain and multi-subject alignment in post mortem data, but also provide a crucial step in big data initiatives involving the network analyses currently performed with in vivo MRI. We therefore investigated potential pitfalls during integration of MR and histological information where no additional blockface information is available. We demonstrated that strengths and requirements from both methods can be effectively combined at a spatial resolution of 200 μm. However, the success of this approach is heavily dependent on choices of hardware, sequence and reconstruction. We provide a fully automated pipeline that optimizes histological 3D reconstructions, providing a potentially powerful solution not only for primary human post mortem research institutions in neuropsychiatric research, but also to help alleviate the massive workloads in neuroanatomical atlas initiatives. We further demonstrate (for the first time) the feasibility and quality of ultra-high spatial resolution (150 μm isotopic) imaging of the entire human brain MRI at 7T, offering new opportunities for analyses on MR-derived information. PMID:24098272

  6. Microstrip RF surface coil design for extremely high-field MRI and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Ugurbil, K; Chen, W

    2001-09-01

    A new type of high-frequency RF surface coil was developed for in vivo proton or other nuclei NMR applications at 7T. This is a purely distributed-element and transmission line design. The coil consists of a thin strip conductor (copper or silver) and a ground plane separated by a low-loss dielectric material with a thickness (H). Due to its specific semi-open transmission line structure, substantial electromagnetic energy is stored in the dielectric material between the thin conductor and the ground plane, which results in a reduced radiation loss and a reduced perturbation of sample loading to the RF coil compared to conventional surface coils. The coil is characterized by a high Q factor, no RF shielding, small physical coil size, lower cost, and easy fabrication. A brief theoretical description of the microstrip RF coil is given that can be used to guide the coil designs. A set of gradient-recalled echo images were acquired by using the single- and two-turn microstrip RF surface coils from both phantom and human brain at 7T, which show good penetration and sensitivity. The two-turn coil design significantly improves the B1 symmetry as predicted by the microstrip theory. The optimum H for microstrip surface coils is approximately 7 mm. This coil geometry yields a B1 penetration similar to that of conventional surface coils. SNR comparison was made between the microstrip coil and conventional surface coils with and without RF shielding. The results reveal that the novel surface coil design based on the microstrip concept makes very high-field MRI/MRS more convenient and efficient in research and future clinics.

  7. New types of high field pinning centers and pinning centers for the peak effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, Daniel; Zaleski, Andrzej; Morawski, Andrzej; Hossain, Md Shahriar A.

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we report the results of a study that shows the existence of pinning centers inside grains and between grains in NbTi wires. We accurately show the ranges of magnetic fields in which the individual pinning centers operate. The pinning centers inside grains are activated in high magnetic fields above 6 T. We show the range of magnetic fields in which individual defects, dislocations, precipitates inside grains and substitutions in the crystal lattice can operate. We show the existence of a new kind of high field pinning center, which operates in high magnetic fields from 8 to ˜9.5 T. We indicate that dislocations create pinning centers in the range of magnetic fields from 6 to 8 T. In addition, our measurements suggest that the peak effect (increased critical current density (J c) near the upper critical field (B c2)) could be attributed to martensitic (needle-shaped) α‧-Ti inclusions inside grains. These centers are very important because they work very effectively in magnetic fields above 9.5-10 T. We also show that the α-Ti precipitates (between grains) with a thickness similar to the coherence length create pinning centers which work very effectively in magnetic fields from 3 to 6 T. In magnetic fields below 3 T, they act very efficiently in grain boundaries. The measurements indicate that the pinning centers created by dislocations only can be tested by transport measurements. This indicates that dislocations do not increase the magnetic critical current density (J cm). Cold drawing improves pinning centers at grain boundaries and increases the dislocation density, and cold-drawing pinning centers are responsible for the peak effect.

  8. Studies of high-field sections of a muon helical cooling channel with coil separation

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, M.L.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Yonehara, K.; Yu, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) was proposed for 6D cooling of muon beams required for muon collider and some other applications. HCC uses a continuous absorber inside superconducting magnets which produce solenoidal field superimposed with transverse helical dipole and helical gradient fields. HCC is usually divided into several sections each with progressively stronger fields, smaller aperture and shorter helix period to achieve the optimal muon cooling rate. This paper presents the design issues of the high field section of HCC with coil separation. The effect of coil spacing on the longitudinal and transverse field components is presented and its impact on the muon cooling discussed. The paper also describes methods for field corrections and their practical limits. The magnetic performance of the helical solenoid with coil separation was discussed in this work. The separation could be done in three different ways and the performances could be very different which is important and should be carefully described during the beam cooling simulations. The design that is currently being considered is the one that has the poorest magnetic performance because it presents ripples in all three components, in particular in the helical gradient which could be quite large. Moreover, the average gradient could be off, which could affect the cooling performance. This work summarized methods to tune the gradient regarding the average value and the ripple. The coil longitudinal thickness and the helix period can be used to tune G. Thinner coils tend to reduce the ripples and also bring G to its target value. However, this technique reduces dramatically the operational margin. Wider coils can also reduce the ripple (not as much as thinner coils) and also tune the gradient to its target value. Longer helix periods reduce ripple and correct the gradient to the target value.

  9. High Field Sodium MRI Assessment of Stem Cell Chondrogenesis in a Tissue-Engineered Matrix.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Shreyan; Pothirajan, Padmabharathi; Dorcemus, Deborah; Nukavarapu, Syam; Kotecha, Mrignayani

    2016-04-01

    The development of non-invasive assessment techniques in vitro and in vivo is essential for monitoring and evaluating the growth of engineered cartilage tissues. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the leading non-invasive imaging modality used for assessing engineered cartilage. Typical MRI uses water proton relaxation times (T1 and T2) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) to assess tissue growth. These techniques, while excellent in providing the first assurance of tissue growth, are unspecific to monitor the progress of engineered cartilage extracellular matrix components. In the current article, we present high field (11.7 T, (1)H freq. = 500 MHz) sodium MRI assessment of tissue-engineered cartilage at the early stage of tissue growth in vitro. We observed the chondrogenesis of human bone marrow derived stromal cells seeded in a gradient polymer-hydrogel matrix made out of poly(85 lactide-co-15 glycolide)--PuraMatrix™ for 4 weeks. We calculated the sodium concentration in the engineered constructs using a model of sodium MRI voxels that takes into account scaffold volume, cell density and amount of glycosaminoglycan (GAG). The sodium concentration was then converted to the fixed charge density (FCD) and compared with FCD derived from biochemical GAG analysis. Despite the small amount of GAG present in the engineered constructs, the sodium MRI derived FCD is found to be correlated (Pearson correlation coefficient R = 0.79) with the FCD derived from biochemical analysis. We conclude that sodium MRI could prove to be an invaluable tool in assessing engineered cartilage quantitatively during the repair or regeneration of cartilage defects.

  10. Acoustic pressure waves induced in human heads by RF pulses from high-field MRI scanners.

    PubMed

    Lin, James C; Wang, Zhangwei

    2010-04-01

    The current evolution toward greater image resolution from magnetic resonance image (MRI) scanners has prompted the exploration of higher strength magnetic fields and use of higher levels of radio frequencies (RFs). Auditory perception of RF pulses by humans has been reported during MRI with head coils. It has shown that the mechanism of interaction for the auditory effect is caused by an RF pulse-induced thermoelastic pressure wave inside the head. We report a computational study of the intensity and frequency of thermoelastic pressure waves generated by RF pulses in the human head inside high-field MRI and clinical scanners. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) guides limit the local specific absorption rate (SAR) in the body-including the head-to 8 W kg(-1). We present results as functions of SAR and show that for a given SAR the peak acoustic pressures generated in the anatomic head model were essentially the same at 64, 300, and 400 MHz (1.5, 7.0, and 9.4 T). Pressures generated in the anatomic head are comparable to the threshold pressure of 20 mPa for sound perception by humans at the cochlea for 4 W kg(-1). Moreover, results indicate that the peak acoustic pressure in the brain is only 2 to 3 times the auditory threshold at the U.S. FDA guideline of 8 W kg(-1). Even at a high SAR of 20 W kg(-1), where the acoustic pressure in the brain could be more than 7 times the auditory threshold, the sound pressure levels would not be more than 17 db above threshold of perception at the cochlea.

  11. Flux pinning study of RE barium coper oxide coated conductors for high field magnet applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Aixia

    REBa2Cu3O7-δ (REBCO, RE = rare earth) coated conductor (CC) holds great promise for high field magnet applications owing to its strong irreversibility field (Hirr), low electromagnetic anisotropy (γ2), and high critical current density (Jc). The work of this thesis is tightly related to the development of the funded 32 T, all-superconducting magnet project at the NHMFL. My concern is thus for understanding the optimizing of the working parameters of REBCO CC at low temperatures T, and very high magnetic fields H, focusing on how to enhance Ic and to reduce its angular dependence. Increasing the active cross-section is a direct and economical strategy to enhance the current-carrying capability for REBCO coated conductors. Unfortunately, the high Jc in thin REBCO layers is seldom sustained in thick layers because of difficulties of thick film growth control. In the presence of strong 3D (pin separation far less than film thickness) pins, a high and thickness-independent (Jc) should result. One of major tasks of this thesis is to explore what are the effective strong 3D pins that develop a high and thickness-independent Jc. High and weak thickness-dependent Jc at 77 K is obtained on most recent coated conductors, and BZO nanorods and RE2O 3 nanoparticles are identified as strong 3D pins contributing to this respectable Jc performance. At 77 K, we found that the strong pinning of BZO nanorods remains at least up to 9 T, whereas the strong pinning of RE2O3 nanoparticles gradually evolves to weak collective pinning as the irreversibility field is approached. The second principal part of this thesis concentrates on understanding and minimizing the angular dependence of Jc. Our study is based on the following procedure. First, we investigated the angular dependence of Jc (Jc(θ)) in the working condition of the future 32 T all-superconducting magnet, i.e. 4.2 K and high magnetic field up to 31 T. Our work shows that the low temperature Jc(θ) is Ginzburg-Landau-like at

  12. Tunable High-Field Magnetization in Strongly Exchange-Coupled Freestanding Co/CoO Core/Shell Coaxial Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Alvarez, German; Geshev, Julian; Agramunt-Puig, Sebastià; Navau, Carles; Sanchez, Alvaro; Sort, Jordi; Nogués, Josep

    2016-08-31

    The exchange bias properties of Co/CoO coaxial core/shell nanowires were investigated with cooling and applied fields perpendicular to the wire axis. This configuration leads to unexpected exchange-bias effects. First, the magnetization value at high fields is found to depend on the field-cooling conditions. This effect arises from the competition between the magnetic anisotropy and the Zeeman energies for cooling fields perpendicular to the wire axis. This allows imprinting predefined magnetization states to the antiferromagnetic (AFM) shell, as corroborated by micromagnetic simulations. Second, the system exhibits a high-field magnetic irreversibility, leading to open hysteresis loops attributed to the AFM easy axis reorientation during the reversal (effect similar to athermal training). A distinct way to manipulate the high-field magnetization in exchange-biased systems, beyond the archetypical effects, was thus experimentally and theoretically demonstrated.

  13. High strength kiloampere Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox cables for high-field magnet applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tengming; Li, Pei; Jiang, Jianyi; Cooley, Lance; Tompkins, John; McRae, Dustin; Walsh, Robert

    2015-06-01

    INCONEL X750 for various high-field magnet applications.

  14. High strength kiloampere Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O x cables for high-field magnet applications

    DOE PAGES

    Shen, Tengming; Li, Pei; Jiang, Jianyi; ...

    2015-04-17

    -Cr-Al and high strength of INCONEL X750 for various high-field magnet applications.« less

  15. The effects of composition, temperature and sample size on the sintering of chem-prep high field varistors.

    SciTech Connect

    Garino, Terry J.

    2007-09-01

    The sintering behavior of Sandia chem-prep high field varistor materials was studied using techniques including in situ shrinkage measurements, optical and scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. A thorough literature review of phase behavior, sintering and microstructure in Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO varistor systems is included. The effects of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} content (from 0.25 to 0.56 mol%) and of sodium doping level (0 to 600 ppm) on the isothermal densification kinetics was determined between 650 and 825 C. At {ge} 750 C samples with {ge}0.41 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} have very similar densification kinetics, whereas samples with {le}0.33 mol% begin to densify only after a period of hours at low temperatures. The effect of the sodium content was greatest at {approx}700 C for standard 0.56 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and was greater in samples with 0.30 mol% Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} than for those with 0.56 mol%. Sintering experiments on samples of differing size and shape found that densification decreases and mass loss increases with increasing surface area to volume ratio. However, these two effects have different causes: the enhancement in densification as samples increase in size appears to be caused by a low oxygen internal atmosphere that develops whereas the mass loss is due to the evaporation of bismuth oxide. In situ XRD experiments showed that the bismuth is initially present as an oxycarbonate that transforms to metastable {beta}-Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} by 400 C. At {approx}650 C, coincident with the onset of densification, the cubic binary phase, Bi{sub 38}ZnO{sub 58} forms and remains stable to >800 C, indicating that a eutectic liquid does not form during normal varistor sintering ({approx}730 C). Finally, the formation and morphology of bismuth oxide phase regions that form on the varistors surfaces during slow cooling were studied.

  16. Ultra-high field NMR studies of antibody binding and site-specific phosphorylation of alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Sasakawa, Hiroaki; Sakata, Eri; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Masuda, Masami; Mori, Tetsuya; Kurimoto, Eiji; Iguchi, Takeshi; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masato; Kato, Koichi

    2007-11-23

    Although biological importance of intrinsically disordered proteins is becoming recognized, NMR analyses of this class of proteins remain as tasks with more challenge because of poor chemical shift dispersion. It is expected that ultra-high field NMR spectroscopy offers improved resolution to cope with this difficulty. Here, we report an ultra-high field NMR study of alpha-synuclein, an intrinsically disordered protein identified as the major component of the Lewy bodies. Based on NMR spectral data collected at a 920 MHz proton frequency, we performed epitope mapping of an anti-alpha-synuclein monoclonal antibody, and furthermore, characterized conformational effects of phosphorylation at Ser129 of alpha-synuclein.

  17. 2D/3D quench simulation using ANSYS for epoxy impregnated Nb3Sn high field magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ryuji Yamada et al.

    2002-09-19

    A quench program using ANSYS is developed for the high field collider magnet for three-dimensional analysis. Its computational procedure is explained. The quench program is applied to a one meter Nb{sub 3}Sn high field model magnet, which is epoxy impregnated. The quench simulation program is used to estimate the temperature and mechanical stress inside the coil as well as over the whole magnet. It is concluded that for the one meter magnet with the presented cross section and configuration, the thermal effects due to the quench is tolerable. But we need much more quench study and improvements in the design for longer magnets.

  18. Ultra-high field NMR studies of antibody binding and site-specific phosphorylation of {alpha}-synuclein

    SciTech Connect

    Sasakawa, Hiroaki |; Sakata, Eri; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Masuda, Masami |; Mori, Tetsuya; Kurimoto, Eiji; Iguchi, Takeshi; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masato; Kato, Koichi |

    2007-11-23

    Although biological importance of intrinsically disordered proteins is becoming recognized, NMR analyses of this class of proteins remain as tasks with more challenge because of poor chemical shift dispersion. It is expected that ultra-high field NMR spectroscopy offers improved resolution to cope with this difficulty. Here, we report an ultra-high field NMR study of {alpha}-synuclein, an intrinsically disordered protein identified as the major component of the Lewy bodies. Based on NMR spectral data collected at a 920 MHz proton frequency, we performed epitope mapping of an anti-{alpha}-synuclein monoclonal antibody, and furthermore, characterized conformational effects of phosphorylation at Ser129 of {alpha}-synuclein.

  19. High-field superconductivity at an electronic topological transition in URhGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelland, E. A.; Barraclough, J. M.; Wang, W.; Kamenev, K. V.; Huxley, A. D.

    2011-11-01

    The emergence of superconductivity at high magnetic fields in URhGe is regarded as a paradigm for new state formation approaching a quantum critical point. Until now, a divergence of the quasiparticle mass at the metamagnetic transition was considered essential for superconductivity to survive at magnetic fields above 30T. Here we report the observation of quantum oscillations in URhGe revealing a tiny pocket of heavy quasiparticles that shrinks continuously with increasing magnetic field, and finally disappears at a topological Fermi surface transition close to or at the metamagnetic field. The quasiparticle mass decreases and remains finite, implying that the Fermi velocity vanishes due to the collapse of the Fermi wavevector. This offers a novel explanation for the re-emergence of superconductivity at extreme magnetic fields and makes URhGe the first proven example of a material where magnetic field-tuning of the Fermi surface, rather than quantum criticality alone, governs quantum phase formation.

  20. High field side launch of RF waves: A new approach to reactor actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, G. M.; Baek, S. G.; Bonoli, P. T.; Faust, I. C.; LaBombard, B. L.; Lin, Y.; Mumgaard, R. T.; Parker, R. R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Vieira, R.; Whyte, D. G.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launching radio frequency (RF) waves from the high field side (HFS) of a tokamak offers significant advantages over low field side (LFS) launch with respect to both wave physics and plasma material interactions (PMI). For lower hybrid (LH) waves, the higher magnetic field opens the window between wave accessibility (n∥≡c k∥/ω >√{1 -ωpi 2/ω2+ωpe 2/ωce 2 }+ωp e/|ωc e| ) and the condition for strong electron Landau damping (n∥˜√{30 /Te } with Te in keV), allowing LH waves from the HFS to penetrate into the core of a burning plasma, while waves launched from the LFS are restricted to the periphery of the plasma. The lower n∥ of waves absorbed at higher Te yields a higher current drive efficiency as well. In the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), HFS launch allows for direct access to the mode conversion layer where mode converted waves absorb strongly on thermal electrons and ions, thus avoiding the generation of energetic minority ion tails. The absence of turbulent heat and particle fluxes on the HFS, particularly in double null configuration, makes it the ideal location to minimize PMI damage to the antenna structure. The quiescent SOL also eliminates the need to couple LH waves across a long distance to the separatrix, as the antenna can be located close to plasma without risking damage to the structure. Improved impurity screening on the HFS will help eliminate the long-standing issues of high Z impurity accumulation with ICRF. Looking toward a fusion reactor, the HFS is the only possible location for a plasma-facing RF antenna that will survive long-term. By integrating the antenna into the blanket module it is possible to improve the tritium breeding ratio compared with an antenna occupying an equatorial port plug. Blanket modules will require remote handling of numerous cooling pipes and electrical connections, and the addition of transmission lines will not substantially increase the level of complexity. The obvious engineering

  1. Polarizing Agents and Mechanisms for High-Field Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of Frozen Dielectric Solids

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kan-Nian

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of polarizing mechanisms involved in high-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of frozen biological samples at temperatures maintained using liquid nitrogen, compatible with contemporary magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Typical DNP experiments require unpaired electrons that are usually exogenous in samples via paramagnetic doping with polarizing agents. Thus, the resulting nuclear polarization mechanism depends on the electron and nuclear spin interactions induced by the paramagnetic species. The Overhauser Effect (OE) DNP, which relies on time-dependent spin-spin interactions, is excluded from our discussion due the lack of conducting electrons in frozen aqueous solutions containing biological entities. DNP of particular interest to us relies primarily on time-independent, spin interactions for significant electron-nucleus polarization transfer through mechanisms such as the Solid Effect (SE), the Cross Effect (CE) or Thermal Mixing (TM), involving one, two or multiple electron spins, respectively. Derived from monomeric radicals initially used in DNP experiments, bi- or multiple-radical polarizing agents facilitate CE/TM to generate significant NMR signal enhancements in dielectric solids at low temperatures (< 100 K). For example, large DNP enhancements (~300 times at 5 T) from a biologically compatible biradical, 1-(TEMPO-4-oxy)-3-(TEMPO-4-amino)propan-2-ol (TOTAPOL), have enabled high-resolution MAS NMR in sample systems existing in submicron domains or embedded in larger biomolecular complexes. The scope of this review is focused on recently developed DNP polarizing agents for high-field applications and leads up to future developments per the CE DNP mechanism. Because DNP experiments are feasible with a solid-state microwave source when performed at <20 K, nuclear polarization using lower microwave power (< 100 mW) is possible by forcing a high proportion of biradicals to fulfill the

  2. Electromagnetic modeling of REBCO high field coils by the H-formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jing; Bai, Hongyu; Lu, Jun; Gavrilin, Andrew V.; Zhou, Youhe; Weijers, Hubertus W.

    2015-12-01

    electromagnetic behavior and ac losses in REBCO high field coils. It also provides a basis to analyze the mechanical characteristics in the coils in the future.

  3. The high field strength element budget of atmospheric aerosols (puy de Dôme, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlastelic, Ivan; Suchorski, Krzysztof; Sellegri, Karine; Colomb, Aurélie; Nauret, François; Bouvier, Laetitia; Piro, Jean-Luc

    2015-10-01

    High field strength elements (HFSE), including Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta and Ti have low solubility in aqueous fluids and partition into dense and resistant minerals. HFSE proved useful in studying terrestrial weathering and sediment transport, but little is known about their behavior during atmospheric processes, which play an important role in global sedimentary cycles. The atmospheric budget of HFSE is evaluated from the sequential dissolution of aerosol samples collected between 2011 and 2014 at puy de Dôme (1465 m elevation, French Massif Central). Aerosols were sampled during nighttime, while the site is generally located above the planetary boundary layer. Systematic, partial recovery of HFSE during gentle dissolution of aerosols indicates that resistant minerals are ubiquitous in air samples. Total dissolution of aerosols in pressure vessels reveals that Zr and Hf occur on average in sub-crustal abundance, which is consistent with the sampling site being dominantly influenced by oceanic air masses depleted in zircons. Conversely, zircon excess occasionally occurs in continental air masses, in particular those originating from northern Africa. Overall, the Hf/Nd ratio, a proxy for zircon fractionation, varies from 0.26 to 3.94 times the Upper Continental Crust (UCC) value, encompassing the range of worldwide loess. This wide compositional range is consistent with (1) the occurrence of coarse zircons (10-30 μm) in dust source, with possible local enrichments relative to bulk UCC in residual wind-winnowed soils, and (2) gravitational settling of coarse zircons during long-distance (>ca. 1000 km) transport. Niobium and Ta are systematically more abundant (by a mean factor of ∼3) in puy de Dôme aerosols than expected from average crustal or soil concentrations. The volume-weighted average Nb/Ta ratio of 15.5 ± 2.6 (1σ) is also higher than in bulk UCC (11.4-13.3). The positive Nb-Ta anomaly of free troposphere aerosols unlikely reflects a net Nb-Ta enrichment but

  4. Intervertebral disc lesions: visualisation with ultra-high field MRI at 11.7 T.

    PubMed

    Berger-Roscher, Nikolaus; Galbusera, Fabio; Rasche, Volker; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2015-11-01

    Tears and fissures in the intervertebral disc are probably influencing spinal stability. Discography investigations with the aim of fissure detection have been criticised and are discouraged. Therefore, alternative imaging methods, such as MRI, must be investigated. A custom-made device was used to insert six needles with different diameters (0.3-2.2 mm/30-14 G) into the annulus of six bovine tail discs (Cy2-Cy3). Directly after removal of the needles, the discs were scanned in an 11.7 T MRI (Res.: 0.059 × 0.059 × 0.625 mm(3), tscan: 31 min), in a 3 T MRI with a clinical and additionally with two experimental protocols (exp_HR: Res.: 0.3 mm(3), tscan: 97 min/exp_LR: Res.: 0.5 mm(3), tscan: 13.4 min). The obtained images were analysed for lesion volume and lesion length using a 3D-reconstruction software. At 11.7 T, all lesions were visible along with the lamellar structure of the annulus. In the clinical 3 T images, no lesions were visible at all. The 3 T experimental protocols revealed 4 (exp_HR) and 2 (exp_LR) of the 6 lesions. The reconstructed lesions did not have an ideal cylindrical shape. The measured volumes of the lesions ranged from 0.7 to 13.9 mm(3) (11.7 T), 0.1-11.4 mm(3) (exp_HR) and 0.0-12.4 mm(3) (exp_LR) and correlated, but were smaller than the corresponding needle size. The lengths of all needle lesions ranged from 2.9 to 12.3 mm (11.7 T), 0.8-9.7 mm (exp_HR) and 0.0-9.7 mm (exp_LR). Ultra-high field MRI at 11.7 T is a non-invasive tool to directly visualise annular lesions in vitro, while a 3 T MRI, even with experimental protocols and longer scanning times, demonstrates limited ability. In vivo, it is problematic with the clinical systems available today.

  5. High-field FT-ICR-MS and aromaticity equivalent approach for structural identification of water soluble organic compounds (WSOC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harir, Mourad; Yassine, Mahmoud M.; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) makes up a large and often dominant fraction, (20 to 90%) of the submicron atmospheric particulate mass, and its effects are becoming increasingly important in determining climatic and health effects of atmospheric aerosols. Despite the abundance of OA, our understanding of the sources, formation processes and atmospheric properties of OA is limited. Atmospheric OA has both primary (directly emitted) and secondary (formed in the atmosphere from precursor gases) sources, which can be natural (e.g. vegetation) and/or anthropogenic (e.g. fossil-based vehicle exhaust or biomass burning). A significant fraction of OA contains as much as 20-70% of water soluble organic compounds (WSOC). The WSOC fraction is a very complex mixture of low volatility, polyfunctional aliphatic and aromatic compounds containing carboxyl, alcohol, carbonyl, sulfo, nitro, and other functionalities. This high degree of chemical complexity of atmospheric organics has inspired a number of sophisticated approaches that are capable of identifying and detecting a variety of different analytes in OA. Accordingly, one of the most challenging areas of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) analysis is to comprehend the molecular complexity of the OA, especially WSOC fraction, a significant component of atmospheric fine PM (PM2.5). The sources of WSOC are not well understood, especially the relative contributions of primary vs. secondary organic aerosol. Therefore, the molecular characterization of WSOC is important because it allows gaining insight into aerosol sources and underlying mechanisms of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation and transformation. In this abstract, molecular characterization of WSOC was achieved using high-field mass spectrometry FT-ICR-MS and aromaticity equivalent approach. Aromaticity equivalent (Xc), defined recently as a new parameter calculated from the assigned molecular formulas (complementary to the aromaticity index [1]), is introduced to improve

  6. Can high fields save the tokamak? The challenge of steady-state operation for low cost compact reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freidberg, Jeffrey; Dogra, Akshunna; Redman, William; Cerfon, Antoine

    2016-10-01

    The development of high field, high temperature superconductors is thought to be a game changer for the development of fusion power based on the tokamak concept. We test the validity of this assertion for pilot plant scale reactors (Q 10) for two different but related missions: pulsed operation and steady-state operation. Specifically, we derive a set of analytic criteria that determines the basic design parameters of a given fusion reactor mission. As expected there are far more constraints than degrees of freedom in any given design application. However, by defining the mission of the reactor under consideration, we have been able to determine the subset of constraints that drive the design, and calculate the values for the key parameters characterizing the tokamak. Our conclusions are as follows: 1) for pulsed reactors, high field leads to more compact designs and thus cheaper reactors - high B is the way to go; 2) steady-state reactors with H-mode like transport are large, even with high fields. The steady-state constraint is hard to satisfy in compact designs - high B helps but is not enough; 3) I-mode like transport, when combined with high fields, yields relatively compact steady-state reactors - why is there not more research on this favorable transport regime?

  7. High-Field fMRI for Human Applications: An Overview of Spatial Resolution and Signal Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Olman, Cheryl A; Yacoub, Essa

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, dozens of 7 Tesla scanners have been purchased or installed around the world, while 3 Tesla systems have become a standard. This increased interest in higher field strengths is driven by a demonstrated advantage of high fields for available signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the magnetic resonance signal. Functional imaging studies have additional advantages of increases in both the contrast and the spatial specificity of the susceptibility based BOLD signal. One use of this resultant increase in the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) for functional MRI studies at high field is increased image resolution. However, there are many factors to consider in predicting exactly what kind of resolution gains might be made at high fields, and what the opportunity costs might be. The first part of this article discusses both hardware and image quality considerations for higher resolution functional imaging. The second part draws distinctions between image resolution, spatial specificity, and functional specificity of the fMRI signals that can be acquired at high fields, suggesting practical limitations for attainable resolutions of fMRI experiments at a given field, given the current state of the art in imaging techniques. Finally, practical resolution limitations and pulse sequence options for studies in human subjects are considered. PMID:22216080

  8. High field Q slope and the baking effect: Review of recent experimental results and new data on Nb heat treatments

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ciovati, G. Myneni, F. Stevie, P. Maheshwari, D. Griffis

    2010-02-01

    The performance of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing rf losses (high-field Q slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by low-temperature (100–140°C, 12–48 h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated in a vacuum furnace at high temperature without subsequent chemical etching. These studies are aimed at understanding the role of hydrogen on the high-field Q slope and at the passivation of the Nb surface during heat treatment. Improvement of the cavity performances, particularly of the cavities’ quality factor, have been obtained following the high-temperature heat treatments, while secondary ion mass spectroscopy surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.

  9. High field Q slope and the baking effect: Review of recent experimental results and new data on Nb heat treatments

    DOE PAGES

    G. Ciovati; Myneni, G.; Stevie, F.; ...

    2010-02-22

    Here, the performance of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing rf losses (high-field Q-slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by low temperature (100-140 °C, 12-48 h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q-slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated in a vacuum furnace at high temperature without subsequent chemical etching. These studies are aimedmore » at understanding the role of hydrogen on the high-field Q-slope and at the passivation of the Nb surface during heat treatment. Improvement of the cavity performances, particularly of the cavities’ quality factor, have been obtained following the high temperature heat-treatments, while SIMS surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.« less

  10. High field Q slope and the baking effect: Review of recent experimental results and new data on Nb heat treatments

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ciovati; Myneni, G.; Stevie, F.; Maheshwari, P.; Griffis, D.

    2010-02-22

    Here, the performance of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing rf losses (high-field Q-slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by low temperature (100-140 °C, 12-48 h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q-slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated in a vacuum furnace at high temperature without subsequent chemical etching. These studies are aimed at understanding the role of hydrogen on the high-field Q-slope and at the passivation of the Nb surface during heat treatment. Improvement of the cavity performances, particularly of the cavities’ quality factor, have been obtained following the high temperature heat-treatments, while SIMS surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.

  11. High-field magnetization of band ferromagnets Co2 YAl ( Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Perevozchikova, Yu. A.; Korolev, A. V.; Weber, H. W.

    2016-12-01

    The temperature dependences of the magnetization of ferromagnetic Heusler alloys Co2 YAl, where Y = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni have been studied at H = 50 kOe in the range 2 K < T < 1100 K. It is shown that the high-field ( H ≥ 20 kOe) magnetization is described within the Stoner model.

  12. Mineralogic reservoirs for high-field strength elements in deeply subducted continental sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, R. P.; Shimizu, N.; Irifune, T.; Nishiyama, N.

    2013-12-01

    For more than 40 years now, mantle geochemists have interpreted the isotopic signature of ocean-island basalts (OIB) in terms of deeply recycled crustal lithologies, including terrigeneous sediments, being transported via subduction into the source region for mantle plumes, which reside in the transition zone (MTZ) and/or lower mantle. As such, continent-derived sediments in particular represent domains of extreme isotopic and trace-element heterogeneity relative to the deep primitive mantle (PM). In an effort to understand the extent to which the original geochemical signature of deeply subducted continental material is preserved, and to determine which mineral phases act as reservoirs for transporting key trace-elements (e.g., large-ion lithophile elements, LILE; high-field strength elements, HFSE) into the deep mantle, we have conducted a series of phase-equilibria multi-anvil experiments on natural terrigeneous sediments at pressures appropriate to the base of the MTZ and uppermost lower mantle. The starting materials for these experiments contain modest amounts of water, and a small carbonate component, and their major- and trace-element composition are a close approximation to that of average 'global subducting sediment' (i.e., GLOSS; Plank and Langmuir, 1998). Experiments were conducted over the pressure range ~15-23 GPa, and temperatures between ~1200-1800°C. Below ~22 GPa, the high-pressure phase assemblage consists of K-hollandite, majoritic garnet, stishovite, and depending on temperature, either a hydrous alumino-silicate (e.g., phase-EGG or δ-AlOOH), or kyanite or corundum. Stable accessory minerals at these conditions include rutile, and zircon, where much of the whole-rock complement of HFSE resides, and occasionally monazite. At higher pressure (>23 GPa), the breakdown of garnet produces a Fe-Al-Mg perovskite phase, which is exceptionally rich in TiO2 (up to 9 wt%), and the aforementioned accessory phases are no longer stable. The full phase

  13. Quasiparticle Entropy in the High-Field Superconducting Phase of CeCoIn5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokiwa, Y.; Bauer, E. D.; Gegenwart, P.

    2012-09-01

    The heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 displays an additional transition within its superconducting (SC) state, whose nature is characterized by high-precision studies of the isothermal field dependence of the entropy, derived from combined specific heat and magnetocaloric effect measurements at temperatures T≥100mK and fields H≤12T aligned along different directions. For any of these conditions, we do not observe an additional entropy contribution upon tuning at constant temperature by magnetic field from the homogeneous SC into the presumed Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) SC state. By contrast, for H∥[100] a reduction of entropy was found that quantitatively agrees with the expectation for spin-density-wave order without FFLO superconductivity. Our data exclude the formation of a FFLO state in CeCoIn5 for out-of-plane field directions, where no spin-density-wave order exists.

  14. Quasiparticle entropy in the high-field superconducting phase of CeCoIn(5).

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Y; Bauer, E D; Gegenwart, P

    2012-09-14

    The heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn(5) displays an additional transition within its superconducting (SC) state, whose nature is characterized by high-precision studies of the isothermal field dependence of the entropy, derived from combined specific heat and magnetocaloric effect measurements at temperatures T≥100  mK and fields H≤12  T aligned along different directions. For any of these conditions, we do not observe an additional entropy contribution upon tuning at constant temperature by magnetic field from the homogeneous SC into the presumed Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) SC state. By contrast, for H∥[100] a reduction of entropy was found that quantitatively agrees with the expectation for spin-density-wave order without FFLO superconductivity. Our data exclude the formation of a FFLO state in CeCoIn(5) for out-of-plane field directions, where no spin-density-wave order exists.

  15. Iron-chalcogenide FeSe(0.5)Te(0.5) Coated Superconducting Tapes for High Field Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Si, W.; Johnson, P.; Zhou, J.; Jie, Q.; Dimitrov, I.; Solovyov, V.; Jaroszynski, J.; Matias, V.; Sheehan, C.; Li, Q.

    2011-07-01

    The high upper critical field characteristic of the recently discovered iron-based superconducting chalcogenides opens the possibility of developing a new type of non-oxide high-field superconducting wires. In this work, we utilize a buffered metal template on which we grow a textured FeSe{sub 0.5}Te{sub 0.5} layer, an approach developed originally for high temperature superconducting coated conductors. These tapes carry high critical current densities (> 1 x 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2}) at about 4.2 K under magnetic field as high as 25 T, which are nearly isotropic to the field direction. This demonstrates a very promising future for iron chalcogenides for high field applications at liquid helium temperatures. Flux pinning force analysis indicates a point defect pinning mechanism, creating prospects for a straightforward approach to conductor optimization.

  16. Isotopic Effect on Ion Mobility and Separation of Isotopomers by High-Field Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Clemmer, David E.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-10-01

    Since early 1900-s, when vacuum techniques and ion detectors first enabled investigations of gas-phase ions, two approaches to their separation and characterization have emerged - mass spectrometry (MS) and ion mobility spectrometry (IMS).1,2 Though both exploit that distinct charged species move in electric fields differently, MS is performed in vacuum and is based only on the ion mass/charge (m/q) ratio while IMS involves sufficiently dense buffer gases and relies on ion transport properties. The first major discovery enabled by MS was the existence of isotopes by Thomson and Aston,3 and isotopic analyses have since been integral to MS. In particular, the preparative separation of U isotopes using Lawrence’s Calutron was the first industrial application of MS,4 and isotopic labeling is key to MS quantification methods. With IMS, the issue of isotopes was largely ignored as the resolving power (R) was generally too low for their separation. Here, we demonstrate that recently developed high-resolution differential IMS can separate isotopic molecular ions, including nominal isobars with different isotopic content and isotopomers. This capability may enable a new method for isotope separation in a small-scale format at ambient pressure and aid localization of labeled sites in various molecules. Perhaps most importantly, the isotopic shifts depend on the labeled atom position and thus may contain the kind of detailed structural information that is available in solution or solid state using tools such as NMR but has not generally been obtainable for gas-phase ions.

  17. High field structural MRI reveals specific episodic memory correlates in the subfields of the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Travis, S G; Huang, Y; Fujiwara, E; Radomski, A; Olsen, F; Carter, R; Seres, P; Malykhin, N V

    2014-01-01

    HC volumes bilaterally. This the first study to examine the associations between hippocampal subfield volumes across the entire hippocampal formation with performance in a set of standard memory tasks.

  18. Influence of Pb(II) Ions on the EPR Properties of the Semiquinone Radicals of Humic Acids and Model Compounds: High Field EPR and Relativistic DFT Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witwicki, Maciej; Jerzykiewicz, Maria; Jaszewski, Adrian R.; Jezierska, Julia; Ozarowski, Andrzej

    2009-11-01

    X-band (9.76 GHz) and high field (416.00 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) was used to study the interactions between Pb(II) ions and semiquinone radicals of natural humic acids and their simple models. The EPR experiments were performed on powder samples. The formation of Pb(II) complexes with the radicals was accompanied by a significant decrease of g parameters as compared to those observed for parent radicals. Two types of complexes were identified depending on the initial concentration of Pb(II) ions. For one of them the anisotropic hyperfine coupling with the 207Pb nucleus was observed. Systematic DFT calculations were carried out for complexes with different forms of radical ligands (L2-•, HL-•, and H2L•) derived from 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid representing different ligation schemes. The g parameters calculated for the structure characterized by a significant accumulation of spin density on the Pb atom are strongly deviated from the values observed experimentally. Moreover, a decrease of the spin population on all oxygen atoms as a result of complexation of Pb(II) via carboxyl oxygens and protonation of hydroxyl oxygens is required to reproduce the experimental g parameters.

  19. STRUCTURE AND HIGH-FIELD PERFORMANCE OF JELLY ROLL PROCESSED Nb{sub 3}Sn WIRES USING Sn-Ta AND Sn-Ti BASED ALLOY SHEET

    SciTech Connect

    Tachikawa, K.; Tsuyuki, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Nakata, K.; Takeuchi, T.

    2008-03-03

    Sn-Ta based alloy buttons of different compositions were prepared by the melt diffusion process among constituent metal powders, and then pressed into plates. Meanwhile Sn-Ti based alloy plates were sliced from the melt and cast ingot. Resulting Sn-based alloy plates were rolled into thin sheets. The Sn-based alloy sheet was laminated with a Nb sheet, and wound into a Jelly Roll (JR) composite. The composite was encased in a sheath, and fabricated into a thin wire followed by the heat treatment. The application of hydrostatic extrusion is useful at the initial stage of the fabrication. The JR wires using Sn-Ta and Sn-Ti based alloy sheets show a non-Cu J{sub c} of {approx}250 A/mm{sup 2} and {approx}150 A/mm{sup 2} at 20 T and 22 T, respectively, at 4.2 K. It has been found that the Nb impregnates into the Sn-based alloy layers during the reaction, and Nb{sub 3}Sn layers are synthesized by the mutual diffusion between the Nb sheet and the Sn-based alloy sheet without formation of voids. Sn-Ti based alloy sheets are attractive due to their easiness of mass production. Structure and high-field performance of JR processed Nb{sub 3}Sn wires prepared from Sn-based alloy sheets with different compositions are compared in this article.

  20. Phase 1 Final Technical Report - MgB2 Synthesis for High Field Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mohit Bhatia; Peter McIntyre

    2009-11-02

    boron results in the formation of parasitic phases such as MgB4, MgB7, etc. Such parasitic phases are a primary element of the connectivity problem, in which even though a sample powder may contain grains of high-quality MgB2, adjacent grains are surrounded by intergrowths of parasitic phases so that current trans-port is badly degraded. The best results to date have been obtained using boron powder produced long ago for a rocket propellant development project. The synthesis process was complex and is now largely lost, and the manufacturing equipment has long since been scrapped. The last batch of the powder has been used during recent years to support MgB2 R&D at several labs, but supplies are dwindling. ATC has identified a first application of its plasma torch to synthesize phase-pure amorphous boron flake using a rapid-quench splat technique. Inexpensive technical-grade boron would be purified of contaminants, then dispersed as an aerosol in inert gas and passed through the plasma torch to melt it into a spray. The spray would be splat-condensed on a rotating drum to form pure amorphous flake. The process would begin with technical-grade boron powder, having good stoichiometric purity, nanoscale particles, but significant contamination of MgO and crystalline boron. We used wet chemistry to remove B2O3 completely and reduced the MgO impurity, and analyzed the particle size distribution using a Coulter counter and the phase composition using X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD). The next step will be to build an rf plasma torch with a recirculating single-component aerosol feed and the cooled splat drum and collector, and undertake process devel-opment for amorphous boron powder. This revised goal has two benefits. First, it is an easier technology than our ultimate goal of a multi-component laminar flow torch. We have been counseled by those experienced in plasma torch technology that our ultimate goal will require a torch that should be feasible but has never been attempted. It

  1. High-field domains in CdS adjacent to a junction of p-type solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böer, Karl W.

    2016-02-01

    A thin cover layer (150 Å preferred) of copper-doped CdS, when applied on top of any p-type solar cell, can connect this cell directly to an electron-blocking electrode without a pn-junction and increases the open circuit voltage close to its theoretical value; in the example of a CdS/CdTe cell, it increases Voc to its extrapolated value at T = 0 K of the band gap of 1.45 eV. This is caused by a high-field domain that is attached to the junction and limits the field to below tunneling to prevent junction leakage and connects to the CdS that has turned p-type. The large Debye length exceeding the thickness of the CdS forces a direct connection to the electron-blocking cathode with holes tunneling into the metal. The difference of junction-attached high-field domains to the electrode-attached domains, which were described earlier, are given and the consequences are delineated by increasing the conversion efficiency from 8% to 16% in CdTe, while also causing some series resistance limitation. The effect of the added CdS layer is discussed by drawing a to-scale model of the CdS/CdTe solar cell from all experimentally available data and the assumption of the continuity of the hole current. A small jump of the valence band downward is caused by interface recombination. The assistance of high-field domains in CdS is also exemplified by the results of an extremely simple production procedure of the CdS/Cu2S solar cells.

  2. High-field transport properties of a P-doped BaFe2As2 film on technical substrate.

    PubMed

    Iida, Kazumasa; Sato, Hikaru; Tarantini, Chiara; Hänisch, Jens; Jaroszynski, Jan; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Hosono, Hideo

    2017-01-12

    High temperature (high-Tc) superconductors like cuprates have superior critical current properties in magnetic fields over other superconductors. However, superconducting wires for high-field-magnet applications are still dominated by low-Tc Nb3Sn due probably to cost and processing issues. The recent discovery of a second class of high-Tc materials, Fe-based superconductors, may provide another option for high-field-magnet wires. In particular, AEFe2As2 (AE: Alkali earth elements, AE-122) is one of the best candidates for high-field-magnet applications because of its high upper critical field, Hc2, moderate Hc2 anisotropy, and intermediate Tc. Here we report on in-field transport properties of P-doped BaFe2As2 (Ba-122) thin films grown on technical substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The P-doped Ba-122 coated conductor exceeds a transport Jc of 10(5) A/cm(2) at 15 T for main crystallographic directions of the applied field, which is favourable for practical applications. Our P-doped Ba-122 coated conductors show a superior in-field Jc over MgB2 and NbTi, and a comparable level to Nb3Sn above 20 T. By analysing the E - J curves for determining Jc, a non-Ohmic linear differential signature is observed at low field due to flux flow along the grain boundaries. However, grain boundaries work as flux pinning centres as demonstrated by the pinning force analysis.

  3. High-field transport properties of a P-doped BaFe2As2 film on technical substrate

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Kazumasa; Sato, Hikaru; Tarantini, Chiara; Hänisch, Jens; Jaroszynski, Jan; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Hosono, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    High temperature (high-Tc) superconductors like cuprates have superior critical current properties in magnetic fields over other superconductors. However, superconducting wires for high-field-magnet applications are still dominated by low-Tc Nb3Sn due probably to cost and processing issues. The recent discovery of a second class of high-Tc materials, Fe-based superconductors, may provide another option for high-field-magnet wires. In particular, AEFe2As2 (AE: Alkali earth elements, AE-122) is one of the best candidates for high-field-magnet applications because of its high upper critical field, Hc2, moderate Hc2 anisotropy, and intermediate Tc. Here we report on in-field transport properties of P-doped BaFe2As2 (Ba-122) thin films grown on technical substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The P-doped Ba-122 coated conductor exceeds a transport Jc of 105 A/cm2 at 15 T for main crystallographic directions of the applied field, which is favourable for practical applications. Our P-doped Ba-122 coated conductors show a superior in-field Jc over MgB2 and NbTi, and a comparable level to Nb3Sn above 20 T. By analysing the E − J curves for determining Jc, a non-Ohmic linear differential signature is observed at low field due to flux flow along the grain boundaries. However, grain boundaries work as flux pinning centres as demonstrated by the pinning force analysis. PMID:28079117

  4. High-field transport properties of a P-doped BaFe2As2 film on technical substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, Kazumasa; Sato, Hikaru; Tarantini, Chiara; Hänisch, Jens; Jaroszynski, Jan; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Hosono, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    High temperature (high-Tc) superconductors like cuprates have superior critical current properties in magnetic fields over other superconductors. However, superconducting wires for high-field-magnet applications are still dominated by low-Tc Nb3Sn due probably to cost and processing issues. The recent discovery of a second class of high-Tc materials, Fe-based superconductors, may provide another option for high-field-magnet wires. In particular, AEFe2As2 (AE: Alkali earth elements, AE-122) is one of the best candidates for high-field-magnet applications because of its high upper critical field, Hc2, moderate Hc2 anisotropy, and intermediate Tc. Here we report on in-field transport properties of P-doped BaFe2As2 (Ba-122) thin films grown on technical substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The P-doped Ba-122 coated conductor exceeds a transport Jc of 105 A/cm2 at 15 T for main crystallographic directions of the applied field, which is favourable for practical applications. Our P-doped Ba-122 coated conductors show a superior in-field Jc over MgB2 and NbTi, and a comparable level to Nb3Sn above 20 T. By analysing the E ‑ J curves for determining Jc, a non-Ohmic linear differential signature is observed at low field due to flux flow along the grain boundaries. However, grain boundaries work as flux pinning centres as demonstrated by the pinning force analysis.

  5. Studies of $${\\rm Nb}_{3}{\\rm Sn}$$ Strands Based on the Restacked-Rod Process for High Field Accelerator Magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Barzi, E.; Bossert, M.; Gallo, G.; ...

    2011-12-21

    A major thrust in Fermilab's accelerator magnet R&D program is the development of Nb3Sn wires which meet target requirements for high field magnets, such as high critical current density, low effective filament size, and the capability to withstand the cabling process. The performance of a number of strands with 150/169 restack design produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology was studied for round and deformed wires. To optimize the maximum plastic strain, finite element modeling was also used as an aid in the design. Results of mechanical, transport and metallographic analyses are presented for round and deformed wires.

  6. Magnetic properties of superconducting GdBa2Cu3O(6 + delta) at low temperature and high field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. Y.; Shapira, Y.; Hor, P. H.; Meng, R. L.; Chu, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetization of antiferromagnetic superconducting GdBa2Cu3O(6 + delta) has been measured for T in the range of 1.5 - 4.2 K for magnetic fields up to about 20 T. It is found that all Gd(3+) spins are nearly parallel at very high fields, and that this saturated spin subsystem coexists with superconductivity. Below the Neel temperature, 2.22 K, the transition from the 'canted' phase to the paramagnetic phase is observed by the application of a high magnetic field. The temperature dependence of this phase transition is also reported.

  7. Temperature dependence of high field 13C dynamic nuclear polarization processes with trityl radicals below 35 Kelvin.

    PubMed

    Walker, Shamon A; Edwards, Devin T; Siaw, Ting Ann; Armstrong, Brandon D; Han, Songi

    2013-09-28

    In order to facilitate versatile applications with high field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), it is important to be able to optimize the DNP performance, i.e. reach high nuclear hyperpolarization within a short signal build up time. Given that the solid-state DNP process is strongly temperature-dependent, it is important to benchmark the temperature dependence of various DNP and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) parameters that can then be used to test and develop theories and models for high field DNP mechanisms. However, DNP and EPR experiments at high fields and cryogenic temperatures below 20 Kelvin usually require home built instrumentation, and therefore even basic experimental observations are lacking in the literature. DNP and EPR experiments at 7 T (197 GHz) and 8.5 T (240 GHz), respectively, were conducted at temperatures between 35 K and 3.7 K where the electron thermal polarization changes from 13.4% to 85.6%, respectively. The samples are frozen solutions of 15 mM OX063Me trityl radicals in various mixtures of [1-(13)C]pyruvic acid, glycerol, and Gd(3+)-chelates. For all sample mixtures, the trityl EPR lines are found to be inhomogeneously broadened and the dominant DNP mechanism is shown to be the cross effect (CE). A 20%, 11%, and 6.77% (13)C polarization is achieved at 3.7 K with a [1-(13)C]pyruvic-glycerol-H2O sample, the addition of 2 mM of Gd(3+)-chelates, and pure [1-(13)C]pyruvic acid, respectively. When T1n is sufficiently long, our results seem to suggest T1e is a key variable in the DNP process, where longer T1e values correlate with larger DNP enhancements (εDNP). The experimental data reported here on the temperature dependence of T1n, T1e, Tm (electron phase memory time), the EPR linewidth, TDNP and ε(DNP) at high fields will be helpful for testing the mechanism and theory of DNP processes.

  8. Biosilica-Entrapped Enzymes Studied by Using Dynamic Nuclear-Polarization-Enhanced High-Field NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ravera, Enrico; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Ong, Ta-Chung; Keeler, Eric G; Martelli, Tommaso; Fragai, Marco; Griffin, Robert G; Luchinat, Claudio

    2015-08-12

    Enzymes are used as environmentally friendly catalysts in many industrial applications, and are frequently immobilized in a matrix to improve their chemical stability for long-term storage and reusability. Recently, it was shown that an atomic-level description of proteins immobilized in a biosilica matrix can be attained by examining their magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectra. However, even though MAS NMR is an excellent tool for determining structure, it is severely hampered by sensitivity. In this work we provide the proof of principle that NMR characterization of biosilica-entrapped enzymes could be assisted by high-field dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP).

  9. Windows on the human body--in vivo high-field magnetic resonance research and applications in medicine and psychology.

    PubMed

    Moser, Ewald; Meyerspeer, Martin; Fischmeister, Florian Ph S; Grabner, Günther; Bauer, Herbert; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    Analogous to the evolution of biological sensor-systems, the progress in "medical sensor-systems", i.e., diagnostic procedures, is paradigmatically described. Outstanding highlights of this progress are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS), which enable non-invasive, in vivo acquisition of morphological, functional, and metabolic information from the human body with unsurpassed quality. Recent achievements in high and ultra-high field MR (at 3 and 7 Tesla) are described, and representative research applications in Medicine and Psychology in Austria are discussed. Finally, an overview of current and prospective research in multi-modal imaging, potential clinical applications, as well as current limitations and challenges is given.

  10. High-field Hall resistivity and magnetoresistance of electron-doped Pr2-xCexCuO4-delta.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengcheng; Balakirev, F F; Greene, R L

    2007-07-27

    We report resistivity and Hall effect measurements in electron-doped Pr2-xCexCuO4-delta films in magnetic field up to 58 T. In contrast to hole-doped cuprates, we find a surprising nonlinear magnetic field dependence of Hall resistivity at high field in the optimally doped and overdoped films. We also observe a crossover from quadratic to linear field dependence of the positive magnetoresistance in the overdoped films. A spin density wave induced Fermi surface reconstruction model can be used to qualitatively explain both the Hall effect and magnetoresistance.

  11. Hole-exciton interaction induced high field decay of magneto-electroluminescence in Alq{sub 3}-based organic light-emitting diodes at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Tingting; Holford, D. F.; Gu, Hang; Kreouzis, T.; Zhang, Sijie E-mail: w.gillin@qmul.ac.uk; Gillin, W. P. E-mail: w.gillin@qmul.ac.uk

    2016-01-11

    The magnetic field effects on the electroluminescence of aluminium tris-(8-hydroxyqinoline) (Alq{sub 3}) based organic light emitting diodes have been investigated by varying the electron/hole ratio in the emissive layer. Experimental results reveal that a negative high field effect in the magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) can be found in devices with very low triplet exciton concentration at room temperature. This suggests triplet-triplet annihilation cannot be used to explain the negative high field MEL in the Alq{sub 3} system. Our results suggest that hole-exciton interaction may be the origin of the negative high field MEL and also, in parallel with this interaction, there is also the more common positive high field process occurring which has been tentatively attributed to electron-exciton interactions. The competition between these different processes decides the final shape of the MEL at high fields.

  12. Toward increased concentration sensitivity for continuous wave EPR investigations of spin-labeled biological macromolecules at high fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Likai; Liu, Zhanglong; Kaur, Pavanjeet; Esquiaqui, Jackie M.; Hunter, Robert I.; Hill, Stephen; Smith, Graham M.; Fanucci, Gail E.

    2016-04-01

    High-field, high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at W-(∼94 GHz) and D-band (∼140 GHz) is important for investigating the conformational dynamics of flexible biological macromolecules because this frequency range has increased spectral sensitivity to nitroxide motion over the 100 ps to 2 ns regime. However, low concentration sensitivity remains a roadblock for studying aqueous samples at high magnetic fields. Here, we examine the sensitivity of a non-resonant thin-layer cylindrical sample holder, coupled to a quasi-optical induction-mode W-band EPR spectrometer (HiPER), for continuous wave (CW) EPR analyses of: (i) the aqueous nitroxide standard, TEMPO; (ii) the unstructured to α-helical transition of a model IDP protein; and (iii) the base-stacking transition in a kink-turn motif of a large 232 nt RNA. For sample volumes of ∼50 μL, concentration sensitivities of 2-20 μM were achieved, representing a ∼10-fold enhancement compared to a cylindrical TE011 resonator on a commercial Bruker W-band spectrometer. These results therefore highlight the sensitivity of the thin-layer sample holders employed in HiPER for spin-labeling studies of biological macromolecules at high fields, where applications can extend to other systems that are facilitated by the modest sample volumes and ease of sample loading and geometry.

  13. Intracellular bimodal nanoparticles based on quantum dots for high-field MRI at 21.1 T.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Jens T; Kogot, Joshua M; Lovingood, Derek D; Strouse, Geoffrey F; Grant, Samuel C

    2010-09-01

    Multimodal, biocompatible contrast agents for high magnetic field applications represent a new class of nanomaterials with significant potential for tracking of fluorescence and MR in vitro and vivo. Optimized for high-field MR applications-including biomedical imaging at 21.1 T, the highest magnetic field available for MRI-these nanoparticles capitalize on the improved performance of chelated Dy(3+) with increasing magnetic field coupled to a noncytotoxic Indium Phosphide/Zinc Sulfide (InP/ZnS) quantum dot that provides fluorescence detection, MR responsiveness, and payload delivery. By surface modifying the quantum dot with a cell-penetrating peptide sequence coupled to an MR contrast agent, the bimodal nanomaterial functions as a self-transfecting high-field MR/optical contrast agent for nonspecific intracellular labeling. Fluorescent images confirm sequestration in perinuclear vesicles of labeled cells, with no apparent cytotoxicity. These techniques can be extended to impart cell selectivity or act as a delivery vehicle for genetic or pharmaceutical interventions.

  14. Noninvasive quantitative mapping of conductivity and dielectric distributions using RF wave propagation effects in high-field MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Han

    2003-06-01

    In this paper I show with phantom and animal experiments a non-invasive and quantitative method for measuring the conductivity and dielectric distributions based on high field magnetic resonance imaging. High field MRI is accompanied by significant RF wave propagation effects. They are observed as phase and magnitude variations of the image that cannot be removed by optimizing the static field homogeneity, or by improving the RF coils. These variations reflect the RF field distribution in the sample, and in fact obey a modified Helmholtz equation. By mapping both the phase and magnitude of the field with MRI techniques, both the conductivity and the dielectric constant are determined non-invasively. In phantom experiments at 1.5 tesla, conductivity values were measured at 4 mm resolution to 0.5 S/m accuracy. At 4.7 tesla, the accuracy was improved to 0.2 S/m, and the dielectric constant was measured to an accuracy of 5 (relative to vacuum) for 2cm regions.

  15. Limits of NbTi and Nb3Sn, and development of W& R Bi-2212 High Field Accelerator Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Daniel; Dietderich, Daniel; Ferrracin, Paolo; Prestemon, Soren; Sabbi, GianLuca; Scanlan, Ron; Godeke, A.

    2007-06-01

    NbTi accelerator dipoles are limited to magnetic fields (H) of about 10 T, due to an intrinsic upper critical field (H{sub c2}) limitation of 14 T. To surpass this restriction, prototype Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets are being developed which have reached 16 T. We show that Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole technology is practically limited to 17 to 18 T due to insufficient high field pinning, and intrinsically to 20 to 22 T due to H{sub c2} limitations. Therefore, to obtain magnetic fields approaching 20 T and higher, a material is required with a higher H{sub c2} and sufficient high field pinning capacity. A realistic candidate for this purpose is Bi-2212, which is available in round wires and sufficient lengths for the fabrication of coils based on Rutherford-type cables. We initiated a program to develop the required technology to construct accelerator magnets from 'wind-and-react' (W&R) Bi-2212 coils. We outline the complications that arise through the use of Bi-2212, describe the development paths to address these issues, and conclude with the design of W&R Bi-2212 sub-scale magnets.

  16. Brain–heart interactions: challenges and opportunities with functional magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field

    PubMed Central

    Raven, Erika P.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at ultra-high field (UHF) strengths (7 T and above) offers unique opportunities for studying the human brain with increased spatial resolution, contrast and sensitivity. However, its reliability can be compromised by factors such as head motion, image distortion and non-neural fluctuations of the functional MRI signal. The objective of this review is to provide a critical discussion of the advantages and trade-offs associated with UHF imaging, focusing on the application to studying brain–heart interactions. We describe how UHF MRI may provide contrast and resolution benefits for measuring neural activity of regions involved in the control and mediation of autonomic processes, and in delineating such regions based on anatomical MRI contrast. Limitations arising from confounding signals are discussed, including challenges with distinguishing non-neural physiological effects from the neural signals of interest that reflect cardiorespiratory function. We also consider how recently developed data analysis techniques may be applied to high-field imaging data to uncover novel information about brain–heart interactions. PMID:27044994

  17. The LLNL HFTF (High-Field Test Facility): A flexible superconducting test facility for fusion magnet development

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.R.; Chaplin, M.R.; Leber, R.L.; Rosdahl, A.R.

    1987-09-17

    The High-Field Test Facility (HFTF) is a flexible and, in many ways, unique facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for providing the test capabilities needed to develop the superconducting magnet systems of the next generation fusion machines. The superconducting coil set in HFTF has been operated successfully at LLNL, but in its original configuration, its utility as a test facility was somewhat restricted and cryogenic losses were intolerable. A new cryostat for the coil set allows the magnet system to remain cold indefinitely so the system is available on short notice to provide high fields (about 11 T) inside a reasonably large test volume (0.3-m diam). The test volume is physically and thermally isolated from the coil volume, allowing test articles to be inserted and removed without disturbing the coil cryogenic volume, which is maintained by an on-line refrigerator. Indeed, with the proper precautions, it is even unnecessary to drop the field in the HFTF during such an operation. The separate test volume also allows reduced temperature operation without the expense and complication of subcooling the entire coil set (about 20-t cold mass). The HFTF has thus become a key facility in the LLNL magnet development program, where the primary goal is to demonstrate the technology for producing fields to 15 T with winding-pack current densities of 40 A.mm/sup -2/ in coils sized for fusion applications. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Sintering schedule and sample geometry effects on the electrical and physical properties of high field varistor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, T.J.; Lockwood, S.J.

    1989-02-01

    The sample size scale-up required for the preparation of large (production-size) varistor slugs was found to produce material which did not meet both the electrical and physical property specifications when sintered using the standard schedule. As a result, the effects of sintering schedule variables (heating rate, soak temperature, and soak time) on the electrical and physical properties of high field varistor materials were investigated. One sintering schedule was found to be particularly effective in generating large, thick varistor slugs with reproducible electrical properties within specifications, but the physical characteristics did not meet program goals. Empirical relationships between the electrical and physical properties of sintered high field varistors showed that it was not possible to meet program goals with production-size (greater than or equal to1.5 in. dia, 0.6--0.7 in. thick) varistor parts. The sample thickness was found to play a significant role in determining the electrical properties of varistors sintered using a standard sintering schedule (732A). Significant decreases in electric field (E) and nonlinearity coefficient (..cap alpha..) were noted with corresponding increases in sample thickness. A new sample geometry was identified which produced sintered varistor material meeting both electrical and physical property specifications. Sintered varistor microstructures were evaluated and correlated with the electrical and physical properties. 34 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Network Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s Disease via MRI Based Shape Diffeomorphometry and High-Field Atlasing

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michael I.; Ratnanather, J. Tilak; Tward, Daniel J.; Brown, Timothy; Lee, David S.; Ketcha, Michael; Mori, Kanami; Wang, Mei-Cheng; Mori, Susumu; Albert, Marilyn S.; Younes, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines MRI analysis of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) in a network of structures within the medial temporal lobe using diffeomorphometry methods coupled with high-field atlasing in which the entorhinal cortex is partitioned into eight subareas. The morphometry markers for three groups of subjects (controls, preclinical AD, and symptomatic AD) are indexed to template coordinates measured with respect to these eight subareas. The location and timing of changes are examined within the subareas as it pertains to the classic Braak and Braak staging by comparing the three groups. We demonstrate that the earliest preclinical changes in the population occur in the lateral most sulcal extent in the entorhinal cortex (alluded to as transentorhinal cortex by Braak and Braak), and then proceeds medially which is consistent with the Braak and Braak staging. We use high-field 11T atlasing to demonstrate that the network changes are occurring at the junctures of the substructures in this medial temporal lobe network. Temporal progression of the disease through the network is also examined via changepoint analysis, demonstrating earliest changes in entorhinal cortex. The differential expression of rate of atrophy with progression signaling the changepoint time across the network is demonstrated to be signaling in the intermediate caudal subarea of the entorhinal cortex, which has been noted to be proximal to the hippocampus. This coupled to the findings of the nearby basolateral involvement in amygdala demonstrates the selectivity of neurodegeneration in early AD. PMID:26284236

  20. High-field EPR spectroscopy applied to biological systems: characterization of molecular switches for electron and ion transfer.

    PubMed

    Möbius, K; Savitsky, A; Schnegg, A; Plato, M; Fuchst, M

    2005-01-07

    The last decade witnessed a tremendous growth in combined efforts of biologists, chemists and physicists to understand the dominant factors determining the specificity and directionality of transmembrane transfer processes in proteins. A large variety of experimental techniques is being used including X-ray and neutron diffraction, but also time-resolved optical, infrared and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This is done in conjunction with genetic engineering strategies to construct site-specific mutants for controlled modification of the proteins. As a general perception of these efforts, the substantial influence of weak interactions within the protein and its membrane interfaces is recognized. The weak interactions are subject to subtle changes during the reaction cycle owing to the inherent flexibility of the protein-membrane complex. Specific conformational changes accomplish molecular-switch functions for the transfer process to proceed with optimum efficiency. Characteristic examples of time varying non-bonded interactions are specific H-patterns and/or polarity effects of the microenvironment. The present perception has emerged from the coupling of newly developed spectroscopic techniques - and advanced EPR certainly deserves credit in this respect - with newly developed computational strategies to interpret the experimental data in terms of protein structure and dynamics. By now, the partners of this coupling, particularly high-field EPR spectroscopy and DFT-based quantum theory, have reached a level of sophistication that applications to large biocomplexes are within reach. In this review, a few large paradigm biosystems are surveyed which were explored lately in our laboratory. Taking advantage of the improved spectral and temporal resolution of high-frequency/high-field EPR at 95 GHz/3.4 T and 360 GHz/12.9 T, as compared to conventional X-band EPR (9.5 GHz/0.34 T), three biosystems are characterized with respect to structure and dynamics: (1) Light

  1. Concept Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Narendera

    This document, published in India by the Regional College of Education, deals with 13 subjects: the tough context (thinking), definitions of concept, functions of concept, the process of concept formation, discriminant learning, mediation process, second signalling system, factors affecting concept formation, studies in concept formation, the…

  2. High field superconducting magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  3. High field pulsed microwiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.W.

    1990-12-31

    This paper describes a microwiggler assembly which produces large magnetic fields for oscillating charged particle beams, particularly electron beams for free electron laser (FEL) application. A tube of electrically conductive material is formed with radial slots axially spaced at the period of the electron beam. The slots have alternate 180{degrees} relationships and are formed to a maximum depth of 0.6 to 0.7 times the tube circumference. An optimum slot depth is selected eliminate magnetic quadrupole fields within the microwiggler as determined from a conventional pulsed wire technique. Suitable slot configurations include single slits, double slits, triple slits, and elliptical slots. An axial electron beam direction is maintained by experimentally placing end slits adjacent entrance and exit portions of the assembly, where the end slit depth is determined by use of the pulsed wire technique outside the tube.

  4. High field pulsed microwiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a microwiggler assembly which produces large magnetic fields for oscillating charged particle beams, particularly electron beams for free electron laser (FEL) application. A tube of electrically conductive material is formed with radial slots axially spaced at the period of the electron beam. The slots have alternate 180{degrees} relationships and are formed to a maximum depth of 0.6 to 0.7 times the tube circumference. An optimum slot depth is selected eliminate magnetic quadrupole fields within the microwiggler as determined from a conventional pulsed wire technique. Suitable slot configurations include single slits, double slits, triple slits, and elliptical slots. An axial electron beam direction is maintained by experimentally placing end slits adjacent entrance and exit portions of the assembly, where the end slit depth is determined by use of the pulsed wire technique outside the tube.

  5. Study of Brain Function and Bioenergetics using fMRI and In Vivo MRS at High Fields.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei

    2005-01-01

    The greatest merit of magnetic resonance (MR) methodology applied to medicine is its capabilities of measuring a variety of physiological parameters in vivo. MR imaging (MRI) with unique imaging contrasts can provide vital information which tightly links to brain functions at both normal and diseased states. In contrast, in vivo MR spectroscopy (MRS) is capable of determining metabolites, bioenergetics and chemical reaction rates in brain noninvasively. These capabilities are further enhanced at high/ultrahigh magnetic fields because of significant gain in MR sensitivity and improvements in the spectral resolution of MRS and imaging contrasts. However, MR research also faces many technical challenges which have attracted many scientists from interdisciplinary research backgrounds to find the optimal solutions. Recent progresses in this research field have showed great promise of MRI/MRS for studying brain function, physiology, and neurochemistry. This talk will discuss the developed MR technologies and their applications in brain study at high fields.

  6. TOPICAL REVIEW: Advances in high-field superconducting composites by addition of artificial pinning centres to niobium-titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, L. D.; Motowidlo, L. R.

    1999-08-01

    Artificial pinning-centre (APC) niobium-titanium composites attain critical current density Jc values higher than 4000 A mm-2 at 5 T, 4.2 K, surpassing the barrier reached by the conventional Nb-Ti composite process. At 2 T APC composites achieve more than double the Jc of conventional composites, making them particularly well suited for low-field applications. On the other hand, APC composites are inferior to conventional composites at 8 T, due to weak high-field pinning and reduced upper critical field. This review discusses fabrication techniques, microstructural development and superconducting and flux-pinning properties of APC composites. Key elements and underlying issues for achieving higher Jc are identified and discussed in terms of the current state of the art.

  7. High-Field Fast-Risetime Pulse Failures in 4H- and 6H-SiC pn Junction Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Fazi, Christian

    1996-01-01

    We report the observation of anomalous reverse breakdown behavior in moderately doped (2-3 x 10(exp 17 cm(exp -3)) small-area micropipe-free 4H- and 6H-SiC pn junction diodes. When measured with a curve tracer, the diodes consistently exhibited very low reverse leakage currents and sharp repeatable breakdown knees in the range of 140-150 V. However, when subjected to single-shot reverse bias pulses (200 ns pulsewidth, 1 ns risetime), the diodes failed catastrophically at pulse voltages of less than 100 V. We propose a possible mechanism for this anomalous reduction in pulsed breakdown voltage relative to dc breakdown voltage. This instability must be removed so that SiC high-field devices can operate with the same high reliability as silicon power devices.

  8. MR-Guided Laser Ablation of Osteoid Osteoma in an Open High-Field System (1.0 T)

    SciTech Connect

    Streitparth, F. Gebauer, B.; Melcher, I. Schaser, K.; Philipp, C.; Rump, J. Hamm, B. Teichgraeber, U.

    2009-03-15

    Computed tomography is the standard imaging modality to minimize the extent of surgical or ablative treatment in osteoid osteomas. In the last 15 years, since a description of thermal ablation of osteoid osteomas was first published, this technique has become a treatment of choice for this tumor. We report the case of a 20-year-old man with an osteoid osteoma treated with laser ablation in an open high-field magnetic resonance imaging scanner (1.0 T). The tumor, located in the right fibula, was safely and effectively ablated under online monitoring. We describe the steps of this interventional procedure and discuss related innovative guidance and monitoring features and potential benefits compared with computed tomographic guidance.

  9. Separation of Opiate Isomers Using Electrospray Ionization and Paper Spray Coupled to High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manicke, Nicholas E.; Belford, Michael

    2015-05-01

    One limitation in the growing field of ambient or direct analysis methods is reduced selectivity caused by the elimination of chromatographic separations prior to mass spectrometric analysis. We explored the use of high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), an ambient pressure ion mobility technique, to separate the closely related opiate isomers of morphine, hydromorphone, and norcodeine. These isomers cannot be distinguished by tandem mass spectrometry. Separation prior to MS analysis is, therefore, required to distinguish these compounds, which are important in clinical chemistry and toxicology. FAIMS was coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, and ionization was performed using either a pneumatically assisted heated electrospray ionization source (H-ESI) or paper spray, a direct analysis method that has been applied to the direct analysis of dried blood spots and other complex samples. We found that FAIMS was capable of separating the three opiate structural isomers using both H-ESI and paper spray as the ionization source.

  10. Analysing radio-frequency coil arrays in high-field magnetic resonance imaging by the combined field integral equation method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumin; Duyn, Jeff H

    2006-06-21

    We present the combined field integral equation (CFIE) method for analysing radio-frequency coil arrays in high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three-dimensional models of coils and the human body were used to take into account the electromagnetic coupling. In the method of moments formulation, we applied triangular patches and the Rao-Wilton-Glisson basis functions to model arbitrarily shaped geometries. We first examined a rectangular loop coil to verify the CFIE method and also demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy. We then studied several eight-channel receive-only head coil arrays for 7.0 T SENSE functional MRI. Numerical results show that the signal dropout and the average SNR are two major concerns in SENSE coil array design. A good design should be a balance of these two factors.

  11. Interplay of out-of-equilibrium phonons and self-heating under high field transport conditions in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, José M.; Rengel, Raúl; Mokhtar Hamham, El; Pascual, Elena; Martín, María J.

    2017-08-01

    The interaction between out-of-equilibrium phonons and Joule heating in the static electron transport properties of monolayer graphene supported on \\text{Si}{{\\text{O}}2} is investigated. An ensemble Monte Carlo electronic transport engine with a self-consistent out-of-equilibrium phonon population is coupled to a thermal resistive model describing the heat dissipation, so experimental velocity-field curves are successfully reproduced for samples 7 μm wide and 4 μm long. The separate effect of self-heating and hot phonons is analyzed in depth, showing that neglecting the hot phonon effect yields to an overestimation of the lattice temperature and drift velocity. In particular, the lowest energy surface polar phonon mode is found to present a strong coupling between both effects, which need to be considered together in a consistent manner to correctly describe the heating of graphene samples at high fields.

  12. Development of Ta-matrix Nb3Al Strand and Cable for High-Field Accelerator Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, K.; Ghosh, A.; Kikuchi, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Banno, N.; Iijima, Y.; Nimori, S.; Takigawa, H.; Terashima, A.; Nakamoto, T.; Kuroda, Y.; Maruyama, M.; Takao, T.; Tanaka, K.; Nakagawa, K.; Barzi, E.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.

    2011-08-03

    Research and development of Nb{sub 3}Al strands and cables for a high field accelerator magnet is ongoing under the framework of the CERN-KEK collaboration. In this program, new Ta-matrix Nb{sub 3}Al strands were developed and their mechanical properties and superconducting properties were studied. The non-Cu J{sub c} values of these strands were 750 {approx} 800 A/mm{sup 2} at 15 T and 4.2 K. Using these strands, test fabrication of 27-strand Rutherford cable was carried out in collaboration with NIMS and Fermilab. The properties of the strands extracted from the cable were examined and it was found that there was no degradation of the superconducting properties of the strands. In this paper, we report the fabrication of the strands and the cable in brief and present some of the results obtained by studying their properties.

  13. Low temperature Raman and high field 57Fe Mossbauer study of polycrystalline GaFeO3.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita; Raghavendra Reddy, V; Kothari, Deepti; Gupta, Ajay; Banerjee, A; Sathe, V G

    2010-04-14

    The magnetic and phonon properties of polycrystalline magnetoelectric/multiferroic GaFeO(3) are studied. Using high field (57)Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy, occupation of Fe is observed at four cation sites. A Fe population of about 6% is observed at the tetrahedral Ga1 site, which explains the observed pinched-like M-H curve and initial sharp increase of the magnetization. The calculated net magnetization value from Mossbauer data suggests that the Fe moment at the Ga1 site is parallel to Fe1 and opposite to that of Fe2 and Ga2 sites, resulting in ferrimagnetism. From low temperature Raman data, anomalous temperature variation in frequency at T(C) is observed for the mode at ∼700 cm(-1).

  14. Modified Johnson model for ferroelectric lead lanthanum zirconate titanate at very high fields and below Curie temperature.

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, M.; Tong, S.; Ma, B.; Liu, S.; Balachandran, U.

    2012-01-01

    A modified Johnson model is proposed to describe the nonlinear field dependence of the dielectric constant ({var_epsilon}-E loop) in ferroelectric materials below the Curie temperature. This model describes the characteristic ferroelectric 'butterfly' shape observed in typical {var_epsilon}-E loops. The predicted nonlinear behavior agreed well with the measured values in both the low- and high-field regions for lead lanthanum zirconate titanate films. The proposed model was also validated at different temperatures below the ferroelectric-to-paraelectric Curie point. The anharmonic coefficient in the model decreased from 6.142 x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 2}/V{sup 2} to 2.039 x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 2}/V{sup 2} when the temperature increased from 25 C to 250 C.

  15. Scale-up of a batch-type chemical powder preparation process for high field varistor fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, T.J.; Lockwood, S.J.

    1988-02-01

    A batch-type chemical preparation process for the fabrication of high field varistor powders was scaled-up from a laboratory scale to a batch size (1 kg) deemed suitable for technology transfer to an appropriate manufacturing agency. Process development activities concerning batch preparation and reproducibility, impurity effects on varistor properties, electrical property degradation, and other scale-up problems were investigated. Detailed descriptions of the specific problems encountered and the resulting solutions are documented. A summary of the 1 kg inter-batch reproducibility with respect to both powder characteristics and sintered varistor properties is presented. In-depth process documentation is supplied in the appendices of this report. 40 refs., 15 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Windows on the Human Body – in Vivo High-Field Magnetic Resonance Research and Applications in Medicine and Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Ewald; Meyerspeer, Martin; Fischmeister, Florian Ph. S.; Grabner, Günther; Bauer, Herbert; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    Analogous to the evolution of biological sensor-systems, the progress in “medical sensor-systems”, i.e., diagnostic procedures, is paradigmatically described. Outstanding highlights of this progress are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS), which enable non-invasive, in vivo acquisition of morphological, functional, and metabolic information from the human body with unsurpassed quality. Recent achievements in high and ultra-high field MR (at 3 and 7 Tesla) are described, and representative research applications in Medicine and Psychology in Austria are discussed. Finally, an overview of current and prospective research in multi-modal imaging, potential clinical applications, as well as current limitations and challenges is given. PMID:22219684

  17. A Field-Sweep/Field-Lock System for Superconducting Magnets-Application to High-Field EPR

    PubMed Central

    Maly, Thorsten; Bryant, Jeff; Ruben, David; Griffin, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a field-lock/field-sweep system for the use in superconducting magnets. The system is based on a commercially available field mapping unit and a custom designed broad-band 1H-NMR probe. The NMR signal of a small water sample is used in a feedback loop to set and control the magnetic field to high accuracy. The current instrumental configuration allows field sweeps of ± 0.4 T and a resolution of up to 10-5 T (0.1 G) and the performance of the system is demonstrated in a high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) application. The system should also be of utility in other experiments requiring precise and reproducible sweeps of the magnetic field such as DNP, ENDOR or PELDOR. PMID:17027306

  18. A field-sweep/field-lock system for superconducting magnets--Application to high-field EPR.

    PubMed

    Maly, Thorsten; Bryant, Jeff; Ruben, David; Griffin, Robert G

    2006-12-01

    We describe a field-lock/field-sweep system for the use in superconducting magnets. The system is based on a commercially available field mapping unit and a custom designed broad-band 1H NMR probe. The NMR signal of a small water sample is used in a feedback loop to set and control the magnetic field to high accuracy. The current instrumental configuration allows field sweeps of +/-0.4 T and a resolution of up to 10(-5) T (0.1 G) and the performance of the system is demonstrated in a high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) application. The system should also be of utility in other experiments requiring precise and reproducible sweeps of the magnetic field such as DNP, ENDOR or PELDOR.

  19. High-field paramagnetic Meissner effect and flux creep in low-T c Ti-V alloy superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matin, M.; Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Sharath Chandra, L. S.; Roy, S. B.

    2016-02-01

    We report an experimental study on the high-field paramagnetic Meissner effect (HFPME) performed by measuring both the temperature and time dependence of magnetization in the two compositions of superconducting Ti-V alloys where certain secondary phases are non-superconducting, and thereby act as efficient pinning centres for the flux lines. While spatially non-uniform flux density driven by flux line pinning at these secondary phases is the necessary condition for the observation of the HFPME, our study indicates that the flux creep effect plays a supplementary role to reinforce the HFPME. It is found that in the temperature and magnetic field regime of the HFPME, the field-cooled magnetization of these samples relaxes monotonically towards a more positive value with elapsed time. We comment on how this paramagnetic relaxation behaviour of the field-cooled magnetization is correlated with the unusual thermo-magnetic responses related to the HFPME.

  20. The future of ultra-high field MRI and fMRI for study of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Duyn, Jeff H.

    2011-01-01

    MRI and fMRI have been used for about three and two decades respectively and much has changed over this time period, both in the quality of the data and in the range of applications for studying the brain. Apart from resolution improvements from around 4 mm in the early days to below 0.5 mm with modern technology, novel uses of contrast have led to the ability to sensitize images to some of the brain’s structural properties at the cellular scale as well as study the localization and organization of brain function at the level of cortical columns. These developments have in part been facilitated by a continuing drive to increase the magnetic field strength. Will the next few decades see similar improvements? Here we will discuss current state of high field MRI, expected further increases in field strength, and improvements expected with these increases. PMID:22063093

  1. High field X-ray diffraction measurements of Mn2Sb0.95Ge0.05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamori, Taoto; Mitsui, Yoshifuru; Takahashi, Kohki; Umetsu, Rie Y.; Hiroi, Masahiko; Koyama, Keiichi

    2016-08-01

    Magnetization and high-field X-ray powder diffraction measurements were performed for Mn2Sb0.95Ge0.05 with a tetragonal structure in magnetic fields up to 5 T in the 10-300 K temperature range. For B = 0 T and 5 T, a first-order magnetic transition from a ferrimagnetic (FRI) to an antiferromagnetic (AFM) state occurred at Tt ˜ 180 K and 150 K, respectively, and were accompanied by an iso-structural transformation. For this transition from the AFM to FRI state, the lattice parameters a and c changed by |Δa/a| = 0.15% and by |Δc/c| = 0.47% at 180 K. The compound showed both metamagnetic transition from the AFM to FRI state with a hysteresis at the temperature just below Tt and magnetic field-induced iso-structural transformation.

  2. High-field EPR study of a ReCl4(CN)2 molecular magnet building block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junjie; Harris, T. David; Long, Jeffrey; Hill, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    Slow magnetic relaxation has been observed in the single-chain magnet (DMF)4 MReCl 4 (CN)2 (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) [D. Harris et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 3980 (2010)]. The ReCl 4 (CN)2 (1) molecule has been synthesized in which the local environment of the Re IV ion is same as in the single-chain magnet. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) measurements have been performed on single crystal of complex 1 to determine the magnetic anisotropy of the Re IV ions. Both intra and inter Kramer's doublet transitions are observed in high-field (up to 36T) EPR experiments. The data indicate a significant axial anisotropy of the easy-plane type (D> 0) , withsizeablerhombic E term. In light of these findings, we are developing a theoretical model to account for the slow relaxation in the single-chain magnet.

  3. Endometrium evaluation with high-field (3-Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging in patients submitted to uterine leiomyoma embolization

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Monica Amadio Piazza; Nasser, Felipe; Zlotnik, Eduardo; Messina, Marcos de Lorenzo; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the endometrial alterations related to embolization of uterine arteries for the treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyomatosis (pelvic pain and/or uterine bleeding) by means of high-field (3-Tesla) magnetic resonance. Methods: This is a longitudinal and prospective study that included 94 patients with a clinical and imaging diagnosis of symptomatic uterine leiomyomatosis, all of them treated by embolization of the uterine arteries. The patients were submitted to evaluations by high-field magnetic resonance of the pelvis before and 6 months after the procedure. Specific evaluations were made of the endometrium on the T2-weighted sequences, and on the T1-weighted sequences before and after the intravenous dynamic infusion of the paramagnetic contrast. In face of these measures, statistical analyses were performed using Student's t test for comparison of the results obtained before and after the procedure. Results: An average increase of 20.9% was noted in the endometrial signal on T2-weighted images obtained after the uterine artery embolization procedure when compared to the pre-procedure evaluation (p=0.0004). In the images obtained with the intravenous infusion of paramagnetic contrast, an average increase of 18.7% was noted in the post-embolization intensity of the endometrial signal, compared to the pre-embolization measure (p<0.035). Conclusion: After embolization of the uterine arteries, there was a significant increase of the endometrial signal on the T2-weighted images and on the post-contrast images, inferring possible edema and increased endometrial flow. Future studies are needed to assess the clinical impact of these findings. PMID:23579745

  4. Impairment of chondrocyte biosynthetic activity by exposure to 3-tesla high-field magnetic resonance imaging is temporary.

    PubMed

    Sunk, Ilse-Gerlinde; Trattnig, Siegfried; Graninger, Winfried B; Amoyo, Love; Tuerk, Birgit; Steiner, Carl-Walter; Smolen, Josef S; Bobacz, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    The influence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices at high field strengths on living tissues is unknown. We investigated the effects of a 3-tesla electromagnetic field (EMF) on the biosynthetic activity of bovine articular cartilage. Bovine articular cartilage was obtained from juvenile and adult animals. Whole joints or cartilage explants were subjected to a pulsed 3-tesla EMF; controls were left unexposed. Synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) was measured by using [35S]sulfate incorporation; mRNA encoding the cartilage markers aggrecan and type II collagen, as well as IL-1beta, were analyzed by RT-PCR. Furthermore, effects of the 3-tesla EMF were determined over the course of time directly after exposure (day 0) and at days 3 and 6. In addition, the influence of a 1.5-tesla EMF on cartilage sGAG synthesis was evaluated. Chondrocyte cell death was assessed by staining with Annexin V and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). Exposure to the EMF resulted in a significant decrease in cartilage macromolecule synthesis. Gene expression of both aggrecan and IL-1beta, but not of collagen type II, was reduced in comparison with controls. Staining with Annexin V and TUNEL revealed no evidence of cell death. Interestingly, chondrocytes regained their biosynthetic activity within 3 days after exposure, as shown by proteoglycan synthesis rate and mRNA expression levels. Cartilage samples exposed to a 1.5-tesla EMF remained unaffected. Although MRI devices with a field strength of more than 1.5 T provide a better signal-to-noise ratio and thereby higher spatial resolution, their high field strength impairs the biosynthetic activity of articular chondrocytes in vitro. Although this decrease in biosynthetic activity seems to be transient, articular cartilage exposed to high-energy EMF may become vulnerable to damage.

  5. A study of high field quantum electrodynamics in the collision of high energy electrons with a terawatt laser

    SciTech Connect

    Horton-Smith, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    An experiment is described which studied quantum electrodynamic interactions under conditions of extremely high fields, along with a review of the relevant theory. The high fields were created by an intense, tightly-focused pulse of laser light at green or infrared wavelengths, into which was sent an ultra-relativistic electron beam of 46.6-GeV energy. The relevant theory is that of an electron in an electromagnetic wave so intense that the electron's mass is effectively shifted by the transverse momentum imparted to it by the wave, and the electron encounters field strengths comparable to the Schwinger critical field strength of 511 kV per Compton wavelength. An electron in the intense wave may radiate a photon and balance 4-momentum by absorbing multiple photons from the laser, which can lead to real photons with energies above the kinematic limit for conventional Compton scattering. All particles have significant probability of scattering multiple times while in the focus of the laser, including the photons radiated by the electrons, which may convert into electron-positron pairs, again with absorption of multiple photons from the laser. This experiment was able to measure the rates and spectra of positrons, electrons, and photons emerging from the interaction region. Results from both experiment and theoretical simulations are presented and compared. The results from the electron and positron measurements are compatible with the accepted theory, within experimental uncertainties due mainly to the laser intensity measurement. The photon spectrum shows the correct shape, but the ratio of rates in the linear and two-absorbed-photon portions of the spectrum does not vary as expected with the laser intensity, suggesting a disagreement with the accepted theory, with a significance of roughly two standard deviations. A follow-up experiment would be in order.

  6. Impairment of chondrocyte biosynthetic activity by exposure to 3-tesla high-field magnetic resonance imaging is temporary

    PubMed Central

    Sunk, Ilse-Gerlinde; Trattnig, Siegfried; Graninger, Winfried B; Amoyo, Love; Tuerk, Birgit; Steiner, Carl-Walter; Smolen, Josef S; Bobacz, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    The influence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices at high field strengths on living tissues is unknown. We investigated the effects of a 3-tesla electromagnetic field (EMF) on the biosynthetic activity of bovine articular cartilage. Bovine articular cartilage was obtained from juvenile and adult animals. Whole joints or cartilage explants were subjected to a pulsed 3-tesla EMF; controls were left unexposed. Synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) was measured by using [35S]sulfate incorporation; mRNA encoding the cartilage markers aggrecan and type II collagen, as well as IL-1β, were analyzed by RT–PCR. Furthermore, effects of the 3-tesla EMF were determined over the course of time directly after exposure (day 0) and at days 3 and 6. In addition, the influence of a 1.5-tesla EMF on cartilage sGAG synthesis was evaluated. Chondrocyte cell death was assessed by staining with Annexin V and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). Exposure to the EMF resulted in a significant decrease in cartilage macromolecule synthesis. Gene expression of both aggrecan and IL-1β, but not of collagen type II, was reduced in comparison with controls. Staining with Annexin V and TUNEL revealed no evidence of cell death. Interestingly, chondrocytes regained their biosynthetic activity within 3 days after exposure, as shown by proteoglycan synthesis rate and mRNA expression levels. Cartilage samples exposed to a 1.5-tesla EMF remained unaffected. Although MRI devices with a field strength of more than 1.5 T provide a better signal-to-noise ratio and thereby higher spatial resolution, their high field strength impairs the biosynthetic activity of articular chondrocytes in vitro. Although this decrease in biosynthetic activity seems to be transient, articular cartilage exposed to high-energy EMF may become vulnerable to damage. PMID:16831232

  7. Optically controlled switch-mode current-source amplifiers for on-coil implementation in high-field parallel transmission.

    PubMed

    Gudino, Natalia; Duan, Qi; de Zwart, Jacco A; Murphy-Boesch, Joe; Dodd, Stephen J; Merkle, Hellmut; van Gelderen, Peter; Duyn, Jeff H

    2016-07-01

    We tested the feasibility of implementing parallel transmission (pTX) for high-field MRI using a radiofrequency (RF) amplifier design to be located on or in the immediate vicinity of an RF transmit coil. We designed a current-source switch-mode amplifier based on miniaturized, nonmagnetic electronics. Optical RF carrier and envelope signals to control the amplifier were derived, through a custom-built interface, from the RF source accessible in the scanner control. Amplifier performance was tested by benchtop measurements as well as with imaging at 7T (300 MHz) and 11.7 T (500 MHz). The ability to perform pTX was evaluated by measuring interchannel coupling and phase adjustment in a two-channel setup. The amplifier delivered in excess of 44 W RF power and caused minimal interference with MRI. The interface derived accurate optical control signals with carrier frequencies ranging from 64 to 750 MHz. Decoupling better than 14 dB was obtained between two coil loops separated by only 1 cm. Application to MRI was demonstrated by acquiring artifact-free images at 7 T and 11.7 T. We propose an optically controlled miniaturized RF amplifier for on-coil implementation at high fields that should facilitate implementation of high-density pTX arrays. Magn Reson Med 76:340-349, 2016. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Two sub-states of the red2 state of methyl-coenzyme M reductase revealed by high-field EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kern, Denise I; Goenrich, Meike; Jaun, Bernhard; Thauer, Rudolf K; Harmer, Jeffrey; Hinderberger, Dariush

    2007-11-01

    Methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) catalyzes the formation of methane from methyl-coenzyme M and coenzyme B in methanogenic archaea. The enzyme has two structurally interlinked active sites embedded in an alpha(2)beta(2)gamma(2) subunit structure. Each active site has the nickel porphyrinoid F(430) as a prosthetic group. In the active state, F(430) contains the transition metal in the Ni(I) oxidation state. The active enzyme exhibits an axial Ni(I)-based continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal, called red1a in the absence of substrates or red1c in the presence of coenzyme M. Addition of coenzyme B to the MCR-red1 state can partially and reversibly convert it into the MCR-red2 form, which shows a rhombic Ni(I)-based EPR signal (at X-band microwave frequencies of approximately 9.4 GHz). In this report we present evidence from high-field/high-frequency CW EPR spectroscopy (W-band, microwave frequency of approximately 94 GHz) that the red2 state consists of two substates that could not be resolved by EPR spectroscopy at X-band frequencies. At W-band it becomes apparent that upon addition of coenzyme B to MCR in the red1c state, two red2 EPR signals are induced, not one as was previously believed. The first signal is the well-characterized (ortho)rhombic EPR signal, thus far called red2, while the second previously unidentified signal is axial. We have named the two substates MCR-red2r and MCR-red2a after their rhombic and axial signals, respectively.

  9. Thermal and mechanical effects of quenches on Nb{sub 3}Sn high field hadron collider magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ryuji Yamada et al.

    2001-11-05

    Thermal and its resulting mechanical stress due to quenches inside short and long epoxy impregnated Nb{sub 3}Sn high field magnets are studied with a quench simulation program, Kuench, and ANSYS program. For the protection of a long high field magnet, we have to use heaters to dump the stored energy uniformly inside the magnet, after detection of a spontaneous quench. The time delay of starting a forced quench with heaters, is estimated using ANSYS. Using this information, the thermal distribution in two-dimensional magnet cross section is studied. First a one meter model magnet with a dump resistor is used to estimate the effects and then a 10 meter long magnet is studied. The two-dimensional temperature distributions in the magnet cross sections are recorded every 5 ms, and visually displayed. With this visual animation displays we can understand intuitively the thermal and quench propagation in 2-dimensional field. The quenching cables get heated locally much more than the surrounding material and non-quenching conductor cables. With a one meter magnet with a dump resistor of 30 m{Omega}, typically only the quench starting cables and its neighbor cables get heated up to 100 K without significant effects from the heaters. With a10 meter magnet, heaters cause the quenches to most of the conductor blocks. The quench initiating cables get up to 250 to 300 K in 100 ms, but the surrounding and wedges are not heated up significantly. This causes the excessive stress in the quenching conductors and in their insulation material locally. The stress and strain in the conductor as well as in the insulation become excessive, and they are studied using the ANSYS stress analysis, using Von Mises criterion. It is concluded that for the one meter magnet with the presented cross section and configuration, the thermal effects due to the quench is tolerable. But we need much more quench study and improvements in the design for the extended ten meter long magnet [1].

  10. High field NMR Spectroscopy and FTICR Mass Spectrometry: Powerful Discovery Tools for the Characterization of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertkorn, N.; Harir, M.; Koch, B. P.; Michalke, B.; Grill, P.; Schmitt-Kopplin, P.

    2012-04-01

    High-field NMR and FTMS of SPE-derived marine dissolved organic matter (SPE-DOM) from the South Atlantic Ocean provided molecular level information of complex unknowns with unprecedented coverage of carbon and resolution. SPE-DOM represented major oceanic regimes of general significance: 5 m (near surface photic zone), 48 m (fluorescence maximum), 200 m (upper mesopelagic zone) and 5446 m (30 m above ground). 1H NMR spectra showed rather smooth bulk NMR envelopes with a few percent of visibly resolved signatures. 1H NMR spectra of SPE-DOM indicated considerable variance in abundance for all major chemical environments. Two-dimensional NMR spectra of SPE-DOM displayed exceptional resolution. JRES (sensitive but limited resolution), COSY (highly resolved) and HMBC NMR (informative but limited S/N ratio) spectra depicted resolved molecular signatures in excess of a certain minimum abundance. COSY cross peaks were most diverse for sample FMAX and conformed to >1,500 molecules present. Classical methyl groups terminating aliphatic chains represented only ~ 15 % of total methyl in all marine DOM investigated; 2 % of methyl was bound to olefinic carbon. Methyl ethers were abundant in surface marine DOM, and the chemical diversity of carbohydrates was larger than that of freshwater and soil DOM. TOCSY and HSQC cross peaks enabled unprecedented depiction of sp2-hybridized carbon chemical environments in marine SPE-DOM with discrimination of isolated and conjugated olefins as well as ?,?-unsaturated double bonds. Olefinic protons were more abundant than aromatic protons; relative HSQC cross peak integrals indicated more abundant olefinic carbon than aromatic carbon in all marine DOM as well. Furan, pyrrol and thiophene derivatives were marginal. Benzene derivatives and phenols as well as six-membered nitrogen heterocycles were prominent. Various key polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon substructures suggested the presence of thermogenic organic matter (TMOC) in marine DOM at all

  11. Accelerating parallel transmit array B1 mapping in high field MRI with slice undersampling and interpolation by kriging.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Guillaume; Luong, Michel; Cloos, Martijn A; Amadon, Alexis; Wackernagel, Hans

    2014-08-01

    Transmit arrays have been developed to mitigate the RF field inhomogeneity commonly observed in high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), typically above 3T. To this end, the knowledge of the RF complex-valued B1 transmit-sensitivities of each independent radiating element has become essential. This paper details a method to speed up a currently available B1-calibration method. The principle relies on slice undersampling, slice and channel interleaving and kriging, an interpolation method developed in geostatistics and applicable in many domains. It has been demonstrated that, under certain conditions, kriging gives the best estimator of a field in a region of interest. The resulting accelerated sequence allows mapping a complete set of eight volumetric field maps of the human head in about 1 min. For validation, the accuracy of kriging is first evaluated against a well-known interpolation technique based on Fourier transform as well as to a B1-maps interpolation method presented in the literature. This analysis is carried out on simulated and decimated experimental B1 maps. Finally, the accelerated sequence is compared to the standard sequence on a phantom and a volunteer. The new sequence provides B1 maps three times faster with a loss of accuracy limited potentially to about 5%.

  12. Temporal reliability of ultra-high field resting-state MRI for single-subject sensorimotor and language mapping.

    PubMed

    Branco, Paulo; Seixas, Daniela; Castro, São Luís

    2016-11-15

    Resting-state fMRI is a well-suited technique to map functional networks in the brain because unlike task-based approaches it requires little collaboration from subjects. This is especially relevant in clinical settings where a number of subjects cannot comply with task demands. Previous studies using conventional scanner fields have shown that resting-state fMRI is able to map functional networks in single subjects, albeit with moderate temporal reliability. Ultra-high resolution (7T) imaging provides higher signal-to-noise ratio and better spatial resolution and is thus well suited to assess the temporal reliability of mapping results, and to determine if resting-state fMRI can be applied in clinical decision making including preoperative planning. We used resting-state fMRI at ultra-high resolution to examine whether the sensorimotor and language networks are reliable over time - same session and one week after. Resting-state networks were identified for all subjects and sessions with good accuracy. Both networks were well delimited within classical regions of interest. Mapping was temporally reliable at short and medium time-scales as demonstrated by high values of overlap in the same session and one week after for both networks. Results were stable independently of data quality metrics and physiological variables. Taken together, these findings provide strong support for the suitability of ultra-high field resting-state fMRI mapping at the single-subject level.

  13. Decoding the direction of imagined visual motion using 7 T ultra-high field fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Emmerling, Thomas C.; Zimmermann, Jan; Sorger, Bettina; Frost, Martin A.; Goebel, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    There is a long-standing debate about the neurocognitive implementation of mental imagery. One form of mental imagery is the imagery of visual motion, which is of interest due to its naturalistic and dynamic character. However, so far only the mere occurrence rather than the specific content of motion imagery was shown to be detectable. In the current study, the application of multi-voxel pattern analysis to high-resolution functional data of 12 subjects acquired with ultra-high field 7 T functional magnetic resonance imaging allowed us to show that imagery of visual motion can indeed activate the earliest levels of the visual hierarchy, but the extent thereof varies highly between subjects. Our approach enabled classification not only of complex imagery, but also of its actual contents, in that the direction of imagined motion out of four options was successfully identified in two thirds of the subjects and with accuracies of up to 91.3% in individual subjects. A searchlight analysis confirmed the local origin of decodable information in striate and extra-striate cortex. These high-accuracy findings not only shed new light on a central question in vision science on the constituents of mental imagery, but also show for the first time that the specific sub-categorical content of visual motion imagery is reliably decodable from brain imaging data on a single-subject level. PMID:26481673

  14. New Material Transistor with Record-High Field-Effect Mobility among Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Shih, Cheng Wei; Chin, Albert

    2016-08-03

    At an ultrathin 5 nm, we report a new high-mobility tin oxide (SnO2) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) exhibiting extremely high field-effect mobility values of 279 and 255 cm(2)/V-s at 145 and 205 °C, respectively. These values are the highest reported mobility values among all wide-band-gap semiconductors of GaN, SiC, and metal-oxide MOSFETs, and they also exceed those of silicon devices at the aforementioned elevated temperatures. For the first time among existing semiconductor transistors, a new device physical phenomenon of a higher mobility value was measured at 45-205 °C than at 25 °C, which is due to the lower optical phonon scattering by the large SnO2 phonon energy. Moreover, the high on-current/off-current of 4 × 10(6) and the positive threshold voltage of 0.14 V at 25 °C are significantly better than those of a graphene transistor. This wide-band-gap SnO2 MOSFET exhibits high mobility in a 25-205 °C temperature range, a wide operating voltage of 1.5-20 V, and the ability to form on an amorphous substrate, rendering it an ideal candidate for multifunctional low-power integrated circuit (IC), display, and brain-mimicking three-dimensional IC applications.

  15. Numerical modelling of thermal effects in rats due to high-field magnetic resonance imaging (0.5 1 GHz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakic, Adnan; Crozier, Stuart; Liu, Feng

    2004-12-01

    A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) thermal model has been developed to compute the temperature elevation in the Sprague Dawley rat due to electromagnetic energy deposition in high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The field strengths examined ranged from 11.75-23.5 T (corresponding to 1H resonances of 0.5-1 GHz) and an N-stub birdcage resonator was used to both transmit radio-frequency energy and receive the MRI signals. With an in-plane resolution of 1.95 mm, the inhomogeneous rat phantom forms a segmented model of 12 different tissue types, each having its electrical and thermal parameters assigned. The steady-state temperature distribution was calculated using a Pennes 'bioheat' approach. The numerical algorithm used to calculate the induced temperature distribution has been successfully validated against analytical solutions in the form of simplified spherical models with electrical and thermal properties of rat muscle. As well as assisting with the design of MRI experiments and apparatus, the numerical procedures developed in this study could help in future research and design of tumour-treating hyperthermia applicators to be used on rats in vivo.

  16. Numerical modelling of thermal effects in rats due to high-field magnetic resonance imaging (0.5-1 GHZ).

    PubMed

    Trakic, Adnan; Crozier, Stuart; Liu, Feng

    2004-12-21

    A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) thermal model has been developed to compute the temperature elevation in the Sprague Dawley rat due to electromagnetic energy deposition in high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The field strengths examined ranged from 11.75-23.5 T (corresponding to 1H resonances of 0.5-1 GHz) and an N-stub birdcage resonator was used to both transmit radio-frequency energy and receive the MRI signals. With an in-plane resolution of 1.95 mm, the inhomogeneous rat phantom forms a segmented model of 12 different tissue types, each having its electrical and thermal parameters assigned. The steady-state temperature distribution was calculated using a Pennes 'bioheat' approach. The numerical algorithm used to calculate the induced temperature distribution has been successfully validated against analytical solutions in the form of simplified spherical models with electrical and thermal properties of rat muscle. As well as assisting with the design of MRI experiments and apparatus, the numerical procedures developed in this study could help in future research and design of tumour-treating hyperthermia applicators to be used on rats in vivo.

  17. Large-Scale Analysis of Peptide Sequence Variants: The Case for High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Large scale analysis of proteins by mass spectrometry is becoming increasingly routine; however, the presence of peptide isomers remains a significant challenge for both identification and quantitation in proteomics. Classes of isomers include sequence inversions, structural isomers, and localization variants. In many cases, liquid chromatography is inadequate for separation of peptide isomers. The resulting tandem mass spectra are composite, containing fragments from multiple precursor ions. The benefits of high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) for proteomics have been demonstrated by a number of groups, but previously work has focused on extending proteome coverage generally. Here, we present a systematic study of the benefits of FAIMS for a key challenge in proteomics, that of peptide isomers. We have applied FAIMS to the analysis of a phosphopeptide library comprising the sequences GPSGXVpSXAQLX(K/R) and SXPFKXpSPLXFG(K/R), where X = ADEFGLSTVY. The library has defined limits enabling us to make valid conclusions regarding FAIMS performance. The library contains numerous sequence inversions and structural isomers. In addition, there are large numbers of theoretical localization variants, allowing false localization rates to be determined. The FAIMS approach is compared with reversed-phase liquid chromatography and strong cation exchange chromatography. The FAIMS approach identified 35% of the peptide library, whereas LC–MS/MS alone identified 8% and LC–MS/MS with strong cation exchange chromatography prefractionation identified 17.3% of the library. PMID:23646896

  18. Bridging the gap between system and cell: The role of ultra-high field MRI in human neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Turner, Robert; De Haan, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The volume of published research at the levels of systems and cellular neuroscience continues to increase at an accelerating rate. At the same time, progress in psychiatric medicine has stagnated and scientific confidence in cognitive psychology research is under threat due to careless analysis methods and underpowered experiments. With the advent of ultra-high field MRI, with submillimeter image voxels, imaging neuroscience holds the potential to bridge the cellular and systems levels. Use of these accurate and precisely localized quantitative measures of brain activity may go far in providing more secure foundations for psychology, and hence for more appropriate treatment and management of psychiatric illness. However, fundamental issues regarding the construction of testable mechanistic models using imaging data require careful consideration. This chapter summarizes the characteristics of acceptable models of brain function and provides concise descriptions of the relevant types of neuroimaging data that have recently become available. Approaches to data-driven experiments and analyses are described that may lead to more realistic conceptions of the competences of neural assemblages, as they vary across the brain's complex neuroanatomy. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatigue and failure responses of lead zirconate titanate multilayer actuator under unipolar high-field electric cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Fan W; Wang, Hong; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2013-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) multilayer actuators with an interdigital electrode design were studied under high electric fields (3 and 6 kV/mm) in a unipolar cycling mode. A 100 Hz sine wave was used in cycling. Five specimens tested under 6 kV/mm failed from 3.8 10^5 to 7 10^5 cycles, whereas three other specimens tested under 3 kV/mm were found to be still functional after 10^8 cycles. Variations in piezoelectric and dielectric responses of the tested specimens were observed during the fatigue test, depending on the measuring and cycling conditions. Selected fatigued and damaged actuators were characterized using an impedance analyzer or small signal measurement. A scanning acoustic microscope also was employed as a nondestructive tool to detect the presence of defects. Failed plates were subsequently sectioned, and the extensive cracks and porous regions were observed to be across the PZT layers. The results from this study have demonstrated that the high-field cycling can accelerate the fatigue of PZT stacks as long as the partial discharge is controlled. The small signal measurement can also be integrated into the large signal measurement to characterize the fatigue response of PZT stacks in a more comprehensive basis. The former can further serve as an experimental method to monitor the behavior of PZT stacks.

  20. Design and implementation of a simple multinuclear MRI system for ultra high-field imaging of animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Chang-Hoon; Ha, YongHyun; Veeraiah, Pandichelvam; Felder, Jörg; Möllenhoff, Klaus; Shah, N. Jon

    2016-12-01

    Non-proton MRI has recently garnered gathering interest with the increased availability of ultra high-field MRI system. Assuming the availability of a broadband RF amplifier, performing multinuclear MR experiments essentially requires additional hardware, such as an RF resonator and a T/R switch for each nucleus. A double- or triple-resonant RF probe is typically constructed using traps or PIN-diode circuits, but this approach degrades the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and image quality compared to a single-resonant coil and this is a limiting factor. In this work, we have designed the required hardware for multinuclear MR imaging experiments employing six single-resonant coil sets and a purpose-built animal bed; these have been implemented into a home-integrated 9.4 T preclinical MRI scanner. System capabilities are demonstrated by distinguishing concentration differences and sensitivity of X-nuclei imaging and spectroscopy without SNR penalty for any nuclei, no subject interruption and no degradation of the static shim conditions.

  1. Manufacture and Testing of a High Field Gradient Magnetic Fractionation System for Quantitative Detection of Plasmodium falciparum Gametocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Stephan; Woodward, Robert C.; Davis, Timothy M. E.; St. Pierre, Tim G.

    2010-12-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the most dangerous of the human malaria parasite species and accounts for millions of clinical episodes of malaria each year in tropical countries. The pathogenicity of Plasmodium falciparum is a result of its ability to infect erythrocytes where it multiplies asexually over 48 h or develops into sexual forms known as gametocytes. If sufficient male and female gametocytes are taken up by a mosquito vector, it becomes infectious. Therefore, the presence and density of gametocytes in human blood is an important indicator of human-to-mosquito transmission of malaria. Recently, we have shown that high field gradient magnetic fractionation improves gametocyte detection in human blood samples. Here we present two important new developments. Firstly we introduce a quantitative approach to replace the previous qualitative method and, secondly, we describe a novel method that enables cost-effective production of the magnetic fractionation equipment required to carry out gametocyte quantification. We show that our custom-made magnetic fractionation equipment can deliver results with similar sensitivity and convenience but for a small fraction of the cost.

  2. Comparison of birdcage and phase array coil using FDTD for the B(1) homogeneity in high field MRI.

    PubMed

    Seo, J H; Heo, H Y; Han, B H; Lee, S Y

    2007-01-01

    RF coils play an important role to acquire MR images with the maintenance of high homogeneity in high field MR system more than 3.0 T. Many kinds of RF coils such as birdcage coil, STR, surface coil, and phase array coil have been used, however, the good uniformity of a coil has always been an issue. In this paper, comparison of B(1) homogeneity between birdcage and phase array coil was investigated using FDTD method at 3.0 T MRI in order to develop RF coils with the high uniformity. Three different configurations of the FDTD simulation were performed like as using a free space configuration, water phantom configuration, and head mesh model. B1 homogeneity was calculated to the case of birdcage coil and 8-channel phase array coil in each configuration of simulation. Improvement on the homogeneity of the images and reduction of standing wave effect was achieved with comparing the real MR images with the result from simulation.

  3. Toward Biocompatible Nuclear Hyperpolarization Using Signal Amplification by Reversible Exchange: Quantitative in Situ Spectroscopy and High-Field Imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) of a substrate and parahydrogen at a catalytic center promises to overcome the inherent insensitivity of magnetic resonance. In order to apply the new approach to biomedical applications, there is a need to develop experimental equipment, in situ quantification methods, and a biocompatible solvent. We present results detailing a low-field SABRE polarizer which provides well-controlled experimental conditions, defined spins manipulations, and which allows in situ detection of thermally polarized and hyperpolarized samples. We introduce a method for absolute quantification of hyperpolarization yield in situ by means of a thermally polarized reference. A maximum signal-to-noise ratio of ∼103 for 148 μmol of substance, a signal enhancement of 106 with respect to polarization transfer field of SABRE, or an absolute 1H-polarization level of ≈10–2 is achieved. In an important step toward biomedical application, we demonstrate 1H in situ NMR as well as 1H and 13C high-field MRI using hyperpolarized pyridine (d3) and 13C nicotinamide in pure and 11% ethanol in aqueous solution. Further increase of hyperpolarization yield, implications of in situ detection, and in vivo application are discussed. PMID:24397559

  4. Lifshitz critical point in the cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy from high-field Hall effect measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leboeuf, David; Doiron-Leyraud, Nicolas; Vignolle, B.; Sutherland, Mike; Ramshaw, B. J.; Levallois, J.; Daou, R.; Laliberté, Francis; Cyr-Choinière, Olivier; Chang, Johan; Jo, Y. J.; Balicas, L.; Liang, Ruixing; Bonn, D. A.; Hardy, W. N.; Proust, Cyril; Taillefer, Louis

    2011-02-01

    The Hall coefficient RH of the cuprate superconductor YBa2Cu3Oy was measured in magnetic fields up to 60 T for a hole concentration p from 0.078 to 0.152 in the underdoped regime. In fields large enough to suppress superconductivity, RH(T) is seen to go from positive at high temperature to negative at low temperature, for p>0.08. This change of sign is attributed to the emergence of an electron pocket in the Fermi surface at low temperature. At p<0.08, the normal-state RH(T) remains positive at all temperatures, increasing monotonically as T→0. We attribute the change of behavior across p=0.08 to a Lifshitz transition, namely a change in Fermi-surface topology occurring at a critical concentration pL=0.08, where the electron pocket vanishes. The loss of the high-mobility electron pocket across pL coincides with a tenfold drop in the conductivity at low temperature, revealed in measurements of the electrical resistivity ρ at high fields, showing that the so-called metal-insulator crossover of cuprates is in fact driven by a Lifshitz transition. It also coincides with a jump in the in-plane anisotropy of ρ, showing that without its electron pocket, the Fermi surface must have strong twofold in-plane anisotropy. These findings are consistent with a Fermi-surface reconstruction caused by a unidirectional spin-density wave or stripe order.

  5. Development of superconductors for applications in high-field, high-current-density magnets for fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, L.T.; Miller, J.R.

    1986-09-26

    The development of large-bore, high-field magnets for fusion energy applications requires a system approach to both magnet and conductor design. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the criteria used to choose superconductors include: strain tolerance, radiation tolerance, heat removal, stability, fabricability, and cost. We report on the performance of industrially produced, prototype, Ti-modified Nb/sub 3/Sn wires developed with LLNL support. Wire performance characteristics evaluated include critical current as a function of magnetic field, temperature, and applied strain. Tests were performed to determine how this performance translates to the performance of a cable-in-conduit conductor system using this wire. An alternative to Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductors is NbN, which is strain and radiation insensitive. We report preliminary efforts to produce multifilamentary NbN conductors by liquid-metal infiltration of NbN-coated, high-strength fibers. In addition, we discuss the fabrication of multifilamentary NbN conductors and their possible impact on magnet design.

  6. High-frequency and high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR): a new spectroscopic tool for bioinorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Telser, Joshua; Krzystek, J; Ozarowski, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    This minireview describes high-frequency and high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) spectroscopy in the context of its application to bioinorganic chemistry, specifically to metalloproteins and model compounds. HFEPR is defined as frequencies above ~100 GHz (i.e., above W-band) and a resonant field reaching 25 T and above. The ability of HFEPR to provide high-resolution determination of g values of S = 1/2 is shown; however, the main aim of the minireview is to demonstrate how HFEPR can extract spin Hamiltonian parameters [zero-field splitting (zfs) and g values] for species with S > 1/2 with an accuracy and precision unrivalled by other physical methods. Background theory on the nature of zfs in S = 1, 3/2, 2, and 5/2 systems is presented, along with selected examples of HFEPR spectroscopy of each that are relevant to bioinorganic chemistry. The minireview also provides some suggestions of specific systems in bioinorganic chemistry where HFEPR could be rewardingly applied, in the hope of inspiring workers in this area.

  7. High critical current density and low anisotropy in textured Sr₁-xKxFe₂As₂ tapes for high field applications.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhaoshun; Ma, Yanwei; Yao, Chao; Zhang, Xianping; Wang, Chunlei; Wang, Dongliang; Awaji, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    From the application point of view, large critical current densities J(c) (H) for superconducting wires are required, preferably for magnetic fields higher than 5 T. Here we show that strong c-axis textured Sr(1-x)K(x)Fe(2)As(2) tapes with nearly isotropic transport J(c) were fabricated by an ex-situ powder-in-tube (PIT) process. At 4.2 K, the J(c) values show extremely weak magnetic field dependence and reach high values of 1.7 × 10(4) A/cm(2) at 10 T and 1.4 × 10(4) A/cm(2) at 14 T, respectively, these values are by far the highest ever reported for iron based wires and approach the J(c) level desired for practical applications. Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that amorphous oxide layers at grain boundaries were significantly reduced by Sn addition which resulted in greatly improved intergranular connectivity. Our results demonstrated the strong potential of using iron based superconductors for high field applications.

  8. High-field 13C NMR spectroscopy of tissue in Vivo. A double-resonance surface-coil probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reo, Nicholas V.; Ewy, Coleen S.; Siegfried, Barry A.; Ackerman, Joseph J. H.

    A double-resonance surface-coil NMR probe is described for performance of high-field (8.5 T) proton decoupled carbon-13 experiments with tissue in vivo. The probe may be accommodated in standard, 89 mm i.d. clear bore, commercial spectrometers and is suitable for studies utilizing small laboratory animals such as mice, hamsters, and rats. A coaxial coil design is employed (10 mm diameter 13C coil, 20 mm diameter 1H coil) which provides ca. 40 dB attenuation between the 13C observe and 1H decouple channels. The inherent efficiency of the surface-coil configuration provides a sensitivity comparable to a commercial probe of the same nominal dimension (10 mm Helmholtz coil) and assures adequate decoupling in conductive samples with ca. 3-5 W power. In the absence of 13C isotopic enrichment, NMR spectra of rat leg, liver, and brain in vivo provide signalto-noise sufficient for 10 min time resolution. Administration of 100 mg of 90% 13C-labeled glucose into a peripheral vein of a ca. 300 g rat resulted in a liver glucose resonance which could be monitored with good signal-to-noise and 3 min time resolution.

  9. Washing and filtration study of the 1 kg batch-type chemical powder preparation process for high field varistor fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, S.J.; Gardner, T.J.

    1988-06-01

    The washing and filtration procedures for both the oxalate (Zn-Co-Mn-Al) coprecipitate and the Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/-doped zincite powder are critical steps in the chemical preparation of high field varistor materials. Several alternate filtration schemes were evaluated in an effort to streamline the process, but all produced varistor material with unacceptable physical and/or electrical properties. Residual cation and anion levels were investigated as the possible explanation for the poor varistor properties. All filtration schemes were equivalent with respect to the final powder levels of Si/sup 4 +/, Ba/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, and Na/sup +/. However, Cl/sup /minus// levels were found to vary by up to an order of magnitude depending on the washing technique employed. Cl/sup /minus// levels as low as 0.04 wt % caused electrical property degradation. Although none of the alternate filtration schemes evaluated were superior to the original procedure, these experiments resulted in process control improvements. 9 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. High-field Solution NMR Spectroscopy as a Tool for Assessing Protein Interactions with Small Molecule Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Andria L.; Laurence, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of a small molecule to bind and modify the activity of a protein target at a specific site greatly impacts the success of drugs in the pharmaceutical industry. One of the most important tools for evaluating these interactions has been high-field solution NMR because of its unique ability to examine even weak protein-drug interactions at high resolution. NMR can be used to evaluate the structural, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of a binding reaction. The basis of NMR screening experiments is that binding causes a perturbation in the physical properties of both molecules. Unique properties of small and macromolecules allow selective detection of either the protein target or ligand, even in a mixture of compounds. This review outlines current methodologies for assessing protein-ligand interactions from the perspectives of the protein target and ligand and delineates the fundamental principles for understanding NMR approaches in drug research. Advances in instrumentation, pulse sequences, isotopic labeling strategies, and the development of competition experiments support the study of higher molecular weight protein targets, facilitate higher-throughput and expand the range of binding affinities that can be evaluated, enhancing the utility of NMR for identifying and characterizing potential therapeutics to druggable protein targets. PMID:18351634

  11. Comparison Between Nb3Al and Nb3Sn Strands and Cables for High Field Accelerator Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, R.; Kikuchi, A.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Rusy, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Velev, V.; Wake, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The Nb{sub 3}Al small racetrack magnet, SR07, has been successfully built and tested to its short sample limit beyond 10 Tesla without any training. Thus the practical application of Nb{sub 3}Al strands for high field accelerator magnets is established. The characteristics of the representative F4 strand and cable, are compared with the typical Nb{sub 3}Sn strand and cable. It is represented by the OST high current RRP Nb{sub 3}Sn strand with 108/127 configuration. The effects of Rutherford cabling to both type strands are explained and the inherent problem of the Nb{sub 3}Sn strand is discussed. Also the test results of two representative small racetrack magnets are compared from the stand point of Ic values, and training. The maximum current density of the Nb{sub 3}Al strands is still smaller than that of the Nb{sub 3}Sn strands, but if we take into account of the stress-strain characteristics, Nb{sub 3}Al strands become somewhat favorable in some applications.

  12. First observation of amino acid side chain dynamics in membrane proteins using high field deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsey, R.A.; Kintanar, A.; Tsai, M.D.; Smith, R.L.; Janes, N.; Oldfield, E.

    1981-05-10

    The first deuterium NMR spectra of an individual membrane protein, bacteriohodopsin in the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium R1 has been obtained. Biosynthetic isotopic enrichment with (gamma-2H6) valine and high field Fourier transform operation permitted rapid data acquisition on intact membranes, including measurement of relaxation times. At some temperatures high quality spectra could be obtained in less than 1 s. (U-14C)Valine tracer studies indicate that less than or equal to 2% of valine added to the growth medium is broken down and incorporated into other membrane constituents. The NMR results indicate that the valine side chain is a rather rigid structure. Motion about C alpha-C beta is slow (less than 10(5) s-1) at growth temperature, while motion about C beta-C gamma is as expected fast (much greater than 10(5) s-1) at all accessible temperatures. The activation energy for methyl group rotation from spin-lattice relaxation data between -75 and 53 degrees C is approximately 2.4 kcal/mol, in good agreement with previous 1H NMR studies on solid alkanes. Preliminary data on (gamma-2H6)valine-labeled Acholeplasma laidlawii B (PG9) cell membranes are also presented. Results strongly suggest that it should now be possible to observe in great detail the motions of any type of amino acid side chain in membrane proteins, including the effects of lipid composition on protein dynamics.

  13. Functionality of veterinary identification microchips following low- (0.5 tesla) and high-field (3 tesla) magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Piesnack, Susann; Frame, Mairi E; Oechtering, Gerhard; Ludewig, Eberhard

    2013-01-01

    The ability to read patient identification microchips relies on the use of radiofrequency pulses. Since radiofrequency pulses also form an integral part of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) process, the possibility of loss of microchip function during MRI scanning is of concern. Previous clinical trials have shown microchip function to be unaffected by MR imaging using a field strength of 1 Tesla and 1.5. As veterinary MRI scanners range widely in field strength, this study was devised to determine whether exposure to lower or higher field strengths than 1 Tesla would affect the function of different types of microchip. In a phantom study, a total of 300 International Standards Organisation (ISO)-approved microchips (100 each of three different types: ISO FDX-B 1.4 × 9 mm, ISO FDX-B 2.12 × 12 mm, ISO HDX 3.8 × 23 mm) were tested in a low field (0.5) and a high field scanner (3.0 Tesla). A total of 50 microchips of each type were tested in each scanner. The phantom was composed of a fluid-filled freezer pack onto which a plastic pillow and a cardboard strip with affixed microchips were positioned. Following an MRI scan protocol simulating a head study, all of the microchips were accurately readable. Neither 0.5 nor 3 Tesla imaging affected microchip function in this study. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  14. Comprehensive theoretical analysis and experimental exploration of ultrafast microchip-based high-field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingfeng; Wang, Yonghuan; Chen, Chilai; Wang, Xiaozhi; Luo, Jikui

    2015-06-01

    High-field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) has become an efficient technique for separation and characterization of gas-phase ions at ambient pressure, which utilizes the mobility differences of ions at high and low fields. Micro FAIMS devices made by micro-electromechanical system technology have small gaps of the channels, high electric field and good installation precision, as thus they have received great attentions. However, the disadvantage of relatively low resolution limits their applications in some areas. In this study, theoretical analysis and experimental exploration were carried out to overcome the disadvantage. Multiple scans, characteristic decline curves of ion transmission and pattern recognitions were proposed to improve the performance of the microchip-based FAIMS. The results showed that although micro FAIMS instruments as a standalone chemical analyzer suffer from low resolution, by using one or more of the methods proposed, they can identify chemicals precisely and provide quantitative analysis with low detection limit in some applications. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Fatigue and failure responses of lead zirconate titanate multilayer actuator under unipolar high-field electric cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fan Wen; Wang, Hong; Lin, Hua-Tay

    2013-07-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) multilayer actuators with an interdigital electrode design were studied under high electric fields (3 and 6 kV/mm) in a unipolar cycling mode. A 100 Hz sine wave was used in cycling. Five specimens tested under 6 kV/mm failed from 3.8 × 105 to 7 × 105 cycles, whereas three other specimens tested under 3 kV/mm were found to be still functional after 108 cycles. Variations in piezoelectric and dielectric responses of the tested specimens were observed during the fatigue test, depending on the measuring and cycling conditions. Selected fatigued and damaged actuators were characterized using an impedance analyzer or small signal measurement. Furthermore, involved fatigue and failure mechanisms were investigated using scanning acoustic microscope and scanning electron microscope. The extensive cracks and porous regions were revealed across the PZT layers on the cross sections of a failed actuator. The results from this study have demonstrated that the high-field cycling can accelerate the fatigue of PZT stacks as long as the partial discharge is controlled. The small signal measurement can also be integrated into the large signal measurement to characterize the fatigue response of PZT stacks in a more comprehensive basis. The former can further serve as an experimental method to test and monitor the behavior of PZT stacks.

  16. GPU-accelerated FDTD modeling of radio-frequency field-tissue interactions in high-field MRI.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jieru; Liu, Feng; Weber, Ewald; Li, Yu; Crozier, Stuart

    2011-06-01

    The analysis of high-field RF field-tissue interactions requires high-performance finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) computing. Conventional CPU-based FDTD calculations offer limited computing performance in a PC environment. This study presents a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based parallel-computing framework, producing substantially boosted computing efficiency (with a two-order speedup factor) at a PC-level cost. Specific details of implementing the FDTD method on a GPU architecture have been presented and the new computational strategy has been successfully applied to the design of a novel 8-element transceive RF coil system at 9.4 T. Facilitated by the powerful GPU-FDTD computing, the new RF coil array offers optimized fields (averaging 25% improvement in sensitivity, and 20% reduction in loop coupling compared with conventional array structures of the same size) for small animal imaging with a robust RF configuration. The GPU-enabled acceleration paves the way for FDTD to be applied for both detailed forward modeling and inverse design of MRI coils, which were previously impractical.

  17. High-field electroluminescence in semiconductor tunnel junctions with a Mn-doped GaAs layer

    SciTech Connect

    Hai, Pham Nam; Yatsui, Takashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2014-09-21

    We investigated high-field electroluminescence (EL) in semiconductor tunnel junctions with a Mn-doped GaAs layer (here, referred to as GaAs:Mn). Besides the band-gap emission of GaAs, the EL spectra show visible light emissions with two peaks at 1.94 eV and 2.19 eV, which are caused by d-d transitions of the Mn atoms excited by hot electrons. The threshold voltages for band-gap and visible light EL in the tunnel junctions with a GaAs:Mn electrode are 1.3 V higher than those of GaAs:Mn excited by hot holes in reserve biased p⁺-n junctions, which is consistent with the hot carrier transport in the band profiles of these structures. Our EL results at room temperature show that the electron temperature in GaAs:Mn can be as high as ~700 K for a low input electrical power density of 0.4 W/cm², while the lattice temperature of the GaAs:Mn layer can be kept at 340 K.

  18. Design and performance issues of RF coils utilized in ultra high field MRI: experimental and numerical evaluations.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Tamer S; Kangarlu, Alayar; Chakeress, Donald W

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, two TEM resonators were evaluated experimentally and numerically at 8 tesla (T) (340 MHz for 1H imaging). The coils were constructed to be 21.2-cm long (standard) and 11-cm long (a proposed less claustrophobic design). The experimental evaluation was done on a single cadaver using an ultra high field, 8 T, whole-body magnet. The numerical modeling was performed using an in-house finite difference time domain packagethat treats the coil and the load (anatomically detailed human head model) as a single system. The coils were tested with quadrature excitation at different coil alignment positions with respect to human head. For head imaging at 8 T, the overall numerical and experimental results demonstrated that when compared to the longer coil, the shorter coil provides superior signal-to-noise ratio, coil sensitivity, and excite field in the biological regions that lie within both of the coils' structures. A study of the RF (excite/receive fields) homogeneity showed variations in the performance of both coils that are mostly dependant on the region of interest and the position of coil with respect to the head. As such, depending on the application, the shorter coil could be effectively utilized.

  19. High-field electron spin resonance spectroscopy study of GdFeAsO1-xFx superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonsov, A.; Murányi, F.; Kataev, V.; Lang, G.; Leps, N.; Wang, L.; Klingeler, R.; Kondrat, A.; Hess, C.; Wurmehl, S.; Köhler, A.; Behr, G.; Hampel, S.; Deutschmann, M.; Katrych, S.; Zhigadlo, N. D.; Bukowski, Z.; Karpinski, J.; Büchner, B.

    2011-03-01

    We report a detailed investigation of GdO1-xFxFeAs (x=0, 0.07, and 0.14) samples by means of high-field and high-frequency electron spin resonance (HF-ESR) together with measurements of thermodynamic and transport properties. The parent GdOFeAs compound exhibits Fe long-range magnetic order below 128K, whereas both doped samples do not show such order and are superconducting with Tc=20 K (x=0.07) and Tc=45 K (x=0.14). The Gd3+ HF-ESR reveals an appreciable exchange coupling between Gd and Fe moments, through which the static magnetic order is clearly seen in the parent compound. Owing to this coupling, HF-ESR can probe sensitively the evolution of the magnetism in the FeAs planes upon F doping. It is found that in both superconducting samples, where the Fe long-range order is absent, there are short-range, static on the ESR time scale magnetic correlations between Fe spins. Their occurrence on a large doping scale may be indicative of the ground states’ coexistence.

  20. PEGylated NaHoF4 nanoparticles as contrast agents for both X-ray computed tomography and ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ni, Dalong; Zhang, Jiawen; Bu, Wenbo; Zhang, Chen; Yao, Zhenwei; Xing, Huaiyong; Wang, Jing; Duan, Fei; Liu, Yanyan; Fan, Wenpei; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that multimodal imaging can integrate the advantages of different imaging modalities by overcoming their individual limitations. As ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will be inevitably used in future MRI/X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner, it is highly expected to develop high-performance nano-contrast agents for ultra-high field MR and CT dual-modality imaging, which has not been reported yet. Moreover, specific behavior of nano-contrast agents for ultra-high field MRI is a challenging work and still remains unknown. Herein, a novel type of NaHoF4 nanoparticles (NPs) with varied particle sizes were synthesized and explored as high-performance dual-modality contrast agents for ultra-high field MR and CT imaging. The specific X-ray absorption and MR relaxivity enhancements with varied nanoparticle diameters (3 nm, 7 nm, 13 nm and 29 nm) under different magnetic field (1.5/3.0/7.0 T) are investigated. Based on experimental results and theoretical analysis, the Curie and dipolar relaxation mechanisms of NaHoF4 NPs are firstly separated. Our results will greatly promote the future medical translational development of the NaHoF4 nano-contrast agents for ultra-high field MR/CT dual-modality imaging applications.

  1. Magnetic resonance anatomy of the proximal metacarpal region of the horse described from images acquired from low- and high-field magnets.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Annamaria; Dyson, Sue

    2009-01-01

    While low-field magnetic resonance (MR) images can provide useful information in the investigation of proximal metacarpal region pain, an in-depth knowledge of anatomy and comparison with more detailed high-field images are essential to understand the meaning of different signal intensities within tissues. This anatomic description is based on low-field and high-field MR examination of 30 cadaver metacarpal regions of mature horses with no history of carpal or proximal metacarpal pain. Normal MR anatomy is described and is illustrated by high-field and low-field MR images in transverse, sagittal and dorsal planes. Normal anatomic variations of soft tissue and osseous structures are discussed. Differences between the signal intensity and definition of tissues on high-field and low-field MR images and in different pulse sequences are highlighted. Several structures could be evaluated in both high-field and low-field images that cannot easily be imaged using radiography and ultrasonography, including the abaxial margins of the suspensory ligament, the interosseous ligaments between the metacarpal bones and the carpometacarpal ligaments. Structures that have previously not been described in detail were also identified.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of hindfoot involvement in patients with spondyloarthritides: comparison of low-field and high-field strength units.

    PubMed

    Eshed, Iris; Althoff, Christian E; Feist, Eugen; Minden, Kirsten; Schink, Tania; Hamm, Bernd; Hermann, Kay-Geert A

    2008-01-01

    To compare MRI evaluation of a painful hindfoot of patients with spondyloarthritides (SpA) on low-field (0.2 T) versus high-field (1.5 T) MRI. Patients with SpA and hindfoot pain were randomly referred to either high-field or low-field MRI. Twenty-seven patients were evaluated (male/female: 17:10; mean age: 39+/-1.4 years). Fifteen patients were examined by low-field and 12 by high-field MRI. Two patients (evaluated by high-field MRI) were excluded. Images were separately read by two radiologists who later reached a consensus. In each patient the prevalence of erosions, fluid, synovitis or bone marrow edema of the hindfoot joints, tendinosis or tenosynovitis of tendons, enthesitis of the plantar fascia and Achilles tendon and retrocalcaneal bursitis were recorded. Clinical and demographic parameters were comparable between both groups. MRI evaluation of joints and tendons of the hindfoot revealed no significant differences in patients with SpA groups for all parameters. Analyzing all joints or tendons together, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Low-field and high-field MRI provide comparable information for evaluation of inflammatory hindfoot involvement. Thus, low-field MRI can be considered as a reliable diagnostic tool for the detection of hindfoot abnormalities in SpA patients.

  3. Magnetic properties of Zn doped Co{sub 2}Y hexaferrite by using high-field Mössbauer spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tae Lim, Jung; Sung Kim, Chul

    2014-05-07

    The polycrystalline samples of Ba{sub 2}Co{sub 2−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5) were synthesized by using solid-state-reaction method. From the XRD patterns, analyzed by Rietveld refinement, the prepared samples are found to be single-phased with rhombohedral structure (R-3m). The magnetic properties of samples were investigated with vibrating sample magnetometer, and high-field Mössbauer spectrometer. From the zero-field-cooled curves under 100 Oe between 4.2 and 740 K, we observe that the samples show spin transition from helicalmagnetic to ferrimagnetic order. With increasing Zn ion concentration, the spin transition temperature (T{sub s}) and Curie temperature (T{sub C}) decrease linearly. We have obtained Zero-field Mössbauer spectra of all samples at various temperatures ranging from 4.2 to 650 K, and analyzed the spectra below T{sub C} as six-sextets for Fe sites. From the temperature dependence of hyperfine field (H{sub hf}), we have noticed an abrupt change in H{sub hf} at T{sub s}. In addition, Mössbauer spectra of all samples at 4.2 K were taken with applied field ranging from 0 to 50 kOe, indicating the canting angle between applied field and H{sub hf} decreased with increasing Zn concentration.

  4. Analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins using high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Beach, Daniel G; Melanson, Jeremy E; Purves, Randy W

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry remains a challenge because of their high polarity, large number of analogues and the complex matrix in which they occur. Here we investigate the potential utility of high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) as a gas-phase ion separation tool for analysis of PSTs by mass spectrometry. We investigate the separation of PSTs using FAIMS with two divergent goals: using FAIMS as a primary separation tool for rapid screening by electrospray ionization (ESI)-FAIMS-MS or combined with LC in a multidimensional LC-ESI-FAIMS-MS separation. First, a survey of the parameters that affect the sensitivity and selectivity of PST analysis by FAIMS was carried out using ESI-FAIMS-MS. In particular, the use of acetonitrile as a gas additive in the carrier gas flow offered good separation of all PST epimeric pairs. A second set of FAIMS conditions was also identified, which focussed PSTs to a relatively narrow CV range allowing development of an LC-ESI-FAIMS-MS method for analysis of PST toxins in complex mussel tissue extracts. The quantitative capabilities of this method were evaluated by analysing a PST containing mussel tissue matrix material. Results compared favourably with analysis by an established LC-post-column oxidation-fluorescence method with recoveries ranging from 70 to 106%, although sensitivity was somewhat reduced. The current work represents the first successful separation of PST isomers using ion mobility and shows the promise of FAIMS as a tool for analysis of algal biotoxins in complex samples and outlines some critical requirements for its future improvement.

  5. Ultra-High-Field fMRI Reveals a Role for the Subiculum in Scene Perceptual Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Carl J; Voets, Natalie L; Thomas, Adam G; Clare, Stuart; Lawrence, Andrew D; Graham, Kim S

    2017-03-22

    Recent "representational" accounts suggest a key role for the hippocampus in complex scene perception. Due to limitations in scanner field strength, however, the functional neuroanatomy of hippocampal-dependent scene perception is unknown. Here, we applied 7 T high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) alongside a perceptual oddity task, modified from nonhuman primate studies. This task requires subjects to discriminate highly similar scenes, faces, or objects from multiple viewpoints, and has revealed selective impairments during scene discrimination following hippocampal lesions. Region-of-interest analyses identified a preferential response in the subiculum subfield of the hippocampus during scene, but not face or object, discriminations. Notably, this effect was in the anteromedial subiculum and was not modulated by whether scenes were subsequently remembered or forgotten. These results highlight the value of ultra-high-field fMRI in generating more refined, anatomically informed, functional accounts of hippocampal contributions to cognition, and a unique role for the human subiculum in discrimination of complex scenes from different viewpoints.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There is increasing evidence that the human hippocampus supports functions beyond just episodic memory, with human lesion studies suggesting a contribution to the perceptual processing of navigationally relevant, complex scenes. While the hippocampus itself contains several small, functionally distinct subfields, examining the role of these in scene processing has been previously limited by scanner field strength. By applying ultra-high-resolution 7 T fMRI, we delineated the functional contribution of individual hippocampal subfields during a perceptual discrimination task for scenes, faces, and objects. This demonstrated that the discrimination of scenes, relative to faces and objects, recruits the anterior subicular region of the hippocampus, regardless of whether scenes were

  6. A high-frequency and high-field EPR study of new azide and fluoride mononuclear Mn(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mantel, Claire; Hassan, Alia K; Pécaut, Jacques; Deronzier, Alain; Collomb, Marie-Noëlle; Duboc-Toia, Carole

    2003-10-08

    The isolation, structural characterization and electronic properties of three new six-coordinated Mn(III) complexes, [Mn(bpea)(F)(3)] (1), [Mn(bpea)(N(3))(3)] (2), and [Mn(terpy)(F)(3)] (3) are reported (bpea = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylamine; terpy = 2,2':6',2' '-terpyridine). As for [Mn(terpy)(N(3))(3)] (4) (previously described by Limburg J.; Vrettos J. S.; Crabtree R. H.; Brudvig G. W.; de Paula J. C.; Hassan A.; Barra A-L.; Duboc-Toia C.; Collomb M-N. Inorg. Chem. 2001, 40, 1698), all these complexes exhibit a Jahn-Teller distortion of the octahedron characteristic of high-spin Mn(III) (S = 2). The analysis of the crystallographic data shows an elongation along the tetragonal axis of the octahedron for complexes 1 and 3, while complex 2 presents an unexpected compression. The electronic properties were investigated using a high-field and high-frequency EPR study performed between 5 and 15 K (190-575 GHz). The spin Hamiltonian parameters determined in solid state are in agreement with the geometry of the complexes observed in the crystal structures. A negative D value found for 1 and 3 is related to the elongated tetragonal distortion, whereas the positive D value determined for 2 is in accordance with a compressed octahedron. The high E/D values, in the range of 0.103 to 0.230 for all complexes, are correlated with the highly distorted geometry present around the Mn(III) ion. HF-EPR experiments were also performed on complex 1 in solution and show that the D value is the only spin Hamiltonian parameter which is slightly modified compared to the solid state (D = -3.67 cm(-1) in solid state; D = -3.95 cm(-1) in solution).

  7. High-Field Asymmetric-Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Electron Detachment Dissociation of Isobaric Mixtures of Glycosaminoglycans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailemia, Muchena J.; Park, Melvin; Kaplan, Desmond A.; Venot, Andre; Boons, Geert-Jan; Li, Lingyun; Linhardt, Robert J.; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is shown to be capable of resolving isomeric and isobaric glycosaminoglycan negative ions and to have great utility for the analysis of this class of molecules when combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry. Electron detachment dissociation (EDD) and other ion activation methods for tandem mass spectrometry can be used to determine the sites of labile sulfate modifications and for assigning the stereochemistry of hexuronic acid residues of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). However, mixtures with overlapping mass-to-charge values present a challenge, as their precursor species cannot be resolved by a mass analyzer prior to ion activation. FAIMS is shown to resolve two types of mass-to-charge overlaps. A mixture of chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) oligomers with 4-10 saccharides units produces ions of a single mass-to-charge by electrospray ionization, as the charge state increases in direct proportion to the degree of polymerization for these sulfated carbohydrates. FAIMS is shown to resolve the overlapping charge. A more challenging type of mass-to-charge overlap occurs for mixtures of diastereomers. FAIMS is shown to separate two sets of epimeric GAG tetramers. For the epimer pairs, the complexity of the separation is reduced when the reducing end is alkylated, suggesting that anomers are also resolved by FAIMS. The resolved components were activated by EDD and the fragment ions were analyzed by FTICR-MS. The resulting tandem mass spectra were able to distinguish the two epimers from each other.

  8. Nontarget analysis of Murchison soluble organic matter by high-field NMR spectroscopy and FTICR mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hertkorn, N; Harir, M; Schmitt-Kopplin, Ph

    2015-09-01

    High-field NMR spectra of Murchison meteorite methanolic extracts revealed primarily aliphatic extraterrestrial organic matter (EOM) with near statistical branching of commonly C(3-5) units separated by heteroatoms and aromatic units. The ratios of CCH, OCH and C(sp2)H units were 89 : 8 : 3, whereas carbon-based aliphatic chain termination was in the order methyl >  -COOH >  -CH(CH3)COOH. Aliphatic methine carbon was abundant, but its weak NMR signatures were primarily deduced from JRES (J-resolved) NMR spectra. Carbon NMR spectra were dominated by methylene and methyl carbon; strong apodization revealed methine carbon, of which about 20% was aromatic. Extrapolation provided 5-7% aromatic carbon present in Murchison soluble EOM. Compositional heterogeneity in Murchison methanolic extracts was visible in NMR and Fourier transform ion cyclotron (FTICR) mass spectra obtained from a few cubic millimeters of solid Murchison meteorite; increasing sample size enhanced uniformity of NMR spectra. Intrinsic chemical diversity and pH-dependent chemical shift variance contributed to the disparity of NMR spectra. FTICR mass spectra provided distinct clustering of CHO/CHOS and CHNO/CHNOS molecular series and confirmed the prevalence of aliphatic/alicyclic (73%) over single aromatic (21%) and polyaromatic (6%) molecular compositions, suggesting extensive aliphatic substitution of aromatic units as proposed by NMR. Murchison soluble EOM molecules feature a center with enhanced aromatic and heteroatom content, which provides rather diffuse and weak NMR signatures resulting from a huge overall chemical diversity. The periphery of Murchison EOM molecules comprises flexible branched aliphatic chains and aliphatic carboxylic acids. These project on narrow ranges of chemical shift, facilitating observation in one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR spectra. The conformational entropy provided by these flexible surface moieties facilitates the solubility of EOM.

  9. High-field 19.6 T 27Al solid-state MAS NMR of in vitro aluminated brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Pamela L.; Lukiw, Walter J.; Gan, Zhehong; Hall, Randall W.; Butler, Leslie G.

    2004-10-01

    The combination of 27Al high-field solid-state NMR (19.6 T) with rapid spinning speeds (17.8 kHz) is used to acquire 27Al NMR spectra of total RNA human brain temporal lobe tissues exposed to 0.10 mM Al 3+ (as AlCl 3) and of human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19), grown in 0.10 mM AlCl 3. The spectra of these model systems show multiple Al 3+ binding sites, good signal/noise ratios and apparent chemical shift dispersions. A single broad peak (-3 to 11 ppm) is seen for the aluminated ARPE-19 cells, consistent with reported solution-state NMR chemical shifts of Al-transferrin. The aluminated brain tissue has a considerably different 27Al MAS NMR spectrum. In addition to the transferrin-type resonance, additional peaks are seen. Tentative assignments include: -9 to -3 ppm, octahedral AlO 6 (phosphate and water); 9 ppm, condensed AlO 6 units (Al-O-Al bridges); 24 ppm, tetrahedral AlO 3N and/or octahedral Al-carbonate; and 35 ppm, more N-substituted aluminum and /or tetrahedral AlO 4. Thus, brain tissue is susceptible to a broad range of coordination by aluminum. Furthermore, the moderate 27Al C Q values (all less than 10 MHz) suggest future NMR studies may be performed at 9.4 T and a spin rate of 20 kHz.

  10. High-Field Asymmetric-Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Electron Detachment Dissociation of Isobaric Mixtures of Glycosaminoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Kailemia, Muchena J.; Park, Melvin; Kaplan, Desmond A.; Venot, Andre; Boons, Geert-Jan; Li, Lingyun; Linhardt, Robert J.; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is shown to be capable of resolving isomeric and isobaric glycosaminoglycan negative ions, and to have great utility for the analysis of this class of molecules when combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry. Electron detachment dissociation (EDD) and other ion activation methods for tandem mass spectrometry can be used to determine the sites of labile sulfate modifications and for assigning the stereochemistry of hexuronic acid residues of GAGs. However, mixtures with overlapping mass-to-charge values present a challenge, as their precursor species cannot be resolved by a mass analyzer prior to ion activation. FAIMS is shown to resolve two types of mass-to-charge overlaps. A mixture of chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) oligomers with 4–10 saccharides units produces ions of a single mass-to-charge by electrospray ionization, as the charge state increases in direct proportion to the degree of polymerization for these sulfated carbohydrates. FAIMS is shown to resolve the overlapping charge. A more challenging type of mass-to-charge overlap occurs for mixtures of diastereomers. FAIMS is shown to separate two sets of epimeric GAG tetramers. For the epimer pairs, the complexity of the separation is reduced when the reducing end is alkylated, suggesting that anomers are also resolved by FAIMS. The resolved components were activated by EDD and the fragment ions were analyzed by FTICR-MS. The resulting tandem mass spectra were able to distinguish the two epimers from each other. PMID:24254578

  11. Relativistically Self-Channeled Femtosecond Terawatt Lasers for High-Field Physics and X-Ray Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, A.B.; Boyer, K.; Cameron, S.M.; Luk, T.S.; McPherson, A.; Nelson, T.; Rhodes, C.K.

    1999-01-01

    Optical channeling or refractive guiding processes involving the nonlinear interaction of intense femtosecond optical pulses with matter in the self-focussing regime has created exciting opportunities for next-generation laser plasma-based x-ray sources and directed energy applications. This fundamentally new form of extended paraxial electromagnetic propagation in nonlinear dispersive media such as underdense plasma is attributed to the interplay between normal optical diffraction and intensity-dependent nonlinear focussing and refraction contributions in the dielectric response. Superposition of these mechanisms on the intrinsic index profile acts to confine the propagating energy in a dynamic self-guiding longitudinal waveguide structure which is stable for power transmission and robust compression. The laser-driven channels are hypothesized to support a degree of solitonic transport behavior, simultaneously stable in the space and time domains (group velocity dispersion balances self-phase modulation), and are believed to be self-compensating for diffraction and dispersion over many Rayleigh lengths in contrast with the defining characteristics of conventional diffractive imaging and beamforming. By combining concentrated power deposition with well-ordered spatial localization, this phenomena will also create new possibilities for production and regulation of physical interactions, including electron beams, enhanced material coupling, and self-modulated plasma wakefields, over extended gain distances with unprecedented energy densities. Harmonious combination of short-pulse x-ray production with plasma channeling resulting from a relativistic charge displacement nonlinearity mechanism in the terawatt regime (10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) has been shown to generate high-field conditions conducive to efficient multi-kilovolt x-ray amplification and peak spectral brightness. Channeled optical propagation with intense short-pulse lasers is expected to impact several

  12. Black body and transverse electromagnetic resonators operating at 340 MHz: volume RF coils for ultra high field MRI.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, P M

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to describe the newly formulated black body (BB) resonator with historical perspective and to outline the construction and assembly of the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) RF coil for use in ultra high field MRI (UHFMRI) studies at 340 MHz. TEM and BB resonators were machined from acrylic and Teflon tubing, copper foil, and brass connectors. Tuning was accomplished through adjustable TEM elements. Variable Teflon-based capacitors were utilized to provide matching to the 50 omega line. The TEM resonator operated in quadrature, and the BB resonator operated in linear mode. The final resonators were fully adjustable from 63 to 430 MHz. Quality (Q) values were measured using a network analyzer over this frequency range for the unloaded and loaded coils. Coil performance was also evaluated using gradient and spin echo imaging at 8 T. Both resonators yielded excellent images from mineral oil phantoms, with good homogeneity throughout the imaging volume. The BB resonator was characterized with enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and greatly reduced RF power requirements relative to the TEM resonator. Images obtained from the human head at 8 T with the TEM resonator were also excellent. Tuning remains a tedious process. The TEM resonator provides an excellent RF coil for imaging studies up to 340 MHz. Its homogeneity reliability remains to be improved. In part as a result of its inability to sustain radiative loses, the BB resonator has extremely low RF power requirements. The BB resonator may have important uses in limiting RF power requirements and enhancing signal-to-noise ratio at other frequencies. Larger slightly modified versions may also prove useful in human imaging, depending on tolerances and final quality factors.

  13. Comparison of High-field and Low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Stifle Joint Disorders in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Przeworski, A; Adamiak, Z; Głodek, J

    2016-09-01

    The most common cause of hindlimb lameness in dogs is cranial cruciate ligament rupture. In 48-77.3% of the population this trauma leads to secondary damage of the meniscus. Depending on the magnetic strength of the used device, different diagnostic accuracy can be achieved. The examination sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging is affected by many factors which are independent of diagnostic strength, such as correct positioning of the patient, size of the stifle joint examined, or selection of the right protocol of sequences. Sensitivity of meniscus damage detection was 100% and 90%, respectively, in high- and low-field magnetic resonance. The best results were reported during examination of the stifle in dogs above 10 kg b.w. at a flexion angle of 145°, and in sagittal and dorsal planes. Regardless of the magnetic strength applied, imaging of the whole cranial cruciate ligament is difficult. Moreover, MRI allows the detection of the first signs of osteoarthritis, which were observed 4 and 6 weeks after rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament using high and low-field MRI. This also applies to lesions in the subchondral bone or a bone marrow which occurred in association with insufficiency of the stifle joint, and were mainly localized in the epiphysis of the femur and tibia. The present article provides a comparison of different examination protocols and images of damaged stifle structures, such as menisci, ligaments and bones of the stifle joint visualized with low-field and high-field magnetic resonance. Magnetic resonance arthrography is also discussed.

  14. Ultra-High Field MRI Post Mortem Structural Connectivity of the Human Subthalamic Nucleus, Substantia Nigra, and Globus Pallidus

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Birgit R.; Roebroeck, Alard; Kemper, Valentin G.; Uludağ, Kâmil; Melse, Maartje; Mai, Jürgen; Kuijf, Mark L.; Herrler, Andreas; Jahanshahi, Ali; ter Haar Romeny, Bart M.; Temel, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus, three nuclei of the human basal ganglia, play an important role in motor, associative, and limbic processing. The network of the basal ganglia is generally characterized by a direct, indirect, and hyperdirect pathway. This study aims to investigate the mesoscopic nature of these connections between the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus and their surrounding structures. Methods: A human post mortem brain specimen including the substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and globus pallidus was scanned on a 7 T MRI scanner. High resolution diffusion weighted images were used to reconstruct the fibers intersecting the substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and globus pallidus. The course and density of these tracks was analyzed. Results: Most of the commonly established projections of the subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and globus pallidus were successfully reconstructed. However, some of the reconstructed fiber tracks such as the connections of the substantia nigra pars compacta to the other included nuclei and the connections with the anterior commissure have not been shown previously. In addition, the quantitative tractography approach showed a typical degree of connectivity previously not documented. An example is the relatively larger projections of the subthalamic nucleus to the substantia nigra pars reticulata when compared to the projections to the globus pallidus internus. Discussion: This study shows that ultra-high field post mortem tractography allows for detailed 3D reconstruction of the projections of deep brain structures in humans. Although the results should be interpreted carefully, the newly identified connections contribute to our understanding of the basal ganglia. PMID:27378864

  15. High-field magnetization studies of spin-dimer behaviors on low-dimensional spin systems, LiCu2-xZnxO2 and FeTe3O7X (X = Cl, Br)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Her, J. L.; Hsu, H. C.; Matsuda, Y. H.; Kindo, K.; Chou, C. C.; Yang, H. D.; Berger, H.; Chou, F. C.

    2013-03-01

    High-field magnetization of two kinds of low-dimensional spin system was studied in pulsed magnets. Several anomalies were clearly observed in dm/dH curves of doped LiCu2-xZnxO2 (x = 0.07) at low temperatures (1.3 K < T < 20 K). When temperature decreases, the anomalies sharper / splits at certain critical temperatures which are related to the formation of isolated spin-dimer and spin freezing state. A field-induced spin density wave state was suggested to exist at high magnetic fields. The doping of Zn2+ ions breaks the spin-chain of Cu2+ ions, leading to the formation of isolated spin-dimers and lowering the critical field of formation of spin density state. The magnetization process measurements were preformed on another series of samples, FeTe3O7X (X = Cl, Br), which has spin-dimer, formed by Fe3+ ions, at low temperatures and magnetic fields up to 100 T. At low temperatures, the magnetization processes show four step-like structures, which have nearly equal spaces of 25 T. Both samples show similar behavior. These steps are considered to be the magnetic excitation of the antiferromagnetic spin-dimers.

  16. High strength kiloampere Bi$$_2$$Sr$$_2$$CaCu$$_2$$O$$_x$$ cables for high-field magnet applications

    DOE PAGES

    Shen, Tengming; Li, Pei; Jiang, Jianyi; ...

    2015-04-17

    strength of INCONEL X750 for various high-field magnet applications.« less

  17. Galaxy formation

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, J.

    1984-11-01

    Implications of the isotropy of the cosmic microwave background on large and small angular scales for galaxy formation are reviewed. In primeval adiabatic fluctuations, a universe dominated by cold, weakly interacting nonbaryonic matter, e.g., the massive photino is postulated. A possible signature of photino annihilation in our galactic halo involves production of cosmic ray antiprotons. If the density is near its closure value, it is necessary to invoke a biasing mechanism for suppressing galaxy formation throughout most of the universe in order to reconcile the dark matter density with the lower astronomical determinations of the mean cosmological density. A mechanism utilizing the onset of primordial massive star formation to strip gaseous protogalaxies is described. Only the densest, early collapsing systems form luminous galaxies. (ESA)

  18. Comet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, J.

    2014-07-01

    There has been vast progress in our understanding of planetesimal formation over the past decades, owing to a number of laboratory experiments as well as to refined models of dust and ice agglomeration in protoplanetary disks. Coagulation rapidly forms cm-sized ''pebbles'' by direct sticking in collisions at low velocities (Güttler et al. 2010; Zsom et al. 2010). For the further growth, two model approaches are currently being discussed: (1) Local concentration of pebbles in nebular instabilities until gravitational instability occurs (Johansen et al. 2007). (2) A competition between fragmentation and mass transfer in collisions among the dusty bodies, in which a few ''lucky winners'' make it to planetesimal sizes (Windmark et al. 2012a,b; Garaud et al. 2013). Predictions of the physical properties of the resulting bodies in both models allow a distinction of the two formation scenarios of planetesimals. In particular, the tensile strength (i.e, the inner cohesion) of the planetesimals differ widely between the two models (Skorov & Blum 2012; Blum et al. 2014). While model (1) predicts tensile strengths on the order of ˜ 1 Pa, model (2) results in rather compactified dusty bodies with tensile strengths in the kPa regime. If comets are km-sized survivors of the planetesimal-formation era, they should in principle hold the secret of their formation process. Water ice is the prime volatile responsible for the activity of comets. Thermophysical models of the heat and mass transport close to the comet-nucleus surface predict water-ice sublimation temperatures that relate to maximum sublimation pressures well below the kPa regime predicted for formation scenario (2). Model (1), however, is in agreement with the observed dust and gas activity of comets. Thus, a formation scenario for cometesimals involving gravitational instability is favored (Blum et al. 2014).

  19. Equilibrium drives of the low and high field side n = 2 plasma response and impact on global confinement

    DOE PAGES

    Paz-Soldan, C.; Logan, N. C.; Haskey, S. R.; ...

    2016-03-31

    The nature of the multi-modal n=2 plasma response and its impact on global confinement is studied as a function of the axisymmetric equilibrium pressure, edge safety factor, collisionality, and L-versus H-mode conditions. Varying the relative phase (ΔΦUL) between upper and lower in-vessel coils demonstrates that different n=2 poloidal spectra preferentially excite different plasma responses. These different plasma response modes are preferentially detected on the tokamak high-field side (HFS) or low-field side (LFS) midplanes, have different radial extents, couple differently to the resonant surfaces, and have variable impacts on edge stability and global confinement. In all equilibrium conditions studied, the observedmore » confinement degradation shares the same ΔΦUL dependence as the coupling to the resonant surfaces given by both ideal (IPEC) and resistive (MARS-F) MHD computation. Varying the edge safety factor shifts the equilibrium field-line pitch and thus the ΔΦUL dependence of both the global confinement and the n=2 magnetic response. As edge safety factor is varied, modeling finds that the HFS response (but not the LFS response), the resonant surface coupling, and the edge displacements near the X-point all share the same ΔΦUL dependence. The LFS response magnitude is strongly sensitive to the core pressure and is insensitive to the collisionality and edge safety factor. This indicates that the LFS measurements are primarily sensitive to a pressure-driven kink-ballooning mode that couples to the core plasma. MHD modeling accurately reproduces these (and indeed all) LFS experimental trends and supports this interpretation. In contrast to the LFS, the HFS magnetic response and correlated global confinement impact is unchanged with plasma pressure, but is strongly reduced in high collisionality conditions in both H- and L-mode. This experimentally suggests the bootstrap current drives the HFS response through the kink-peeling mode drive, though

  20. Beneficial impact of high-field intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging on the efficacy of pediatric low-grade glioma surgery.

    PubMed

    Roder, Constantin; Breitkopf, Martin; Ms; Bisdas, Sotirios; Freitas, Rousinelle da Silva; Dimostheni, Artemisia; Ebinger, Martin; Wolff, Markus; Tatagiba, Marcos; Schuhmann, Martin U

    2016-03-01

    significance. Moreover, PFS was highly significantly better in patients with CRs than in those with incomplete resections (p < 0.001). Significantly better surgical results (CR) and PFS were achieved after using iMRI in patients in whom total resections were intended. Therefore, the use of high-field iMRI is strongly recommended for electively planned LGG resections in pediatric patients.

  1. Mental rotation studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging at high field (4 tesla): performance and cortical activation.

    PubMed

    Tagaris, G A; Kim, S G; Strupp, J P; Andersen, P; Uğurbil, K; Georgopoulos, A P

    1997-07-01

    We studied the performance and cortical activation patterns during a mental rotation task (Shepard & Metzler, 1971) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMlU) at high field (4 Tesla). Twenty-four human subjects were imaged (fMRI group), whereas six additional subjects performed the task without being imaged (control group). All subjects were shown pairs of perspective drawings of 31, objects and asked to judge whether they were the same or mirror images. The measures of performance examined included (1) the percentage of errors, (2) the speed of performance, calculated as the inverse of the average response time, and (3) the rate of rotation for those object pairs correctly identified as "same." We found the following: (1) Subjects in the fMRI group performed well outside and inside the magnet, and, in the latter case, before and during data acquisition. Moreover, performance over time improved in the same manner as in the control group. These findings indicate that exposure to high magnetic fields does not impair performance in mental rotation. (2) Functional activation data were analyzed from 16 subjects of the fMRI goup. Several cortical areas were activated during task performance. The relations between the measures of performance above and the magnitude of activation of specific cortical areas were investigated by anatomically demarcating these areas of interest and calculating a normalized activation for each one of them. (3) We used the multivariate technique of hierarchical tree modeling to determine functional clustering among areas of interest and performance measures. Two main branches were distinguished: One comprised areas in the right hemisphere and the extrastriate and superior parietal lobules bilaterally, whereas the other comprised areas of the left hemisphere and the frontal pole bilaterally; all three performance measures above clustered with the former branch. Specifically, performance outcome ("percentage of errors") clustered with the

  2. Sensitivity and specificity considerations for fMRI encoding, decoding, and mapping of auditory cortex at ultra-high field.

    PubMed

    Moerel, Michelle; De Martino, Federico; Kemper, Valentin G; Schmitter, Sebastian; Vu, An T; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Formisano, Elia; Yacoub, Essa

    2017-03-31

    Following rapid technological advances, ultra-high field functional MRI (fMRI) enables exploring correlates of neuronal population activity at an increasing spatial resolution. However, as the fMRI blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast is a vascular signal, the spatial specificity of fMRI data is ultimately determined by the characteristics of the underlying vasculature. At 7T, fMRI measurement parameters determine the relative contribution of the macro- and microvasculature to the acquired signal. Here we investigate how these parameters affect relevant high-end fMRI analyses such as encoding, decoding, and submillimeter mapping of voxel preferences in the human auditory cortex. Specifically, we compare a T2* weighted fMRI dataset, obtained with 2D gradient echo (GE) EPI, to a predominantly T2 weighted dataset obtained with 3D GRASE. We first investigated the decoding accuracy based on two encoding models that represented different hypotheses about auditory cortical processing. This encoding/decoding analysis profited from the large spatial coverage and sensitivity of the T2* weighted acquisitions, as evidenced by a significantly higher prediction accuracy in the GE-EPI dataset compared to the 3D GRASE dataset for both encoding models. The main disadvantage of the T2* weighted GE-EPI dataset for encoding/decoding analyses was that the prediction accuracy exhibited cortical depth dependent vascular biases. However, we propose that the comparison of prediction accuracy across the different encoding models may be used as a post processing technique to salvage the spatial interpretability of the GE-EPI cortical depth-dependent prediction accuracy. Second, we explored the mapping of voxel preferences. Large-scale maps of frequency preference (i.e., tonotopy) were similar across datasets, yet the GE-EPI dataset was preferable due to its larger spatial coverage and sensitivity. However, submillimeter tonotopy maps revealed biases in assigned frequency

  3. Voxel-based morphometry at ultra-high fields. A comparison of 7T and 3T MRI data

    PubMed Central

    Seiger, Rene; Hahn, Andreas; Hummer, Allan; Kranz, Georg S; Ganger, Sebastian; Küblböck, Martin; Kraus, Christoph; Sladky, Ronald; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2017-01-01

    Recent technological progress enables MRI recordings at ultra-high fields of 7 Tesla and above leading to brain images of higher resolution and increased signal-to-noise ratio. Despite these benefits, imaging at 7T exhibits distinct challenges due to B1 field inhomogeneities, causing decreased image quality and problems in data analysis. Although several strategies have been proposed, a systematic investigation of bias-corrected 7T data for voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is still missing and it is an ongoing matter of debate if VBM at 7T can be carried out properly. Here, an optimized VBM study was conducted, evaluating the impact of field strength (3T vs 7T) and pulse sequence (MPRAGE vs MP2RAGE) on gray matter volume (GMV) estimates. More specifically, twenty-two participants were measured under the conditions 3T MPRAGE, 7T MPRAGE and 7T MP2RAGE. Due to the fact that 7T MPRAGE data exhibited strong intensity inhomogeneities, an alternative preprocessing pipeline was proposed and applied for that data. VBM analysis revealed higher GMV estimates for 7T predominantly in superior cortical areas, caudate nucleus, cingulate cortex and the hippocampus. On the other hand, 3T yielded higher estimates especially in inferior cortical areas of the brain, cerebellum, thalamus and putamen compared to 7T. Besides minor exceptions, these results were observed for 7T MPRAGE as well for the 7T MP2RAGE measurements. Results gained in the inferior parts of the brain should be taken with caution, as native GM segmentations displayed misclassifications in these regions for both 7T sequences. This was supported by the test-retest measurements showing highest variability in these inferior regions of the brain for 7T also for the advanced MP2RAGE sequence. Hence, our data support the use of 7T MRI for VBM analysis in cortical areas, but direct comparison between field strengths and sequences requires careful assessment. Similarly, analysis of inferior cortical regions, cerebellum and

  4. [Performance of an open low-field MR unit in routine examination of knee lesions and comparison with high field systems].

    PubMed

    Vahlensieck, M; Schnieber, O

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the diagnostic value of a low-field open MR system in the diagnosis of knee lesions and to compare it with that of high-field MR systems. In 139 knees,arthroscopic investigations were used as the gold standard to calculate sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy of the low-field open MR system. Figures for high field systems were taken from the literature. The values for the open MR system relative to arthroscopy were as follows: sensitivity 66%,specificity 95%,positive predictive value 64%,negative predictive value 92%, and accuracy 82%. The corresponding values taken from 10 relevant publications for highfield systems were: sensitivity 81%, specificity 90%, accuracy 90%. A lower diagnostic performance has to be expected using open low field MR units for knee lesions in comparison to high field units. Sedative drugs can make it possible for claustrophobic patients to be investigated in high-field units. The use of open low-field scanners may still be indicated in very adipose patients who do not fit into closed units.

  5. High-precision high field strength element partitioning between garnet, amphibole and alkaline melt from Kakanui, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulmer, Eric C.; Nebel, Oliver; van Westrenen, Wim

    2010-05-01

    The high field strength elements (HFSE: Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, and W) are an important group of chemical tracers that are increasingly used to investigate magmatic differentiation processes. Successful modeling of these processes requires the availability of accurate mineral-melt partition coefficients ( D). To date, these have largely been determined by ion microprobe or laser ablation-ICP-MS analyses of the run products of high-pressure, high-temperature experiments. Since HFSE are (highly) incompatible, relatively immobile, high-charge, and difficult to ionize, these experiments and their analysis are challenging. Here we explore whether high-precision analyses of natural mineral-melt systems can provide additional constraints on HFSE partitioning. The HFSE concentrations in natural garnet and amphibole and their alkaline host melt from Kakanui, New Zealand are determined with high precision isotope dilution on a multi-collector-ICP-MS. Major and trace element compositions combined with Lu-Hf isotopic systematics and detailed petrographic sample analysis are used to assess mineral-melt equilibrium and to provide context for the HFSE D measurements. The whole-rock nephelinite, ˜1 mm sized amphiboles in the nephelinite, and garnet megacrysts have similar initial Hf isotope ratios with a mean initial 176Hf/ 177Hf (34 Ma) = 0.282900 ± 0.000026 (2σ). In contrast, the amphibole megacrysts are isotopically distinct ( 176Hf/ 177Hf (34 Ma) = 0.282830 ± 0.000011). Rare earth element D values for garnet megacryst-nephelinite melt and ˜1 mm amphibole-nephelinite melt plotted as a function of ionic radii show classic near-parabolic trends that are in excellent agreement with crystal lattice-strain models. These observations are consistent with equilibrium between the whole-rock nephelinite, the ˜1 mm amphibole grains within the nephelinite and the garnet megacrysts. High-precision isotope dilution results for Zr and Hf in garnet ( DZr = 0.220 ± 0.007 and DHf = 0.216 ± 0

  6. High field (9.4 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging of cortical grey matter lesions in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schmierer, Klaus; Parkes, Harold G; So, Po-Wah; An, Shu F; Brandner, Sebastian; Ordidge, Roger J; Yousry, Tarek A; Miller, David H

    2010-03-01

    .9; SD = 5 versus 22.6 ms; SD = 4.7; P < 0.01). Associations were detected between phosphorylated neurofilament and myelin basic protein (r = 0.58, P < 0.01), myelin basic protein and T(2) (r = -0.59, P < 0.01), and neuronal density and T(1) (r = -0.57, P < 0.01). All indices correlated with duration of tissue fixation, however, including the latter in the analysis did not fundamentally affect the associations described. Our data show that T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 9.4 T enables detection of cortical grey matter lesion in post-mortem multiple sclerosis brain. The quantitative associations suggest that in cortical grey matter T(1) may be a predictor of neuronal density, and T(2) of myelin content (and-secondarily-axons). Successful translation of these results into in vivo studies using high field magnetic resonance imaging (e.g. 3 T and 7 T) will improve the assessment of cortical pathology and thereby have an impact on the diagnosis and natural history studies of patients with multiple sclerosis, as well as clinical trial designs for putative treatments to prevent cortical demyelination and neuronal loss.

  7. Approaching the ground truth - Revealing the functional organization of human multisensory STC using ultra high field fMRI.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Francesco; van Atteveldt, Nienke; De Martino, Federico; Goebel, Rainer

    2017-09-14

    Integrating inputs across sensory systems is a property of the brain that is vitally important in everyday life. More than two decades of fMRI research have revealed crucial insights on multisensory processing, yet the multisensory operations at the neuronal level in humans have remained largely unknown. Understanding the fine-scale spatial organization of multisensory brain regions is fundamental to shed light on their neuronal operations. Monkey electrophysiology revealed that the bimodal superior temporal cortex (bSTC) is topographically organized according to the modality preference (visual, auditory and bimodal) of its neurons. In line with invasive studies, a previous 3 Tesla fMRI study suggests that the human bSTC is also topographically organized according to modality preference (visual, auditory and bimodal) when analyzed at 1.6x1.6x1.6mm(3) voxel resolution. However, it is still unclear whether this resolution is able to unveil an accurate spatial organization of the human bSTC. This issue was addressed in the present study by investigating the spatial organization of functional responses of the bSTC in ten participants (from both sexes) at 1.5x1.5x1.5mm(3) and 1.1x1.1x1.1mm(3) using ultra high field fMRI (at 7 Tesla). Relative to 1.5x1.5x1.5mm(3), the bSTC at 1.1x1.1x1.1mm(3) resolution was characterized by a larger selectivity for visual and auditory modalities, stronger integrative responses in bimodal voxels, and it was organized in more distinct functional clusters indicating a more precise separation of underlying neuronal clusters. Our findings indicate that increasing the spatial resolution may be necessary and sufficient to achieve a more accurate functional topography of human multisensory integration.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe bimodal superior temporal cortex (bSTC) is a brain region that plays a crucial role in the integration of visual and auditory inputs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the fine-scale spatial organization of

  8. Rutile-Melt Partitioning of High Field Strength Elements: New Constraints on the Nature of the Subduction Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaetani, G. A.

    2005-12-01

    A compositional feature that distinguishes subduction-related lavas from oceanic basalts is depletion of the high field strength elements (HFSE), such as Ti, Zr, Nb, and Ta [1,2]. Similar depletions also characterize many continental basalts [3,4], and have been inferred for the bulk continental crust [5,6]. Because the HFSE are compatible in rutile (TiO2), it has been posited that their depletion in island arc basalts (IAB) is due to its presence as a residual phase, either in the subducted oceanic crust or the mantle wedge. Here I present results from new experiments that investigate the influences of pressure, temperature, and composition on the partitioning of Zr4+, Nb5+, Hf4+, and Ta5+ between rutile and silicate melt. These results demonstrate that low-degree partial melting of rutile-bearing subducted oceanic crust would produce significant, identifiable fractionations among the HFSE, providing a test for the nature of the subduction component. Experiments were carried out on 2 SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-CaO-Na2O-K2O base melt compositions (rhyodacite; basalt). Rutile saturation was achieved by adding 10-40 wt% TiO2. Each starting composition was doped with ZrO2, Nb2O5, HfO2, and Ta2O5. Low-pressure experiments were carried out using sealed Pt capsules in a vertical quenching furnace. High pressure experiments were carried out in graphite capsules using a solid-medium piston-cylinder device. The major element composition of glass and rutile, as well as the trace element content of the rutile, were determined by electron microprobe. The trace element content of the glass was determined SIMS. At 1 bar and temperatures of 1250 ° to 1450 °C the concentration of TiO2 at rutile saturation is significantly higher in the basalt (17-38 wt%) than the rhyodacite (5-12 wt%). Rutile-melt partition coefficients for the HFSE are higher for the rhyodacite than for the basalt by a factor of ~2-5. Partition coefficients for Nb5+ and Ta5+ are larger than those for Zr4+ and Hf4+ in all

  9. Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Modern theories of star and planet formation, which are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments, predict that most single stars should have rocky planets in orbit about them; the frequency of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. Models for the formation of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches are discussed.

  10. Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    An overview of current theories of star and planet formation is presented. These models are based upon observations of the Solar System and of young stars and their environments. They predict that rocky planets should form around most single stars, although it is possible that in some cases such planets are lost to orbital decay within the protoplanetary disk. The frequency of formation of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth like terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates.

  11. Galaxy formation

    PubMed Central

    Peebles, P. J. E.

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z ∼ 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation. PMID:9419326

  12. Planet formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    1993-01-01

    Models of planetary formation are developed using the present single example of a planetary system, supplemented by limited astrophysical observations of star-forming regions and circumstellar disks. The solar nebula theory and the planetesimal hypothesis are discussed. The latter is found to provide a viable theory of the growth of the terrestrial planets, the cores of the giant planets, and the smaller bodies present in the solar system. The formation of solid bodies of planetary size should be a common event, at least around young stars which do not have binary companions orbiting at planetary distances. Stochastic impacts of large bodies provide sufficient angular momentum to produce the obliquities of the planets. The masses and bulk compositions of the planets can be understood in a gross sense as resulting from planetary growth within a disk whose temperature and surface density decreased with distance from the growing sun.

  13. Cloud Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Mark Talmage

    2004-05-01

    Cloud formation is crucial to the heritage of modern physics, and there is a rich literature on this important topic. In 1927, Charles T.R. Wilson was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for applications of the cloud chamber.2 Wilson was inspired to study cloud formation after working at a meteorological observatory on top of the highest mountain in Scotland, Ben Nevis, and testified near the end of his life, "The whole of my scientific work undoubtedly developed from the experiments I was led to make by what I saw during my fortnight on Ben Nevis in September 1894."3 To form clouds, Wilson used the sudden expansion of humid air.4 Any structure the cloud may have is spoiled by turbulence in the sudden expansion, but in 1912 Wilson got ion tracks to show up by using strobe photography of the chamber immediately upon expansion.5 In the interim, Millikan's study in 1909 of the formation of cloud droplets around individual ions was the first in which the electron charge was isolated. This study led to his famous oil drop experiment.6 To Millikan, as to Wilson, meteorology and physics were professionally indistinct. With his meteorological physics expertise, in WWI Millikan commanded perhaps the first meteorological observation and forecasting team essential to military operation in history.7 But even during peacetime meteorology is so much of a concern to everyone that a regular news segment is dedicated to it. Weather is the universal conversation topic, and life on land could not exist as we know it without clouds. One wonders then, why cloud formation is never covered in physics texts.

  14. Revealing the band structure of InSb nanowires by high-field magnetotransport in the quasiballistic regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneau, Florian; Gül, Önder; Niquet, Yann-Michel; Car, Diana; Plissard, Sebastien R.; Escoffier, Walter; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Duchemin, Ivan; Raquet, Bertrand; Goiran, Michel

    2016-12-01

    The charge transport properties of individual InSb nanowires based transistors are studied at 4.2 K in the quasiballistic regime. The energy level separations at zero magnetic field are extracted from a bias voltage spectroscopy. The magnetoconductance under a magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the nanowire axis is investigated up to 50 T. Owing to the magnetic reduction of the backscattering, the electronic states of the quasi-one-dimensional electron gas are revealed by Landauer-Büttiker conductance quantization. The results are compared to theoretical predictions revealing the spin and orbital degeneracy lifting. At sufficiently high magnetic field the measurements show the evolution to the quantum Hall effect regime with the formation of Landau orbits and conducting edge states.

  15. Low temperature and high field regimes of connected kagome artificial spin ice: the role of domain wall topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeissler, Katharina; Chadha, Megha; Lovell, Edmund; Cohen, Lesley F.; Branford, Will R.

    2016-07-01

    Artificial spin ices are frustrated magnetic nanostructures where single domain nanobars act as macrosized spins. In connected kagome artificial spin ice arrays, reversal occurs along one-dimensional chains by propagation of ferromagnetic domain walls through Y-shaped vertices. Both the vertices and the walls are complex chiral objects with well-defined topological edge-charges. At room temperature, it is established that the topological edge-charges determine the exact switching reversal path taken. However, magnetic reversal at low temperatures has received much less attention and how these chiral objects interact at reduced temperature is unknown. In this study we use magnetic force microscopy to image the magnetic reversal process at low temperatures revealing the formation of quite remarkable high energy remanence states and a change in the dynamics of the reversal process. The implication is the breakdown of the artificial spin ice regime in these connected structures at low temperatures.

  16. Low temperature and high field regimes of connected kagome artificial spin ice: the role of domain wall topology.

    PubMed

    Zeissler, Katharina; Chadha, Megha; Lovell, Edmund; Cohen, Lesley F; Branford, Will R

    2016-07-22

    Artificial spin ices are frustrated magnetic nanostructures where single domain nanobars act as macrosized spins. In connected kagome artificial spin ice arrays, reversal occurs along one-dimensional chains by propagation of ferromagnetic domain walls through Y-shaped vertices. Both the vertices and the walls are complex chiral objects with well-defined topological edge-charges. At room temperature, it is established that the topological edge-charges determine the exact switching reversal path taken. However, magnetic reversal at low temperatures has received much less attention and how these chiral objects interact at reduced temperature is unknown. In this study we use magnetic force microscopy to image the magnetic reversal process at low temperatures revealing the formation of quite remarkable high energy remanence states and a change in the dynamics of the reversal process. The implication is the breakdown of the artificial spin ice regime in these connected structures at low temperatures.

  17. Low temperature and high field regimes of connected kagome artificial spin ice: the role of domain wall topology

    PubMed Central

    Zeissler, Katharina; Chadha, Megha; Lovell, Edmund; Cohen, Lesley F.; Branford, Will R.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial spin ices are frustrated magnetic nanostructures where single domain nanobars act as macrosized spins. In connected kagome artificial spin ice arrays, reversal occurs along one-dimensional chains by propagation of ferromagnetic domain walls through Y-shaped vertices. Both the vertices and the walls are complex chiral objects with well-defined topological edge-charges. At room temperature, it is established that the topological edge-charges determine the exact switching reversal path taken. However, magnetic reversal at low temperatures has received much less attention and how these chiral objects interact at reduced temperature is unknown. In this study we use magnetic force microscopy to image the magnetic reversal process at low temperatures revealing the formation of quite remarkable high energy remanence states and a change in the dynamics of the reversal process. The implication is the breakdown of the artificial spin ice regime in these connected structures at low temperatures. PMID:27443523

  18. Amphiplex Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Shannon; Laaser, Jennifer; Lodge, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    Polymer-micelle complexes are currently under heavy investigation due to their potential applications in targeted drug delivery and gene therapy, yet the dynamics of the complex formation is still relatively unstudied. By varying the ratios of poly(styrene sulfonate) chains and cationic poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(styrene) micelles and the ionic strength of the system, we created a variety of complex configurations of different sizes and charges. The complexes were characterized dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements which provided information regarding the hydrodynamic radius, distribution of sizes, and effective charge.

  19. Oxidative mobilization of cerium and uranium and enhanced release of "immobile" high field strength elements from igneous rocks in the presence of the biogenic siderophore desferrioxamine B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Dennis; Kopf, Sebastian; Bau, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Polyvalent trace elements such as the high field strength elements (HFSE) are commonly considered rather immobile during low-temperature water-rock interaction. Hence, they have become diagnostic tools that are widely applied in geochemical studies. We present results of batch leaching experiments focused on the mobilization of certain HFSE (Y, Zr, Hf, Th, U and rare earth elements) from mafic, intermediate and felsic igneous rocks in the presence and absence, respectively, of the siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB). Our data show that DFOB strongly enhances the mobility of these trace elements during low-temperature water-rock interaction. The presence of DFOB produces two distinct features in the Rare Earths and Yttrium (REY) patterns of leaching solutions, regardless of the mineralogical and chemical composition or the texture of the rock type studied. Bulk rock-normalized REY patterns of leaching solutions with DFOB show (i) a very distinct positive Ce anomaly and (ii) depletion of La and other light REY relative to the middle REY, with a concave downward pattern between La and Sm. These features are not observed in experiments with hydrochloric acid, acetic acid or deionized water. In DFOB-bearing leaching solutions Ce and U are decoupled from and selectively enriched relative to light REY and Th, respectively, due to oxidation to Ce(IV) and U(VI). Oxidation of Ce3+ and U4+ is promoted by the significantly higher stability of the Ce(IV) and U(VI) DFOB complexes as compared to the Ce(III) and U(IV) DFOB complexes. This is similar to the relationship between the Ce(IV)- and Ce(III)-pentacarbonate complexes that cause positive Ce anomalies in alkaline lakes. However, while formation of Ce(IV) carbonate complexes is confined to alkaline environments, Ce(IV) DFOB complexes may produce positive Ce anomalies even in mildly acidic and near-neutral natural waters. Siderophore-promoted dissolution processes also significantly enhance mobility of other 'immobile' HFSE

  20. Evaluation of microbial transformations of dissolved organic matter - what information can be extracted from high-field FTICR-MS elemental formula data sets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzsprung, Peter; von Tümpling, Wolf; Harir, Mourad; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Norf, Helge; Weitere, Markus; Kamjunke, Norbert

    2017-04-01

    Transformation of DOC and DOM was and is widespread investigated (1-3). Due to the complex composition of DOC increased attention was payed to DOM quality change during degradation processes. In order to get a better insight in DOM transformation processes both resolution as a function of time and on a molecular level are promising. The observation of DOM quality changes requires sophisticated evaluation techniques. A new evaluation strategy of FTICR-MS elemental formula data sets is introduced. An experiment with seven flumes and leaf leachate was performed. All flumes were sampled on five dates (within 7 days) and the SPEDOM was characterized using high-field FTICR-MS analysis, resulting in together 35 elemental formula data sets. The time dependent change of components abundance was fitted by a simple linear regression model after normalization of mass peak intensities. All components were categorized by calculation of the slope (change of percent intensity per day) in all seven flumes. A positive slope means product formation, a negative slope means degradation of components. Specific data filtration was developed to find out components with relevant change of relative intensity. About 7000 different components were present in at least one of the 35 samples. Of those about 1800 components were present in all of the 35 samples. About 300 components with significant increase of intensity were identified. They were mainly unsaturated and oxygen-rich components (lignin-like or tannin-like) and had molecular masses less than 450 Dalton. A group of about 70 components was partially degraded (significant negative slope, present in all samples). These components were more saturated and less oxygen-rich compared to the product group and had molecular masses > 450 Dalton. A third group of about 150 components was identified with a tendency to total degradation (significant negative slope, not present in all samples, reduced or no abundance at the end of the experiment

  1. Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Modern theories of star and planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are described and used to discuss possible characteristics of undiscovered planetary systems. The most detailed models of planetary growth are based upon observations of planets and smaller bodies within our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. These models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed, and the methods that are being used and planned for detecting and characterizing extrasolar planets are reviewed.

  2. Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Modern theories of star and planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are described and used to discuss possible characteristics of undiscovered planetary systems. The most detailed models of planetary growth are based upon observations of planets and smaller bodies within our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. These models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed, and the methods that are being used and planned for detecting and characterizing extrasolar planets are reviewed.

  3. Investigation of Mechanical Activation on Li-N-H Systems Using 6Li Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance at Ultra-High Field

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Kwak, Ja Hun; Yang, Zhenguo; Osborn, William; Markmaitree, Tippawan; Shaw, Leonard D.

    2008-07-15

    Abstract The significantly enhanced spectral resolution in the 6Li MAS NMR spectra of Li-N-H systems at ultra-high field of 21.1 tesla is exploited, for the first time, to study the detailed electronic and chemical environmental changes associated with mechanical activation of Li-N-H system using high energy balling milling. Complementary to ultra-high field studies, the hydrogen discharge dynamics are investigated using variable temperature in situ 1H MAS NMR at 7.05 tesla field. The significantly enhanced spectral resolution using ultra-high filed of 21.1 tesla was demonstrated along with several major findings related to mechanical activation, including the upfield shift of the resonances in 6Li MAS spectra induced by ball milling, more efficient mechanical activation with ball milling at liquid nitrogen temperature than with ball milling at room temperature, and greatly enhanced hydrogen discharge exhibited by the liquid nitrogen ball milled samples.

  4. New 30 kA power system at Fermilab and its use for measuring the effects of ripple current on the performance of superconducting high field magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Garvey, J.; Jaskierny, W.; Lamm, M.; Makulski, A.; Orris, D.F.; Pfeffer, H.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.; Wolff, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    A new 30 kA, 30 V dc Power System was designed, built, and commissioned at Fermilab for testing Superconducting High Field Magnets. This system has been successfully supporting operations at the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility since April 2002. It is based on six commercial 150 kW Power Energy Industries power supply modules and the following in-house modules: six 720 Hz filters, two 15 kA/1kV dc solid-state dump switch, and a 3 MJ/30 kA/1 kV dc dump resistor. Additional inhouse electronic components were designed and built to provide precise current regulation and distribution of current and current rate of change. An industrial-type Programmable Logic Controller system was used to provide equipment interlocks and monitoring. This paper summarizes studies on the influence of characteristics of this new power system--such as ripple current--on the performance of High Field Superconducting magnets.

  5. The connective tissue and ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint: a review and investigation using ultra-high field 16.4 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Slattery, D; Aland, C; Durbridge, G; Cowin, G

    2014-05-01

    This study reviews the literature on the anatomy of the connective tissues surrounding the distal interphalangeal joint and further characterizes the three-dimensional relationships of these structures with ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging. Ten cadaver fingers, fixed in a solution of 5% agar and 4% formalin, were imaged utilising an ultrashield 16.4 Tesla ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging, yielding a total of 4000 images. Images were analysed using Osirix™ (version 5.5.1 32 bit edition) for three-dimensional reconstruction. We found numerous conflicting descriptions of the connective tissue structures around the distal interphalangeal joint. Based upon our literature review and imaging studies we have defined precisely Cleland's ligaments, the oblique proximal septum, Grayson's ligaments, the dorsal plate, and the interosseous ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint.

  6. High field electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of electronic and structural environments for paramagnetic metal ions and organic free radicals in Deepwater Horizon oil spill tar balls.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Vasanth; van Tol, Johan; McKenna, Amy M; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G; Dalal, Naresh S

    2015-02-17

    In the first use of high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to characterize paramagnetic metal-organic and free radical species from tar balls and weathered crude oil samples from the Gulf of Mexico (collected after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill) and an asphalt volcano sample collected off the coast of Santa Barbara, CA, we are able to identify for the first time the various paramagnetic species present in the native state of these samples and understand their molecular structures and bonding. The two tar ball and one asphalt volcano samples contain three distinct paramagnetic species: (i) an organic free radical, (ii) a [VO](2+) containing porphyrin, and (iii) a Mn(2+) containing complex. The organic free radical was found to have a disc-shaped or flat structure, based on its axially symmetric spectrum. The characteristic spectral features of the vanadyl species closely resemble those of pure vanadyl porphyrin; hence, its nuclear framework around the vanadyl ion must be similar to that of vanadyl octaethyl porphyrin (VOOEP). The Mn(2+) ion, essentially undetected by low-field EPR, yields a high-field EPR spectrum with well-resolved hyperfine features devoid of zero-field splitting, characteristic of tetrahedral or octahedral Mn-O bonding. Although the lower-field EPR signals from the organic free radicals in fossil fuel samples have been investigated over the last 5 decades, the observed signal was featureless. In contrast, high-field EPR (up to 240 GHz) reveals that the species is a disc-shaped hydrocarbon molecule in which the unpaired electron is extensively delocalized. We envisage that the measured g-value components will serve as a sensitive basis for electronic structure calculations. High-field electron nuclear double resonance experiments should provide an accurate picture of the spin density distribution for both the vanadyl-porphyrin and Mn(2+) complexes, as well as the organic free radical, and will be the focus of follow

  7. High-field magnetization of heusler alloys Fe2 XY ( X = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni; Y = Al, Si)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Korolev, A. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2015-10-01

    The magnetization curves of ferromagnetic Heusler alloys Fe2 XY (where X = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni are transition 3 d elements and Y = Al, Si are the s and p elements of the third period of the Periodic Table) have been measured at T = 4.2 K in the field range H ≤ 70 kOe. It has been shown that the high-field ( H ≥ 20 kOe) magnetization is described within the Stoner model.

  8. Resolving ligand hyperfine couplings of type 1 and 2 Cu(II) in ascorbate oxidase by high field pulse EPR correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Potapov, Alexey; Pecht, Israel; Goldfarb, Daniella

    2010-01-07

    Ascorbate oxidase contains two paramagnetic Cu(ii) binding sites, type 1 (T1) and type 2 (T2) and in both sites the Cu(ii) is coordinated to histidine residues. We use several pulse EPR techniques at high field (95 GHz) to determine ligand (1)H and (14)N hyperfine couplings in the two sites and identify the T1 signals by a new triple resonance correlation technique named THYCOS.

  9. Fe Substitution Effect on the High-Field Magnetization in the Kondo Semiconductor CeRu2Al10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Akihiro; Kindo, Koichi; Nohara, Hiroki; Nakamura, Michio; Tanida, Hiroshi; Sera, Masafumi; Nishioka, Takashi

    2017-02-01

    The magnetization of the Fe substitution system in the Kondo semiconductor CeRu2Al10 was measured in high magnetic fields of up to 72 T with the magnetic field (H) along the a-axis. The magnetization curve indicates that the critical field from the antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase to the paramagnetic one (Hcp) shows an increase from ˜51 (x = 0) to ˜60 T (x = 0.7) owing to the Fe substitution. The Fe concentration dependence of Hcp is similar to that of the magnitude of the energy of the spin gap. The degree of the concave H dependence of the magnetization curve, which is the characteristic feature for H ∥ a in CeT2Al10 (T = Ru, Os), is not strongly enhanced by the Fe substitution. This may be due to the suppression of the strong anisotropy of the hybridization between the conduction band and the localized 4f shell along the a-axis. These results reveal that the spin gap of the present system consists of at least two components, the gap due to the spin (Kondo) singlet formation and the anisotropy gap of the AF magnon.

  10. Design of a High Field Stress, Velvet Cathode for the Flash X-Ray (FXR) Induction Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, T; Brown, C; Fleming, D; Kreitzer, B; Lewis, K; Ong, M; Zentler, J

    2007-06-08

    A new cathode design has been proposed for the Flash X-Ray (FXR) induction linear accelerator with the goal of lowering the beam emittance. The original design uses a conventional Pierce geometry and applies a peak field of 134 kV/cm (no beam) to the velvet emission surface. Voltage/current measurements indicate that the velvet begins emitting near this peak field value and images of the cathode show a very non-uniform distribution of plasma light. The new design has a flat cathode/shroud profile that allows for a peak field stress of 230 kV/cm on the velvet. The emission area is reduced by about a factor of four to generate the same total current due to the greater field stress. The relatively fast acceleration of the beam, approximately 2.5 MeV in 10 cm, reduces space charge forces that tend to hollow the beam for a flat, non-Pierce geometry. The higher field stress achieved with the same rise time is expected to lead to an earlier and more uniform plasma formation over the velvet surface. Simulations and initial testing are presented.

  11. High-field ELDOR-detected NMR study of a nitroxide radical in disordered solids: Towards characterization of heterogeneity of microenvironments in spin-labeled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalepa, Anna; Möbius, Klaus; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Savitsky, Anton

    2014-05-01

    The combination of high-field EPR with site-directed spin-labeling (SDSL) techniques employing nitroxide radicals has turned out to be particularly powerful in probing the polarity and proticity characteristics of protein/matrix systems. This information is concluded from the principal components of the nitroxide Zeeman (g), nitrogen hyperfine (A) and quadrupole (P) tensors of the spin labels attached to specific sites. Recent multi-frequency high-field EPR studies underlined the complexity of the problem to treat the nitroxide microenvironment in proteins adequately due to inherent heterogeneities which result in several principal x-components of the nitroxide g-tensor. Concomitant, but distinctly different nitrogen hyperfine components could, however, not be determined from high-field cw EPR experiments owing to the large intrinsic EPR linewidth in fully protonated guest/host systems. It is shown in this work that, using the W-band (95 GHz) ELDOR- (electron-electron double resonance) detected NMR (EDNMR) method, different principal nitrogen hyperfine, Azz, and quadrupole, Pzz, tensor values of a nitroxide radical in glassy 2-propanol matrix can be measured with high accuracy. They belong to nitroxides with different hydrogen-bond situations. The satisfactory resolution and superior sensitivity of EDNMR as compared to the standard ENDOR (electron-nuclear double resonance) method are demonstrated.

  12. High-field ELDOR-detected NMR study of a nitroxide radical in disordered solids: towards characterization of heterogeneity of microenvironments in spin-labeled systems.

    PubMed

    Nalepa, Anna; Möbius, Klaus; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Savitsky, Anton

    2014-05-01

    The combination of high-field EPR with site-directed spin-labeling (SDSL) techniques employing nitroxide radicals has turned out to be particularly powerful in probing the polarity and proticity characteristics of protein/matrix systems. This information is concluded from the principal components of the nitroxide Zeeman (g), nitrogen hyperfine (A) and quadrupole (P) tensors of the spin labels attached to specific sites. Recent multi-frequency high-field EPR studies underlined the complexity of the problem to treat the nitroxide microenvironment in proteins adequately due to inherent heterogeneities which result in several principal x-components of the nitroxide g-tensor. Concomitant, but distinctly different nitrogen hyperfine components could, however, not be determined from high-field cw EPR experiments owing to the large intrinsic EPR linewidth in fully protonated guest/host systems. It is shown in this work that, using the W-band (95GHz) ELDOR- (electron-electron double resonance) detected NMR (EDNMR) method, different principal nitrogen hyperfine, Azz, and quadrupole, Pzz, tensor values of a nitroxide radical in glassy 2-propanol matrix can be measured with high accuracy. They belong to nitroxides with different hydrogen-bond situations. The satisfactory resolution and superior sensitivity of EDNMR as compared to the standard ENDOR (electron-nuclear double resonance) method are demonstrated.

  13. Arterial Spin Labeling - Fast Imaging with Steady-State Free Precession (ASL-FISP): A Rapid and Quantitative Perfusion Technique for High Field MRI

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Goodnough, Candida L.; Erokwu, Bernadette O.; Farr, George W.; Darrah, Rebecca; Lu, Lan; Dell, Katherine M.; Yu, Xin; Flask, Chris A.

    2014-01-01

    Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) is a valuable non-contrast perfusion MRI technique with numerous clinical applications. Many previous ASL MRI studies have utilized either Echo-Planar Imaging (EPI) or True Fast Imaging with Steady-State Free Precession (True FISP) readouts that are prone to off-resonance artifacts on high field MRI scanners. We have developed a rapid ASL-FISP MRI acquisition for high field preclinical MRI scanners providing perfusion-weighted images with little or no artifacts in less than 2 seconds. In this initial implementation, a FAIR (Flow-Sensitive Alternating Inversion Recovery) ASL preparation was combined with a rapid, centrically-encoded FISP readout. Validation studies on healthy C57/BL6 mice provided consistent estimation of in vivo mouse brain perfusion at 7 T and 9.4 T (249±38 ml/min/100g and 241±17 ml/min/100g, respectively). The utility of this method was further demonstrated in detecting significant perfusion deficits in a C57/BL6 mouse model of ischemic stroke. Reasonable kidney perfusion estimates were also obtained for a healthy C57/BL6 mouse exhibiting differential perfusion in the renal cortex and medulla. Overall, the ASL-FISP technique provides a rapid and quantitative in vivo assessment of tissue perfusion for high field MRI scanners with minimal image artifacts. PMID:24891124

  14. Arterial spin labeling-fast imaging with steady-state free precession (ASL-FISP): a rapid and quantitative perfusion technique for high-field MRI.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Goodnough, Candida L; Erokwu, Bernadette O; Farr, George W; Darrah, Rebecca; Lu, Lan; Dell, Katherine M; Yu, Xin; Flask, Chris A

    2014-08-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a valuable non-contrast perfusion MRI technique with numerous clinical applications. Many previous ASL MRI studies have utilized either echo-planar imaging (EPI) or true fast imaging with steady-state free precession (true FISP) readouts, which are prone to off-resonance artifacts on high-field MRI scanners. We have developed a rapid ASL-FISP MRI acquisition for high-field preclinical MRI scanners providing perfusion-weighted images with little or no artifacts in less than 2 s. In this initial implementation, a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL preparation was combined with a rapid, centrically encoded FISP readout. Validation studies on healthy C57/BL6 mice provided consistent estimation of in vivo mouse brain perfusion at 7 and 9.4 T (249 ± 38 and 241 ± 17 mL/min/100 g, respectively). The utility of this method was further demonstrated in the detection of significant perfusion deficits in a C57/BL6 mouse model of ischemic stroke. Reasonable kidney perfusion estimates were also obtained for a healthy C57/BL6 mouse exhibiting differential perfusion in the renal cortex and medulla. Overall, the ASL-FISP technique provides a rapid and quantitative in vivo assessment of tissue perfusion for high-field MRI scanners with minimal image artifacts. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Habit formation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  16. Habit formation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network.

  17. Assessment of Myocardial Remodeling Using an Elastin/Tropoelastin Specific Agent with High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    PubMed Central

    Protti, Andrea; Lavin, Begoña; Dong, Xuebin; Lorrio, Silvia; Robinson, Simon; Onthank, David; Shah, Ajay M; Botnar, Rene M

    2015-01-01

    Background Well-defined inflammation, proliferation, and maturation phases orchestrate the remodeling of the injured myocardium after myocardial infarction (MI) by controlling the formation of new extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix consists mainly of collagen but also fractions of elastin. It is thought that elastin is responsible for maintaining elastic properties of the myocardium, thus reducing the risk of premature rupture. An elastin/tropoelastin–specific contrast agent (Gd-ESMA) was used to image tropoelastin and mature elastin fibers for in vivo assessment of extracellular matrix remodeling post-MI. Methods and Results Gd-ESMA enhancement was studied in a mouse model of myocardial infarction using a 7 T MRI scanner and results were compared to those achieved after injection of a nonspecific control contrast agent, gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). In the infarcted tissue, Gd-ESMA uptake (measured as R1 relaxation rate) steadily increased from day 3 to day 21 as a result of the synthesis of elastin/tropoelastin. R1 values were in good agreement with histological findings. A similar R1 behavior was observed in the remote myocardium. No mature cross-linked elastin was found at any time point. In contrast, Gd-DTPA uptake was only observed in the infarct with no changes in R1 values between 3 and 21 days post-MI. Conclusions We demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo imaging of extracellular matrix remodeling post-MI using a tropoelastin/elastin binding MR contrast agent, Gd-ESMA. We found that tropoelastin is the main contributor to the increased MRI signal at late stages of MI where its augmentation in areas of infarction was in good agreement with the R1 increase. PMID:26272655

  18. Pattern Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Rebecca

    2006-03-01

    From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

  19. Barrier Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Medina, J.F.; Sarvide, S.; Bervoets, T.J.M.; Everts, V.; DenBesten, P.; Smith, C.E.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Enamel fluorosis is an irreversible structural enamel defect following exposure to supraoptimal levels of fluoride during amelogenesis. We hypothesized that fluorosis is associated with excess release of protons during formation of hypermineralized lines in the mineralizing enamel matrix. We tested this concept by analyzing fluorotic enamel defects in wild-type mice and mice deficient in anion exchanger-2a,b (Ae2a,b), a transmembrane protein in maturation ameloblasts that exchanges extracellular Cl− for bicarbonate. Defects were more pronounced in fluorotic Ae2a,b−/− mice than in fluorotic heterozygous or wild-type mice. Phenotypes included a hypermineralized surface, extensive subsurface hypomineralization, and multiple hypermineralized lines in deeper enamel. Mineral content decreased in all fluoride-exposed and Ae2a,b−/− mice and was strongly correlated with Cl−. Exposure of enamel surfaces underlying maturation-stage ameloblasts to pH indicator dyes suggested the presence of diffusion barriers in fluorotic enamel. These results support the concept that fluoride stimulates hypermineralization at the mineralization front. This causes increased release of protons, which ameloblasts respond to by secreting more bicarbonates at the expense of Cl− levels in enamel. The fluoride-induced hypermineralized lines may form barriers that impede diffusion of proteins and mineral ions into the subsurface layers, thereby delaying biomineralization and causing retention of enamel matrix proteins. PMID:24170372

  20. Functional connectivity of the left and right hippocampi: Evidence for functional lateralization along the long-axis using meta-analytic approaches and ultra-high field functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer L; Salibi, Nouha; Deshpande, Gopikrishna

    2016-07-15

    Theories regarding the functional specialization of the hippocampus date back to over a century ago. Two main theories have dominated the field. First, evidence has supported the notion of hemispheric specialization, which appears to be preserved across species. Second, an emergent and mounting set of data has suggested an anterior-posterior neurofunctional gradient. However, no study has examined these theories, and their potential interaction, using objective, robust methodological approaches. Here, we employed an established meta-analytic technique and use ultra-high field, high-resolution functional and structural neuroimaging to examine hippocampal lateralization with consideration for a long-axis differentiation. Data revealed strong support for an evolutionarily preserved hemispheric specialization. Specifically, we found intra- and interhemispheric differences with regard to anterior and posterior functional and structural connectivity, between the right and left hippocampi. For task-independent functional connectivity, we found the right anterior hippocampus to have functional connectivity with a large, distributed network, whereas the left anterior hippocampus demonstrated primarily fronto-limbic connectivity. These patterns were reversed for the posterior segmentations. Not surprisingly, for task-dependent connectivity, we found interhemispheric differences within key ipsilateral structures (i.e., parahippocampal gyrus) for both anterior and posterior segmentations. Furthermore, we identified pivotal neural hubs that share connectivity across behavioral domains, and are supported by structural connectivity (i.e., posterior cingulate cortex). Thus, our data provide evidence for a hemisphere-specific, anterior-posterior specialization of the hippocampal formation.

  1. Clinical indications for high-field 1.5 T intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging and neuro-navigation for neurosurgical procedures. Review of initial 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Maesawa, Satoshi; Fujii, Masazumi; Nakahara, Norimoto; Watanabe, Tadashi; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kajita, Yasukazu; Nagatani, Tetsuya; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Jun

    2009-08-01

    Initial experiences are reviewed in an integrated operation theater equipped with an intraoperative high-field (1.5 T) magnetic resonance (MR) imager and neuro-navigation (BrainSUITE), to evaluate the indications and limitations. One hundred consecutive cases were treated, consisting of 38 gliomas, 49 other tumors, 11 cerebrovascular diseases, and 2 functional diseases. The feasibility and usefulness of the integrated theater were evaluated for individual diseases, focusing on whether intraoperative images (including diffusion tensor imaging) affected the surgical strategy. The extent of resection and outcomes in each histological category of brain tumors were examined. Intraoperative high-field MR imaging frequently affected or modified the surgical strategy in the glioma group (27/38 cases, 71.1%), but less in the other tumor group (13/49 cases, 26.5%). The surgical strategy was not modified in cerebrovascular or functional diseases, but the success of procedures and the absence of complications could be confirmed. In glioma surgery, subtotal or greater resection was achieved in 22 of the 31 patients (71%) excluding biopsies, and intraoperative images revealed tumor remnants resulting in the extension of resection in 21 of the 22 patients (95.4%), the highest rate of extension among all types of pathologies. The integrated neuro-navigation improved workflow. The best indication for intraoperative high-field MR imaging and integrated neuro-navigation is brain tumors, especially gliomas, and is supplementary in assuring quality in surgery for cerebrovascular or functional diseases. Immediate quality assurance is provided in several types of neurosurgical procedures.

  2. Magnetic phase transition of high-pressure phase (VO)2P2O7 studied by high-field ESR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraka, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Kunimoto, T.; Inagaki, Y.; Okubo, S.; Ohta, H.; Saito, T.; Azuma, M.; Takano, M.

    2004-05-01

    The high-pressure phase of (VO)2P2O7 (HP-VOPO) is a S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic alternating chain compound with one spin gap. The high-field ESR measurements of the HP-VOPO single crystal have been performed using the pulsed magnetic field up to 30T. Small anomaly is observed in ESR mode for both a- and b-axis. The linewidth became broad around Bc=20T when the field is applied along the a- and b-axis. The magnetic state of HP-VOPO above Bc will be discussed.

  3. Pinning in the flux-line-cutting regime of Bi 2Sr 2Ca 1Cu 2O 8 single crystals at high field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Anna, G.; André, M.-O.; Indenbom, M. V.; Benoit, W.

    1994-09-01

    Using a low-frequency torsion pendulum we show that in a Bi 2Sr 2Ca 1Cu 2O 8 single crystal the irreversibility line Birr( T) is frequency dependent down to 10 -5 Hz in the high-field regime. The activation energy has a logarithmic field dependence, U0( B)= U∗ 1n( B∗/ B). A microscopic model for flux-line-cutting and pancake collision yields quantitative expressions for U0 and for Birr( T)= B∗ exp(- T/T∗), which reproduce the experimental data very well.

  4. Development of manufacturing capability for the fabrication of the Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor for the High Field Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, C R

    1981-01-01

    Construction of High Field Test Facility (HFTF) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) requires an extended surface Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor cable of carrying currents in excess of 7500 amperes in a 12 Tesla magnetic field. This conductor consists of a 5.4 mm x 11.0 mm superconducting core onto whose broad surfaces are soldered embossed oxygen free copper strips. Two different core designs have been developed and the feasibility of each design evaluated. Equipment necessary to produce the conductor were developed and techniques of production were explored.

  5. Comment on “Theoretical analysis of high-field transport in graphene on a substrate” [J. Appl. Phys. 116, 034507 (2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Michael L. P.; Arora, Vijay K.

    2014-12-21

    In a recent article, Serov et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 116, 034507 (2014)] claim: “This study represents the first time that the high-field behavior in graphene on a substrate was investigated taking into account intrinsic graphene properties,” ignoring the most recent anisotropic distribution function [V. K. Arora et al., J. Appl. Phys. 112, 114330 (2012)] also published in J. Appl. Phys., targeting the same experimental data [V. E. Dorgan et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 082112 (2010)]. The claim of Serov et al. of being first is refuted and many shortcomings of the hydrodynamic model for a highly quantum and degenerate graphene nanolayer are pointed out.

  6. Characterization of high field varistors in the system ZnO-CoO-PbO-Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, G.S.; White, S.S.; Cooper, R.A.; Armijo, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    High field varistors (1020) were fabricated in the system ZnO-CoO-PbO-Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/ by hot pressing and by pressureless-sintering techniques. These varistor compositions are particularly suitable for applications at high current densities (J>1 A/cm/sup 2/) where the nonlinearity coefficients reach maximum values. Variations in electrical properties with processing and composition are described.

  7. An Ultra-High Field Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of Post Exercise Lactate, Glutamate and Glutamine Change in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Andrea; Thomas, Adam G.; Rawlings, Nancy B.; Near, Jamie; Nichols, Thomas E.; Clare, Stuart; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Stagg, Charlotte J.

    2015-01-01

    During strenuous exercise there is a progressive increase in lactate uptake and metabolism into the brain as workload and plasma lactate levels increase. Although it is now widely accepted that the brain can metabolize lactate, few studies have directly measured brain lactate following vigorous exercise. Here, we used ultra-high field magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to obtain static measures of brain lactate, as well as brain glutamate and glutamine after vigorous exercise. The aims of our experiment were to (a) track the changes in brain lactate following recovery from exercise, and (b) to simultaneously measure the signals from brain glutamate and glutamine. The results of our experiment showed that vigorous exercise resulted in a significant increase in brain lactate. Furthermore, both glutamate and glutamine were successfully resolved, and as expected, although contrary to some previous reports, we did not observe any significant change in either amino acid after exercise. We did however observe a negative correlation between glutamate and a measure of fitness. These results support the hypothesis that peripherally derived lactate is taken up by the brain when available. Our data additionally highlight the potential of ultra-high field MRS as a non-invasive way of measuring multiple brain metabolite changes with exercise. PMID:26732236

  8. High-field 1H-NMR study around a 1/4 plateau of quantum spin dimer system NH4CuCl3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, K.; Fujisawa, M.; Tanaka, H.; Scheuermann, R.; Goto, T.

    2017-04-01

    We have investigated high-field TF-µSR and 1H-NMR on the S = 1/2 three dimensional spin dimer system NH4CuCl3, which shows a magnetic order at TN = 1.29 K under zero field and the two-stepped plateaus in high field regions HC1 = 5.0 T - HC2 = 12.8 T and HC3 = 17.9 T - HC4 = 24.7 T. Both probes showed spectra containing multiple peaks corresponding to different hyperfine fields, demonstrating the existence of magnetically inequivalent dimers in a unit cell. In the slope-state field region H < HC1, the existence of magnetic order was confirmed by the splitting in some of the NMR peaks. The whole width of NMR and µSR spectra increased with increasing field, and no drastic change in their profile was observed at HC1. This indicates that the change in the spin state is continuous on entering the plateau state, and that no liquid-solid transition of magnons takes place at the phase boundary.

  9. Accelerated mapping of magnetic susceptibility using 3D planes-on-a-paddlewheel (POP) EPI at ultra-high field strength.

    PubMed

    Stäb, Daniel; Bollmann, Steffen; Langkammer, Christian; Bredies, Kristian; Barth, Markus

    2017-04-01

    With the advent of ultra-high field MRI scanners in clinical research, susceptibility based MRI has recently gained increasing interest because of its potential to assess subtle tissue changes underlying neurological pathologies/disorders. Conventional, but rather slow, three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo (GRE) sequences are typically employed to assess the susceptibility of tissue. 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI) represents a fast alternative but generally comes with echo-time restrictions, geometrical distortions and signal dropouts that can become severe at ultra-high fields. In this work we assess quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) at 7 T using non-Cartesian 3D EPI with a planes-on-a-paddlewheel (POP) trajectory, which is created by rotating a standard EPI readout train around its own phase encoding axis. We show that the threefold accelerated non-Cartesian 3D POP EPI sequence enables very fast, whole brain susceptibility mapping at an isotropic resolution of 1 mm and that the high image quality has sufficient signal-to-noise ratio in the phase data for reliable QSM processing. The susceptibility maps obtained were comparable with regard to QSM values and geometric distortions to those calculated from a conventional 4 min 3D GRE scan using the same QSM processing pipeline. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Determination of the intersublattice exchange interactions in GdCo12-xFexB6 (x = 0-3) intermetallic compounds by high field magnetization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, L. V. B.; Isnard, O.; Skourski, Y.; Ballon, G.

    2013-05-01

    High field magnetization measurements up to 60 T on free powder samples from GdCo12-xFexB6 (x = 0-3) compounds are reported. The data were used to evaluate the microscopic exchange interaction integral, JGd-3d, between Gd and 3d (Co,Fe) spins. The systems are ferrimagnets; they order magnetically between TC = 95 K for x = 3 and TC = 165 K for x = 0. The low temperature magnetization curves as well as the temperature dependence of intrinsic magnetic parameters are determined by magnetic measurements in pulsed magnetic field. The average magnetic moment ⟨μCo+Fe⟩ per mean transition metal atom (Co + Fe) is small and increases with increasing Fe concentration from 0.44 μΒ for x = 0 to 0.51 μΒ for x = 3 at T = 4 K. From high field magnetization curves, a value of JGd-3d/kB = -4.65 K is derived for x = 0, whereas mean field approximation yields a much larger 3d-3d exchange integral of JCo-Co/kB = 105 K. The obtained results reveal an increase of -JGd-3d/kB with Fe concentration. For x = 0.5, the intersublattice coefficient nGd-3d is found to keep an almost constant value of 5.87 ± 0.13 T*f.u.*μB-1 whatever the temperature in the 2 to 60 K range.

  11. Magic angle effect in normal collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint in horses imaged with a high-field magnetic resonance imaging system.

    PubMed

    Werpy, Natasha M; Ho, Charles P; Kawcak, Christopher E

    2010-01-01

    Distal forelimb specimens of eight skeletally mature horses were imaged using proton density turbo spin echo, T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo, T2*-weighted gradient echo, short tau inversion recovery and T2-weighted fast spin echo sequences with the limb parallel to the main magnetic field, and with angulation of the limb relative to the main magnetic field. The magic angle effect can be identified in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint when imaged in a high-field magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system with a horizontally oriented main magnetic field. This effect has previously been described in the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint in a low-field system with a vertically oriented main magnetic field. The curvature of the ligaments places the fibers at the magic angle in both horizontally and vertically orientated main magnetic fields. This effect can be identified on short time of echo sequences and impacts the signal pattern of the ligaments at the level of the middle phalanx with the limb in a neutral position and with angulation of the limb. Magic angle effect should be considered as a possible cause of an asymmetrical signal pattern, depending on the positioning of the limb and the sequences used for imaging, when evaluating the collateral ligaments of the distal interphalangeal joint on images acquired with a high-field MR imaging system that has a horizontally oriented main magnetic field.

  12. Magnetic Shielding for High Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    nonlinear and eminently non-dispersive switching networks (such as banks of fast diodes ) have large bandwidths. Because of this simulation we believe...function of the form f z c t( )+ 0 . Here c0 and η0 correspond to speed of light and impedance in free space. In view of this, Taylor expansion of the...for space applications, added weight rarely has a high cost penalty and a light material with very good SE must meet these cost constraints. The

  13. The high-field magnet endstation for X-ray magnetic dichroism experiments at ESRF soft X-ray beamline ID32

    PubMed Central

    Kummer, K.; Fondacaro, A.; Jimenez, E.; Velez-Fort, E.; Amorese, A.; Aspbury, M.; Yakhou-Harris, F.; van der Linden, P.; Brookes, N. B.

    2016-01-01

    A new high-field magnet endstation for X-ray magnetic dichroism experiments has been installed and commissioned at the ESRF soft X-ray beamline ID32. The magnet consists of two split-pairs of superconducting coils which can generate up to 9 T along the beam and up to 4 T orthogonal to the beam. It is connected to a cluster of ultra-high-vacuum chambers that offer a comprehensive set of surface preparation and characterization techniques. The endstation and the beam properties have been designed to provide optimum experimental conditions for X-ray magnetic linear and circular dichroism experiments in the soft X-ray range between 400 and 1600 eV photon energy. User operation started in November 2014. PMID:26917134

  14. Direct Analysis of Oil Additives by High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Mass Spectrometry Combined with Electrospray Ionization and Desorption Electrospray Ionization.

    PubMed

    Da Costa, Caitlyn; Turner, Matthew; Reynolds, James C; Whitmarsh, Samuel; Lynch, Tom; Creaser, Colin S

    2016-02-16

    The analysis of corrosion inhibitors in the presence and absence of an oil matrix is reported using electrospray ionization (ESI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), hyphenated with miniaturized high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) and mass spectrometry (MS). The target analytes were successfully ionized in solution by ESI and directly from steel surfaces using DESI ambient ionization at levels ≥0.0004% w/w (4 ppm) in oil. Differences in the mass spectral profiles observed for the additive/oil mixture are attributed to differences between the ESI and DESI ionization processes. The use of FAIMS improved selectivity for ESI generated analyte ions through reduction in the chemical noise resulting from the oil matrix. DESI enabled the direct, rapid, native state interrogation of oil samples on steel surfaces without sample pretreatment, and the hyphenation of DESI with the miniaturized FAIMS enhanced the relative analyte responses of the surface-active corrosion inhibitors.

  15. Evaluation of high field and/or local heating based material degradation of nanoscale metal emitter tips: a molecular dynamics analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Giesselmann, M.; Mankowski, J.; Dickens, J.; Neuber, A.; Joshi, R. P.

    2017-05-01

    A molecular dynamics (MD) model is used to study the potential for mass ejection from a metal nanoprotrusion, driven by high fields and temperature increases. Three-dimensional calculations of the electric fields surrounding the metal emitter are used to obtain the Maxwell stress on the metal. This surface loading is coupled into MD simulations. Our results show that mass ejection from the nanotip is possible and indicate that both larger aspect ratios and higher local temperatures will drive the instability. Hence it is predicted that in a nonuniform distribution of emitters, the longer and thinner sites will suffer the most damage, which is generally in keeping with the trends of a recent experimental report (Parson et al 2014 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 42 3982). A possible hypothesis for mass ejection in the absence of a distinct nanoprotrusion is also discussed.

  16. Design and evaluation of a detunable water-based quadrature HEM11 mode dielectric resonator as a new type of volume coil for high field MRI.

    PubMed

    Aussenhofer, Sebastian A; Webb, Andrew G

    2012-10-01

    An annular dielectric resonator made from distilled water has been designed to operate in degenerate quadrature HEM11 modes at 298.1 MHz (7 Tesla). The circularly polarized B1+ field has a high degree of homogeneity throughout a sample placed within the annulus. The sensitivity of the resonator was measured to be essentially identical to that of an eight-rung high-pass birdcage resonator with the same physical dimensions. High resolution in vivo images have been obtained from the human wrist. A new method of electronically detuning the resonator has also been evaluated. The design is extremely simple and rapid to build, with direct applicability to very high field imaging and also potential integration into human and animal hybrid position emission tomography (PET)/MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/MRI systems due to the lack of conductor attenuation-induced artifacts in the reconstructed nuclear medicine images.

  17. Insight into phonon scattering in Si nanowires through high-field hole transport: Impacts of boundary condition and comparison with bulk phonon approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, H.; Suda, J.; Kimoto, T.

    2017-06-01

    The impact of how to model phonon scattering on hole transport in Si nanowires was studied based on Boltzmann’s transport equation. Boundary conditions for atomistic description of phonons in nanowires and approximation by bulk acoustic and optical phonons were analyzed in terms of their impacts on high-field hole transport. The boundary conditions for phonons influence the drift velocity and momentum relaxation time, especially at low electric field, but the energy relaxation time hardly depends on the boundary conditions. The impacts by the change of boundary conditions can be approximated by the change of the strength of acoustic phonon scattering in bulk phonon picture, though the behavior of energy relaxation and distribution function of holes can not be reproduced by bulk phonon approximation.

  18. Novel mono-static arrangement of the ASDEX Upgrade high field side reflectometers compatible with electron cyclotron resonance heating stray radiationa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A.; Varela, P.; Meneses, L.; Manso, M.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2012-10-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade frequency modulated continuous wave broadband reflectometer system uses a mono-static antenna configuration with in-vessel hog-horns and 3 dB directional couplers. The operation of the new electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) launcher and the start of collective Thomson scattering experiments caused several events where the fragile dummy loads inside the high field side directional couplers were damaged, due to excessive power resulting from the ECRH stray fields. In this paper, we present a non-conventional application of the existing three-port directional coupler that hardens the system to the ECRH stray fields and at the same time generates the necessary reference signal. Electromagnetic simulations and laboratory tests were performed to validate the proposed solution and are compared with the in-vessel calibration tests.

  19. Reactive spark plasma sintering of MgB2 in nitrogen atmosphere for the enhancement of the high-field critical current density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badica, P.; Burdusel, M.; Popa, S.; Pasuk, I.; Ivan, I.; Borodianska, H.; Vasylkiv, O.; Kuncser, A.; Ionescu, A. M.; Miu, L.; Aldica, G.

    2016-10-01

    High density bulks (97%-99%) of MgB2 were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) in nitrogen (N2) atmosphere for different heating rates (10, 20 and 100 °C min-1) and compared with reference samples processed in vacuum and Ar. N2 reacts with MgB2 and forms MgB9N along the MgB2 grain boundaries. The high-field critical current density is enhanced for the sample processed in N2 with a heating rate of 100 °C min-1. At 2-35 K, this sample shows the strongest contribution of the grain boundary pinning (GBP). All samples are in the point pinning (PP) limit and by increasing temperature the GBP contribution decreases.

  20. Laserspray and Matrix-Assisted Ionization Inlet Coupled to High-Field FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry for Peptide and Protein Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyadong, Leonard; Inutan, Ellen D.; Wang, Xu; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Trimpin, Sarah; Marshall, Alan G.

    2013-03-01

    We present the first coupling of laser spray ionization inlet (LSII) and matrix assisted ionization inlet (MAII) to high-field Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) for generation of electrospray-like ions to take advantage of increased sensitivity, mass range, and mass resolving power afforded by multiple charging. We apply the technique to top-down protein analysis and characterization of metalloproteins. We also present a novel method for generation of multiply-charged copper-peptide complexes with varying degrees of copper adduction by LSII. We show an application of the generated copper-peptide complexes for protein charge state and molecular weight determination, particularly useful for an instrument such as a linear ion trap mass analyzer. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. High field X-ray diffraction measurements of Mn{sub 2}Sb{sub 0.95}Ge{sub 0.05}

    SciTech Connect

    Wakamori, Taoto; Mitsui, Yoshifuru; Hiroi, Masahiko; Koyama, Keiichi; Takahashi, Kohki; Umetsu, Rie Y.

    2016-08-26

    Magnetization and high-field X-ray powder diffraction measurements were performed for Mn{sub 2}Sb{sub 0.95}Ge{sub 0.05} with a tetragonal structure in magnetic fields up to 5 T in the 10-300 K temperature range. For B = 0 T and 5 T, a first-order magnetic transition from a ferrimagnetic (FRI) to an antiferromagnetic (AFM) state occurred at T{sub t} ∼ 180 K and 150 K, respectively, and were accompanied by an iso-structural transformation. For this transition from the AFM to FRI state, the lattice parameters a and c changed by |Δa/a| = 0.15% and by |Δc/c| = 0.47% at 180 K. The compound showed both metamagnetic transition from the AFM to FRI state with a hysteresis at the temperature just below T{sub t} and magnetic field-induced iso-structural transformation.

  2. Terahertz cyclotron resonance spectroscopy of an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure using a high-field pulsed magnet and an asynchronous optical sampling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, B. F.; Smith, W. F.; Hibberd, M. T.; Dawson, P.; Beck, M.; Bartels, A.; Guiney, I.; Humphreys, C. J.; Graham, D. M.

    2016-05-01

    The effective mass, sheet carrier concentration, and mobility of electrons within a two-dimensional electron gas in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure were determined using a laboratory-based terahertz cyclotron resonance spectrometer. The ability to perform terahertz cyclotron resonance spectroscopy with magnetic fields of up to 31 T was enabled by combining a high-field pulsed magnet with a modified asynchronous optical sampling terahertz detection scheme. This scheme allowed around 100 transmitted terahertz waveforms to be recorded over the 14 ms magnetic field pulse duration. The sheet density and mobility were measured to be 8.0 × 1012 cm-2 and 9000 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 77 K. The in-plane electron effective mass at the band edge was determined to be 0.228 ± 0.002m0.

  3. Multi-slice parallel transmission three-dimensional tailored RF (PTX 3DTRF) pulse design for signal recovery in ultra high field functional MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hai; Zhao, Tiejun; Qian, Yongxian; Schirda, Claudiu; Ibrahim, Tamer S.; Boada, Fernando E.

    2013-03-01

    T2∗ weighted fMRI at high and ultra high field (UHF) is often hampered by susceptibility-induced, through-plane, signal loss. Three-dimensional tailored RF (3DTRF) pulses have been shown to be an effective approach for mitigating through-plane signal loss at UHF. However, the required RF pulse lengths are too long for practical applications. Recently, parallel transmission (PTX) has emerged as a very effective means for shortening the RF pulse duration for 3DTRF without sacrificing the excitation performance. In this article, we demonstrate a RF pulse design strategy for 3DTRF based on the use of multi-slice PTX 3DTRF to simultaneously and precisely recover signal with whole-brain coverage. Phantom and human experiments are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method on three subjects using an eight-channel whole body parallel transmission system.

  4. A strip-shield improves the efficiency of a solenoid coil in probes for high field solid-state NMR of lossy biological samples

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chin H.; Grant, Christopher V.; Cook, Gabriel A.; Park, Sang Ho; Opella, Stanley J.

    2009-01-01

    A strip-shield inserted between a high inductance double-tuned solenoid coil and the glass tube containing the sample improves the efficiency of probes used for high-field solid-state NMR experiments on lossy aqueous samples of proteins and other biopolymers. A strip-shield is a coil liner consisting of thin copper strips layered on a PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) insulator. With lossy samples, the shift in tuning frequency is smaller, the reduction in Q, and RF-induced heating are all significantly reduced when the strip-shield is present. The performance of 800 MHz 1H/15N and 1H/13C double-resonance probes is demonstrated on aqueous samples of membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers. PMID:19559634

  5. Synergic Effect of Active Sites in Zinc-Modified ZSM-5 Zeolites as Revealed by High-Field Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Qi, Guodong; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Jun; Trébosc, Julien; Lafon, Olivier; Wang, Chao; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Deng, Feng

    2016-12-19

    Understanding the nature of active sites in metal-supported catalysts is of great importance towards establishing their structure-property relationships. The outstanding catalytic performance of metal-supported catalysts is frequently ascribed to the synergic effect of different active sites, which is however not well spectroscopically characterized. Herein, we report the direct detection of surface Zn species and (1) H-(67) Zn internuclear interaction between Zn(2+) ions and Brønsted acid sites on Zn-modified ZSM-5 zeolites by high-field solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The observed promotion of C-H bond activation of methane is rationalized by the enhanced Brønsted acidity generated by synergic effects arising from the spatial proximity/interaction between Zn(2+) ions and Brønsted acidic protons. The concentration of synergic active sites is determined by (1) H-(67) Zn double-resonance solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

  6. An Analytical Technique to Elucidate Field Impurities From Manufacturing Uncertainties of an Double Pancake Type HTS Insert for High Field LTS/HTS NMR Magnets.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Seung-Yong; Ahn, Min Cheol; Bobrov, Emanuel Saul; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2009-06-01

    This paper addresses adverse effects of dimensional uncertainties of an HTS insert assembled with double-pancake coils on spatial field homogeneity. Each DP coil was wound with Bi2223 tapes having dimensional tolerances larger than one order of magnitude of those accepted for LTS wires used in conventional NMR magnets. The paper presents: 1) dimensional variations measured in two LTS/HTS NMR magnets, 350 MHz (LH350) and 700 MHz (LH700), both built and operated at the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory; and 2) an analytical technique and its application to elucidate the field impurities measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets. Field impurities computed with the analytical model and those measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets agree quite well, demonstrating that this analytical technique is applicable to design a DP-assembled HTS insert with an improved field homogeneity for a high-field LTS/HTS NMR magnet.

  7. An Analytical Technique to Elucidate Field Impurities From Manufacturing Uncertainties of an Double Pancake Type HTS Insert for High Field LTS/HTS NMR Magnets

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Seung-yong; Ahn, Min Cheol; Bobrov, Emanuel Saul; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses adverse effects of dimensional uncertainties of an HTS insert assembled with double-pancake coils on spatial field homogeneity. Each DP coil was wound with Bi2223 tapes having dimensional tolerances larger than one order of magnitude of those accepted for LTS wires used in conventional NMR magnets. The paper presents: 1) dimensional variations measured in two LTS/HTS NMR magnets, 350 MHz (LH350) and 700 MHz (LH700), both built and operated at the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory; and 2) an analytical technique and its application to elucidate the field impurities measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets. Field impurities computed with the analytical model and those measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets agree quite well, demonstrating that this analytical technique is applicable to design a DP-assembled HTS insert with an improved field homogeneity for a high-field LTS/HTS NMR magnet. PMID:20407595

  8. Novel mono-static arrangement of the ASDEX Upgrade high field side reflectometers compatible with electron cyclotron resonance heating stray radiation.

    PubMed

    Silva, A; Varela, P; Meneses, L; Manso, M

    2012-10-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade frequency modulated continuous wave broadband reflectometer system uses a mono-static antenna configuration with in-vessel hog-horns and 3 dB directional couplers. The operation of the new electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) launcher and the start of collective Thomson scattering experiments caused several events where the fragile dummy loads inside the high field side directional couplers were damaged, due to excessive power resulting from the ECRH stray fields. In this paper, we present a non-conventional application of the existing three-port directional coupler that hardens the system to the ECRH stray fields and at the same time generates the necessary reference signal. Electromagnetic simulations and laboratory tests were performed to validate the proposed solution and are compared with the in-vessel calibration tests.

  9. High-field (11.75T) multimodal MR imaging of exercising hindlimb mouse muscles using a non-invasive combined stimulation and force measurement device.

    PubMed

    Gondin, Julien; Vilmen, Christophe; Cozzone, Patrick J; Bendahan, David; Duhamel, Guillaume

    2014-08-01

    We have designed and constructed an experimental set-up allowing electrical stimulation of hindlimb mouse muscles and the corresponding force measurements at high-field (11.75T). We performed high-resolution multimodal MRI (including T2 -weighted imaging, angiography and diffusion) and analysed the corresponding MRI changes in response to a stimulation protocol. Mice were tested twice over a 1-week period to investigate the reliability of mechanical measurements and T2 changes associated with the stimulation protocol. Additionally, angiographic images were obtained before and immediately after the stimulation protocol. Finally, multislice diffusion imaging was performed before, during and immediately after the stimulation session. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated on the basis of diffusion weighted images (DWI). Both force production and T2 values were highly reproducible as illustrated by the low coefficient of variation (<8%) and high intraclass correlation coefficient (≥0.75) values. Maximum intensity projection angiographic images clearly showed a strong vascular effect resulting from the stimulation protocol. Although a motion sensitive imaging sequence was used (echo planar imaging) and in spite of the strong muscle contractions, motion artifacts were minimal for DWI recorded under exercising conditions, thereby underlining the robustness of the measurements. Mean ADC values increased under exercising conditions and were higher during the recovery period as compared with the corresponding control values. The proposed experimental approach demonstrates accurate high-field multimodal MRI muscle investigations at a preclinical level which is of interest for monitoring the severity and/or the progression of neuromuscular diseases but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Common File Formats.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  11. Transsphenoidal pituitary macroadenomas resection guided by PoleStar N20 low-field intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging: comparison with early postoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin-Song; Shou, Xue-Fei; Yao, Cheng-Jun; Wang, Yong-Fei; Zhuang, Dong-Xiao; Mao, Ying; Li, Shi-Qi; Zhou, Liang-Fu

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the applicability of low-field intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) during transsphenoidal surgery of pituitary macroadenomas. Fifty-five transsphenoidal surgeries were performed for macroadenomas (modified Hardy's Grade II-IV) resections. All of the surgical processes were guided by real-time updated contrast T1-weighted coronal and sagittal images, which were acquired with 0.15 Tesla PoleStar N20 iMRI (Medtronic Navigation, Louisville, CO). The definitive benefits as well as major drawbacks of low-field iMRI in transsphenoidal surgery were assessed with respect to intraoperative imaging, tumor resection control, comparison with early postoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging, and follow-up outcomes. Intraoperative imaging revealed residual tumor and guided extended tumor resection in 17 of 55 cases. As a result, the percentage of gross total removal of macroadenomas increased from 58.2% to 83.6%. The accuracy of imaging evaluation of low-field iMRI was 81.8%, compared with early postoperative high-field MRI (Correlation coefficient, 0.677; P < 0.001). A significantly lower accuracy was identified with low-field iMRI in 6 cases with cavernous sinus invasion (33.3%) in contrast to the 87.8% found with other sites (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.001). The PoleStar N20 low-field iMRI navigation system is a promising tool for safe, minimally invasive, endonasal, transsphenoidal pituitary macroadenomas resection. It enables neurosurgeons to control the extent of tumor resection, particularly for suprasellar tumors, ensuring surgical accuracy and safety, and leading to a decreased likelihood of repeat surgeries. However, this technology is still not satisfying in estimating the amount of the parasellar residual tumor invading into cavernous sinus, given the false or uncertain images generated by low-field iMRI in this region, which are difficult to discriminate between tumor remnant and blood within the venous sinus.

  12. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    PubMed Central

    Crable, Bryan R.; Plugge, Caroline M.; McInerney, Michael J.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production. PMID:21687599

  13. Development of high field SQUID magnetometer for magnetization studies up to 7 T and temperatures in the range from 4.2 to 300 K

    SciTech Connect

    Nagendran, R.; Thirumurugan, N.; Chinnasamy, N.; Janawadkar, M. P.; Sundar, C. S.

    2011-01-15

    We present the design, fabrication, integration, testing, and calibration of a high field superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The system is based on dc SQUID sensor with flux locked loop readout electronics. The design is modular and all the subsystems have been fabricated in the form of separate modules in order to simplify the assembly and for ease of maintenance. A novel feature of the system is that the current induced in the pickup loop is distributed as inputs to two different SQUID sensors with different strengths of coupling in order to improve the dynamic range of the system. The SQUID magnetometer has been calibrated with yttrium iron garnet (YIG) sphere as a standard reference material. The calibration factor was determined by fitting the measured flux profile of the YIG sphere to that expected for a point dipole. Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} was also used as another reference material for the calibration and the effective magnetic moment of the Gd{sup 3+} could be evaluated from the temperature dependent magnetization measurements. The sensitivity of the system has been estimated to be about 10{sup -7} emu at low magnetic fields and about 10{sup -5} emu at high magnetic fields {approx}7 T.

  14. Trace level impurity method development with high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry: systematic study of factors affecting the performance.

    PubMed

    Champarnaud, Elodie; Laures, Alice M-F; Borman, Phil J; Chatfield, Marion J; Kapron, James T; Harrison, Mark; Wolff, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    For the determination of trace level impurities, analytical chemists are confronted with complex mixtures and difficult separations. New technologies such as high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) have been developed to make their work easier; however, efficient method development and troubleshooting can be quite challenging if little prior knowledge of the factors or their settings is available. We present the results of an investigation performed in order to obtain a better understanding of the FAIMS technology. The influence of eight factors (polarity of dispersion voltage, outer bias voltage, total gas flow rate, composition of the carrier gas (e.g. %He), outer electrode temperature, ratio between the temperatures of the inner and outer electrodes, flow rate and composition of the make-up mobile phase) was assessed. Five types of responses were monitored: value of the compensation voltage (CV), intensity, width and asymmetry of the compensation voltage peak, and resolution between two peaks. Three types of studies were performed using different test mixtures and various ionisation modes to assess whether the same conclusions could be drawn across these conditions for a number of different types of compounds. To extract the maximum information from as few experiments as possible, a Design of Experiment (DoE) approach was used. The results presented in this work provide detailed information on the factors affecting FAIMS separations and therefore should enable the user to troubleshoot more effectively and to develop efficient methods.

  15. Isolation and structure elucidation of a highly haemolytic saponin from the Merck saponin extract using high-field gradient-enhanced NMR techniques.

    PubMed

    Delay, C; Gavin, J A; Aumelas, A; Bonnet, P A; Roumestand, C

    1997-07-11

    Saponins SAPO50 and SAPO30, of which SAPO50 is highly haemolytic, have been isolated from the commercial Merck Saponin. Their structures have been determined exclusively by high-field gradient-enhanced NMR methods. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of these saponins in pyridine-deuterium oxide have been assigned by homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation experiments. Anomeric configurations were obtained by combined use of 1JCH, 3JH-1.H-2, and 1D-NOESY data. Sugar residues were identified by use of 3JHH values obtained from their subspectra recorded using an optimized 1D-zeta-TOCSY sequence. Linkage assignments were made using the ge-HMBC and 1D-NOESY spectra. This study shows that SAPO50 represents a hitherto undescribed saponin with the following structure: 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[beta-D-galactopyranosyl- (1-->2)]-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl gypsogenin 28-O-(6-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-(1-->4)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1--> 3)- beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D- fucopyranoside. SAPO30, however, corresponds to a saponin previously described [D. Frechet, B. Christ, B. Monegier du Sorbier, H. Fischer, and M. Vuilhorgne, Phytochemistry, 30 (1991) 927-931].

  16. Studying cyto and myeloarchitecture of the human cortex at ultra-high field with quantitative imaging: R1, R2(*) and magnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Marques, José P; Khabipova, Diana; Gruetter, Rolf

    2017-02-15

    In this manuscript, the use of quantitative imaging at ultra-high field is evaluated as a mean to study cyto and myelo-architecture of the cortex. The quantitative contrasts used are the longitudinal relaxation rate (R1), apparent transverse relaxation rate (R2(*)) and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). The quantitative contrasts were computed using high resolution in-vivo (0.65mm isotropic) brain data acquired at 7T. The performance of the different quantitative approaches was evaluated by visualizing the contrast between known highly myelinated primary sensory cortex regions and the neighbouring cortex. The transition from the inner layers to the outer layers (from white matter to the pial surface) of the human cortex, which is known to have varying cyto- and myelo architecture, was evaluated. The across cortex and through depth behaviour observed for the different quantitative maps was in good agreement between the different subjects, clearly allowing the differentiation between different Brodmann regions, suggesting these features could be used for individual cortical brain parcellation. While both R1 and R2(*) maps decrease monotonically from the white matter to the pial surface due to the decrease of myelin and iron between these regions, magnetic susceptibility maps have a more complex behaviour reflecting its opposing sensitivity to myelin and iron concentration.

  17. Protein Immobilization Capabilities of Sucrose and Trehalose Glasses: The Effect of Protein/Sugar Concentration Unraveled by High-Field EPR.

    PubMed

    Malferrari, Marco; Savitsky, Anton; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Möbius, Klaus; Venturoli, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Disaccharide glasses are increasingly used to immobilize proteins at room temperature for structural/functional studies and long-term preservation. To unravel the molecular basis of protein immobilization, we studied the effect of sugar/protein concentration ratios in trehalose or sucrose matrixes, in which the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center (RC) was embedded as a model protein. The structural, dynamical, and H-bonding characteristics of the sugar-protein systems were probed by high-field W-band EPR of a matrix-dissolved nitroxide radical. We discovered that RC immobilization and thermal stabilization, being independent of the protein concentration in trehalose, occur in sucrose only at sufficiently low sugar/protein ratios. EPR reveals that only under such conditions does sucrose form a microscopically homogeneous matrix that immobilizes, via H-bonds, the nitroxide probe. We conclude that the protein immobilization capability depends critically on the propensity of the glass-forming sugar to create intermolecular H-bond networks, thus establishing long-range, homogeneous connectivity within the matrix.

  18. Low-field and high-field magnetic resonance contrast imaging of magnetoferritin as a pathological model system of iron accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strbak, Oliver; Balejcikova, Lucia; Baciak, Ladislav; Kovac, Jozef; Masarova-Kozelova, Marta; Krafcik, Andrej; Dobrota, Dusan; Kopcansky, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Various pathological processes including neurodegenerative disorders are associated with the accumulation of iron, while it is believed that a precursor of iron accumulation is ferritin. Physiological ferritin is due to low relaxivity, which results in only weak detection by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. On the other hand, pathological ferritin is associated with disrupted iron homeostasis and structural changes in the mineral core, and should increase the hypointensive artefacts in MRI. On the basis of recent findings in respect to the pathological ferritin structure, we prepared the magnetoferritin particles as a possible pathological ferritin model system. The particles were characterised with dynamic light scattering, as well as with superconducting quantum interference device measurements. With the help of low-field (0.2 T) and high-field (4.7 T) MRI standard T 2-weighted protocols we found that it is possible to clearly distinguish between native ferritin as a physiological model system, and magnetoferritin as a pathological model system. Surprisingly, the T 2-weighted short TI inversion recovery protocol at low-field system showed the optimum contrast differentiation. Such findings are highly promising for exploiting the use of iron accumulation as a noninvasive diagnostics tool of pathological processes, where the magnetoferritin particles could be utilised as MRI iron quantification calibration samples.

  19. Ultra-high field MTR and qR2* differentiates subpial cortical lesions from normal-appearing gray matter in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Laura E; Fleysher, Lazar; Steenwijk, Martijn D; Koeleman, Jan A; de Snoo, Teun-Pieter; Barkhof, Frederik; Inglese, Matilde; Geurts, Jeroen Jg

    2016-09-01

    Cortical gray matter (GM) demyelination is frequent and clinically relevant in multiple sclerosis (MS). Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI) sequences such as magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and quantitative R2* (qR2*) can capture pathological subtleties missed by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. Although differences in MTR and qR2* have been reported between lesional and non-lesional tissue, differences between lesion types or lesion types and myelin density matched normal-appearing gray matter (NAGM) have not been found or investigated. Identify quantitative differences in histopathologically verified GM lesion types and matched NAGM at ultra-high field strength. Using 7T post-mortem MRI, MRI lesions were marked on T2 images and co-registered to the calculated MTR and qR2* maps for further evaluation. In all, 15 brain slices were collected, containing a total of 74 cortical GM lesions and 45 areas of NAGM. Intracortical lesions had lower MTR and qR2* values compared to NAGM. Type I lesions showed lower MTR than type III lesions. Type III lesions showed lower MTR than matched NAGM, and type I and IV lesions showed lower qR2* than matched NAGM. qMRI at 7T can provide additional information on extent of cortical pathology, especially concerning subpial lesions. This may be relevant for monitoring disease progression and potential treatment effects. © The Author(s), 2015.

  20. High field magnetic transitions in the mixed holmium-yttrium iron garnet Ho(0.43)Y(2.57)Fe(5)O(12).

    PubMed

    Bouguerra, A; Khène, S; de Brion, S; Chouteau, G; Fillion, G

    2005-01-12

    High static magnetic field magnetization measurements have been performed up to 23 T on Ho(0.43)Y(2.57)Fe(5)O(12) single crystals at helium temperature (T = 4.2 K) with fields applied along the three main cubic axes: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. The change from the spontaneous ferrimagnetic structure in zero magnetic field to the fully ferromagnetic one in high field takes place through several intermediate phases separated by transitions with step-like magnetization behaviour, but without any observed hysteresis. Using the effective spin Hamiltonian approximation, we show that the general features of these transitions can be accounted for by a large magnetocristalline anisotropy of the Ho(3+) moments of the uniaxial type along the local z axis of each rare-earth site. The model is in better agreement with the experiments than its Ising limit, widely used before, but is still unsuccessful in predicting the 'umbrella' magnetic structures found by previous neutron and NMR experiments.