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Sample records for high-field proton magnetic

  1. Detection of intramyocardial hemorrhage using high-field proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lotan, C.S.; Miller, S.K.; Bouchard, A.; Cranney, G.B.; Reeves, R.C.; Bishop, S.P.; Elgavish, G.A.; Pohost, G.M. )

    1990-07-01

    Proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging has been used to define zones of myocardial infarction (MI), which appear as areas of relatively increased signal intensity (SI). However, zones of decreased SI have been observed within the areas of infarction and have been postulated to result from intramyocardial hemorrhage. To explore this phenomenon further, ex vivo spin-echo 1H NMR imaging at 1.5 Tesla was performed in 17 dogs after 24 hr (n = 9) and after 72 hr (n = 8) of coronary artery occlusion. In all dogs, a zone of increased SI (118 +/- 9% compared with normal myocardium) was observed in the distribution of the occluded coronary artery. In 12 of the 17 dogs, zones of decreased SI (92 +/- 8% compared with normal) were seen within or around the central zone of increased SI. Gross inspection and histological assessment of sliced myocardium usually disclosed hemorrhage in the regions of decreased SI. In three of the five dogs with no apparent zones of decreased SI on NMR, the infarct was small, and only minor hemorrhage was observed by gross inspection, whereas in the remaining two dogs no hemorrhage was seen. Myocardial flow in the hemorrhagic regions was significantly higher than in the necrotic core (59 +/- 29% vs. 31 +/- 24% compared with control, P less than 0.05). Image-derived calculation of T2 relaxation times in the different infarcted regions revealed a significant shortening of T2 in the infarcted hemorrhagic zones with decreased SI compared with the infarct zones with increased SI (49 +/- 8 msec vs. 66 +/- 8 msec, P less than 0.05).

  2. Multicomponent analysis of radiolytic products in human body fluids using high field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grootveld, Martin C.; Herz, Herman; Haywood, Rachel; Hawkes, Geoffrey E.; Naughton, Declan; Perera, Anusha; Knappitt, Jacky; Blake, David R.; Claxson, Andrew W. D.

    1994-05-01

    High field proton Hahn spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been employed to investigate radiolytic damage to biomolecules present in intact human body fluids. γ-Radiolysis of healthy or rheumatoid human serum (5.00 kGy) in the presence of atmospheric O 2 gave rise to reproducible elevations in the concentration of NMR-detectable acetate which are predominantly ascribable to the prior oxidation of lactate to pyruvate by hydroxyl radical (·OH) followed by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate by radiolytically-generated hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) and/or further ·OH radical. Increases in the serum levels of non-protein-bound, low-molecular-mass components such as citrate and glutamine were also observed subsequent to γ-radiolysis, an observation which may reflect their mobilisation from protein binding-sites by ·OH radical, superoxide anion and/or H 2O 2. Moreover, substantial radiolytically-mediated elevations in the concentration of serum formate were also detectable. In addition to the above modifications, γ-radiolysis of inflammatory knee-joint synovial fluid (SF) generated a low-molecular-mass oligosaccharide species derived from the radiolytic fragmentation of hyaluronate. The radiolytically-mediated production of acetate in SF samples was markedly greater than that observed in serum samples, a consequence of the much higher levels of ·OH radical-scavenging lactate present. Indeed, increases in SF acetate concentration were detectable at doses as low as 48 Gy. We conclude that high field proton NMR analysis provides much useful information regarding the relative radioprotectant abilities of endogenous components and the nature, status and levels of radiolytic products generated in intact biofluids. We also suggest that NMR-detectable radiolytic products with associated toxicological properties (e.g. formate) may play a role in contributing to the deleterious effects observed following exposure of living organisms to sources of

  3. High field superconducting magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.

  4. Space applications of superconductivity - High field magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fickett, F. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses developments in superconducting magnets and their applications in space technology. Superconducting magnets are characterized by high fields (to 15T and higher) and high current densities combined with low mass and small size. The superconducting materials and coil design are being improved and new high-strength composites are being used for magnet structural components. Such problems as maintaining low cooling temperatures (near 4 K) for long periods of time and degradation of existing high-field superconductors at low strain levels can be remedied by research and engineering. Some of the proposed space applications of superconducting magnets include: cosmic ray analysis with magnetic spectrometers, energy storage and conversion, energy generation by magnetohydrodynamic and thermonuclear fusion techniques, and propulsion. Several operational superconducting magnet systems are detailed.

  5. Single-layer high field dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Vadim V. Kashikhin and Alexander V. Zlobin

    2001-07-30

    Fermilab is developing high field dipole magnets for post-LHC hadron colliders. Several designs with a nominal field of 10-12 T, coil bore size of 40-50 mm based on both shell-type and block-type coil geometry are currently under consideration. This paper presents a new approach to magnet design, based on simple and robust single-layer coils optimized for the maximum field, good field quality and minimum number of turns.

  6. Strain sensors for high field pulse magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Christian; Zheng, Yan; Easton, Daniel; Farinholt, Kevin M; Park, Gyuhae

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an investigation into several strain sensing technologies that are being considered to monitor mechanical deformation within the steel reinforcement shells used in high field pulsed magnets. Such systems generally operate at cryogenic temperatures to mitigate heating issues that are inherent in the coils of nondestructive, high field pulsed magnets. The objective of this preliminary study is to characterize the performance of various strain sensing technologies at liquid nitrogen temperatures (-196 C). Four sensor types are considered in this investigation: fiber Bragg gratings (FBG), resistive foil strain gauges (RFSG), piezoelectric polymers (PVDF), and piezoceramics (PZT). Three operational conditions are considered for each sensor: bond integrity, sensitivity as a function of temperature, and thermal cycling effects. Several experiments were conducted as part of this study, investigating adhesion with various substrate materials (stainless steel, aluminum, and carbon fiber), sensitivity to static (FBG and RFSG) and dynamic (RFSG, PVDF and PZT) load conditions, and sensor diagnostics using PZT sensors. This work has been conducted in collaboration with the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), and the results of this study will be used to identify the set of sensing technologies that would be best suited for integration within high field pulsed magnets at the NHMFL facility.

  7. Structural alloys for high field superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1985-08-01

    Research toward structural alloys for use in high field superconducting magnets is international in scope, and has three principal objectives: the selection or development of suitable structural alloys for the magnet support structure, the identification of mechanical phenomena and failure modes that may influence service behavior, and the design of suitable testing procedures to provide engineering design data. This paper reviews recent progress toward the first two of these objectives. The structural alloy needs depend on the magnet design and superconductor type and differ between magnets that use monolithic and those that employ force-cooled or ICCS conductors. In the former case the central requirement is for high strength, high toughness, weldable alloys that are used in thick sections for the magnet case. In the latter case the need is for high strength, high toughness alloys that are used in thin welded sections for the conductor conduit. There is productive current research on both alloy types. The service behavior of these alloys is influenced by mechanical phenomena that are peculiar to the magnet environment, including cryogenic fatigue, magnetic effects, and cryogenic creep. The design of appropriate mechanical tests is complicated by the need for testing at 4/sup 0/K and by rate effects associated with adiabatic heating during the tests. 46 refs.

  8. A high-field superferric NMR magnet.

    PubMed

    Huson, F R; Bryan, R N; MacKay, W W; Herrick, R C; Colvin, J; Ford, J J; Pissanetzky, S; Plishker, G A; Rocha, R; Schmidt, W

    1993-01-01

    Strong, extensive magnetic fringe fields are a significant problem with magnetic resonance imaging magnets. This is particularly acute with 4-T, whole-body research magnets. To date this problem has been addressed by restricting an extensive zone around the unshielded magnet or by placing external unsaturated iron shielding around the magnet. This paper describes a solution to this problem which uses superconducting coils closely integrated with fully saturated iron elements. A 4-T, 30-cm-bore prototype, based on this design principle, was built and tested. The 5 G fringe field is contained within 1 meter of the magnet bore along the z axis. Homogeneity of the raw magnetic field is 10 ppm over 30% of the magnet's diameter after passive shimming. Compared with an unshielded magnet, 20% less superconductor is required to generate the magnetic field. Images and spectra are presented to demonstrate the magnet's viability for magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.

  9. High Field Pulse Magnets with New Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Lesch, B.; Cochran, V. G.; Eyssa, Y.; Tozer, S.; Mielke, C. H.; Rickel, D.; van Sciver, S. W.; Schneider-Muntau, H. J.

    2004-11-01

    High performance pulse magnets using the combination of CuNb conductor and Zylon fiber composite reinforcement with bore sizes of 24, 15 and 10 mm have been designed, manufactured and tested to destruction. The magnets successfully reached the peak fields of 64, 70 and 77.8 T respectively with no destruction. Failures occurred near the end flanges at the layer. The magnet design, manufacturing and testing, and the mode of the failure are described and analyzed.

  10. High-field superconducting nested coil magnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laverick, C.; Lobell, G. M.

    1970-01-01

    Superconducting magnet, employed in conjunction with five types of superconducting cables in a nested solenoid configuration, produces total, central magnetic field strengths approaching 70 kG. The multiple coils permit maximum information on cable characteristics to be gathered from one test.

  11. High-Field Superconducting Magnets Supporting PTOLEMY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Ann; Luo, Audrey; Osherson, Benjamin; Gentile, Charles; Tully, Chris; Cohen, Adam

    2013-10-01

    The Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe, Massive Neutrino Yield (PTOLEMY) is an experiment planned to collect data on Big Bang relic neutrinos, which are predicted to be amongst the oldest and smallest particles in the universe. Currently, a proof-of-principle prototype is being developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to test key technologies associated with the experiment. A prominent technology in the experiment is the Magnetic Adiabatic Collimation with an Electrostatic Filter (MAC-E filter), which guides tritium betas along magnetic field lines generated by superconducting magnets while deflecting those of lower energies. B field mapping is performed to ensure the magnets produce a minimum field at the midpoint of the configuration of the magnets and to verify accuracy of existing models. Preliminary tests indicate the required rapid decrease in B field strength from the bore of the more powerful 3.35 T magnet, with the field dropping to 0.18 T approximately 0.5 feet from the outermost surface of the magnet.

  12. A compact high field magnetic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haibiao; Wang, Ze; Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou

    2014-12-01

    We present the design and performance of a simple and compact magnetic force microscope (MFM), whose tip-sample coarse approach is implemented by the piezoelectric tube scanner (PTS) itself. In brief, a square rod shaft is axially spring-clamped on the inner wall of a metal tube which is glued inside the free end of the PTS. The shaft can thus be driven by the PTS to realize image scan and inertial stepping coarse approach. To enhance the inertial force, each of the four outer electrodes of the PTS is driven by an independent port of the controller. The MFM scan head is so compact that it can easily fit into the 52mm low temperature bore of a 20T superconducting magnet. The performance of the MFM is demonstrated by imaging a manganite thin film at low temperature and in magnetic fields up to 15T. PMID:25189114

  13. High-field magnetization of Dy2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetization of powdered samples of Dy2O3 has been measured at temperatures between 1.45 deg and 4.2 K, in applied magnetic fields ranging to 7 Teslas. A linear dependence of magnetization on applied field is observable in high field region, the slope of which is independent of temperature over the range investigated. The extrapolated saturation magnetic moment is 2.77 + or - 0.08 Bohr magnetons per ion.

  14. High-field magnetization of Dy2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetization of powdered samples of Dy2O3 has been measured at temperatures between 1.45 and 4.2 K, in applied magnetic fields ranging to 70 kilogauss. A linear dependence of magnetization on applied field is observable in the high-field region, the slope of which is independent of temperature over the range investigated. The extrapolated saturation magnetic moment is about 2.77 Bohr magnetons per ion.

  15. The high field superconducting magnet program at LLNL: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.R.; Chaplin, M.R.; Kerns, J.A.; Leber, R.L.; Rosdahl, A.R.; Slack, D.S.; Summers, L.T.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    1986-12-01

    In FY 86 the program continued along several interrelated thrust areas. These thrust areas have been broadly labeled as follows: (1) Superconductor Research and Technology; (2) Magnet Systems Materials Technology; (3) Magnet Systems Design Technology; (4) High Field Test Facility; and (5) Technology Transfer.

  16. Developments in materials for high-field magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.R.; Hill, M.A.; Walsh, R.P.

    1993-10-01

    Results of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory`s program of characterization of materials and fabrication techniques used in the construction of high-field pulsed magnets are reported. High-field pulsed magnets require conductors with high mechanical strength (750 MPa or greater YS at 77K) and high electrical conductivity (70% IACS or greater at RT). Electrical insulation and resin systems for vacuum impregnation with high compressive strength (500 MPa at 77K) and moderate thermal conductivity (1kW/mK at 77K) are also required. Developments and future plans for the characterization of new magnet material systems are discussed. Testing result are reported: Mechanical and fatigue testing, electrical conductivity testing and thermal expansion measurements of high strength, high conductivity conductors at cryogenic and room temperature, mechanical testing of a coil support material at cryogenic and room temperature, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity tests of an electrical insulating system at cryogenic temperatures.

  17. Superconducting Nb3Ge for high-field magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braginski, A. I.; Daniel, M. R.; Roland, C. W.; Woollam, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Superconducting Nb3Ge tape conductors 5 to 10 m long were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition. Such tapes could be used in high-field magnet applications. Average tape properties set the upper performance limit of a magnet at 17 teslas (4.2 K). Highest critical-current densities obtained in thin and layered films set the upper performance limit at 20 teslas (4.2 K).

  18. High-field Magnet Development toward the High Luminosity LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Apollinari, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    The upcoming Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) will rely on the use of Accelerator Quality Nb3Sn Magnets which have been the focus of an intense R&D effort in the last decade. This contribution will describe the R&D and results of Nb3Sn Accelerator Quality High Field Magnets development efforts, with emphasis on the activities considered for the HL-LHC upgrades.

  19. Survey of high field superconducting material for accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Scahlan, R.; Greene, A.F.; Suenaga, M.

    1986-05-01

    The high field superconductors which could be used in accelerator dipole magnets are surveyed, ranking these candidates with respect to ease of fabrication and cost as well as superconducting properties. Emphasis is on Nb/sub 3/Sn and NbTi. 27 refs., 2 figs. (LEW)

  20. High Field Magnet R&D in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Gourlay, Stephen A.

    2003-06-24

    Accelerator magnet technology is currently dominated by the use of NbTi superconductor. New and more demanding applications for superconducting accelerator magnets require the use of alternative materials. Several programs in the US are taking advantage of recent improvements in Nb{sub 3}Sn to develop high field magnets for new applications. Highlights and challenges of the US R&D program are presented along with the status of conductor development. In addition, a new R&D focus, the US LHC Accelerator Research Program, will be discussed.

  1. Homogenous BSCCO-2212 Round Wires for Very High Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Scott Campbell Dr. Terry Holesinger Dr. Ybing Huang

    2012-06-30

    The performance demands on modern particle accelerators generate a relentless push towards higher field magnets. In turn, advanced high field magnet development places increased demands on superconducting materials. Nb3Sn conductors have been used to achieve 16 T in a prototype dipole magnet and are thought to have the capability for {approx}18 T for accelerator magnets (primarily dipoles but also higher order multipole magnets). However there have been suggestions and proposals for such magnets higher than 20 T. The High Energy Physics Community (HEP) has identified important new physics opportunities that are enabled by extremely high field magnets: 20 to 50 T solenoids for muon cooling in a muon collider (impact: understanding of neutrinos and dark matter); and 20+ T dipoles and quadrupoles for high energy hadron colliders (impact: discovery reach far beyond present). This proposal addresses the latest SBIR solicitation that calls for grant applications that seek to develop new or improved superconducting wire technologies for magnets that operate at a minimum of 12 Tesla (T) field, with increases up to 15 to 20 T sought in the near future (three to five years). The long-term development of accelerator magnets with fields greater than 20 T will require superconducting wires having significantly better high-field properties than those possessed by current Nb{sub 3}Sn or other A15 based wires. Given the existing materials science base for Bi-2212 wire processing, we believe that Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212) round wires can be produced in km-long piece lengths with properties suitable to meet both the near term and long term needs of the HEP community. The key advance will be the translation of this materials science base into a robust, high-yield wire technology. While the processing and application of A15 materials have advanced to a much higher level than those of the copper oxide-based, high T{sub c} (HTS) counterparts, the HTS materials have

  2. High-field small animal magnetic resonance oncology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High-field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging and hyperpolarized 13C MRS as well as diffusion-weighted, blood oxygen level dependent contrast imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies.

  3. Voltage spike detection in high field superconducting accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Orris, D.F.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Makulski, A.; Pischalnikov, Y.M.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    A measurement system for the detection of small magnetic flux changes in superconducting magnets, which are due to either mechanical motion of the conductor or flux jump, has been developed at Fermilab. These flux changes are detected as small amplitude, short duration voltage spikes, which are {approx}15mV in magnitude and lasts for {approx}30 {micro}sec. The detection system combines an analog circuit for the signal conditioning of two coil segments and a fast data acquisition system for digitizing the results, performing threshold detection, and storing the resultant data. The design of the spike detection system along with the modeling results and noise analysis will be presented. Data from tests of high field Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets at currents up to {approx}20KA will also be shown.

  4. Stepped Impedance Resonators for High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Akgun, Can E.; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J.; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) multi-element transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections referred to as stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) is investigated. Single element simulation results in free space and in a phantom at 7 tesla (298 MHz) demonstrate the rationale and feasibility of the SIR design strategy. Simulation and image results at 7 tesla in a phantom and human head illustrate the improvements in transmit magnetic field, as well as, RF efficiency (transmit magnetic field versus SAR) when two different SIR designs are incorporated in 8-element volume coil configurations and compared to a volume coil consisting of microstrip elements. PMID:23508243

  5. Ultra-high field magnets for whole-body MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Rory

    2016-09-01

    For whole-body MRI, an ultra-high field (UHF) magnet is currently defined as a system operating at 7 T or above. Over 70 UHF magnets have been built, all with the same technical approach originally developed by Magnex Scientific Ltd. The preferred coil configuration is a compensated solenoid. In this case, the majority of the field is generated by a simple long solenoid that stretches the entire length of the magnet. Additional coils are wound on a separate former outside the main windings with the purpose of balancing the homogeneity. Most of the magnets currently in operation are passively shielded systems where the magnet is surrounded by a steel box of 200–870 tonnes of carbon steel. More recently actively shielded magnets have been built for operation at 7 T; in this case the stray field is controlled by with reverse turns wound on a separate former outside the primary coils. Protection against quench damage is much more complex with an actively shielded magnet design due to the requirement to prevent the stray field from increasing during a quench. In the case of the 7 T 900 magnet this controlled by combining some of the screening coils into each section of the protection circuit. Correction of the field variations caused by manufacturing tolerances and environmental effects are made with a combination of superconducting shims and passive shims. Modern UHF magnets operate in zero boil-off mode with the use of cryocoolers with cooling capacity at 4.2 K. Although there are no cryogen costs associated with normal operation UHF magnets require a significant volume (10 000–20 000 l) of liquid helium for the cool-down. Liquid helium is expensive therefore new methods of cool-down using high-power cryocoolers are being implemented to reduce the requirement.

  6. Ultra-high field magnets for whole-body MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Rory

    2016-09-01

    For whole-body MRI, an ultra-high field (UHF) magnet is currently defined as a system operating at 7 T or above. Over 70 UHF magnets have been built, all with the same technical approach originally developed by Magnex Scientific Ltd. The preferred coil configuration is a compensated solenoid. In this case, the majority of the field is generated by a simple long solenoid that stretches the entire length of the magnet. Additional coils are wound on a separate former outside the main windings with the purpose of balancing the homogeneity. Most of the magnets currently in operation are passively shielded systems where the magnet is surrounded by a steel box of 200-870 tonnes of carbon steel. More recently actively shielded magnets have been built for operation at 7 T; in this case the stray field is controlled by with reverse turns wound on a separate former outside the primary coils. Protection against quench damage is much more complex with an actively shielded magnet design due to the requirement to prevent the stray field from increasing during a quench. In the case of the 7 T 900 magnet this controlled by combining some of the screening coils into each section of the protection circuit. Correction of the field variations caused by manufacturing tolerances and environmental effects are made with a combination of superconducting shims and passive shims. Modern UHF magnets operate in zero boil-off mode with the use of cryocoolers with cooling capacity at 4.2 K. Although there are no cryogen costs associated with normal operation UHF magnets require a significant volume (10 000-20 000 l) of liquid helium for the cool-down. Liquid helium is expensive therefore new methods of cool-down using high-power cryocoolers are being implemented to reduce the requirement.

  7. Developments at the High Field Magnet Laboratory in Nijmegen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perenboom, J. A. A. J.; Maan, J. C.; van Breukelen, M. R.; Wiegers, S. A. J.; den Ouden, A.; Wulffers, C. A.; van der Zande, W. J.; Jongma, R. T.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Redlich, B.

    2013-03-01

    The High Field Magnet Laboratory at the Radboud University Nijmegen is rapidly expanding its capabilities. The developments encompass both organizational changes and new possibilities for research. The organization of the HFML was strengthened as a consequence of stronger participation of the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), and an increase of the core-funding. This change makes that HFML is now considered on a national level as large research facility that operates at an international scale. At the same time work is underway to build new and powerful magnets, and provide electromagnetic radiation for magneto-spectroscopic studies. Electromagnetic radiation in the infrared and far-infrared spectrum will soon be available in the HFML with wavelengths between 3 μm and 1.5 mm, produced by the `FELIX' facility, comprising the long-wavelength free electron laser `FLARE' that in September 2011 produced its first light and the free electron lasers that have been moved from Rijnhuizen to Nijmegen. In magnet technology great strides are made to make magnets available for the user community with unprecedented performance: late in 2012 we hope to commission a new all-resistive magnet system that will generate a steady magnetic field as high as 38 T, by fully exploiting the maximum power of the installation, i.e. 20 MW, and using all available improvements in the design and construction of `Florida-Bitter' resistive magnets. We are also well underway with the design of a 45 T hybrid magnet system, using Nb3Sn superconductors and wind-and-react Cable-in-Conduit technology.

  8. High Field Small Animal Magnetic Resonance Oncology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) imaging, and hyperpolarized 13C MR spectroscopy as well as diffusion-weighted, Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies. PMID:24374985

  9. SKEW QUADRUPOLES IN RHIC DIPOLE MAGNETS AT HIGH FIELDS.

    SciTech Connect

    JAIN, A.; GUPTA, P.; THOMPSON, P.; WANDERER, P.

    1995-06-11

    In the RHIC arc dipoles, the center of the cold mass lies above the center of the cryostat. At the maximum design field, the magnetic flux lines leak through the yoke to the asymmetrically located cryostat, which provides an additional return path. This introduces a systematic top-bottom asymmetry leading to a skew quadrupole term at high fields. A similar asymmetry is also created by any difference in weights of the upper and the lower yoke halves. Data from measurements of several RHIC dipoles are presented to study this effect. In the current production series of the RDIC dipoles, an attempt is made to compensate the effect of the cryostat by an asymmetry in the iron yoke. Seven dipoles with this type of yoke have been cold tested, and show a reduced saturation in the skew quadrupole term, as expected.

  10. Improved capacitive stress transducers for high-field superconducting magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Christopher Pete; Holik, Eddie Frank, III; Jaisle, Andrew; McInturff, A.; McIntyre, P.

    2012-06-01

    High-field (12-18 Tesla) superconducting magnets are required to enable an increase in the energy of future colliders. Such field strength requires the use of Nb3Sn superconductor, which has limited tolerance for compressive and shear strain. A strategy for stress management has been developed at Texas A&M University and is being implemented in TAMU3, a short-model 14 Tesla stress-managed Nb3Sn block dipole. The strategy includes the use of laminar capacitive stress transducers to monitor the stresses within the coil package. We have developed fabrication techniques and fixtures, which improve the reproducibility of the transducer response both at room temperature and during cryogenic operation. This is a report of the status of transducer development.

  11. Graded High Field Nb3Sn Dipole Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.

    2007-06-01

    Dipole magnets with fields beyond 16T will require superconducting coils that are at least 40 mm thick, an applied pres-stress around 150 MPa and a protection scheme for stored energy in the range of 1-2 MJ/m. The coil size will have a direct impact on the overall magnet cost and the stored energy will raise new questions on protection. To reduce coil size and minimize risk, the coil may have to be graded. Grading is achieved by splitting the coil into several layers with current densities that match the short sample field in each layer. Grading, especially at high fields, can be effective; however it will also significantly raise the stress. In this paper we report on the results of a study on the coil size and field relation to that of the stress and stored energy. We then extend the results to graded coils and attempt to address high stress issues and ways to reduce it.

  12. Applications of high dielectric materials in high field magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Kristina Noel

    At high magnetic fields, radiation losses, wavelength effects, self-resonance, and the high resistance of components all contribute to losses in conventional RF MRI coil designs. The hypothesis tested here is that these problems can be combated by the use of high permittivity ceramic materials at high fields. High permittivity ceramic dielectric resonators create strong uniform magnetic fields in compact structures at high frequencies and can potentially solve some of the challenges of high field coil design. In this study NMR probes were constructed for operation at 600 MHz (14.1 Tesla) and 900 MHz (21.1 Tesla) using inductively fed CaTiO3 (relative permittivity of 156-166) cylindrical hollow bore dielectric resonators. The designs showed the electric field is largely confined to the dielectric itself, with near zero values in the hollow bore, which accommodates the sample. The 600 MHz probe has an unmatched Q value greater than 2000. Experimental and simulation mapping of the RF field show good agreement, with the ceramic resonator giving a pulse width approximately 25% less than a loop gap resonator of similar inner dimensions. High resolution images, with voxel dimensions less than 50 microm3, have been acquired from fixed zebrafish samples, showing excellent delineation of several fine structures. The 900 MHz probe has an unmatched Q value of 940 and shows Q performance five times better than Alderman-Grant and loop-gap resonators of similar dimensions. High resolution images were acquired of an excised mouse spinal cord (25 microm 3) and an excised rat soleus muscle (20 microm3). The spatial distribution of electromagnetic fields within the human body can be tailored using external dielectric materials. Here, a new material is introduced with high dielectric constant and low background MRI signal. The material is based upon metal titanates, which can be made into geometrically formable suspensions in de-ionized water. The suspension's material properties are

  13. High Field Magnetization measurements of uranium dioxide single crystals (P08358- E003-PF)

    SciTech Connect

    Gofryk, K.; Harrison, N.; Jaime, M.

    2014-12-01

    Our preliminary high field magnetic measurements of UO2 are consistent with a complex nature of the magnetic ordering in this material, compatible with the previously proposed non-collinear 3-k magnetic structure. Further extensive magnetic studies on well-oriented (<100 > and <111>) UO2 crystals are planned to address the puzzling behavior of UO2 in both antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic states at high fields.

  14. Design for a high field combined function superferric magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R. C.; Morgan, G. H.

    A combined function superferric magnet option was investigated for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The option requires the maximum value of the field in the magnet to be much higher than that achieved in any existing combined function accelerator magnet. A model is presented in which a good field quality can be maintained up to 2T. It is done by carefully designing the yoke structure and positioning the coils in such a way that the iron poles tend to saturate evenly across the gap. A cold iron model might be necessary for this magnet.

  15. Superconductor Requirements and Characterization for High Field Accelerator Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Barzi, E.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    The 2014 Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) strategic plan for U.S. High Energy Physics (HEP) endorses a continued world leadership role in superconducting magnet technology for future Energy Frontier Programs. This includes 10 to 15 T Nb3Sn accelerator magnets for LHC upgrades and a future 100 TeV scale pp collider, and as ultimate goal that of developing magnet technologies above 20 T based on both High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) and Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS) for accelerator magnets. To achieve these objectives, a sound conductor development and characterization program is needed and is herein described. This program is intended to be conducted in close collaboration with U.S. and International labs, Universities and Industry.

  16. Quasi permanent superconducting magnet of very high field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Y.; Liu, J.; Weinstein, R.; Chen, I. G.; Parks, D.; Xu, J.; Obot, V.; Foster, C.

    1993-01-01

    We report on persistent field in a quasi-permanent magnet made of high temperature superconductor. The material has an average of 40 percent molar excess of Y, relative to Y1Ba2Cu3O7 and has been irradiated with high energy light ions at 200 MeV. The magnet, which traps 1.52 T at 77.3 K, traps nearly 4 T at 64.5 K. No evidence of giant flux jump or sample cracking was observed.

  17. Helical Dipole Magnets for Polarized Protons in RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syphers, M.; Courant, E.; Fischer, W.; Luccio, A.; Mariam, F.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Roser, T.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Willen, E.; Katayama, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Kawaguchi, T.; Okamura, M.; Tominaka, T.; Wu, H.; Ptitsin, V.; Shatunov, Y.

    1997-05-01

    The Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will be able to support experiments using polarized proton beams. Siberian Snakes are used to maintain polarization in this high energy superconducting collider. To make efficient use of available space while taking advantage of high field superconducting magnets, 4 Tesla helical dipole magnets will be used. These magnets generate a central dipole field in which the field direction rotates through 360^circ about the longitudinal axis over the length of the device. An arrangement of four such magnets can produce the desired change in the spin direction while keeping the proton orbit outside of the ``Snake'' unaltered. Similar magnet arrangements will be used to produce longitudinal polarization at the two major interaction points in RHIC. The basic requirements and layout of these magnets are described, as well as tolerances on field quality and integrated field strengths. First results of tests of prototype helical magnets will be discussed.

  18. 15 Years of R&D on high field accelerator magnets at FNAL

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Barzi, Emanuela; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2016-07-01

    The High Field Magnet (HFM) Program at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) has been developing Nb3Sn superconducting magnets, materials and technologies for present and future particle accelerators since the late 1990s. This paper summarizes the main results of the Nb3Sn accelerator magnet and superconductor R&D at FNAL and outlines the Program next steps.

  19. Gap Filling Ceramic Insulating Putty for High Field Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, J. A.; Rice, H. M.

    2008-03-01

    Gaps between the A15 superconducting cable and its supports can sometimes occur requiring expensive rework of the support or filling with a non-optimal material. Recently, a new ceramic putty has been developed that can fill these gaps to fully support the superconducting cable. This ceramic material can withstand the extreme temperature differences between the high temperature heat treatment and the cryogenic operation. Significant performance improvements have been made that will enable the insulating putty to be used in some accelerator magnet systems. Processing methods will be discussed as well as strength and thermal data.

  20. Exploration of Traveling Waves in High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Zachary

    2010-10-01

    MRI has been a remarkable means of medical imaging for the last three decades without exposure to ionizing radiation. The increase in MRI signal with the increase of magnetic field strength is the main motive in a move towards imaging at higher field strengths. However, the advent of higher field strength MRI has come with the challenge of maintaining homogeneous excitation fields (B1). One promising solution to this has been to transmit radio-frequency (RF) signals using a patch antenna instead of the usual RF coil. This technique exploits the theory of waveguides and traveling waves typically used in high frequency applications. In this particular study we have investigated this unique application by measuring B1 maps, geometric distortions, and signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in order to better quantify its potential in MRI. Using phantoms to match the similar physical features of the human head/torso region, we ran comparative scans using the traveling wave setup versus the conventional head volume coil setup on a Philips 7 Tesla MRI scanner. The goal of this experiment was to systematically measure B1 maps for flip angle efficiency and multi-planar rendering images for geometric distortion. Although the application of traveling wave in MRI does suffer from low excitation (small flip angles), there seems to be little to no correlation between traveling wave phase variability and frequency/phase encoding. Therefore, further experiments, if carried out, may enhance image quality such as RF shielding, the use of local receive coils, and/or the addition of a second patch antenna.

  1. High-Field Magnetization of the Pyrochlore Compound Gd2Ti2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narumi, Yasuo; Kikkawa, Akiko; Katsumata, Koichi; Honda, Zentaro; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Kindo, Koichi

    2006-09-01

    High-field magnetization measurements have been preformed on a single crystal sample of the pyrochlore compound Gd2Ti2O7 using a pulse magnet in conjunction with a dilution refrigerator. The magnetization curve at 0.3 K reveals two magnetic phase transitions when the magnetic field is applied along b [111]. At temperatures slightly above TN, a magnetization plateau appears around 5 T and the magnetization increases again from about 15 T with a convex curvature. It is considered that this crossover is due to a competition among thermal fluctuations, short-range antiferromagnetic ordering and geometrical frustration.

  2. Very-high-field magnetic resonance imaging: instrumentation and safety issues.

    PubMed

    Kelley, D A; Schenck, J F

    1999-02-01

    Because of their advantage in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, high-field magnetic resonance imaging systems have become favored in the last few years for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) applications. In many ways the conceptual development of these high-field scanners has involved more-or-less straightforward extensions of practices at lower field strengths. However, in other ways specific engineering challenges have been encountered and largely overcome in the quest for scanners capable of realizing the advantages of high-field systems. An understanding of the technical trade-offs that can be made in terms of hardware performance is useful in deciding on the optimum system for a given fMRI application. In this article the technical issues surrounding high-field scanning are reviewed in the context of a typical brain mapping protocol. In addition there is a discussion of the safety issues related to the use of these systems.

  3. Nb$_3$Sn High Field Magnets for the High Luminosity LHC Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The High Luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN requires a new generation of high field superconducting magnets. High field large aperture quadrupoles (MQXF) are needed for the low-beta triplets close to the ATLAS and CMS detectors, and high field two-in-one dipoles (11 T dipoles) are needed to make room for additional collimation. The MQXF quadrupoles, with a field gradient of 140 T/m in 150 mm aperture, have a peak coil field of 12.1 T at nominal current. The 11 T dipoles, with an aperture of 60 mm, have a peak coil field of 11.6 T at nominal current. Both magnets require Nb3Sn conductor and are the first applications of this superconductor to actual accelerator magnets.

  4. New high homogeneity 55T pulsed magnet for high field NMR.

    PubMed

    Orlova, A; Frings, P; Suleiman, M; Rikken, G L J A

    2016-07-01

    Pulsed magnets can produce magnetic fields largely exceeding those achieved with resistive or even hybrid magnets. This kind of magnet is indispensable in studies of field-induced phenomena which occur only in high magnetic field. A new high homogeneous pulsed magnet capable of producing field up to 55T and specially designed for NMR experiments was built and tested. Experimentally observed homogeneity of magnetic field in central part of the magnet is 10ppm over a sample volume of 2-3mm(3) at 12T and 30ppm at 47T, which are the best values ever reported for a pulsed magnet. Reasons which affect the field profile and reduce homogeneity at high field are discussed. PMID:27179456

  5. High-field magnets using high-critical-temperature superconducting thin films

    DOEpatents

    Mitlitsky, Fred; Hoard, Ronald W.

    1994-01-01

    High-field magnets fabricated from high-critical-temperature superconducting ceramic (HTSC) thin films which can generate fields greater than 4 Tesla. The high-field magnets are made of stackable disk-shaped substrates coated with HTSC thin films, and involves maximizing the critical current density, superconducting film thickness, number of superconducting layers per substrate, substrate diameter, and number of substrates while minimizing substrate thickness. The HTSC thin films are deposited on one or both sides of the substrates in a spiral configuration with variable line widths to increase the field.

  6. High-field magnets using high-critical-temperature superconducting thin films

    DOEpatents

    Mitlitsky, F.; Hoard, R.W.

    1994-05-10

    High-field magnets fabricated from high-critical-temperature superconducting ceramic (HTSC) thin films which can generate fields greater than 4 Tesla are disclosed. The high-field magnets are made of stackable disk-shaped substrates coated with HTSC thin films, and involves maximizing the critical current density, superconducting film thickness, number of superconducting layers per substrate, substrate diameter, and number of substrates while minimizing substrate thickness. The HTSC thin films are deposited on one or both sides of the substrates in a spiral configuration with variable line widths to increase the field. 4 figures.

  7. The spheromak as a prototype for ultra-high-field superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Furth, H.P.; Jardin, S.C.

    1987-08-01

    In view of current progress in the development of superconductor materials, the ultimate high-field limit of superconducting magnets is likely to be set by mechanical stress problems. Maximum field strength should be attainable by means of approximately force-free magnet windings having favorable ''MHD'' stability properties (so that small winding errors will not grow). Since a low-beta finite-flux-hole spheromak configuration qualifies as a suitable prototype, the theoretical and experimental spheromak research effort of the past decade has served to create a substantial technical basis for the design of ultra-high-field superconducting coils. 11 refs.

  8. Chemical Principles Revisited. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuarrie, Donald A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how to interpret nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and how to use them to determine molecular structures. This discussion is limited to spectra that are a result of observation of only the protons in a molecule. This type is called proton magnetic resonance (PMR) spectra. (CW)

  9. A Common Coil Design for High Field 2-in-1 Accelerator Magnets^*.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R.

    1997-05-01

    This paper presents a common coil design concept for 2-in-1 superconducting accelerator magnets. It practically eliminates the major problems in the ends of high field magnets built with either high temperature or conventional superconductors. Racetrack coils, consisting of rectangular blocks built with either superconducting cables or tapes, are common to both apertures with each aperture containing one half of each coil. The two apertures are in the same vertical plane in an over-under geometry. A set of common flat coils are placed vertically on left and right side of the two apertures producing field in the opposite directions. The ends are easy to wind with the conductors experiencing little strain. The ends can be fully supported by a simple 2-d geometry to contain the large Lorentz forces. The overall magnet design, construction and tooling are also expected to be simpler than in conventional cosine theta magnets. The block design for high field magnets uses more conductor than the cosine theta design but is preferred for dealing with the large Lorentz forces in the body of the magnet. The concept is also suitable for a variety of other high field superconducting, moderate field superferric, multi-aperture and combined function magnet designs. ^*Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Development of High-Field Permanent Magnetic Circuits for NMRI/MRI and Imaging on Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangxin; Xie, Huantong; Hou, Shulian; Chen, Wei; Yang, Xiuhong

    2016-01-01

    The high-field permanent magnetic circuits of 1.2 T and 1.5 T with novel magnetic focusing and curved-surface correction are developed. The permanent magnetic circuit comprises a magnetic yoke, main magnetic steel, nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles, plugging magnetic steel, and side magnetic steel. In this work, a novel shimming method is proposed for the effective correction of base magnetic field (B 0) inhomogeneities, which is based on passive shimming on the telescope aspheric cutting, grinding, and fine processing technology of the nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles and active shimming adding higher-order gradient coils. Meanwhile, the magnetic resonance imaging dedicated alloy with high-saturation magnetic field induction intensity and high electrical resistivity is developed, and nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles which are made of the dedicated alloy have very good anti-eddy-current effect. In addition, the large temperature coefficient problem of permanent magnet can be effectively controlled by using a high quality temperature controller and deuterium external locking technique. Combining our patents such as gradient coil, RF coil, and integration computer software, two kinds of small animal Micro-MRI instruments are developed, by which the high quality MRI images of mice were obtained. PMID:27034951

  11. Development of High-Field Permanent Magnetic Circuits for NMRI/MRI and Imaging on Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangxin; Xie, Huantong; Hou, Shulian; Chen, Wei; Yang, Xiuhong

    2016-01-01

    The high-field permanent magnetic circuits of 1.2 T and 1.5 T with novel magnetic focusing and curved-surface correction are developed. The permanent magnetic circuit comprises a magnetic yoke, main magnetic steel, nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles, plugging magnetic steel, and side magnetic steel. In this work, a novel shimming method is proposed for the effective correction of base magnetic field (B0) inhomogeneities, which is based on passive shimming on the telescope aspheric cutting, grinding, and fine processing technology of the nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles and active shimming adding higher-order gradient coils. Meanwhile, the magnetic resonance imaging dedicated alloy with high-saturation magnetic field induction intensity and high electrical resistivity is developed, and nonspherical curved-surface magnetic poles which are made of the dedicated alloy have very good anti-eddy-current effect. In addition, the large temperature coefficient problem of permanent magnet can be effectively controlled by using a high quality temperature controller and deuterium external locking technique. Combining our patents such as gradient coil, RF coil, and integration computer software, two kinds of small animal Micro-MRI instruments are developed, by which the high quality MRI images of mice were obtained. PMID:27034951

  12. Numerical simulation of screening current distribution in HTS tape of high field magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Ryusei; Oga, Yuki; Noguchi, So; Igarashi, Hajime; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, properties of high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes, especially in-field performance and mechanical strength, have been continuously improved. The HTS tapes have been widely used for high field (>20 T) magnet researches and there are several technical challenges including field attenuation of an HTS magnet by screening currents induced within the HTS tapes. Several publications reported that the screening currents, induced by penetration of self magnetic fields into HTS tapes within an HTS magnet, weakened a field constant of the HTS magnet. The result may demonstrate that the screening current changes an overall current density distribution in HTS tapes and, as a consequence, the generated magnetic field. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the screening current distribution in an HTS tape. This paper reports numerical simulation of the screening current distribution in an HTS tape of high field magnets using 2D finite element method with the E-J characteristic of the HTS tape taken into account. Self magnetic field distribution and its orientation to the HTS tape are also considered to compute critical currents and locally generated electric fields, two key components to figure out the distribution of screening currents.

  13. Light weight, high field, stable, superconducting magnets for advanced transportation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lubell, M.S.; Dresner, L.; Kenney, W.J.; Lue, J.W.; Luton, J.N.; Schwenterly, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    Although the Guideway may be the most expensive component of a MAGLEV system, the importance of a suitable magnet system should not be underestimated. The reliability of operation of MAGLEV depends on the superconducting magnets performing to their specifications in a reliable manner (i.e., without training or quenching). Besides reliability the magnets should produce high field, be sufficiently stable to withstand reasonable perturbations, be light weight, be protected in the event of a quench, and be economical (although performance should outweigh cost). We propose to develop superconducting magnets that have these features. Our magnet designs are based on internally cooled, cable-in-conduit superconductor with Polymer Matrix Composites (PMC) as the structural reinforcement. Although the initial work is with metallic superconductors such as NbTi, the processes being developed will be applicable to the High Temperature Ceramic Superconductors when they become suitable for magnet applications.

  14. The design and construction of high field-uniformity permanent magnet system for MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Z.X.; Jiang, X.H.; Han, S. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the permanent magnet system used for MRI has some advantages: the lower cost/field ratio in the range of magnetic field 1.5-3.0 kG; no need power supply and cryogenic equipment. So, the MRI device with a permanent magnet system has marketable value. The MRI device requires a high field-uniformity magnet system. The necessary field-uniformity is better than several tens of ppm in a 30 cm diameter spherical volume. Generally, the shim coils can be used for correcting the magnetic field in working area, but the authors developed a passive method to correct the field-uniformity. First, the specially designed ferromagnetic pole pieces are disposed onto the surfaces of the main permanent magnet poles to improve the field-uniformity preliminarily. Then, the necessary field-uniformity will be obtained by using the magneto-dipoles which are suitably placed in the field domain.

  15. Magnets for high intensity proton synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Jean-Francois Ostiguy, Vladimir Kashikhine and Alexander Makarov

    2002-09-19

    Recently, there has been considerable interest at Fermilab for the Proton Driver, a future high intensity proton machine. Various scenarios are under consideration, including a superconducting linac. Each scenario present some special challenges. We describe here the magnets proposed in a recent study, the Proton Driver Study II, which assumes a conventional warm synchrotron, roughly of the size of the existing FNAL booster, but capable of delivering 380 kW at 8 GeV.

  16. Development of superconducting magnet for high-field MR systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zanming; van Oort, Johannes M.; Zou, Mark X.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we describe the development of superconducting magnets for high-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) by various businesses and institutions in China. As the Chinese MR market rapidly expands, many foreign and domestic companies and research institutions are joining the race to meet the burgeoning demand by developing key MRI components for various magnetic field configurations. After providing a brief introduction to research on MRI superconducting magnets that dates back to the 1980s, the first large-bore 1.5 T superconducting magnet with 50-cm DSV for whole-body MRI - successfully developed and manufactured by AllTech Medical Systems in Chengdu, China-is presented and its specifications are described.

  17. High field superconducting magnets (12 T and greater) for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.R.; Summers, L.T.; Kerns, J.A.

    1986-07-09

    The technology for producing high fields in large superconducting magnets has increased greatly in recent years, but must increase still more in the future. In this paper, we examine the present state of the art vis-a-vis the needs of a next-generation fusion machine and outline a program to provide for those needs. We also highlight recent developments that suggest the program goals are within reach.

  18. Magnetic properties of natural and synthetic olivines: high-field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferre, E. C.; Martin-Hernandez, F.

    2004-12-01

    Olivine [(Fex, Mg1-x)2 SiO4] is an orthosilicate solid solution between fayalite [Fe2 SiO4] and forsterite [Mg2 SiO4]. Olivine is a major constituent of the Earth mantle that is abundant in oceanic and continental peridotites and mantle xenoliths. The magnetic properties of olivines have been previously investigated using gem quality natural crystals known as peridots (Zabargad) or using laboratory grown synthetic crystals. Magnetic investigations are generally performed using low magnetic field or neutron diffraction techniques. Optical microscopy and TEM imagery reveal that most olivine crystals host iron oxides formed by exsolution during cooling. Theoretically, the magnetic susceptibility of olivine should decrease linearly from fayalite to fayalite as a function of the Fe content. The magnetic behavior should range from antiferromagnetic at high Fe content, paramagnetic at intermediate Fe contents and diamagnetic at very low Fe contents. New magnetic measurements, performed on various high field instruments (vibrating sample magnetometer, torque magnetometer, cantilever magnetometer), both on natural and synthetic samples, display ferromagnetic behavior, interpreted as due to the systematic presence of titanomagnetite inclusions in olivine crystals. These results emphasize the need to conduct measurements in high field in order to isolate the intrinsic paramagnetic properties of olivines. These measurements demonstrate the orthorhombic nature of the intrinsic paramagnetic properties, but also yield new data concerning the relationship between crystallographic axes, magnetic anisotropy and other physical anisotropies: [100] = K1, [010] = K2 and [001] = K3. Preliminary results also indicate substantial variations in degree of paramagnetic anisotropy (P) and paramagnetic shape factor (T). For Fo92, P = 1.359 and T = -0.845. These intrinsic paramagnetic properties are used to model the magnetic behavior of olivine across a range of temperatures relevant to

  19. Magnetism in CeRhIn5 at high fields measured by NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mounce, A. M.; Ronning, F.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P. L.

    2015-03-01

    De Haas-van Alphen measurements of CeRhIn5 at ambient pressure show an abrupt change in the Fermi surface volume at high fields, H* ~ 30 T, and low temperatures resulting in antiferromagnetic phases with a small Fermi surface at fields below H* and a large Fermi surface at fields H such that H* < H < 50 T. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is the ideal probe for these magnetic states as the microscopic details are still lacking. Our preliminary NMR measurements find the magnetic order for H ∥ c is incommensurate up to 30 T as opposed to H ⊥ c which transitions from incommensurate to commensurate at H ~ 2 T. Furthermore, we find that the magnetic moment decreases near 17 T for H ∥ c . These measurements provide an insight into the magnetic anisotropy of CeRhIn5 and are a crucial step to studying its high field phases. Work at Los Alamos was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Materials and Engineering.

  20. Formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs from common envelopes.

    PubMed

    Nordhaus, Jason; Wellons, Sarah; Spiegel, David S; Metzger, Brian D; Blackman, Eric G

    2011-02-22

    The origin of highly magnetized white dwarfs has remained a mystery since their initial discovery. Recent observations indicate that the formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs is intimately related to strong binary interactions during post-main-sequence phases of stellar evolution. If a low-mass companion, such as a planet, brown dwarf, or low-mass star, is engulfed by a post-main-sequence giant, gravitational torques in the envelope of the giant lead to a reduction of the companion's orbit. Sufficiently low-mass companions in-spiral until they are shredded by the strong gravitational tides near the white dwarf core. Subsequent formation of a super-Eddington accretion disk from the disrupted companion inside a common envelope can dramatically amplify magnetic fields via a dynamo. Here, we show that these disk-generated fields are sufficiently strong to explain the observed range of magnetic field strengths for isolated, high-field magnetic white dwarfs. A higher-mass binary analogue may also contribute to the origin of magnetar fields. PMID:21300910

  1. Formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs from common envelopes.

    PubMed

    Nordhaus, Jason; Wellons, Sarah; Spiegel, David S; Metzger, Brian D; Blackman, Eric G

    2011-02-22

    The origin of highly magnetized white dwarfs has remained a mystery since their initial discovery. Recent observations indicate that the formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs is intimately related to strong binary interactions during post-main-sequence phases of stellar evolution. If a low-mass companion, such as a planet, brown dwarf, or low-mass star, is engulfed by a post-main-sequence giant, gravitational torques in the envelope of the giant lead to a reduction of the companion's orbit. Sufficiently low-mass companions in-spiral until they are shredded by the strong gravitational tides near the white dwarf core. Subsequent formation of a super-Eddington accretion disk from the disrupted companion inside a common envelope can dramatically amplify magnetic fields via a dynamo. Here, we show that these disk-generated fields are sufficiently strong to explain the observed range of magnetic field strengths for isolated, high-field magnetic white dwarfs. A higher-mass binary analogue may also contribute to the origin of magnetar fields.

  2. Formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs from common envelopes

    PubMed Central

    Nordhaus, Jason; Wellons, Sarah; Spiegel, David S.; Metzger, Brian D.; Blackman, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of highly magnetized white dwarfs has remained a mystery since their initial discovery. Recent observations indicate that the formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs is intimately related to strong binary interactions during post-main-sequence phases of stellar evolution. If a low-mass companion, such as a planet, brown dwarf, or low-mass star, is engulfed by a post-main-sequence giant, gravitational torques in the envelope of the giant lead to a reduction of the companion’s orbit. Sufficiently low-mass companions in-spiral until they are shredded by the strong gravitational tides near the white dwarf core. Subsequent formation of a super-Eddington accretion disk from the disrupted companion inside a common envelope can dramatically amplify magnetic fields via a dynamo. Here, we show that these disk-generated fields are sufficiently strong to explain the observed range of magnetic field strengths for isolated, high-field magnetic white dwarfs. A higher-mass binary analogue may also contribute to the origin of magnetar fields. PMID:21300910

  3. A high-field (30 Tesla) pulsed magnet instrument for single-crystal scattering studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Zahirul; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Narumi, Yasuo; Lang, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    Pulsed magnets have emerged as a viable approach at synchrotron x-ray facilities for studying materials in high magnetic fields. We are developing a new high-field (30 Tesla) pulsed magnet system for single-crystal x-ray diffraction studies. It consists of a single 18mm-bore solenoid, designed and built at Tohoku University using high-tensile-strength and high conductivity CuAg wires. A dual-cryostat scheme has been developed at Advanced Photon Source in order to cool the coil using liquid nitrogen and the sample using a closed-cycle cryostat independently. Liquid nitrogen cooling allows repetition rate of a few minutes for peak fields near 30 Tesla. This scheme is unique in that it allows the applied magnetic field to be parallel to the scattering plane. Time-resolved scattering data are typically collected using a fast one-dimensional strip detector. Opportunities and challenges for experiments and instrumentation will be discussed.

  4. Low magnetic moment PIN diodes for high field MRI surface coils.

    PubMed

    Voskoboynik, Pavel; Joos, Ronald D; Doherty, W E; Goldfarb, Ron B

    2006-12-01

    Positive-intrinsic-negative (PIN) silicon diodes are commonly used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coils to perform active or passive blocking and detuning, or to disable circuit functions. However, diode packages with large magnetic moments are known to cause image artifacts in high field MRI systems. In this study, diode packages with low magnetic moment were designed by compensating components of ferromagnetic nickel and paramagnetic tungsten with diamagnetic silver. The new diodes have an initial positive susceptibility up to fields of 1 T and a negative susceptibility from 1 to 7 T. Their magnetic moments are one to two orders of magnitude smaller than those of standard diodes; moments as small as 20 nJ/T at 7 T were achieved. PMID:17278801

  5. High Field Pulsed Magnets for Neutron Scattering at the Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granroth, G. E.; Lee, J.; Fogh, E.; Christensen, N. B.; Toft-Petersen, R.; Nojiri, H.

    2015-03-01

    A High Field Pulsed Magnet (HFPM) setup, is in use at the Spallation Nuetron Source(SNS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory. With this device, we recently measured the high field magnetic spin structure of LiNiPO4. The results of this study will be highlighted as an example of possible measurements that can be performed with this device. To further extend the HFPM capabilities at SNS, we have learned to design and wind these coils in house. This contribution will summarize the magnet coil design optimization procedure. Specifically by varying the geometry of the multi-layer coil, we arrive at a design that balances the maximum field strength, neutron scattering angle, and the field homogeneity for a specific set of parameters. We will show that a 6.3kJ capacitor bank, can provide a magnetic field as high as 30T for a maximum scattering angle around 40° with homogeneity of +/- 4 % in a 2mm diameter spherical volume. We will also compare the calculations to measurements from a recently wound test coil. This work was supported in part by the Lab Directors' Research and Development Fund of ORNL.

  6. Open half-volume quadrature transverse electromagnetic coil for high-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Peshkovsky, A S; Kennan, R P; Fabry, M E; Avdievich, N I

    2005-04-01

    A half-volume quadrature head transverse electromagnetic (TEM) coil has been constructed for 4 T imaging applications. This coil produces a sufficiently large homogeneous B(1) field region for the use as a volume coil. It provides superior transmission efficiency, resulting in significantly lower power deposition, as well as greater sensitivity and improved patient comfort and accessibility compared with conventional full-volume coils. Additionally, this coil suppresses the RF penetration artifact that distorts the RF magnetic field profile and alters the intensity in high-field images recorded with linear surface and volume coils. These advantages make it possible to apply this device as an efficient transmit/receive coil for high-field imaging with a restricted field of view.

  7. Characterization of Plasma Discharges in a High-Field Magnetic Tandem Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.

    1998-01-01

    High density magnetized plasma discharges in open-ended geometries, like Tandem Mirrors, have a variety of space applications. Chief among them is the production of variable Specific Impulse (I(sub sp)) and variable thrust in a magnetic nozzle. Our research group is pursuing the experimental characterization of such discharges in our high-field facility located at the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL). These studies focus on identifying plasma stability criteria as functions of density, temperature and magnetic field strength. Plasma heating is accomplished by both Electron and Ion Cyclotron Resonance (ECR and ICR) at frequencies of 2-3 Ghz and 1-30 Mhz respectively, for both Hydrogen and Helium. Electron density and temperature has measured by movable Langmuir probes. Macroscopic plasma stability is being investigated in ongoing research.

  8. Ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging of the basal ganglia and related structures

    PubMed Central

    Plantinga, Birgit R.; Temel, Yasin; Roebroeck, Alard; Uludağ, Kâmil; Ivanov, Dimo; Kuijf, Mark L.; ter Haar Romenij, Bart M.

    2014-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation is a treatment for Parkinson's disease and other related disorders, involving the surgical placement of electrodes in the deeply situated basal ganglia or thalamic structures. Good clinical outcome requires accurate targeting. However, due to limited visibility of the target structures on routine clinical MR images, direct targeting of structures can be challenging. Non-clinical MR scanners with ultra-high magnetic field (7T or higher) have the potential to improve the quality of these images. This technology report provides an overview of the current possibilities of visualizing deep brain stimulation targets and their related structures with the aid of ultra-high field MRI. Reviewed studies showed improved resolution, contrast- and signal-to-noise ratios at ultra-high field. Sequences sensitive to magnetic susceptibility such as T2* and susceptibility weighted imaging and their maps in general showed the best visualization of target structures, including a separation between the subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra, the lamina pallidi medialis and lamina pallidi incompleta within the globus pallidus and substructures of the thalamus, including the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim). This shows that the visibility, identification, and even subdivision of the small deep brain stimulation targets benefit from increased field strength. Although ultra-high field MR imaging is associated with increased risk of geometrical distortions, it has been shown that these distortions can be avoided or corrected to the extent where the effects are limited. The availability of ultra-high field MR scanners for humans seems to provide opportunities for a more accurate targeting for deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease and related disorders. PMID:25414656

  9. The high field superferric magnet Design and test of a new dipole magnet for future hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, John C.; Hinterberger, Henry; Russell Huson, F.; Mackay, William W.; Mann, Thomas L.; McIntyre, Peter M.; Phillips, Gerald C.; Pissanetzky, Sergio; Rocha, Richard; Schmidt, William M.; Shotzman, Garry; Wenzel, William A.; Fen Xie, Wan; Zeigler, John C.

    1988-07-01

    The Texas Accelerator Center has successfully tested a 6 T superferric dipole magnet of a design appropriate for future hadron colliders. The magnet surpassed the design field (90% of the short sample limit) on its first quench without training. The measured field quality is in excellent agreement with design calculations and meets collider requirements. The magnetic field design was developed at Rice University and is the subject of a Master's thesis. The features of the design include simple construction, efficient use of superconductor, and adequate containment of magnetic forces. A straightforward extension of the design to an 8 T dipole is under development. The high-field superferric magnet constitutes a significant improvement in magnet performance and cost for future accelerators.

  10. Stress management as an enabling technology for high-field superconducting dipole magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holik, Eddie Frank, III

    This dissertation examines stress management and other construction techniques as means to meet future accelerator requirement demands by planning, fabricating, and analyzing a high-field, Nb3Sn dipole. In order to enable future fundamental research and discovery in high energy accelerator physics, bending magnets must access the highest fields possible. Stress management is a novel, propitious path to attain higher fields and preserve the maximum current capacity of advanced superconductors by managing the Lorentz stress so that strain induced current degradation is mitigated. Stress management is accomplished through several innovative design features. A block-coil geometry enables an Inconel pier and beam matrix to be incorporated in the windings for Lorentz Stress support and reduced AC loss. A laminar spring between windings and mica paper surrounding each winding inhibit any stress transferral through the support structure and has been simulated with ALGORRTM. Wood's metal filled, stainless steel bladders apply isostatic, surface-conforming preload to the pier and beam support structure. Sufficient preload along with mica paper sheer release reduces magnet training by inhibiting stick-slip motion. The effectiveness of stress management is tested with high-precision capacitive stress transducers and strain gauges. In addition to stress management, there are several technologies developed to assist in the successful construction of a high-field dipole. Quench protection has been designed and simulated along with full 3D magnetic simulation with OPERARTM. Rutherford cable was constructed, and cable thermal expansion data was analysed after heat treatment. Pre-impregnation analysis techniques were developed due to elemental tin leakage in varying quantities during heat treatment from each coil. Robust splicing techniques were developed with measured resistivites consistent with nO joints. Stress management has not been incorporated by any other high field dipole

  11. High Field Magnetization Process of an S{=}1 One-Dimensional Antiferromagnet NENP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Tsuneaki; Katori, Hiroko Aruga; Ajiro, Yoshitami

    1992-11-01

    High field magnetization measurements have been performed for NENP at low temperatures in steady fields up to 12 T and in pulsed fields up to 40 T. The magnetization for both directions parallel and perpendicular to the chain axis is extremely small in low fields and increases abruptly above the critical field Bc//{=}9.8± 0.2 T and Bc\\bot{=}13.1± 0.3 T. This result indicates that the ground state of NENP is nonmagnetic, that is, singlet and becomes magnetic above the critical field due to the crossover between the singlet and magnetic excited states, consistent with Haldane’s prediction. The magnetization data are analyzed on the basis of the Tsvelik theory. The two gaps and the single-ion anisotropy constant are estimated to be E1{=}14.2± 0.3 K, E2{=}26.8± 1.8 K and D≈7 K. Using the values of E1 and E2, the Haldane gap for D{=}0 is evaluated to be EG{=}(0.39± 0.2)|J|. This value is in good agreement with the estimation of the Haldane gap from the Monte Carlo simulation. The Tsvelik theory satisfactorily explains the field dependence of the magnetization for NENP.

  12. New vertical cryostat for the high field superconducting magnet test station at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Vande Craen, A.; Atieh, S.; Bajko, M.; Benda, V.; Rijk, G. de; Favre, G.; Giloux, C.; Minginette, P.; Parma, V.; Perret, P.; Pirotte, O.; Ramos, D.; Viret, P.; Hanzelka, P.

    2014-01-29

    In the framework of the R and D program for new superconducting magnets for the Large Hadron Collider accelerator upgrades, CERN is building a new vertical test station to test high field superconducting magnets of unprecedented large size. This facility will allow testing of magnets by vertical insertion in a pressurized liquid helium bath, cooled to a controlled temperature between 4.2 K and 1.9 K. The dimensions of the cryostat will allow testing magnets of up to 2.5 m in length with a maximum diameter of 1.5 m and a mass of 15 tons. To allow for a faster insertion and removal of the magnets and reducing the risk of helium leaks, all cryogenics supply lines are foreseen to remain permanently connected to the cryostat. A specifically designed 100 W heat exchanger is integrated in the cryostat helium vessel for a controlled cooling of the magnet from 4.2 K down to 1.9 K in a 3 m{sup 3} helium bath. This paper describes the cryostat and its main functions, focusing on features specifically developed for this project. The status of the construction and the plans for assembly and installation at CERN are also presented.

  13. 2D/3D quench simulation using ANSYS for epoxy impregnated Nb3Sn high field magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ryuji Yamada et al.

    2002-09-19

    A quench program using ANSYS is developed for the high field collider magnet for three-dimensional analysis. Its computational procedure is explained. The quench program is applied to a one meter Nb{sub 3}Sn high field model magnet, which is epoxy impregnated. The quench simulation program is used to estimate the temperature and mechanical stress inside the coil as well as over the whole magnet. It is concluded that for the one meter magnet with the presented cross section and configuration, the thermal effects due to the quench is tolerable. But we need much more quench study and improvements in the design for longer magnets.

  14. Tuning magnetic disorder in diluted magnetic semiconductors using high fields to 89 Tesla

    SciTech Connect

    Crooker, Scott A; Samarth, Nitin

    2008-01-01

    We describe recent and ongoing studies at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Los Alamos using the new '100 Tesla Multi-Shot Magnet', which is presently delivering fields up to {approx}89 T during its commissioning. We discuss the first experiments performed in this magnet system, wherein the linewidth of low-temperature photoluminescence spectra was used to directly reveal the degree of magnetic alloy disorder 'seen' by excitons in single Zn{sub 0.80}Cd{sub 0.22}Mn{sub 0.08}Se quantum wells. The magnetic potential landscape in II-VI diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) is typically smoothed when the embedded Mn{sup 2+} spins align in an applied field. However, an important (but heretofore untested) prediction of current models of compositional disorder is that magnetic alloy fluctuations in many DMS compounds should increase again in very large magnetic fields approaching 100 T. We observed precisely this increase above {approx}70 T, in agreement with a simple model of magnetic alloy disorder.

  15. Magnetic Semiconductor Quantum Wells in High Fields to 60 Tesla: Photoluminescence Linewidth Annealing at Magnetization Steps

    SciTech Connect

    Awschalom, D.D.; Crooker, S.A.; Lyo, S.K.; Rickel, D.G.; Samarth, N.

    1999-05-24

    Magnetic semiconductors offer a unique possibility for strongly tuning the intrinsic alloy disorder potential with applied magnetic field. We report the direct observation of a series of step-like reductions in the magnetic alloy disorder potential in single ZnSe/Zn(Cd,Mn)Se quantum wells between O and 60 Tesla. This disorder, measured through the linewidth of low temperature photoluminescence spectra drops abruptly at -19, 36, and 53 Tesla, in concert with observed magnetization steps. Conventional models of alloy disorder (developed for nonmagnetic semiconductors) reproduce the general shape of the data, but markedly underestimate the size of the linewidth reduction.

  16. MAGNET ENGINEERING AND TEST RESULTS OF THE HIGH FIELD MAGNET R AND D PROGRAM AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    COZZOLINO,J.; ANERELLA,M.; ESCALLIER,J.; GANETIS,G.; GHOSH,A.; GUPTA,R.; HARRISON,M.; JAIN,A.; MARONE,A.; MURATORE,J.; PARKER,B.; SAMPSON,W.; SOIKA,R.; WANDERER,P.

    2002-08-04

    The Superconducting Magnet Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has been carrying out design, engineering, and technology development of high performance magnets for future accelerators. High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) play a major role in the BNL vision of a few high performance interaction region (IR) magnets that would be placed in a machine about ten years from now. This paper presents the engineering design of a ''react and wind'' Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet that will provide a 12 Tesla background field on HTS coils. In addition, the coil production tooling as well as the most recent 10-turn R&D coil test results will be discussed.

  17. Oxypnictide SmFeAs(O,F) superconductor: a candidate for high-field magnet applications.

    PubMed

    Iida, Kazumasa; Hänisch, Jens; Tarantini, Chiara; Kurth, Fritz; Jaroszynski, Jan; Ueda, Shinya; Naito, Michio; Ichinose, Ataru; Tsukada, Ichiro; Reich, Elke; Grinenko, Vadim; Schultz, Ludwig; Holzapfel, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The recently discovered oxypnictide superconductor SmFeAs(O,F) is the most attractive material among the Fe-based superconductors due to its highest transition temperature of 56 K and potential for high-field performance. In order to exploit this new material for superconducting applications, the knowledge and understanding of its electro-magnetic properties are needed. Recent success in fabricating epitaxial SmFeAs(O,F) thin films opens a great opportunity to explore their transport properties. Here we report on a high critical current density of over 10(5) A/cm(2) at 45 T and 4.2 K for both main field orientations, feature favourable for high-field magnet applications. Additionally, by investigating the pinning properties, we observed a dimensional crossover between the superconducting coherence length and the FeAs interlayer distance at 30-40 K, indicative of a possible intrinsic Josephson junction in SmFeAs(O,F) at low temperatures that can be employed in electronics applications such as a terahertz radiation source and a superconducting Qubit.

  18. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolinsky, J.S.; Narayana, P.A.; Fenstermacher, M.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Regional in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides quantitative data on selected chemical constituents of brain. We imaged 16 volunteers with clinically definite multiple sclerosis on a 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance scanner to define plaque-containing volumes of interest, and obtained localized water-suppressed proton spectra using a stimulated echo sequence. Twenty-five of 40 plaque-containing regions provided spectra of adequate quality. Of these, 8 spectra from 6 subjects were consistent with the presence of cholesterol or fatty acids; the remainder were similar to those obtained from white matter of normal volunteers. This early experience with regional proton spectroscopy suggests that individual plaques are distinct. These differences likely reflect dynamic stages of the evolution of the demyelinative process not previously accessible to in vivo investigation.

  19. A low-cost, high-field-strength magnetic resonance imaging-compatible actuator.

    PubMed

    Secoli, Riccardo; Robinson, Matthew; Brugnoli, Michele; Rodriguez y Baena, Ferdinando

    2015-03-01

    To perform minimally invasive surgical interventions with the aid of robotic systems within a magnetic resonance imaging scanner offers significant advantages compared to conventional surgery. However, despite the numerous exciting potential applications of this technology, the introduction of magnetic resonance imaging-compatible robotics has been hampered by safety, reliability and cost concerns: the robots should not be attracted by the strong magnetic field of the scanner and should operate reliably in the field without causing distortion to the scan data. Development of non-conventional sensors and/or actuators is thus required to meet these strict operational and safety requirements. These demands commonly result in expensive actuators, which mean that cost effectiveness remains a major challenge for such robotic systems. This work presents a low-cost, high-field-strength magnetic resonance imaging-compatible actuator: a pneumatic stepper motor which is controllable in open loop or closed loop, along with a rotary encoder, both fully manufactured in plastic, which are shown to perform reliably via a set of in vitro trials while generating negligible artifacts when imaged within a standard clinical scanner. PMID:25833997

  20. Imaging Intelligence with Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Rex E.; Gasparovic, Charles; Chavez, Robert S.; Caprihan, Arvind; Barrow, Ranee; Yeo, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([to the first power]H-MRS) is a technique for the assay of brain neurochemistry "in vivo." N-acetylaspartate (NAA), the most prominent metabolite visible within the [to the first power]H-MRS spectrum, is found primarily within neurons. The current study was designed to further elucidate NAA-cognition…

  1. Cost Effective Open Geometry HTS MRI System amended to BSCCO 2212 Wire for High Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Kennth Marken

    2006-08-11

    the project start and that date a substantial shift in the MRI marketplace occurred, with rapid growth for systems at higher fields (1.5 T and above) and a consequent decline in the low field market (<1.0 T). While the project aim appeared technically attainable at that time, the conclusion was reached that the system and market economics do not warrant additional investment. The program was redirected to develop BSCCO 2212 multifilament wire development for high field superconducting magnets for NMR and other scientific research upon an agreement between DOE and Oxford Instruments, Superconducting Technology. The work t took place between September, 2004 and the project end in early 2006 was focused on 2212 multifilamentary wire. This report summarizes the technical achievements both in 2212 dip coated for an HTS MRI system and in BSCCO 2212 multifilamentary wire for high field magnets.

  2. Proton magnetization enhancement of solvents with hyperpolarized xenon in very low-magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelt, S.; Haesing, F. W.; Baer-Lang, S.; Shah, N. J.; Blümich, B.

    2001-11-01

    The polarization transfer between hyperpolarized xenon (Xe) and the protons (H) of different solutes at very low magnetic fields ranging from 0.001 to 0.014 T is reported. Due to Xe-H cross-relaxation (Spin Polarized Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE)) the observed proton NMR signal of liquid ethanol, butanol and toluene is enhanced at room temperature by a factor of 1000 in a field of B=0.001 T. Smaller proton enhancement factors between 10 and 100 are measured for ethanol/water mixtures and for sunflower oil. Using high-field Xe NMR, the phase transitions of melting hyperpolarized Xe ice frozen onto the surface of ethanol ice is investigated.

  3. Tunable High-Field Magnetization in Strongly Exchange-Coupled Freestanding Co/CoO Core/Shell Coaxial Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Alvarez, German; Geshev, Julian; Agramunt-Puig, Sebastià; Navau, Carles; Sanchez, Alvaro; Sort, Jordi; Nogués, Josep

    2016-08-31

    The exchange bias properties of Co/CoO coaxial core/shell nanowires were investigated with cooling and applied fields perpendicular to the wire axis. This configuration leads to unexpected exchange-bias effects. First, the magnetization value at high fields is found to depend on the field-cooling conditions. This effect arises from the competition between the magnetic anisotropy and the Zeeman energies for cooling fields perpendicular to the wire axis. This allows imprinting predefined magnetization states to the antiferromagnetic (AFM) shell, as corroborated by micromagnetic simulations. Second, the system exhibits a high-field magnetic irreversibility, leading to open hysteresis loops attributed to the AFM easy axis reorientation during the reversal (effect similar to athermal training). A distinct way to manipulate the high-field magnetization in exchange-biased systems, beyond the archetypical effects, was thus experimentally and theoretically demonstrated. PMID:27502034

  4. High field nuclear magnetic resonance in transition metal substituted BaFe2As2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garitezi, T. M.; Lesseux, G. G.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Adriano, C.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P. L.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Urbano, R. R.

    2014-05-01

    We report high field 75As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on Co and Cu substituted BaFe2As2 single crystals displaying same structural/magnetic transition T0≃128 K. From our anisotropy studies in the paramagnetic state, we strikingly found virtually identical quadrupolar splitting and consequently the quadrupole frequency νQ≃2.57(1) MHz for both compounds, despite the claim that each Cu delivers 2 extra 3d electrons in BaFe2As2 compared to Co substitution. These results allow us to conclude that a subtle change in the crystallographic structure, particularly in the Fe-As tetrahedra, must be the most probable tuning parameter to determine T0 in this class of superconductors rather than electronic doping. Furthermore, our NMR data around T0 suggest coexistence of tetragonal/paramagnetic and orthorhombic/antiferromagnetic phases between the structural and the spin density wave magnetic phase transitions, similarly to what was reported for K-doped BaFe2As2 [Urbano et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 107001 (2010)].

  5. Overcoming high-field RF problems with non-magnetic Cartesian feedback transceivers.

    PubMed

    Hoult, D I; Foreman, D; Kolansky, G; Kripiakevich, D

    2008-03-01

    In extending human MR to field strengths approaching 10 T, the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation at the proton Larmor frequency becomes less than human body size and conventional radio-frequency coil circumference. Consequently, radio-frequency magnetic fields are better generated by an array of small coils than by one large coil. In this article, the primary problem of array coil interactions during transmission is examined, and a standard proposed whereby secondary induced currents should be less than 1% of the primary coil current. The use of cancellation methods and of power amplifiers with high output impedance to reduce interactions is examined in the light of this standard and found wanting. Non-magnetic Cartesian feedback transceivers functioning at the magnet entrance are then proposed as a solution that both reduces instrumentation cost and increases the bandwidth over which the standard may be met. The compromises inherent in instrument design are detailed and examples given of the innovative circuitry used. It is shown experimentally that when connected to interacting coils, two Cartesian feedback instruments function stably in accord with theory and such that the proposed standard is typically attained over a bandwidth of 22 kHz during transmission (much greater during signal reception)-enough for all current MR protocols.

  6. Magnetic quantum tunneling: key insights from multi-dimensional high-field EPR.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J; Yang, E-C; Hendrickson, D N; Hill, S

    2009-08-21

    Multi-dimensional high-field/frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) spectroscopy is performed on single-crystals of the high-symmetry spin S = 4 tetranuclear single-molecule magnet (SMM) [Ni(hmp)(dmb)Cl](4), where hmp(-) is the anion of 2-hydroxymethylpyridine and dmb is 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol. Measurements performed as a function of the applied magnetic field strength and its orientation within the hard-plane reveal the four-fold behavior associated with the fourth order transverse zero-field splitting (ZFS) interaction, (1/2)B(S + S), within the framework of a rigid spin approximation (with S = 4). This ZFS interaction mixes the m(s) = +/-4 ground states in second order of perturbation, generating a sizeable (12 MHz) tunnel splitting, which explains the fast magnetic quantum tunneling in this SMM. Meanwhile, multi-frequency measurements performed with the field parallel to the easy-axis reveal HFEPR transitions associated with excited spin multiplets (S < 4). Analysis of the temperature dependence of the intensities of these transitions enables determination of the isotropic Heisenberg exchange constant, J = -6.0 cm(-1), which couples the four spin s = 1 Ni(II) ions within the cluster, as well as a characterization of the ZFS within excited states. The combined experimental studies support recent work indicating that the fourth order anisotropy associated with the S = 4 state originates from second order ZFS interactions associated with the individual Ni(II) centers, but only as a result of higher-order processes that occur via S-mixing between the ground state and higher-lying (S < 4) spin multiplets. We argue that this S-mixing plays an important role in the low-temperature quantum dynamics associated with many other well known SMMs.

  7. Flux pinning study of RE barium coper oxide coated conductors for high field magnet applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Aixia

    REBa2Cu3O7-δ (REBCO, RE = rare earth) coated conductor (CC) holds great promise for high field magnet applications owing to its strong irreversibility field (Hirr), low electromagnetic anisotropy (γ2), and high critical current density (Jc). The work of this thesis is tightly related to the development of the funded 32 T, all-superconducting magnet project at the NHMFL. My concern is thus for understanding the optimizing of the working parameters of REBCO CC at low temperatures T, and very high magnetic fields H, focusing on how to enhance Ic and to reduce its angular dependence. Increasing the active cross-section is a direct and economical strategy to enhance the current-carrying capability for REBCO coated conductors. Unfortunately, the high Jc in thin REBCO layers is seldom sustained in thick layers because of difficulties of thick film growth control. In the presence of strong 3D (pin separation far less than film thickness) pins, a high and thickness-independent (Jc) should result. One of major tasks of this thesis is to explore what are the effective strong 3D pins that develop a high and thickness-independent Jc. High and weak thickness-dependent Jc at 77 K is obtained on most recent coated conductors, and BZO nanorods and RE2O 3 nanoparticles are identified as strong 3D pins contributing to this respectable Jc performance. At 77 K, we found that the strong pinning of BZO nanorods remains at least up to 9 T, whereas the strong pinning of RE2O3 nanoparticles gradually evolves to weak collective pinning as the irreversibility field is approached. The second principal part of this thesis concentrates on understanding and minimizing the angular dependence of Jc. Our study is based on the following procedure. First, we investigated the angular dependence of Jc (Jc(θ)) in the working condition of the future 32 T all-superconducting magnet, i.e. 4.2 K and high magnetic field up to 31 T. Our work shows that the low temperature Jc(θ) is Ginzburg-Landau-like at

  8. Feasibility study of Nb3Al Rutherford cable for high field accelerator magnet application

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, R.; Kikuchi, A.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Cooper, C.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.; Novitski, I.; Takeuchi, T.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Verweij, A.P.; Wake, M.; Willering, G; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    Feasibility study of Cu stabilized Nb{sub 3}Al strand and Rutherford cable for the application to high field accelerator magnets are being done at Fermilab in collaboration with NIMS. The Nb{sub 3}Al strand, which was developed and manufactured at NIMS in Japan, has a non-copper Jc of about 844 A/mm{sup 2} at 15 Tesla at 4.2 K, a copper content of 50%, and filament size of about 50 microns. Rutherford cables with 27 Nb{sub 3}Al strands of 1.03 mm diameter were fabricated and tested. Quench tests on a short cable were done to study its stability with only its self field, utilizing a high current transformer. A pair of 2 meter long Nb{sub 3}Al cables was tested extensively at CERN at 4.3 and 1.9 K up to 11 Tesla including its self field with a high transport current of 20.2 kA. In the low field test we observed instability near splices and in the central region. This is related to the flux-jump like behavior, because of excessive amount of Nb in the Nb{sub 3}Al strand. There is possibility that the Nb in Nb{sub 3}Al can cause instability below 2 Tesla field regions. We need further investigation on this problem. Above 8 Tesla, we observed quenches near the critical surface at fast ramp rate from 1000 to 3000 A/sec, with quench velocity over 100 m/sec. A small racetrack magnet was made using a 14 m of Rutherford cable and successfully tested up to 21.8 kA, corresponding to 8.7 T.

  9. Protein Mediated Magnetic Coupling between Lactate and Water Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Scott D.

    1998-11-01

    The magnetic coupling between methyl lactate protons and water protons in samples of cross-linked bovine serum albumin (BSA) is studied. Cross-relaxation spectroscopy shows efficient magnetization transfer from immobilized BSA to both water and methyl lactate protons. Transient and steady-state NOE experiments reveal a negative intermolecular NOE between methyl lactate and water protons. Lactate is indirectly detected by selectively saturating the methyl lactate protons and measuring the decrease in water proton magnetization. Indirect detection of methyl lactate protons is an order of magnitude more sensitive than direct detection in these model systems. Lactate was indirectly imaged, via the water proton resonance, with 1.1-μl voxels in 2 min. Immobilized BSA reduces the intermolecular correlation time between water and lactate protons into the spin-diffusion limit where the NOE is negative. Possible molecular mechanisms for this coupling and applications toin vivospectroscopy are discussed.

  10. Development and Study of NB3SN Strands and Cables for High-Field Accelerator Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzi, E.; Andreev, N.; Bossert, M.; Kashikhin, V. V.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2010-04-01

    The high performance Nb3Sn strand produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) with the Restack Rod Process (RRP) and a 127 restack design is the baseline conductor presently used in the Fermilab's accelerator magnet R&D program. The original RRP-127 design was further improved in stability by increasing the Cu thickness between subelements after proving the effectiveness of this method in reducing subelement merging [1-3]. A number of RRP-127 billets of various cross sections (RRP-102/127, RRP-108/127 and RRP-114/127) were produced to optimize the design with respect to strand plastic deformation during cabling. The behavior of these new strands was studied using virgin and deformed strand samples, and compared with that of the RRP-54/61 stack design. A Rutherford cable made of 0.7 mm strands was also produced to be used in high field quadrupoles. This paper describes the RRP-127 strand development, and results of strand and cable analyses.

  11. Accretion in the High-Field Magnetic Cataclysmic Variable AR Ursae Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Gary D.; Hoard, D. W.; Szkody, Paula; Melia, Fulvio; Honeycutt, R. Kent; Wagner, R. M.

    1999-11-01

    are at odds with low-state observations. At the same time, the high magnetic field in AR UMa has yielded a new, powerful observational tool: phase-resolved Zeeman spectroscopy of the emission lines produced in the accretion stream(s). Future high-quality observations and sophisticated modeling of these features hold promise for three-dimensional reconstructions of the gas flow in high-field magnetic variables. Observations reported in this paper were obtained in part at the Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory, a facility operated jointly by the University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution, and with the Apache Point Observatory (APO) 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC).

  12. Design of shared instruments to utilize simulated gravities generated by a large-gradient, high-field superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Yin, D. C.; Liu, Y. M.; Shi, J. Z.; Lu, H. M.; Shi, Z. H.; Qian, A. R.; Shang, P.

    2011-03-01

    A high-field superconducting magnet can provide both high-magnetic fields and large-field gradients, which can be used as a special environment for research or practical applications in materials processing, life science studies, physical and chemical reactions, etc. To make full use of a superconducting magnet, shared instruments (the operating platform, sample holders, temperature controller, and observation system) must be prepared as prerequisites. This paper introduces the design of a set of sample holders and a temperature controller in detail with an emphasis on validating the performance of the force and temperature sensors in the high-magnetic field.

  13. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Sajja, Balasrinivasa R.; Wolinsky, Jerry S.

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) provides tissue metabolic information in vivo. This article reviews the role of MRS-determined metabolic alterations in lesions, normal appearing white matter, gray matter, and spinal cord in advancing our knowledge of pathological changes in multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, the role of MRS in objectively evaluating therapeutic efficacy is reviewed. This potential metabolic information makes MRS a unique tool to follow MS disease evolution, understanding its pathogenesis, evaluating the disease severity, establishing a prognosis, and objectively evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. PMID:19064199

  14. Evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Compatible Needles and Interactive Sequences for Musculoskeletal Interventions Using an Open High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Wonneberger, Uta; Schnackenburg, Bernhard; Streitparth, Florian Walter, Thula Rump, Jens Teichgraeber, Ulf K. M.

    2010-04-15

    In this article, we study in vitro evaluation of needle artefacts and image quality for musculoskeletal laser-interventions in an open high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner at 1.0T with vertical field orientation. Five commercially available MRI-compatible puncture needles were assessed based on artefact characteristics in a CuSO4 phantom (0.1%) and in human cadaveric lumbar spines. First, six different interventional sequences were evaluated with varying needle orientation to the main magnetic field B0 (0{sup o} to 90{sup o}) in a sequence test. Artefact width, needle-tip error, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Second, a gradient-echo sequence used for thermometric monitoring was assessed and in varying echo times, artefact width, tip error, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured. Artefact width and needle-tip error correlated with needle material, instrument orientation to B0, and sequence type. Fast spin-echo sequences produced the smallest needle artefacts for all needles, except for the carbon fibre needle (width <3.5 mm, tip error <2 mm) at 45{sup o} to B0. Overall, the proton density-weighted spin-echo sequences had the best CNR (CNR{sub Muscle/Needle} >16.8). Concerning the thermometric gradient echo sequence, artefacts remained <5 mm, and the SNR reached its maximum at an echo time of 15 ms. If needle materials and sequences are accordingly combined, guidance and monitoring of musculoskeletal laser interventions may be feasible in a vertical magnetic field at 1.0T.

  15. High field strength (4.7T) magnetic resonance imaging of hydrocephalus in an African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Fleming, Gregory J; Lester, Nola V; Stevenson, Rhoda; Silver, Xeve S

    2003-01-01

    Hydrocephalus was diagnosed in a juvenile African Grey parrot by high-field strength (4.7-Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Excellent anatomic detail was achieved, and there was severe dilation of all ventricles. Relative obstruction was localized to the level of or beyond the outflow of the fourth ventricle. There have been several reports of hydrocephalus diagnosed postmortem in psittacines (i.e., hook-billed parrots), however, this is the first report of an antemortem diagnosis in a psittacine using high-field strength MRI.

  16. Magnetic properties of superconducting GdBa2Cu3O(6 + delta) at low temperature and high field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. Y.; Shapira, Y.; Hor, P. H.; Meng, R. L.; Chu, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetization of antiferromagnetic superconducting GdBa2Cu3O(6 + delta) has been measured for T in the range of 1.5 - 4.2 K for magnetic fields up to about 20 T. It is found that all Gd(3+) spins are nearly parallel at very high fields, and that this saturated spin subsystem coexists with superconductivity. Below the Neel temperature, 2.22 K, the transition from the 'canted' phase to the paramagnetic phase is observed by the application of a high magnetic field. The temperature dependence of this phase transition is also reported.

  17. High field magnetic behavior in Boron doped Fe2VAl Heusler alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesh, Ch.; Vasundhara, M.; Srinivas, V.; Rao, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    We have investigated the magnetic behavior of Fe2VAl1-xBx (x=0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.1) alloys under high temperature and high magnetic field conditions separately. Although, the low temperature DC magnetization data for the alloys above x>0 show clear magnetic transitions, the zero field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) curves indicate the presence of spin cluster like features. Further, critical exponent (γ) deduced from the initial susceptibility above the Tc, does not agree with standard models derived for 3 dimensional long range magnetic systems. The deviation in γ values are consistent with the short range magnetic nature of these alloys. We further extend the analysis of magnetic behavior by carrying the magnetization measurements at high temperatures and high magnetic fields distinctly. We mainly emphasize the following observations; (i) The magnetic hysteresis loops show sharp upturns at lower fields even at 900 K for all the alloys. (ii) High temperature inverse susceptibility do not overlap until T=900 K, indicating the persistent short range magnetic correlations even at high temperatures. (iii) The Arrott's plot of magnetization data shows spontaneous moment (MS) for the x=0 alloy at higher magnetic fields which is absent at lower fields (<50 kOe), while the Boron doped samples show feeble MS at lower fields. The origin of this short range correlation is due to presence of dilute magnetic heterogeneous phases which are not detected from the X-ray diffraction method.

  18. Fabrication and test results of a high field, Nb3Sn superconducting racetrack dipole magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Benjegerdes, R.; Bish, P.; Byford, D.; Caspi, S.; Dietderich, D.R.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, R.; Higley, H.; Jackson, A.; Lietzke, A.; Liggins, N.; McInturff, A.D.; O'Neill, J.; Palmerston, E.; Sabbi, G.; Scanlan, R.M.; Swanson, J.

    2001-06-15

    The LBNL Superconducting Magnet Program is extending accelerator magnet technology to the highest possible fields. A 1 meter long, racetrack dipole magnet, utilizing state-of-the-art Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor, has been built and tested. A record dipole filed of 14.7 Tesla has been achieved. Relevant features of the final assembly and tested results are discussed.

  19. Observation of High-Field-Side Crash and Heat Transfer during Sawtooth Oscillation in Magnetically Confined Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.K.; Mazzucato, E.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Domier, C.W.; Xia, Z.; Donne, A.J.H.; Classen, I.G.J.; Pol, M.J. van de; Munsat, T.

    2006-05-19

    High resolution (temporal and spatial), two-dimensional images of electron temperature fluctuations during sawtooth oscillations were employed to study the crash process and heat transfer in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas. The combination of kink and local pressure driven instabilities leads to a small poloidally localized puncture in the magnetic surface at both the low and the high field sides of the poloidal plane. This observation closely resembles the 'fingering event' of the ballooning mode model with the high-m mode only predicted at the low field side.

  20. Studies of $${\\rm Nb}_{3}{\\rm Sn}$$ Strands Based on the Restacked-Rod Process for High Field Accelerator Magnets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Barzi, E.; Bossert, M.; Gallo, G.; Lombardo, V.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2011-12-21

    A major thrust in Fermilab's accelerator magnet R&D program is the development of Nb3Sn wires which meet target requirements for high field magnets, such as high critical current density, low effective filament size, and the capability to withstand the cabling process. The performance of a number of strands with 150/169 restack design produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology was studied for round and deformed wires. To optimize the maximum plastic strain, finite element modeling was also used as an aid in the design. Results of mechanical, transport and metallographic analyses are presented for round and deformed wires.

  1. Limits of NbTi and Nb3Sn, and development of W& R Bi-2212 High Field Accelerator Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Daniel; Dietderich, Daniel; Ferrracin, Paolo; Prestemon, Soren; Sabbi, GianLuca; Scanlan, Ron; Godeke, A.

    2007-06-01

    NbTi accelerator dipoles are limited to magnetic fields (H) of about 10 T, due to an intrinsic upper critical field (H{sub c2}) limitation of 14 T. To surpass this restriction, prototype Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets are being developed which have reached 16 T. We show that Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole technology is practically limited to 17 to 18 T due to insufficient high field pinning, and intrinsically to 20 to 22 T due to H{sub c2} limitations. Therefore, to obtain magnetic fields approaching 20 T and higher, a material is required with a higher H{sub c2} and sufficient high field pinning capacity. A realistic candidate for this purpose is Bi-2212, which is available in round wires and sufficient lengths for the fabrication of coils based on Rutherford-type cables. We initiated a program to develop the required technology to construct accelerator magnets from 'wind-and-react' (W&R) Bi-2212 coils. We outline the complications that arise through the use of Bi-2212, describe the development paths to address these issues, and conclude with the design of W&R Bi-2212 sub-scale magnets.

  2. Halbach arrays consisting of cubic elements optimised for high field gradients in magnetic drug targeting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnsley, Lester C.; Carugo, Dario; Owen, Joshua; Stride, Eleanor

    2015-11-01

    A key challenge in the development of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) as a clinically relevant technique is designing systems that can apply sufficient magnetic force to actuate magnetic drug carriers at useful tissue depths. In this study an optimisation routine was developed to generate designs of Halbach arrays consisting of multiple layers of high grade, cubic, permanent magnet elements, configured to deliver the maximum pull or push force at a position of interest between 5 and 50 mm from the array, resulting in arrays capable of delivering useful magnetic forces to depths past 20 mm. The optimisation routine utilises a numerical model of the magnetic field and force generated by an arbitrary configuration of magnetic elements. Simulated field and force profiles of optimised arrays were evaluated, also taking into account the forces required for assembling the array in practice. The resultant selection for the array, consisting of two layers, was then constructed and characterised to verify the simulations. Finally the array was utilised in a set of in vitro experiments to demonstrate its capacity to separate and retain microbubbles loaded with magnetic nanoparticles against a constant flow. The optimised designs are presented as light-weight, inexpensive options for applying high-gradient, external magnetic fields in MDT applications.

  3. Halbach arrays consisting of cubic elements optimised for high field gradients in magnetic drug targeting applications.

    PubMed

    Barnsley, Lester C; Carugo, Dario; Owen, Joshua; Stride, Eleanor

    2015-11-01

    A key challenge in the development of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) as a clinically relevant technique is designing systems that can apply sufficient magnetic force to actuate magnetic drug carriers at useful tissue depths. In this study an optimisation routine was developed to generate designs of Halbach arrays consisting of multiple layers of high grade, cubic, permanent magnet elements, configured to deliver the maximum pull or push force at a position of interest between 5 and 50 mm from the array, resulting in arrays capable of delivering useful magnetic forces to depths past 20 mm. The optimisation routine utilises a numerical model of the magnetic field and force generated by an arbitrary configuration of magnetic elements. Simulated field and force profiles of optimised arrays were evaluated, also taking into account the forces required for assembling the array in practice. The resultant selection for the array, consisting of two layers, was then constructed and characterised to verify the simulations. Finally the array was utilised in a set of in vitro experiments to demonstrate its capacity to separate and retain microbubbles loaded with magnetic nanoparticles against a constant flow. The optimised designs are presented as light-weight, inexpensive options for applying high-gradient, external magnetic fields in MDT applications. PMID:26458056

  4. Halbach arrays consisting of cubic elements optimised for high field gradients in magnetic drug targeting applications.

    PubMed

    Barnsley, Lester C; Carugo, Dario; Owen, Joshua; Stride, Eleanor

    2015-11-01

    A key challenge in the development of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) as a clinically relevant technique is designing systems that can apply sufficient magnetic force to actuate magnetic drug carriers at useful tissue depths. In this study an optimisation routine was developed to generate designs of Halbach arrays consisting of multiple layers of high grade, cubic, permanent magnet elements, configured to deliver the maximum pull or push force at a position of interest between 5 and 50 mm from the array, resulting in arrays capable of delivering useful magnetic forces to depths past 20 mm. The optimisation routine utilises a numerical model of the magnetic field and force generated by an arbitrary configuration of magnetic elements. Simulated field and force profiles of optimised arrays were evaluated, also taking into account the forces required for assembling the array in practice. The resultant selection for the array, consisting of two layers, was then constructed and characterised to verify the simulations. Finally the array was utilised in a set of in vitro experiments to demonstrate its capacity to separate and retain microbubbles loaded with magnetic nanoparticles against a constant flow. The optimised designs are presented as light-weight, inexpensive options for applying high-gradient, external magnetic fields in MDT applications.

  5. The issues and tentative solutions for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field strength.

    PubMed

    Fries, Peter; Morelli, John N; Lux, Francois; Tillement, Olivier; Schneider, Günther; Buecker, Arno

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at ultra-high field strengths beyond 3 Tesla (T) has become increasingly prevalent in research and preclinical applications. As such, the inevitable clinical implementation of such systems lies on the horizon. The major benefit of ultra-high field MRI is the markedly increased signal-to-noise ratios achievable, enabling acquisition of MR images with simultaneously greater spatial and temporal resolution. However, at field strengths higher than 3 T, the efficacy of Gd(III)-based contrast agents is diminished due to decreased r1 relaxivity, somewhat limiting imaging of the vasculature and contrast-enhanced imaging of tumors. There have been extensive efforts to design new contrast agents with high r1 relaxivities based on macromolecular compounds or nanoparticles; however, the efficacy of these agents at ultra-high field strengths has not yet been proven. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of the basic principles of MR contrast enhancement processes and to highlight the main factors influencing relaxivity. In addition, challenges and opportunities for contrast-enhanced MRI at ultra-high field strengths will be explored. Various approaches for the development of effective contrast agent molecules that are suitable for a broad spectrum of applied field strengths will be discussed in the context of the current literature.

  6. High Field Magnetization Studies of Low Dimensional Heisenberg S = 1/2 Antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landee, C. P.; Albrecht, A. S.; Turnbull, M. M.

    1997-03-01

    The magnetization curves of a number of new 2D S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnets have been determined in fields up to 30 tesla at low temperatures at the National High Magnetic Fields Laboratory. Magnets studied include (2-amino-5-methylpyridinium)_2CuBr4 (2-amino-5-chloropyridinium)_2CuBr_4, and [Cu(pz)_2(NO_3)](PF_6), where pz = pyrazine. All of the magnetization curves show upward curvature, a previously unknown effect for this model system. The magnetization curves are qualitatively similar to the theoretical prediction for the linear chain Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The saturation fields are consistent with those predicted from a molecular-field model, using exchange strengths obtained from susceptibility studies. Slight anisotropy has been observed in the single crystal studies of (2-amino-5-methylpyridinium)_2CuBr_4.

  7. SC correction coils and magnets for the HERA proton ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, C.; Geerinck, J.; Moeller, H.; Heller, R.; Schmueser, P.; Bracke, P.

    1986-05-01

    The design, manufacture and performance of correction elements of the HERA proton ring is described. The quadrupole and sextupole correction coils are mounted on the cold beam pipe inside the main dipole magnets. Superferric dipole magnets for orbit correction are located adjacent to the main quadrupole magnets in a common cryostat which also contains the beam monitor.

  8. A field-sweep/field-lock system for superconducting magnets--Application to high-field EPR.

    PubMed

    Maly, Thorsten; Bryant, Jeff; Ruben, David; Griffin, Robert G

    2006-12-01

    We describe a field-lock/field-sweep system for the use in superconducting magnets. The system is based on a commercially available field mapping unit and a custom designed broad-band 1H NMR probe. The NMR signal of a small water sample is used in a feedback loop to set and control the magnetic field to high accuracy. The current instrumental configuration allows field sweeps of +/-0.4 T and a resolution of up to 10(-5) T (0.1 G) and the performance of the system is demonstrated in a high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) application. The system should also be of utility in other experiments requiring precise and reproducible sweeps of the magnetic field such as DNP, ENDOR or PELDOR.

  9. A Field-Sweep/Field-Lock System for Superconducting Magnets-Application to High-Field EPR

    PubMed Central

    Maly, Thorsten; Bryant, Jeff; Ruben, David; Griffin, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a field-lock/field-sweep system for the use in superconducting magnets. The system is based on a commercially available field mapping unit and a custom designed broad-band 1H-NMR probe. The NMR signal of a small water sample is used in a feedback loop to set and control the magnetic field to high accuracy. The current instrumental configuration allows field sweeps of ± 0.4 T and a resolution of up to 10-5 T (0.1 G) and the performance of the system is demonstrated in a high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) application. The system should also be of utility in other experiments requiring precise and reproducible sweeps of the magnetic field such as DNP, ENDOR or PELDOR. PMID:17027306

  10. Thermal and mechanical effects of quenches on Nb{sub 3}Sn high field hadron collider magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ryuji Yamada et al.

    2001-11-05

    Thermal and its resulting mechanical stress due to quenches inside short and long epoxy impregnated Nb{sub 3}Sn high field magnets are studied with a quench simulation program, Kuench, and ANSYS program. For the protection of a long high field magnet, we have to use heaters to dump the stored energy uniformly inside the magnet, after detection of a spontaneous quench. The time delay of starting a forced quench with heaters, is estimated using ANSYS. Using this information, the thermal distribution in two-dimensional magnet cross section is studied. First a one meter model magnet with a dump resistor is used to estimate the effects and then a 10 meter long magnet is studied. The two-dimensional temperature distributions in the magnet cross sections are recorded every 5 ms, and visually displayed. With this visual animation displays we can understand intuitively the thermal and quench propagation in 2-dimensional field. The quenching cables get heated locally much more than the surrounding material and non-quenching conductor cables. With a one meter magnet with a dump resistor of 30 m{Omega}, typically only the quench starting cables and its neighbor cables get heated up to 100 K without significant effects from the heaters. With a10 meter magnet, heaters cause the quenches to most of the conductor blocks. The quench initiating cables get up to 250 to 300 K in 100 ms, but the surrounding and wedges are not heated up significantly. This causes the excessive stress in the quenching conductors and in their insulation material locally. The stress and strain in the conductor as well as in the insulation become excessive, and they are studied using the ANSYS stress analysis, using Von Mises criterion. It is concluded that for the one meter magnet with the presented cross section and configuration, the thermal effects due to the quench is tolerable. But we need much more quench study and improvements in the design for the extended ten meter long magnet [1].

  11. Propagation of magnetic avalanches in Mn12Ac at high field sweep rates.

    PubMed

    Decelle, W; Vanacken, J; Moshchalkov, V V; Tejada, J; Hernández, J M; Macià, F

    2009-01-16

    Time-resolved measurements of the magnetization reversal in single crystals of Mn12Ac in pulsed magnetic fields, at magnetic field sweep rates from 1.5 kT/s up to 7 kT/s, suggest a new process that cannot be scaled onto a deflagrationlike propagation driven by heat diffusion. The sweep rate dependence of the propagation velocity, increasing from a few 100 m/s up to the speed of sound in Mn12Ac, indicates the existence of two new regimes at the highest sweep rates, with a transition around 4 kT/s that can be understood as a magnetic deflagration-to-detonation transition. PMID:19257315

  12. Propagation of magnetic avalanches in Mn12Ac at high field sweep rates.

    PubMed

    Decelle, W; Vanacken, J; Moshchalkov, V V; Tejada, J; Hernández, J M; Macià, F

    2009-01-16

    Time-resolved measurements of the magnetization reversal in single crystals of Mn12Ac in pulsed magnetic fields, at magnetic field sweep rates from 1.5 kT/s up to 7 kT/s, suggest a new process that cannot be scaled onto a deflagrationlike propagation driven by heat diffusion. The sweep rate dependence of the propagation velocity, increasing from a few 100 m/s up to the speed of sound in Mn12Ac, indicates the existence of two new regimes at the highest sweep rates, with a transition around 4 kT/s that can be understood as a magnetic deflagration-to-detonation transition.

  13. A portable high-field pulsed magnet system for x-ray scattering studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Z.; Ruff, J.P.C.; Nojiri, H.; Matsuda, Y. H.; Ross, K. A.; Gaulin, B. D.; Qu, Z.; Lang, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    We present a portable pulsed-magnet system for x-ray studies of materials in high magnetic fields (up to 30 T). The apparatus consists of a split-pair of minicoils cooled on a closed-cycle cryostat, which is used for x-ray diffraction studies with applied field normal to the scattering plane. A second independent closed-cycle cryostat is used for cooling the sample to near liquid helium temperatures. Pulsed magnetic fields (- 1 ms in total duration) are generated by discharging a configurable capacitor bank into the magnet coils. Time-resolved scattering data are collected using a combination of a fast single-photon counting detector, a multichannel scaler, and a high-resolution digital storage oscilloscope. The capabilities of this instrument are used to study a geometrically frustrated system revealing strong magnetostrictive effects in the spin-liquid state.

  14. Progress with high-field superconducting magnets for high-energy colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Prestemon, Soren; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2015-10-01

    One of the possible next steps for high-energy physics research relies on a high-energy hadron or muon collider. The energy of a circular collider is limited by the strength of bending dipoles, and its maximum luminosity is determined by the strength of final focus quadrupoles. For this reason, the high-energy physics and accelerator communities have shown much interest in higher-field and higher-gradient superconducting accelerator magnets. The maximum field of NbTi magnets used in all present high-energy machines, including the LHC, is limited to ~10 T at 1.9 K. Fields above 10 T became possible with the use of Nb$_3$Sn superconductors. Nb$_3$Sn accelerator magnets can provide operating fields up to ~15 T and can significantly increase the coil temperature margin. Accelerator magnets with operating fields above 15 T require high-temperature superconductors. Furthermore, this review discusses the status and main results of Nb$_3$Sn accelerator magnet research and development and work toward 20-T magnets.

  15. Progress with high-field superconducting magnets for high-energy colliders

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Prestemon, Soren; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2015-10-01

    One of the possible next steps for high-energy physics research relies on a high-energy hadron or muon collider. The energy of a circular collider is limited by the strength of bending dipoles, and its maximum luminosity is determined by the strength of final focus quadrupoles. For this reason, the high-energy physics and accelerator communities have shown much interest in higher-field and higher-gradient superconducting accelerator magnets. The maximum field of NbTi magnets used in all present high-energy machines, including the LHC, is limited to ~10 T at 1.9 K. Fields above 10 T became possible with the use of Nb$_3$Sn superconductors.more » Nb$_3$Sn accelerator magnets can provide operating fields up to ~15 T and can significantly increase the coil temperature margin. Accelerator magnets with operating fields above 15 T require high-temperature superconductors. Furthermore, this review discusses the status and main results of Nb$_3$Sn accelerator magnet research and development and work toward 20-T magnets.« less

  16. Progress with High-Field Superconducting Magnets for High-Energy Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollinari, Giorgio; Prestemon, Soren; Zlobin, Alexander V.

    2015-10-01

    One of the possible next steps for high-energy physics research relies on a high-energy hadron or muon collider. The energy of a circular collider is limited by the strength of bending dipoles, and its maximum luminosity is determined by the strength of final focus quadrupoles. For this reason, the high-energy physics and accelerator communities have shown much interest in higher-field and higher-gradient superconducting accelerator magnets. The maximum field of NbTi magnets used in all present high-energy machines, including the LHC, is limited to ˜10 T at 1.9 K. Fields above 10 T became possible with the use of Nb3Sn superconductors. Nb3Sn accelerator magnets can provide operating fields up to ˜15 T and can significantly increase the coil temperature margin. Accelerator magnets with operating fields above 15 T require high-temperature superconductors. This review discusses the status and main results of Nb3Sn accelerator magnet research and development and work toward 20-T magnets.

  17. Petal Resonator Surface Coil with a Circular Envelope for High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, S. S.; Cuellar, G.; Solis, S. E.; Alejski, A.; Rodríguez, A. O.

    2008-08-01

    A modified version of the petal resonator surface (PERES) coil is proposed in which the petal coils are located inside a circular-shaped coil as opposed to the previous PERES version which did not have a circular envelope. An 8-petal coil was simulated using a finite element method and the quasi-static approach to numerically investigate its electromagnetic characteristics. Numerical simulations showed that the field uniformity is not greatly affected by the use of circular-shaped coil inside in the circular envelope. A coil prototype was developed using the same coil configuration as above and tested on a commercial 3 T imager and a General Electric phantom. Phantom images also demonstrated that the mutual inductance between petals does not alter the coil performance. Standard pulse sequences were used to acquire phantom images with the petal resonator surface coil. It was shown that this prototype resonator coil is fully compatible with clinical high field MR imagers and clinical pulse sequences.

  18. Measuring remanence anisotropy of hematite in red beds: anisotropy of high-field isothermal remanence magnetization (hf-AIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilardello, Dario; Kodama, Kenneth P.

    2009-09-01

    The potential of using high-field anisotropy of isothermal remanence magnetization (hf-AIR) measurements for determining the origin of natural remanent magnetization in red beds and for identifying and correcting possible red-bed inclination shallowing was investigated for specimens of the Carboniferous Shepody Formation of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada. The technique makes it possible for a typical paleomagnetic laboratory to measure the remanence anisotropy of high-coercivity hematite. High-field (hf) AIR was used in conjunction with 100 mT alternating field (af) and 120°C thermal demagnetization to separate the contribution of hematite to the remanence anisotropy from that of magnetite/maghemite and goethite, respectively. A 5-T impulse DC magnetic field was used for the hf-AIR to reset the magnetic moment of high-coercivity hematite so that demagnetization between AIR orientations was not necessary. The ability of a 5-T field to reset the magnetization was tested by generating an isothermal remanent magnetization acquisition curve for hematite by using impulse DC magnetic fields up to 5 T in one orientation and followed by applying a field in the opposite direction at each step. Each field application was treated by 120°C heating and 100 mT af demagnetization before measurement. At 5 T, the difference between the magnetizations applied in opposite directions disappeared indicating that no magnetic memory persisted at this field strength. We performed a validity and reproducibility test of our hf-AIR measurement technique by measuring three specimens multiple times along two orthogonal coordinate systems. The method yielded highly reproducible results and, on rotating the specimen's coordinates, the fabric rotated by 90° as expected, showing that it is not an artifact of the technique. We also measured hf-AIR on samples that had previously been chemically demagnetized in 3N HCl to remove the secondary, chemically grown pigmentary hematite. The hf

  19. Recent Test Results of the High Field Nb3Sn Dipole Magnet HD2

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, P.; Bingham, B.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D. W.; Dietderich, D. R.; Felice, H.; Hafalia, A. R.; Hannaford, C. R.; Joseph, J.; Lietzke, A. F.; Lizarazo, J.; Sabbi, G.; Wang, X.

    2009-10-19

    The 1 m long Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole magnet HD2, fabricated and tested at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, represents a step towards the development of block-type accelerator quality magnets operating in the range of 13-15 T. The magnet design features two coil modules composed of two layers wound around a titanium-alloy pole. The layer 1 pole includes a round cutout to provide room for a bore tube with a clear aperture of 36 mm. After a first series of tests where HD2 reached a maximum bore field of 13.8 T, corresponding to an estimated peak field on the conductor of 14.5 T, the magnet was disassembled and reloaded without the bore tube and with a clear aperture increased to 43 mm. We describe in this paper the magnet training observed in two consecutive tests after the removal of the bore tube, with a comparison of the quench performance with respect to the previous tests. An analysis of the voltage signals recorded before and after training quenches is then presented and discussed, and the results of coil visual inspections reported.

  20. Invited Article: Development of high-field superconducting Ioffe magnetic traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Brome, C. R.; Butterworth, J. S.; Dzhosyuk, S. N.; Mattoni, C. E. H.; McKinsey, D. N.; Michniak, R. A.; Doyle, J. M.; Golub, R.; Korobkina, E.; O'Shaughnessy, C. M.; Palmquist, G. R.; Seo, P.-N.; Huffman, P. R.; Coakley, K. J.; Mumm, H. P.; Thompson, A. K.; Yang, G. L.; Lamoreaux, S. K.

    2008-03-01

    We describe the design, construction, and performance of three generations of superconducting Ioffe magnetic traps. The first two are low current traps, built from four racetrack shaped quadrupole coils and two solenoid assemblies. Coils are wet wound with multifilament NbTi superconducting wires embedded in epoxy matrices. The magnet bore diameters are 51 and 105mm with identical trap depths of 1.0T at their operating currents and at 4.2K. A third trap uses a high current accelerator-type quadrupole magnet and two low current solenoids. This trap has a bore diameter of 140mm and tested trap depth of 2.8T. Both low current traps show signs of excessive training. The high current hybrid trap, on the other hand, exhibits good training behavior and is amenable to quench protection.

  1. Windows on the human body--in vivo high-field magnetic resonance research and applications in medicine and psychology.

    PubMed

    Moser, Ewald; Meyerspeer, Martin; Fischmeister, Florian Ph S; Grabner, Günther; Bauer, Herbert; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    Analogous to the evolution of biological sensor-systems, the progress in "medical sensor-systems", i.e., diagnostic procedures, is paradigmatically described. Outstanding highlights of this progress are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS), which enable non-invasive, in vivo acquisition of morphological, functional, and metabolic information from the human body with unsurpassed quality. Recent achievements in high and ultra-high field MR (at 3 and 7 Tesla) are described, and representative research applications in Medicine and Psychology in Austria are discussed. Finally, an overview of current and prospective research in multi-modal imaging, potential clinical applications, as well as current limitations and challenges is given.

  2. Insert Coil Test for HEP High Field Magnets Using YBCO Coated Conductor Tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, V.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-15

    The final beam cooling stages of a Muon Collider may require DC solenoid magnets with magnetic fields of 30-50 T. In this paper we present progress in insert coil development using commercially available YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} Coated Conductor. Technological aspects covered in the development, including coil geometry, insulation, manufacturing process and testing are summarized and discussed. Test results of double pancake coils operated in liquid nitrogen and liquid helium are presented and compared with the performance of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} tape short samples.

  3. Design of HQ -- a High Field Large Bore Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnet for LARP

    SciTech Connect

    Felice, H.; Ambrosio, G.; Anerella, M.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D.; Ferracin, P.; Ghosh, A. K.; Hafalia, R.; Hannaford, C. R.; Kashikhin, V.; Schmalze, J.; Prestemon, S.; Sabbi, G. L.; Wanderer, P.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2008-08-17

    In support of the Large Hadron Collider luminosity upgrade, a large bore (120 mm) Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole with 15 T peak coil field is being developed within the framework of the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP). The 2-layer design with a 15 mm wide cable is aimed at pre-stress control, alignment and field quality while exploring the magnet performance limits in terms of gradient, forces and stresses. In addition, HQ will determine the magnetic, mechanical, and thermal margins of Nb{sub 3}Sn technology with respect to the requirements of the luminosity upgrade at the LHC.

  4. Measurement of the Proton`s Neutral Weak Magnetic Form Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, B.; Carr, R.; Filippone, B.W.; Korsch, W.; McKeown, R.D.; Pitt, M.; Beck, D.H.; Cardman, L.; Forest, T.; Gao, H.; Nilsson, D.; Simicevic, N.; Terburg, B.; Beise, E.J.; Duncan, F.; Lung, A.; Mohring, R.; Candell, E.; DiBari, R.C.; Napolitano, J.; Dodson, G.; Dow, K.; Farkhondeh, M.; Kowalski, S.; Wells, S.P.

    1997-05-01

    We report the first measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron scattering from the proton. The asymmetry depends on the neutral weak magnetic form factor of the proton which contains new information on the contribution of strange quark-antiquark pairs to the magnetic moment of the proton. We obtain the value {ital G}{sup Z}{sub M}=0.34{plus_minus}0.09{plus_minus}0.04{plus_minus} 0.05 n.m. at {ital Q}{sup 2}=0.1 (GeV/c){sup 2}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-10-01

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications.

  6. High Field Magnetization Studies of Low Dimensional Heisenberg S = 1/2 Antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landee, C. P.; Turnbull, M. M.

    1998-03-01

    The magnetization curves of a number of low dimensional S=1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnets have been determined in fields up to 30 tesla at low temperatures at the National High Magnetic Fields Laboratory. Materials studied include a family of 1D materials, based upon Cu(pyrazine)(NO_3)_2, 2D magnets consisting of pyrazine-bridged copper layers, and several spin ladders with singlet ground states. All of the magnetization data show upward curvature and are well described by T = 0 calculations based upon finite cluster models(Bonner and Fisher, Phys. Rev. A135, 640 (1964); Yang and Mutter, NANL cond-mat/9610092.). Chemical substitution on the pyrazine rings permits the variation of exchange constants by more than 25 percent for the family of well isolated chains. The spin ladder systems consist of ferromagnetic dimers weakly connected by antiferromagnetic intradimer interactions. Field induced transitions are seen at fields of less than one tesla for each of the three compounds.

  7. Cognitive, cardiac, and physiological safety studies in ultra high field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kangarlu, A; Burgess, R E; Zhu, H; Nakayama, T; Hamlin, R L; Abduljalil, A M; Robitaille, P M

    1999-12-01

    A systematic analysis of the effect of an 8.0 tesla static magnetic field on physiological and/or cognitive function is presented in the normal volunteer and in the swine. A study of ten human subjects revealed no evidence of detectable changes in body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic pressure, and diastolic blood pressure after 1 hour of exposure. In addition, no cognitive changes were detected. Important ECG changes were noted which were related both to the position of the subject in the magnet and to the absolute strength of the magnetic field. As such, the ECG tracing at 8 tesla was not diagnostically useful. Nonetheless, all subjects exhibited normal ECG readings both before and following exposure to the 8 tesla field. Cardiac function was also examined in detail in the swine. No significant changes in body temperature, heart rate, left ventricular pressure, left ventricular end diastollic pressure, time rate of change of left ventricular pressure, myocardial stiffness index, cardiac output, systolic volume, troponin, and potassium levels could be detected following 3 h of exposure to a field strength of 8.0 tesla. It is concluded that no short term cardiac or cognitive effects are observed following significant exposure to a magnetic field of up to 8.0 tesla.

  8. Assembly and Test of HD2, a 36 mm bore high field Nb3Sn Dipole Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Ferracin, P.; Bingham, B.; Caspi, S.; Cheng, D. W,.; Dietderich, D. R.; Felice, H.; Godeke, A.; Hafalia, A. R.; Hannaford, C. R.; Joseph, J.; Lietzke, A. F.; Lizarazo, J.; Sabbi, G.; Trillaud, F.; Wang, X.

    2008-08-17

    We report on the fabrication, assembly, and test of the Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole magnet HD2. The magnet, aimed at demonstrating the application of Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor in high field accelerator-type dipoles, features a 36 mm clear bore surrounded by block-type coils with tilted ends. The coil design is optimized to minimize geometric harmonics in the aperture and the magnetic peak field on the conductor in the coil ends. The target bore field of 15 T at 4.3 K is consistent with critical current measurements of extracted strands. The coils are horizontally pre-stressed during assembly using an external aluminum shell pre-tensioned with water-pressurized bladders. Axial pre-loading of the coil ends is accomplished through two end plates and four aluminum tension rods. The strain in coil, shell, and rods is monitored with strain gauges during assembly, cool-down and magnet excitation, and compared with 3D finite element computations. Magnet's training performance, quench locations, and ramp-rate dependence are then analyzed and discussed.

  9. Cognitive functional magnetic resonance imaging at very-high-field: eye movement control.

    PubMed

    Luna, B; Sweeney, J A

    1999-02-01

    The oculomotor system, which optimizes visual interaction with the environment, provides a valuable model system for probing the building blocks of higher-order cognition. Attention shifting, working memory, and inhibition of prepotent responses can be investigated in healthy individuals and patients with brain disorders. Although the neurophysiology of the oculomotor system has been well characterized at the single-cell level in nonhuman primates, its functional architecture in humans determined by evoked response procedures and studies of patients with focal lesions has been limited. Available evidence points to a widely distributed set of neocortical and subcortical brain regions involved in the control of eye movements, including brain stem, cerebellum, thalamus, striatum, and parietal and frontal cortices. The advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging provides a noninvasive manner of localizing, at high spatial resolution, the brain systems that subserve different aspects of sensory and cognitive processes in humans. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have already delineated the brain systems subserving sensorimotor and cognitive control of eye movements in adult and pediatric populations. Hence, the combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging and eye movement procedures can be used to probe the integrity of the brain in neurological and psychiatric disorders as well as provide a window into the changes in brain function subserving cognitive development. PMID:10389669

  10. High Field Magnetic Circular Dichroism in Ferromagnetic InMnSb and InMnAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meeker, M. A.; Magill, B. A.; Khodaparast, G. A.; Saha, D.; Stanton, C. J.; McGill, S.; Wessels, B. W.

    An understanding of the fundamental interactions in narrow gap ferromagnetic semiconductors such as InMnAs and InMnSb has been developed primarily from static magnetization and electrical transport measurements. In this study, to provide a better understanding of the coupling of the Mn impurities to the conduction and valence bands through the sp-d exchange interactions, we have performed magnetic circular dichroism measurements (MCD) on MOVPE grown InMnAs and InMnSb. In our samples, the Mn content varies from 2% to 10.7% and all the samples have Curie temperatures above 300 K. The samples were photo-excited using a Quartz Tungsten Halogen lamp with energies ranging between 0.92-1.45 eV, and in magnetic fields up to 31 T. The temperatures ranged from 15-190 K. Comparison of the observed MCD with theoretical calculations provides a direct method to probe the band structure including the temperature dependence of the spin-orbit split-off bandgap and g-factors, as well as a means to estimate the sp-d coupling constants. Supported by the AFOSR through grant FA9550-14-1-0376, NSF-Career Award DMR-0846834 , NSF-DMR-60035274 , NSF-DMR-1305666, NSF MRI program (DMR-1229217).

  11. Single-Plane Magnetically Focused Elongated Small Field Proton Beams.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Grant A; Slater, James M; Wroe, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    We previously performed Monte Carlo simulations of magnetically focused proton beams shaped by a single quadrapole magnet and thereby created narrow elongated beams with superior dose delivery characteristics (compared to collimated beams) suitable for targets of similar geometry. The present study seeks to experimentally validate these simulations using a focusing magnet consisting of 24 segments of samarium cobalt permanent magnetic material adhered into a hollow cylinder. Proton beams with properties relevant to clinical radiosurgery applications were delivered through the magnet to a water tank containing a diode detector or radiochromic film. Dose profiles were analyzed and compared with analogous Monte Carlo simulations. The focused beams produced elongated beam spots with high elliptical symmetry, indicative of magnet quality. Experimental data showed good agreement with simulations, affirming the utility of Monte Carlo simulations as a tool to model the inherent complexity of a magnetic focusing system. Compared to target-matched unfocused simulations, focused beams showed larger peak to entrance ratios (26% to 38%) and focused simulations showed a two-fold increase in beam delivery efficiency. These advantages can be attributed to the magnetic acceleration of protons in the transverse plane that tends to counteract the particle outscatter that leads to degradation of peak to entrance performance in small field proton beams. Our results have important clinical implications and suggest rare earth focusing magnet assemblies are feasible and could reduce skin dose and beam number while delivering enhanced dose to narrow elongated targets (eg, in and around the spinal cord) in less time compared to collimated beams.

  12. High-field magnetic resonance imaging of brain iron: birth of a biomarker?

    PubMed

    Schenck, John F; Zimmerman, Earl A

    2004-11-01

    The brain has an unusually high concentration of iron, which is distributed in an unusual pattern unlike that in any other organ. The physiological role of this iron and the reasons for this pattern of distribution are not yet understood. There is increasing evidence that several neurodegenerative diseases are associated with altered brain iron metabolism. Understanding these dysmetabolic conditions may provide important information for their diagnosis and treatment. For many years the iron distribution in the human brain could be studied effectively only under postmortem conditions. This situation was changed dramatically by the finding that T2-weighted MR imaging at high field strength (initially 1.5 T) appears to demonstrate the pattern of iron distribution in normal brains and that this imaging technique can detect changes in brain iron concentrations associated with disease states. Up to the present time this imaging capability has been utilized in many research applications but it has not yet been widely applied in the routine diagnosis and management of neurodegenerative disorders. However, recent advances in the basic science of brain iron metabolism, the clinical understanding of neurodegenerative diseases and in MRI technology, particularly in the availability of clinical scanners operating at the higher field strength of 3 T, suggest that iron-dependent MR imaging may soon provide biomarkers capable of characterizing the presence and progression of important neurological disorders. Such biomarkers may be of crucial assistance in the development and utilization of effective new therapies for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, multiple sclerosis and other iron-related CNS disorders which are difficult to diagnose and treat.

  13. A dual RF resonator system for high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging of small animals.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, R; Bodgdanov, G; King, J; Allard, A; Ferris, C F

    2004-01-30

    A new apparatus has been developed that integrates an animal restrainer arrangement for small animals with an actively tunable/detunable dual radio-frequency (RF) coil system for in vivo anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging of small animals at 4.7 T. The radio-frequency coil features an eight-element microstrip line configuration that, in conjunction with a segmented outer copper shield, forms a transversal electromagnetic (TEM) resonator structure. Matching and active tuning/detuning is achieved through fixed/variable capacitors and a PIN diode for each resonator element. These components along with radio-frequency chokes (RFCs) and blocking capacitors are placed on two printed circuit boards (PCBs) whose copper coated ground planes form the front and back of the volume coil and are therefore an integral part of the resonator structure. The magnetic resonance signal response is received with a dome-shaped single-loop surface coil that can be height-adjustable with respect to the animal's head. The conscious animal is immobilized through a mechanical arrangement that consists of a Plexiglas body tube and a head restrainer. This restrainer has a cylindrical holder with a mouthpiece and position screws to receive and restrain the head of the animal. The apparatus is intended to perform anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging in conscious animals such as mice, rats, hamsters, and marmosets. Cranial images acquired from fully conscious rats in a 4.7 T Bruker 40 cm bore animal scanner underscore the feasibility of this approach and bode well to extend this system to the imaging of other animals. PMID:14706710

  14. Development of Rutherford-type cables for high field accelerator magnets at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Borissov, E.; Elementi, L.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lombardo, V.; Rusy, A.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    Fermilab's cabling facility has been upgraded to a maximum capability of 42 strands. This facility is being used to study the effect of cabling on the performance of the various strands, and for the development and fabrication of cables in support of the ongoing magnet R&D programs. Rutherford cables of various geometries, packing factors, with and without a stainless steel core, were fabricated out of Cu alloys, NbTi, Nb{sub 3}Al, and various Nb{sub 3}Sn strands. The parameters of the upgraded cabling machine and results of cable R&D efforts at Fermilab are reported.

  15. Construction of a 56 mm aperture high-field twin-aperture superconducting dipole model magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlbaeck, J; Leroy, D.; Oberli, L.; Perini, D.; Salminen, J.; Savelainen, M.; Soini, J.; Spigo, G.

    1996-07-01

    A twin-aperture superconducting dipole model has been designed in collaboration with Finnish and Swedish Scientific Institutions within the framework of the LHC R and D program and has been built at CERN. Principal features of the magnet are 56 mm aperture, separate stainless steel collared coils, yoke closed after assembly at room temperature, and longitudinal prestressing of the coil ends. This paper recalls the main dipole design characteristics and presents some details of its fabrication including geometrical and mechanical measurements of the collared coil assembly.

  16. Can Images Obtained With High Field Strength Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reduce Contouring Variability of the Prostate?

    SciTech Connect

    Usmani, Nawaid; Sloboda, Ron; Kamal, Wafa; Ghosh, Sunita; Pervez, Nadeem; Pedersen, John; Yee, Don; Danielson, Brita; Murtha, Albert; Amanie, John; Monajemi, Tara

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to determine whether there is less contouring variability of the prostate using higher-strength magnetic resonance images (MRI) compared with standard MRI and computed tomography (CT). Methods and Materials: Forty patients treated with prostate brachytherapy were accrued to a prospective study that included the acquisition of 1.5-T MR and CT images at specified time points. A subset of 10 patients had additional 3.0-T MR images acquired at the same time as their 1.5-T MR scans. Images from each of these patients were contoured by 5 radiation oncologists, with a random subset of patients repeated to quantify intraobserver contouring variability. To minimize bias in contouring the prostate, the image sets were placed in folders in a random order with all identifiers removed from the images. Results: Although there was less interobserver contouring variability in the overall prostate volumes in 1.5-T MRI compared with 3.0-T MRI (p < 0.01), there was no significant differences in contouring variability in the different regions of the prostate between 1.5-T MRI and 3.0-T MRI. MRI demonstrated significantly less interobserver contouring variability in both 1.5-T and 3.0-T compared with CT in overall prostate volumes (p < 0.01, p = 0.01), with the greatest benefits being appreciated in the base of the prostate. Overall, there was less intraobserver contouring variability than interobserver contouring variability for all of the measurements analyzed. Conclusions: Use of 3.0-T MRI does not demonstrate a significant improvement in contouring variability compared with 1.5-T MRI, although both magnetic strengths demonstrated less contouring variability compared with CT.

  17. Characterization of a dielectric phantom for high-field magnetic resonance imaging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Qi Duyn, Jeff H.; Gudino, Natalia; Zwart, Jacco A. de; Gelderen, Peter van; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Brown, Ryan

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: In this work, a generic recipe for an inexpensive and nontoxic phantom was developed within a range of biologically relevant dielectric properties from 150 MHz to 4.5 GHz. Methods: The recipe includes deionized water as the solvent, NaCl to primarily control conductivity, sucrose to primarily control permittivity, agar–agar to gel the solution and reduce heat diffusivity, and benzoic acid to preserve the gel. Two hundred and seventeen samples were prepared to cover the feasible range of NaCl and sucrose concentrations. Their dielectric properties were measured using a commercial dielectric probe and were fitted to a 3D polynomial to generate a recipe describing the properties as a function of NaCl concentration, sucrose concentration, and frequency. Results: Results indicated that the intuitive linear and independent relationships between NaCl and conductivity and between sucrose and permittivity are not valid. A generic polynomial recipe was developed to characterize the complex relationship between the solutes and the resulting dielectric values and has been made publicly available as a web application. In representative mixtures developed to mimic brain and muscle tissue, less than 2% difference was observed between the predicted and measured conductivity and permittivity values. Conclusions: It is expected that the recipe will be useful for generating dielectric phantoms for general magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coil development at high magnetic field strength, including coil safety evaluation as well as pulse sequence evaluation (including B{sub 1}{sup +} mapping, B{sub 1}{sup +} shimming, and selective excitation pulse design), and other non-MRI applications which require biologically equivalent dielectric properties.

  18. Characterization of a dielectric phantom for high-field magnetic resonance imaging applications

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qi; Duyn, Jeff H.; Gudino, Natalia; de Zwart, Jacco A.; van Gelderen, Peter; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Brown, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this work, a generic recipe for an inexpensive and nontoxic phantom was developed within a range of biologically relevant dielectric properties from 150 MHz to 4.5 GHz. Methods: The recipe includes deionized water as the solvent, NaCl to primarily control conductivity, sucrose to primarily control permittivity, agar–agar to gel the solution and reduce heat diffusivity, and benzoic acid to preserve the gel. Two hundred and seventeen samples were prepared to cover the feasible range of NaCl and sucrose concentrations. Their dielectric properties were measured using a commercial dielectric probe and were fitted to a 3D polynomial to generate a recipe describing the properties as a function of NaCl concentration, sucrose concentration, and frequency. Results: Results indicated that the intuitive linear and independent relationships between NaCl and conductivity and between sucrose and permittivity are not valid. A generic polynomial recipe was developed to characterize the complex relationship between the solutes and the resulting dielectric values and has been made publicly available as a web application. In representative mixtures developed to mimic brain and muscle tissue, less than 2% difference was observed between the predicted and measured conductivity and permittivity values. Conclusions: It is expected that the recipe will be useful for generating dielectric phantoms for general magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coil development at high magnetic field strength, including coil safety evaluation as well as pulse sequence evaluation (including B1+ mapping, B1+ shimming, and selective excitation pulse design), and other non-MRI applications which require biologically equivalent dielectric properties. PMID:25281973

  19. Brain-heart interactions: challenges and opportunities with functional magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field.

    PubMed

    Chang, Catie; Raven, Erika P; Duyn, Jeff H

    2016-05-13

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at ultra-high field (UHF) strengths (7 T and above) offers unique opportunities for studying the human brain with increased spatial resolution, contrast and sensitivity. However, its reliability can be compromised by factors such as head motion, image distortion and non-neural fluctuations of the functional MRI signal. The objective of this review is to provide a critical discussion of the advantages and trade-offs associated with UHF imaging, focusing on the application to studying brain-heart interactions. We describe how UHF MRI may provide contrast and resolution benefits for measuring neural activity of regions involved in the control and mediation of autonomic processes, and in delineating such regions based on anatomical MRI contrast. Limitations arising from confounding signals are discussed, including challenges with distinguishing non-neural physiological effects from the neural signals of interest that reflect cardiorespiratory function. We also consider how recently developed data analysis techniques may be applied to high-field imaging data to uncover novel information about brain-heart interactions.

  20. Brain-heart interactions: challenges and opportunities with functional magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field.

    PubMed

    Chang, Catie; Raven, Erika P; Duyn, Jeff H

    2016-05-13

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at ultra-high field (UHF) strengths (7 T and above) offers unique opportunities for studying the human brain with increased spatial resolution, contrast and sensitivity. However, its reliability can be compromised by factors such as head motion, image distortion and non-neural fluctuations of the functional MRI signal. The objective of this review is to provide a critical discussion of the advantages and trade-offs associated with UHF imaging, focusing on the application to studying brain-heart interactions. We describe how UHF MRI may provide contrast and resolution benefits for measuring neural activity of regions involved in the control and mediation of autonomic processes, and in delineating such regions based on anatomical MRI contrast. Limitations arising from confounding signals are discussed, including challenges with distinguishing non-neural physiological effects from the neural signals of interest that reflect cardiorespiratory function. We also consider how recently developed data analysis techniques may be applied to high-field imaging data to uncover novel information about brain-heart interactions. PMID:27044994

  1. Comparison Between Nb3Al and Nb3Sn Strands and Cables for High Field Accelerator Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, R.; Kikuchi, A.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Rusy, A.; Takeuchi, T.; Tartaglia, M.; Turrioni, D.; Velev, V.; Wake, M.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The Nb{sub 3}Al small racetrack magnet, SR07, has been successfully built and tested to its short sample limit beyond 10 Tesla without any training. Thus the practical application of Nb{sub 3}Al strands for high field accelerator magnets is established. The characteristics of the representative F4 strand and cable, are compared with the typical Nb{sub 3}Sn strand and cable. It is represented by the OST high current RRP Nb{sub 3}Sn strand with 108/127 configuration. The effects of Rutherford cabling to both type strands are explained and the inherent problem of the Nb{sub 3}Sn strand is discussed. Also the test results of two representative small racetrack magnets are compared from the stand point of Ic values, and training. The maximum current density of the Nb{sub 3}Al strands is still smaller than that of the Nb{sub 3}Sn strands, but if we take into account of the stress-strain characteristics, Nb{sub 3}Al strands become somewhat favorable in some applications.

  2. Manufacture and Testing of a High Field Gradient Magnetic Fractionation System for Quantitative Detection of Plasmodium falciparum Gametocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Stephan; Woodward, Robert C.; Davis, Timothy M. E.; St. Pierre, Tim G.

    2010-12-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the most dangerous of the human malaria parasite species and accounts for millions of clinical episodes of malaria each year in tropical countries. The pathogenicity of Plasmodium falciparum is a result of its ability to infect erythrocytes where it multiplies asexually over 48 h or develops into sexual forms known as gametocytes. If sufficient male and female gametocytes are taken up by a mosquito vector, it becomes infectious. Therefore, the presence and density of gametocytes in human blood is an important indicator of human-to-mosquito transmission of malaria. Recently, we have shown that high field gradient magnetic fractionation improves gametocyte detection in human blood samples. Here we present two important new developments. Firstly we introduce a quantitative approach to replace the previous qualitative method and, secondly, we describe a novel method that enables cost-effective production of the magnetic fractionation equipment required to carry out gametocyte quantification. We show that our custom-made magnetic fractionation equipment can deliver results with similar sensitivity and convenience but for a small fraction of the cost.

  3. Windows on the Human Body – in Vivo High-Field Magnetic Resonance Research and Applications in Medicine and Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Ewald; Meyerspeer, Martin; Fischmeister, Florian Ph. S.; Grabner, Günther; Bauer, Herbert; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2010-01-01

    Analogous to the evolution of biological sensor-systems, the progress in “medical sensor-systems”, i.e., diagnostic procedures, is paradigmatically described. Outstanding highlights of this progress are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS), which enable non-invasive, in vivo acquisition of morphological, functional, and metabolic information from the human body with unsurpassed quality. Recent achievements in high and ultra-high field MR (at 3 and 7 Tesla) are described, and representative research applications in Medicine and Psychology in Austria are discussed. Finally, an overview of current and prospective research in multi-modal imaging, potential clinical applications, as well as current limitations and challenges is given. PMID:22219684

  4. The high-field magnet endstation for X-ray magnetic dichroism experiments at ESRF soft X-ray beamline ID32.

    PubMed

    Kummer, K; Fondacaro, A; Jimenez, E; Velez-Fort, E; Amorese, A; Aspbury, M; Yakhou-Harris, F; van der Linden, P; Brookes, N B

    2016-03-01

    A new high-field magnet endstation for X-ray magnetic dichroism experiments has been installed and commissioned at the ESRF soft X-ray beamline ID32. The magnet consists of two split-pairs of superconducting coils which can generate up to 9 T along the beam and up to 4 T orthogonal to the beam. It is connected to a cluster of ultra-high-vacuum chambers that offer a comprehensive set of surface preparation and characterization techniques. The endstation and the beam properties have been designed to provide optimum experimental conditions for X-ray magnetic linear and circular dichroism experiments in the soft X-ray range between 400 and 1600 eV photon energy. User operation started in November 2014. PMID:26917134

  5. Endometrium evaluation with high-field (3-Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging in patients submitted to uterine leiomyoma embolization

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Monica Amadio Piazza; Nasser, Felipe; Zlotnik, Eduardo; Messina, Marcos de Lorenzo; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the endometrial alterations related to embolization of uterine arteries for the treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyomatosis (pelvic pain and/or uterine bleeding) by means of high-field (3-Tesla) magnetic resonance. Methods: This is a longitudinal and prospective study that included 94 patients with a clinical and imaging diagnosis of symptomatic uterine leiomyomatosis, all of them treated by embolization of the uterine arteries. The patients were submitted to evaluations by high-field magnetic resonance of the pelvis before and 6 months after the procedure. Specific evaluations were made of the endometrium on the T2-weighted sequences, and on the T1-weighted sequences before and after the intravenous dynamic infusion of the paramagnetic contrast. In face of these measures, statistical analyses were performed using Student's t test for comparison of the results obtained before and after the procedure. Results: An average increase of 20.9% was noted in the endometrial signal on T2-weighted images obtained after the uterine artery embolization procedure when compared to the pre-procedure evaluation (p=0.0004). In the images obtained with the intravenous infusion of paramagnetic contrast, an average increase of 18.7% was noted in the post-embolization intensity of the endometrial signal, compared to the pre-embolization measure (p<0.035). Conclusion: After embolization of the uterine arteries, there was a significant increase of the endometrial signal on the T2-weighted images and on the post-contrast images, inferring possible edema and increased endometrial flow. Future studies are needed to assess the clinical impact of these findings. PMID:23579745

  6. The Magnetic Moments of the Proton and the Antiproton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmer, Stefan; Smorra, Christian

    A comparison of the magnetic moments of the proton and the antiproton provides a sensitive test of matter-antimatter symmetry. While the magnetic moment of the proton is known with a relative precision of 10^{-8}, that of the antiproton is only known with moderate accuracy. Important progress towards a high-precision measurement of the particle's magnetic moment was reported in 2011 by a group at Mainz when spin transitions of a single proton stored in a cryogenic Penning trap were observed. To resolve the single-proton spin flips, the so-called 'continuous Stern-Gerlach effect' was utilized. Using this technique, the proton magnetic moment was measured by two groups at Mainz and Harvard with relative precisions of 8.9× 10^{-6} and 2.5× 10^{-6}, respectively. Currently, two collaborations at the CERN antiproton decelerator (AD)—a part of ATRAP and BASE—are pushing their efforts to apply the methods developed for the proton to measure the magnetic moment of the antiproton. Very recently, DiSciacca et al. reported on a measurement of the antiproton's magnetic moment with a relative precision of 4.4 ppm, which is a improvement of the formerly best value by about a factor of 680. Using the so-called double Penning trap technique, both collaborations aim for a precision measurement at the level of at least 10^{-9} in future experiments, which would provide a highly sensitive test of the CPT symmetry using baryons.

  7. Cost of high-field Nb/sub 3/Sn and NbTi accelerator dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1982-11-01

    Future high-energy proton accelerators will likely require very high magnetic fields if the size of the accelerator and associated experimental areas are to be limited to dimensions that can be accomodated by the terrain at convenient sites. Two commercially available superconductors can be used to produce magnetic fields of 10T or more. The first is Nb/sub 3/Sn, which can operate in pool boiling helium at 4.4 K. The second is NbTi, which must be cooled to about 1.9 K in superfluid helium. In this paper the costs of 5-cm-bore, 6-m-long magnets made of these materials and operating at fields from 5 to 11 T are compared. At 10 T the capital cost of a NbTi coil operating in superfluid helium is 35% less than the cost of a Nb/sub 3/Sn coil. The cost of the NbTi coil is still 10% less after the differential operating costs that will be incurred over the life of the accelerator are included. The results presented here are a summary of a detailed analysis of these costs given in a separate report.

  8. Recent progress towards developing a high field, high-T(sub c) superconducting magnet for magnetic suspension and balance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derochemont, L. Pierre; Oakes, Carlton E.; Squillante, Michael R.; Duan, Hong-Min; Hermann, Allen M.; Andrews, Robert J.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Maroni, Victor A.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Kelliher, Warren C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews superconducting magnets and high T(sub c) superconducting oxide ceramic materials technology to identify areas of fundamental impasse to the fabrication of components and devices that tap what are believed to be the true potential of these new materials. High T(sub c) ceramics pose problems in fundamentally different areas which need to be solved unlike low T(sub c) materials. The authors map out an experimental plan designed to research process technologies which, if suitably implemented, should allow these deficiencies to be solved. Finally, assessments are made of where and on what regimes magnetic system designers should focus their attention to advance the practical development of systems based on these new materials.

  9. On the Importance of Exchangeable NH Protons in Creatine for the Magnetic Coupling of Creatine Methyl Protons in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruiskamp, M. J.; Nicolay, K.

    2001-03-01

    The methyl protons of creatine in skeletal muscle exhibit a strong off-resonance magnetization transfer effect. The mechanism of this process is unknown. We previously hypothesized that the exchangeable amide/amino protons of creatine might be involved. To test this the characteristics of the creatine magnetization transfer effect were investigated in excised rat hindleg skeletal muscle that was equilibrated in either H2O or D2O solutions containing creatine. The efficiency of off-resonance magnetization transfer to the protons of mobile creatine in excised muscle was similar to that previously reported in intact muscle in vivo. Equilibrating the isolated muscle in D2O solution had no effect on the magnetic coupling to the immobile protons. It is concluded that exchangeable protons play a negligible role in the magnetic coupling of creatine methyl protons in muscle.

  10. Proton magnetic relaxation and internal rotations in tetramethylammonium cadmium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, T.; Utton, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and relaxation studies of the proton spin-lattice relaxation time (PSLRT) and proton second moment (PSM) are reported. Tetramethylammonium cadmium chloride (TMCC) was selected as a diamagnetic member of the isomorphic series, and hence proton data relate directly to the motion of the tetramethylammonium ion in the absence of paramagnetic ions. In the model adopted, the correlation time for hindered motion of one of the methyl groups differs from that of the other three groups in the low-temperature phase below 104 K. PSLRT and PSM values agree closely with experimental data with this model. Crystallographic phase transitions in TMCC occur at 104 K and 119 K according to the PSLRT measurements. Dipolar interactions between adjacent protons account for the PSLR rates below 104 K.

  11. Mercury's Surface Magnetic Field Determined from Proton-Reflection Magnetometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winslow, Reka M.; Johnson, Catherine L.; Anderson, Brian J.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Raines, Jim M.; Lillis, Robert J.; Korth, Haje; Slavin, James A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Solar wind protons observed by the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit about Mercury exhibit signatures of precipitation loss to Mercury's surface. We apply proton-reflection magnetometry to sense Mercury's surface magnetic field intensity in the planet's northern and southern hemispheres. The results are consistent with a dipole field offset to the north and show that the technique may be used to resolve regional-scale fields at the surface. The proton loss cones indicate persistent ion precipitation to the surface in the northern magnetospheric cusp region and in the southern hemisphere at low nightside latitudes. The latter observation implies that most of the surface in Mercury's southern hemisphere is continuously bombarded by plasma, in contrast with the premise that the global magnetic field largely protects the planetary surface from the solar wind.

  12. Polarization Status of Magnetic Fluctuations at Proton Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Roberto; Telloni, Daniele; D'Amicis, Raffaella; DeMarco, Rossana; Marcucci, Federica

    2016-04-01

    We study the polarization status of magnetic field fluctuations at proton scales looking for possible links between the large-scale and small-scale features of solar wind fluctuations across the frequency break separating fluid and kinetic regimes. The main goal is to correlate the occurrence of proton temperature anisotropy, low proton β∥ values and, magnetic field fluctuations polarization to the particular state of turbulence found within the inertial range. We found clear correlations between each type of polarization, either left or right, and turbulence status. Moreover, for the first time in literature, we show that left-handed and right handed polarized fluctuations occupy different areas of the temperature anisotropy-β∥ plot, as expected for Alfvén Ion Cyclotron and Kinetic Alfvén waves, respectively.

  13. A magnetically switched kicker for proton extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Dinkel, J.; Biggs, J.

    1989-03-01

    The application of magnetic current amplification and switching techniques to the generation of precise high current pulses for switching magnets is described. The square loop characteristic of Metglas tape wound cores at high excitation levels provides excellent switching characteristics for microsecond pulses. The rugged and passive nature of this type pulser makes it possible to locate the final stages of amplification at the load for maximum efficiency. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  14. High field (9.4 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging of cortical grey matter lesions in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schmierer, Klaus; Parkes, Harold G; So, Po-Wah; An, Shu F; Brandner, Sebastian; Ordidge, Roger J; Yousry, Tarek A; Miller, David H

    2010-03-01

    .9; SD = 5 versus 22.6 ms; SD = 4.7; P < 0.01). Associations were detected between phosphorylated neurofilament and myelin basic protein (r = 0.58, P < 0.01), myelin basic protein and T(2) (r = -0.59, P < 0.01), and neuronal density and T(1) (r = -0.57, P < 0.01). All indices correlated with duration of tissue fixation, however, including the latter in the analysis did not fundamentally affect the associations described. Our data show that T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging at 9.4 T enables detection of cortical grey matter lesion in post-mortem multiple sclerosis brain. The quantitative associations suggest that in cortical grey matter T(1) may be a predictor of neuronal density, and T(2) of myelin content (and-secondarily-axons). Successful translation of these results into in vivo studies using high field magnetic resonance imaging (e.g. 3 T and 7 T) will improve the assessment of cortical pathology and thereby have an impact on the diagnosis and natural history studies of patients with multiple sclerosis, as well as clinical trial designs for putative treatments to prevent cortical demyelination and neuronal loss.

  15. A nested phosphorus and proton coil array for brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan; Lakshmanan, Karthik; Madelin, Guillaume; Parasoglou, Prodromos

    2016-01-01

    A dual-nuclei radiofrequency coil array was constructed for phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the human brain at 7T. An eight-channel transceive degenerate birdcage phosphorus module was implemented to provide whole-brain coverage and significant sensitivity improvement over a standard dual-tuned loop coil. A nested eight-channel proton module provided adequate sensitivity for anatomical localization without substantially sacrificing performance on the phosphorus module. The developed array enabled phosphorus spectroscopy, a saturation transfer technique to calculate the global creatine kinase forward reaction rate, and single-metabolite whole-brain imaging with 1.4cm nominal isotropic resolution in 15min (2.3cm actual resolution), while additionally enabling 1mm isotropic proton imaging. This study demonstrates that a multi-channel array can be utilized for phosphorus and proton applications with improved coverage and/or sensitivity over traditional single-channel coils. The efficient multi-channel coil array, time-efficient pulse sequences, and the enhanced signal strength available at ultra-high fields can be combined to allow volumetric assessment of the brain and could provide new insights into the underlying energy metabolism impairment in several neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as mental disorders such as schizophrenia.

  16. A nested phosphorus and proton coil array for brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ryan; Lakshmanan, Karthik; Madelin, Guillaume; Parasoglou, Prodromos

    2016-01-01

    A dual-nuclei radiofrequency coil array was constructed for phosphorus and proton magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the human brain at 7T. An eight-channel transceive degenerate birdcage phosphorus module was implemented to provide whole-brain coverage and significant sensitivity improvement over a standard dual-tuned loop coil. A nested eight-channel proton module provided adequate sensitivity for anatomical localization without substantially sacrificing performance on the phosphorus module. The developed array enabled phosphorus spectroscopy, a saturation transfer technique to calculate the global creatine kinase forward reaction rate, and single-metabolite whole-brain imaging with 1.4cm nominal isotropic resolution in 15min (2.3cm actual resolution), while additionally enabling 1mm isotropic proton imaging. This study demonstrates that a multi-channel array can be utilized for phosphorus and proton applications with improved coverage and/or sensitivity over traditional single-channel coils. The efficient multi-channel coil array, time-efficient pulse sequences, and the enhanced signal strength available at ultra-high fields can be combined to allow volumetric assessment of the brain and could provide new insights into the underlying energy metabolism impairment in several neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as mental disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:26375209

  17. Functionality of veterinary identification microchips following low- (0.5 tesla) and high-field (3 tesla) magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Piesnack, Susann; Frame, Mairi E; Oechtering, Gerhard; Ludewig, Eberhard

    2013-01-01

    The ability to read patient identification microchips relies on the use of radiofrequency pulses. Since radiofrequency pulses also form an integral part of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) process, the possibility of loss of microchip function during MRI scanning is of concern. Previous clinical trials have shown microchip function to be unaffected by MR imaging using a field strength of 1 Tesla and 1.5. As veterinary MRI scanners range widely in field strength, this study was devised to determine whether exposure to lower or higher field strengths than 1 Tesla would affect the function of different types of microchip. In a phantom study, a total of 300 International Standards Organisation (ISO)-approved microchips (100 each of three different types: ISO FDX-B 1.4 × 9 mm, ISO FDX-B 2.12 × 12 mm, ISO HDX 3.8 × 23 mm) were tested in a low field (0.5) and a high field scanner (3.0 Tesla). A total of 50 microchips of each type were tested in each scanner. The phantom was composed of a fluid-filled freezer pack onto which a plastic pillow and a cardboard strip with affixed microchips were positioned. Following an MRI scan protocol simulating a head study, all of the microchips were accurately readable. Neither 0.5 nor 3 Tesla imaging affected microchip function in this study.

  18. Comparison between computed tomography multislice and high-field magnetic resonance in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Baldari, Diana; Capece, Sergio; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Tucci, Anna Giacoma; Klain, Michele; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Salvatore, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Renal masses are a common finding in diagnostic imaging; these lesions usually are solid or cystic, benign or malignant, and the correct diagnosis may be difficult. The aim of our study was the comparison of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and high-field magnetic resonance (MR) in the diagnostic evaluation of renal masses. Methods We studied 29 patients, 16 men and 13 women aged 8-85 years (mean 61±17 years) with histo-cytological diagnosis of renal masses (n=31), of which the majority (74%; n=23) was represented by malignant lesions [renal cell carcinoma (Ca) =16, chromophobe renal cell Ca =2, squamous cell Ca =1, urothelial Ca =2, lymphoma =1, Wilms tumor =1]; the remaining 8 masses (26%) were benign (pyelonephritis =2, simple cyst =1, hematic cyst =1, lipoma =1 and oncocytoma =3). All patients underwent MSCT and MR (3.0 Tesla) before and after contrast injection; the images were evaluated in double-blind by two expert radiologists. The results of the images were then compared with the histo-cytological data to calculate the values of diagnostic accuracy for both methods in the identification and characterization of renal masses. The benign or malignant nature of the lesions was established according to the regularity of the margins, presence or absence of significant contrast enhancement, infiltration of perirenal fat and vascular invasion. The concordance of the results of the two imaging techniques was then calculated using the coefficient Kappa Cohen. Results For both identification and characterization of renal masses, MSCT and MR showed comparable values of diagnostic accuracy with a significant concordance (k=1); in particular, the diagnostic accuracy of MSCT/MR was 100%/100% for lesion identification, 90%/90% for lesion characterization in terms of benign or malignant nature, 97%/97% for the evaluation of lesion edges, 90%/90% for the assessment of lesion contrast enhancement, 93%/93% for the evaluation of peri-renal fat infiltration

  19. ECG-based gating in ultra high field cardiovascular magnetic resonance using an independent component analysis approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR), the synchronization of image acquisition with heart motion is performed in clinical practice by processing the electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG-based synchronization is well established for MR scanners with magnetic fields up to 3 T. However, this technique is prone to errors in ultra high field environments, e.g. in 7 T MR scanners as used in research applications. The high magnetic fields cause severe magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects which disturb the ECG signal. Image synchronization is thus less reliable and yields artefacts in CMR images. Methods A strategy based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA) was pursued in this work to enhance the ECG contribution and attenuate the MHD effect. ICA was applied to 12-lead ECG signals recorded inside a 7 T MR scanner. An automatic source identification procedure was proposed to identify an independent component (IC) dominated by the ECG signal. The identified IC was then used for detecting the R-peaks. The presented ICA-based method was compared to other R-peak detection methods using 1) the raw ECG signal, 2) the raw vectorcardiogram (VCG), 3) the state-of-the-art gating technique based on the VCG, 4) an updated version of the VCG-based approach and 5) the ICA of the VCG. Results ECG signals from eight volunteers were recorded inside the MR scanner. Recordings with an overall length of 87 min accounting for 5457 QRS complexes were available for the analysis. The records were divided into a training and a test dataset. In terms of R-peak detection within the test dataset, the proposed ICA-based algorithm achieved a detection performance with an average sensitivity (Se) of 99.2%, a positive predictive value (+P) of 99.1%, with an average trigger delay and jitter of 5.8 ms and 5.0 ms, respectively. Long term stability of the demixing matrix was shown based on two measurements of the same subject, each being separated by one year, whereas an averaged detection

  20. High-field magnetization of heusler alloys Fe2 XY ( X = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni; Y = Al, Si)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourov, N. I.; Marchenkov, V. V.; Korolev, A. V.; Belozerova, K. A.; Weber, H. W.

    2015-10-01

    The magnetization curves of ferromagnetic Heusler alloys Fe2 XY (where X = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni are transition 3 d elements and Y = Al, Si are the s and p elements of the third period of the Periodic Table) have been measured at T = 4.2 K in the field range H ≤ 70 kOe. It has been shown that the high-field ( H ≥ 20 kOe) magnetization is described within the Stoner model.

  1. Magnetic properties of Zn doped Co{sub 2}Y hexaferrite by using high-field Mössbauer spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tae Lim, Jung; Sung Kim, Chul

    2014-05-07

    The polycrystalline samples of Ba{sub 2}Co{sub 2−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (x = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5) were synthesized by using solid-state-reaction method. From the XRD patterns, analyzed by Rietveld refinement, the prepared samples are found to be single-phased with rhombohedral structure (R-3m). The magnetic properties of samples were investigated with vibrating sample magnetometer, and high-field Mössbauer spectrometer. From the zero-field-cooled curves under 100 Oe between 4.2 and 740 K, we observe that the samples show spin transition from helicalmagnetic to ferrimagnetic order. With increasing Zn ion concentration, the spin transition temperature (T{sub s}) and Curie temperature (T{sub C}) decrease linearly. We have obtained Zero-field Mössbauer spectra of all samples at various temperatures ranging from 4.2 to 650 K, and analyzed the spectra below T{sub C} as six-sextets for Fe sites. From the temperature dependence of hyperfine field (H{sub hf}), we have noticed an abrupt change in H{sub hf} at T{sub s}. In addition, Mössbauer spectra of all samples at 4.2 K were taken with applied field ranging from 0 to 50 kOe, indicating the canting angle between applied field and H{sub hf} decreased with increasing Zn concentration.

  2. High strength kiloampere Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox cables for high-field magnet applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Tengming; Li, Pei; Jiang, Jianyi; Cooley, Lance; Tompkins, John; McRae, Dustin; Walsh, Robert

    2015-06-01

    INCONEL X750 for various high-field magnet applications.

  3. Magnetic Moment of Proton Drip-Line Nucleus (9)C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuta, K.; Fukuda, M.; Tanigaki, M.; Minamisono, T.; Nojiri, Y.; Mihara, M.; Onishi, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Harada, A.; Sasaki, M.

    1994-01-01

    The magnetic moment of the proton drip-line nucleus C-9(I(sup (pi)) = 3/2, T(sub 1/2) = 126 ms) has been measured for the first time, using the beta-NMR detection technique with polarized radioactive beams. The measure value for the magnetic moment is 1mu(C-9)! = 1.3914 +/- 0.0005 (mu)N. The deduced spin expectation value of 1.44 is unusually larger than any other ones of even-odd nuclei.

  4. Magnetic properties of point defects in proton irradiated diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makgato, T. N.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Ramos, M. A.; García-Hernández, M.; Climent-Font, A.; Zucchiatti, A.; Muñoz-Martin, A.; Shrivastava, S.; Erasmus, R.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the magnetic properties of ultra-pure type-IIa diamond following irradiation with proton beams of ≈1-2 MeV energy. SQUID magnetometry indicate the formation of Curie type paramagnetism according to the Curie law. Raman and Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements show that the primary structural features created by proton irradiation are the centers: GR1, ND1, TR12 and 3H. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) Monte Carlo simulations together with SQUID observations show a strong correlation between vacancy production, proton fluence and the paramagnetic factor. At an average surface vacancy spacing of ≈1-1.6 nm and bulk (peak) vacancy spacing of ≈0.3-0.5 nm Curie paramagnetism is induced by formation of ND1 centres with an effective magnetic moment μeff~(0.1-0.2)μB. No evidence of long range magnetic ordering is observed in the temperature range 4.2-300 K.

  5. Cotton-mouton effects, magnetic hyperpolarizabilities, and magnetic anisotropies of the methyl halides. Comparison with molecular Zeeman and high-field NMR spectroscopic results

    SciTech Connect

    Coonan, M.H.; Ritchie, G.L.D. )

    1991-02-07

    Measurements of the vapor-phase Cotton-Mouton effects of methyl fluoride, methyl bromide, and methyl iodide are reported. Analysis of the results, in conjunction with those of an earlier study of methane and methyl chloride, shows that in the series CH{sub 3}X (X = H, F, Cl, Br, I) the magnetic hyperpolarizabiity anisotropy, which is related to the quadratic response of the molecular polarizability to a magnetic field, is positive in sign and roughly proportional in magnitude to the mean polarizability. The magnetic anisotropies (10{sup 29}{Delta}{sub {chi}}/J T{sup {minus}2}) found for methyl chloride,methyl bromide, and methyl iodide (CH{sub 3}Cl, {minus}15.0 {plus minus} 1.3; CH{sub 3}Br, -15.1 {plus minus} 0.8; CH{sub 3}I, {minus}18.0 {plus minus} 1.5) are compared with values obtained by the molecular Zeeman and high-field {sup 2}H NMR spectroscopic methods.

  6. New 30 kA power system at Fermilab and its use for measuring the effects of ripple current on the performance of superconducting high field magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Garvey, J.; Jaskierny, W.; Lamm, M.; Makulski, A.; Orris, D.F.; Pfeffer, H.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.; Wolff, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    A new 30 kA, 30 V dc Power System was designed, built, and commissioned at Fermilab for testing Superconducting High Field Magnets. This system has been successfully supporting operations at the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility since April 2002. It is based on six commercial 150 kW Power Energy Industries power supply modules and the following in-house modules: six 720 Hz filters, two 15 kA/1kV dc solid-state dump switch, and a 3 MJ/30 kA/1 kV dc dump resistor. Additional inhouse electronic components were designed and built to provide precise current regulation and distribution of current and current rate of change. An industrial-type Programmable Logic Controller system was used to provide equipment interlocks and monitoring. This paper summarizes studies on the influence of characteristics of this new power system--such as ripple current--on the performance of High Field Superconducting magnets.

  7. An Analytical Technique to Elucidate Field Impurities From Manufacturing Uncertainties of an Double Pancake Type HTS Insert for High Field LTS/HTS NMR Magnets

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Seung-yong; Ahn, Min Cheol; Bobrov, Emanuel Saul; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses adverse effects of dimensional uncertainties of an HTS insert assembled with double-pancake coils on spatial field homogeneity. Each DP coil was wound with Bi2223 tapes having dimensional tolerances larger than one order of magnitude of those accepted for LTS wires used in conventional NMR magnets. The paper presents: 1) dimensional variations measured in two LTS/HTS NMR magnets, 350 MHz (LH350) and 700 MHz (LH700), both built and operated at the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory; and 2) an analytical technique and its application to elucidate the field impurities measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets. Field impurities computed with the analytical model and those measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets agree quite well, demonstrating that this analytical technique is applicable to design a DP-assembled HTS insert with an improved field homogeneity for a high-field LTS/HTS NMR magnet. PMID:20407595

  8. An Analytical Technique to Elucidate Field Impurities From Manufacturing Uncertainties of an Double Pancake Type HTS Insert for High Field LTS/HTS NMR Magnets.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Seung-Yong; Ahn, Min Cheol; Bobrov, Emanuel Saul; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2009-06-01

    This paper addresses adverse effects of dimensional uncertainties of an HTS insert assembled with double-pancake coils on spatial field homogeneity. Each DP coil was wound with Bi2223 tapes having dimensional tolerances larger than one order of magnitude of those accepted for LTS wires used in conventional NMR magnets. The paper presents: 1) dimensional variations measured in two LTS/HTS NMR magnets, 350 MHz (LH350) and 700 MHz (LH700), both built and operated at the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory; and 2) an analytical technique and its application to elucidate the field impurities measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets. Field impurities computed with the analytical model and those measured with the two LTS/HTS magnets agree quite well, demonstrating that this analytical technique is applicable to design a DP-assembled HTS insert with an improved field homogeneity for a high-field LTS/HTS NMR magnet.

  9. Transverse relaxation of solvent protons induced by magnetized spheres: application to ferritin, erythrocytes, and magnetite

    SciTech Connect

    Gillis, P.; Koenig, S.H.

    1987-10-01

    Since 1/T2 of protons of tissue water is generally much greater than 1/T1 at typical imaging fields, small single-ion contrast agents--such as Gd(DTPA), which make comparable incremental contributions and therefore smaller fractional contributions to 1/T2 compared to 1/T1--are not as desirable for contrast-enhancement as agents that could enhance 1/T2 preferentially. In principle, such specialized agents will only be effective at higher fields because the field dependence (dispersion) of 1/T1 is such that it approaches zero at high fields whereas 1/T2 approaches a constant value. The residual 1/T2 is called the secular contribution and arises from fluctuations in time--as sensed by the protons of diffusing solvent or tissue water molecules--of the component of the magnetic field parallel to the static applied field. For solutions or suspensions of sufficiently large paramagnetic or ferromagnetic particles (greater than or equal to 250 A diameter), the paramagnetic contributions to the relaxation rates satisfy 1/T2 much greater than 1/T1 at typical imaging fields. We examine the theory of secular relaxation in some detail, particularly as it applies to systems relevant to magnetic resonance imaging, and then analyze the data for solutions, suspensions, or tissue containing ferritin, erythrocytes, agar-bound magnetite particles, and liver with low-density composite polymer-coated magnetite. In most cases we can explain the relaxation data, often quantitatively, in terms of the theory of relaxation of protons (water molecules) diffusing in the outer sphere environments of magnetized particles.

  10. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in oncology: the fingerprints of cancer?

    PubMed Central

    García-Figueiras, Roberto; Baleato-González, Sandra; Padhani, Anwar R; Oleaga, Laura; Vilanova, Joan C; Luna, Antonio; Gómez, Juan Carlos Cobas

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal metabolism is a key tumor hallmark. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) allows measurement of metabolite concentration that can be utilized to characterize tumor metabolic changes. 1H-MRS measurements of specific metabolites have been implemented in the clinic. This article performs a systematic review of image acquisition and interpretation of 1H-MRS for cancer evaluation, evaluates its strengths and limitations, and correlates metabolite peaks at 1H-MRS with diagnostic and prognostic parameters of cancer in different tumor types. PMID:26712681

  11. ENERGETIC PROTONS, RADIONUCLIDES, AND MAGNETIC ACTIVITY IN PROTOSTELLAR DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, N. J.; Drake, J. F.

    2009-10-01

    We calculate the location of the magnetically inactive dead zone in the minimum-mass protosolar disk, under ionization scenarios including stellar X-rays, long- or short-lived radionuclide decay, and energetic protons arriving from the general interstellar medium, from a nearby supernova explosion, from the disk corona, or from the corona of the young star. The disk contains a dead zone in all scenarios except those with small dust grains removed and a fraction of the short-lived radionuclides remaining in the gas. All the cases without exception have an 'undead zone' where intermediate resistivities prevent magneto-rotational turbulence while allowing shear-generated large-scale magnetic fields. The mass column in the undead zone is typically greater than the column in the turbulent surface layers. The results support the idea that the dead and undead zones are robust consequences of cold, dusty gas with mass columns exceeding 1000 g cm{sup -2}.

  12. Electric and magnetic form factors of the proton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernauer, J. Â. C.; Distler, M. Â. O.; Friedrich, J.; Walcher, Th.; Achenbach, P.; Ayerbe Gayoso, C.; Böhm, R.; Bosnar, D.; Debenjak, L.; Doria, L.; Esser, A.; Fonvieille, H.; Gómez Rodríguez de la Paz, M.; Friedrich, J. Â. M.; Makek, M.; Merkel, H.; Middleton, D. Â. G.; Müller, U.; Nungesser, L.; Pochodzalla, J.; Potokar, M.; Sánchez Majos, S.; Schlimme, B. Â. S.; Širca, S.; Weinriefer, M.; A1 Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a precise measurement of electron scattering off the proton at momentum transfers of 0.003≲Q2≲1 GeV2. The average point-to-point error of the cross sections in this experiment is ˜0.37%. These data are used for a coherent new analysis together with all world data of unpolarized and polarized electron scattering from the very smallest to the highest momentum transfers so far measured. The extracted electric and magnetic form factors provide new insight into their exact shape, deviating from the classical dipole form, and of structure on top of this gross shape. The data reaching very low Q2 values are used for a new determination of the electric and magnetic radii. An empirical determination of the two-photon-exchange correction is presented. The implications of this correction on the radii and the question of a directly visible signal of the pion cloud are addressed.

  13. Magnetic resonance detection of individual proton spins using quantum reporters.

    PubMed

    Sushkov, A O; Lovchinsky, I; Chisholm, N; Walsworth, R L; Park, H; Lukin, M D

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate a method of magnetic resonance imaging with single nuclear-spin sensitivity under ambient conditions. Our method employs isolated electronic-spin quantum bits (qubits) as magnetic resonance "reporters" on the surface of high purity diamond. These spin qubits are localized with nanometer-scale uncertainty, and their quantum state is coherently manipulated and measured optically via a proximal nitrogen-vacancy color center located a few nanometers below the diamond surface. This system is then used for sensing, coherent coupling, and imaging of individual proton spins on the diamond surface with angstrom resolution. Our approach may enable direct structural imaging of complex molecules that cannot be accessed from bulk studies. It realizes a new platform for probing novel materials, monitoring chemical reactions, and manipulation of complex systems on surfaces at a quantum level. PMID:25415924

  14. A carbon-13 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance study of some experimental referee broadened-specification /ERBS/ turbine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalling, D. K.; Pugmire, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary results of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy study of alternative jet fuels are presented. A referee broadened-specification (ERBS) aviation turbine fuel, a mixture of 65 percent traditional kerosene with 35 percent hydrotreated catalytic gas oil (HCGO) containing 12.8 percent hydrogen, and fuels of lower hydrogen content created by blending the latter with a mixture of HCGO and xylene bottoms were studied. The various samples were examined by carbon-13 and proton NMR at high field strength, and the resulting spectra are shown. In the proton spectrum of the 12.8 percent hydrogen fuel, no prominent single species is seen while for the blending stock, many individual lines are apparent. The ERBS fuels were fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography and the resulting fractions analyzed by NMR. The species found are identified.

  15. A portable high-field pulsed-magnet system for single-crystal x-ray scattering studies

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Zahirul; Lang, Jonathan C.; Ruff, Jacob P. C.; Ross, Kathryn A.; Gaulin, Bruce D.; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H.; Qu Zhe

    2009-11-15

    We present a portable pulsed-magnet system for x-ray studies of materials in high magnetic fields (up to 30 T). The apparatus consists of a split-pair of minicoils cooled on a closed-cycle cryostat, which is used for x-ray diffraction studies with applied field normal to the scattering plane. A second independent closed-cycle cryostat is used for cooling the sample to near liquid helium temperatures. Pulsed magnetic fields ({approx}1 ms in total duration) are generated by discharging a configurable capacitor bank into the magnet coils. Time-resolved scattering data are collected using a combination of a fast single-photon counting detector, a multichannel scaler, and a high-resolution digital storage oscilloscope. The capabilities of this instrument are used to study a geometrically frustrated system revealing strong magnetostrictive effects in the spin-liquid state.

  16. A portable high-field pulsed-magnet system for single-crystal x-ray scattering studies.

    PubMed

    Islam, Zahirul; Ruff, Jacob P C; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Yasuhiro H; Ross, Kathryn A; Gaulin, Bruce D; Qu, Zhe; Lang, Jonathan C

    2009-11-01

    We present a portable pulsed-magnet system for x-ray studies of materials in high magnetic fields (up to 30 T). The apparatus consists of a split-pair of minicoils cooled on a closed-cycle cryostat, which is used for x-ray diffraction studies with applied field normal to the scattering plane. A second independent closed-cycle cryostat is used for cooling the sample to near liquid helium temperatures. Pulsed magnetic fields (approximately 1 ms in total duration) are generated by discharging a configurable capacitor bank into the magnet coils. Time-resolved scattering data are collected using a combination of a fast single-photon counting detector, a multichannel scaler, and a high-resolution digital storage oscilloscope. The capabilities of this instrument are used to study a geometrically frustrated system revealing strong magnetostrictive effects in the spin-liquid state. PMID:19947737

  17. First Observation of the High Field Side Sawtooth Crash and Heat Transfer during Driven Reconnection Processes in Magnetically Confined Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, HK; Luhmann, NC; Donne, AJH; Classen, IGJ; Domier, CW; Mazzucato, E; Munsat, T; van de Pol, MJ; Xia, Z

    2005-12-01

    High resolution (temporal and spatial), two-dimensional images of electron temperature fluctuations during sawtooth oscillations were employed to study driven reconnection processes in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas. The combination of kink and local pressure driven instabilities leads to an "X-point" reconnection process that is localized in the toroidal and poloidal planes. The reconnection is not always confined to the magnetic surfaces with minimum energy. The heat transport process from the core is demonstrated to be highly collective rather than stochastic.

  18. An improved permanent magnet quadrupole design with larger good field region for high intensity proton linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-11-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), being developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) will produce a 20 MeV, 30 mA, continuous wave (CW) proton beam. At these low velocities, space-charge forces dominate, and could lead to larger beam sizes and beam halos. Hence in the design of the focusing lattice of the LEHIPA drift tube linac (DTL) using permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs), a larger good field region is preferred. Here we study, using the two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulation codes PANDIRA and RADIA, four different types of cylindrical PMQ designs: 16-segment trapezoidal Halbach configuration, bullet-nosed geometry and 8- and 16-segment rectangular geometries. The trapezoidal Halbach geometry is used in a variety of accelerators since it provides very high field gradients in small bores, while the bullet-nosed geometry, which is a combination of the trapezoidal and rectangular designs, is used in some DTLs. This study shows that a larger good field region is possible in the 16-segment rectangular design as compared to the Halbach and bullet-nosed designs, making it more attractive for high-intensity proton linacs. An improvement in good-field region by ˜16% over the Halbach design is obtained in the optimized 16-segment rectangular design, although the field gradient is lower by ˜20%. Tolerance studies show that the rectangular segment PMQ design is substantially less sensitive to the easy axis orientation errors and hence will be a better choice for DTLs.

  19. [Comparative assessment of MR-semiotics of acutest intracerebral hematomas in low- and extra high-field frequency magnetic resonance tomography].

    PubMed

    Skvortsova, V I; Burenchev, D V; Tvorogova, T V; Guseva, O I; Prokhorov, A V; Smirnov, A M; Kupriianov, D A; Pirogov, Iu A

    2009-01-01

    An objective of the study was to compare sensitivity of low- and extra high-field frequency magnetic resonance (MR) tomography of acutest intracerebral hematomas (ICH) and to assess differences between symptoms in obtained images. A study was conducted using experimental ICH in rats (n=6). Hematomas were formed by two injections of autologic blood into the brain. MR-devices "Bio Spec 70/30" with magnetic field strength of 7 T and "Ellipse-150" with magnetic field strength of 0,15 T were used in the study. MR-tomography was carried out 3-5 h after the injections. Both MR-devices revealed the presence of pathological lesion in all animals. Extra highfield frequency MR-tomography showed the specific signs of ICH caused by the paramagnetic effect of deoxyhemoglobin in T2 and T2*-weighted images (WI) and low frequency MR-tomography - in T2*-WI only. The comparable sensitivity of low- and extra high-field frequency MR-devices in acutest ICH was established.

  20. High-field (9.4 T) MRI of brain dysmyelination by quantitative mapping of magnetic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Johnson, G Allan; Wu, Bing

    2011-06-01

    The multilayered myelin sheath wrapping around nerve axons is essential for proper functioning of the central nervous system. Abnormal myelination leads to a wide range of neurological diseases and developmental disorders. Non-invasive imaging of myelin content is of great clinical importance. The present work demonstrated that loss of myelin in the central nervous system of the shiverer mouse results in a dramatic reduction of magnetic susceptibility in white matter axons. The reduction resulted in a near extinction of susceptibility contrast between gray and white matter. Quantitative magnetic susceptibility imaging and diffusion tensor imaging were conducted on a group of control and shiverer mice at 9.4 T. We measured the resonance frequency distribution of the whole brain for each mouse. Magnetic susceptibility maps were computed and compared between the two groups. It was shown that the susceptibility contrast between gray and white matter was reduced by 96% in the shiverer compared to the controls. Diffusion measurements further confirmed intact fiber pathways in the shiverer mice, ruling out the possibility of axonal injury and its potential contribution to the altered susceptibility. As an autosomal recessive mutation, shiverer is characterized by an almost total lack of central nervous system myelin. Our data provide new evidences indicating that myelin is the predominant source of susceptibility differences between deep gray and white matter observed in magnetic resonance imaging. More importantly, the present study suggests that quantitative magnetic susceptibility is a potential endogenous biomarker for myelination.

  1. Alignment of bicelles studied with high-field magnetic birefringence and small-angle neutron scattering measurements.

    PubMed

    Liebi, Marianne; van Rhee, Peter G; Christianen, Peter C M; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Fischer, Peter; Walde, Peter; Windhab, Erich J

    2013-03-12

    Birefringence measurements at high magnetic field strength of up to 33 T were used to detect magnetically induced alignment of bicelles composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), cholesterol, and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DMPE-DTPA) with complexed lanthanide ions. These birefringence measurements together with a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis in a magnetic field showed parallel alignment of the bicelles if the lanthanide was thulium (Tm(3+)), and perpendicular alignment with dysprosium (Dy(3+)). With the birefringence measurements, the order parameter S can be determined as a function of the magnetic field strength, if the magnetic alignment reaches saturation. Additional structural information can be obtained if the maximum induced birefringence is considered. The degree of alignment of the studied bicelles increased with decreasing temperature from 40 to 5 °C and showed a new bicellar structure comprising a transient hole formation at intermediate temperatures (20 °C) during heating from 5 to 40 °C.

  2. Quantitative Proton Magnetic Resonance Techniques for Measuring Fat

    PubMed Central

    Harry, Houchun; Kan, Hermien E.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate, precise, and reliable techniques for quantifying body and organ fat distributions are important tools in physiology research. They are critically needed in studies of obesity and diseases involving excess fat accumulation. Proton magnetic resonance methods address this need by providing an array of relaxometry-based (T1, T2) and chemical-shift-based approaches. These techniques can generate informative visualizations of regional and whole-body fat distributions, yield measurements of fat volumes within specific body depots, and quantify fat accumulation in abdominal organs and muscles. MR methods are commonly used to investigate the role of fat in nutrition and metabolism, to measure the efficacy of short and long-term dietary and exercise interventions, to study the implications of fat in organ steatosis and muscular dystrophies, and to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms in the context of obesity and its comorbidities. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of mainstream MR strategies for fat quantification. The article will succinctly describe the principles that differentiate water and fat proton signals, summarize advantages and limitations of various techniques, and offer a few illustrative examples. The article will also highlight recent efforts in MR of brown adipose tissue and conclude by briefly discussing some future research directions. PMID:24123229

  3. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of leech muscle and nervous system.

    PubMed

    Petroff, O A; Hogan, E; Johansen, J; Kleinhaus, A L

    1987-01-01

    1. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) was used to measure the major intracellular metabolites in perchloric acid extracts of the Macrobdella decora muscle and nervous systems and the Oryctolagus cuniculus cerebrum. 2. Acetate, alanine, choline, glutamate, inositol, and lactate were assigned in the spectrum of leech ventral cord, leech muscle, and rabbit cerebrum. 3. Hirudonine and propionate were clearly observed only in the spectrum of leech muscle. 4. Creatine, N-acetyl aspartate, gamma aminobutyric acid, aspartate, and taurine, distinctive components of spectra of the mammalian cerebrum, were not seen in the invertebrate spectra. 5. 1H NMR spectroscopy provides a simple and rapid means of characterizing the major organic metabolites found in leech muscle and nervous tissues.

  4. Calibration of a compact magnetic proton recoil neutron spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianfu; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianpeng; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Guoguang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Qiu, Suizheng; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jinliang; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Yang, Shaohua

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer is considered as a powerful instrument to measure deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron spectrum, as it is currently used in inertial confinement fusion facilities and large Tokamak devices. The energy resolution (ER) and neutron detection efficiency (NDE) are the two most important parameters to characterize a neutron spectrometer. In this work, the ER calibration for the MPR spectrometer was performed by using the HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), and the NDE calibration was performed by using the neutron generator at CIAE. The specific calibration techniques used in this work and the associated accuracies were discussed in details in this paper. The calibration results were presented along with Monte Carlo simulation results.

  5. Brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for hepatic encephalopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Chin-Sing; McConnell, James R.; Chu, Wei-Kom

    1993-08-01

    Liver failure can induce gradations of encephalopathy from mild to stupor to deep coma. The objective of this study is to investigate and quantify the variation of biochemical compounds in the brain in patients with liver failure and encephalopathy, through the use of water- suppressed, localized in-vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (HMRS). The spectral parameters of the compounds quantitated are: N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA) to Creatine (Cr) ratio, Choline (Cho) to Creatine ratio, Inositol (Ins) to Creatine ratio and Glutamine-Glutamate Amino Acid (AA) to Creatine ratio. The study group consisted of twelve patients with proven advanced chronic liver failure and symptoms of encephalopathy. Comparison has been done with results obtained from five normal subjects without any evidence of encephalopathy or liver diseases.

  6. Rabi, the proton magnetic moment, and the ‘2-wire' magnet, 1931-34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, Paul

    2001-04-01

    With the assistance of Gregory Breit, I.I. Rabi, at Columbia University, worked out in 1931 a method to determine the spin (not the magnetic moment) of atomic nuclei by deflecting an atomic beam of the isotope in question in a weak, but long, inhomogeneous magnetic field. Crucial to this method was that it required no exact knowledge of that field. When the sensational result -- µp = 2.5µ_Bohr(m_e/m_p) -- from Otto Stern's deflection of a beam of hydrogen molecules in a strong magnetic field became known late in 1932, its confirmation by another laboratory, preferably by another method, seemed urgent. No one else had the refined technique to reproduce Stern's experiment. But because the hydrogen electronic wave function was known, the Breit-Rabi technique was susceptible of extension in this case to the measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton - - but only with accurate knowledge of the magnetic field and field gradient traversed by the atomic hydrogen beam. To this end Rabi introduced the '2-wire' magnet, producing a weak field and uniform gradient that could be calculated rather than measured. This field configuration quickly came to be used in all magnetic deflection experiments in Rabi's laboratory, first as produced directly by electric currents, and subsequently as emulated in iron electromagnets in order to achieve the higher magnetic fields required by molecular beam magnetic resonance experiments from 1937 onward.

  7. Rabi, the proton magnetic moment, and the ¡2-wire¢ magnet, 1931-34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, Paul

    2001-04-01

    With the assistance of Gregory Breit, I.I. Rabi, at Columbia University, worked out in 1931 a method to determine the spin (not the magnetic moment) of atomic nuclei by deflecting an atomic beam of the isotope in question in a weak, but long, inhomogeneous magnetic field. Crucial to this method was that it required no exact knowledge of that field. When the sensational result: p = 2.5:_Bohr(m_e/m_p) from Otto Stern's deflection of a beam of hydrogen molecules in a strong magnetic field became known late in 1932, its confirmation by another laboratory, preferably by another method, seemed urgent. No one else had the refined technique to reproduce Stern's experiment. But because the hydrogen electronic wave function was known, the Breit Rabi technique was susceptible of extension in this case to the measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton but only with accurate knowledge of the magnetic field and field gradient traversed by the atomic hydrogen beam. To this end Rabi introduced the '2 wire' magnet, producing a weak field and uniform gradient that could be calculated rather than measured. This field configuration quickly came to be used in all magnetic deflection experiments in Rabi's laboratory, first as produced directly by electric currents, and subsequently as emulated in iron electromagnets in order to achieve the higher magnetic fields required by molecular beam magnetic resonance experiments from 1937 onward.

  8. First observation of amino acid side chain dynamics in membrane proteins using high field deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsey, R.A.; Kintanar, A.; Tsai, M.D.; Smith, R.L.; Janes, N.; Oldfield, E.

    1981-05-10

    The first deuterium NMR spectra of an individual membrane protein, bacteriohodopsin in the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium R1 has been obtained. Biosynthetic isotopic enrichment with (gamma-2H6) valine and high field Fourier transform operation permitted rapid data acquisition on intact membranes, including measurement of relaxation times. At some temperatures high quality spectra could be obtained in less than 1 s. (U-14C)Valine tracer studies indicate that less than or equal to 2% of valine added to the growth medium is broken down and incorporated into other membrane constituents. The NMR results indicate that the valine side chain is a rather rigid structure. Motion about C alpha-C beta is slow (less than 10(5) s-1) at growth temperature, while motion about C beta-C gamma is as expected fast (much greater than 10(5) s-1) at all accessible temperatures. The activation energy for methyl group rotation from spin-lattice relaxation data between -75 and 53 degrees C is approximately 2.4 kcal/mol, in good agreement with previous 1H NMR studies on solid alkanes. Preliminary data on (gamma-2H6)valine-labeled Acholeplasma laidlawii B (PG9) cell membranes are also presented. Results strongly suggest that it should now be possible to observe in great detail the motions of any type of amino acid side chain in membrane proteins, including the effects of lipid composition on protein dynamics.

  9. Limits of NbTi and Nb3Sn, and Development of W&R Bi-2212 HighField Accelerator Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Godeke, A.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Prestemon,S.O.; Sabbi, G.; Scanlan, R.M.

    2006-12-01

    NbTi accelerator dipoles are limited to magnetic fields (H)of about 10 T, due to an intrinsic upper critical field(Hc2) limitationof 14 T. To surpass this restriction, prototype Nb3Sn magnets are beingdeveloped which have reached 16 T. We show that Nb3Sn dipole technologyis practically limited to 17 to 18 T due to insufficient high fieldpinning, and intrinsically to 20 to 22 T due to Hc2 limitations.Therefore, to obtain magnetic fields approaching 20 T and higher, amaterial is required with a higher Hc2 and sufficient high field pinningcapacity. A realistic candidate for this purpose is Bi-2212, which isavailable in roundwires and sufficient lengths for the fabrication ofcoils based on Rutherford-type cables. We initiated a program to developthe required technology to construct accelerator magnets from'windand-react' (W&R) Bi-2212 coils. We outline the complicationsthat arise through the use of Bi-2212, describe the development paths toaddress these issues, and conclude with the design of W&R Bi-2212sub-scale magnets.

  10. Magnetofluorescent micelles incorporating Dy(III)-DOTA as potential bimodal agents for optical and high field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Harris, Michael; Vander Elst, Luce; Laurent, Sophie; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2016-03-21

    Dysprosium(iii) was coordinated to four 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) bisamide derivatives functionalized with amphiphilic p-dodecylaniline and p-tetradecylaniline in a differing cis- and trans-orientation. The complexes were assembled into mono-disperse micelles having size distribution maxima ranging from 10 to 15 nm and the magnetic and optical properties of the micelles were examined in detail. The micelles show characteristic Dy(iii) emission with quantum yields reaching 0.8%. The transverse relaxivity r2 per Dy(iii) ion at 500 MHz and 310 K reaches maximum values of ca. 20 s(-1) mM(-1) which is a large increase when compared to a value of 0.8 s(-1) mM(-1) observed for Dy(III)-DTPA. The micelles were stable in water when incubated at 37 °C for 1 week and showed no relaxivity decrease when measured in the presence of 4% (w/v) human serum albumin. The efficient T2 relaxation, especially at strong magnetic fields, is sustained by the high magnetic moment of the dysprosium(iii) ion, the coordination of water molecules and long rotational correlation times. PMID:26865457

  11. Experimental Fusion of Contrast Enhanced High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging and High-Resolution Micro-Computed Tomography in Imaging the Mouse Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    Counter, S. Allen; Damberg, Peter; Aski, Sahar Nikkhou; Nagy, Kálmán; Berglin, Cecilia Engmér; Laurell, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Imaging cochlear, vestibular, and 8th cranial nerve abnormalities remains a challenge. In this study, the membranous and osseous labyrinths of the wild type mouse inner ear were examined using volumetric data from ultra high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium contrast at 9.4 Tesla and high-resolution micro-computed tomography (µCT) to visualize the scalae and vestibular apparatus, and to establish imaging protocols and parameters for comparative analysis of the normal and mutant mouse inner ear. Methods: For in vivo MRI acquisition, animals were placed in a Milleped coil situated in the isocenter of a horizontal 9.4 T Varian magnet. For µCT examination, cone beam scans were performed ex vivo following MRI using the µCT component of a nanoScan PET/CT in vivo scanner. Results: The fusion of Gd enhanced high field MRI and high-resolution µCT scans revealed the dynamic membranous labyrinth of the perilymphatic fluid filled scala tympani and scala vestibule of the cochlea, and semicircular canals of the vestibular apparatus, within the µCT visualized contours of the contiguous osseous labyrinth. The ex vivo µCT segmentation revealed the surface contours and structural morphology of each cochlea turn and the semicircular canals in 3 planes. Conclusions: The fusion of ultra high-field MRI and high-resolution µCT imaging techniques were complementary, and provided high-resolution dynamic and static visualization of the complex morphological features of the normal mouse inner ear structures, which may offer a valuable approach for the investigation of cochlear and vestibular abnormalities that are associated with birth defects related to genetic inner ear disorders in humans. PMID:26401173

  12. Observation of high field DHVA-effect and induced magnetism in single crystal TiBe/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    van Deursen, A.P.J.; van Ruitenbeek, J.M.; Verhoef, W.A.; de Vroomen, A.R.; Smith, J.L.; de Groot, R.A.; Koelling, D.D.; Mueller, F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Recently much interest has been given to itinerant magnetism in cubic Laves phase or C15 materials. Primarily this stems from the discussion of the relationship of p-state pairing and ferromagnetism in ZrZn/sub 2/ by Enz and Matthias, and the possibility of triplet superconductivity. The most recent work in this field has focused on the isoelectronic, isostructural material TiBe/sub 2/, and the possibility that this material is metamagnetic. That TiBe/sub 2/ is close to some form of magnetic instability can be infered indirectly from the peaked nature of its density of states near the fermi level, but also from the observation of ferromagnetism in TiBe/sub 2-x/Cu/sub x/, when x is greater than about 0.15. In this paper a single crystal of pure TiBe/sub 2/ is considered in fields larger than 15 Tesla (T) and at a temperature of 1.3/sup 0/K.

  13. Characterization of Alloys with Potential for Application in Cable-in-Conduit Conductors for High-Field Superconducting Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, R. P.; Miller, J. R.; Toplosky, V. J.

    2004-06-01

    Since the introduction of the cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) concept, a variety of alloys have been proposed for fabricating the jacket. The jacket provides primary containment of the supercritical helium coolant and is typically also the primary structural component for the magnet. These functions create requirements for strength, toughness, weldability, and fabricability in tubular form. When the CICC uses Nb3Sn, there are additional requirements to accommodate the manufacturing and heat-treatment processes for the superconductor as well as its strain-sensitive performance during operation. Both of the present favorite jacket alloys, Incoloy 908 and modified (ultra-low carbon) 316LN, have both demonstrated acceptable functionality as well as a few undesirable features. In this paper, we present data from cryogenic mechanical tests on a group of heat-resistant, high-strength superalloys that appear to offer equal or better mechanical performance (e.g. strength, toughness, and modulus) while mitigating the undesirable aspects (e.g. SAGBO in the case of I908 and thermal-expansion mismatch with Nb3Sn in the case of 316LN). Data are presented for each alloy in the as-received and aged conditions. These alloys are presently being considered as candidates for use in the next-generation hybrid magnet for the NHMFL but may also be of interest to the fusion and energy storage communities.

  14. Development of high field SQUID magnetometer for magnetization studies up to 7 T and temperatures in the range from 4.2 to 300 K

    SciTech Connect

    Nagendran, R.; Thirumurugan, N.; Chinnasamy, N.; Janawadkar, M. P.; Sundar, C. S.

    2011-01-15

    We present the design, fabrication, integration, testing, and calibration of a high field superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The system is based on dc SQUID sensor with flux locked loop readout electronics. The design is modular and all the subsystems have been fabricated in the form of separate modules in order to simplify the assembly and for ease of maintenance. A novel feature of the system is that the current induced in the pickup loop is distributed as inputs to two different SQUID sensors with different strengths of coupling in order to improve the dynamic range of the system. The SQUID magnetometer has been calibrated with yttrium iron garnet (YIG) sphere as a standard reference material. The calibration factor was determined by fitting the measured flux profile of the YIG sphere to that expected for a point dipole. Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} was also used as another reference material for the calibration and the effective magnetic moment of the Gd{sup 3+} could be evaluated from the temperature dependent magnetization measurements. The sensitivity of the system has been estimated to be about 10{sup -7} emu at low magnetic fields and about 10{sup -5} emu at high magnetic fields {approx}7 T.

  15. Limits of NbTi and Nb3Sn, and Development of W&R Bi-2212 HighField Accelerator Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Godeke, A.; Cheng, D.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Prestemon,S.O.; Sa bbi, G.; Scanlan, R.M.

    2006-09-01

    NbTi accelerator dipoles are limited to magneticfields (H)of about 10 T, due to an intrinsic upper critical field (Hc2) limitationof 14 T. To surpass this restriction, prototype Nb3Sn magnets are beingdeveloped which have reached 16 T. We show that Nb3Sn dipole technologyis practically limited to 17 to 18 T due to insufficient high fieldpinning, and intrinsically to 20 to 22 T due to Hc2 limitations.Therefore, to obtain magnetic fields approaching 20 T and higher, amaterial is required with a higher Hc2 and sufficient high field pinningcapacity. A realistic candidate for this purpose is Bi-2212, which isavailable in roundwires and sufficient lengths for the fabrication ofcoils based on Rutherford-type cables. We initiated a program to developthe required technology to construct accelerator magnets from'windand-react' (W&R) Bi-2212 coils. We outline the complicationsthat arise through the use of Bi-2212, describe the development paths toaddress these issues, and conclude with the design of W&R Bi-2212sub-scale magnets.

  16. Development of high field SQUID magnetometer for magnetization studies up to 7 T and temperatures in the range from 4.2 to 300 K.

    PubMed

    Nagendran, R; Thirumurugan, N; Chinnasamy, N; Janawadkar, M P; Sundar, C S

    2011-01-01

    We present the design, fabrication, integration, testing, and calibration of a high field superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The system is based on dc SQUID sensor with flux locked loop readout electronics. The design is modular and all the subsystems have been fabricated in the form of separate modules in order to simplify the assembly and for ease of maintenance. A novel feature of the system is that the current induced in the pickup loop is distributed as inputs to two different SQUID sensors with different strengths of coupling in order to improve the dynamic range of the system. The SQUID magnetometer has been calibrated with yttrium iron garnet (YIG) sphere as a standard reference material. The calibration factor was determined by fitting the measured flux profile of the YIG sphere to that expected for a point dipole. Gd(2)O(3) was also used as another reference material for the calibration and the effective magnetic moment of the Gd(3+) could be evaluated from the temperature dependent magnetization measurements. The sensitivity of the system has been estimated to be about 10(-7) emu at low magnetic fields and about 10(-5) emu at high magnetic fields ∼7 T.

  17. An Ultra-High Field Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of Post Exercise Lactate, Glutamate and Glutamine Change in the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Andrea; Thomas, Adam G; Rawlings, Nancy B; Near, Jamie; Nichols, Thomas E; Clare, Stuart; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Stagg, Charlotte J

    2015-01-01

    During strenuous exercise there is a progressive increase in lactate uptake and metabolism into the brain as workload and plasma lactate levels increase. Although it is now widely accepted that the brain can metabolize lactate, few studies have directly measured brain lactate following vigorous exercise. Here, we used ultra-high field magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to obtain static measures of brain lactate, as well as brain glutamate and glutamine after vigorous exercise. The aims of our experiment were to (a) track the changes in brain lactate following recovery from exercise, and (b) to simultaneously measure the signals from brain glutamate and glutamine. The results of our experiment showed that vigorous exercise resulted in a significant increase in brain lactate. Furthermore, both glutamate and glutamine were successfully resolved, and as expected, although contrary to some previous reports, we did not observe any significant change in either amino acid after exercise. We did however observe a negative correlation between glutamate and a measure of fitness. These results support the hypothesis that peripherally derived lactate is taken up by the brain when available. Our data additionally highlight the potential of ultra-high field MRS as a non-invasive way of measuring multiple brain metabolite changes with exercise. PMID:26732236

  18. An Ultra-High Field Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of Post Exercise Lactate, Glutamate and Glutamine Change in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Andrea; Thomas, Adam G.; Rawlings, Nancy B.; Near, Jamie; Nichols, Thomas E.; Clare, Stuart; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Stagg, Charlotte J.

    2015-01-01

    During strenuous exercise there is a progressive increase in lactate uptake and metabolism into the brain as workload and plasma lactate levels increase. Although it is now widely accepted that the brain can metabolize lactate, few studies have directly measured brain lactate following vigorous exercise. Here, we used ultra-high field magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to obtain static measures of brain lactate, as well as brain glutamate and glutamine after vigorous exercise. The aims of our experiment were to (a) track the changes in brain lactate following recovery from exercise, and (b) to simultaneously measure the signals from brain glutamate and glutamine. The results of our experiment showed that vigorous exercise resulted in a significant increase in brain lactate. Furthermore, both glutamate and glutamine were successfully resolved, and as expected, although contrary to some previous reports, we did not observe any significant change in either amino acid after exercise. We did however observe a negative correlation between glutamate and a measure of fitness. These results support the hypothesis that peripherally derived lactate is taken up by the brain when available. Our data additionally highlight the potential of ultra-high field MRS as a non-invasive way of measuring multiple brain metabolite changes with exercise. PMID:26732236

  19. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies on brain edema

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, S.; Horikawa, Y.; Tanaka, C.; Hirakawa, K.; Nishikawa, H.; Yoshizaki, K.

    1982-06-01

    The water in normal and edematous brain tissues of rats was studied by the pulse nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, measuring the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) and the transverse relaxation time (T2). In the normal brain, T1 and T2 were single components, both shorter than in pure water. Prolongation and separation of T2 into two components, one fast and one slow, were the characteristic findings in brain edema induced by both cold injury and triethyl tin (TET), although some differences between the two types of edema existed in the content of the lesion and in the degree of changes in T1 and T2 values. Quantitative analysis of T1 and T2 values in their time course relating to water content demonstrated that prolongation of T1 referred to the volume of increased water in tissues examined, and that two phases of T2 reflected the distribution and the content of the edema fluid. From the analysis of the slow component of T2 versus water content during edema formation, it was demonstrated that the increase in edema fluid was steady, and its content was constant during formation of TET-induced edema. On the contrary, during the formation of cold-injury edema, water-rich edema fluid increased during the initial few hours, and protein-rich edema fluid increased thereafter. It was concluded that proton NMR relaxation time measurements may provide new understanding in the field of brain edema research.

  20. Magnetic quadrupoles lens for hot spot proton imaging in inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y. Q.; Chen, J.; Zhu, B.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, T. K.; Tan, F.; Hong, W.; Zhang, B. H.; Wang, X. Q.

    2016-08-01

    Imaging of DD-produced protons from an implosion hot spot region by miniature permanent magnetic quadrupole (PMQ) lens is proposed. Corresponding object-image relation is deduced and an adjust method for this imaging system is discussed. Ideal point-to-point imaging demands a monoenergetic proton source; nevertheless, we proved that the blur of image induced by proton energy spread is a second order effect therefore controllable. A proton imaging system based on miniature PMQ lens is designed for 2.8 MeV DD-protons and the adjust method in case of proton energy shift is proposed. The spatial resolution of this system is better than 10 μm when proton yield is above 109 and the spectra width is within 10%.

  1. Direct Observation of Ion Exchange in Mechanically Activated LiH+MgB2 System Using Ultra-High Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Z.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Yang, Zhenguo; Wan, Xiufeng; Shaw, Leonard D.

    2009-04-06

    The LiBH4 + MgH2 system has great potential for hydrogen vehicle applications. In this study, the reported solid-state hydrogenation system made of LiH + 1/2MgB2 has been investigated using ultra-high field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It is found that Mg-Li ion exchange occurs within MgB2 during ball milling to form a compound of (Mg1-xLi2x)B2 which facilitates the formation of LiBH4 in the subsequent hydriding reaction. This discovery offers a scientific foundation for investigating the detailed mechanisms of solid-state hydrogenation and dehdrogenation of the LiBH4 +MgH2 system in the future.

  2. Proton flare and magnetic storm effect in the vicinity of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, J. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Shea, M. A.; Smart, D. F.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a model and associated computational procedure for estimating energetic proton exposures during a major solar proton event that occur in combination with a large magnetic storm. Transmission functions for solar protons are computed using geomagnetic vertical cutoff data for quiescent amd disturbed conditions. Predicted exposures in low altitude polar orbit are found to be orders of magnitude greater for severe magnetic storm conditions than are corresponding exposures in the absence of major disturbances. We examine the response scenario for the events of November 1960 as an example.

  3. Direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of the proton.

    PubMed

    Mooser, A; Ulmer, S; Blaum, K; Franke, K; Kracke, H; Leiteritz, C; Quint, W; Rodegheri, C C; Smorra, C; Walz, J

    2014-05-29

    One of the fundamental properties of the proton is its magnetic moment, µp. So far µp has been measured only indirectly, by analysing the spectrum of an atomic hydrogen maser in a magnetic field. Here we report the direct high-precision measurement of the magnetic moment of a single proton using the double Penning-trap technique. We drive proton-spin quantum jumps by a magnetic radio-frequency field in a Penning trap with a homogeneous magnetic field. The induced spin transitions are detected in a second trap with a strong superimposed magnetic inhomogeneity. This enables the measurement of the spin-flip probability as a function of the drive frequency. In each measurement the proton's cyclotron frequency is used to determine the magnetic field of the trap. From the normalized resonance curve, we extract the particle's magnetic moment in terms of the nuclear magneton: μp = 2.792847350(9)μN. This measurement outperforms previous Penning-trap measurements in terms of precision by a factor of about 760. It improves the precision of the forty-year-old indirect measurement, in which significant theoretical bound state corrections were required to obtain µp, by a factor of 3. By application of this method to the antiproton magnetic moment, the fractional precision of the recently reported value can be improved by a factor of at least 1,000. Combined with the present result, this will provide a stringent test of matter/antimatter symmetry with baryons.

  4. High resolution NMR study of T{sub 1} magnetic relaxation dispersion. IV. Proton relaxation in amino acids and Met-enkephalin pentapeptide

    SciTech Connect

    Pravdivtsev, Andrey N.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Vieth, Hans-Martin

    2014-10-21

    Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion (NMRD) of protons was studied in the pentapeptide Met-enkephalin and the amino acids, which constitute it. Experiments were run by using high-resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in combination with fast field-cycling, thus enabling measuring NMRD curves for all individual protons. As in earlier works, Papers I–III, pronounced effects of intramolecular scalar spin-spin interactions, J-couplings, on spin relaxation were found. Notably, at low fields J-couplings tend to equalize the apparent relaxation rates within networks of coupled protons. In Met-enkephalin, in contrast to the free amino acids, there is a sharp increase in the proton T{sub 1}-relaxation times at high fields due to the changes in the regime of molecular motion. The experimental data are in good agreement with theory. From modelling the relaxation experiments we were able to determine motional correlation times of different residues in Met-enkephalin with atomic resolution. This allows us to draw conclusions about preferential conformation of the pentapeptide in solution, which is also in agreement with data from two-dimensional NMR experiments (rotating frame Overhauser effect spectroscopy). Altogether, our study demonstrates that high-resolution NMR studies of magnetic field-dependent relaxation allow one to probe molecular mobility in biomolecules with atomic resolution.

  5. A high-field 3He metastability exchange optical pumping polarizer operating in a 1.5 T medical scanner for lung magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, G.; Pałasz, T.; Wojna, A.; Głowacz, B.; Suchanek, M.; Olejniczak, Z.; Dohnalik, T.

    2013-05-01

    After being hyperpolarized using the technique of Metastability Exchange Optical Pumping (MEOP), 3He can be used as a contrast agent for lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MEOP is usually performed at low magnetic field (˜1 mT) and low pressure (˜1 mbar), which results in a low magnetization production rate. Polarization preserving compression with a compression ratio of order 1000 is also required. It was demonstrated in sealed cells that high nuclear polarization values can be obtained at higher pressures with MEOP, if performed at high magnetic field (non-standard conditions). In this work, the feasibility of building a high-field polarizer that operates within a commercial 1.5 T scanner was evaluated. Preliminary measurements of nuclear polarization with sealed cells filled at different 3He gas pressures (1.33 to 267 mbar) were performed. The use of an annular shape for the laser beam increased by 25% the achievable nuclear polarization equilibrium value (Meq) at 32 and 67 mbar as compared to a Gaussian beam shape. Meq values of 66.4% and 31% were obtained at 32 and 267 mbar, respectively, and the magnetization production rate was increased by a factor of 10 compared to the best results obtained under standard conditions. To study the reproducibility of the method in a polarizing system, the same experiments were performed with small cells connected to a gas handling system. Despite careful cleaning procedure, the purity of the 3He gas could not be matched to that of the sealed cells. Consequently, the polarization build-up times were approximately 3 times longer in the 20-30 mbar range of pressure than those obtained for the 32 mbar sealed cell. However, reasonable Meq values of 40%-60% were achieved in a 90 ml open cell. Based on these findings, a novel compact polarizing system was designed and built. Its typical output is a 3He gas flow rate of 15 sccm with a polarization of 33%. In-vivo lung MRI ventilation images (Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of

  6. Carbon-13 and proton magnetic resonance of mouse muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Fung, B M

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that roughly 4 mmol carbon atoms/g mouse muscle can give rise to a "high resolution" 13C NMR spectrum. From the 13C spectrum, it is estimated that the protons from mobile organic molecules or molecular segments amount to 6-8%of total nonrigid protons (organic plus water) in muscle. Their spin-spin relaxation times (T2) are of the order of 0.4-2 ms. At 37 degrees C, the proton spin-echo decay of mouse muscle changes rapidly with time after death, while that of mouse brain does not. PMID:890043

  7. Assessment of Age-Related Morphometric Changes of Subcortical Structures in Healthy People Using Ultra-High Field 7 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue-Yuan; Zhao, Lei; Yu, Tao; Qiao, Liang; Ni, Duan-Yu; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Li, Yong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the age-related morphometric changes of subcortical structures in healthy people. Materials and Methods: Ultra-high field 7 tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in humans was used to visualize the subcortical structures of healthy young, middle-aged and elderly participants. Using the magnetization-prepared two rapid acquisition gradient echo (MP2RAGE) sequence, we assessed the visibility of the margins of the thalamus and white matter in the thalamus, as well as the anterior commissure (AC) and posterior commissure (PC) length, the maximal height of the thalamus, the half width of the third ventricle and the distance between the AC and the center of the mammillothalamic tract (MTT) at the level of the AC-PC plane. All quantitative data were statistically evaluated. Results: The AC-PC length did not differ significantly among the three groups. The maximal height of the thalamus decreased with age (rs(53) = −0.719, p < 0.001). The half width of the third ventricle (rs(53) = 0.705, p < 0.001) and the distance between the AC and the center of the MTT (rs(53) = 0.485, p < 0.001) increased with age. The distance between the AC and the center of the MTT of the young and the elderly participants differed significantly (p = 0.007). Conclusion: The AC-PC length is not a good candidate for proportional correction during atlas-to-patient registration. The maximal height of the thalamus and the half width of the third ventricle correlated strongly with age, and the MTT position in relation to the AC shifted posteriorly as age increased. These age-related morphometric changes of subcortical structures should be considered in targeting for functional neurosurgery. PMID:27725800

  8. Chemical spray pyrolysis of Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O high-T(sub c) superconductors for high-field bitter magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derochemont, L. Pierre; Zhang, John G.; Squillante, Michael R.; Hermann, A. M.; Duan, H. M.; Andrews, Robert J.; Kelliher, Warren C.

    1991-01-01

    The deposition of Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O thick films by spray pyrolyzing a Ba-Ca-Cu-O precursor film and diffusing thallium into the film to form the superconducting phase is examined. This approach was taken to reduce exposure to thallium and its health and safety hazards. The Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O system was selected because it has very attractive features which make it appealing to device and manufacturing engineering. Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O will accommodate a number of superconducting phases. This attribute makes it very forgiving to stoichiometric fluctuations in the bulk and film. It has excellent thermal and chemical stability, and appears to be relatively insensitive to chemical impurities. Oxygen is tightly bound into the systems, consequently there is no orthorhombic (conductor) to tetragonal (insulator) transition which would affect a component's lifetime. More significantly, the thallium based superconductors appear to have harder magnetic properties than the other high-Tc oxide ceramics. Estimates using magnetoresistance measurements indicate that at 77 K Tl2Ba2CaCu2O10 will have an upper critical field, H(sub c2) fo 26 Tesla for applied fields parallel to the c-axis and approximately 1000 Tesla for fields oriented in the a-b plane. Results to date have shown that superconducting films can be reproducibly deposited on 100 oriented MgO substrates. One film had a zero resistance temperature of 111.5 K. Furthermore, x ray diffraction analysis of the films showed preferential c-axis orientation parallel to the plane of the substrate. These results have now made it possible to consider the manufacture of a superconducting tape wire which can be configured into a topology useful for high-field magnet designs. The research which leads to the preparation of these films and plans for further development are reviewed.

  9. The Travelling-Wave Primate System: A New Solution for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Macaque Monkeys at 7 Tesla Ultra-High Field

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Tim; Mallow, Johannes; Plaumann, Markus; Luchtmann, Michael; Stadler, Jörg; Mylius, Judith; Brosch, Michael; Bernarding, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Neuroimaging of macaques at ultra-high field (UHF) is usually conducted by combining a volume coil for transmit (Tx) and a phased array coil for receive (Rx) tightly enclosing the monkey’s head. Good results have been achieved using vertical or horizontal magnets with implanted or near-surface coils. An alternative and less costly approach, the travelling-wave (TW) excitation concept, may offer more flexible experimental setups on human whole-body UHF magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems, which are now more widely available. Goal of the study was developing and validating the TW concept for in vivo primate MRI. Methods The TW Primate System (TWPS) uses the radio frequency shield of the gradient system of a human whole-body 7 T MRI system as a waveguide to propagate a circularly polarized B1 field represented by the TE11 mode. This mode is excited by a specifically designed 2-port patch antenna. For receive, a customized neuroimaging monkey head receive-only coil was designed. Field simulation was used for development and evaluation. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was compared with data acquired with a conventional monkey volume head coil consisting of a homogeneous transmit coil and a 12-element receive coil. Results The TWPS offered good image homogeneity in the volume-of-interest Turbo spin echo images exhibited a high contrast, allowing a clear depiction of the cerebral anatomy. As a prerequisite for functional MRI, whole brain ultrafast echo planar images were successfully acquired. Conclusion The TWPS presents a promising new approach to fMRI of macaques for research groups with access to a horizontal UHF MRI system. PMID:26066653

  10. A high-field magnetic resonance imaging spectrometer using an oven-controlled crystal oscillator as the local oscillator of its radio frequency transceiver.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao; Tang, Xin; Tang, Weinan; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2014-09-01

    A home-made high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) spectrometer with multiple receiving channels is described. The radio frequency (RF) transceiver of the spectrometer consists of digital intermediate frequency (IF) circuits and corresponding mixing circuits. A direct digital synthesis device is employed to generate the IF pulse; the IF signal from a down-conversion circuit is sampled and followed by digital quadrature detection. Both the IF generation and the IF sampling use a 50 MHz clock. An oven-controlled crystal oscillator, which has outstanding spectral purity and a compact circuit, is used as the local oscillator of the RF transceiver. A digital signal processor works as the pulse programmer of the spectrometer, as a result, 32 control lines can be generated simultaneously while an event is triggered. Field programmable gate array devices are utilized as the auxiliary controllers of the IF generation, IF receiving, and gradient control. High performance, including 1 μs time resolution of the soft pulse, 1 MHz receiving bandwidth, and 1 μs time resolution of the gradient waveform, is achieved. High-quality images on a 1.5 T MRI system using the spectrometer are obtained.

  11. High-latitude proton precipitation and light ion density profiles during the magnetic storm initial phase.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of precipitating protons and light ion densities by experiments on Ogo 4 indicate that widespread proton precipitation occurs in predawn hours during the magnetic storm initial phase from the latitude of the high-latitude ion trough, or plasmapause, up to latitudes greater than 75 deg. A softening of the proton spectrum is apparent as the plasmapause is approached. The separation of the low-latitude precipitation boundaries for 7.3-keV and 23.8-keV protons is less than about 1 deg, compared with a 3.6-deg separation that has been computed by using the formulas of Gendrin and Eather and Carovillano. Consideration of probable proton drift morphology leads to the conclusion that protons are injected in predawn hours, widespread precipitation occurring in the region outside the plasmapause. Protons less energetic than 7 keV drift eastward, whereas the more energetic protons drift westward, producing the observed dawn-dusk asymmetry for the lower-energy protons.

  12. Retention of configuration in nucleophilic vinylic halide substitution - Proton magnetic resonance spectra of cis- and trans- beta-styryldiphenylphosphine oxides.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguiar, A. M.; Daigle, D.

    1965-01-01

    Cis- and trans-beta-bromostyrene reaction with lithium diphenylphosphide in tetrahydrofuran producing cis- and trans-beta- styryldiphenylphosphine, discussing proton magnetic resonance and configuration retention

  13. Model independent extraction of the proton magnetic radius from electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, Zachary; Paz, Gil; Roy, Joydeep

    2014-10-01

    We combine constraints from analyticity with experimental electron-proton scattering data to determine the proton magnetic radius without model-dependent assumptions on the shape of the form factor. We also study the impact of including electron-neutron scattering data, and ππ→NN ¯ data. Using representative data sets we find for a cut of Q2≤0.5 GeV2, rMp=0.91-0.06+0.03±0.02 fm using just proton scattering data; rMp=0.87-0.05+0.04±0.01 fm adding neutron data; and rMp=0.87-0.02+0.02 fm adding ππ data. We also extract the neutron magnetic radius from these data sets obtaining rMn=0.89-0.03+0.03 fm from the combined proton, neutron, and ππ data.

  14. Processing and characterization of superconducting solenoids made of Bi-2212/Ag-alloy multifilament round wire for high field magnet applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng

    As the only high temperature superconductor with round wire (RW) geometry, Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi-2212) superconducting wire has the advantages of being multi-filamentary, macroscopically isotropic and twistable. With overpressure (OP) processing techniques recently developed by our group at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), the engineering current density (Je) of Bi-2212 RW can be dramatically increased. For example, Je of more than 600 A/mm 2 (4.2 K and 20 T) is achieved after 100 bar OP processing. With these intrinsically beneficial properties and recent processing progress, Bi-2212 RW has become very attractive for high field magnet applications, especially for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) magnets and accelerator magnets etc. This thesis summarizes my graduate study on Bi-2212 solenoids for high field and high homogeneity NMR magnet applications, which mainly includes performance study of Bi-2212 RW insulations, 1 bar and OP processing study of Bi-2212 solenoids, and development of superconducting joints between Bi-2212 RW conductors. Electrical insulation is one of the key components of Bi-2212 coils to provide sufficient electrical standoff within coil winding pack. A TiO 2/polymer insulation offered by nGimat LLC was systematically investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dielectric property measurements, and transport critical current (Ic) property measurements. About 29% of the insulation by weight is polymer. When the Bi-2212 wire is fully heat treated, this decomposes with slow heating to 400 °C in flowing O2. After the full reaction, we found that the TiO2 did not degrade the critical current properties, adhered well to the conductor, and provided a breakdown voltage of more than 100 V. A Bi-2212 RW wound solenoid coil was built using this insulation being offered by nGimat LLC. The coil resistance was constant through coil winding, polymer burn

  15. WE-D-17A-04: Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation of Small Volume Targets

    SciTech Connect

    McAuley, G; Slater, J; Wroe, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the advantages of magnetic focusing for small volume proton irradiations and the potential clinical benefits for radiosurgery targets. The primary goal is to create narrow elongated proton beams of elliptical cross section with superior dose delivery characteristics compared to current delivery modalities (eg, collimated beams). In addition, more general beam shapes are also under investigation. Methods: Two prototype magnets consisting of 24 segments of samarium-cobalt (Sm2Co17) permanent magnetic material adhered into hollow cylinders were manufactured for testing. A single focusing magnet was placed on a positioning track on our Gantry 1 treatment table and 15 mm diameter proton beams with energies and modulation relevant to clinical radiosurgery applications (127 to 186 MeV, and 0 to 30 mm modulation) were delivered to a terminal water tank. Beam dose distributions were measured using a PTW diode detector and Gafchromic EBT2 film. Longitudinal and transverse dose profiles were analyzed and compared to data from Monte Carlo simulations analogous to the experimental setup. Results: The narrow elongated focused beam spots showed high elliptical symmetry indicating high magnet quality. In addition, when compared to unfocused beams, peak-to-entrance depth dose ratios were 11 to 14% larger (depending on presence or extent of modulation), and minor axis penumbras were 11 to 20% smaller (again depending on modulation) for focused beams. These results suggest that the use of rare earth magnet assemblies is practical and could improve dose-sparing of normal tissue and organs at risk while delivering enhanced dose to small proton radiosurgery targets. Conclusion: Quadrapole rare earth magnetic assemblies are a promising and inexpensive method to counteract particle out scatter that tends to degrade the peak to entrance performance of small field proton beams. Knowledge gained from current experiments will inform the design of a prototype treatment

  16. Comparison of noncontrast computed tomography and high-field magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of Great Danes with cervical spondylomyelopathy.

    PubMed

    Martin-Vaquero, Paula; da Costa, Ronaldo C; Drost, Wm Tod

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) provides excellent bony detail, whereas magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is superior in evaluating the neural structures. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess interobserver and intermethod agreement in the evaluation of cervical vertebral column morphology and lesion severity in Great Danes with cervical spondylomyelopathy by use of noncontrast CT and high-field MR imaging. Fifteen client-owned affected Great Danes were enrolled. All dogs underwent noncontrast CT under sedation and MR imaging under general anesthesia of the cervical vertebral column. Three observers independently evaluated the images to determine the main site of spinal cord compression, direction and cause of the compression, articular process joint characteristics, and presence of foraminal stenosis. Overall intermethod agreement, intermethod agreement for each observer, overall interobserver agreement, and interobserver agreement between pairs of observers were calculated by use of kappa (κ) statistics. The highest overall intermethod agreements were obtained for the main site of compression and direction of compression with substantial agreements (κ = 0.65 and 0.62, respectively), whereas the lowest was obtained for right-sided foraminal stenosis (κ = 0.39, fair agreement). For both imaging techniques, the highest and lowest interobserver agreements were recorded for the main site of compression and degree of articular joint proliferation, respectively. While different observers frequently agree on the main site of compression using both imaging techniques, there is considerable variation between modalities and among observers when assessing articular process characteristics and foraminal stenosis. Caution should be exerted when comparing image interpretations from multiple observers.

  17. HIGH FIELD SOLENOID FOR MUON COOLING.

    SciTech Connect

    KAHN, S.A.; ALSHARO'A, M.; HANLET, P.; JOHNSON, R.P.; KUCHNIR, M.; NEWSHAM, F.; GUPTA, R.C.; PALMER, R.B.; WILLEN, E.

    2006-06-26

    Magnets made with high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils operating at low temperatures have the potential to produce extremely high fields for use in accelerators and beam lines. The specific application of interest that we are proposing is to use a very high field (of the order of 50 Tesla) solenoid to provide a very small beta region for the final stages of cooling for a muon collider. With the commercial availability of HTS conductor based on BSCCO technology with high current carrying capacity at 4.2 K, very high field solenoid magnets should be possible. In this paper we will evaluate the technical issues associated with building this magnet. In particular we address how to mitigate the high Lorentz stresses associated with this high field magnet.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Proton Loss from Carotenoid Radical Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Kispert, Lowell D; Focsan, A Ligia; Konovalova, Tatyana A; Lawrence, Jesse; Bowman, Michael K; Dixon, David A; Molnar, Peter; Deli, Jozsef

    2007-06-11

    Carotenoids, intrinsic components of reaction centers and pigment-protein complexes in photosynthetic membranes, play a photoprotective role and serve as a secondary electron donor. Before optimum use of carotenoids can be made in artificial photosynthetic systems, their robust nature in living materials requires extensive characterization of their electron transfer, radical trapping ability, stability, structure in and on various hosts, and photochemical behavior. Pulsed ENDOR and 2D-HYSCORE studies combined with DFT calculations reveal that photo-oxidation of natural zeaxanthin (I) and violaxanthin (II) on silica-alumina produces not only the carotenoid radical cations (Car•+) but also neutral radicals (#Car•) by proton loss from the methyl groups at positions 5 or 5', and possibly 9 or 9' and 13 or 13'. Notably, the proton loss favored in I at the 5 position by DFT calculations, is unfavorable in II due to the epoxide at the 5, 6 position. DFT calculations predict the isotropic methyl proton couplings of 8-10 MHz for Car•+ which agree with the ENDOR for carotenoid α-conjugated radical cations. Large α-proton hyperfine coupling constants (>10 MHz) determined from HYSCORE are assigned from the DFT calculations to neutral carotenoid radicals. Proton loss upon photolysis was also examined as a function of carotenoid polarity [Lycopene (III) versus 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al (IV)]; hydrogen bonding [Lutein (V) versus III]; host [silica-alumina versus MCM-41 molecular sieve]; and substituted metal in MCM-41. Loss of H+ from the 5(5'), 9(9') or 13(13') methyl positions has importance in photoprotection. Photoprotection involves nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in which 1Ch1* decays via energy transfer to the carotenoid which returns to the ground state by thermal dissipation; or via electron transfer to form a charge transfer state (I •+…Chl•-), lower in energy than 1Chl*. Formation of I •+ results in bond lengthening, a mechanism for nonradiative energy

  19. BNL alternating gradient synchrotron with four helical magnets to minimize the losses of the polarized proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoupas, N.; Huang, H.; MacKay, W. W.; Meot, F.; Roser, T.; Trbojevic, D.

    2013-04-01

    The principle of using multiple partial helical magnets to preserve the polarization of the proton beam during its acceleration was applied successfully to the alternating gradient synchrotron (AGS) which currently operates with two partial helical magnets. In this paper we further explore this idea by using four partial helical magnets placed symmetrically in the AGS ring. This provides many advantages over the present setup of the AGS, which uses two partial helical magnets. First, the symmetric placement of the four helical magnets and their relatively lower field of operation allows for better control of the AGS optics with reduced values of the beta functions especially near beam injection and allows both the vertical and horizontal tunes to be placed within the “spin tune gap,” therefore eliminating the horizontal and vertical intrinsic spin resonances of the AGS during the acceleration cycle. Second, it provides a wider spin tune gap. Third, the vertical spin direction during beam injection and extraction is closer to vertical. Although the spin tune gap, which is created with four partial helices, can also be created with a single or two partial helices, the high field strength of a single helical magnet which is required to generate such a spin tune gap makes the use of the single helical magnet impractical, and that of the two helical magnets rather difficult. In this paper we will provide results on the spin tune and on the optics of the AGS with four partial helical magnets, and compare them with those from the present setup of the AGS that uses two partial helical magnets. Although in this paper we specifically discuss the effect of the four partial helices on the AGS, this method which can eliminate simultaneously the vertical and horizontal intrinsic spin resonances is a general method and can be applied to any medium energy synchrotron which operates in similar energy range like the AGS and provides the required space to accommodate the four

  20. Magnetically scanned proton therapy beams: rationales and principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. T. L.; Schreuder, A. N.

    2001-06-01

    High-energy proton therapy is finding increased application in radiation oncology because of the unique physical characteristics of proton beams which allow superior conformation of the high-dose region to the target volume. The standard method of "painting" the required dose over the target volume is to use passive mechanical means involving multiple scattering and variable thickness absorbers. However, this technique dose not allow proximal surface dose conformation which can only be achieved using beam scanning techniques. Apart from reducing the integral dose, intensity modulation and inverse planning are possible, there is less activation of the surroundings and no field-specific modification devices are required. However, scanning systems are very complicated and there are very high instantaneous dose rates which require sophisticated control systems.

  1. Correlation between proton anisotropy and magnetic field direction in the distant geotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klecker, B.; Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1984-01-01

    A statistical analysis has been conducted of the anisotropy of suprathermal protons and the polarity of the magnetic field during April 10-16, 1983. At this time, ISEE-3 was at lunar distances in the geomagnetic tail of the earth, and well within the nominal magnetopause. The first-order anisotropy is presently correlated with the latitude angle and the z-component of the magnetic field. The anisotropy direction's frequency distribution is strongly peaked in the earthward and tailward direction, indicating fast earthward and tailward flows. For large anisotropies, and within 5 earth radii of the nominal neutral sheet position, a strong correlation is found between the earthward-streaming suprathermal protons and the northward polarity of the magnetic field; large tailward anisotropies are generally correlated with southward magnetic field polarity. This correlation is most simply interpreted in terms of a neutral line or reconnection model.

  2. Enhancement of the high-magnetic-field critical current density of superconducting MgB2 by proton irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bugoslavsky, Y; Cohen, L F; Perkins, G K; Polichetti, M; Tate, T J; Gwilliam, R; Caplin, A D

    2001-05-31

    Magnesium diboride, MgB2, has a relatively high superconducting transition temperature, placing it between the families of low- and high-temperature (copper oxide based) superconductors. Supercurrent flow in MgB2 is unhindered by grain boundaries, making it potentially attractive for technological applications in the temperature range 20-30 K. But in the bulk material, the critical current density (Jc) drops rapidly with increasing magnetic field strength. The magnitude and field dependence of the critical current are related to the presence of structural defects that can 'pin' the quantized magnetic vortices that permeate the material, and a lack of natural defects in MgB2 may be responsible for the rapid decline of Jc with increasing field strength. Here we show that modest levels of atomic disorder induced by proton irradiation enhance the pinning of vortices, thereby significantly increasing Jc at high field strengths. We anticipate that either chemical doping or mechanical processing should generate similar levels of disorder, and so achieve performance that is technologically attractive in an economically viable way.

  3. Glutamatergic Effects of Divalproex in Adolescents with Mania: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Patel, Nick C.; Chu, Wen-Jang; Lee, Jing-Huei; Adler, Caleb M.; Kim, Mi Jung; Bryan, Holly S.; Alfieri, David C.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Blom, Thomas J.; Nandagopal, Jayasree J.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([superscript 1]H MRS) to evaluate the in vivo effects of extended-release divalproex sodium on the glutamatergic system in adolescents with bipolar disorder, and to identify baseline neurochemical predictors of clinical remission. Method: Adolescents with bipolar disorder who were…

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance proton dipolar order relaxation in thermotropic liquid crystals: A quantum theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamar, R. C.; Mensio, O.

    2004-12-01

    By means of the Jeener-Broekaert nuclear magnetic resonance pulse sequence, the proton spin system of a liquid crystal can be prepared in quasiequilibrium states of high dipolar order, which relax to thermal equilibrium with the molecular environment with a characteristic time (T1D). Previous studies of the Larmor frequency and temperature dependence of T1D in thermotropic liquid crystals, that included field cycling and conventional high-field experiments, showed that the slow hydrodynamic modes dominate the behavior of T1D, even at high Larmor frequencies. This noticeable predominance of the cooperative fluctuations (known as order fluctuations of the director, OFD) could not be explained by standard models based on the spin-lattice relaxation theory in the limit of high temperature (weak order). This fact points out the necessity of investigating the role of the quantum terms neglected in the usual high temperature theory of dipolar order relaxation. In this work, we present a generalization of the proton dipolar order relaxation theory for highly correlated systems, which considers all the spins belonging to correlated domains as an open quantum system interacting with quantum bath. As starting point, we deduce a formulation of the Markovian master equation of relaxation for the statistical spin operator, valid for all temperatures, which is suitable for introducing a dipolar spin temperature in the quantum regime, without further assumptions about the form of the spin-lattice Hamiltonian. In order to reflect the slow dynamics occurring in correlated systems, we lift the usual short-correlation-time assumption by including the average over the motion of the dipolar Hamiltonian together with the Zeeman Hamiltonian into the time evolution operator. In this way, we calculate the time dependence of the spin operators in the interaction picture in a closed form, valid for high magnetic fields, bringing into play the spin-spin interactions within the microscopic time

  5. Effect of magnetic field and iron content on NMR proton relaxation of liver, spleen and brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Hocq, Aline; Luhmer, Michel; Saussez, Sven; Louryan, Stéphane; Gillis, Pierre; Gossuin, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Iron accumulation is observed in liver and spleen during hemochromatosis and important neurodegenerative diseases involve iron overload in brain. Storage of iron is ensured by ferritin, which contains a magnetic core. It causes a darkening on T2 -weighted MR images. This work aims at improving the understanding of the NMR relaxation of iron-loaded human tissues, which is necessary to develop protocols of iron content measurements by MRI. Relaxation times measurements on brain, liver and spleen samples were realized at different magnetic fields. Iron content was determined by atomic emission spectroscopy. For all samples, the longitudinal relaxation rate (1/T1 ) of tissue protons decreases with the magnetic field up to 1 T, independently of iron content, while their transverse relaxation rate (1/T2 ) strongly increases with the field, either linearly or quadratically, or a combination thereof. The extent of the inter-echo time dependence of 1/T2 also varies according to the sample. A combination of theoretical models is necessary to describe the relaxation of iron-containing tissues. This can be due to the presence, inside tissues, of ferritin clusters of different sizes and densities. When considering all samples, a correlation (r(2)  = 0.6) between 1/T1 and iron concentration is observed at 7.0 T. In contrast the correlation between 1/T2 and iron content is poor, even at high field (r(2)  = 0.14 at 7.0 T). Our results show that MRI methods based on T1 or T2 measurements will easily detect an iron overloading at high magnetic field, but will not provide an accurate quantification of tissue iron content at low iron concentrations. PMID:24954138

  6. Evaluation of brain edema using magnetic resonance proton relaxation times

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Nishimura, S. )

    1990-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies on the evaluation of water content in cases of brain edema were performed in vivo, using MR proton relaxation times (longitudinal relaxation time, T1; transverse relaxation time, T2). Brain edema was produced in the white matter of cats by the direct infusion method. The correlations between proton relaxation times obtained from MR images and the water content of white matter were studied both in autoserum-infused cats and in saline-infused cats. The correlations between T1 as well as T2 and the water content in human vasogenic brain edema were also examined and compared with the data obtained from the serum group. T1 and T2 showed good correlations with the water content of white matter not only in the experimental animals but also in the clinical cases. The quality of the edema fluid did not influence relaxation time and T1 seemed to represent almost solely the water content of the tissue. T2, however, was affected by the nature of existence of water and was more sensitive than T1 in detecting extravasated edema fluid. It seems feasible therefore to evaluate the water content of brain edema on the basis of T1 values.

  7. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Nation, J.A.; Greenwald, S.

    1989-05-30

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications is disclosed. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle. 10 figs.

  8. High field gradient particle accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Nation, John A.; Greenwald, Shlomo

    1989-01-01

    A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle.

  9. Ultrafast proton radiography of the magnetic fields generated by a laser-driven coil current

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gao, Lan; Ji, Hantao; Fiksel, Gennady; Fox, William; Evans, Michelle; Alfonso, Noel

    2016-04-15

    Magnetic fields generated by a current flowing through a U-shaped coil connecting two copper foils were measured using ultrafast proton radiography. Two ~ 1.25 kJ, 1-ns laser pulses propagated through laser entrance holes in the front foil and were focused to the back foil with an intensity of ~ 3 x 1016 W/cm2. The intense laser-solid interaction induced a high voltage between the copper foils and generated a large current in the connecting coil. The proton data show ~ 40-50 T magnetic fields at the center of the coil ~ 3-4 ns after laser irradiation. In conclusion, the experiments providemore » significant insight for future target designs that aim to develop a powerful source of external magnetic fields for various applications in high-energy-density science.« less

  10. Development of a compact magnetic proton recoil spectrometer for measurement of deuterium-tritium neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jianfu Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianpeng; Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Guoguang; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yang, Shaohua; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Li, Hongyun

    2015-12-15

    A new compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer has been designed for precise measurement of deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons. This design is presented emphasizing the magnetic analyzing system, which is based on a compact quadrupole-dipole (QD) electromagnet. The focal plane detector (FPD) is also discussed with respect to application for the next step. The characteristics of the MPR spectrometer were calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the magnetic analyzing system and the proton images of the FPD. Since the QD electromagnet design allows for a larger foil thickness and solid angle to be utilized, the MPR spectrometer defined in this paper can achieve neutron detection efficiency more than 5 × 10{sup −7} at an energy resolution of 1.5% for measuring DT neutrons.

  11. Magnetic fluctuation power near proton temperature anisotropy instability thresholds in the solar wind.

    PubMed

    Bale, S D; Kasper, J C; Howes, G G; Quataert, E; Salem, C; Sundkvist, D

    2009-11-20

    The proton temperature anisotropy in the solar wind is known to be constrained by the theoretical thresholds for pressure-anisotropy-driven instabilities. Here, we use approximately 1x10;{6} independent measurements of gyroscale magnetic fluctuations in the solar wind to show for the first time that these fluctuations are enhanced along the temperature anisotropy thresholds of the mirror, proton oblique firehose, and ion cyclotron instabilities. In addition, the measured magnetic compressibility is enhanced at high plasma beta (beta_{ parallel} greater, similar1) along the mirror instability threshold but small elsewhere, consistent with expectations of the mirror mode. We also show that the short wavelength magnetic fluctuation power is a strong function of collisionality, which relaxes the temperature anisotropy away from the instability conditions and reduces correspondingly the fluctuation power.

  12. Development of a compact magnetic proton recoil spectrometer for measurement of deuterium-tritium neutrons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianfu; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Guoguang; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xianpeng; Yang, Shaohua; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Li, Hongyun

    2015-12-01

    A new compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer has been designed for precise measurement of deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons. This design is presented emphasizing the magnetic analyzing system, which is based on a compact quadrupole-dipole (QD) electromagnet. The focal plane detector (FPD) is also discussed with respect to application for the next step. The characteristics of the MPR spectrometer were calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the magnetic analyzing system and the proton images of the FPD. Since the QD electromagnet design allows for a larger foil thickness and solid angle to be utilized, the MPR spectrometer defined in this paper can achieve neutron detection efficiency more than 5 × 10(-7) at an energy resolution of 1.5% for measuring DT neutrons.

  13. Development of a compact magnetic proton recoil spectrometer for measurement of deuterium-tritium neutrons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianfu; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Qiu, Suizheng; Zhang, Guoguang; Ruan, Jinlu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xianpeng; Yang, Shaohua; Song, Jiwen; Liu, Linyue; Li, Hongyun

    2015-12-01

    A new compact magnetic proton recoil (MPR) neutron spectrometer has been designed for precise measurement of deuterium-tritium (DT) neutrons. This design is presented emphasizing the magnetic analyzing system, which is based on a compact quadrupole-dipole (QD) electromagnet. The focal plane detector (FPD) is also discussed with respect to application for the next step. The characteristics of the MPR spectrometer were calculated by using Monte Carlo simulation. A preliminary experiment was performed to test the magnetic analyzing system and the proton images of the FPD. Since the QD electromagnet design allows for a larger foil thickness and solid angle to be utilized, the MPR spectrometer defined in this paper can achieve neutron detection efficiency more than 5 × 10(-7) at an energy resolution of 1.5% for measuring DT neutrons. PMID:26724081

  14. Ultrafast proton radiography of the magnetic fields generated by a laser-driven coil current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lan; Ji, Hantao; Fiksel, Gennady; Fox, William; Evans, Michelle; Alfonso, Noel

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic fields generated by a current flowing through a U-shaped coil connecting two copper foils were measured using ultrafast proton radiography. Two ˜1.25 kJ, 1-ns laser pulses propagated through laser entrance holes in the front foil and were focused to the back foil with an intensity of ˜3 × 1016 W/cm2. The intense laser-solid interaction induced a high voltage between the copper foils and generated a large current in the connecting coil. The proton data show ˜40-50 T magnetic fields at the center of the coil ˜3-4 ns after laser irradiation. The experiments provide significant insight for future target designs that aim to develop a powerful source of external magnetic fields for various applications in high-energy-density science.

  15. Combined X-Y scanning magnet for conformal proton radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Anferov, Vladimir

    2005-03-01

    Light-ion beams have several features that make them very effective in radiation therapy applications. These include favorable depth dose distribution, finite penetration range, and high radiobiological efficiency. Moreover, magnetic scanning methods allow one to spread an ion beam to an exact image of a complex tumor shape. The ion scanning system usually consists of two magnets, each scanning horizontal and vertical directions independently. This paper discusses the design for a novel combined X-Y beam scanning magnet which is under development for the Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute.

  16. Magnetism in MoS{sub 2} induced by proton irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, S.; Gopinadhan, K.; Dhar, S.; Venkatesan, T.; Chan, T. K.; Yu, X. J.; Zhan, D.; Shen, Z. X.; Cao, L.; Rusydi, A.; Breese, M. B. H.; Thong, John T. L.

    2012-09-03

    Molybdenum disulphide, a diamagnetic layered dichalcogenide solid, is found to show magnetic ordering at room temperature when exposed to a 2 MeV proton beam. The temperature dependence of magnetization displays ferrimagnetic behavior with a Curie temperature of 895 K. A disorder mode corresponding to a zone-edge phonon and a Mo valence higher than +4 has been detected in the irradiated samples using Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The possible origins of long-range magnetic ordering in irradiated MoS{sub 2} samples are discussed.

  17. The effect of magnetically induced linear aggregates on proton transverse relaxation rates of aqueous suspensions of polymer coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Saville, Steven L; Woodward, Robert C; House, Michael J; Tokarev, Alexander; Hammers, Jacob; Qi, Bin; Shaw, Jeremy; Saunders, Martin; Varsani, Rahi R; St Pierre, Tim G; Mefford, O Thompson

    2013-03-01

    It has been recently reported that for some suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles the transverse proton relaxation rate, R(2), is dependent on the time that the sample is exposed to an applied magnetic field. This time dependence has been linked to the formation of linear aggregates or chains in an applied magnetic field via numerical modeling. It is widely known that chain formation occurs in more concentrated ferrofluids systems and that this has an affect on the ferrofluid properties. In this work we examine the relationships between colloidal stability, the formation of these linear structures, and changes observed in the proton transverse relaxation rate of aqueous suspensions of magnetic particles. A series of iron oxide nanoparticles with varying stabilizing ligand brush lengths were synthesized. These systems were characterized with dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, dark-field optical microscopy, and proton transverse relaxation rate measurements. The dark field optical microscopy and R(2) measurements were made in similar magnetic fields over the same time scale so as to correlate the reduction of the transverse relaxivity with the formation of linear aggregates. Our results indicate that varying the ligand length has a direct effect on the colloidal arrangement of the system in a magnetic field, producing differences in the rate and size of chain formation, and hence systematic changes in transverse relaxation rates over time. With increasing ligand brush length, attractive inter-particle interactions are reduced, which results in slower aggregate formation and shorter linear aggregate length. These results have implications for the stabilization, characterization and potentially the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticle systems used in biomedical applications. PMID:23389324

  18. New method to determine proton trajectories in the equatorial plane of a dipole magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Ioanoviciu, Damaschin

    2015-01-01

    A parametric description of proton trajectories in the equatorial plane of Earth's dipole magnetic field has been derived. The exact expression of the angular coordinate contains an integral to be performed numerically. The radial coordinate results from the initial conditions by basic mathematical operations and by using trigonometric functions. With the approximate angular coordinate formula, applicable for a wide variety of cases of protons trapped in Earth's radiation belts, no numerical integration is needed. The results of exact and approximate expressions were compared for a specific case and small differences were found.

  19. Alternating-gradient canted cosine theta superconducting magnets for future compact proton gantries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Weishi; Brouwer, Lucas; Caspi, Shlomo; Prestemon, Soren; Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schippers, Jacobus Maarten; Robin, David

    2015-10-01

    We present a design of superconducting magnets, optimized for application in a gantry for proton therapy. We have introduced a new magnet design concept, called an alternating-gradient canted cosine theta (AG-CCT) concept, which is compatible with an achromatic layout. This layout allows a large momentum acceptance. The 15 cm radius of the bore aperture enables the application of pencil beam scanning in front of the SC-magnet. The optical and dynamic performance of a gantry based on these magnets has been analyzed using the fields derived (via Biot-Savart law) from the actual windings of the AG-CCT combined with the full equations of motion. The results show that with appropriate higher order correction, a large 3D volume can be rapidly scanned with little beam shape distortion. A very big advantage is that all this can be done while keeping the AG-CCT fields fixed. This reduces the need for fast field ramping of the superconducting magnets between the successive beam energies used for the scanning in depth and it is important for medical application since this reduces the technical risk (e.g., a quench) associated with fast field changes in superconducting magnets. For proton gantries the corresponding superconducting magnet system holds promise of dramatic reduction in weight. For heavier ion gantries there may furthermore be a significant reduction in size.

  20. Measurement of lateral diffusion rates in membranes by pulsed magnetic field gradient, magic angle spinning-proton nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Gawrisch, Klaus; Gaede, Holly C

    2007-01-01

    Membrane organization, including the presence of domains, can be characterized by measuring lateral diffusion rates of lipids and membrane-bound substances. Magic angle spinning (MAS) yields well-resolved proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of lipids in biomembranes. When combined with pulsed-field gradient NMR (rendering what is called "pulsed magnetic field gradients-MAS-NMR"), it permits precise diffusion measurements on the micrometer lengths scale for any substance with reasonably well-resolved proton MAS-NMR resonances, without the need of preparing oriented samples. Sample preparation procedures, the technical requirements for the NMR equipment, and spectrometer settings are described. Additionally, equations for analysis of diffusion data obtained from unoriented samples, and a method for correcting the data for liposome curvature are provided.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance multiwindow analysis of proton local fields and magnetization distribution in natural and deuterated mouse muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Peemoeller, H; Pintar, M M

    1979-01-01

    The proton free-induction decays, spin-spin relaxation times, local fields in the rotating frame, and spin-lattice relaxation times in the laboratory and rotating frames, in natural and fully deuterated mouse muscle, are reported. Measurements were taken above and below freezing temperature and at two time windows on the free-induction decay. A comparative analysis show that the magnetization fractions deduced from the different experiments are in good agreement. The main conclusion is that the resolution of the (heterogeneous) muscle nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) response is improved by the multiwindow analysis. PMID:262554

  2. SU-D-304-02: Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation of Small Field Targets

    SciTech Connect

    McAuley, GA; Slater, JM; Slater, JD; Wroe, AJ

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the use of magnetic focusing for small field proton irradiations. It is hypothesized that magnetic focusing will provide significant dose distribution benefits over standard collimated beams for fields less than 10 mm diameter. Methods: Magnets consisting of 24 segments of radiation hard samarium-cobalt adhered into hollow cylinders were designed and manufactured. Two focusing magnets were placed on a positioning track on our Gantry 1 treatment table. Proton beams with energies of 127 and 157 MeV, 15 and 30 mm modulation, and 8 mm initial diameters were delivered to a water tank using single-stage scattering. Depth dose distributions were measured using a PTW PR60020 diode detector and transverse profiles were measured with Gafchromic EBT3 film. Monte Carlo simulations were also performed - both for comparison with experimental data and to further explore the potential of magnetic focusing in silica. For example, beam spot areas (based on the 90% dose contour) were matched at Bragg depth between simulated 100 MeV collimated beams and simulated beams focused by two 400 T/m gradient magnets. Results: Preliminary experimental results show 23% higher peak to entrance dose ratios and flatter spread out Bragg peak plateaus for 8 mm focused beams compared with uncollimated beams. Monte Carlo simulations showed 21% larger peak to entrance ratios and a ∼9 fold more efficient dose to target delivery compared to spot-sized matched collimated beams. Our latest results will be presented. Conclusion: Our results suggest that rare earth focusing magnet assemblies could reduce skin dose and beam number while delivering dose to nominally spherical radiosurgery targets over a much shorter time compared to unfocused beams. Immediate clinical applications include those associated with proton radiosurgery and functional radiosurgery of the brain and spine, however expanded treatment sites can be also envisaged.

  3. Amplification of Collective Magnetic Fluctuations in Magnetized Bi-Maxwellian Plasmas for Parallel Wave Vectors. I. Electron-Proton Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafin, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2016-09-01

    The general electromagnetic fluctuation theory is a powerful tool to analyze the magnetic fluctuation spectrum of a plasma. Recent works utilizing this theory for a magnetized non-relativistic isotropic Maxwellian electron-proton plasma have demonstrated that the equilibrium ratio of | δ B| /{B}0 can be as high as 10-12. This value results from the balance between spontaneous emission of fluctuations and their damping, and it is considerably smaller than the observed value | δ B| /{B}0 in the solar wind at 1 au, where {10}-3≲ | δ B| /{B}0≲ {10}-1. In the present manuscript, we consider an anisotropic bi-Maxwellian distribution function to investigate the effect of plasma instabilities on the magnetic field fluctuations. We demonstrate that these instabilities strongly amplify the magnetic field fluctuations and provide a sufficient mechanism to explain the observed value of | δ B| /{B}0 in the solar wind at 1 au.

  4. Studies of ${\\rm Nb}_{3}{\\rm Sn}$ Strands Based on the Restacked-Rod Process for High Field Accelerator Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Barzi, E.; Bossert, M.; Gallo, G.; Lombardo, V.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2011-12-21

    A major thrust in Fermilab's accelerator magnet R&D program is the development of Nb3Sn wires which meet target requirements for high field magnets, such as high critical current density, low effective filament size, and the capability to withstand the cabling process. The performance of a number of strands with 150/169 restack design produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology was studied for round and deformed wires. To optimize the maximum plastic strain, finite element modeling was also used as an aid in the design. Results of mechanical, transport and metallographic analyses are presented for round and deformed wires.

  5. Magnetic properties of proton irradiated BiFeO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Seungkyu; Jin Kim, Sam; Sung Kim, Chul

    2013-05-07

    The crystal structure and magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} samples, proton-irradiated with 0, 10, and 20 pC/{mu}m{sup 2}, were investigated with x-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer, and Moessbauer spectroscopy measurements. From the Rietveld refinement analysis of the XRD patterns, the crystal structure of BiFeO{sub 3} is determined to be rhombohedral with the space group of R3c. We have observed the decrease in the lattice constant and oxygen occupancy with proton irradiation. The magnetization hysteresis (M-H) curves show the appearance of the weak ferromagnetic behavior in the proton irradiated BiFeO{sub 3} samples. The Moessbauer spectra of proton irradiated BiFeO{sub 3} samples at 295 K were analyzed with two-sextets (B{sub 1} and B{sub 2}) and doublet. From the isomer shift ({delta}) values, ionic states were determined to be Fe{sup 3+}. Compared to non-irradiated sample, having the antiferromagnetic area ratio (two-sextets) of 45.47, 54.53% the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic area ratios (doublet) of 10 and 20 pC/{mu}m{sup 2} proton irradiated BiFeO{sub 3} samples are 41.36, 51.26, and 7.38% and 41.03, 50.90, and 8.07%, respectively. Our experimental observation suggests that the increase in the paramagnetic area ratio is due to the disappearance of superexchange interaction, resulted from the removal of the oxygen with proton irradiation. Also, the appearance of the weak ferromagnetic behavior is caused by the breaking of the antiferromagnetic coupling.

  6. Investigation of Mechanical Activation on Li-N-H Systems Using 6Li Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance at Ultra-High Field

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Kwak, Ja Hun; Yang, Zhenguo; Osborn, William; Markmaitree, Tippawan; Shaw, Leonard D.

    2008-07-15

    Abstract The significantly enhanced spectral resolution in the 6Li MAS NMR spectra of Li-N-H systems at ultra-high field of 21.1 tesla is exploited, for the first time, to study the detailed electronic and chemical environmental changes associated with mechanical activation of Li-N-H system using high energy balling milling. Complementary to ultra-high field studies, the hydrogen discharge dynamics are investigated using variable temperature in situ 1H MAS NMR at 7.05 tesla field. The significantly enhanced spectral resolution using ultra-high filed of 21.1 tesla was demonstrated along with several major findings related to mechanical activation, including the upfield shift of the resonances in 6Li MAS spectra induced by ball milling, more efficient mechanical activation with ball milling at liquid nitrogen temperature than with ball milling at room temperature, and greatly enhanced hydrogen discharge exhibited by the liquid nitrogen ball milled samples.

  7. Magnetic properties, water proton relaxivities, and in-vivo MR images of paramagnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gang Ho; Chang, Yongmin

    2015-07-01

    In this mini review, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents based on lanthanideoxide (Ln2O3) nanoparticles are described. Ln2O3 (Ln = Gd, Dy, Ho, and Er) nanoparticles are paramagnetic, but show appreciable magnetic moments at room temperature and even at ultrasmall particle diameters. Among Ln2O3 nanoparticles, Gd2O3 nanoparticles show larger longitudinal water proton relaxivity (r1) values than Gd-chelates because of the large amount of Gd in the nanoparticle, and the other Ln2O3 nanoparticles (Ln = Dy, Ho, and Er) show appreciable transverse water proton relaxivity (r2) values. Therefore, Gd2O3 nanoparticles are potential T1 MRI contrast agents while the other Ln2O3 nanoparticles are potential T2 MRI contrast agents at high MR fields.

  8. High-Precision Determination of the Electric and Magnetic Form Factors of the Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Bernauer, J. C.; Achenbach, P.; Ayerbe Gayoso, C.; Boehm, R.; Distler, M. O.; Doria, L.; Esser, A.; Friedrich, J.; Gomez Rodriguez de la Paz, M.; Merkel, H.; Middleton, D. G.; Mueller, U.; Nungesser, L.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez Majos, S.; Schlimme, B. S.; Walcher, Th.; Weinriefer, M.; Bosnar, D.; Makek, M.

    2010-12-10

    New precise results of a measurement of the elastic electron-proton scattering cross section performed at the Mainz Microtron MAMI are presented. About 1400 cross sections were measured with negative four-momentum transfers squared up to Q{sup 2}=1 (GeV/c){sup 2} with statistical errors below 0.2%. The electric and magnetic form factors of the proton were extracted by fits of a large variety of form factor models directly to the cross sections. The form factors show some features at the scale of the pion cloud. The charge and magnetic radii are determined to be {sup 1/2}=0.879(5){sub stat}(4){sub syst}(2){sub model}(4){sub group} fm and {sup 1/2}=0.777(13){sub stat}(9){sub syst}(5){sub model}(2){sub group} fm.

  9. NuMI proton kicker extraction magnet termination resistor system

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, S.R.; Jensen, C.C.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The temperature stability of the kicker magnet termination resistor assembly directly affects the field flatness and amplitude stability. Comprehensive thermal enhancements were made to the existing Main Injector resistor assembly design to satisfy NuMI performance specifications. Additionally, a fluid-processing system utilizing Fluorinert{reg_sign} FC-77 high-voltage dielectric was built to precisely control the setpoint temperature of the resistor assembly from 70 to 120F, required to maintain constant resistance during changing operational modes. The Fluorinert{reg_sign} must be continually processed to remove hazardous breakdown products caused by radiation exposure to prevent chemical attack of system components. Design details of the termination resistor assembly and Fluorinert{reg_sign} processing system are described. Early performance results will be presented.

  10. Measurement of pulsed-power-driven magnetic fields via proton deflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mariscal, D.; McGuffey, C.; Valenzuela, J.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Chittenden, J. P.; Niasse, N.; Presura, R.; Haque, S.; Wallace, M.; Arias, A.; Covington, A.; Sawada, H.; Wiewior, P.

    2014-12-01

    Measuring magnetic field and current distribution in Z-pinch plasma systems is crucial to the validation of Z-pinch theory. In this letter, the demonstration of proton deflectometry to pulsed-power-driven loads at the mega-amp scale is presented, which is capable of making more detailed field maps in high-density regions of plasmas. In this method, a laser-driven, broad-spectrum, MeV-energy proton beam is directed through a pulsed-power-driven plasma system, and the resulting deflections are measured to examine configuration of magnetic fields and to infer the currents that support them. The technique was first demonstrated on simple short-circuit loads, and the results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations providing reliable estimates of the field and current configurations. It was then applied to a more complex—radial foil—plasma load. The measurements show unexpected proton deflections that exhibit the complexity of the plasma load and that with further analysis will reveal details about the current and magnetic field topology in this complex configuration.

  11. Ulysses observations of electron and proton components in a magnetic cloud and related wave activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osherovich, V. A.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Phillips, J. L.; Balogh, A.

    1995-01-01

    In addition to a smooth rotation of the magnetic field vector, magnetic clouds have a low proton temperature T(sub p). Their expansion in the solar wind leads to depletion and therefore the ion component cools down. It has been shown recently that the electron component in magnetic clouds behaves differently: when the cloud expands, electron temperature Te anti correlates with density and therefore Te increases in the cloud, creating favorable conditions for the rise of ion-acoustic waves. For the magnetic cloud observed by Ulysses on June 10 - 12, 1993 at 4.64 AU at S 32.5 deg, we present observations for both electron and proton components and related plasma wave activity. Our results confirm the anti correlation between T(sub e) and electron density and also exhibit a high ratio of T(sub e)/T(sub P) in the cloud. Since Landau damping is not effective for T(sub e)/T(sub p) much greater than 1, Doppler shifted ion acoustic waves are expected in the cloud. Calculation of ion acoustic wave frequencies in the cloud and comparison with observed wave activity confirm this expectation. As in our previous work, we show that the electron component in the cloud obeys a polytropic law with gamma is less than 1 (gamma approximately equals 0.3-0.4). The dynamics of the magnetic cloud are determined to a large degree by the dominating electron pressure.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance proton imaging of bone pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Atlan, H.; Sigal, R.; Hadar, H.; Chisin, R.; Cohen, I.; Lanir, A.; Soudry, M.; Machtey, Y.; Schreiber, R.; Benmair, J.

    1986-02-01

    Thirty-two patients with diversified pathology were examined with a supraconductive NMR imager using spin echo with different TR and TE to obtain T1 and T2 weighted images. They included 20 tumors (12 primary, eight metastasis), six osteomyelitis, three fractures, two osteonecrosis, and one diffuse metabolic (Gaucher) disease. In all cases except for the stress fractures, the bone pathology was clearly visualized in spite of the normal lack of signal from the compact cortical bone. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging proved to be at least as sensitive as radionuclide scintigraphy but much more accurate than all other imaging procedures including computed tomography (CT) and angiography to assess the extension of the lesions, especially in tumors extended to soft tissue. This is due both to easy acquisition of sagittal and coronal sections and to different patterns of pathologic modifications of T1 and T2 which are beginning to be defined. It is hoped that more experience in clinical use of these patterns will help to discriminate between tumor extension and soft-tissue edema. We conclude that while radionuclide scintigraphy will probably remain the most sensitive and easy to perform screening test for bone pathology, NMR imaging, among noninvasive diagnostic procedures, appears to be at least as specific as CT. In addition, where the extension of the lesions is concerned, NMR imaging is much more informative than CT. In pathology of the spine, the easy visualization of the spinal cord should decrease the need for myelography.

  13. Measuring the strong electrostatic and magnetic fields with proton radiography for ultra-high intensity laser channeling on fast ignition.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Y; Ivancic, S; Iwawaki, T; Habara, H; Lei, A L; Theobald, W; Tanaka, K A

    2014-11-01

    In order to investigate the intense laser propagation and channel formation in dense plasma, we conducted an experiment with proton deflectometry on the OMEGA EP Laser facility. The proton image was analyzed by tracing the trajectory of mono-energetic protons, which provides understanding the electric and magnetic fields that were generated around the channel. The estimated field strengths (E ∼ 10(11) V/m and B ∼ 10(8) G) agree with the predictions from 2D-Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, indicating the feasibility of the proton deflectometry technique for over-critical density plasma. PMID:25430358

  14. Measuring the strong electrostatic and magnetic fields with proton radiography for ultra-high intensity laser channeling on fast ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Uematsu, Y.; Iwawaki, T.; Habara, H. Tanaka, K. A.; Ivancic, S.; Theobald, W.; Lei, A. L.

    2014-11-15

    In order to investigate the intense laser propagation and channel formation in dense plasma, we conducted an experiment with proton deflectometry on the OMEGA EP Laser facility. The proton image was analyzed by tracing the trajectory of mono-energetic protons, which provides understanding the electric and magnetic fields that were generated around the channel. The estimated field strengths (E ∼ 10{sup 11} V/m and B ∼ 10{sup 8} G) agree with the predictions from 2D-Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, indicating the feasibility of the proton deflectometry technique for over-critical density plasma.

  15. Development and experimental verification of a theory for high-field, ultralow-temperature magnetic linear dichroism of glasses containing molecular chromophores with spin doublet ground states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bominaar, Emile L.; Peterson, Jim

    1999-10-01

    The first observation of magnetic linear dichroism in a metalloprotein Kramers system is reported, namely, that exhibited by the porphyrin moiety in ferricytochrome c (spin S=1/2). The measurements were conducted at low temperatures and in strong magnetic fields to maximize the signal intensity, which is intrinsicly weak in this case. The theory used in the interpretation of the wavelength dependence of this magneto-optical effect is based on the rigid-shift approximation in which the dichroic spectra are expressed as a sum of zeroth, first, and second derivatives of the underlying electronic absorption band. Similar to the case for magnetic circular dichroism, magnetic linear dichroism is caused by the Zeeman interactions of the molecular-chromophore electrons with an applied magnetic field. Two kinds of Zeeman interaction are considered, termed "inner state" and "outer state" depending on, respectively, whether or not they act between the components of a single Kramers doublet of the chromophore. It is formally demonstrated that the zeroth-derivative term for an electric-dipole transition between Kramers doublets arising from inner-state Zeeman interactions (nominally the strongest effect) completely cancels in the powder average over a randomly oriented ensemble of chromophores for all values of temperature and field. This cancellation has a profound effect on the magnetic linear dichroism of molecular chromophores suspended in glasses, as the effect now entirely relies on a set of weaker residual terms, each one having its own spectroscopic characteristics. The residual contributions have been estimated on the basis of electronic-term-energy differences and bandwidths in ferricytochrome c, resulting in the identification of the inner- and outer-state terms C1 and F0 as the dominant signatures. This prediction is in agreement with the experimental data for the shape and dependence on applied field and temperature of the magneto-dichroic spectrum for this

  16. Proton magnetic resonance imaging using a nitrogen-vacancy spin sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugar, D.; Mamin, H. J.; Sherwood, M. H.; Kim, M.; Rettner, C. T.; Ohno, K.; Awschalom, D. D.

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, with its ability to provide three-dimensional, elementally selective imaging without radiation damage, has had a revolutionary impact in many fields, especially medicine and the neurosciences. Although challenging, its extension to the nanometre scale could provide a powerful new tool for the nanosciences, especially if it can provide a means for non-destructively visualizing the full three-dimensional morphology of complex nanostructures, including biomolecules. To achieve this potential, innovative new detection strategies are required to overcome the severe sensitivity limitations of conventional inductive detection techniques. One successful example is magnetic resonance force microscopy, which has demonstrated three-dimensional imaging of proton NMR with resolution on the order of 10 nm, but with the requirement of operating at cryogenic temperatures. Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres in diamond offer an alternative detection strategy for nanoscale magnetic resonance imaging that is operable at room temperature. Here, we demonstrate two-dimensional imaging of 1H NMR from a polymer test sample using a single NV centre in diamond as the sensor. The NV centre detects the oscillating magnetic field from precessing protons as the sample is scanned past the NV centre. A spatial resolution of ˜12 nm is shown, limited primarily by the scan resolution.

  17. Water confined in carbon nanotubes: Magnetic response and proton chemical shieldings

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, P; Schwegler, E; Galli, G

    2008-11-14

    We study the proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) of a model system consisting of liquid water in infinite carbon nanotubes (CNT). Chemical shieldings are evaluated from linear response theory, where the electronic structure is derived from density functional theory (DFT) with plane-wave basis sets and periodic boundary conditions. The shieldings are sampled from trajectories generated via first-principles molecular dynamics simulations at ambient conditions, for water confined in (14,0) and (19,0) CNTs with diameters d = 11 {angstrom} and 14.9 {angstrom}, respectively. We find that confinement within the CNT leads to a large ({approx} -23 ppm) upfield shift relative to bulk liquid water. This shift is a consequence of strongly anisotropic magnetic fields induced in the CNT by an applied magnetic field.

  18. Low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies and their relation to transient interplanetary magnetic structures: ISEE-3 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, R. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Wenzel, K. P.; Smith, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is known that the interplanetary medium in the period approaching solar maximum is characterized by an enhancement in the occurrence of transient solar wind streams and shocks and that such systems are often associated with looplike magnetic structures or clouds. There is observational evidence that bidirectional, field aligned flows of low energy particles could be a signature of such looplike structures, although detailed models for the magnetic field configuration and injection mechanisms do not exist at the current time. Preliminary results of a survey of low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies measured on ISEE-3 in the interplanetary medium between August 1978 and May 1982, together with magnetic field data from the same spacecraft are presented.

  19. High-Field Combined-Function Magnets for a 1.5 x 1.5 TeV Muon Collider Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Kashikhin, V.V.; Alexahin, Y.; Mokhov, N.V.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Designs and parameters of dipoles and combined-function quadrupoles for bending arc lattice of a 1.5x1.5 TeV muon collider with an average luminosity of 4x1034 cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} are presented. The magnets use the Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor and provide the required gradients and fields with the appropriate operating margins and field quality. The magnet apertures accommodate tungsten liners to minimize the dynamic heat load in the superconducting coils.

  20. Initial test results of the Los Alamos proton-storage-ring bump-magnet system

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, C.R.; Barlow, D.B.; Redd, D.B.

    1997-09-01

    An upgrade program for increasing the stored beam current in the LANSCE Proton Storage is presently under way. Part of the upgrade effort has been to design, specify, and add four bump-magnet/modulator systems to the ring. This paper describes the initial test results of the first bump-magnet/modulator system. The paper begins with an overview of the pulsed-power system including important specifications of the modulator, magnet, cabling, and control system. In the main portion of the paper, waveforms and test data are included showing the accuracy, repeatability, and stability of the magnet-current pulses. These magnet pulses are programmable both in rise and fall time as well as in amplitude. The amplitude can be set between 50 and 300 A, the rise-time is fixed at 1 ms, and the linear fall-time can be varied between 500 {mu}s and 1500 {mu}s. Other issues such as loading effects and power dissipation in the magnet-bore beamtube are examined and reported.

  1. Temperature dependence of proton NMR relaxation times at earth's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedbalski, Peter; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Parish, Christopher; Ferguson, Sarah; Cervantes, Eduardo; Oomen, Anisha; Krishnan, Anagha; Goyal, Aayush; Lumata, Lloyd

    The theoretical description of relaxation processes for protons, well established and experimentally verified at conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fields, has remained untested at low fields despite significant advances in low field NMR technology. In this study, proton spin-lattice relaxation (T1) times in pure water and water doped with varying concentrations of the paramagnetic agent copper chloride have been measured from 6 to 92oC at earth's magnetic field (1700 Hz). Results show a linear increase of T1 with temperature for each of the samples studied. Increasing the concentration of the copper chloride greatly reduced T1 and reduced dependence on temperature. The consistency of the results with theory is an important confirmation of past results, while the ability of an ultra-low field NMR system to do contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is promising for future applicability to low-cost medical imaging and chemical identification. This work is supported by US Dept of Defense Award No. W81XWH-14-1-0048 and the Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant No. AT-1877.

  2. Analyzing power in pion-proton bremsstrahlung, and the. Delta. sup ++ (1232) magnetic moment

    SciTech Connect

    Bosshard, A.; Amsler, C.; Doebeli, M.; Doser, M.; Schaad, M.; Riedlberger, J.; Truoel, P. ); Bistirlich, J.A.; Crowe, K.M.; Ljungfelt, S.; Meyer, C.A. ); van den Brandt, B.; Konter, J.A.; Mango, S.; Renker, D. ); Loude, J.F.; Perroud, J.P. ); Haddock, R.P. ); Sober, D.I. )

    1991-10-01

    We report on a first measurement of the polarized-target asymmetry of the pion-proton bremsstrahlung cross section ({pi}{sup +}{ital p}{r arrow}{pi}{sup {minus}}{ital p}{gamma}). As in previous cross section measurements the pion energy (298 MeV) and the detector geometry for this experiment was chosen to optimize the sensitivity to the radiation from the magnetic dipole moment of the {Delta}{sup ++}(1232) resonance {mu}{sub {Delta}}. Comparison to a recent isobar model for pion-nucleon bremsstrahlung yields {mu}{sub {Delta}}=(1.62{plus minus}0.18){mu}{sub {ital p}}, where {mu}{sub {ital p}} is the proton magnetic moment. Since the asymmetry depends less than the cross section on the choice of the other input parameters for the model, their uncertainties affect this analysis by less than the experimental error. However the theory fails to represent both the cross section and the asymmetry data at the highest photon energies. Hence further improvements in the calculations are needed before the model dependence of the magnetic moment analysis can be fully assessed. The present result agrees with bag-model corrections to the SU(6) prediction {mu}{sub {Delta}}=2{mu}{sub {ital p}}. As a by-product, the analyzing power for elastic {pi}{sup +}{ital p} scattering at 415 MeV/{ital c} was also measured. This second result is in good agreement with phase shift calculations.

  3. Characterization of the ELIMED Permanent Magnets Quadrupole system prototype with laser-driven proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, F.; Pommarel, L.; Romano, F.; Cuttone, G.; Costa, M.; Giove, D.; Maggiore, M.; Russo, A. D.; Scuderi, V.; Malka, V.; Vauzour, B.; Flacco, A.; Cirrone, G. A. P.

    2016-07-01

    Laser-based accelerators are gaining interest in recent years as an alternative to conventional machines [1]. In the actual ion acceleration scheme, energy and angular spread of the laser-driven beams are the main limiting factors for beam applications and different solutions for dedicated beam-transport lines have been proposed [2,3]. In this context a system of Permanent Magnet Quadrupoles (PMQs) has been realized [2] by INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) researchers, in collaboration with SIGMAPHI company in France, to be used as a collection and pre-selection system for laser driven proton beams. This system is meant to be a prototype to a more performing one [3] to be installed at ELI-Beamlines for the collection of ions. The final system is designed for protons and carbons up to 60 MeV/u. In order to validate the design and the performances of this large bore, compact, high gradient magnetic system prototype an experimental campaign have been carried out, in collaboration with the group of the SAPHIR experimental facility at LOA (Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquée) in Paris using a 200 TW Ti:Sapphire laser system. During this campaign a deep study of the quadrupole system optics has been performed, comparing the results with the simulation codes used to determine the setup of the PMQ system and to track protons with realistic TNSA-like divergence and spectrum. Experimental and simulation results are good agreement, demonstrating the possibility to have a good control on the magnet optics. The procedure used during the experimental campaign and the most relevant results are reported here.

  4. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of seminolipid from bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J G; Storey, B T; Hemling, M L; Grob, R L

    1990-06-01

    The high-resolution one- and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) characterization of seminolipid from bovine spermatozoa is presented. The 1H-NMR data was confirmed by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the partially methylated alditol acetates of the sugar unit, mild alkaline methanolysis of the glyceryl ester, mobility on normal phase and diphasic thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The structure of the molecule corresponds to 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-hexadecanoyl-3-O-beta-D-(3'-sulfo)-galactopyranosyl- sn-glycerol. PMID:2373957

  5. Isotropic proton-detected local-field nuclear magnetic resonancein solids

    SciTech Connect

    Havlin, Robert H.; Walls, Jamie D.; Pines, Alexander

    2004-08-04

    A new nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method is presented which produces linear, isotropic proton-detected local-field spectra for InS spin systems in powdered samples. The method, HETeronuclear Isotropic Evolution (HETIE), refocuses the anisotropic portion of the heteronuclear dipolar coupling frequencies by evolving the system under a series of specially designed Hamiltonians and evolution pathways. The theory behind HETIE is represented along with experimental studies conducted on a powdered sample of ferrocene, demonstrating the methodology outlined in this paper. Applications of HETIE for structural determination in solid-state NMR are discussed.

  6. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of seminolipid from bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J G; Storey, B T; Hemling, M L; Grob, R L

    1990-06-01

    The high-resolution one- and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) characterization of seminolipid from bovine spermatozoa is presented. The 1H-NMR data was confirmed by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the partially methylated alditol acetates of the sugar unit, mild alkaline methanolysis of the glyceryl ester, mobility on normal phase and diphasic thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The structure of the molecule corresponds to 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-hexadecanoyl-3-O-beta-D-(3'-sulfo)-galactopyranosyl- sn-glycerol.

  7. Ion hydration effects in aqueous solutions of strong electrolytes, according to proton magnetic relaxation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnichenko, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    The concentration dependences of proton magnetic relaxation (PMR) rates measured at different temperatures in aqueous electrolyte solutions and concentrated seawater (SW) in a wide range of salt concentrations and for different seawater salinities are presented, along with the concentration dependences of PMR rates determined in salts dissolved directly in seawater. The coordination numbers of the basic ions in seawater were determined from the complete solvation limits and compared with those measured in single-component water-salt solutions. The attaining of complete solvation limits was determined using the PMR data for ions of different hydration signs.

  8. CPT Test with (anti)proton Magnetic Moments Based on Quantum Logic Cooling and Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, M.; Paschke, A.-G.; Dubielzig, T.; Ulmer, S.; Ospelkaus, C.

    2014-01-01

    Dehmelt and VanDyck's famous 1987 measurement of the electron and positron g-factor is still the most precise g-factor comparison in the lepton sector, and a sensitive test of possible CPT violation. A complementary g-factor comparison between the proton and the antiproton is highly desirable to test CPT symmetry in the baryon sector. Current experiments, based on Dehmelt's continuous Stern-Gerlach effect and the double Penning-trap technique, are making rapid progress. They are, however, extremely difficult to carry out because ground state cooling using cryogenic techniques is virtually impossible for heavy baryons, and because the continous Stern-Gerlach effect scales as μ/m, where m is the mass of the particle and μ its magnetic moment. Both difficulties will ultimately limit the accuracy. We discuss experimental prospects of realizing an alternative approach to a g-factor comparison with single (anti)protons, based on quantum logic techniques proposed by Heinzen and Wineland and by Wineland et al. The basic idea is to cool, control and measure single (anti)protons through interaction with a well-controlled atomic ion.

  9. Measurements of beam current density and proton fraction of a permanent-magnet microwave ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Waldmann, Ole; Ludewigt, Bernhard

    2011-11-15

    A permanent-magnet microwave ion source has been built for use in a high-yield, compact neutron generator. The source has been designed to produce up to 100 mA of deuterium and tritium ions. The electron-cyclotron resonance condition is met at a microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz and a magnetic field strength of 87.5 mT. The source operates at a low hydrogen gas pressure of about 0.15 Pa. Hydrogen beams with a current density of 40 mA/cm{sup 2} have been extracted at a microwave power of 450 W. The dependence of the extracted proton beam fraction on wall materials and operating parameters was measured and found to vary from 45% for steel to 95% for boron nitride as a wall liner material.

  10. Proton fire hose instabilities in the expanding solar wind: Role of oblique magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellinger, Petr

    2016-04-01

    The double adiabatic (CGL) approximation for the ideal (Parker) interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) predicts generation of the parallel particle temperature anisotropy (T∥ > T⊥) for a nearly radial magnetic field whereas for a strongly oblique IMF generation of the opposite temperature anisotropy is expected. The transition between the two behaviours is expected at around 45o, i.e. around 1 AU in the solar wind in the ecliptic plane. We investigate properties of a proton-electron plasma system in the solar wind using hybrid expanding box simulations starting with an oblique IMF. The simulated system becomes unstable with respect to the parallel and oblique fire hose instabilities and is forced to stay around the corresponding marginal stability. Rotation of the IMF reduces the time system stays near the marginal stability regions and for a strongly transverse IMF the system moves away from the regions unstable with respect to the fire hose instabilities.

  11. Non-destructive ripeness sensing by using proton NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance)

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Seong In; Krutz, G.W.; Stroshine, R.L. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering); Bellon, V. , 34 - Montpellier )

    1990-01-01

    More than 80 kinds of fruits and vegetables are available in the United States. But only about 6 of them have their quality standards (Dull, 1986). In the 1990 Fresh Trends survey (Zind, 1990), consumers were asked to rate 16 characteristics important to their decision to purchase fresh produce. The four top ranking factors were ripeness/freshness, taste/flavor, appearance/condition and nutritional value. Of these surveyed, 96% rated ripeness/freshness as extremely important or very important. Therefore, the development of reliable grading or sorting techniques for fresh commodities is essential. Determination of fruit quality often involves cutting and tasting. Non-destructive quality control in fruit and vegetables is a goal of growers and distributors, as well as the food processing industry. Many nondestructive techniques have been evaluated including soft x-ray, optical transmission, near infrared radiation, and machine vision. However, there are few reports of successful non-destructive measurement of sugar content directly in fruit. Higher quality fruit could be harvested and available to consumers if a nondestructive sensor that detects ripeness level directly by measuring sugar content were available. Using proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) principle is the possibility. A nondestructive ripeness (or sweetness) sensor for fruit quality control can be developed with the proton NMR principle (Cho, 1989). Several feasibility studies were necessary for the ripeness sensor development. Main objectives in this paper was to investigate the feasibilities (1) to detect ripeness (or sweetness level) of raw fruit tissue with an high resolution proton NMR spectroscopy (200 MHz) and (2) to measure sugar content of intact fruit with a low resolution proton NMR spectroscopy (10 MHz). 7 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Non-destructive Ripeness Sensing by Using Proton NMR [Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cho, Seong In; Krutz, G. W.; Stroshine, R. L.; Bellon, V.

    1990-01-01

    More than 80 kinds of fruits and vegetables are available in the United States. But only about 6 of them have their quality standards (Dull, 1986). In the 1990 Fresh Trends survey (Zind, 1990), consumers were asked to rate 16 characteristics important to their decision to purchase fresh produce. The four top ranking factors were ripeness/freshness, taste/flavor, appearance/condition and nutritional value. Of these surveyed, 96% rated ripeness/freshness as extremely important or very important. Therefore, the development of reliable grading or sorting techniques for fresh commodities is essential. Determination of fruit quality often involves cutting and tasting. Non-destructive quality control in fruit and vegetables is a goal of growers and distributors, as well as the food processing industry. Many nondestructive techniques have been evaluated including soft x-ray, optical transmission, near infrared radiation, and machine vision. However, there are few reports of successful non-destructive measurement of sugar content directly in fruit. Higher quality fruit could be harvested and available to consumers if a nondestructive sensor that detects ripeness level directly by measuring sugar content were available. Using proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) principle is the possibility. A nondestructive ripeness (or sweetness) sensor for fruit quality control can be developed with the proton NMR principle (Cho, 1989). Several feasibility studies were necessary for the ripeness sensor development. Main objectives in this paper was to investigate the feasibilities (1) to detect ripeness (or sweetness level) of raw fruit tissue with an high resolution proton NMR spectroscopy (200 MHz) and (2) to measure sugar content of intact fruit with a low resolution proton NMR spectroscopy (10 MHz).

  13. Proton Magnetic Form Factor from Existing Elastic e-p Cross Section Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Longwu; Christy, Eric; Gilad, Shalev; Keppel, Cynthia; Schmookler, Barak; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan

    2015-04-01

    The proton magnetic form factor GMp, in addition to being an important benchmark for all cross section measurements in hadron physics, provides critical information on proton structure. Extraction of GMp from e-p cross section data is complicated by two-photon exchange (TPE) effects, where available calculations still have large theoretical uncertainties. Studies of TPE contributions to e-p scattering have observed no nonlinear effects in Rosenbluth separations. Recent theoretical investigations show that the TPE correction goes to 0 when ɛ approaches 1, where ɛ is the virtual photon polarization parameter. In this talk, existing e-p elastic cross section data are reanalyzed by extrapolating the reduced cross section for ɛ approaching 1. Existing polarization transfer data, which is supposed to be relatively immune to TPE effects, are used to produce a ratio of electric and magnetic form factors. The extrapolated reduced cross section and polarization transfer ratio are then used to calculate GEp and GMp at different Q2 values.

  14. Intraoperative high-field magnetic resonance imaging combined with neuronavigation-guided resection of intracranial mesenchymal chondrosarcoma in Broca's area: a rare case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Cheng, Jingliang; Li, Hongwei; Liu, Xianzhi; Zheng, Yuan; Wang, Chaoyan; Luo, Wenzheng; Nie, Yunfei; Li, Zhengwei; Pang, Beibei; Yang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Cranial Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma (MC) and those that occurred in brain parenchymal were fairly rare aggressive neoplasm commonly affecting the bone of young adults. Here, we reported a case with intracranial MC, invading Broca's area, a rare site not previously reported, which was presumed to be a glioma. We performed a gross total resection guided by intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) combined with neuronavigation. Follow-up shows no language and other brain function loss. Furthermore, we present a review of literature. We emphasized the importance of gross total resection guiding by the combination of iMRI and neuronavigation, which was proved to be both reliable and effective in language preservation. PMID:26064406

  15. Recent developments of high field ESR systems in Kobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, H.; Tomoo, M.; Okubo, S.; Sakurai, T.; Fujisawa, M.; Tomita, T.; Kimata, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Kawauchi, M.; Kindo, K.

    2006-11-01

    The magnetic field of the high field ESR system in Kobe University has been extended to 55 T by using a new non-destructive pulse magnet and the 300 kJ (10kV) capacitor bank. The properties of new 55 T pulse magnet are reported. As an example of its application, the high field ESR measurement of a quantum spin system CsCuCl3 for Hparallela will be shown.

  16. The proton temperature and the total hourly variance of the magnetic field components in different solar wind speed regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Chuan-Yi; Freeman, John W.; Lopez, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the predictions of the theory for radial variations of both Alfvenic fluctuations and solar wind proton temperatures proposed by Tu (1987, 1988) and the statistical results of hourly averaged plasma and magnetic field data observed by Helios 1 and 2 from launch through 1980 for different solar wind speed regimes. The comparison shows that for speed ranges between 500-800 km/s, the radial variation of the proton temperature between 0.3 and 1 AU can be explained by heating from the cascade energy which is determined by the radial variation of the total variance of magnetic field vector.

  17. Combined high-field intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopy increase extent of resection and progression-free survival for pituitary adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Sylvester, Peter T.; Evans, John A.; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Chole, Richard A.; Uppaluri, Ravindra; Haughey, Bruce H.; Getz, Anne E.; Silverstein, Julie; Rich, Keith M.; Kim, Albert H.; Dacey, Ralph G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The clinical benefit of combined intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) and endoscopy for transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma resection has not been completely characterized. This study assessed the impact of microscopy, endoscopy, and/or iMRI on progression-free survival, extent of resection status (gross-, near-, and subtotal resection), and operative complications. Methods Retrospective analyses were performed on 446 transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma surgeries at a single institution between 1998 and 2012. Multivariate analyses were used to control for baseline characteristics, differences during extent of resection status, and progression-free survival analysis. Results Additional surgery was performed after iMRI in 56/156 cases (35.9 %), which led to increased extent of resection status in 15/156 cases (9.6 %). Multivariate ordinal logistic regression revealed no increase in extent of resection status following iMRI or endoscopy alone; however, combining these modalities increased extent of resection status (odds ratio 2.05, 95 % CI 1.21–3.46) compared to conventional transsphenoidal microsurgery. Multivariate Cox regression revealed that reduced extent of resection status shortened progression-free survival for near- versus gross-total resection [hazard ratio (HR) 2.87, 95 % CI 1.24–6.65] and sub- versus near-total resection (HR 2.10; 95 % CI 1.00–4.40). Complication comparisons between microscopy, endoscopy, and iMRI revealed increased perioperative deaths for endoscopy versus microscopy (4/209 and 0/237, respectively), but this difference was non-significant considering multiple post hoc comparisons (Fisher exact, p = 0.24). Conclusions Combined use of endoscopy and iMRI increased pituitary adenoma extent of resection status compared to conventional transsphenoidal microsurgery, and increased extent of resection status was associated with longer progression-free survival. Treatment modality combination did not significantly impact

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF SUPERCONDUCTING COMBINED FUNCTION MAGNETS FOR THE PROTON TRANSPORT LINE FOR THE J-PARC NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    NAKAMOTO, T.; AJIMA, Y.; FUJII, Y.; HIGASHI, N.; ICHIKAWA, A.; KIMURA, N.; KOBAYASHI, T.; MAKIDA, Y.; OGITSU, T.; OHHATA, H.; OKAMURA, T.; SASAKI, K.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Superconducting combined function magnets will be utilized for the 50 GeV, 750 kW proton beam line for the J-PARC neutrino experiment. The magnet is designed to provide a dipole field of 2.6 T combined with a quadrupole field of 19 T/m in a coil aperture of 173.4 mm at a nominal current of 7345 A. Two full-scale prototype magnets to verify the magnet performance were successfully developed. The first prototype experienced no training quench during the excitation test and good field quality was confirmed.

  19. High field magnetotransport and point contact Andreev reflection measurements on CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 3}Br—Degenerate magnetic semiconductor single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Borisov, K. Coey, J. M. D.; Stamenov, P.; Alaria, J.

    2014-05-07

    Single crystals of the metallically degenerate fully magnetic semiconductors CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 4} and CuCr{sub 2}Se{sub 3}Br have been prepared by the Chemical Vapour Transport method, using either Se or Br as transport agents. The high-quality, millimetre-sized, octahedrally faceted, needle- and platelet-shaped crystals are characterised by means of high field magnetotransport (μ{sub 0}H≤ 14 T) and Point Contact Andreev Reflection. The relatively high spin polarisation observed |P|>0.56, together with the relatively low minority carrier effective mass of 0.25 m{sub e}, and long scattering time  10{sup −13} s, could poise these materials for integration in low- and close-to-room temperature minority injection bipolar heterojunction transistor demonstrations.

  20. Optimized magnet for a 250 MeV proton radiotherapy cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Blosser, H.

    2001-12-01

    The NSCL accelerator group in 1993 carried out an extensive design study [1] for a K250 superconducting cyclotron for advanced cancer therapy. A private company ACCEL now offers cyclotrons based on this study on a commercial basis, and actual construction of a first such cyclotron is likely in the near future. In view of this, further optimization of the design of the superconducting magnet is currently underway. The configuration of the cyclotron has many similarities with previous NSCL-built superconducting cyclotrons—notable differences are the peak average field of 3 T (required by the focusing limit for protons) vs the 5 tesla of other MSU designs, and the use of four sectors rather than three to avoid the νr=3/2 stopband. The further optimization of the magnetic design described here keys on using the true 3D magnetic field program to more precisely match the design to an optimized orbital frequency configuration and to explore reducing the amount of spiral in the hills which then shortens the linear length of the rf elements and therefore reduces capacity and power consumption.

  1. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy of 800 MeV.

    PubMed

    Sjue, S K L; Mariam, F G; Merrill, F E; Morris, C L; Saunders, A

    2016-01-01

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the proton imaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane. Comparison with a series of static calibration images demonstrates the model's accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets. PMID:26827356

  2. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy of 800 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjue, S. K. L.; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Saunders, A.

    2016-01-01

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the proton imaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane. Comparison with a series of static calibration images demonstrates the model's accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets.

  3. Absolute quantification for benzoic acid in processed foods using quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Sato, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-09-15

    The absolute quantification method of benzoic acid (BA) in processed foods using solvent extraction and quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was developed and validated. BA levels were determined using proton signals (δ(H) 7.53 and 7.98) referenced to 2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulfonate-d(6) sodium salt (DSS-d(6)) after simple solvent extraction from processed foods. All recoveries from several kinds of processed foods, spiked at their specified maximum Japanese usage levels (0.6-2.5 g kg(-1)) and at 0.13 g kg(-1) and 0.063 g kg(-1), were greater than 80%. The limit of quantification was confirmed as 0.063 g kg(-1) in processed foods, which was sufficiently low for the purposes of monitoring BA. The accuracy of the proposed method is equivalent to the conventional method using steam-distillation extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. The proposed method was both rapid and simple. Moreover, it provided International System of Units traceability without the need for authentic analyte standards. Therefore, the proposed method is a useful and practical tool for determining BA levels in processed foods. PMID:22967562

  4. Absolute quantification for benzoic acid in processed foods using quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Sato, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-09-15

    The absolute quantification method of benzoic acid (BA) in processed foods using solvent extraction and quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was developed and validated. BA levels were determined using proton signals (δ(H) 7.53 and 7.98) referenced to 2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulfonate-d(6) sodium salt (DSS-d(6)) after simple solvent extraction from processed foods. All recoveries from several kinds of processed foods, spiked at their specified maximum Japanese usage levels (0.6-2.5 g kg(-1)) and at 0.13 g kg(-1) and 0.063 g kg(-1), were greater than 80%. The limit of quantification was confirmed as 0.063 g kg(-1) in processed foods, which was sufficiently low for the purposes of monitoring BA. The accuracy of the proposed method is equivalent to the conventional method using steam-distillation extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. The proposed method was both rapid and simple. Moreover, it provided International System of Units traceability without the need for authentic analyte standards. Therefore, the proposed method is a useful and practical tool for determining BA levels in processed foods.

  5. Use of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a critical update.

    PubMed

    Bustillo, Juan R

    2013-09-01

    Because of the wide availability of hardware as well as of standardized analytic quantification tools, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) has become widely used to study psychiatric disorders. (1)H-MRS allows measurement of brain concentrations of more traditional singlet neurometabolites like N-acetylaspartate, choline, and creatine. More recently, quantification of the more complex multiplet spectra for glutamate, glutamine, inositol, and γ-aminobutyric acid have also been implemented. Here we review applications of (1)H-MRS in terms of informing treatment options in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorders. We first discuss recent meta-analytic studies reporting the most reliable findings. Then we evaluate the more sparse literature focused on 1H-MRS-detected neurometabolic effects of various treatment approaches in psychiatric populations. Finally we speculate on future developments that may result in translation of these tools to improve the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

  6. Magnetic superbasic proton sponges are readily removed and permit direct product isolation.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Elia M; Raso, Renzo A; Hofer, Corinne J; Zeltner, Martin; Stettler, Robert D; Hess, Samuel C; Grass, Robert N; Stark, Wendelin J

    2014-11-21

    Workup in organic synthesis can be very time-consuming, particularly when using reagents with both a solubility similar to that of the desired products and a tendency not to crystallize. In this respect, reactions involving organic bases would strongly benefit from a tremendously simplified separation process. Therefore, we synthesized a derivative of the superbasic proton sponge 1,8-bis(dimethylamino)naphthalene (DMAN) and covalently linked it to the strongest currently available nanomagnets based on carbon-coated cobalt metal nanoparticles. The immobilized magnetic superbase reagent was tested in Knoevenagel- and Claisen-Schmidt-type condensations and showed conversions of up to 99%. High yields of up to 97% isolated product could be obtained by simple recrystallization without using column chromatography. Recycling the catalyst was simple and fast with an insignificant decrease in catalytic activity. PMID:25325822

  7. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Relevance of Glutamate and GABA to Neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Ende, Gabriele

    2015-09-01

    Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) has been widely used to study the healthy and diseased brain in vivo. The availability of whole body MR scanners with a field strength of 3 Tesla and above permit the quantification of many metabolites including the neurotransmitters glutamate (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The potential link between neurometabolites identified by MRS and cognition and behavior has been explored in numerous studies both in healthy subjects and in patient populations. Preliminary findings suggest direct or opposite associations between GABA or Glu with impulsivity, anxiety, and dexterity. This chapter is intended to provide an overview of basic principles of MRS and the literature reporting correlations between GABA or Glu and results of neuropsychological assessments.

  8. Correction of Proton Resonance Frequency Shift Temperature Maps for Magnetic Field Disturbances Caused by Breathing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmatukha, Andriy V.; Bakker, Chris J. G.

    2006-05-01

    Respiratory Induced Resonance Offset (RIRO) is a periodic disturbance of the magnetic field due to breathing. Such disturbances handicap the accuracy of the Proton Resonance Frequency Shift (PRFS) method of MRI temperature mapping in anatomies situated nearby the lungs and chest wall. In this work, we propose a method capable of minimizing errors caused by RIRO in PRFS temperature maps. In this method, a set of baseline images characterizing RIRO at a variety of respiratory cycle instants is acquired before the thermal treatment starts. During the treatment, the temperature evolution is found from two successive images. Then, the calculated temperature changes are corrected for the additional contribution caused by RIRO using the pre-treatment baseline images acquired at the identical instances of the respiratory cycle. Our method is shown to improve the accuracy and stability of PRFS temperature maps in the presence of RIRO and motion in phantom and volunteer experiments.

  9. Covalency of hydrogen bonds in liquid water can be probed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance experiments.

    PubMed

    Elgabarty, Hossam; Khaliullin, Rustam Z; Kühne, Thomas D

    2015-09-15

    The concept of covalency is widely used to describe the nature of intermolecular bonds, to explain their spectroscopic features and to rationalize their chemical behaviour. Unfortunately, the degree of covalency of an intermolecular bond cannot be directly measured in an experiment. Here we established a simple quantitative relationship between the calculated covalency of hydrogen bonds in liquid water and the anisotropy of the proton magnetic shielding tensor that can be measured experimentally. This relationship enabled us to quantify the degree of covalency of hydrogen bonds in liquid water using the experimentally measured anisotropy. We estimated that the amount of electron density transferred between molecules is on the order of 10  m while the stabilization energy due to this charge transfer is ∼15 kJ mol(-1). The physical insight into the fundamental nature of hydrogen bonding provided in this work will facilitate new studies of intermolecular bonding in a variety of molecular systems.

  10. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of lenticular nuclei in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Ohara, K; Isoda, H; Suzuki, Y; Takehara, Y; Ochiai, M; Takeda, H; Igarashi, Y; Ohara, K

    1999-12-20

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a safe and non-invasive technique for the in vivo study of brain chemistry and metabolism. As such, it is highly applicable to the study of living brain tissue in psychiatric diseases. Several neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have suggested that abnormalities of the basal ganglia nuclei might be implicated in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In the present study, we performed proton [1H]MRS of the lenticular nuclei in 12 patients with OCD and 12 healthy normal comparison subjects. The peaks of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), and choline-containing compounds (Cho) were measured. No differences between OCD patients and normal subjects were found in the NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios. Our results suggest the normal viability of neuronal cells, as indicated by the quantification of NAA, Cr and Cho in the lenticular nuclei of patients with OCD.

  11. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and MRI Reveal No Evidence for Brain Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Neva M.; Shaw, Dennis. W. W.; Richards, Todd L.; Estes, Annette M.; Friedman, Seth D.; Petropoulos, Helen; Artru, Alan A.; Dager, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Brain mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed as an etiologic factor in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ([superscript 1]HMRS) and MRI were used to assess for evidence of brain mitochondrial dysfunction in longitudinal samples of children with ASD or developmental delay (DD), and cross-sectionally…

  12. Measurements of the deuteron and proton magnetic form factors at large momentum transfers

    SciTech Connect

    Bosted, P.E.; Katramatou, A.T.; Arnold, R.G.; Benton, D.; Clogher, L.; DeChambrier, G.; Lambert, J.; Lung, A.; Petratos, G.G.; Rahbar, A.; Rock, S.E.; Szalata, Z.M. ); Debebe, B.; Frodyma, M.; Hicks, R.S.; Hotta, A.; Peterson, G.A. ); Gearhart, R.A. ); Alster, J.; Lichtenstadt, J. ); Dietrich, F.; van Bibber, K. )

    1990-07-01

    Measurements of the deuteron elastic magnetic structure function {ital B}({ital Q}{sup 2}) are reported at squared four-momentum transfer values 1.20{le}{ital Q}{sup 2}{le}2.77 (GeV/{ital c}){sup 2}. Also reported are values for the proton magnetic form factor {ital G}{sub {ital M}{ital p}}({ital Q}{sup 2}) at 11 {ital Q}{sup 2} values between 0.49 and 1.75 (GeV/{ital c}){sup 2}. The data were obtained using an electron beam of 0.5 to 1.3 GeV. Electrons backscattered near 180{degree} were detected in coincidence with deuterons or protons recoiling near 0{degree} in a large solid-angle double-arm spectrometer system. The data for {ital B}({ital Q}{sup 2}) are found to decrease rapidly from {ital Q}{sup 2}=1.2 to 2 (GeV/{ital c}){sup 2}, and then rise to a secondary maximum around {ital Q}{sup 2}=2.5 (GeV/{ital c}){sup 2}. Reasonable agreement is found with several different models, including those in the relativistic impulse approximation, nonrelativistic calculations that include meson-exchange currents, isobar configurations, and six-quark configurations, and one calculation based on the Skyrme model. All calculations are very sensitive to the choice of deuteron wave function and nucleon form factor parametrization. The data for {ital G}{sub {ital M}{ital p}}({ital Q}{sup 2}) are in good agreement with the empirical dipole fit.

  13. Temporal relationship between high-energy proton acceleration and magnetic field changes during solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurt, Victoria; Yushkov, Boris

    Understanding of the association of the magnetic field evolution in the corona and the temporal evolution of electromagnetic emissions produced by the accelerated particles during a solar flare can provide information about the nature of the energy-release process and its location. Recent high-spatial-resolution observations in HXR, UV and radio emissions allow one to study in detail a structure of two-ribbon flare site. According to these observations, the flare process can be divided into two different intervals with different temporal evolution of morphological structure: loop contraction during impulsive phase and subsequent loop expansion. Оn the other hand, the appearance of high-energy protons (with energy >300 MeV - an energy threshold of the pion production) in the solar atmosphere can be revealed from an emerging pion-decay component of high-energy gamma-ray emission. The present work is based on comparison of measurements of high-energy gamma-rays performed with the SONG detector onboard the CORONAS-F mission and reported observations of magnetic field evolution, such as HXR foot points (FP) separation and flare shear temporal behavior, or motion of UV/radio loops. We reliably identified the pion-decay component of gamma-ray emission in the course of five events attended with suitable spatial observations, namely, 2001 August 25, 2002 August 24, 2003 October 28, 2003 October 29, and 2005 January 20, and determined its onset time. We found that in these events the pion-decay emission occurred when the distance between conjugated foot-points of flare loops ceased to decrease and began to increase, i.e. changed from shrinkage to expansion. This result leads to the conclusion that the most efficient proton acceleration up to >300 MeV coincided in time with the radical reconfiguration of the magnetic field in the flare site. Earlier we found that the pion-decay emission onset in the 2003 October 28 flare was close to the time of maximum change rate of the

  14. Neurochemistry of Drug Action: Insights from Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging And Their Relevance to Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2011-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) is a non-invasive imaging technique that permits measurement of particular compounds or metabolites within the tissue of interest. In the brain, 1H MRS provides a snapshot of the neurochemical environment within a defined volume of interest. A search of the literature demonstrates the widespread utility of this technique for characterizing tumors, tracking the progress of neurodegenerative disease, and for understanding the neurobiological basis of psychiatric disorders. As of relatively recently, 1H MRS has found its way into substance abuse research, and it is beginning to become recognized as a valuable complement in the brain imaging toolbox that also contains positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Drug abuse studies employing 1H MRS have identified a number biochemical changes in the brain. The most consistent alterations across drug class were reductions in N-acetylaspartate and elevations in myo-inositol, while changes in choline, creatine, and amino acid transmitters also were abundant. Together, the studies discussed herein provide evidence that drugs of abuse may have a profound impact on neuronal health, energy metabolism and maintenance, inflammatory processes, cell membrane turnover, and neurotransmission, and these biochemical changes may underlie the neuropathology within brain tissue that subsequently gives rise to the cognitive and behavioral impairments associated with drug addiction. PMID:20201852

  15. Electron Cloud Generation and Trapping in a Quadrupole Magnet at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, Robert J.; Browman, Andrew A.; Ledford, John E.; Borden, Michael J.; O'Hara, James F.; McCrady, Rodney C.; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J.; Spickermann, Thomas; Zaugg, Thomas J.; Pivi, Mauro T.F.; /SLAC

    2008-03-17

    Recent beam physics studies on the two-stream e-p instability at the LANL proton storage ring (PSR) have focused on the role of the electron cloud generated in quadrupole magnets where primary electrons, which seed beam-induced multipacting, are expected to be largest due to grazing angle losses from the beam halo. A new diagnostic to measure electron cloud formation and trapping in a quadrupole magnet has been developed, installed, and successfully tested at PSR. Beam studies using this diagnostic show that the 'prompt' electron flux striking the wall in a quadrupole is comparable to the prompt signal in the adjacent drift space. In addition, the 'swept' electron signal, obtained using the sweeping feature of the diagnostic after the beam was extracted from the ring, was larger than expected and decayed slowly with an exponential time constant of 50 to 100 {micro}s. Other measurements include the cumulative energy spectra of prompt electrons and the variation of both prompt and swept electron signals with beam intensity. Experimental results were also obtained which suggest that a good fraction of the electrons observed in the adjacent drift space for the typical beam conditions in the 2006 run cycle were seeded by electrons ejected from the quadrupole.

  16. Pion production via proton synchrotron radiation in strong magnetic fields in relativistic field theory: Scaling relations and angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.

    2016-06-01

    We study pion production by proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of a strong magnetic field when the Landau numbers of the initial and final protons are ni,f ∼104-105. We find in our relativistic field theory calculations that the pion decay width depends only on the field strength parameter which previously was only conjectured based upon semi-classical arguments. Moreover, we also find new results that the decay width satisfies a robust scaling relation, and that the polar angular distribution of emitted pion momenta is very narrow and can be easily obtained. This scaling implies that one can infer the decay width in more realistic magnetic fields of 1015 G, where ni,f ∼1012-1013, from the results for ni,f ∼104-105. The resultant pion intensity and angular distributions for realistic magnetic field strengths are presented and their physical implications discussed.

  17. The heliospheric magnetic flux, solar wind proton flux, and cosmic ray intensity during the coming solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Charles W.; McCracken, K. G.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Goelzer, Molly L.

    2014-07-01

    Recent papers have linked the heliospheric magnetic flux to the sunspot cycle with good correlation observed between prediction and observation. Other papers have shown a strong correlation between magnetic flux and solar wind proton flux from coronal holes. We combine these efforts with an expectation that the sunspot activity of the approaching solar minimum will resemble the Dalton or Gleissberg Minimum and predict that the magnetic flux and solar wind proton flux over the coming decade will be lower than at any time during the space age. Using these predictions and established theory, we also predict record high galactic cosmic ray intensities over the same years. The analysis shown here is a prediction of global space climate change within which space weather operates. It predicts a new parameter regime for the transient space weather behavior that can be expected during the coming decade.

  18. DESIGN OF SUPERCONDUCTING COMBINED FUNCTION MAGNETS FOR THE 50 GEV PROTON BEAM LINE FOR THE J-PARC NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    WANDERER,P.; ET AL.

    2003-06-15

    Superconducting combined function magnets will be utilized for the 50GeV-750kW proton beam line for the J-PARC neutrino experiment and an R and D program has been launched at KEK. The magnet is designed to provide a combined function with a dipole field of 2.59 T and a quadrupole field of 18.7 T/m in a coil aperture of 173.4 mm. A single layer coil is proposed to reduce the fabrication cost and the coil arrangement in the 2-D cross-section results in left-right asymmetry. This paper reports the design study of the magnet.

  19. Automatic segmentation of cartilage in high-field magnetic resonance images of the knee joint with an improved voxel-classification-driven region-growing algorithm using vicinity-correlated subsampling.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Ceyda Nur; Albayrak, Songül

    2016-05-01

    Anatomical structures that can deteriorate over time, such as cartilage, can be successfully delineated with voxel-classification approaches in magnetic resonance (MR) images. However, segmentation via voxel-classification is a computationally demanding process for high-field MR images with high spatial resolutions. In this study, the whole femoral, tibial, and patellar cartilage compartments in the knee joint were automatically segmented in high-field MR images obtained from Osteoarthritis Initiative using a voxel-classification-driven region-growing algorithm with sample-expand method. Computational complexity of the classification was alleviated via subsampling of the background voxels in the training MR images and selecting a small subset of significant features by taking into consideration systems with limited memory and processing power. Although subsampling of the voxels may lead to a loss of generality of the training models and a decrease in segmentation accuracies, effective subsampling strategies can overcome these problems. Therefore, different subsampling techniques, which involve uniform, Gaussian, vicinity-correlated (VC) sparse, and VC dense subsampling, were used to generate four training models. The segmentation system was experimented using 10 training and 23 testing MR images, and the effects of different training models on segmentation accuracies were investigated. Experimental results showed that the highest mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) values for all compartments were obtained when the training models of VC sparse subsampling technique were used. Mean DSC values optimized with this technique were 82.6%, 83.1%, and 72.6% for femoral, tibial, and patellar cartilage compartments, respectively, when mean sensitivities were 79.9%, 84.0%, and 71.5%, and mean specificities were 99.8%, 99.9%, and 99.9%.

  20. Automatic segmentation of cartilage in high-field magnetic resonance images of the knee joint with an improved voxel-classification-driven region-growing algorithm using vicinity-correlated subsampling.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Ceyda Nur; Albayrak, Songül

    2016-05-01

    Anatomical structures that can deteriorate over time, such as cartilage, can be successfully delineated with voxel-classification approaches in magnetic resonance (MR) images. However, segmentation via voxel-classification is a computationally demanding process for high-field MR images with high spatial resolutions. In this study, the whole femoral, tibial, and patellar cartilage compartments in the knee joint were automatically segmented in high-field MR images obtained from Osteoarthritis Initiative using a voxel-classification-driven region-growing algorithm with sample-expand method. Computational complexity of the classification was alleviated via subsampling of the background voxels in the training MR images and selecting a small subset of significant features by taking into consideration systems with limited memory and processing power. Although subsampling of the voxels may lead to a loss of generality of the training models and a decrease in segmentation accuracies, effective subsampling strategies can overcome these problems. Therefore, different subsampling techniques, which involve uniform, Gaussian, vicinity-correlated (VC) sparse, and VC dense subsampling, were used to generate four training models. The segmentation system was experimented using 10 training and 23 testing MR images, and the effects of different training models on segmentation accuracies were investigated. Experimental results showed that the highest mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) values for all compartments were obtained when the training models of VC sparse subsampling technique were used. Mean DSC values optimized with this technique were 82.6%, 83.1%, and 72.6% for femoral, tibial, and patellar cartilage compartments, respectively, when mean sensitivities were 79.9%, 84.0%, and 71.5%, and mean specificities were 99.8%, 99.9%, and 99.9%. PMID:27017069

  1. Search for magnetic monopoles with the MoEDAL prototype trapping detector in 8 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, B.; Alexandre, J.; Bendtz, K.; Benes, P.; Bernabéu, J.; Campbell, M.; Cecchini, S.; Chwastowski, J.; Chatterjee, A.; de Montigny, M.; Derendarz, D.; De Roeck, A.; Ellis, J. R.; Fairbairn, M.; Felea, D.; Frank, M.; Frekers, D.; Garcia, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Hasegan, D.; Kalliokoski, M.; Katre, A.; Kim, D.-W.; King, M. G. L.; Kinoshita, K.; Lacarrère, D. H.; Lee, S. C.; Leroy, C.; Lionti, A.; Margiotta, A.; Mauri, N.; Mavromatos, N. E.; Mermod, P.; Milstead, D.; Mitsou, V. A.; Orava, R.; Parker, B.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Păvălas, G. E.; Pinfold, J. L.; Platkevič, M.; Popa, V.; Pozzato, M.; Pospisil, S.; Rajantie, A.; Sahnoun, Z.; Sakellariadou, M.; Sarkar, S.; Semenoff, G.; Sirri, G.; Sliwa, K.; Soluk, R.; Spurio, M.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Staszewski, R.; Suk, M.; Swain, J.; Tenti, M.; Togo, V.; Trzebinski, M.; Tuszynski, J. A.; Vento, V.; Vives, O.; Vykydal, Z.; Whyntie, T.; Widom, A.; Willems, G.; Yoon, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    The MoEDAL experiment is designed to search for magnetic monopoles and other highly-ionising particles produced in high-energy collisions at the LHC. The largely passive MoEDAL detector, deployed at Interaction Point 8 on the LHC ring, relies on two dedicated direct detection techniques. The first technique is based on stacks of nucleartrack detectors with surface area ~18m2, sensitive to particle ionisation exceeding a high threshold. These detectors are analysed offline by optical scanning microscopes. The second technique is based on the trapping of charged particles in an array of roughly 800 kg of aluminium samples. These samples are monitored offline for the presence of trapped magnetic charge at a remote superconducting magnetometer facility. We present here the results of a search for magnetic monopoles using a 160 kg prototype MoEDAL trapping detector exposed to 8TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC, for an integrated luminosity of 0.75 fb-1. No magnetic charge exceeding 0:5 g D (where g D is the Dirac magnetic charge) is measured in any of the exposed samples, allowing limits to be placed on monopole production in the mass range 100 GeV≤ m ≤ 3500 GeV. Model-independent cross-section limits are presented in fiducial regions of monopole energy and direction for 1 g D ≤ | g| ≤ 6 g D, and model-dependent cross-section limits are obtained for Drell-Yan pair production of spin-1/2 and spin-0 monopoles for 1 g D ≤ | g| ≤ 4 g D. Under the assumption of Drell-Yan cross sections, mass limits are derived for | g| = 2 g D and | g| = 3 g D for the first time at the LHC, surpassing the results from previous collider experiments.

  2. A free-jet Hg target operating in a high magnetic field intersecting a high-power proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Graves; Spampinato, Philip; Gabriel, Tony; Kirk, Harold; Simos, Nicholas; Tsang, Thomas; McDonald, Kirk; Peter Titus; Fabich, Adrian; Haseroth, Helmut; Lettry, Jacques

    2006-06-01

    A proof-of-principal experiment to investigate the interaction of a proton beam, high magnetic field, and high- Z target is planned to take place at CERN in early 2007. This experiment is part of the Muon Collider Collaboration, with participants from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Princeton University, Massachusetts Institute Of Technology, European Organization for Nuclear Research-CERN, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. An unconstrained mercury jet target system that interacts with a high power (1 MW) proton beam in a high magnetic field (15 T) is being designed. The Hg jet diameter is 1-cm with a velocity up to 20 m/s. A laser optical diagnostic system will be incorporated into the target design to permit observation of the dispersal of the jet resulting from interaction with a 24 GeV proton beam with up to 20×10 12 ppp. The target system includes instruments for sensing mercury vapor, temperature, flow rate, and sump tank level, and the means to position the jet relative to the magnetic axis of a solenoid and the proton beam. The design considerations for the system include all issues dealing with safely handling approximately 23 l of Hg, transporting the target system and the mercury to CERN, decommissioning the experiment, and returning the mildly activated equipment and Hg to the US.

  3. A free-jet Hg target operating in a high magnetic field intersecting a high-power proton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Van; Spampinato, Philip; Gabriel, Tony; Kirk, Harold; Simos, Nicholas; Tsang, Thomas; McDonald, Kirk; Peter Titus; Fabich, Adrian; Haseroth, Helmut; Lettry, Jacques

    2006-06-01

    A proof-of-principal experiment to investigate the interaction of a proton beam, high magnetic field, and high-Z target is planned to take place at CERN in early 2007. This experiment is part of the Muon Collider Collaboration, with participants from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Princeton University, Massachusetts Institute Of Technology, European Organization for Nuclear Research-CERN, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. An unconstrained mercury jet target system that interacts with a high power (1 MW) proton beam in a high magnetic field (15 T) is being designed. The Hg jet diameter is 1-cm with a velocity up to 20 m/s. A laser optical diagnostic system will be incorporated into the target design to permit observation of the dispersal of the jet resulting from interaction with a 24 GeV proton beam with up to 20×1012 ppp. The target system includes instruments for sensing mercury vapor, temperature, flow rate, and sump tank level, and the means to position the jet relative to the magnetic axis of a solenoid and the proton beam. The design considerations for the system include all issues dealing with safely handling approximately 23 l of Hg, transporting the target system and the mercury to CERN, decommissioning the experiment, and returning the mildly activated equipment and Hg to the US.

  4. Proton Temperature Anisotropy and Magnetic Reconnection in the Solar Wind: Effects of Kinetic Instabilities on Current Sheet Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteini, L.; Landi, S.; Velli, M.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    2013-02-01

    We investigate the role of kinetic instabilities driven by a proton anisotropy on the onset of magnetic reconnection by means of two-dimensional hybrid simulations. The collisionless tearing of a current sheet is studied in the presence of a proton temperature anisotropy in the surrounding plasma. Our results confirm that anisotropic protons within the current sheet region can significantly enhance/stabilize the tearing instability of the current. Moreover, fluctuations associated with linear instabilities excited by large proton temperature anisotropies can significantly influence the stability of the plasma and perturb the current sheets, triggering the tearing instability. We find that such a complex coupling leads to a faster tearing evolution in the T_\\perp >T_\\Vert regime when an ion-cyclotron instability is generated by the anisotropic proton distribution functions. On the contrary, in the presence of the opposite anisotropy, fire-hose fluctuations excited by the unstable background protons with T_\\Vert are not able to efficiently destabilize current sheets, which remain stable for a long time after fire-hose saturation. We discuss possible influences of this novel coupling on the solar wind and heliospheric plasma dynamics.

  5. PROTON TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY AND MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR WIND: EFFECTS OF KINETIC INSTABILITIES ON CURRENT SHEET STABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Matteini, L.; Landi, S.; Velli, M.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    2013-02-15

    We investigate the role of kinetic instabilities driven by a proton anisotropy on the onset of magnetic reconnection by means of two-dimensional hybrid simulations. The collisionless tearing of a current sheet is studied in the presence of a proton temperature anisotropy in the surrounding plasma. Our results confirm that anisotropic protons within the current sheet region can significantly enhance/stabilize the tearing instability of the current. Moreover, fluctuations associated with linear instabilities excited by large proton temperature anisotropies can significantly influence the stability of the plasma and perturb the current sheets, triggering the tearing instability. We find that such a complex coupling leads to a faster tearing evolution in the T{sub Up-Tack} > T{sub ||} regime when an ion-cyclotron instability is generated by the anisotropic proton distribution functions. On the contrary, in the presence of the opposite anisotropy, fire-hose fluctuations excited by the unstable background protons with T{sub ||} < T{sub Up-Tack} are not able to efficiently destabilize current sheets, which remain stable for a long time after fire-hose saturation. We discuss possible influences of this novel coupling on the solar wind and heliospheric plasma dynamics.

  6. Magnetic field nonuniformities and NMR of protons diffusing in a porous medium.

    PubMed

    Bergman, D J; Dunn, K J; LaTorraca, G A

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic field inhomogeneity can arise either because of an externally applied field gradient or because of spatial variations in magnetic susceptibility. The latter are most important when the solid matrix includes paramagnetic substances and when the uniform applied field, and, consequently, also the Larmor precession frequency are very large. Both types of field inhomogeneity add extra phase shifts to the precessing spins. These phase shifts vary with time and position in a complex and random fashion as a result of the diffusive motion of the spins. We have studied these effects by performing detailed calculations for the case of a fluid filled porous medium with a periodic microstructure. Special attention was devoted to the question of whether the statistical distribution of the phase shifts encountered in a Hahn spin echo experiment or in a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) spin-echo train can be approximated as a Gaussian. The mean square phase shift is measured in such experiments as an enhanced relaxation rate of the precessing transverse magnetization. We determine this mean square phase shift for periodic composites from the diffusion eigenstates, which were calculated using a previously developed Fourier expansion method. The enhanced relaxation rate depends on the echo spacing time tau in a way that can be correlated with important length scales of the porous microstructure. Those correlations can be extended also to disordered microstructures, like the ones that are found in natural rocks. We compare these theoretically predicted correlations with CPMG measurements performed on protons in laboratory samples of brine saturated sandstone. PMID:8970094

  7. The low energy magnetic spectrometer on Ulysses and ACE response to near relativistic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgado, Bruno; Filipe Maia, Dalmiro Jorge; Lanzerotti, Louis; Gonçalves, Patrícia; Patterson, J. Douglas

    2015-05-01

    Aims: We show that the Heliosphere Instrument for Spectra Composition and Anisotropy at Low Energies (HISCALE) on board the Ulysses spacecraft and the Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (EPAM) on board the Advance Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft can be used to measure properties for ion populations with kinetic energies in excess of 1 GeV. This previously unexplored source of information is valuable for understanding the origin of near relativistic ions of solar origin. Methods: We model the instrumental response from the low energy magnetic spectrometers from EPAM and HISCALE using a Monte Carlo approach implemented in the Geant4 toolkit to determine the response of different energy channels to energies up to 5 GeV. We compare model results with EPAM observations for 2012 May 17 ground level solar cosmic ray event, including directional fluxes. Results: For the 2012 May event, all the ion channels in EPAM show an onset more than one hour before ions with the highest nominal energy range (1.8 to 4.8 MeV) were expected to arrive. We show from Monte Carlo simulations that the timing at different channels, the ratio between counts at the different channels, and the directional fluxes within a given channel, are consistent with and can be explained by the arrival of particles with energies from 35 MeV to more than 1 GeV. Onset times for the EPAM penetrating protons are consistent with the rise seen in neutron monitor data, implying that EPAM and ground neutron monitors are seeing overlapping energy ranges and that both are consistent with GeV ions being released from the Sun at 10:38 UT.

  8. Detection of necrosis in human tumour xenografts by proton magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsen, I.; Kaalhus, O.; Lyng, H.; Rofstad, E. K.

    1995-01-01

    Tumours with necrotic regions have an inadequate blood supply and are expected to differ from well-vascularised tumours in response to treatment. The purpose of the present work was to investigate whether proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might be used to detect necrotic regions in tumours. MR images and histological sections from individual tumours of three different amelanotic human melanoma xenograft lines (BEX-t, HUX-t, SAX-t) were analysed in pairs. MRI was performed at 1.5 T using two spin-echo pulse sequences, one with a repetition time (TR) of 600 ms and echo times (TEs) of 20, 40, 60 and 80 ms and the other with a TR of 2000 ms and TEs of 20, 40, 60 and 80 ms. Spin-lattice relaxation time (T1), spin-spin relaxation time (T2) and proton density (N0) were calculated for each volume element corresponding to a pixel. Synthetic MR images, pure T1, T2 and N0 images and spin-echo images with chosen values for TR and TE were generated from these data. T1, T2 and N0 distributions of tumour subregions, corresponding to necrotic regions and regions of viable tissue as defined by histological criteria, were also generated. T1 and T2 were significantly shorter in the necrotic regions than in the regions of viable tissue in all tumours. These differences were sufficiently large to allow the generation of synthetic spin-echo images showing clear contrast between necrosis and viable tissue. Maximum contrast was achieved with TRs within the range 2800-4000 ms and TEs within the range 160-200 ms. Necrotic tissue could also be distinguished from viable tissue in pure T1 and T2 images. Consequently, the possibility exists that MRI might be used for detection of necrotic regions in tumours and hence for prediction of tumour treatment response. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7880724

  9. High order magnetic optics for high dynamic range proton radiography at a kinetic energy 800 MeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sjue, Sky K. L.; Morris, Christopher L.; Merrill, Frank Edward; Mariam, Fesseha Gebre; Saunders, Alexander

    2016-01-14

    Flash radiography with 800 MeV kinetic energy protons at Los Alamos National Laboratory is an important experimental tool for investigations of dynamic material behavior driven by high explosives or pulsed power. The extraction of quantitative information about density fields in a dynamic experiment from proton generated images requires a high fidelity model of the protonimaging process. It is shown that accurate calculations of the transmission through the magnetic lens system require terms beyond second order for protons far from the tune energy. The approach used integrates the correlated multiple Coulomb scattering distribution simultaneously over the collimator and the image plane.more » Furthermore, comparison with a series of static calibrationimages demonstrates the model’s accurate reproduction of both the transmission and blur over a wide range of tune energies in an inverse identity lens that consists of four quadrupole electromagnets.« less

  10. Status of intense permanent magnet proton source for China-accelerator driven sub-critical system Linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Ma, H. Y.; Yang, Y.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhao, H. Y.; He, Y.; Zhao, H. W.

    2016-02-01

    Two compact intense 2.45 GHz permanent magnet proton sources and their corresponding low energy beam transport (LEBT) system were developed successfully for China accelerator driven sub-critical system in 2014. Both the proton sources operate at 35 kV potential. The beams extracted from the ion source are transported by the LEBT, which is composed of two identical solenoids, to the 2.1 MeV Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to ensure the safety of the superconducting cavities during commissioning, an electrostatic-chopper has been designed and installed in the LEBT line that can chop the continuous wave beam into a pulsed one. The minimum width of the pulse is less than 10 μs and the fall/rise time of the chopper is about 20 ns. The performance of the proton source and the LEBT, such as beam current, beam profile, emittance and the impact to RFQ injection will be presented.

  11. Status of intense permanent magnet proton source for China-accelerator driven sub-critical system Linac.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q; Ma, H Y; Yang, Y; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhang, Z M; Zhao, H Y; He, Y; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    Two compact intense 2.45 GHz permanent magnet proton sources and their corresponding low energy beam transport (LEBT) system were developed successfully for China accelerator driven sub-critical system in 2014. Both the proton sources operate at 35 kV potential. The beams extracted from the ion source are transported by the LEBT, which is composed of two identical solenoids, to the 2.1 MeV Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to ensure the safety of the superconducting cavities during commissioning, an electrostatic-chopper has been designed and installed in the LEBT line that can chop the continuous wave beam into a pulsed one. The minimum width of the pulse is less than 10 μs and the fall/rise time of the chopper is about 20 ns. The performance of the proton source and the LEBT, such as beam current, beam profile, emittance and the impact to RFQ injection will be presented.

  12. A systematic review of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in sport-related concussion.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Andrew; Iverson, Grant L; Stanwell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Traditional structural neuroimaging techniques are normal in athletes who sustain sport-related concussions and are only considered to be clinically helpful in ruling out a more serious brain injury. There is a clinical need for more sophisticated, non-invasive imaging techniques capable of detecting changes in neurophysiology after injury. Concussion is associated with neurometabolic changes including neuronal depolarization, release of excitatory neurotransmitters, ionic shifts, changes in glucose metabolism, altered cerebral blood flow, and impaired axonal function. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS, or simply MRS) is capable of measuring brain biochemistry and has the potential to identify and quantify physiologic changes after concussion. The focus of the current review is to provide an overview of research findings using MRS in sport-related concussion. A systematic review of articles published in the English language, up to February 2013, was conducted. Articles were retrieved via the databases: PsychINFO, Medline, Embase, SportDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, and Informit using key terms: magnetic resonance spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, neurospectroscopy, spectroscopy, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, correlation spectroscopy, J-spectroscopy, exchange spectroscopy, nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy, NMR, MRS, COSY, EXSY, NOESY, 2D NMR, craniocerebral trauma, mild traumatic brain injury, mTBI, traumatic brain injury, brain concussion, concussion, brain damage, sport, athletic, and athlete. Observational, cohort, correlational, cross-sectional, and longitudinal studies were all included in the current review. The review identified 11 publications that met criteria for inclusion, comprised of data on 200 athletes and 116 controls. Nine of 11 studies reported a MRS abnormality consistent with an alteration in neurochemistry. The results support the use of MRS as a research tool for identifying

  13. Direct measurement of kilo-tesla level magnetic field generated with laser-driven capacitor-coil target by proton deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, K. F. F.; Bailly-Grandvaux, M.; Morace, A.; Sakata, S.; Matsuo, K.; Kojima, S.; Lee, S.; Vaisseau, X.; Arikawa, Y.; Yogo, A.; Kondo, K.; Zhang, Z.; Bellei, C.; Santos, J. J.; Fujioka, S.; Azechi, H.

    2016-02-01

    A kilo-tesla level, quasi-static magnetic field (B-field), which is generated with an intense laser-driven capacitor-coil target, was measured by proton deflectometry with a proper plasma shielding. Proton deflectometry is a direct and reliable method to diagnose strong, mm3-scale laser-produced B-field; however, this was not successful in the previous experiment. A target-normal-sheath-accelerated proton beam is deflected by Lorentz force in the laser-produced magnetic field with the resulting deflection pattern recorded on a radiochromic film stack. A 610 ± 30 T of B-field amplitude was inferred by comparing the experimental proton pattern with Monte-Carlo calculations. The amplitude and temporal evolutions of the laser-generated B-field were also measured by a differential magnetic probe, independently confirming the proton deflectometry measurement results.

  14. Neurodegenerative disease high-field imaging

    PubMed Central

    van der Grond, J.; van Buchem, M.A.; van Zijl, P.; Webb, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    High field magnetic resonance imaging is showing potential for imaging of neurodegenerative diseases. 7 T MRI is beginning to be used in a clinical research setting and the theoretical benefits, i.e. higher signal-to-noise, sensitivity to iron, improved MRA and increased spectral resolution in spectroscopy are being confirmed. Despite the limited number of studies to date, initial results in patients with multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease and Huntington’s disease show promising additional features in contrast that may assist in better diagnosis of these disorders. PMID:22548926

  15. Why baryons are Yang-Mills magnetic monopoles, validated by nuclear binding energies and proton and neutron masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yablon, Jay R.

    2013-10-01

    Evidence is summarized from four recent papers that baryons including protons and neutrons are magnetic monopoles of non-commuting Yang-Mills gauge theories: 1) Protons and neutrons are ``resonant cavities'' with binding energies determined strictly by the masses of the quarks they contain. This is proven true at parts-per million accuracy for each of the 2H, 3H,3He, 4He binding energies and the neutron minus proton mass difference. 2) Respectively, each free proton and neutron contains 7.64 MeV and 9.81 MeV of mass/energy used to confine its quarks. When these nucleons bind, some, never all, of this energy is released and the mass deficit goes into binding. The balance continues to confine quarks. 56Fe releases 99.8429% of this energy for binding, more than any other nuclide. 3) Once we consider the Fermi vev one also finds an entirely theoretical explanation of proton and neutron masses, which also connects within experimental errors to the CKM quark mixing angles. 4) A related GUT explains fermion generation replication based on generator loss during symmetry breaking, and answers Rabi's question ``who ordered this?'' 5) Nuclear physics is governed by combining Maxwell's two classical equations into one equation using non-commuting gauge fields in view of Dirac theory and Fermi-Dirac-Pauli Exclusion. 6) Atoms themselves are core magnetic charges (nucleons) paired with orbital electric charges (electrons and elusive neutrinos), with the periodic table itself revealing an electric/magnetic symmetry of Maxwell's equations often pondered but heretofore unrecognized for a century and a half.

  16. Ultra-High-Field MR Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Balchandani, P.; Naidich, T.P.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY At ultra-high magnetic fields, such as 7T, MR imaging can noninvasively visualize the brain in unprecedented detail and through enhanced contrast mechanisms. The increased SNR and enhanced contrast available at 7T enable higher resolution anatomic and vascular imaging. Greater spectral separation improves detection and characterization of metabolites in spectroscopic imaging. Enhanced blood oxygen level–dependent contrast affords higher resolution functional MR imaging. Ultra-high-field MR imaging also facilitates imaging of nonproton nuclei such as sodium and phosphorus. These improved imaging methods may be applied to detect subtle anatomic, functional, and metabolic abnormalities associated with a wide range of neurologic disorders, including epilepsy, brain tumors, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, and psychiatric conditions. At 7T, however, physical and hardware limitations cause conventional MR imaging pulse sequences to generate artifacts, requiring specialized pulse sequences and new hardware solutions to maximize the high-field gain in signal and contrast. Practical considerations for ultra-high-field MR imaging include cost, siting, and patient experience. PMID:25523591

  17. Measuring relative acetylcholine receptor agonist binding by selective proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Behling, R W; Yamane, T; Navon, G; Sammon, M J; Jelinski, L W

    1988-01-01

    A method is presented that uses selective proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements of nicotine in the presence of the acetylcholine receptor to obtain relative binding constants for acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, and muscarine. For receptors from Torpedo californica the results show that (a) the binding constants are in the order acetylcholine greater than nicotine greater than carbamylcholine greater than muscarine; (b) selective NMR measurements provide a rapid and direct method for monitoring both the specific and nonspecific binding of agonists to these receptors and to the lipid; (c) alpha-bungarotoxin can be used to distinguish between specific and nonspecific binding to the receptor; (d) the receptor--substrate interaction causes a large change in the selective relaxation time of the agonists even at concentrations 100x greater than that of the receptor. This last observation means that these measurements provide a rapid method to monitor drug binding when only small amounts of receptor are available. Furthermore, the binding strategies presented here may be useful for the NMR determination of the conformation of the ligand in its bound state. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:3395661

  18. Probing astrocyte metabolism in vivo: proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the injured and aging brain.

    PubMed

    Harris, Janna L; Choi, In-Young; Brooks, William M

    2015-01-01

    Following a brain injury, the mobilization of reactive astrocytes is part of a complex neuroinflammatory response that may have both harmful and beneficial effects. There is also evidence that astrocytes progressively accumulate in the normal aging brain, increasing in both number and size. These astrocyte changes in normal brain aging may, in the event of an injury, contribute to the exacerbated injury response and poorer outcomes observed in older traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors. Here we present our view that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), a neuroimaging approach that probes brain metabolism within a defined region of interest, is a promising technique that may provide insight into astrocyte metabolic changes in the injured and aging brain in vivo. Although (1)H-MRS does not specifically differentiate between cell types, it quantifies certain metabolites that are highly enriched in astrocytes (e.g., Myo-inositol, mlns), or that are involved in metabolic shuttling between astrocytes and neurons (e.g., glutamate and glutamine). Here we focus on metabolites detectable by (1)H-MRS that may serve as markers of astrocyte metabolic status. We review the physiological roles of these metabolites, discuss recent (1)H-MRS findings in the injured and aging brain, and describe how an astrocyte metabolite profile approach might be useful in clinical medicine and clinical trials. PMID:26578948

  19. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance of regenerating rat liver after partial hepatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    de Certaines, J.D.; Moulinoux, J.P.; Benoist, L.; Benard, A.; Rivet, P.

    1982-08-09

    Spin-lattice (T/sub 1/) and spin-spin (T/sub 2/) proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times were measured over a 48-hours period of experimental liver regeneration in Wistar rats, T/sub 2/ showed an early significant increase reaching a plateau 30% above baseline from the 10th hrs onwards. Laparotomized control animals showed no change in T/sub 2/ values. The increase in T/sub 1/ occurred at a later stage but was no different from that in laparotomized controls. T/sub 1/ reached a peak, 20% above baseline, around the 30th hr. The changes observed were far less marked than those previously described for cancer tissue, which showed about a 60% increase in T/sub 1/ fluctuations followed a circadian pattern, with a minimum at night's end and a maximum around mid-day. No circadian rhythm was seen for T/sub 2/. The observed T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ changes are discussed with respect to mitotic and metabolic events known to occur during regeneration of the liver.

  20. Absolute quantitative analysis for sorbic acid in processed foods using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Sato, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yoko

    2012-07-13

    An analytical method using solvent extraction and quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance (qHNMR) spectroscopy was applied and validated for the absolute quantification of sorbic acid (SA) in processed foods. The proposed method showed good linearity. The recoveries for samples spiked at the maximum usage level specified for food in Japan and at 0.13 g kg(-1) (beverage: 0.013 g kg(-1)) were larger than 80%, whereas those for samples spiked at 0.063 g kg(-1) (beverage: 0.0063 g kg(-1)) were between 56.9 and 83.5%. The limit of quantification was 0.063 g kg(-1) for foods (and 0.0063 g kg(-1) for beverages containing Lactobacillus species). Analysis of the SA content of commercial processed foods revealed quantities equal to or greater than those measured using conventional steam-distillation extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography quantification. The proposed method was rapid, simple, accurate, and precise, and provided International System of Units traceability without the need for authentic analyte standards. It could therefore be used as an alternative to the quantification of SA in processed foods using conventional method. PMID:22704472

  1. Characterization of urban aerosol using aerosol mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, M. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Griffin, R. J.; Dibb, J. E.; Anderson, C. H.; Lefer, B.; Rappenglück, B.

    2012-07-01

    Particulate matter was measured during August and September of 2006 in Houston as part of the Texas Air Quality Study II Radical and Aerosol Measurement Project. Aerosol size and composition were determined using an Aerodyne quadrupole aerosol mass spectrometer. Aerosol was dominated by sulfate (4.1 ± 2.6 μg m-3) and organic material (5.5 ± 4.0 μg m-3), with contributions of organic material from both primary (˜32%) and secondary (˜68%) sources. Secondary organic aerosol appears to be formed locally. In addition, 29 aerosol filter samples were analyzed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy to determine relative concentrations of organic functional groups. Houston aerosols are less oxidized than those observed elsewhere, with smaller relative contributions of carbon-oxygen double bonds. These particles do not fit 1H NMR source apportionment fingerprints for identification of secondary, marine, and biomass burning organic aerosol, suggesting that a new fingerprint for highly urbanized and industrially influenced locations be established.

  2. Absolute quantification of carnosine in human calf muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Mahir S.; Reyngoudt, Harmen; DeDeene, Yves; Sazak, Hakan S.; Fieremans, Els; Delputte, Steven; D'Asseler, Yves; Derave, Wim; Lemahieu, Ignace; Achten, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Carnosine has been shown to be present in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of a variety of animals and humans. Despite the various physiological functions assigned to this metabolite, its exact role remains unclear. It has been suggested that carnosine plays a role in buffering in the intracellular physiological pHi range in skeletal muscle as a result of accepting hydrogen ions released in the development of fatigue during intensive exercise. It is thus postulated that the concentration of carnosine is an indicator for the extent of the buffering capacity. However, the determination of the concentration of this metabolite has only been performed by means of muscle biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. In this paper, we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in order to perform absolute quantification of carnosine in vivo non-invasively. The method was verified by phantom experiments and in vivo measurements in the calf muscles of athletes and untrained volunteers. The measured mean concentrations in the soleus and the gastrocnemius muscles were found to be 2.81 ± 0.57/4.8 ± 1.59 mM (mean ± SD) for athletes and 2.58 ± 0.65/3.3 ± 0.32 mM for untrained volunteers, respectively. These values are in agreement with previously reported biopsy-based results. Our results suggest that 1H MRS can provide an alternative method for non-invasively determining carnosine concentration in human calf muscle in vivo.

  3. Diffusion tensor imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in brain tumor: Correlation between structure and metabolism☆

    PubMed Central

    Min, Zhigang; Niu, Chen; Rana, Netra; Ji, Huanmei; Zhang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging are non-invasive techniques used to detect metabolites and water diffusion in vivo. Previous studies have confirmed a positive correlation of individual fractional anisotropy values with N-acetylaspartate/creatine and N-acetylaspartate/choline ratios in tumors, edema, and normal white matter. This study divided the brain parenchyma into tumor, peritumoral edema, and normal-appearing white matter according to MRI data, and analyzed the correlation of metabolites with water molecular diffusion. Results demonstrated that in normal-appearing white matter, N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratios were positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values, negatively correlated with radial diffusivities, and positively correlated with maximum eigenvalues. Maximum eigenvalues and radial diffusivities in peritumoral edema showed a negative correlation with choline, N-acetylaspartate, and creatine. Radial diffusivities in tumor demonstrated a negative correlation with choline. These data suggest that the relationship between metabolism and structure is markedly changed from normal white matter to peritumoral edema and tumor. Neural metabolism in the peritumoral edema area decreased with expanding extracellular space. The normal relationship of neural function and microstructure disappeared in the tumor region. PMID:25206385

  4. Probing astrocyte metabolism in vivo: proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the injured and aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Janna L.; Choi, In-Young; Brooks, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Following a brain injury, the mobilization of reactive astrocytes is part of a complex neuroinflammatory response that may have both harmful and beneficial effects. There is also evidence that astrocytes progressively accumulate in the normal aging brain, increasing in both number and size. These astrocyte changes in normal brain aging may, in the event of an injury, contribute to the exacerbated injury response and poorer outcomes observed in older traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors. Here we present our view that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), a neuroimaging approach that probes brain metabolism within a defined region of interest, is a promising technique that may provide insight into astrocyte metabolic changes in the injured and aging brain in vivo. Although 1H-MRS does not specifically differentiate between cell types, it quantifies certain metabolites that are highly enriched in astrocytes (e.g., Myo-inositol, mlns), or that are involved in metabolic shuttling between astrocytes and neurons (e.g., glutamate and glutamine). Here we focus on metabolites detectable by 1H-MRS that may serve as markers of astrocyte metabolic status. We review the physiological roles of these metabolites, discuss recent 1H-MRS findings in the injured and aging brain, and describe how an astrocyte metabolite profile approach might be useful in clinical medicine and clinical trials. PMID:26578948

  5. Production polarization and magnetic moment of Ξ¯+ antihyperons produced by 800-GeV/c protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, P. M.; Longo, M. J.; Nguyen, A.; Luk, K. B.; James, C.; Rameika, R.; Duryea, J.; Guglielmo, G.; Heller, K.; Johns, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Teige, S.; Thomson, G. B.; Zou, Y.

    1990-10-01

    The polarization of Ξ¯ + hyperons produced by 800-GeV/c protons in the inclusive reaction p+Be-->Ξ¯ ++X has been measured. The average polarization of the Ξ¯ +, at a mean xF=0.39 and pt=0.76 GeV/c, is -0.097+/-0.012+/-0.009. The magnetic moment of the Ξ¯ + is 0.657+/-0.028+/-0.020 nuclear magneton.

  6. Gd(III) doping effect on magnetization and water proton relaxivities in ultra small iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eun Sook; Xu, Wenlong; Baek, Myung Ju; Park, Ja Young; Kim, Joo Hyun; Chang, Yongmin; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Gang Ho

    2013-07-01

    Two samples of ultra small Gd(III) doped iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared to investigate Gd(III) doping effect on longitudinal (r1) and transverse (r2) water proton relaxivities. Gd(III) doping mole percents were 0.2 and 0.4 for samples 1 and 2, respectively. Average particle diameters were 2.5 to 2.1 nm for samples 1 and 2, respectively. Reduced r1 and r2 values were observed in both samples. We attributed this to reduced magnetizations arising from opposing effect of Gd(III) to net magnetizations of Fe(III)/Fe(II) in oxide nanoparticles.

  7. Development of an all-permanent-magnet microwave ion source equipped with multicusp magnetic fields for high current proton beam production.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, M; Hara, S; Seki, T; Iga, T

    2008-02-01

    An all-permanent-magnet (APM) microwave hydrogen ion source was developed to reduce the size and to simplify structure of a conventional solenoid coil microwave ion source developed for reliability improvement of high current proton linac application systems. The difficulty in developing the APM source was sensitive dependence of the source performance on axial magnetic field in the microwave discharge chamber. It was difficult to produce high current proton beam stably without precise tuning of the magnetic field using solenoid coils. We lowered the sensitivity using multicusp magnetic fields for plasma confinement at the discharge chamber sidewall of the source. This enabled stable high current proton beam production with the APM microwave ion source with no tuning coil. The water cooling and the power supply for the coils are not necessary for the APM source, which leads to better reliability and system simplification. The outer diameter of the APM source was around 300 mm, which was 20% lower than the coil source. The APM source produced a maximum hydrogen ion beam current of 65 mA (high current density of 330 mA/cm(2), proton ratio of 87%, and beam energy of 30 keV) with a 5 mm diameter extraction aperture, pulse width of 400 micros, and 20 Hz repetition rate at 1.3 kW microwave power. This performance is almost the same as the best performances of the conventional coil sources. The extracted ion beams were focused with electrostatic five-grid lens to match beam to acceptance of radio-frequency quadrupole linacs. The maximum focused beam current through the orifice (5 mm radius) and the lens was 36 mA and the 90% focused beam half-width was 1-2 mm.

  8. Globally conditioned Granger causality in brain-brain and brain-heart interactions: a combined heart rate variability/ultra-high-field (7 T) functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Duggento, Andrea; Bianciardi, Marta; Passamonti, Luca; Wald, Lawrence L; Guerrisi, Maria; Barbieri, Riccardo; Toschi, Nicola

    2016-05-13

    The causal, directed interactions between brain regions at rest (brain-brain networks) and between resting-state brain activity and autonomic nervous system (ANS) outflow (brain-heart links) have not been completely elucidated. We collected 7 T resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data with simultaneous respiration and heartbeat recordings in nine healthy volunteers to investigate (i) the causal interactions between cortical and subcortical brain regions at rest and (ii) the causal interactions between resting-state brain activity and the ANS as quantified through a probabilistic, point-process-based heartbeat model which generates dynamical estimates for sympathetic and parasympathetic activity as well as sympathovagal balance. Given the high amount of information shared between brain-derived signals, we compared the results of traditional bivariate Granger causality (GC) with a globally conditioned approach which evaluated the additional influence of each brain region on the causal target while factoring out effects concomitantly mediated by other brain regions. The bivariate approach resulted in a large number of possibly spurious causal brain-brain links, while, using the globally conditioned approach, we demonstrated the existence of significant selective causal links between cortical/subcortical brain regions and sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation as well as sympathovagal balance. In particular, we demonstrated a causal role of the amygdala, hypothalamus, brainstem and, among others, medial, middle and superior frontal gyri, superior temporal pole, paracentral lobule and cerebellar regions in modulating the so-called central autonomic network (CAN). In summary, we show that, provided proper conditioning is employed to eliminate spurious causalities, ultra-high-field functional imaging coupled with physiological signal acquisition and GC analysis is able to quantify directed brain-brain and brain-heart interactions reflecting

  9. Complete Proton and Carbon Assignment of Triclosan via One- and Two- Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Students from an upper-division undergraduate spectroscopy class analyzed one- and two-dimensional 400 MHz NMR spectroscopic data from triclosan in CDCl3. Guided assignment of all proton and carbon signals was completed via 1D proton and carbon, nuclear Overhauser effect (nOe), distortionless enhanc...

  10. Individual variation in macronutrient regulation measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human plasma.

    PubMed

    Park, Youngja; Kim, Seoung Bum; Wang, Bing; Blanco, Roberto A; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Wu, Shaoxiong; Accardi, Carolyn J; Alexander, R Wayne; Ziegler, Thomas R; Jones, Dean P

    2009-07-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy of plasma provides a global metabolic profiling method that shows promise for clinical diagnostics. However, cross-sectional studies are complicated by a lack of understanding of intraindividual variation, and this limits experimental design and interpretation of data. The present study determined the diurnal variation detected by (1)H NMR spectroscopy of human plasma. Data reduction methods revealed three time-of-day metabolic patterns, which were associated with morning, afternoon, and night. Major discriminatory regions for these time-of-day patterns included the various kinds of lipid signals (-CH(2)- and -CH(2)OCOR), and the region between 3 and 4 ppm heavily overlapped with amino acids that had alpha-CH and alpha-CH(2). The phasing and duration of time-of-day patterns were variable among individuals, apparently because of individual difference in food processing/digestion and absorption and clearance of macronutrient energy sources (fat, protein, carbohydrate). The times of day that were most consistent among individuals, and therefore most useful for cross-sectional studies, were fasting morning (0830-0930), postprandial afternoon (1430-1630), and nighttime samples (0430-0530). Importantly, the integrated picture of metabolism provided by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy of plasma suggests that this approach is suitable to study complex regulatory processes, including eating patterns/eating disorders, upper gastrointestinal functions (gastric emptying, pancreatic, biliary functions), and absorption/clearance of macronutrients. Hence, (1)H-NMR spectroscopy of plasma could provide a global metabolic tolerance test to assess complex processes involved in disease, including eating disorders and the range of physiological processes causing dysregulation of energy homeostasis.

  11. BMI and Neuronal Integrity in Healthy, Cognitively Normal Elderly: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Gazdzinski, Stefan; Millin, Rachel; Kaiser, Lana G.; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Mueller, Susanne G.; Weiner, Michael W.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies associated excess body weight with brain structural alterations, poorer cognitive function, and lower prefrontal glucose metabolism. We found that higher BMI was related to lower concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA, a marker of neuronal integrity) in a healthy middle-aged cohort, especially in frontal lobe. Here, we evaluated whether NAA was also associated with BMI in a healthy elderly cohort. We used 4 Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) data from 23 healthy, cognitively normal elderly participants (69.4 ± 6.9 years; 12 females) and measured concentrations of NAA, glutamate (Glu, involved in cellular metabolism), choline-containing compounds (Cho, involved in membrane metabolism), and creatine (Cr, involved in high-energy metabolism) in anterior (ACC) and posterior cingulate cortices (PCC). After adjustment for age, greater BMI was related to lower NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios (β < −0.56, P < 0.008) and lower Glu/Cr and Glu/Cho ratios (β < −0.46, P < 0.02) in ACC. These associations were not significant in PCC (β > −0.36, P > 0.09). The existence of an association between NAA and BMI in ACC but not in PCC is consistent with our previous study in healthy middle-aged individuals and with reports of lower frontal glucose metabolism in young healthy individuals with elevated BMI. Taken together, these results provide evidence that elevated BMI is associated with neuronal abnormalities mostly in frontal brain regions that subserve higher cognitive functions and impulse control. Future studies need to evaluate whether these metabolite abnormalities are involved in the development and maintenance of weight problems. PMID:19816410

  12. Water management diagnostics of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, Zachary W.

    Water management presents a critical challenge to fuel cell technology. A major obstacle is the lack of in situ experimental data In this work, a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is used as a diagnostic tool to study water distribution in an operating fuel cell and discover unexpected water transport phenomena. For the first time, quantitative water distribution data is gathered for the flow fields of an operating Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Several critical discoveries are made. First, experimental data verifies that wavy-stratified flow is the dominate flow regime in the cathode flow channels. This is in contrast to the common literature assumption that assumes the slug flow regime A fuel cell design that assumes the wrong water flow regime can suffer significant issues. Consequences include reduction in the fuel cell's freeze resistance, degraded catalyst stability, and poor stack stability and performance. A second discovery is experimental evidence for the eruptive transport by hydraulic pressure mechanism for water transport through the diffusion layer. This is the first experimental validation of this transport theory from an operating fuel cell with realistic surface characteristics. By understanding the diffusion layer transport mechanisms, new diffusion layers can be designed to better control water management. A final finding is that surface defects in the flow field impact the water distribution pattern. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time the importance of flow field surface quality is considered, and its impact is found to be profound. In our system we find that defects act as 'sticking' points on the flow channel bottom, creating water waves that do not exhaust from the fuel cell. These stuck waves increase the pressure drop within the fuel cell, as well as reducing its freeze resistance, catalyst stability, and stack stability.

  13. Cell and membrane lipid analysis by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in five breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Le Moyec, L; Tatoud, R; Eugène, M; Gauvillé, C; Primot, I; Charlemagne, D; Calvo, F

    1992-10-01

    The lipid composition of five human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, ZR-75-1, SKBR3 and MDA-MB231) was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in whole cells and membrane-enriched fractions. The proportions of the three main lipid resonances in 1D spectra were different for each cell line. These resonances included mobile methyl and methylene functions from fatty acids of triglycerides and phospholipids and N-trimethyl from choline of phospholipids. T47D and ZR-75-1 cells presented a high methylene/methyl ratio (6.02 +/- 0.35 and 6.28 +/- 0.90). This ratio was significantly lower for SKBR3, MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells (2.76 +/- 0.22, 2.27 +/- 0.57 and 1.39 +/- 0.39). The N-trimethyl/methyl ratio was high for MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 cells (1.38 +/- 0.54 and 0.86 +/- 0.32), but lower for MCF-7, T47D and ZR-75-1 cells (0.49 +/- 0.11, 0.16 +/- 0.07 and 0.07 +/- 0.03). 2D COSY spectra confirmed these different proportions in mobile lipids. From 1D spectra obtained on membrane preparations, T47D and ZR-75-1 were the only cell lines to retain a signal from mobile methylene functions. These differences might be related to the heterogeneity found for several parameters of these cells (tumorigenicity, growth rate, hormone receptors); an extended number of cases from fresh samples might enable clinical correlations. PMID:1329906

  14. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy unambiguously identifies different neural cell types.

    PubMed

    Urenjak, J; Williams, S R; Gadian, D G; Noble, M

    1993-03-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy is a noninvasive technique that can provide information on a wide range of metabolites. Marked abnormalities of 1H NMR brain spectra have been reported in patients with neurological disorders, but their neurochemical implications may be difficult to appreciate because NMR data are obtained from heterogeneous tissue regions composed of several cell populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the 1H NMR profile of major neural cell types. This information may be helpful in understanding the metabolic abnormalities detected by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Extracts of cultured cerebellar granule neurons, cortical astrocytes, oligodendrocyte-type 2 astrocyte (O-2A) progenitor cells, oligodendrocytes, and meningeal cells were analyzed. The purity of the cultured cells was > 95% with all the cell lineages, except for neurons (approximately 90%). Although several constituents (creatine, choline-containing compounds, lactate, acetate, succinate, alanine, glutamate) were ubiquitously detectable with 1H NMR, each cell type had distinctive qualitative and/or quantitative features. Our most unexpected finding was a large amount of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in O-2A progenitors. This compound, consistently detected by 1H NMR in vivo, was previously thought to ne present only in neurons. The finding that meningeal cells have an alanine:creatine ratio three to four times higher than astrocytes, neurons, or oligodendrocytes is in agreement with observations that meningiomas express a higher alanine:creatine ratio than gliomas. The data suggest that each individual cell type has a characteristic metabolic pattern that can be discriminated by 1H NMR, even by looking at only a few metabolites (e.g., NAA, glycine, beta-hydroxybutyrate).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8441018

  15. Hydrogeological Parameter Estimation Using Low-Field Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Lessons from the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, K.; Falzone, S.; Osterman, G. K.; Wallace, D. S.

    2014-12-01

    Geophysical methods can provide a non-invasive method for estimating spatial variability in hydrogeological parameters such as water content, hydraulic conductivity, and matric potential. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is unique amongst geophysical methods in that it is directly sensitive to water, via the initial signal magnitude, and thus provides a robust estimate of water content. In addition, the NMR relaxation time is sensitive to pore geometry, allowing it to be used to predict the hydraulic conductivity and to determine water retention curves. While NMR measurements are considered a mature technology in the petroleum industry, the strength of NMR data for hydrogeophysical studies is still being realized. The major ongoing challenge is to generate a functional mapping of the relationship between pore geometry and relaxation time, while accounting for pore chemistry. In our research, we are developing and refining quantitative petrophysical models that relate NMR parameters to hydrogeological parameters. Here we present laboratory measurements that highlight our recent successes in using NMR measurements to estimate several hydrogeological parameters and overcome the limitations of the standard petrophysical models. We examine these relationships by collecting NMR measurements on synthetic and geologic materials with carefully controlled or quantified pore properties, i.e., pore surface-area-to-volume ratio (S/V), pore size and surface iron concentration, and relate these variables to hydrogeological parameters including water content, hydraulic conductivity, and/or the water retention curve. Our major results include developing a relationship between the NMR relaxation times and water saturation across diverse chemical environments, and showing that for materials with rough surfaces, S/V, and not average pore diameter, is the relevant parameter in the interpretation of NMR data. Despite the many challenges in interpreting the measurements, valuable

  16. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the motor cortex in cervical myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Izabela; Duggal, Neil; Bartha, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Alterations in motor function in cervical myelopathy secondary to degenerative disease may be due to local effects of spinal compression or distal effects related to cortical reorganization. This prospective study characterizes differences in metabolite levels in the motor cortex, specifically N-acetylaspartate, creatine, choline, myo-inositol and glutamate plus glutamine, due to alterations in cortical function in patients with reversible spinal cord compression compared with healthy controls. We hypothesized that N-acetylaspartate/creatine levels would be decreased in the motor cortex of patients with cervical myelopathy due to reduced neuronal integrity/function and myo-inositol/creatine levels would be increased due to reactive gliosis. Twenty-four patients with cervical myelopathy and 11 healthy controls underwent proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy on a 3.0 Tesla Siemens Magnetom Tim Trio MRI. Areas of activation from functional magnetic resonance imaging scans of a finger-tapping paradigm were used to localize a voxel on the side of greater motor deficit in the myelopathy group (n = 10 on right side and n = 14 on left side of the brain) and on each side of the motor cortex in controls. Neurological function was measured with the Neck Disability Index, modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association and American Spinal Injury Association questionnaires. Metabolite levels were measured relative to total creatine within the voxel of interest. No metabolite differences were detected between the right side and left side of the motor cortex in controls. The myelopathy group had significantly decreased neurological function compared with the control group (Neck Disability Index: P < 0.001 and modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association: P < 0.001). There was a significant decrease in the N-acetylaspartate/creatine metabolite ratio in the motor cortex of the myelopathy group (1.21 ± 0.07) compared with the right (1.37 ± 0.03; P = 0.01) and

  17. MO-G-18C-07: Improving T2 Determination and Quantification of Lipid Methylene Protons in Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 3 T

    SciTech Connect

    Breitkreutz, D.; Fallone, B. G.; Yahya, A.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To improve proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) transverse relaxation (T{sub 2}) determination and quantification of lipid methylene chain (1.3 ppm) protons by rewinding their J-coupling evolution. Methods: MRS experiments were performed on four lipid phantoms, namely, almond, corn, sunflower and oleic acid, using a 3 T Philips MRI scanner with a transmit/receive birdcage head coil. Two PRESS (Point RESolved Spectroscopy) pulse sequences were used. The first PRESS sequence employed standard bandwidth (BW) (∼550 Hz) RF (radiofrequency) refocussing pulses, while the second used refocussing pulses of narrow BW (∼50 Hz) designed to rewind J-coupling evolution of the methylene protons in the voxel of interest. Signal was acquired with each sequence from a 5×5×5 mm{sup 3} voxel, with a repetition time (TR) of 3000 ms, and with echo times (TE) of 100 to 200 ms in steps of 20 ms. 2048 sample points were measured with a 2000 Hz sampling bandwidth. Additionally, 30 mm outer volume suppression slabs were used to suppress signal outside the voxel of interest. The frequency of the RF pulses was set to that of the methylene resonance. Methylene peak areas were calculated and fitted in MATLAB to a monexponentially decaying function of the form M{sub 0}exp(-TE/T{sub 2}), where M{sub 0} is the extrapolated area when TE = 0 ms and yields a measure of concentration. Results: The determined values of M{sub 0} and T{sub 2} increased for all fatty acids when using the PRESS sequence with narrow BW refocussing pulses. M{sub 0} and T{sub 2} values increased by an average amount (over all the phantoms) of 31% and 14%, respectively. Conclusion: This investigation has demonstrated that J-coupling interactions of lipid methylene protons causes non-negligible signal losses which, if not accounted for, Result in underestimations of their levels and T{sub 2} values when performing MRS measurements. Funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada

  18. Commercial accelerators: Compact superconducting synchrocyclotrons with magnetic field up to 10 T for proton and carbon therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papash, A. I.; Karamysheva, G. A.; Onishchenko, L. M.

    2012-11-01

    Based on a brief review of accelerators widely used for proton-ion therapy and for curing patients over the last 20 years, the necessity and feasibility of creating compact superconducting synchrocyclotrons with a magnetic field value up to 10 T are outlined. The main component of modern commercial facilities for proton-ion therapy is an isochronous cyclotron with room-temperature or superconducting coils which accelerates protons to 250 MeV or a synchrophasotron with carbon-ion energy reaching 400 MeV/nucleon. Usually the ions are delivered from the accelerator to the medical-treatment room via transport lines, while irradiation is produced by means of a system that is comprised of pointing magnets, collimators, and energy degraders mounted on a rotating gantry. To greatly reduce the price of the facility (by an order of magnitude) and to facilitate the work of hospital personnel, the isocentric rotation of a compact superconducting synchrocyclotron around the patient is proposed. Estimates of the physical and technical parameters of the facility are given.

  19. Protons and electrons in Jupiter's magnetic field - Results from the University of Chicago experiment on Pioneer 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Hamilton, D.; Lentz, G.; Mckibben, R. B.; Mogro-Campero, A.; Perkins, M.; Pyle, K. R.; Tuzzolino, A. J.; O'Gallagher, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Fluxes of high energy electrons and protons are found to be highly concentrated near the magnetic equatorial plane from distances of about 30 to about 100 Jovian radii. The 10-hour period of planetary rotation is observed as an intensity variation, which indicates that the equatorial zone of high particle fluxes is inclined with respect to the rotation axis of the planet. At radial distances below 20 Jovian radii, the synchrotron-radiation-producing electrons with energies above 3 MeV rise steeply to a maximum intensity near the periapsis at 2.8 Jovian radii. The flux of protons with energies above 30 MeV reaches a maximum intensity at 3.5 Jovian radii, with the intensity decreasing inside this radial distance.

  20. Preparation of amyloid-like fibrils containing magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: Effect of protein aggregation on proton relaxivity

    SciTech Connect

    Viktor Andersson, B.; Skoglund, Caroline; Uvdal, Kajsa; Solin, Niclas

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation of amyloid materials labeled with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of amyloid materials by electron tomography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of protein aggregation on the magnetic nanoparticle properties. -- Abstract: A method to prepare amyloid-like fibrils functionalized with magnetic nanoparticles has been developed. The amyloid-like fibrils are prepared in a two step procedure, where insulin and magnetic nanoparticles are mixed simply by grinding in the solid state, resulting in a water soluble hybrid material. When the hybrid material is heated in aqueous acid, the insulin/nanoparticle hybrid material self assembles to form amyloid-like fibrils incorporating the magnetic nanoparticles. This results in magnetically labeled amyloid-like fibrils which has been characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and electron tomography. The influence of the aggregation process on proton relaxivity is investigated. The prepared materials have potential uses in a range of bio-imaging applications.

  1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Applications: Proton NMR In Biological Objects Subjected To Magic Angle Spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2005-01-01

    Proton NMR in Biological Objects Submitted to Magic Angle Spinning, In Encyclopedia of Analytical Science, Second Edition (Paul J. Worsfold, Alan Townshend and Colin F. Poole, eds.), Elsevier, Oxford 6:333-342. Published January 1, 2005. Proposal Number 10896.

  2. High resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human brain and liver

    SciTech Connect

    Barany, M.; Spigos, D.G.; Mok, E.; Venkatasubramanian, P.N.; Wilbur, A.C.; Langer, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    Water-suppressed and slice-selective proton spectra of live human brain exhibited several resonances that were tentatively assigned to metabolites such as N-acetylaspartate, glutamate, phosphocreatine and creatine, choline derivatives, and taurine. In the liver spectrum of a healthy volunteer, the major resonance was tentatively assigned to a fatty acyl methylene and the minor resonances to protons in carnitine, taurine, glutamate, and glutamine. In the spectrum of a cancerous liver, resonances in addition to those present in the normal liver were seen. Protein degradation in the liver with cancer was indicated by resonances from urea and from the ring protons in tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine. Furthermore, increased nucleic acid synthesis was indicated by resonances from nucleotide protons.

  3. Pion production via proton synchrotron radiation in strong magnetic fields in relativistic field theory: Scaling relations and angular distributions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Mathews, Grant J.

    2016-03-26

    We study pion production by proton synchrotron radiation in the presence of a strong magnetic field when the Landau numbers of the initial and final protons are n(i, f) similar to 10(4)-10(5). We find in our relativistic field theory calculations that the pion decay width depends only on the field strength parameter which previously was only conjectured based upon semi-classical arguments. Moreover, we also find new results that the decay width satisfies a robust scaling relation, and that the polar angular distribution of emitted pion momenta is very narrow and can be easily obtained. This scaling implies that one canmore » infer the decay width in more realistic magnetic fields of 10(15) G, where n(i, f) similar to 10(12)-10(13), from the results for n(i, f) similar to 10(4)-10(5). The resultant pion intensity and angular distributions for realistic magnetic field strengths are presented and their physical implications discussed. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). Funded by SCOAP(3).« less

  4. Proton interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Christopher L

    2008-01-01

    Energetic proton beams may provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because: they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and proton beams can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections for delayed neutrons and gamma-rays using the 800 MeV proton beam from the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Results will be presented.

  5. The Pioneer XI high field fluxgate magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. A.; Ness, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    The high field fluxgate magnetometer experiment flown aboard the Pioneer XI spacecraft is described. This extremely simple instrument was used to extend the spacecraft's upper-limit measurement capability by approximately an order of magnitude (from 0.14 mT to 1.00 mT) with minimum power and volume requirements. This magnetometer was designed to complement the low-field measurements provided by a helium vector magnetometer and utilizes magnetic ring core sensors with biaxial orthogonal sense coils. The instrument is a single-range, triaxial-fluxgate magnetometer capable of measuring fields of up to 1 mT along each orthogonal axis, with a maximum resolution of 1 microT.

  6. Superferric microundulator with high field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadichev, V. A.; Vysotsky, V. S.; Tsikhon, V. N.; Eremichev, V. T.

    1993-07-01

    A model of a plane superferric undulator with a period of 8 mm was made and tested. Its length is 100 mm, its width is 50 mm, and 4 and 2.5 mm air gaps between upper and lower poles were used for magnetic measurements. The gap can be changed by inserting spacers of the necessary thickness. The magnetic structure is made of magnetically soft low carbon iron (Armco). The slots for winding were machine cut. The windings are made of 40 turns of Nb 3Sn superconductor or 10 turns of NbTi for the 4 and 2.5 mm gaps, respectively. The maximum current in the first series of experiments was 70 A and in the second series it was 450 A. Poles of three types were tried. The maximum magnetic field amplitude of 7.7 kG was measured with the poles in the form of a trapezoid. This field corresponds to an undulator deflection parameter K = 0.57. Results of magnetic measurements are presented.

  7. Longitudinal quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Ruth M; Bradley, Kevin M; Budge, Marc M; Styles, Peter; Smith, A David

    2002-10-01

    Changes in metabolites detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) of the brain have been demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease. Our objectives were, first, longitudinally to measure absolute concentrations of metabolites in both hippocampi, the sites of early Alzheimer's disease, in patients with clinical Alzheimer's disease and controls; secondly, to separate the relative contribution of atrophy and metabolite concentration change to overall signal change; and, thirdly, to determine whether metabolite concentrations in the hippocampus relate to cognitive scores. (1)H MR spectra were acquired from a single voxel (12 x 15 x 25 mm(3) = 4.5 ml) aligned to the long axis of each hippocampus in nine probable or possible Alzheimer's disease subjects diagnosed according to the National Institute of Neurologic and Cognitive Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS) compared with 14 age-matched NINCDS-negative Alzheimer's disease controls. Metabolite concentrations were corrected for the amount of CSF present in the voxel. Hippocampal volumes were measured at the same time. The same protocol was repeated approximately 1 year later. We found that atrophy-corrected hippocampal N-acetylaspartate (NAA) concentration was lower in cognitively impaired subjects compared with controls. This was significant for the left hippocampus (baseline 87% of control, P = 0.013; and at 1 year 76% of control, P = 0.020). Hippocampal volumes also differed significantly between the groups, and decreased significantly over 1 year in the Alzheimer's disease group (12%, P = 0.017). The decrease in [NAA] over 1 year was not significant in either group. Discriminant analysis revealed that the best classification of subjects was by including both left NAA concentration and left hippocampal volume. myo-Inositol signals from these small voxels had poor signal-to-noise and demonstrated no significant changes. We conclude that (1)HMRS-detectable metabolites can be quantified from the hippocampi of

  8. Monitoring of organic contaminants in sediments using low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Rupert, Yuri

    2016-04-01

    The effective monitoring of soils and groundwater contaminated with organic compounds is an important goal of many environmental restoration efforts. Recent geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity, complex conductivity, and ground penetrating radar have been successfully applied to characterize organic contaminants in the subsurface and to monitor remediation process both in laboratory and in field. Low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a geophysical tool sensitive to the molecular-scale physical and chemical environment of hydrogen-bearing fluids in geological materials and shows promise as a novel method for monitoring contaminant remediation. This laboratory research focuses on measurements on synthetic samples to determine the sensitivity of NMR to the presence of organic contaminants and improve understanding of relationships between NMR observables, hydrological properties of the sediments, and amount and state of contaminants in porous media. Toluene, a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) has been selected as a representative organic contaminant. Three types of porous media (pure silica sands, montmorillonite clay, and various sand-clay mixtures with different sand/clay ratios) were prepared as synthetic sediments. NMR relaxation time (T2) and diffusion-relaxation (D ‑ T2) correlation measurements were performed in each sediment saturated with water and toluene mixed fluid at assorted concentrations (0% toluene and 100% water, 1% toluene and 99% water, 5% toluene and 95% water, 25% toluene and 75% water, and 100% toluene and 0% water) to 1) understand the effect of different porous media on the NMR responses in each fluid mixture, 2) investigate the role of clay content on T2 relaxation of each fluid, 3) quantify the amount hydrocarbons in the presence of water in each sediment, and 4) resolve hydrocarbons from water in D ‑ T2 map. Relationships between the compositions of porous media, hydrocarbon concentration, and

  9. Monitoring of organic contaminants in sediments using low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Rupert, Yuri

    2016-04-01

    The effective monitoring of soils and groundwater contaminated with organic compounds is an important goal of many environmental restoration efforts. Recent geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity, complex conductivity, and ground penetrating radar have been successfully applied to characterize organic contaminants in the subsurface and to monitor remediation process both in laboratory and in field. Low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a geophysical tool sensitive to the molecular-scale physical and chemical environment of hydrogen-bearing fluids in geological materials and shows promise as a novel method for monitoring contaminant remediation. This laboratory research focuses on measurements on synthetic samples to determine the sensitivity of NMR to the presence of organic contaminants and improve understanding of relationships between NMR observables, hydrological properties of the sediments, and amount and state of contaminants in porous media. Toluene, a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) has been selected as a representative organic contaminant. Three types of porous media (pure silica sands, montmorillonite clay, and various sand-clay mixtures with different sand/clay ratios) were prepared as synthetic sediments. NMR relaxation time (T2) and diffusion-relaxation (D - T2) correlation measurements were performed in each sediment saturated with water and toluene mixed fluid at assorted concentrations (0% toluene and 100% water, 1% toluene and 99% water, 5% toluene and 95% water, 25% toluene and 75% water, and 100% toluene and 0% water) to 1) understand the effect of different porous media on the NMR responses in each fluid mixture, 2) investigate the role of clay content on T2 relaxation of each fluid, 3) quantify the amount hydrocarbons in the presence of water in each sediment, and 4) resolve hydrocarbons from water in D - T2 map. Relationships between the compositions of porous media, hydrocarbon concentration, and hydraulic

  10. Safety aspects of chronic low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation based on localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and histology of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Liebetanz, David; Fauser, Susanne; Michaelis, Thomas; Czéh, Boldizsár; Watanabe, Takashi; Paulus, Walter; Frahm, Jens; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2003-01-01

    Because repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is capable of inducing lasting alterations of cortical excitability, it represents a promising therapeutic tool in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, rTMS, especially when applied chronically, may cause harmful effects in the stimulated tissue. To study the safety of chronic rTMS we used a novel small stimulation coil, which was specially designed to treat rats, and investigated brain tissue using in vivo localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and post mortem histological analysis. Histology was based on a modified stereology method in combination with immunohistochemistry applying antibodies against OX-6, OX-42, ED, and GFAP to detect any microglial and/or astrocytic activation 48 h after the last TMS session. Conscious rats were treated with a daily suprathreshold rTMS regimen of 1000 stimuli applied on 5 consecutive days at a frequency of 1 Hz. In comparison with control animals receiving magnetic stimulation over the lumbar spine, quantitative evaluations of cerebral metabolite concentrations by proton MRS revealed no significant alterations of N-acetyl-aspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine, choline-containing compounds, myo-inositol, glucose and lactate after chronic rTMS. Similarly to the in vivo results, post mortem histology revealed no changes in microglial and astrocytic activation after rTMS. In conclusion, these data provide support for the safety of chronic rTMS. However, they do not exclude acute changes on neurotransmitters systems or other physiologic responses during or directly after the rTMS treatment. PMID:12765850

  11. Envelope model for passive magnetic focusing of an intense proton or ion beam propagating through thin foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Steven M.; Cohen, Ronald H.; Ni, Pavel A.

    2013-04-01

    Ion beams (including protons) with low emittance and high space-charge intensity can be propagated with normal incidence through a sequence of thin metallic foils separated by vacuum gaps of order the characteristic transverse beam extent to transport/collimate the beam or to focus it to a small transverse spot. Energetic ions have sufficient range to pass through a significant number of thin foils with little energy loss or scattering. The foils reduce the (defocusing) radial electric self-field of the beam while not altering the (focusing) azimuthal magnetic self-field of the beam, thereby allowing passive self-beam focusing if the magnetic field is sufficiently strong relative to the residual electric field. Here we present an envelope model developed to predict the strength of this passive (beam generated) focusing effect under a number of simplifying assumptions including relatively long pulse duration. The envelope model provides a simple criterion for the necessary foil spacing for net focusing and clearly illustrates system focusing properties for either beam collimation (such as injecting a laser-produced proton beam into an accelerator) or for magnetic pinch focusing to a small transverse spot (for beam driven heating of materials). An illustrative example is worked for an idealization of a recently performed laser-produced proton-beam experiment to provide guidance on possible beam focusing and collimation systems. It is found that foils spaced on the order of the characteristic transverse beam size desired can be employed and that envelope divergence of the initial beam entering the foil lens must be suppressed to limit the total number of foils required to practical values for pinch focusing. Relatively modest proton-beam current at 10 MeV kinetic energy can clearly demonstrate strong magnetic pinch focusing achieving a transverse rms extent similar to the foil spacing (20-50μm gaps) in beam propagation distances of tens of mm. This is a surprisingly

  12. Superconductivity in MgB2 irradiated with energetic protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandu, Viorel; Craciun, Liviu; Ionescu, Alina Marinela; Aldica, Gheorghe; Miu, Lucica; Kuncser, Andrei

    2016-09-01

    A series of MgB2 samples were irradiated with protons of 11.3 and 13.2 MeV. Magnetization data shows an insignificant reduction of the critical temperatures but a continuous decrease of the Meissner fraction with increasing fluence or energy. All samples show a consistent improvement of the critical current density compared to the virgin sample and an increase of the pinning energy at high fields as resulted from relaxation data.

  13. Status of intense permanent magnet proton source for China-accelerator driven sub-critical system Linac.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q; Ma, H Y; Yang, Y; Sun, L T; Zhang, X Z; Zhang, Z M; Zhao, H Y; He, Y; Zhao, H W

    2016-02-01

    Two compact intense 2.45 GHz permanent magnet proton sources and their corresponding low energy beam transport (LEBT) system were developed successfully for China accelerator driven sub-critical system in 2014. Both the proton sources operate at 35 kV potential. The beams extracted from the ion source are transported by the LEBT, which is composed of two identical solenoids, to the 2.1 MeV Radio-Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to ensure the safety of the superconducting cavities during commissioning, an electrostatic-chopper has been designed and installed in the LEBT line that can chop the continuous wave beam into a pulsed one. The minimum width of the pulse is less than 10 μs and the fall/rise time of the chopper is about 20 ns. The performance of the proton source and the LEBT, such as beam current, beam profile, emittance and the impact to RFQ injection will be presented. PMID:26932075

  14. The protons and electrons trapped in the Jovian dipole magnetic field region and their interaction with Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Hamilton, D. C.; Mckibben, R. B.; Mogro-Campero, A.; Pyle, K. R.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Detailed analysis of electrons equal to or greater than 3 MeV and of protons 0.5 to 1.8 MeV and equal to or greater than 35 MeV for both the inbound and the outbound passes of the Pioneer 10 spacecraft. Conclusive evidence is obtained that the trapped radiation in Jupiter's inner magnetosphere is maintained and supplied by inward diffusion from the outer regions of the trapped radiation zone. It is shown that the time required for isotropization of an anisotropic flux by pitch angle scattering inside L approximately equal to 6 is long in comparison with the time required for particles to diffuse inward from L approximately equal to 6 to L approximately equal to 3, that the high-energy protons were not injected at high energies by the Crand (cosmic ray albedo neutron decay) process but were accelerated in the magnetosphere of Jupiter, and that the main conclusions of this analysis are unaffected by use of either the D sub 1 or the D sub 2 magnetic field models. Theoretical studies of the capture of trapped electrons and protons by Io have been carried out, and it is found that the probability of capture by Io depends strongly upon the particle species and kinetic energy.

  15. Quantification of N-Acetyl Aspartyl Glutamate in Human Brain using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 7 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elywa, M.

    2015-07-01

    The separation of N-acetyl aspartyl glutamate (NAAG) from N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and other metabolites, such as glutamate, by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 T is described. This method is based on the stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM), with short and long echo time (TE) and allows quantitative measurements of NAAG in the parietal and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) of human brain. Two basesets for the LCModel have been established using nuclear magnetic resonance simulator software (NMR-SIM). Six healthy volunteers (age 25-35 years) have been examined at 7 T. It has been established that NAAG can be separated and quantified in the parietal location and does not get quantified in the pgACC location when using a short echo time, TE = 20 ms. On the other hand, by using a long echo time, TE = 74 ms, NAAG can be quantified in pgACC structures.

  16. Resolution of Fundic Gland Polyposis following Laparoscopic Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation and Subsequent Cessation of Proton Pump Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Brockmeyer, Joel R.; Connolly, Erin E.; Wittchow, Richard J.; Kothari, Shanu N.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric polyps occur from a variety of sources and are found commonly on upper endoscopy. We present the case of a 49-year-old female who presented for evaluation for antireflux surgery with a history of fundic gland polyposis who required twice-daily proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for control of her gastric reflux. After verifying that she met criteria for surgery, she underwent an uncomplicated laparoscopic magnetic sphincter augmentation placement. With the cessation of PPIs following surgery, the fundic gland polyposis resolved. Fundic gland polyps may occur sporadically or within certain syndromes, such as familial adenomatous polyposis. Multiple possible inciting factors exist, including the use of PPIs. This is the first reported case of the resolution of numerous fundic gland polyps following the completion of laparoscopic magnetic sphincter augmentation. PMID:26600954

  17. The Mechanical Design Optimization of a High Field HTS Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Lalitha, SL; Gupta, RC

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes the conceptual design optimization of a large aperture, high field (24 T at 4 K) solenoid for a 1.7 MJ superconducting magnetic energy storage device. The magnet is designed to be built entirely of second generation (2G) high temperature superconductor tape with excellent electrical and mechanical properties at the cryogenic temperatures. The critical parameters that govern the magnet performance are examined in detail through a multiphysics approach using ANSYS software. The analysis results formed the basis for the performance specification as well as the construction of the magnet.

  18. Early Response of Hepatic Malignancies to Locoregional Therapy—Value of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bonekamp, Susanne; Shen, Jialin; Salibi, Nouha; Lai, Hong C.; Geschwind, Jeff; Kamel, Ihab R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objective of our study was to determine the usefulness of the diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of hepatic malignancies for the assessment of response to locoregional treatment. Methods Forty-four patients (29 men; mean age, 58 years) with hepatic malignancies were treated locally. Magnetic resonance imaging examinations obtained before and at 1 and 6 months after transarterial chemoembolization were analyzed retrospectively. Imaging criteria included change in tumor size, percentage of enhancement in the arterial and portal venous phases, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging apparent diffusion coefficients, and choline concentration by quantitative 1H-MRS. Response to treatment was grouped according to RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria based on magnetic resonance imaging at 6 months after treatment. Statistical analysis used paired t test, Fisher exact test, and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results Before treatment, the median tumor diameter was 6 cm; at 6 months after treatment, median tumor diameter was 5.1 cm. According to RECIST and EASL, 66% of the patients achieved partial response, 31% had stable disease, and 3% of the patients showed progressive disease. One month after transarterial chemoembolization, apparent diffusion coefficient increased (P < 0.14), and mean choline concentration of the tumors decreased (P < 0.008). Conclusions Diffusion-weighted imaging and hepatic choline levels by 1H-MRS could predict response to locoregional therapy. PMID:21412085

  19. Characterization of heteronuclear decoupling through proton spin dynamics in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paëpe, Gaël; Eléna, Bénédicte; Emsley, Lyndon

    2004-08-01

    The work presented here aims at understanding the performance of phase modulated heteronuclear decoupling sequences such as Cosine Modulation or Two Pulse Phase Modulation. To that end we provide an analytical description of the intrinsic behavior of Cosine Modulation decoupling with respect to radio-frequency-inhomogeneity and the proton-proton dipolar coupling network. We discover through a Modulation Frame average Hamiltonian analysis that best decoupling is obtained under conditions where the heteronuclear interactions are removed but notably where homonuclear couplings are recoupled at a homonuclear Rotary Resonance (HORROR) condition in the Modulation Frame. These conclusions are supported by extensive experimental investigations, and notably through the introduction of proton nutation experiments to characterize spin dynamics in solids under decoupling conditions. The theoretical framework presented in this paper allows the prediction of the optimum parameters for a given set of experimental conditions.

  20. Investigation of Magnetic Field Geometry in Exploding Wire Z-Pinches via Proton Deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariscal, Derek; Beg, Farhat; Wei, Mingsheng; Chittenden, Jeremy; Presura, Radu

    2012-10-01

    It is often difficult to determine the configuration of B-fields within z-pinch plasma systems. Typical laser probing diagnostics are limited by the critical density, and electrical diagnostics are prone to failure as well as perturbation of the system. The use of proton beams launched by high intensity lasers, and the subsequent tracking of their deflected trajectories, will enable access to field measurements in previously inaccessible plasma densities.The experimental testing of this method is performed at the Nevada Test Facility (NTF) using the 10J 0.3ps Leopard laser coupled to the 1.6MA ZEBRA pulsed power generator. MHD simulations of the z-pinch plasmas are performed with the 3D resistive MHD code, GORGON. Protons are then injected and tracked through the plasma using the 3D PIC Large Scale Plasma code in order to produce possible proton image plane data. The first computational demonstration of protons propagating through single wire and x-pinch plasmas, along with comparison to recent experimental data will be presented.

  1. High field superconductor development and understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Larbalestier, David C.; Lee, Peter J.; Tarantini, Chiara

    2014-09-28

    All present circular accelerators use superconducting magnets to bend and to focus the particle beams. The most powerful of these machines is the large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN. The main ring dipole magnets of the LHC are made from Nb-Ti but, as the machine is upgraded to higher luminosity, more powerful magnets made of Nb3Sn will be required. Our work addresses how to make the Nb3Sn conductors more effective and more suitable for use in the LHC. The most important property of the superconducting conductor used for an accelerator magnet is that it must have very high critical current density, the property that allows the generation of high magnetic fields in small spaces. Nb3Sn is the original high field superconductor, the material which was discovered in 1960 to allow a high current density in the field of about 9 T. For the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC, much higher current densities in fields of about 12 Tesla will be required. The critical value of the current density is of order 2600 A/mm2 in a field of 12 Tesla. But there are very important secondary factors that complicate the attainment of this critical current density. The first is that the effective filament diameter must be no larger than about 40 µm. The second factor is that 50% of the cross-section of the Nb3Sn conductor that is pure copper must be protected from any poisoning by any Sn leakage through the diffusion barrier that protects the package of niobium and tin from which the Nb3Sn is formed by a high temperature reaction. These three, somewhat conflicting requirements, mean that optimization of the conductor is complex. The work described in this contract report addresses these conflicting requirements. They show that very sophisticated characterizations can uncover the way to satisfy all 3 requirements and they also suggest that the ultimate optimization of Nb3Sn is still not yet in sight

  2. Varied magnetic field, multiple-pulse, and magic-angle spinning proton nuclear magnetic resonance study of muscle water

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, B.M.; Ryan, L.M.; Gerstein, B.C.

    1980-02-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance linewidth of /sup 1/H in water of frog muscle was studied as a function of magnetic field strength and angle of orientation. The results suggest that the observed spectra are dominated by demagnetization field anisotropy and dispersion, but a small static dipolar interaction of the order of a few hertz may be present. Data from line-narrowing, multiple-pulse experiments also indicate the presence of a small dipolar broadening.

  3. Study of anisotropy in nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times of water protons in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Kasturi, S R; Chang, D C; Hazlewood, C F

    1980-01-01

    The anisotropy of the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) and the spin-spin relaxation times (T2) of water protons in skeletal muscle tissue have been studied by the spin-echo technique. Both T1 and T2 have been measured for the water protons of the tibialis anterior muscle of mature male rats for theta = 0, 55, and 90 degrees, where theta is the orientation of the muscle fiber with respect to the static field. The anisotropy in T1 and T2 has been measured at temperatures of 28, -5 and -10 degrees C. No significant anisotropy was observed in the T1 of the tissue water, while an average anisotropy of approximately 5% was observed in T2 at room temperature. The average anisotropy of T2 at -5 and -10 degrees C was found to be approximately 2 and 1.3%, respectively. PMID:6266530

  4. Continuous monitoring of the zinc-phosphate acid-base cement setting reaction by proton nuclear magnetic relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apih, T.; Lebar, A.; Pawlig, O.; Trettin, R.

    2001-06-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic relaxation is a well-established technique for continuous and non destructive monitoring of hydration of conventional Portland building cements. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) monitoring of the setting reaction of zinc-phosphate acid-base dental cements, which harden in minutes as compared to days, as in the case of Portland cements. We compare the setting of cement powder (mainly, zinc oxide) prepared with clinically used aluminum-modified orthophosphoric acid solution with the setting of a model system where cement powder is mixed with pure orthophosphoric acid solution. In contrast to previously published NMR studies of setting Portland cements, where a decrease of spin-lattice relaxation time is attributed to enhanced relaxation at the growing internal surface, spin-lattice relaxation time T1 increases during the set of clinically used zinc-phosphate cement. Comparison of these results with a detailed study of diffusion, viscosity, and magnetic-field dispersion of T1 in pure and aluminum-modified orthophosphoric acid demonstrates that the increase of T1 in the setting cement is connected with the increase of molecular mobility in the residual phosphoric acid solution. Although not taken into account so far, such effects may also significantly influence the relaxation times in setting Portland cements, particularly when admixtures with an effect on water viscosity are used.

  5. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver metabolites in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats: T2 relaxation times in methylene protons.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyu-Ho; Baek, Hyeon-Man; Lee, Do-Wan; Choe, Bo-Young

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the transverse relaxation time of methylene resonance as compared to other lipid resonances. The examinations were performed using a 3.0 T scanner with a point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence. Lipid relaxation time in a lipid phantom filled with canola oil was estimated with a repetition time (TR) of 6000ms and echo time (TE) of 40-550ms. For in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were given free access to a normal-chow (NC) and another eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were given free access to a high-fat (HF) diet. Both groups drank water ad libitum. T2 measurements in the rats' livers were conducted at a fixed TR of 6000ms and TE of 40-220ms. Exponential curve fitting quality was calculated through the coefficients of determination (R(2)). Chemical analyses of the phantom and livers were not performed, but T2 decay curves were acquired. The T2 relaxation time of methylene resonance was estimated as follows: NC rats, 37.1±4.3ms; HF rats, 31.4±1.8ms (p<0.05). The extrapolated M0 values were higher in HF rats than in NC rats (p<0.005). This study of (1)H MRS led to sufficient spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio differences to characterize the T2 relaxation times of methylene resonance. (1)H MRS relaxation times may be useful for quantitative characterization of various liver diseases, including fatty liver disease.

  6. Comparative proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of amantadine complexes formed in aqueous solutions with three major cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Lis-Cieplak, Agnieszka; Sitkowski, Jerzy; Kolodziejski, Waclaw

    2014-01-01

    Host-guest complexes of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins (α-CD, β-CD, and γ-CD, respectively) with amantadine (1-aminoadamantane, AMA; an antiviral agent) were characterized in aqueous solutions using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Host-guest molecular interactions were manifested by changes in the chemical shifts of AMA protons. NMR Job's plots showed that the stoichiometry of all the studied complexes was 1:1. Two-dimensional T-ROESY experiments demonstrated that the complexes were formed by different degrees of incorporation of the adamantyl group of AMA into the CD cavity. The mode of AMA binding was proposed. The AMA molecule came into the α-CD cavity (the smallest size) or β-CD cavity (the intermediate size) through its wide entrance to become shallowly or deeply accommodated, respectively. In the complex of AMA with γ-CD (the largest cavity size), the adamantyl group was also quite deeply inserted into the CD cavity, but it arrived there through the narrow cavity entrance. It was found that the adamantyl group of AMA was best accommodated by the β-CD cavity. The binding constants Kaa of the studied complexes (in M(-1) ), determined from DOSY NMR, were fairly high; their values in an ascending order were: α-CD (183) < γ-CD (306) ≪ β-CD (5150).

  7. Pinning influence on high-field reversible magnetization in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Puzniak, R.; Ricketts, J.; Schuetzmann, J.; Gu, G.D.; Koshizuka, N.

    1995-09-01

    The temperature and field dependence of the magnetization in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} single crystals was measured above the irreversibility line in magnetic fields parallel to the {ital c} axis. We found a significant change in the slope of the magnetization {ital dM}/{ital dT} approximately 5 K above the irreversibility temperature. Related changes in the field dependence of the reversible magnetization slope {ital dM}/{ital d}(ln{ital H}) were also observed. The effect is attributed to the influence of pinning on the distribution of vortices in the material. A modification of the relation describing the field dependence of the reversible magnetization in a superconductor with pinning is proposed.

  8. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies on the variant-3 neurotoxin from Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing: Sequential assignment of resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Nettesheim, D.G.; Klevit, R.E.; Drobny, G.; Watt, D.D.; Krishna, N.R. )

    1989-02-21

    The authors report the sequential assignment of resonances to specific residues in the proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the variant-3 neurotoxin from the scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing (range southwestern U.S.A.). A combination of two-dimensional NMR experiments such as 2D-COSY, 2D-NOESY, and single- and double-RELAY coherence transfer spectroscopy has been employed on samples of the protein dissolved in D{sub 2}O and in H{sub 2}O for assignment purposes. These studies provide a basis for the determination of the solution-phase conformation of this protein and for undertaking detailed structure-function studies of these neurotoxins that modulate the flow of sodium current by binding to the sodium channels of excitable membranes.

  9. NOTE: Detection limits for ferrimagnetic particle concentrations using magnetic resonance imaging based proton transverse relaxation rate measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardoe, H.; Chua-anusorn, W.; St. Pierre, T. G.; Dobson, J.

    2003-03-01

    A clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system was used to measure proton transverse relaxation rates (R2) in agar gels with varying concentrations of ferrimagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in a field strength of 1.5 T. The nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitation of ferric and ferrous ions in the presence of either dextran or polyvinyl alcohol. The method of preparation resulted in loosely packed clusters (dextran) or branched chains (polyvinyl alcohol) of particles containing of the order of 600 and 400 particles, respectively. For both methods of particle preparation, concentrations of ferrimagnetic iron in agar gel less than 0.01 mg ml-1 had no measurable effect on the value of R2 for the gel. The results indicate that MRI-based R2 measurements using 1.5 T clinical scanners are not quite sensitive enough to detect the very low concentrations of nanoparticulate biogenic magnetite reported in human brain tissue.

  10. Measurement of the polarization and magnetic moment of Ξ¯+ antihyperons produced by 800-GeV/c protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, P. M.; Longo, M. J.; Nguyen, A.; Luk, K. B.; James, C.; Rameika, R.; Duryea, J.; Guglielmo, G.; Heller, K.; Johns, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Teige, S.; Thomson, G. B.; Zou, Y.

    1991-12-01

    The polarization of Ξ¯ + hyperons produced by 800-GeV/c protons in the inclusive reaction p+Be-->Ξ¯ ++X has been measured using a sample of 70 000 Ξ¯ + decays. The average polarization of the Ξ¯ +, at a mean xF=0.39 and pt=0.76 GeV/c, is -0.097+/-0.012+/-0.009, compared to -0.102+/-0.012+/-0.010 for the Ξ-. The large polarization found for the Ξ¯ + is not expected in any model for polarization of inclusively produced hyperons. The magnetic moment of the Ξ¯ + was measured to be 0.657+/-0.028+/-0.020 nuclear magnetons (μN), compared to (-0.674+/-0.021+/-0.020)μN for the Ξ-, in good agreement with CPT invariance.

  11. HIGH FIELD Q-SLOPE AND THE BAKING EFFECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2009-11-01

    The performance of SRF cavities made of bulk Nb at high fields (peak surface magnetic field greater than about 90 mT) is characterized by exponentially increasing RF losses (high-field Q-slope), in the absence of field emission, which are often mitigated by a low temperature (100-140 °C, 12-48h) baking. In this contribution, recent experimental results and phenomenological models to explain this effect will be briefly reviewed. New experimental results on the high-field Q-slope will be presented for cavities that had been heat treated at high temperature in the presence of a small partial pressure of nitrogen. Improvement of the cavity performances have been obtained, while surface analysis measurements on Nb samples treated with the cavities revealed significantly lower hydrogen concentration than for samples that followed standard cavity treatments.

  12. Glutamine and Glutamate Levels in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: A 4.0-T Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Constance M.; Frazier, Jean A.; Glod, Carol A.; Breeze, Janis L.; Dieterich, Megan; Finn, Chelsea T.; deB. Frederick, Blaise; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to use proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, at 4.0 T, to explore the glutamine and glutamate levels in the anterior cingulate cortex of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BPD; medicated and unmedicated) and healthy comparison subjects (HCSs). We hypothesized that unmedicated children with…

  13. Proton NMR study of spin dynamics in the magnetic organic chains M (hfac)3 NITEt (M =Eu3 +,Gd3 + )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, M.; Lascialfari, A.; Caneschi, A.; Ammannato, L.; Gatteschi, D.; Rettori, A.; Pini, M. G.; Cucci, C.; Borsa, F.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of the spin dynamics in the rare-earth-based low-dimensional molecular magnetic chains Eu (hfac) 3NITEt and Gd (hfac) 3NITEt (in short, Eu-Et and Gd-Et). Although both samples are based on the same chemical building block, [(hfac) 3NITEt ] , their magnetic properties change dramatically when the Eu3 + ion, which is nonmagnetic at low temperatures, is substituted by the magnetic Gd3 + ion. The present proton NMR investigation shows that, down to the lowest investigated temperature (T =1.5 K for Gd-Et and T =3 K for Eu-Et), the Eu-Et chain behaves as a one-dimensional Heisenberg model with antiferromagnetic exchange coupling (J =-20 K) between s =1 /2 organic radicals, and has a T -independent exchange frequency (ωe=2.6 ×1012 rad/s). In the Gd-Et chain, in contrast, a competition arises between nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic coupling and next-nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic coupling; moreover, two phase transitions have previously been found, in agreement with Villain's conjecture: a first transition, at T0=2.2 K, from a high temperature paramagnetic phase to a chiral spin liquid phase, and a second transition, at TN=1.9 K, to a three-dimensional helical spin solid phase. Contrary to the Eu-Et chain (whose three-dimensional ordering temperature is estimated to insurge at very low, TN≈0.3 K), critical spin dynamics effects have been measured in the Gd-Et chain on approaching TN=1.9 K: namely, a divergence of the proton nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1 /T1 , which in turn produces a sudden wipe-out of the NMR signal in a very narrow (Δ T ˜0.04 K) temperature range above TN. Below TN, an inhomogeneous broadening of the NMR line indicates a complete spin freezing. At T0=2.2 K, instead, such critical effects are not observed because NMR measurements probe the two-spin correlation function, while the chiral spin liquid phase transition is associated with a divergence of the four

  14. Complete Electric and Magnetic Dipole Response of 208Pb from Zero-Degree Inelastic Proton Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Neumann-Cosel, P.

    2015-11-01

    Small-angle polarized proton scattering including 0° off 208Pb has been studied at the RCNP cyclotron with high energy resolution of the order of 25 keV (FWHM). The complete E1 strength distribution from 5 to 20 MeV could be extracted from the data and is found to agree well with available data. New E1 strength is found in the energy region above threshold inacessible in previous experiments. The total E1 polarizability as well as the properties of the pygmy dipole resonance could be determined with high precision providing important experimental constraints on the neutron skin thickness in 208Pb and the symmetry energy of neutron-rich matter. Additionally, information on the spin-M1 strength in 208Pb was obtained. Assuming dominance of the central spin-isospinflip part of the effective proton-nucleus interaction, the B(M1) transition strength can be derived. It corresponds well with data from electromagnetic probes indicating that the reaction can provide information on the poorly known spin-M1 resonance in heavy nuclei.

  15. Spontaneous Radiation Emission from Short, High Field Strength Insertion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffrey Krafft

    2005-09-15

    Since the earliest papers on undulaters were published, it has been known how to calculate the spontaneous emission spectrum from ''short'' undulaters when the magnetic field strength parameter is small compared to unity, or in ''single'' frequency sinusoidal undulaters where the magnetic field strength parameter is comparable to or larger than unity, but where the magnetic field amplitude is constant throughout the undulater. Fewer general results have been obtained in the case where the insertion device is both short, i.e., the magnetic field strength parameter changes appreciably throughout the insertion device, and the magnetic field strength is high enough that ponderomotive effects, radiation retardation, and harmonic generation are important physical phenomena. In this paper a general method is presented for calculating the radiation spectrum for short, high-field insertion devices. It is used to calculate the emission from some insertion device designs of recent interest.

  16. SU-E-J-229: Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Small Fiducial Markers for Proton Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y; James, J; Panda, A; Vargas, C; Silva, A; Liu, W; Shen, J; Ding, X; Paden, R; Hanson, J; Wong, W; Schild, S; Bues, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: For proton beam therapy, small fiducial markers are preferred for patient alignment due to less interference with the proton beam. Visualizing small fiducial markers can be challenging in MRI. This study intends to investigate MRI imaging protocols for better visualization of small fiducial markers. Methods: Two carbon and two coil-shaped gold markers were placed into a gel phantom. Both carbon markers had a diameter of 1mm and a length of 3mm. Both gold markers had a length of 5mm. One gold marker had a diameter of 0.5mm and the other had a diameter of 0.75mm. T1 VIBE, T2 SPACE, TrueFISP and susceptibility weighted (SW) images were acquired. To improve marker contrast, high spatial resolution was used to reduce partial volume effect. Slice thickness was 1.5mm for all four sequences and in-plane resolution was 0.6mm for TrueFISP, 0.7mm for T1 VIBE, and 0.8mm for T2 SPACE and SW. For comparison purpose, a 3D T1 VIBE image set at 3mm slice thickness and 1.2mm in-plane resolution was also acquired. Results: All markers were visible in all high-resolution image sets. In each image set, marker-induced signal void was the smallest (in diameter) for carbon markers, followed by the 0.5mm gold marker and the largest for the 0.75mm gold marker. The SW images had the largest marker-induced signal void. However, those might be confused by susceptibility-gradient-induced signal voids. T1 VIBE had good visualization of markers with nicely defined edges. T2 SPACE had reasonable visualization of markers but edges were slightly blurred. TrueFISP had good visualization of markers only if they were not masked by banding artifacts. As a comparison, all markers were hardly visible in the standard resolution T1 VIBE images. Conclusion: 3D high-resolution T1 VIBE and SW have great potential in providing good visualization of small fiducial markers for proton beam therapy.

  17. 7 Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in adult X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ratai, Eva; Kok, Trina; Wiggins, Christopher; Wiggins, Graham; Grant, Ellen; Gagoski, Borjan; O'Neill, Gilmore; Adalsteinsson, Elfar; Eichler, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Background Adult patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) remain at risk for progressive neurological deterioration. Phenotypes vary in their pathology, ranging from axonal degeneration to inflammatory demyelination. The severity of symptoms is poorly explained by conventional imaging. Objective To test the hypothesis that neurochemistry in normal appearing brain differs among adult phenotypes of X-ALD, and that neurochemical changes correlate with the severity of symptoms. Patients and Methods Using a 7 Tesla scanner we performed structural and proton MRSI in 13 adult patients with X-ALD, including 4 patients with adult cerebral ALD (ACALD), 5 with adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) and 4 female heterozygotes. Studies were also performed in nine healthy controls. Results Among adult X-ALD phenotypes, MI/Cr was 46% higher and Cho/Cr 21% higher in normal appearing white matter of ACALD compared to AMN (p < 0.05). Both NAA/Cr and Glu/Cr ratios were lower in AMN patients (p = 0.028 and p = 0.036, respectively) than in controls. There were no significant differences between AMN and female heterozygotes. In cortex, ACALD patients had lower values of NAA/Cr compared to female heterozygotes and controls (p = 0.022). The global MI/Cr ratio demonstrated a significant association with the EDSS (Spearman ρ = 0.66, p = 0.039). Conclusion 7 Tesla proton MRSI reveals differences in the neurochemistry of ACALD but is unable to distinguish AMN from female heterozygotes. MI/Cr correlates with the severity of the symptoms and may be a meaningful biomarker in adult X-ALD. PMID:19001168

  18. [Impact of Brownian motion and magnetic fields of erythrocytes on spin echo signal of blood protons].

    PubMed

    Zhernovoĭ, A I; Belorukova, M G; Nikolaeva, M N; Sharshina, L M

    2001-01-01

    A reduction in blood So2 and ESR is shown to lead to the decay of a spin echo signal. This effect is explained by the impact of red blood cell magnetic field fluctuations caused by the Brownian motion. The authors propose to use the effect to monitor red blood cell agglutination.

  19. Operation of a 400MHz NMR magnet using a (RE:Rare Earth)Ba2Cu3O7-x high-temperature superconducting coil: Towards an ultra-compact super-high field NMR spectrometer operated beyond 1GHz.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Y; Piao, R; Iguchi, S; Nakagome, H; Takao, T; Kominato, K; Hamada, M; Matsumoto, S; Suematsu, H; Jin, X; Takahashi, M; Yamazaki, T; Maeda, H

    2014-10-18

    High-temperature superconductors (HTS) are the key technology to achieve super-high magnetic field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers with an operating frequency far beyond 1GHz (23.5T). (RE)Ba2Cu3O7-x (REBCO, RE: rare earth) conductors have an advantage over Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-x (Bi-2223) and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-x (Bi-2212) conductors in that they have very high tensile strengths and tolerate strong electromagnetic hoop stress, thereby having the potential to act as an ultra-compact super-high field NMR magnet. As a first step, we developed the world's first NMR magnet comprising an inner REBCO coil and outer low-temperature superconducting (LTS) coils. The magnet was successfully charged without degradation and mainly operated at 400MHz (9.39T). Technical problems for the NMR magnet due to screening current in the REBCO coil were clarified and solved as follows: (i) A remarkable temporal drift of the central magnetic field was suppressed by a current sweep reversal method utilizing ∼10% of the peak current. (ii) A Z2 field error harmonic of the main coil cannot be compensated by an outer correction coil and therefore an additional ferromagnetic shim was used. (iii) Large tesseral harmonics emerged that could not be corrected by cryoshim coils. Due to those harmonics, the resolution and sensitivity of NMR spectra are ten-fold lower than those for a conventional LTS NMR magnet. As a result, a HSQC spectrum could be achieved for a protein sample, while a NOESY spectrum could not be obtained. An ultra-compact 1.2GHz NMR magnet could be realized if we effectively take advantage of REBCO conductors, although this will require further research to suppress the effect of the screening current. PMID:25462945

  20. Operation of a 400 MHz NMR magnet using a (RE:Rare Earth)Ba2Cu3O7-x high-temperature superconducting coil: Towards an ultra-compact super-high field NMR spectrometer operated beyond 1 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Y.; Piao, R.; Iguchi, S.; Nakagome, H.; Takao, T.; Kominato, K.; Hamada, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Suematsu, H.; Jin, X.; Takahashi, M.; Yamazaki, T.; Maeda, H.

    2014-12-01

    High-temperature superconductors (HTS) are the key technology to achieve super-high magnetic field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers with an operating frequency far beyond 1 GHz (23.5 T). (RE)Ba2Cu3O7-x (REBCO, RE: rare earth) conductors have an advantage over Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-x (Bi-2223) and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-x (Bi-2212) conductors in that they have very high tensile strengths and tolerate strong electromagnetic hoop stress, thereby having the potential to act as an ultra-compact super-high field NMR magnet. As a first step, we developed the world's first NMR magnet comprising an inner REBCO coil and outer low-temperature superconducting (LTS) coils. The magnet was successfully charged without degradation and mainly operated at 400 MHz (9.39 T). Technical problems for the NMR magnet due to screening current in the REBCO coil were clarified and solved as follows: (i) A remarkable temporal drift of the central magnetic field was suppressed by a current sweep reversal method utilizing ∼10% of the peak current. (ii) A Z2 field error harmonic of the main coil cannot be compensated by an outer correction coil and therefore an additional ferromagnetic shim was used. (iii) Large tesseral harmonics emerged that could not be corrected by cryoshim coils. Due to those harmonics, the resolution and sensitivity of NMR spectra are ten-fold lower than those for a conventional LTS NMR magnet. As a result, a HSQC spectrum could be achieved for a protein sample, while a NOESY spectrum could not be obtained. An ultra-compact 1.2 GHz NMR magnet could be realized if we effectively take advantage of REBCO conductors, although this will require further research to suppress the effect of the screening current.

  1. Optically transmitted and inductively coupled electric reference to access in vivo concentrations for quantitative proton-decoupled ¹³C magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing; Pavan, Matteo; Heinzer-Schweizer, Susanne; Boesiger, Peter; Henning, Anke

    2012-01-01

    This report describes our efforts on quantification of tissue metabolite concentrations in mM by nuclear Overhauser enhanced and proton decoupled (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the Electric Reference To access In vivo Concentrations (ERETIC) method. Previous work showed that a calibrated synthetic magnetic resonance spectroscopy-like signal transmitted through an optical fiber and inductively coupled into a transmit/receive coil represents a reliable reference standard for in vivo (1) H magnetic resonance spectroscopy quantification on a clinical platform. In this work, we introduce a related implementation that enables simultaneous proton decoupling and ERETIC-based metabolite quantification and hence extends the applicability of the ERETIC method to nuclear Overhauser enhanced and proton decoupled in vivo (13) C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition, ERETIC signal stability under the influence of simultaneous proton decoupling is investigated. The proposed quantification method was cross-validated against internal and external reference standards on human skeletal muscle. The ERETIC signal intensity stability was 100.65 ± 4.18% over 3 months including measurements with and without proton decoupling. Glycogen and unsaturated fatty acid concentrations measured with the ERETIC method were in excellent agreement with internal creatine and external phantom reference methods, showing a difference of 1.85 ± 1.21% for glycogen and 1.84 ± 1.00% for unsaturated fatty acid between ERETIC and creatine-based quantification, whereas the deviations between external reference and creatine-based quantification are 6.95 ± 9.52% and 3.19 ± 2.60%, respectively.

  2. Electron-proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electron-proton spectrometer was designed to measure the geomagnetically trapped radiation in a geostationary orbit at 6.6 earth radii in the outer radiation belt. This instrument is to be flown on the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The electron-proton spectrometer consists of two permanent magnet surface barrier detector arrays and associated electronics capable of selecting and detecting electrons in three energy ranges: (1) 30-50 keV, (2) 150-200 keV, and (3) 500 keV and protons in three energy ranges. The electron-proton spectrometer has the capability of measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons in various directions with respect to the magnetic field lines running through the satellite. One magnet detector array system is implemented to scan between EME north and south through west, sampling the directional flux in 15 steps. The other magnet-detector array system is fixed looking toward EME east.

  3. Neurodegenerative evidences during early onset of depression in CMS rats as detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 T.

    PubMed

    Hemanth Kumar, B S; Mishra, Sushanta Kumar; Rana, Poonam; Singh, Sadhana; Khushu, Subash

    2012-06-15

    Depression is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by anhedonia and feeling of sadness and chronic mild stress (CMS) seems to be a valuable animal model of depression. CMS animal model was induced and validated using behavioral studies. In the present study we investigated the neuro-metabolite changes occurring in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during the onset of depression, in CMS rat model using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) at field strength of 7 T. Results showed that CMS caused depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by the decrease in sucrose consumption and locomotor activity. (1)H MRS was performed in both control and CMS rats (n=10, in each group) and the quantitative assessment of the neurometabolites was done using LC model. Relative concentrations of all the metabolites along with the macromolecules were calculated for analysis. The results revealed a significant decrease of glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), NAA+NAAG, Glx and GABA levels in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of CMS animals and an elevated level of myo-ionisitol (mI) and taurine (Tau) was observed only in hippocampus. These metabolite fluctuations revealed by proton MRS indicate that there might be change in the neuronal integrity of the glial cells and neurons within prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in CMS model of depression. The present study also suggests that there may be a degenerative process concerning the brain morphology in the CMS rats. The overall finding using (1)H MRS suggests that, there might be a major role of the glia and neuron in the onset of depression. PMID:22449862

  4. Proton Magnetic Resonance and Human Thyroid Neoplasia III. Ex VivoChemical-Shift Microimaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutter, Allison; Künnecke, Basil; Dowd, Susan; Russell, Peter; Delbridge, Leigh; Mountford, Carolyn E.

    1996-03-01

    Magnetic-resonance chemical-shift microimaging, with a spatial resolution of 40 × 40 μm, is a modality which can detect alterations to cellular chemistry and hence markers of pathological processes in human tissueex vivo.This technique was used as a chemical microscope to assess follicular thyroid neoplasms, lesions which are unsatisfactorily investigated using standard histopathological techiques or water-based magnetic-resonance imaging. The chemical-shift images at the methyl frequency (0.9 ppm) identify chemical heterogeneity in follicular tumors which are histologically homogeneous. The observed changes to cellular chemistry, detectable in foci of approximately 100 cells or less, support the existence of a preinvasive state hitherto unidentified by current pathological techniques.

  5. Effect of Triplet Magnet Vibrations on RHIC Performance with High Energy Protons

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.

    2010-05-23

    In this report we present recent experimental data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) illustrating effects resulting from {approx}10 Hz vibrations of the triplet quadrupole magnets in the interactions regions and evaluate the impact of these vibrations on RHIC collider performance. Measurements revealed modulation of the betatron tunes of appreciable magnitude relative to the total beam-beam parameter. Comparison of the discrete frequencies in the spectra of the measured beam positions and betatron tunes confirmed a common source. The tune modulations were shown to result from feed-down in the sextupole magnets in the interaction regions. In addition we show that the distortions to the closed orbit of the two counter-rotating beams produced a modulated crossing angle at the interaction point(s).

  6. Efficacy of Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Neurological Diagnosis and Neurotherapeutic Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Alexander; Ross, Brian D.; Harris, Kent; Wong, Willis

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Anatomic and functional neuroimaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) includes the technology more widely known as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Now a routine automated “add-on” to all clinical magnetic resonance scanners, MRS, which assays regional neurochemical health and disease, is therefore the most accessible diagnostic tool for clinical management of neurometabolic disorders. Furthermore, the noninvasive nature of this technique makes it an ideal tool for therapeutic monitoring of disease and neurotherapeutic decision making. Among the more than 100 brain disorders that fall within this broad category, MRS contributes decisively to clinical decision making in a smaller but growing number. In this review, we will cover how MRS provides therapeutic impact in brain tumors, metabolic disorders such as adrenoleukodystrophy and Canavan's disease, Alzheimer's disease, hypoxia, secondary to trauma or ischemia, human immunodeficiency virus dementia and lesions, as well as systemic disease such as hepatic and renal failure. Together, these eight indications for MRS apply to a majority of all cases seen. This review, which examines the role of MRS in enhancing routine neurological practice and treatment concludes: 1) there is added value from MRS where MRI is positive; 2) there is unique decision-making information in MRS when MRI is negative; and 3) MRS usefully informs decision making in neurotherapeutics. Additional efficacy studies could extend the range of this capability. PMID:15897945

  7. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in deep human brain structures at 7 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elywa, M.; Mulla-Osman, S.; Godenschweger, F.; Speck, O.

    2012-03-01

    The increased magnetization and frequency separation at high magnetic field strength, such as 7 T, can provide spectra of high signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution. However, most human brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies at 7 T have employed surface coils and thus limited to superficial brain structures. In this study, volume coil excitation together with volume array reception has been utilized to access deeper brain areas. RF power limitations have been addressed by the use of VERSE-modified pulses, and spectra in parietal and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) have been acquired in eight subjects using STEAM with a short echo time of 20 ms. Spectra were analyzed using LC-model. Therefore, an experimental basis set of in vitro spectra was established from 20 human brain metabolite solutions. An exemplary comparison with an optimized PRESS-based single voxel MRS method at 3 T has been performed. Despite the intrinsically lower signal in STEAM, the 7 T spectra show 1.87 times higher signal-to-noise ratio than at 3 T (using PRESS) and more metabolites could be quantified reliably. The results show that the proposed method can be employed at 7 T in deep brain structures and allows the absolute and relative concentrations of human brain metabolites to be determined with low error levels.

  8. SU-E-J-03: Characterization of the Precision and Accuracy of a New, Preclinical, MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound System for Image-Guided Interventions in Small-Bore, High-Field Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Ellens, N; Farahani, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) has many potential and realized applications including controlled heating and localized drug delivery. The development of many of these applications requires extensive preclinical work, much of it in small animal models. The goal of this study is to characterize the spatial targeting accuracy and reproducibility of a preclinical high field MRgFUS system for thermal ablation and drug delivery applications. Methods: The RK300 (FUS Instruments, Toronto, Canada) is a motorized, 2-axis FUS positioning system suitable for small bore (72 mm), high-field MRI systems. The accuracy of the system was assessed in three ways. First, the precision of the system was assessed by sonicating regular grids of 5 mm squares on polystyrene plates and comparing the resulting focal dimples to the intended pattern, thereby assessing the reproducibility and precision of the motion control alone. Second, the targeting accuracy was assessed by imaging a polystyrene plate with randomly drilled holes and replicating the hole pattern by sonicating the observed hole locations on intact polystyrene plates and comparing the results. Third, the practicallyrealizable accuracy and precision were assessed by comparing the locations of transcranial, FUS-induced blood-brain-barrier disruption (BBBD) (observed through Gadolinium enhancement) to the intended targets in a retrospective analysis of animals sonicated for other experiments. Results: The evenly-spaced grids indicated that the precision was 0.11 +/− 0.05 mm. When image-guidance was included by targeting random locations, the accuracy was 0.5 +/− 0.2 mm. The effective accuracy in the four rodent brains assessed was 0.8 +/− 0.6 mm. In all cases, the error appeared normally distributed (p<0.05) in both orthogonal axes, though the left/right error was systematically greater than the superior/inferior error. Conclusions: The targeting accuracy of this device is sub-millimeter, suitable for many

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance as a tool for determining protonation constants of natural polyprotic bases in solution.

    PubMed

    Frassineti, C; Ghelli, S; Gans, P; Sabatini, A; Moruzzi, M S; Vacca, A

    1995-11-01

    The acid-base properties of the tetramine 1,5,10,14-tetraazatetradecane H2N(CH2)3NH(CH2)4NH(CH2)3NH2 (spermine) in deuterated water have been studied at 40 degrees C at various pD values by means of NMR spectroscopy. Both one-dimensional 13C[1H] spectra and two-dimensional 1H/13C heterocorrelation spectra with inverse detection have been recorded. A calculation procedure of general validity has been developed to unravel the effect of rapid exchange between the various species in equilibrium as a function of pD of the solution. The method of calculation used in this part of the new computer program, HYPNMR, is independent of the equilibrium model. HYPNMR has been used to obtain the basicity constants of spermine with respect to the D+ cation at 40 degrees C. Calculations have been performed using either 13C[1H] or 1H/13C data individually, or using both sets of data simultaneously. The results of the latter calculations were practically the same as the results obtained with the single data sets; the calculated errors on the refined parameters were a little smaller. After appropriate empirical corrections for temperature effects and for the presence of D+ in contrast to H+, the calculated constants are compared with spermine protonation constants which have been determined previously both from potentiometric and NMR data.

  10. The High Field Magnetic Dependence of Critical Current Density at 4.2 K for Ag-Sheathed Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy Superconducting Tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Noritsugu; Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Uno, Naoki; Kumakura, Hiroaki; Togano, Kazumasa; Watanabe, Kazuo

    1990-03-01

    Critical current density (Jc) at 4.2 K and its dependence on applied magnetic field was measured for Ag-sheathed Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy superconducting tape. The specimen showed a strong grain alignment which could be attained by adjusting the conditions of heat treatment. The degree of crystal orientation (F) was evaluated to be up to 95% by XRD for this specimen. In the case of magnetic field applied in a direction parallel to the tape, the Jc initially decreased with the magnetic field from 1.2× 105 A/cm2 at 1 T to 5× 104 A/cm2 at 10T and then remained almost constant up to 23 T. As the F value decreased from 95%, Jc also decreased. The pinning force (Fp) of the 95%-F-value tape was estimated to be about 1× 1010 N/m3 at 23 T. This value is larger than those of conventional low-Tc superconductors.

  11. Quantitative Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Spectroscopic Imaging of the Brain: A Didactic Review

    PubMed Central

    Alger, Jeffry R.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents background information related to methodology for estimating brain metabolite concentration from Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) measurements of living human brain tissue. It reviews progress related to this methodology with emphasis placed on progress reported during the past ten years. It is written for a target audience composed of radiologists and MRI technologists. It describes in general terms the relationship between MRS signal amplitude and concentration. It then presents an overview of the many practical problems associated with deriving concentration solely from absolute measured signal amplitudes and demonstrates how a various signal calibration approaches can be successfully used. The concept of integrated signal amplitude is presented with examples that are helpful for qualitative reading of MRS data as well as for understanding the methodology used for quantitative measurements. The problems associated with the accurate measurement of individual signal amplitudes in brain spectra having overlapping signals from other metabolites and overlapping nuisance signals from water and lipid is presented. Current approaches to obtaining accurate amplitude estimates with least squares fitting software are summarized. PMID:21613876

  12. Amide Proton Transfer Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Alzheimer's Disease at 3.0 Tesla: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Li, Sa-Ying; Chen, Min; Zhou, Jin-Yuan; Peng, Dan-Tao; Zhang, Chen; Dai, Yong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background: Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging has recently emerged as an important contrast mechanism for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the field of molecular and cellular imaging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of APT imaging to detect cerebral abnormality in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) at 3.0 Tesla. Methods: Twenty AD patients (9 men and 11 women; age range, 67–83 years) and 20 age-matched normal controls (11 men and 9 women; age range, 63–82 years) underwent APT and traditional MRI examination on a 3.0 Tesla MRI system. The magnetic resonance ratio asymmetry (MTRasym) values at 3.5 ppm of bilateral hippocampi (Hc), temporal white matter regions, occipital white matter regions, and cerebral peduncles were measured on oblique axial APT images. MTRasym (3.5 ppm) values of the cerebral structures between AD patients and control subjects were compared with independent samples t-test. Controlling for age, partial correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the various MRI measures among AD patients. Results: Compared with normal controls, MTRasym (3.5 ppm) values of bilateral Hc were significantly increased in AD patients (right 1.24% ± 0.21% vs. 0.83% ± 0.19%, left 1.18% ± 0.18% vs. 0.80%± 0.17%, t = 3.039, 3.328, P = 0.004, 0.002, respectively). MTRasym (3.5 ppm) values of bilateral Hc were significantly negatively correlated with MMSE (right r = −0.559, P = 0.013; left r = −0.461, P = 0.047). Conclusions: Increased MTRasym (3.5 ppm) values of bilateral Hc in AD patients and its strong correlations with MMSE suggest that APT imaging could potentially provide imaging biomarkers for the noninvasive molecular diagnosis of AD. PMID:25698192

  13. Elevated prefrontal cortex GABA in patients with major depressive disorder after TMS treatment measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Marc J.; Mao, Xiangling; Banerjee, Samprit; Goodman, Zachary; Lapidus, Kyle A.B.; Kang, Guoxin; Liston, Conor; Shungu, Dikoma C.

    2016-01-01

    Background GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems are central to the pathophysiology of depression and are potential targets of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We assessed the effect of 10-Hz rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of patients with major depressive disorder on the levels of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the combined resonance of glutamate and glutamine (Glx) as assessed in vivo with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). Methods Currently depressed individuals between the ages of 23 and 68 years participated in a 5-week naturalistic, open-label treatment study of rTMS, with 1H MRS measurements of MPFC GABA and Glx levels at baseline and following 5 weeks of the rTMS intervention. We applied rTMS pulses over the left DLPFC at 10 Hz and 80%–120% of motor threshold for 25 daily sessions, with each session consisting of 3000 pulses. We assessed therapeutic response using the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD24). The GABA and Glx levels are expressed as ratios of peak areas relative to the area of the synchronously acquired and similarly fitted unsuppressed voxel water signal (W). Results Twenty-three currently depressed individuals (7 men) participated in the study. GABA/W in the MPFC increased 13.8% (p = 0.013) in all depressed individuals. There were no significant effects of rTMS on Glx/W. GABA/W and Glx/W were highly correlated in severely depressed patients at baseline but not after TMS. Limitations The primary study limitations are the open-label design and the inclusion of participants currently taking stable regimens of antidepressant medications. Conclusion These results implicate GABAergic and glutamatergic systems in the mechanism of action of rTMS for major depression, warranting further investigation in larger samples. PMID:26900793

  14. Associated electron and proton transfer between Acridine and Triethylamine in AOT reverse micelles probed by laser flash photolysis with magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangi, Manas Kumar; Basu, Samita

    2011-04-01

    Laser flash photolysis with magnetic field (MF ˜0.08 T) has been used to study interaction between Acridine (Acr) and Triethylamine (TEA) in reverse micelles with w0 = 2.5-40. Dynamic protonation equilibrium exists between 3Acr and 3AcrH +. The intermediates indicate excited-state proton transfer (PT) between 3AcrH + and TEA. However, application of MF highlights the formation of geminate radical ion pairs (RIPs) with triplet spin-correlation, a signature of latent photoinduced electron transfer between 3AcrH + and TEA co-exists with PT. Magnetic field effect (MFE) is prominent for smaller w0 showing importance of optimum separation between RIP to maximize MFE, whereas PT remains unaltered.

  15. Subtype-associated metabolite differences in the temporal lobe in schizophrenia detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fukuzako, H; Kodama, S; Fukuzako, T; Yamada, K; Doi, W; Sato, D; Takigawa, M

    1999-11-01

    Brain imaging studies have indicated that the medial temporal lobe functions aberrantly in schizophrenic patients. Both diagnostic subtype and gender may affect functional and morphologic abnormalities in this region. We investigated subtype- and gender-associated differences in metabolites in the left medial temporal lobe in 40 medicated schizophrenic patients by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and compared findings with those in 40 healthy control subjects. Peaks corresponding to N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds (Cho), creatine-phosphocreatine (Cr), and inositol were measured. Schizophrenic patients showed a decrease in the NAA/Cr ratio in the left medial temporal lobe, and patients with the disorganized subtype of illness showed significantly lower NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios than those with paranoid schizophrenia. The NAA/Cr ratio in patients with the undifferentiated subtype also was significantly lower than in the paranoid subtype. No significant associations were observed between metabolite ratios and clinical symptom scores, age at onset of illness, or gender. These findings suggest that patients with the disorganized and undifferentiated subtypes have greater impairments in neuronal integrity or function in the left medial temporal lobe than patients with other subtypes of schizophrenia.

  16. Hydrogen Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Multidomain Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Cognitive Impairment Without Dementia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang-Qing; Cai, Qing; Shen, Yu-Ying; Xu, Chuan-Xiao; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the value of hydrogen proton magnet resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in the differential diagnosis of multiple-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment (M-aMCI) and vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND); (1)H-MRS was performed in patients with M-aMCI and VCIND. The level was determined for N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), inositol (mI), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr). Compared with the normal control group, the NAA-Cr ratio in all regions studied was significantly lower in the M-aMCI and VCIND groups. The Glu-Cr ratio in the posterior cingulate gyrus of the M-aMCI group was significantly lower than in the VCIND. The mI-Cr ratio in the frontal white matter of the VCIND was significantly higher than in the M-aMCI group. In the white matter adjacent to the lateral ventricles, the Cho-Cr ratio was significantly higher in the VCIND than the M-aMCI. Our results suggested (1)H-MRS is an effective method in the differential diagnosis of M-aMCI and VCIND. PMID:26980718

  17. Neuronal and axonal degeneration in experimental spinal cord injury: in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and histology.

    PubMed

    Qian, Junchao; Herrera, Juan J; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2010-03-01

    Longitudinal in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and immunohistochemistry were performed to investigate the tissue degeneration in traumatically injured rat spinal cord rostral and caudal to the lesion epicenter. On 1H-MRS significant decreases in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and total creatine (Cr) levels in the rostral, epicenter, and caudal segments were observed by 14 days, and levels remained depressed up to 56 days post-injury (PI). In contrast, the total choline (Cho) levels increased significantly in all three segments by 14 days PI, but recovered in the epicenter and caudal, but not the rostral region, at 56 days PI. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated neuronal cell death in the gray matter, and reactive astrocytes and axonal degeneration in the dorsal, lateral, and ventral white-matter columns. These results suggest delayed tissue degeneration in regions both rostrally and caudally from the epicenter in the injured spinal cord tissue. A rostral-caudal asymmetry in tissue recovery was seen both on MRI-observed hyperintense lesion volume and the Cho, but not NAA and Cr, levels at 56 days PI. These studies suggest that dynamic metabolic changes take place in regions away from the epicenter in injured spinal cord. PMID:20001674

  18. Comparisons of Simulated and Observed Stormtime Magnetic Intensities, Ion Plasma Parameters, and ENA Proton Flux in the Ring Current During Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. W.; Lemon, C.; Guild, T. B.; Schulz, M.; Roeder, J. L.; Le, G.; Lui, T.; Goldstein, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this study we compare simulated and observed stormtime magnetic intensities, proton flux spectra and/or ENA fluxes for two storm events to test how well self-consistent simulations can simultaneously reproduce these quantities. We simulate the ring current and plasma sheet using the magnetically and electrostatically self-consistent Rice Convection Model-Equilibrium (RCM-E) [Lemon et al., JGR, 2004] with a time-varying magnetopause driven by upstream solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Using either in-situ data (e.g., LANL/MPA and SOPA) or the empirical IMF-dependent model of Tsyganenko and Mukai [JGR, 2003], we specify the plasma sheet pressure and density at 10 Earth radii as the plasma boundary location in the RCM-E. We compare the simulated magnetic intensity with the magnetic intensity measured by magnetometers on the GOES satellites at geosynchronous altitude (6.6 Earth radii) and any other available satellite. We simulate a larger (11 August 2000; minimum Dst = -106 nT) and a smaller (6 April 2010; minimum Dst = 73 nT) storm. For the 11 August 2000 storm, we compare simulated and observed proton spectra (LANL/MPA and SOPA and Polar/CAMMICE). For the more recent 6 April 2010 storm we compare simulated and observed proton spectra (THEMIS) and energetic neutral atom (ENA) flux (TWINS). We discuss the response of the ring current magnetic field and ion flux distribution to expansions and compressions of the magnetosphere associated with the dynamic solar wind pressure for these storm events.

  19. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human brain in vivo in the evaluation of multiple sclerosis: Assessment of the load of disease

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, D.L.; Matthews, P.M.; Francis, G.; Antel, J. )

    1990-04-01

    Image localized, water-suppressed proton magnetic resonance spectra were obtained from affected brain in patients with multiple sclerosis. In patients with moderate to severe chronic disease, spectra revealed a decreased ratio of N-acetylaspartate to creatine resonance intensities. A normal ratio was obtained from a large recently symptomatic MRI plaque that resolved without sequelae. We propose that the observed metabolite changes can be useful as an index of irreversible CNS injury.

  20. Intermolecular proton transfer in solid phase: a rare example of crystal-to-crystal transformation from hydroxo- to oxo-bridged iron(III) molecule-based magnet.

    PubMed

    Armentano, Donatella; De Munno, Giovanni; Mastropietro, Teresa F; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc

    2005-08-10

    Intermolecular proton transfer in solid phase from the hydroxo bridge to a water molecule occurs in a new mu-hydroxo iron(III) compound of formula {EtNH3[Fe2(ox)2Cl2(mu-OH)].2H2O}n leading to a still crystalline compound in which the mu-oxo bridge replaces the mu-hydroxo one. Both three-dimensional compounds exhibit magnetic ordering at Tc ca. 70 K due to a spin canting.

  1. High field superconductor development and understanding project, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Larbalestier, David C.; Lee, Peter J.

    2009-07-15

    Over 25 years the Applied Superconductivity Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provided a vital technical resource to the High Energy Physics community covering development in superconducting strand for HEP accelerator magnet development. In particular the work of the group has been to develop the next generation of high field superconductors for high field application. Grad students Mike Naus, Chad Fischer, Arno Godeke and Matt Jewell improved our understanding of the microstructure and microchemistry of Nb3Sn and their impact on the physical and mechanical properties. The success of this work has led to the continued funding of this work at the ASC after it moved to the NHMFL and also to direct funding from BNL for some aspects of Nb3Sn cable evaluation.

  2. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of periventricular white matter and hippocampus in obstructive sleep apnea patients

    PubMed Central

    Kızılgöz, Volkan; Aydın, Hasan; Tatar, İdil Güneş; Hekimoğlu, Baki; Ardıç, Sadık; Fırat, Hikmet; Dönmez, Cem

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background The purpose of this study was to diagnose the hypoxic impairment by Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), an advanced MR imaging technique, which could not be visualised by routine imaging methods in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Material/Methods 20 OSA patients and 5 controls were included in this prospective research. MRS was performed on these 25 subjects to examine cerebral hypoxemia in specific regions (periventricular white matter and both hippocampi). Polysomnography was assumed as the gold standard. Statistical analysis was assessed by Mann-Whitney U test and Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios. Results In the periventricular white matter, NAA/Cho ratio in OSA patients was significantly lower than in the control group (p<0.05). There were no statistical differences between the OSA and the control group for NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratios for both hippocampal regions. Additionally, Cho/Cr ratio in the periventricular white matter region of OSA group was higher than in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusions Hypoxic impairment induced by repeated episodes of apnea leads to significant neuronal damage in OSA patients. MRS provides valuable information in the assessment of hypoxic ischemic impairment by revealing important metabolite ratios for the specific areas of the brain. PMID:24505219

  3. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and outcome in term neonates with chorioamnionitis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C B; Jenkins, D D; Bentzley, J P; Lambert, D; Hope, K; Rollins, L G; Morgan, P S; Brown, T; Ramakrishnan, V; Mulvihill, D M; Katikaneni, L D

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate brain metabolites, which reflect neuroinflammation, and relate to neurodevelopmental outcomes in healthy term neonates exposed to chorioamnionitis. Study Design: Thirty-one healthy term neonates with documented fetal inflammatory response after maternal chorioamnionitis underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), with voxels placed in basal ganglia (BG) and frontal white matter. Bayley III examinations were performed at 12 months of age. Result: Infants with below average outcomes did not show the same increase in NAA/Cho ratios postnatally as the group with normal outcomes. Decreased NAA/Cho and increased Lac/Cr in BG correlated with lower motor and cognitive composite scores, respectively, controlling for postnatal age. In males, increased lactate/NAA in BG were associated with lower motor scores. Funisitis severity was associated with decreased NAA/Cho and increased mI/NAA in males. Conclusion: In healthy term newborns with chorioamnionitis, MRS ratios shortly after birth may provide evidence of occult neuroinflammation, which may be associated with worse performance on 1-year neurodevelopmental tests. PMID:26426253

  4. Characterization of proton exchange membrane materials for fuel cells by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Zueqian

    2010-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to explore the nanometer-scale structure of Nafion, the widely used fuel cell membrane, and its composites. We have shown that solid-state NMR can characterize chemical structure and composition, domain size and morphology, internuclear distances, molecular dynamics, etc. The newly-developed water channel model of Nafion has been confirmed, and important characteristic length-scales established. Nafion-based organic and inorganic composites with special properties have also been characterized and their structures elucidated. The morphology of Nafion varies with hydration level, and is reflected in the changes in surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio of the polymer obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The S/V ratios of different Nafion models have been evaluated numerically. It has been found that only the water channel model gives the measured S/V ratios in the normal hydration range of a working fuel cell, while dispersed water molecules and polymer ribbons account for the structures at low and high hydration levels, respectively.

  5. Superconductivity and Critical Current of Iron-Based Superconductors in High Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    Although high-temperature superconducting cuprates have been discovered for more than 26 years, high-field applications are still based on low-temperature superconductors (LTS), such as Nb3Sn. The high anisotropies, brittle textures and high manufacturing costs limit the applicability of the cuprates. Recently, we demonstrated that the iron superconductors, without most of the drawbacks of the cuprates, have a superior high-field performance over LTS at 4.2 K [Nat. Commun. 4:1347 (2013); Rep. Prog. Phys. 74 124510 (2011)]. In this presentation, I will discuss recent progress aimed at understanding the relationships between superconductivity, critical current, and nano-scaled structure defects in iron-based superconductors, with emphasis on the properties of superconducting iron chalcogenide films. Critical current densities Jc ~ 107 A/cm2 were observed in FeSe0.5Te0.5 films grown on CeO2 buffered single-crystalline and flexible metal substrates. These films are capable of carrying Jc exceeding 105 A/cm2 under 30 T magnetic fields. Furthermore, we found that these films have significantly higher Tc (>20K) as compared to bulk samples (bulk Tc ~ 15 K) for the entire doping regime of FeSe1-xTex. Structural analysis revealed that these films generally have significantly smaller c-axis and a-axis lattice constant than the bulk value, suggesting that the crystal structure changes have a dominating impact on the superconducting transition in iron-based superconductors. Large Jc enhancement can also be realized in iron based superconductors by irradiation with proton and heavy ions that opens a new avenue for a tailored landscape of effective vortex pinning defects.

  6. Proton: The Particle

    SciTech Connect

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10{sup 80}. Protons were created at 10{sup −6} –1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10{sup 10} years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10{sup 34} years; that is, the age of the universe is 10{sup −24}th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W{sup +}, W{sup −}, Z{sup 0}, and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  7. Proton: the particle.

    PubMed

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  8. Proton: the particle.

    PubMed

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter. PMID:24074929

  9. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... nucleus is surrounded by electrons. In proton therapy, beams of fast-moving protons are used to destroy ... atoms to release proton, neutron, and helium ion beams. In this highly specialized form of radiosurgery , proton ...

  10. The emergence of proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics in the cardiovascular arena as viewed from a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Naomi J.; Preiss, David; Welsh, Paul; Burgess, Karl E.V.; Nelson, Scott M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Sattar, Naveed

    2014-01-01

    The ability to phenotype metabolic profiles in serum has increased substantially in recent years with the advent of metabolomics. Metabolomics is the study of the metabolome, defined as those molecules with an atomic mass less than 1.5 kDa. There are two main metabolomics methods: mass spectrometry (MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, each with its respective benefits and limitations. MS has greater sensitivity and so can detect many more metabolites. However, its cost (especially when heavy labelled internal standards are required for absolute quantitation) and quality control is sub-optimal for large cohorts. 1H NMR is less sensitive but sample preparation is generally faster and analysis times shorter, resulting in markedly lower analysis costs. 1H NMR is robust, reproducible and can provide absolute quantitation of many metabolites. Of particular relevance to cardio-metabolic disease is the ability of 1H NMR to provide detailed quantitative data on amino acids, fatty acids and other metabolites as well as lipoprotein subparticle concentrations and size. Early epidemiological studies suggest promise, however, this is an emerging field and more data is required before we can determine the clinical utility of these measures to improve disease prediction and treatment. This review describes the theoretical basis of 1H NMR; compares MS and 1H NMR and provides a tabular overview of recent 1H NMR-based research findings in the atherosclerosis field, describing the design and scope of studies conducted to date. 1H NMR metabolomics-CVD related research is emerging, however further large, robustly conducted prospective, genetic and intervention studies are needed to advance research on CVD risk prediction and to identify causal pathways amenable to intervention. PMID:25299963

  11. Binge Toluene Exposure Alters Glutamate, Glutamine and GABA in the Adolescent Rat Brain as Measured by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, Shane A.; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Galloway, Matthew P.; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high incidence of toluene abuse in adolescents, little is known regarding the effect of binge exposure on neurochemical profiles during this developmental stage. In the current study, the effects of binge toluene exposure during adolescence on neurotransmitter levels were determined using high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ex vivo at 11.7 T. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to toluene (0, 8,000 , or 12,000 ppm) for 15 min twice daily from postnatal day 28 (P28) through P34 and then euthanized either one or seven days later (on P35 or P42) to assess glutamate, glutamine, and GABA levels in intact tissue punches from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior striatum and hippocampus. In the mPFC, toluene reduced glutamate one day after exposure, with no effect on GABA, while after seven days, glutamate was no longer affected but there was an increase in GABA levels. In the hippocampus, neither GABA nor glutamate was altered one day after exposure, whereas seven days after exposure, increases were observed in GABA and glutamate. Striatal glutamate and GABA levels measured after either one or seven days were not altered after toluene exposure. These findings show that one week of binge toluene inhalation selectively alters these neurotransmitters in the mPFC and hippocampus in adolescent rats, and that some of these effects endure at least one week after the exposure. The results suggest that age-dependent, differential neurochemical responses to toluene may contribute to the unique behavioral patterns associated with drug abuse among older children and young teens. PMID:21126832

  12. Altered white matter metabolism in delayed neurologic sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Fujihara, Kazuo; Mugikura, Shunji; Takahashi, Shoki; Kushimoto, Shigeki; Aoki, Masashi

    2016-01-15

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was recently used to examine altered metabolism in the white matter (WM) of patients experiencing carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning; however, only a small number of patients with delayed neurologic sequelae (DNS) were analyzed. We aimed to detect altered metabolism in the WM of patients with DNS using (1)H-MRS; to explore its clinical relevance in the management of patients experiencing CO poisoning. Patients experiencing acute CO poisoning underwent (1)H-MRS and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination within 1week and at 1month after acute poisoning. Metabolites including choline-containing compounds (Cho), creatine (Cr), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and lactate were measured from the periventricular WM. Myelin basic protein (MBP) concentrations were measured in CSF. Fifty-two patients experiencing acute CO poisoning (15 with DNS, 37 without DNS; median age, 49years; 65% males) underwent (1)H-MRS. Within 1week, NAA/Cr ratios, reflecting neuroaxonal viability, were lower in patients with DNS than in those without DNS (P<0.05). At 1month, when 9 of 15 patients (60%) developed DNS, Cho/Cr ratios were higher, and NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios lower in patients with DNS (P=0.0001, <0.0001, and <0.0001, respectively), indicating increased membrane metabolism and decreased neuroaxonal viability. (1)H-MRS parameter abnormalities correlated with the elevation of MBP in CSF. The presence of a lactate peak was a predictor for a poor long-term outcome. (1)H-MRS within 1week may be useful for predicting DNS development; (1)H-MRS at 1month may be useful for discriminating patients with DNS and predicting long-term outcomes.

  13. Accuracy and stability of measuring GABA, glutamate, and glutamine by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy: A phantom study at 4 Tesla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Michael E.; Lauriat, Tara L.; Shanahan, Meghan; Renshaw, Perry F.; Jensen, J. Eric

    2011-02-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has the potential to provide valuable information about alterations in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), and glutamine (Gln) in psychiatric and neurological disorders. In order to use this technique effectively, it is important to establish the accuracy and reproducibility of the methodology. In this study, phantoms with known metabolite concentrations were used to compare the accuracy of 2D J-resolved MRS, single-echo 30 ms PRESS, and GABA-edited MEGA-PRESS for measuring all three aforementioned neurochemicals simultaneously. The phantoms included metabolite concentrations above and below the physiological range and scans were performed at baseline, 1 week, and 1 month time-points. For GABA measurement, MEGA-PRESS proved optimal with a measured-to-target correlation of R2 = 0.999, with J-resolved providing R2 = 0.973 for GABA. All three methods proved effective in measuring Glu with R2 = 0.987 (30 ms PRESS), R2 = 0.996 (J-resolved) and R2 = 0.910 (MEGA-PRESS). J-resolved and MEGA-PRESS yielded good results for Gln measures with respective R2 = 0.855 (J-resolved) and R2 = 0.815 (MEGA-PRESS). The 30 ms PRESS method proved ineffective in measuring GABA and Gln. When measurement stability at in vivo concentration was assessed as a function of varying spectral quality, J-resolved proved the most stable and immune to signal-to-noise and linewidth fluctuation compared to MEGA-PRESS and 30 ms PRESS.

  14. The emergence of proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics in the cardiovascular arena as viewed from a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Naomi J; Preiss, David; Welsh, Paul; Burgess, Karl E V; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Sattar, Naveed

    2014-11-01

    The ability to phenotype metabolic profiles in serum has increased substantially in recent years with the advent of metabolomics. Metabolomics is the study of the metabolome, defined as those molecules with an atomic mass less than 1.5 kDa. There are two main metabolomics methods: mass spectrometry (MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy, each with its respective benefits and limitations. MS has greater sensitivity and so can detect many more metabolites. However, its cost (especially when heavy labelled internal standards are required for absolute quantitation) and quality control is sub-optimal for large cohorts. (1)H NMR is less sensitive but sample preparation is generally faster and analysis times shorter, resulting in markedly lower analysis costs. (1)H NMR is robust, reproducible and can provide absolute quantitation of many metabolites. Of particular relevance to cardio-metabolic disease is the ability of (1)H NMR to provide detailed quantitative data on amino acids, fatty acids and other metabolites as well as lipoprotein subparticle concentrations and size. Early epidemiological studies suggest promise, however, this is an emerging field and more data is required before we can determine the clinical utility of these measures to improve disease prediction and treatment. This review describes the theoretical basis of (1)H NMR; compares MS and (1)H NMR and provides a tabular overview of recent (1)H NMR-based research findings in the atherosclerosis field, describing the design and scope of studies conducted to date. (1)H NMR metabolomics-CVD related research is emerging, however further large, robustly conducted prospective, genetic and intervention studies are needed to advance research on CVD risk prediction and to identify causal pathways amenable to intervention.

  15. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Spectroscopic Discrimination of Wines Reflects Genetic Homology of Several Different Grape (V. vinifera L.) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Wen, Wen; Zhang, Fengmin; Hardie, Jim W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy coupled multivariate analysis (1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA) is an important tool for the discrimination of wine products. Although 1H NMR has been shown to discriminate wines of different cultivars, a grape genetic component of the discrimination has been inferred only from discrimination of cultivars of undefined genetic homology and in the presence of many confounding environmental factors. We aimed to confirm the influence of grape genotypes in the absence of those factors. Methods and Results We applied 1H NMR-PCA/PLS-DA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) to wines from five, variously genetically-related grapevine (V. vinifera) cultivars; all grown similarly on the same site and vinified similarly. We also compared the semi-quantitative profiles of the discriminant metabolites of each cultivar with previously reported chemical analyses. The cultivars were clearly distinguishable and there was a general correlation between their grouping and their genetic homology as revealed by recent genomic studies. Between cultivars, the relative amounts of several of the cultivar-related discriminant metabolites conformed closely with reported chemical analyses. Conclusions Differences in grape-derived metabolites associated with genetic differences alone are a major source of 1H NMR-based discrimination of wines and 1H NMR has the capacity to discriminate between very closely related cultivars. Significance of the Study The study confirms that genetic variation among grape cultivars alone can account for the discrimination of wine by 1H NMR-PCA/PLS and indicates that 1H NMR spectra of wine of single grape cultivars may in future be used in tandem with hierarchical cluster analysis to elucidate genetic lineages and metabolomic relations of grapevine cultivars. In the absence of genetic information, for example, where predecessor varieties are no longer extant, this may be a particularly useful approach. PMID

  16. Diet-Quality Scores and Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Population Study Using Proton-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ruth; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Chu, Winnie Chiu-Wing; Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Li, Liz Sin; Leung, Jason; Chim, Angel Mei-Ling; Yeung, David Ka-Wai; Sea, Mandy Man-Mei; Woo, Jean; Chan, Francis Ka-Leung; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen

    2015-01-01

    Dietary pattern analysis is an alternative approach to examine the association between diet and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study examined the association of two diet-quality scores, namely Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) with NAFLD prevalence. Apparently healthy Chinese adults (332 male, 465 female) aged 18 years or above were recruited through a population screening between 2008 and 2010 in a cross-sectional population-based study in Hong Kong. DQI-I and MDS, as well as major food group and nutrient intakes were calculated based on dietary data from a food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as intrahepatic triglyceride content at ≥5% by proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between each diet-quality score or dietary component and prevalent NAFLD with adjustment for potential lifestyle, metabolic and genetic factors. A total of 220 subjects (27.6%) were diagnosed with NAFLD. DQI-I but not MDS was associated with the prevalence of NAFLD. A 10-unit decrease in DQI-I was associated with 24% increase in the likelihood of having NAFLD in the age and sex adjusted model (95% CI: 1.06-1.45, p = 0.009), and the association remained significant when the model was further adjusted for other lifestyle factors, metabolic and genetic factors [OR: 1.26 (95% CI: 1.03-1.54), p = 0.027]. Multivariate regression analyses showed an inverse association of the intake of vegetables and legumes, fruits and dried fruits, as well as vitamin C with the NAFLD prevalence (p<0.05). In conclusion, a better diet quality as characterized by a higher DQI-I and a higher consumption of vegetables, legumes and fruits was associated with a reduced likelihood of having NAFLD in Hong Kong Chinese.

  17. Metabonomic investigations of age- and batch-related variations in female NMRI mice using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia V; Saric, Jasmina; Yap, Ivan K S; Utzinger, Jürg; Holmes, Elaine

    2013-12-01

    The NMRI outbred mouse model is widely used for studying metabolic disease, toxicity, and infection, yet information regarding baseline metabolism of this murine strain is relatively sparse. Using different batches of female NMRI mice, we assessed the stability of the metabolic phenotype with increasing age and weight, and determined the influence of acclimatization on the metabolic profile of biofluids (urine, plasma, and faecal water). Differences in urinary concentrations of 3-ureidopropionate, 2-oxoisocaproate, trimethylamine, and glycine were detected between three batches of 9-week-old female NMRI mice using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. An acclimatization period of 2 weeks was imposed after the mice entered the laboratory environment. Strong differences in the faecal metabolome pre- and post-acclimatization were found (reduction in amino acid concentrations), whilst the urine metabolome showed increased levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide, phenylacetyl glycine, and hippurate with decreased excretion of formate and betaine post-acclimatization. Temporal variation in the metabolite profiles over a 16-week study stabilized around 7-week-old animals. The results from this study strongly argue for inclusion of an acclimatization period prior to starting an investigative procedure, and suggest that the metabolic phenotypes of female NMRI mice are more stable at around 7 weeks of age. We have also identified a set of metabolites that are more susceptible to variation in concentration. This information can serve as a benchmark in order to establish confidence in systematic variation attributable to pathology or therapeutic intervention above the background metabolic variation in the NMRI mouse. PMID:24121299

  18. Altered white matter metabolism in delayed neurologic sequelae after carbon monoxide poisoning: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Fujihara, Kazuo; Mugikura, Shunji; Takahashi, Shoki; Kushimoto, Shigeki; Aoki, Masashi

    2016-01-15

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was recently used to examine altered metabolism in the white matter (WM) of patients experiencing carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning; however, only a small number of patients with delayed neurologic sequelae (DNS) were analyzed. We aimed to detect altered metabolism in the WM of patients with DNS using (1)H-MRS; to explore its clinical relevance in the management of patients experiencing CO poisoning. Patients experiencing acute CO poisoning underwent (1)H-MRS and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination within 1week and at 1month after acute poisoning. Metabolites including choline-containing compounds (Cho), creatine (Cr), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and lactate were measured from the periventricular WM. Myelin basic protein (MBP) concentrations were measured in CSF. Fifty-two patients experiencing acute CO poisoning (15 with DNS, 37 without DNS; median age, 49years; 65% males) underwent (1)H-MRS. Within 1week, NAA/Cr ratios, reflecting neuroaxonal viability, were lower in patients with DNS than in those without DNS (P<0.05). At 1month, when 9 of 15 patients (60%) developed DNS, Cho/Cr ratios were higher, and NAA/Cr and NAA/Cho ratios lower in patients with DNS (P=0.0001, <0.0001, and <0.0001, respectively), indicating increased membrane metabolism and decreased neuroaxonal viability. (1)H-MRS parameter abnormalities correlated with the elevation of MBP in CSF. The presence of a lactate peak was a predictor for a poor long-term outcome. (1)H-MRS within 1week may be useful for predicting DNS development; (1)H-MRS at 1month may be useful for discriminating patients with DNS and predicting long-term outcomes. PMID:26723994

  19. Diet-Quality Scores and Prevalence of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Population Study Using Proton-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ruth; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Chu, Winnie Chiu-Wing; Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Li, Liz Sin; Leung, Jason; Chim, Angel Mei-Ling; Yeung, David Ka-Wai; Sea, Mandy Man-Mei; Woo, Jean; Chan, Francis Ka-Leung; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen

    2015-01-01

    Dietary pattern analysis is an alternative approach to examine the association between diet and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study examined the association of two diet-quality scores, namely Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) with NAFLD prevalence. Apparently healthy Chinese adults (332 male, 465 female) aged 18 years or above were recruited through a population screening between 2008 and 2010 in a cross-sectional population-based study in Hong Kong. DQI-I and MDS, as well as major food group and nutrient intakes were calculated based on dietary data from a food frequency questionnaire. NAFLD was defined as intrahepatic triglyceride content at ≥5% by proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the association between each diet-quality score or dietary component and prevalent NAFLD with adjustment for potential lifestyle, metabolic and genetic factors. A total of 220 subjects (27.6%) were diagnosed with NAFLD. DQI-I but not MDS was associated with the prevalence of NAFLD. A 10-unit decrease in DQI-I was associated with 24% increase in the likelihood of having NAFLD in the age and sex adjusted model (95% CI: 1.06–1.45, p = 0.009), and the association remained significant when the model was further adjusted for other lifestyle factors, metabolic and genetic factors [OR: 1.26 (95% CI: 1.03–1.54), p = 0.027]. Multivariate regression analyses showed an inverse association of the intake of vegetables and legumes, fruits and dried fruits, as well as vitamin C with the NAFLD prevalence (p<0.05). In conclusion, a better diet quality as characterized by a higher DQI-I and a higher consumption of vegetables, legumes and fruits was associated with a reduced likelihood of having NAFLD in Hong Kong Chinese. PMID:26418083

  20. Metal-Metal Interactions in Trinuclear Copper(II) Complexes [Cu3(RCOO)4(H2TEA)2] and Binuclear [Cu2(RCOO)2(H2TEA)2]. Syntheses and Combined Structural, Magnetic, High-Field Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, and Theoretical Studies.

    PubMed

    Ozarowski, Andrew; Calzado, Carmen J; Sharma, Raj Pal; Kumar, Santosh; Jezierska, Julia; Angeli, Celestino; Spizzo, Federico; Ferretti, Valeria

    2015-12-21

    The trinuclear [Cu3(RCOO)4(H2TEA)2] copper(II) complexes, where RCOO(-) = 2-furoate (1), 2-methoxybenzoate (2), and 3-methoxybenzoate (3, 4), as well as dimeric species [Cu2(H2TEA)2(RCOO)2]·2H2O, have been prepared by adding triethanolamine (H3TEA) at ambient conditions to hydrated Cu(RCOO)2 salts. The newly synthesized complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, spectroscopic techniques (IR and UV-visible), magnetic susceptibility, single crystal X-ray structure determination and theoretical calculations, using a Difference Dedicated Configuration Interaction approach for the evaluation of magnetic coupling constants. In 1 and 2, the central copper atom lies on an inversion center, while in the polymorphs 3 and 4, the three metal centers are crystallographically independent. The zero-field splitting parameters of the trimeric compounds, D and E, were derived from high-field, high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance spectra at temperatures ranging from 3 to 290 K and were used for the interpretation of the magnetic data. It was found that the dominant interaction between the terminal and central Cu sites J12 is ferromagnetic in nature in all complexes, even though differences have been found between the symmetrical or quasi-symmetrical complexes 1-3 and non-symmetrical complex 4, while the interaction between the terminal centers, J23, is negligible.

  1. Protonation of carbon single-walled nanotubes studied using 13C and 1H-13C cross polarization nuclear magnetic resonance and Raman spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Engtrakul, Chaiwat; Davis, Mark F; Gennett, Thomas; Dillon, Anne C; Jones, Kim M; Heben, Michael J

    2005-12-14

    The reversible protonation of carbon single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) in sulfuric acid and Nafion was investigated using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Raman spectroscopies. Magic-angle spinning (MAS) was used to obtain high-resolution 13C and 1H-13C cross polarization (CP) NMR spectra. The 13C NMR chemical shifts are reported for bulk SWNTs, H2SO4-treated SWNTs, SWNT-Nafion polymer composites, SWNT-AQ55 polymer composites, and SWNTs in contact with water. Protonation occurs without irreversible oxidation of the nanotube substrate via a charge-transfer process. This is the first report of a chemically induced change in a SWNT 13C resonance brought about by a reversible interaction with an acidic proton, providing additional evidence that carbon nanotubes behave as weak bases. Cross polarization was found to be a powerful technique for providing an additional contrast mechanism for studying nanotubes in contact with other chemical species. The CP studies confirmed polarization transfer from nearby protons to nanotube carbon atoms. The CP technique was also applied to investigate water adsorbed on carbon nanotube surfaces. Finally, the degree of bundling of the SWNTs in Nafion films was probed with the 1H-13C CP-MAS technique. PMID:16332107

  2. Mechanical-property changes of structural composite materials after low-temperature proton irradiation: Implications for use in SSC magnet systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morena, J.; Snead, C.L. Jr.; Czajkowski, C.; Skaritka, J.

    1993-07-01

    Longterm physical, mechanical, electrical, and other properties of advanced composites, plastics, and other polymer materials are greatly affected by high-energy proton, neutron, electron, and gamma radiation. The effects of high-energy particles on materials is a critical design parameter to consider when choosing polymeric structural, nonstructural, and elastomeric matrix resin systems. Polymer materials used for filled resins, laminates, seals, gaskets, coatings, insulation and other nonmetallic components must be chosen carefully, and reference data viewed with caution. Most reference data collected in the high-energy physics community to date reflects material property degradation using other than proton irradiations. In most instances, the data were collected for room-temperature irradiations, not 4.2 K or other cryogenic temperatures, and at doses less than 10{sup 8}--10{sup 9} Rad. Energetic proton (and the accompanying spallation-product particles) provide good simulation fidelity to the expected radiation fields predicted for the cold-mass regions of the SSC magnets, especially the corrector magnets. The authors present here results for some structural composite materials which were part of a larger irradiation-characterization of polymeric materials for SSC applications.

  3. Graphene oxide-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle composite with high transverse proton relaxivity value for magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesha, N.; Srivastava, Chandan; Poojar, Pavan; Geethanath, Sairam; Qurishi, Yasrib

    2015-04-21

    The potential of graphene oxide–Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticle (GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) composite as an image contrast enhancing material in magnetic resonance imaging has been investigated. Proton relaxivity values were obtained in three different homogeneous dispersions of GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites synthesized by precipitating Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in three different reaction mixtures containing 0.01 g, 0.1 g, and 0.2 g of graphene oxide. A noticeable difference in proton relaxivity values was observed between the three cases. A comprehensive structural and magnetic characterization revealed discrete differences in the extent of reduction of the graphene oxide and spacing between the graphene oxide sheets in the three composites. The GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite framework that contained graphene oxide with least extent of reduction of the carboxyl groups and largest spacing between the graphene oxide sheets provided the optimum structure for yielding a very high transverse proton relaxivity value. It was found that the GO-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} composites possessed good biocompatibility with normal cell lines, whereas they exhibited considerable toxicity towards breast cancer cells.

  4. Amide proton exchange in the. cap alpha. -amylase polypeptide inhibitor tendamistat studied by two-dimensional /sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, O.; Kline, A.D.; Wuethrich, K.

    1987-10-06

    The individual amide proton exchange rates in Tendamistat at pH 3.0 and 50/sup 0/C were measured by using two-dimensional ..cap alpha..H nuclear magnetic resonance. Overall, it was found that the distribution of exchange rates along the sequence is dominated by the interstrand hydrogen bonds of the ..beta..-sheet structures. The slowly exchanging protons in the core of the two ..beta..-sheets were shown to exchange via an EX2 mechanism. Further analysis of the data indicates that different large-scale structure fluctuations are responsible for the exchange from the two ..beta..-sheets, even though the three-dimensional structure of Tendamistat appears to consist of a single structural domain.

  5. Non-additive response of blends of rice and potato starch during heating at intermediate water contents: A differential scanning calorimetry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance study.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Pareyt, Bram; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-02-01

    The impact of different hydration levels, on gelatinization of potato starch (PS), rice starch (RS) and a 1:1 blend thereof, was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and related to nuclear magnetic resonance proton distributions of hydrated samples, before and after heating. At 20% or 30% hydration, the visual appearance of all samples was that of a wet powder, and limited, if any, gelatinization occurred upon heating. At 30% hydration, changes in proton distributions were observed and related to plasticization of amorphous regions in the granules. At 50% hydration, the PS-RS blend appeared more liquid-like than other hydrated samples and showed more pronounced gelatinization than expected based on additive behavior of pure starches. This was due to an additional mobile water fraction in the unheated PS-RS blend, originating from differences in water distribution due to altered stacking of granules and/or altered hydration of PS due to presence of cations in RS.

  6. Studies related to primitive chemistry. A proton and nitrogen-14 nuclear magnetic resonance amino acid and nucleic acid constituents and a and their possible relation to prebiotic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, S. L.; Cohen, E. A.; Shiller, A. M.; Chan, S. I.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies were made to determine the applicability of this technique for the study of interactions between monomeric and polymeric amino acids with monomeric nucleic acid bases and nucleotides. Proton NMR results for aqueous solutions (D2O) demonstrated interactions between the bases cytosine and adenine and acidic and aromatic amino acids. Solutions of 5'-AMP admixed with amino acids exhibited more complex behavior but stacking between aromatic rings and destacking at high amino acids concentration was evident. The multisite nature of 5'-AMP was pointed out. Chemical shift changes for adenine and 5'-AMP with three water soluble polypeptides demonstrated that significant interactions exist. It was found that the linewidth-pH profile of each amino acid is unique. It is concluded that NMR techniques can give significant and quantitative data on the association of amino acid and nucleic acid constituents.

  7. Dynamics of the hydrogen and phosphate ions in proton conducting gel/D3PO4 electrolytes: A 2H and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffrey, K. R.; Zukowska, G. Z.; Stevens, J. R.

    2003-07-01

    The synthesis and characterization of protonic conducting polymeric gels is motivated by their possible application in various electrochemical devices. Nonaqueous proton-conducting gel electrolytes are being developed for use in various sensors and electrochromic devices operating at ambient temperatures. The electrolyte must have a relatively high conductivity and chemical and physical stability. One method of producing nonaqueous conducting polymeric gel electrolytes is to entrap organic solutions of a strong acid such as H3PO4 in a polymer matrix. Results are reported on the system consisting of phosphoric acid dissolved in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) within a gel network formed with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA). Using selective deuteration, the diffusion coefficients for both the deuteron and phosphorus from the phosphoric acid and the DMF are measured by field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Combining the diffusion with conductivity measurements in the Nernst-Einstein equation leads to a better understanding of the number of charge carriers in the mixture and the temperature dependence of this number. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation is used as a tool to probe the ion dynamics in these materials. In addition to NMR measurements, the samples have been characterized by electrical conductivity, differential scanning calorimetry, and viscosity measurements. The results show that the Grotthus mechanism involving the hopping of the proton from one molecular site to another, as well as the vehicular mechanism due to the motion of the D2PO4- and D4PO4+ ions are most responsible for the motion of the proton in these electrolytes. The variety of protonation sites in the PGMA/DMF/H3PO4 system is much more diverse that in the previously studied PMMA/PC/D3PO4 system. In the PGMA/DMF/H3PO4 system there are sites on the polymer, DMF and H3PO4.

  8. Carbon-13 and proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of shale-derived refinery products and jet fuels and of experimental referee broadened-specification jet fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalling, D. K.; Bailey, B. K.; Pugmire, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    A proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study was conducted of Ashland shale oil refinery products, experimental referee broadened-specification jet fuels, and of related isoprenoid model compounds. Supercritical fluid chromatography techniques using carbon dioxide were developed on a preparative scale, so that samples could be quantitatively separated into saturates and aromatic fractions for study by NMR. An optimized average parameter treatment was developed, and the NMR results were analyzed in terms of the resulting average parameters; formulation of model mixtures was demonstrated. Application of novel spectroscopic techniques to fuel samples was investigated.

  9. T1 and susceptibility contrast at high fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelavalli, Jaladhar

    Clinical imaging at high magnetic field strengths (≥ 3Tesla) is sought after primarily due to the increased signal strength available at these fields. This increased SNR can be used to perform: (a) high resolution imaging in the same time as at lower field strengths; (b) the same resolution imaging with much faster acquisition; and (c) functional MR imaging (fMRI), dynamic perfusion and diffusion imaging with increased sensitivity. However they are also associated with increased power deposition (SAR) due to increase in imaging frequency and longer T1 relaxation times. Longer T1s mean longer imaging times for generating good T1 contrast images. On the other hand for faster imaging, at high fields fast spin echo or magnetization prepared sequences are conventionally proposed which are, however, associated with high SAR values. Imaging with low SAR is more and more important as we move towards high fields and particularly for patients with metallic implants like pacemakers or deep brain stimulator. The SAR limit acceptable for these patients is much less than the limit acceptable for normal subjects. A new method is proposed for imaging at high fields with good contrast with simultaneous reduction in power deposition. Further, T1 based contrast optimization problem in FLASH imaging is considered for tissues with different T1s but same spin densities. The solution providing optimal imaging parameters is simplified for quick and easy computation in a clinical setting. The efficacy of the simplification is evaluated and practical limits under which the simplification can be applied are worked out. The phase difference due to variation in magnetic susceptibility property among biological tissues is another unique source of contrast which is different from the conventional T1, T2 and T2* contrast. This susceptibility based phase contrast has become more and more important at high fields, partly due to contrast generation issues due to longer T 1s and shorter T2s and

  10. A new medium energy beam transport line for the proton injector of AGS-RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Briscoe, B.; Fite, J.; LoDestro, V.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2010-09-12

    In Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a 750 keV medium energy beam transport line between the 201 MHz 750 keV proton RFQ and the 200 MeV Alvarez DTL is being modified to get a better transmission of the beam. Within a tight space, high field gradient quadrupoles (65 Tm) and newly designed steering magnets (6.5 mm in length) will be installed considering the cross-talk effects. Also a new half wave length 200 MHz buncher is being prepared. The beam commissioning will be done in this year. To enhance the performance of the proton linacs, the MEBT is being modified. New quadrupole magnets, steering magnets and a half wave length buncher as shown in Figure 7 will be installed and be commissioned soon.

  11. Optical diagnostics of mercury jet for an intense proton target

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.; Ladeinde, F.; Tsang, T.; Kirk, H. G.; Graves, V. B.; Spampinato, P. T.; Carroll, A. J.; Titus, P. H.; McDonald, K. T.

    2008-04-15

    An optical diagnostic system is designed and constructed for imaging a free mercury jet interacting with a high intensity proton beam in a pulsed high-field solenoid magnet. The optical imaging system employs a backilluminated, laser shadow photography technique. Object illumination and image capture are transmitted through radiation-hard multimode optical fibers and flexible coherent imaging fibers. A retroreflected illumination design allows the entire passive imaging system to fit inside the bore of the solenoid magnet. A sequence of synchronized short laser light pulses are used to freeze the transient events, and the images are recorded by several high speed charge coupled devices. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis using image processing based on probability approach is described. The characteristics of free mercury jet as a high power target for beam-jet interaction at various levels of the magnetic induction field is reported in this paper.

  12. Optical diagnostics of mercury jet for an intense proton target.

    PubMed

    Park, H; Tsang, T; Kirk, H G; Ladeinde, F; Graves, V B; Spampinato, P T; Carroll, A J; Titus, P H; McDonald, K T

    2008-04-01

    An optical diagnostic system is designed and constructed for imaging a free mercury jet interacting with a high intensity proton beam in a pulsed high-field solenoid magnet. The optical imaging system employs a backilluminated, laser shadow photography technique. Object illumination and image capture are transmitted through radiation-hard multimode optical fibers and flexible coherent imaging fibers. A retroreflected illumination design allows the entire passive imaging system to fit inside the bore of the solenoid magnet. A sequence of synchronized short laser light pulses are used to freeze the transient events, and the images are recorded by several high speed charge coupled devices. Quantitative and qualitative data analysis using image processing based on probability approach is described. The characteristics of free mercury jet as a high power target for beam-jet interaction at various levels of the magnetic induction field is reported in this paper.

  13. Sultan - forced flow, high field test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, I.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1981-09-01

    Three European laboratories: CNEN (Frascati, I) ECN (Petten, NL) and SIN (Villigen, CH) decided to coordinate their development efforts and to install a common high field forced flow test facility at Villigen Switzerland. The test facility SULTAN (Supraleiter Testanlage) is presently under construction. As a first step, an 8T/1m bore solenoid with cryogenic periphery will be ready in 1981. The cryogenic system, data acquisition system and power supplies which are contributed by SIN are described. Experimental feasibilities, including cooling, and instrumentation are reviewed. Progress of components and facility construction is described. Planned extension of the background field up to 12T by insert coils is outlined. 5 refs.

  14. Physical processes at high field strengths

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of the radiation produced by the high field interaction with the rare gases have revealed the presence of both copious harmonic production and fluorescence. The highest harmonic observed was the seventeenth (14.6 rm) in Ne, the shortest wavelength ever produced by that means. Strong fluorescence was seen in Ar, Kr, and Xe with the shortest wavelengths observed being below 10 nm. Furthermore, radiation from inner-shell excited configurations in Xe, specifically the 4d/sup 9/5s5p ..-->.. 4d/sup 10/5s manifold at approx. 17.7 nm, was detected. The behaviors of the rare gases with respect to multiquantum ionization, harmonic production, and fluorescence were found to be correlated so that the materials fell into two groups, He and Ne in one and Ar, Kr, and Xe in the other. These experimental findings, in alliance with other studies on inner-shell decay processes, give evidence for a role of atomic correlations in a direct nonlinear process of inner-shell excitation. It is expected that an understanding of these high-field processes will enable the generation of stimulated emission in the x-ray range. 59 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Brain Biochemical Effects of Methylphenidate Treatment Using Proton Magnetic Spectroscopy in Youth with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hammerness, Paul; Biederman, Joseph; Petty, Carter; Henin, Aude; Moore, Constance M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction This study conducted spectroscopic analyses using proton (1H) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (at 4 Tesla) in a sample of adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), before and after treatment with extended release methylphenidate (OROS MPH), as compared to a sample of healthy comparators. Aims The main aim of this study is to use 1H MRS to measure differences in brain biochemistry between adolescents with and without ADHD, and to assess changes in cerebral biochemistry, before and after stimulant treatment in ADHD youth. Results Subjects with ADHD were medically healthy adolescents treated in an open label fashion with OROS MPH (mean dose: 54 mg/day; 0.90 mg/kg/day). Subjects with ADHD were scanned before and after OROS MPH treatment. Healthy comparators were scanned once. Magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy studies were performed on a 4.0 T Varian Unity/Inova MR scanner; proton spectra were acquired from the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC). Data were analyzed using MANOVA and repeated measurement ANOVA. Higher metabolite ratios (Glutamate/myo-inositol, Glutamine/myo-inositol, Glutamate + Glutamine/myo-inositol) were observed in the ACC in untreated ADHD subjects as compared to controls, and to treated ADHD youth; these group differences did not reach the a priori threshold for statistical significance. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest the presence of glutamatergic abnormalities in adolescents with ADHD, which may normalize with MPH treatment. Larger sample, controlled studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:21143432

  16. High field - low energy muon ionization cooling channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal Sayed, Hisham; Palmer, Robert B.; Neuffer, David

    2015-09-01

    Muon beams are generated with large transverse and longitudinal emittances. In order to achieve the low emittances required by a muon collider, within the short lifetime of the muons, ionization cooling is required. Cooling schemes have been developed to reduce the muon beam 6D emittances to ≈300 μ m -rad in transverse and ≈1 - 1.5 mm in longitudinal dimensions. The transverse emittance has to be further reduced to ≈50 - 25 μ m -rad with an upper limit on the longitudinal emittance of ≈76 mm in order to meet the high-energy muon collider luminosity requirements. Earlier studies of the transverse cooling of low energy muon beams in high field magnets showed a promising performance, but did not include transverse or longitudinal matching between the stages. In this study we present the first complete design of the high field-low energy ionization cooling channel with transverse and longitudinal matching. The channel design was based on strong focusing solenoids with fields of 25-30 T and low momentum muon beam starting at 135 MeV /c and gradually decreasing. The cooling channel design presented here is the first to reach ≈50 micron scale emittance beam. We present the channel's optimized design parameters including the focusing solenoid fields, absorber parameters and the transverse and longitudinal matching.

  17. High-field electron-photon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hartemann, F V

    1999-02-26

    Recent advances in novel technologies (including chirped-pulse amplification, femtosecond laser systems operating in the TW-PW range, high-gradient rf photoinjectors, and synchronized relativistic electron bunches with subpicosecond durations and THz bandwidths) allow experimentalists to study the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultrahigh-intensity photon fields. Ponderomotive scattering can accelerate these electrons with extremely high gradients in a three-dimensional vacuum laser focus. The nonlinear Doppler shift induced by relativistic radiation pressure in Compton backscattering is shown to yield complex nonlinear spectra which can be modified by using temporal laser pulse shaping techniques. Colliding laser pulses, where ponderomotive acceleration and Compton backscattering are combined, could also yield extremely short wavelength photons. Finally, one expects strong radiative corrections when the Doppler-upshifted laser wavelength approaches the Compton scale. These are discussed within the context of high-field classical electrodynamics, a new discipline borne out of the aforementioned innovations.

  18. Bi-2212 round wire development for high field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, H.; Huang, Y.; Hong, S.; Gerace, M.; Parrell, J.

    2014-05-01

    Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) has been continuously improving Bi-2212 round wire performance because of its potential for application in high-field magnets (> 25 T). We focused on Bi-2212 wire configuration design, filament densification and reducing carbon and hydrogen contamination to improve the engineering critical current density (JE). Several wire configurations have been developed to meet different wire diameter and operating current requirements. The swaging, cold isostatic pressing (CIP) and over-pressure heat treatment processes have been demonstrated to effectively increase Bi-2212 filament mass density in the final wire and result in high performance over long length. The JE values exceeding 550 A/mm2 at 4.2 K, 15 T have been achieved on the CIPed 1 m long sample using a 10 bar over-pressure (OP) heat treatment. The twisted Bi-2212 wire significantly reduced ac loss without the critical current degradation.

  19. REVIEW OF HIGH FIELD Q SLOPE, CAVITY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gianluigi Ciovati

    2008-01-23

    One of the most interesting phenomenon occurring in superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of bulk niobium is represented by a sharp decrease of the quality factor above peak surface magnetic field of about 90 mT and is referred to as "high field Q-slope" or "Q-drop". This phenomenon was observed first in 1997 and since then some effort was devoted to the understanding of the causes behind it. Still, no clear physical interpretation of the Q-drop has emerged, despite several attempts. In this contribution, I will review the experimental results for various cavities measured in many laboratories and I will try to identify common features and differences related to the Q-drop.

  20. Early knee changes in dancers identified by ultra-high-field 7 T MRI.

    PubMed

    Chang, G; Diamond, M; Nevsky, G; Regatte, R R; Weiss, D S

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to determine whether a unique, ultra-high-field 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner could detect occult cartilage and meniscal injuries in asymptomatic female dancers. This study had Institutional Review Board approval. We recruited eight pre-professional female dancers and nine non-athletic, female controls. We scanned the dominant knee on a 7 T MRI scanner using a three-dimensional fast low-angle shot sequence and a proton density, fast spin-echo sequence to evaluate cartilage and menisci, respectively. Two radiologists scored cartilage (International Cartilage Repair Society classification) and meniscal (Stoller classification) lesions. We applied two-tailed z- and t-tests to determine statistical significance. There were no cartilage lesions in dancers or controls. For the medial meniscus, the dancers demonstrated higher mean MRI score (2.38 ± 0.61 vs 1.0 ± 0.97, P < 0.0001) and higher frequency of mean grade 2 lesions (88% vs 11%, P < 0.01) compared with the controls. For the lateral meniscus, there was no difference in score (0.5 ± 0.81 vs 0.5 ± 0.78, P = 0.78) in dancers compared with the control groups. Asymptomatic dancers demonstrate occult medial meniscal lesions. Because this has been described in early osteoarthritis, close surveillance of dancers' knee symptoms and function with appropriate activity modification may help maintain their long-term knee health.

  1. The Schwarzschild Proton

    SciTech Connect

    Haramein, Nassim

    2010-11-24

    We review our model of a proton that obeys the Schwarzschild condition. We find that only a very small percentage ({approx}10{sup -39}%) of the vacuum fluctuations available within a proton volume need be cohered and converted to mass-energy in order for the proton to meet the Schwarzschild condition. This proportion is equivalent to that between gravitation and the strong force where gravitation is thought to be {approx}10{sup -38} to 10{sup -40} weaker than the strong force. Gravitational attraction between two contiguous Schwarzschild protons can accommodate both nucleon and quark confinement. We calculate that two contiguous Schwarzschild protons would rotate at c and have a period of 10{sup -23} s and a frequency of 10{sup 22} Hz which is characteristic of the strong force interaction time and a close approximation of the gamma emission typically associated with nuclear decay. We include a scaling law and find that the Schwarzschild proton data point lies near the least squares trend line for organized matter. Using a semi-classical model, we find that a proton charge orbiting at a proton radius at c generates a good approximation to the measured anomalous magnetic moment.

  2. Long-term follow-up of proton irradiated malignant melanoma by glucose-fructose enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Thuomas, K A; Naeser, P

    1997-02-01

    MR imaging is frequently used to diagnose uveal melanomas due to the characteristic short T2 relaxation time. T2 may be significantly prolonged within 2 h after ingestion of glucose and fructose due to changed water distribution in the melanoma. This method is used to follow melanomas for up to 6 years after proton beam irradiation. In the tumours, T2 was shortened in parallel in all the lesions during the first 9 months. After this, T2 increased only in tumours which showed recurrence. T2 determination and histopathological examination revealed no signs of recurrence in eyes which were enucleated due to neovascular glaucoma. It is concluded that MR imaging performed with carbohydrate loading, registers metabolic changes induced in the tumour, giving this method great validity in the follow-up of choroidal malignant melanoma after irradiation. Eighteen patients treated with proton beam for uveal melanoma at the cyclotron in Uppsala, Sweden, were followed.

  3. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of the aromatic residues in the variant-3 neurotoxin from Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, N.R.; Nettesheim, D.G.; Klevit, R.E.; Drobny, G.; Watt, D.D.; Bugg, C.E. )

    1989-02-21

    The amino acid sequence for the variant-3 (CsE-v3) toxin from the venom of the scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing contains eight aromatic residues. By use of 2D NMR spectroscopic methods, the resonances from the individual protons (NH, C{sup alpha}H, C{sup beta}H{prime}, H{double prime}, and the ring) for each of the individual aromatic residues have been completely assigned. The spatial arrangement of the aromatic ring systems with respect to each other has been qualitatively analyzed by 2D-NOESY techniques. The results show that Trp-47, Tyr-4, and Tyr-42 are in close spatial proximity to each other. The NOESY contacts and the ring current induced shifts in the resonances of the individual protons of Tyr-4 and Trp-47 suggest that the aromatic ring planes of these residues are in an orthogonal arrangement. A comparison with the published crystal structure suggests that there is a minor rearrangement of the aromatic rings in the solution phase. No 2D-NOESY contacts involving Phe-44 and Tyr-14 to any other aromatic ring protons have been observed. The pH dependence of the aromatic ring proton chemical shifts has also been studied. These results suggest that the Tyr-58 phenolic group is experiencing a hydrogen-bonding interaction with a positively charged group, while Tyr-4, -14, -38, and -40 are experiencing through-space interactions with proximal negatively charged groups. These studies define the microenvironment of the aromatic residues in the variant-3 neurotoxin in aqueous solution.

  4. NSTX High Field Side Gas Fueling System

    SciTech Connect

    H.W. Kugel; M. Anderson; G. Barnes; M. Bell; W. Blanchard; L. Dudek; D. Gates; R. Gernhardt; R. Maingi; D. Mueller; T. Provost; R. Raman; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Winston

    2003-10-09

    Fueling National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas with gas injected from the high field side (HFS) has produced earlier, more reliable transitions to the H-mode, longer H-mode durations, higher toroidal rotation, and higher edge electron temperature compared with similar discharges using the low field side (LFS) gas fueling injectors. The HFS gas fueling system consists of a Center Stack midplane injector, and an injector at the inner, upper corner of the Center Stack. The challenging design and installation constraints for the HFS gas system involved placing the control components as close as possible to the machine-vacuum interface, devising a special feed-through flange, traversing through vessel regions whose temperatures during bake-out range from 150 to 350 degrees Centigrade, adapting the gas transport tubing size and route to the small instrumentation wire channels behind the existing graphite plasma facing component tiles on the Center Stack, and providing output orifices shielded from excessive plasma power depositions while concentrating the output flow to facilitate fast camera viewing and analysis. Design, recent performance, and future upgrades will be presented.

  5. High field electrophoresis—computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, M. J.; Kułakowski, K.

    2004-11-01

    We describe for the first time the results, obtained by means of a new two-dimensional version of a cellular automaton (2DA), designed for the simulation of the gel electrophoresis at high fields. The calculations are performed up to N=442 reptons. The results are compared with those from a modified version of the one-dimensional automaton (1DA), which has been constructed previously. The modification is that the movements of different parts of a molecule of DNA are treated as statistically independent events. This approach is applied also for 2DA. Main results are: (i) for long molecules (N≫1) the velocity v tends to a constant both for 1DA and 2DA; (ii) the diffusion coefficient D for 2DA increases with N; (iii) 2DA enables the formation of so-called hernias, i.e. fragments of DNA locally perpendicular to the molecule, and (iv) a direct observation of the geometration effect. The results (i) and (ii) mimic the experimental behavior at high electric fields. We also calculate a dimensionless quantity y=D/(Lv), where L=Na is the molecule length and a is the stiffness length. The discussion of y reveals the role of the length fluctuations.

  6. U.S. EPA High-Field NMR Facility with Remote Accessibility

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s High-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Research Facility housed in Athens, GA has two Varian 600 MHz NMR spectrometers used for conducting sophisticated experiments in environmental science. Off-site users can ship their samples and perform their NMR experiments remotely fr...

  7. Multiharmonic rf feedforward system for compensation of beam loading and periodic transient effects in magnetic-alloy cavities of a proton synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Fumihiko; Ohmori, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yoshii, Masahito; Schnase, Alexander; Nomura, Masahiro; Toda, Makoto; Shimada, Taihei; Hasegawa, Katsushi; Hara, Keigo

    2013-05-01

    Beam loading compensation is a key for acceleration of a high intensity proton beam in the main ring (MR) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). Magnetic alloy loaded rf cavities with a Q value of 22 are used to achieve high accelerating voltages without a tuning bias loop. The cavity is driven by a single harmonic (h=9) rf signal while the cavity frequency response also covers the neighbor harmonics (h=8,10). Therefore the wake voltage induced by the high intensity beam consists of the three harmonics, h=8,9,10. The beam loading of neighbor harmonics is the source of periodic transient effects and a possible source of coupled bunch instabilities. In the article, we analyze the wake voltage induced by the high intensity beam. We employ the rf feedforward method to compensate the beam loading of these three harmonics (h=8,9,10). The full-digital multiharmonic feedforward system was developed for the MR. We describe the system architecture and the commissioning methodology of the feedforward patterns. The commissioning of the feedforward system has been performed by using high intensity beams with 1.0×1014 proteins per pulse. The impedance seen by the beam is successfully reduced and the longitudinal oscillations due to the beam loading are reduced. By the beam loading compensation, stable high power beam operation is achieved. We also report the reduction of the momentum loss during the debunching process for the slow extraction by the feedforward.

  8. A simple method for the identification and assay of iopamidol and iothalamate meglumine in pharmaceutical samples based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hanna, G M; Lau-Cam, C A

    2001-02-01

    A proton nuclear magnetic resonance (PMR) spectroscopic method is described for the direct assay and identification of the triiodinated radiographic contrast agents iopamidol (nonionic type) and iothalamate meglumine (ionic type) in commercial solutions and as a bulk material. Samples were prepared by simply diluting an injectable solution with or dissolving a powdered sample in D2O. Sodium acetate was added to serve as an internal standard. Quantitations were based on the resonance signals for the protons of the CH3-CO-group at 1.58 ppm (iopamidol) or 2.25 ppm (iothalamate), CH3-N-group at 2.38 ppm (meglumine) and CH3-CO-group at 1.92 ppm (acetate). The mean +/- SD (n = sets of 10 samples each) recovery of iopamidol, iothalamic acid and meglumine from synthetic mixtures with the internal standard were 99.6 +/- 0.63, 99.7 +/- 0.66 and 99.9 +/- 1.18%, respectively; with the values ranging from 98.7-100.9% for iopamidol and iothalamate, and from 98.3-100.8% for meglumine.

  9. In-Vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of 2-Hydroxyglutarate in Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-Mutated Gliomas: A Technical Review for Neuroradiologists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeonjin; Kim, Sungjin; Lee, Hyeong Hun; Heo, Hwon

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic and prognostic potential of an onco-metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) as a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) detectable biomarker of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutated (IDH-MT) gliomas has drawn attention of neuroradiologists recently. However, due to severe spectral overlap with background signals, quantification of 2HG can be very challenging. In this technical review for neuroradiologists, first, the biochemistry of 2HG and its significance in the diagnosis of IDH-MT gliomas are summarized. Secondly, various 1H-MRS methods used in the previous studies are outlined. Finally, wereview previous in vivo studies, and discuss the current status of 1H-MRS in the diagnosis of IDH-MT gliomas. PMID:27587950

  10. In-Vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of 2-Hydroxyglutarate in Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-Mutated Gliomas: A Technical Review for Neuroradiologists

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungjin; Lee, Hyeong Hun; Heo, Hwon

    2016-01-01

    The diagnostic and prognostic potential of an onco-metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) as a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) detectable biomarker of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutated (IDH-MT) gliomas has drawn attention of neuroradiologists recently. However, due to severe spectral overlap with background signals, quantification of 2HG can be very challenging. In this technical review for neuroradiologists, first, the biochemistry of 2HG and its significance in the diagnosis of IDH-MT gliomas are summarized. Secondly, various 1H-MRS methods used in the previous studies are outlined. Finally, wereview previous in vivo studies, and discuss the current status of 1H-MRS in the diagnosis of IDH-MT gliomas. PMID:27587950

  11. Comparison of magnetic resonance spectroscopy, proton density fat fraction and histological analysis in the quantification of liver steatosis in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Di Martino, Michele; Pacifico, Lucia; Bezzi, Mario; Di Miscio, Rossella; Sacconi, Beatrice; Chiesa, Claudio; Catalano, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    AIM To establish a threshold value for liver fat content between healthy children and those with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with liver biopsy serving as a reference standard. METHODS The study was approved by the local ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants and their legal guardians before the study began. Twenty-seven children with NAFLD underwent liver biopsy to assess the presence of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The assessment of liver fat fraction was performed using MRI, with a high field magnet and 2D gradient-echo and multiple-echo T1-weighted sequence with low flip angle and single-voxel point-resolved ¹H MR-Spectroscopy (¹H-MRS), corrected for T1 and T2* decays. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine the best cut-off value. Lin coefficient test was used to evaluate the correlation between histology, MRS and MRI-PDFF. A Mann-Whitney U-test and multivariate analysis were performed to analyze the continuous variables. RESULTS According to MRS, the threshold value between healthy children and those with NAFLD is 6%; using MRI-PDFF, a cut-off value of 3.5% is suggested. The Lin analysis revealed a good fit between the histology and MRS as well as MRI-PDFF. CONCLUSION MRS is an accurate and precise method for detecting NAFLD in children.

  12. Threats to ultra-high-field MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bihan, Denis

    2009-08-01

    In 2004 the European Commission (EC) adopted a directive restricting occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields. This directive (2004/40/CE), which examines the possible health risks of the electromagnetic fields from mobile phones, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and other devices, concluded that upper limits on radiation and applied electromagnetic fields are necessary to prevent workers from suffering any undue acute health effects. But although not initially intended, the biggest impact of the directive could be on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is used in hospitals worldwide to produce images of unrivalled quality of the brain and other soft tissues.

  13. Proton therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... direction of the tumor. A machine called a synchrotron or cyclotron creates and speeds up the protons. ... redness in the radiation area, and temporary hair loss. AFTER THE PROCEDURE Following proton therapy, you should ...

  14. Enantioselective Protonation

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Justin T.; Hong, Allen Y.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Enantioselective protonation is a common process in biosynthetic sequences. The decarboxylase and esterase enzymes that effect this valuable transformation are able to control both the steric environment around the proton acceptor (typically an enolate) and the proton donor (typically a thiol). Recently, several chemical methods to achieve enantioselective protonation have been developed by exploiting various means of enantiocontrol in different mechanisms. These laboratory transformations have proven useful for the preparation of a number of valuable organic compounds. PMID:20428461

  15. Proton driver power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jach and D. Wolff

    2002-06-03

    This paper describes magnet power supply system for a proposed Proton Driver at Fermilab. The magnet power supply system consists of resonant dipole/quadrupole power supply system, quadrupole tracking, dipole correction (horizontal and vertical) and sextupole power supply systems. This paper also describes preliminary design of the power distribution system supplying 13.8 kV power to all proton Driver electrical systems.

  16. Using proton nuclear magnetic resonance to study the mode of ribonuclease A inhibition by competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kalyan Sundar; Debnath, Joy; Pathak, Tanmaya; Dasgupta, Swagata

    2008-10-15

    The C(2) proton resonances of the active site histidines (His 12 and His 119) of ribonuclease A have been exploited to study the inhibition pattern of both noncompetitive (four green tea polyphenols and their copper complexes) and competitive (3'-O-carboxy esters of thymidine and 3'-amino derivatives of uridine) inhibitors. Competitive inhibitors devoid of any phosphate group have the ability to change the pK(a) of the histidine residues at the active site. Their mode of inhibition, albeit competitive, is found to be different compared to known phosphate inhibitors 2'-CMP and 3'-CMP as revealed by changes in the pK(a) values. We find a correlation between the changes in the chemical shift of His 12 and the corresponding inhibition constants (K(i)).

  17. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of hydrogen diffusion and electron tunneling in Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Niki, Haruo; Okuda, Hiroyuki; Oshiro, Morihito; Yogi, Mamoru; Seki, Ichiro; Fukuhara, Mikio

    2012-06-15

    Using the Fourier transform of the echo envelope, the proton line shapes, spin-lattice relaxation time, and spin-spin relaxation time have been measured in a (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} glassy alloy at 1.83 T ({approx}78 MHz) and at temperatures between 1.8 and 300 K. First, the spectral line width decreases abruptly between 1.8 and 2.1 K. Next, it remains almost constant at 13 kHz up to {approx}150 K. Finally, the line width decreases as the temperature increases from {approx}150 to 300 K. The initial decrease in the spectral line width is ascribed to the distribution of the external field, which is caused by the penetration of vortices in the superconducting state. The subsequent leveling off in the spectral line width is ascribed to the dipole-dipole interaction between protons when hydrogen atoms are trapped into vacancies among the Zr-centered icosahedral Zr{sub 5}Ni{sub 5}Nb{sub 3} clusters. The final decrease in the spectral line width is ascribed to the motional narrowing of the width that is caused by the movement of hydrogen atoms. The temperature dependences of the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation time showed that at temperature above 150 K and the activation energy of 8.7 kJ/mol allowed the hydrogen atoms to migrate among the clusters. The distance between the hydrogen atoms is estimated to be 2.75 A. Hydrogen occupancies among clusters in the (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} glassy alloy play an important role in the diffusion behavior and in the electronic properties of this alloy.

  18. Cerebellar Volume and Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at Term, and Neurodevelopment at 2 Years of Age in Preterm Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kooij, Britt J. M.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.; Anbeek, Petronella; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; de Vries, Linda S.; Groenendaal, Floris

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess the relation between cerebellar volume and spectroscopy at term equivalent age, and neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age in preterm infants. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed around term equivalent age in 112 preterm infants (mean gestational age 28wks 3d [SD 1wk 5d]; birthweight 1129g [SD 324g]).…

  19. Flash Proton Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Frank E.

    Protons were first investigated as radiographic probes as high energy proton accelerators became accessible to the scientific community in the 1960s. Like the initial use of X-rays in the 1800s, protons were shown to be a useful tool for studying the contents of opaque materials, but the electromagnetic charge of the protons opened up a new set of interaction processes which complicated their use. These complications in combination with the high expense of generating protons with energies high enough to penetrate typical objects resulted in proton radiography becoming a novelty, demonstrated at accelerator facilities, but not utilized to their full potential until the 1990s at Los Alamos. During this time Los Alamos National Laboratory was investigating a wide range of options, including X-rays and neutrons, as the next generation of probes to be used for thick object flash radiography. During this process it was realized that the charge nature of the protons, which was the source of the initial difficulty with this idea, could be used to recover this technique. By introducing a magnetic imaging lens downstream of the object to be radiographed, the blur resulting from scattering within the object could be focused out of the measurements, dramatically improving the resolution of proton radiography of thick systems. Imaging systems were quickly developed and combined with the temporal structure of a proton beam generated by a linear accelerator, providing a unique flash radiography capability for measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This technique has now been employed at LANSCE for two decades and has been adopted around the world as the premier flash radiography technique for the study of dynamic material properties.

  20. A study of molecular dynamics and freezing phase transition in tissues by proton spin relaxation.

    PubMed Central

    Rustgi, S N; Peemoeller, H; Thompson, R T; Kydon, D W; Pintar, M M

    1978-01-01

    Muscle, spleen, and kidney tissues from 4-wk-old C57 black mice were studied by proton magnetic resonance. Spin-lattice relaxation times at high fields and in the rotating frame, as well as the spin-spin relaxation times, are reported as a function of temperature in the liquid and frozen phase. Motions of large molecules and of water molecules and their changes at the freezing phase transition are studied. The shortcomings of the two-state fast-exchange relaxation model are discussed. PMID:667294

  1. Rosenbluth Award: First observations of Rayleigh-Taylor-induced magnetic fields in laser-produced plasmas using x rays and protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Mario

    2014-10-01

    Recent experiments [Manuel, PRL 108 (2012)] demonstrated the existence of self-generated B-fields from the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in laser-produced plasmas, as originally predicted by Mima et al. [Mima PRL 41 (1978)]. Misaligned density and temperature gradients caused by RT growth in ablatively driven targets generate B-fields in the plasma through the Biermann battery source. X-ray and proton radiography diagnosed areal-density and B-field perturbations in laser-irradiated targets with seeded sinusoidal surface perturbations. Inferred B-field strengths indicated ratios of thermal to magnetic pressures (β) near the ablation surface of 104-105, suggesting no magnetic effects on ablative RT during the linear growth phase. However, the magnitude of this self-generated field increases with the perturbation height [Srinivasan, PRL 108 (2012)] and can affect morphology in the nonlinear regime. The detailed structure of highly nonlinear RT spikes is important to understand the inner wall expansion of hohlraums in indirect-drive inertial fusion and in multiple astrophysical systems, including the explosion phase of core-collapse supernovae and formation of planetary nebulae. Numerical calculations investigating the magnetic effects on nonlinear RT-spike evolution under conditions similar to previous measurements will be covered and implications discussed. Support for this work was provided by NASA through Einstein Postdoctoral Fellowship grant number PF3-140111 awarded by the Chandra X-ray Center, which is operated by the Astrophysical Observatory for NASA under Contract NAS8-03060. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasma under Grant Number DE-NA0001840. Previous work described here was supported in part by NLUF (DE-NA0000877), FSC/UR (415023-G), DoE (DE-FG52-09NA29553), LLE (414090-G), and LLNL (B580243).

  2. Translational Approaches for Studying Neurodevelopmental Disorders Utilizing in Vivo Proton (+H) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine complications have been implicated in the etiology of neuripsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, autism and ADHD. This presentation will describe new translational studies derived from in vivo magnetic resonance imaging of developing and adult brain following perinatal asphyxia (PA). Our findings reveal significant effects of PA on neurometabolic profiles at one week of age, and significant relationships between early metabolites and later life phenotypes including behavior and brain morphometry

  3. Anomalous tensor magnetic moments and form factors of the proton in the self-consistent chiral quark-soliton model

    SciTech Connect

    Ledwig, Tim; Silva, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    We investigate the form factors of the chiral-odd nucleon matrix element of the tensor current. In particular, we aim at the anomalous tensor magnetic form factors of the nucleon within the framework of the SU(3) and SU(2) chiral quark-soliton model. We consider 1/N{sub c} rotational corrections and linear effects of SU(3) symmetry breaking with the symmetry-conserving quantization employed. We first obtain the results of the anomalous tensor magnetic moments for the up and down quarks: {kappa}{sub T}{sup u}=3.56 and {kappa}{sub T}{sup d}=1.83, respectively. The strange anomalous tensor magnetic moment is yielded to be {kappa}{sub T}{sup s}=0.2{approx}-0.2, that is compatible with zero. We also calculate the corresponding form factors {kappa}{sub T}{sup q}(Q{sup 2}) up to a momentum transfer Q{sup 2{<=}}1 GeV{sup 2} at a renormalization scale of 0.36 GeV{sup 2}.

  4. In vivo measurement of regional brain metabolic response to hyperventilation using magnetic resonance: proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI).

    PubMed

    Posse, S; Dager, S R; Richards, T L; Yuan, C; Ogg, R; Artru, A A; Müller-Gärtner, H W; Hayes, C

    1997-06-01

    A new rapid spectroscopic imaging technique with improved sensitivity and lipid suppression, referred to as Proton Echo Planar Spectroscopic Imaging (PEPSI), has been developed to measure the 2-dimensional distribution of brain lactate increases during hyperventilation on a conventional clinical scanner equipped with a head surface coil phased array. PEPSI images (nominal voxel size: 1.125 cm3) in five healthy subjects from an axial section approximately 20 mm inferior to the intercommissural line were obtained during an 8.5-min baseline period of normocapnia and during the final 8.5 min of a 10-min period of capnometry-controlled hyperventilation (end-tidal PCO2 of 20 mmHg). The lactate/N-acetyl aspartate signal increased significantly from baseline during hyperventilation for the insular cortex, temporal cortex, and occipital regions of both the right and left hemisphere, but not in the basal ganglia. Regional or hemispheric right-to-left differences were not found. The study extends previous work using single-voxel MR spectroscopy to dynamically study hyperventilation effects on brain metabolism.

  5. Changes to Intermediary Metabolites in Sporadic and LRRK2 Parkinson's Disease Demonstrated by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Aasly, Jan O.; Sæther, Oddbjørn; Johansen, Krisztina K.; Bathen, Tone F.; Giskeødegård, Guro F.; White, Linda R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease (PD) remains a clinical diagnosis and biomarkers are needed to detect the disease as early as possible. Genetically determined PD provides an opportunity for studying metabolic differences in connection with disease development. Objectives. To study the levels of intermediary metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with PD, either of sporadic type or in carriers of the LRRK2 p.G2019S mutation. Methods. Results from patients with sporadic PD or LRRK2-PD were compared with asymptomatic LRRK2 mutation carriers and healthy control individuals. CSF was analysed by proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) giving reliable results for 16 intermediary metabolites. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to study group differences. Results. PLS-DA distinguished PD patients from healthy individuals based on the metabolites identified in CSF, with 2-hydroxybutyrate, glutamine, and dimethyl sulphone largely contributing to the separations. Conclusion. Speculatively, all three metabolites could alter concentration in response to metabolic changes connected with neurodegeneration; glutamine as a means of removing excess nitrogen from brain, dimethyl sulphone as an anti-inflammatory agent, and 2-hydroxybutyrate in connection with altered glutathione metabolism. Potentially, 1H-MRS is a promising tool for identifying novel biomarkers for PD. PMID:26357583

  6. Proton Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelfke, Uwe

    Proton therapy is one of the most rapidly developing new treatment technologies in radiation oncology. This treatment approach has — after roughly 40 years of technical developments — reached a mature state that allows a widespread clinical application. We therefore review the basic physical and radio-biological properties of proton beams. The main physical aspect is the elemental dose distribution arising from an infinitely narrow proton pencil beam. This includes the physics of proton stopping powers and the concept of CSDA range. Furthermore, the process of multiple Coulomb scattering is discussed for the lateral dose distribution. Next, the basic terms for the description of radio-biological properties of proton beams like LET and RBE are briefly introduced. Finally, the main concepts of modern proton dose delivery concepts are introduced before the standard method of inverse treatment planning for hadron therapy is presented.

  7. Ultra-high field NMR studies of antibody binding and site-specific phosphorylation of {alpha}-synuclein

    SciTech Connect

    Sasakawa, Hiroaki |; Sakata, Eri; Yamaguchi, Yoshiki; Masuda, Masami |; Mori, Tetsuya; Kurimoto, Eiji; Iguchi, Takeshi; Hisanaga, Shin-ichi; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masato; Kato, Koichi |

    2007-11-23

    Although biological importance of intrinsically disordered proteins is becoming recognized, NMR analyses of this class of proteins remain as tasks with more challenge because of poor chemical shift dispersion. It is expected that ultra-high field NMR spectroscopy offers improved resolution to cope with this difficulty. Here, we report an ultra-high field NMR study of {alpha}-synuclein, an intrinsically disordered protein identified as the major component of the Lewy bodies. Based on NMR spectral data collected at a 920 MHz proton frequency, we performed epitope mapping of an anti-{alpha}-synuclein monoclonal antibody, and furthermore, characterized conformational effects of phosphorylation at Ser129 of {alpha}-synuclein.

  8. Diagnosis of Alzheimer-type dementia: a preliminary comparison of positron emission tomography and proton magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Friedland, R.P.; Budinger, T.F.; Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Jagust, W.J.

    1984-11-16

    The use of positron emission tomography with (18F)-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) to study glucose metabolism in dementia is described and compared with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. These studies suggest that physiological imaging with PET may be superior to MR as it is currently used in the diagnosis of dementia-like diseases. Pet is currently limited to a few centers; however, single photon emission CT can provide regional physiological data without the need for a local cyclotron. 15 references, 2 tables.

  9. Proton therapy in the clinic.

    PubMed

    DeLaney, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    The clinical advantage for proton radiotherapy over photon approaches is the marked reduction in integral dose to the patient, due to the absence of exit dose beyond the proton Bragg peak. The integral dose with protons is approximately 60% lower than that with any external beam photon technique. Pediatric patients, because of their developing normal tissues and anticipated length of remaining life, are likely to have the maximum clinical gain with the use of protons. Proton therapy may also allow treatment of some adult tumors to much more effective doses, because of normal tissue sparing distal to the tumor. Currently, the most commonly available proton treatment technology uses 3D conformal approaches based on (a) distal range modulation, (b) passive scattering of the proton beam in its x- and y-axes, and (c) lateral beam-shaping. It is anticipated that magnetic pencil beam scanning will become the dominant mode of proton delivery in the future, which will lower neutron scatter associated with passively scattered beam lines, reduce the need for expensive beam-shaping devices, and allow intensity-modulated proton radiotherapy. Proton treatment plans are more sensitive to variations in tumor size and normal tissue changes over the course of treatment than photon plans, and it is expected that adaptive radiation therapy will be increasingly important for proton therapy as well. While impressive treatment results have been reported with protons, their cost is higher than for photon IMRT. Hence, protons should ideally be employed for anatomic sites and tumors not well treated with photons. While protons appear cost-effective for pediatric tumors, their cost-effectiveness for treatment of some adult tumors, such as prostate cancer, is uncertain. Comparative studies have been proposed or are in progress to more rigorously assess their value for a variety of sites. The utility of proton therapy will be enhanced by technological developments that reduce its cost

  10. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopic studies of segmental mobility in aequorin and a green fluorescent protein from Aequorea forskalea

    SciTech Connect

    Nageswara Rao, B.D.; Kemple, M.D.; Prendergast, F.G.

    1980-10-01

    Aequorin is a protein of low molecular weight (20,000) isolated from the jellyfish Aequorea forskalea which emits blue light upon the binding of Ca/sup 2 +/ ions. This bioluminescence requires neither exogenous oxygen nor any other cofactors. The light emission occurs from an excited state of a chromophore (an imidazolopyrazinone) which is tightly and noncovalently bound to the protein. Apparently the binding of Ca/sup 2 +/ by the protein induces changes in the protein conformation which allow oxygen, already bound or otherwise held by the protein, to react with and therein oxidize the chromophore. The resulting discharged protein remains intact, with the Ca/sup 2 +/ and the chromophore still bound, but is incapable of further luminescence. The fluorescence spectrum of this discharged protein and the bioluminescence spectrum of the original charged aequorin are identical. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) of approx. 30,000 mol wt isolated from the same organism, functions in vivo as an acceptor of energy from aequorin and subsequently emits green light. We are applying proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy to examine structural details of, and fluctuations associated with the luminescent reaction of aequorin and the in vivo energy transfer from aequorin to the GFP.

  11. Glutamine and Glutamate Levels in Children and Adolescents With Bipolar Disorder: A 4.0-T Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    MOORE, CONSTANCE M.; FRAZIER, JEAN A.; GLOD, CAROL A.; BREEZE, JANIS L.; DIETERICH, MEGAN; FINN, CHELSEA T.; FREDERICK, BLAISE DEB.; RENSHAW, PERRY F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to use proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, at 4.0 T, to explore the glutamine and glutamate levels in the anterior cingulate cortex of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BPD; medicated and unmedicated) and healthy comparison subjects (HCSs). We hypothesized that unmedicated children with BPD would have reduced glutamine and glutamate levels compared with HCSs and medicated children with BPD. Method Spectra were acquired from the anterior cingulate cortex in 22 children and adolescents with DSM-IV-TR BPD, type 1 (13 female: age 12.6 ± 4.4 years: 7 of the subjects with BPD were unmedicated at the time of the scan) and 10 HCSs (7 female: age 12.3 ± 2.5 years). Results Unmedicated subjects with BPD had significantly lower glutamine levels than HCSs or medicated subjects with BPD. There were no differences in glutamate levels between the three groups. Conclusions These results are consistent with there being an abnormality in anterior cingulate cortex glia in untreated children and adolescents with BPD. The results of this pilot study may be important in helping us better understand the pathophysiology of child and adolescent BPD. In addition, this observation may help to develop better and more targeted treatments, in particular those affecting the metabolism of glutamine, perhaps by regulation of glutamine synthetase activity. PMID:17420688

  12. Identification of endogenous metabolites in human sperm cells using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H-NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    PubMed

    Paiva, C; Amaral, A; Rodriguez, M; Canyellas, N; Correig, X; Ballescà, J L; Ramalho-Santos, J; Oliva, R

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to contribute to the first comprehensive metabolomic characterization of the human sperm cell through the application of two untargeted platforms based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H-NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Using these two complementary strategies, we were able to identify a total of 69 metabolites, of which 42 were identified using NMR, 27 using GC-MS and 4 by both techniques. The identity of some of these metabolites was further confirmed by two-dimensional (1) H-(1) H homonuclear correlation spectroscopy (COSY) and (1) H-(13) C heteronuclear single-quantum correlation (HSQC) spectroscopy. Most of the metabolites identified are reported here for the first time in mature human spermatozoa. The relationship between the metabolites identified and the previously reported sperm proteome was also explored. Interestingly, overrepresented pathways included not only the metabolism of carbohydrates, but also of lipids and lipoproteins. Of note, a large number of the metabolites identified belonged to the amino acids, peptides and analogues super class. The identification of this initial set of metabolites represents an important first step to further study their function in male gamete physiology and to explore potential reasons for dysfunction in future studies. We also demonstrate that the application of NMR and MS provides complementary results, thus constituting a promising strategy towards the completion of the human sperm cell metabolome.

  13. Analyzing the effects of a single episode of neonatal maternal deprivation on metabolite profiles in rat brain: a proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Llorente, R; Villa, P; Marco, E M; Viveros, M P

    2012-01-10

    Animal models have greatly contributed to the understanding of neuropsychiatric disorders and have provided extensive evidence for the "neurodevelopmental hypothesis." In this regard, a single and prolonged episode (24 h) of early maternal deprivation early in life, on postnatal day 9, has been proposed as an animal model for the investigation of certain neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Since metabolic changes in hippocampus (HIP) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been described among schizophrenic patients by using ex vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) proton ((1)H) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, in the present study we aimed to investigate the effects of maternal deprivation (MD) on the metabolite profiles of the developing brain by using the HR-MAS technique. MD significantly altered the hippocampal and cortical metabolic profile of neonatal rats (PND 13) in a sex-dependent manner. Glutamine and glutamate (Glx) and taurine of male and female rat pups were altered in both brain areas analyzed. Differences in hippocampal phosphorylethanolamine have also been found as a function of the MD protocol. In addition, MD induced some other region- and sex-dependent effects, including changes in N-acetyl aspartate and total choline signals in the hippocampi of male pups. Present findings indicate a different brain metabolic profile in our animal model of early life stress suggesting its potential utility in the implementation of translational neuropsychiatric research.

  14. Measurements of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton from Q sup 2 =1. 75 to 8. 83 (GeV/ c ) sup 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bosted, P.E.; Andivahis, L.; Lung, A.; Stuart, L.M.; Alster, J.; Arnold, R.G.; Chang, C.C.; Dietrich, F.S.; Dodge, W.; Gearhart, R.; Gomez, J.; Griffioen, K.A.; Hicks, R.S.; Hyde-Wright, C.E.; Keppel, C.; Kuhn, S.E.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Miskimen, R.A.; Peterson, G.A.; Petratos, G.G.; Rock, S.E.; Rokni, S.; Sakumoto, W.K.; Spengos, M.; Swartz, K.; Szalata, Z.; Tao, L.H. University of California, Davis, California 95616 Continuous Electron Beam Acceleratorr Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 Universi

    1992-06-29

    The proton elastic electric and magnetic form factors, {ital G}{sub {ital E}{ital p}}({ital Q}{sup 2}) and {ital G}{sub {ital M}{ital p}}({ital Q}{sup 2}), have been separately measured in the range {ital Q}{sup 2}=1.75 to 8.83 (GeV/{ital c}){sup 2}, more than doubling the {ital Q}{sup 2} range of previous data. Scaled by the dipole fit, {ital G}{sub {ital D}}({ital Q}{sup 2}), the results for {ital G}{sub {ital M}{ital p}}({ital Q}{sup 2})/{mu}{sub {ital p}G{ital D}}({ital Q}{sup 2}) decrease smoothly from 1.05 to 0.91, while {ital G}{sub {ital E}{ital p}}({ital Q}{sup 2})/{ital G}{sub {ital D}}({ital Q}{sup 2}) is consistent with unity. Comparisons are made to QCD sum rule, diquark, constitutent quark, and vector meson dominance models, none of which agree with all of the new data. The ratio {ital Q}{sup 2}{ital F}{sub 2}/{ital F}{sub 1} approaches a constant value for {ital Q}{sup 2}{gt}3 (GeV/{ital c}){sup 2}.

  15. Coregistration of quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with neuropathological and neurophysiological analyses defines the extent of neuronal impairments in murine human immunodeficiency virus type-1 encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J A; Dou, H; Ellison, B; Uberti, M; Xiong, H; Anderson, E; Mellon, M; Gelbard, H A; Boska, M; Gendelman, H E

    2005-05-15

    Relatively few immune-activated and virus-infected mononuclear phagocytes (MP; perivascular macrophages and microglia) may affect widespread neuronal dysfunction during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia (HAD). Indeed, histopathological evidence of neuronal dropout often belies the extent of cognitive impairment. To define relationships between neuronal function and histopathology, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H MRSI) and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) were compared with neuronal and glial immunohistology in a murine model of HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE). HIV-1(ADA)-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were stereotactically injected into the subcortex of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Sham-operated and unmanipulated mice served as controls. Seven days after cell injection, brain histological analyses revealed a focal giant cell encephalitis, with reactive astrocytes, microgliosis, and neuronal dropout. Strikingly, significant reductions in N-acetyl aspartate concentration ([NAA]) and LTP levels in HIVE mice were in both injected and contralateral hemispheres and in brain subregions, including the hippocampus, where neuropathology was limited or absent. The data support the importance of 1H MRSI as a tool for assessing neuronal function for HAD. The data also demonstrate that a highly focal encephalitis can produce global deficits for neuronal function and metabolism. PMID:15825192

  16. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and metabolism. Applications of proton and 13C NMR to the study of glutamate metabolism in cultured glial cells and human brain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Portais, J C; Pianet, I; Allard, M; Merle, M; Raffard, G; Kien, P; Biran, M; Labouesse, J; Caille, J M; Canioni, P

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to study the metabolism of cells from the central nervous system both in vitro on perchloric acid extracts obtained either from cultured tumoral cells (C6 rat glioma) or rat astrocytes in primary culture, and in vivo within the human brain. Analysis of carbon 13 NMR spectra of perchloric acid extracts prepared from cultured cells in the presence of NMR [1-13C] glucose as substrate allowed determination of the glutamate and glutamine enrichments in both normal and tumoral cells. Preliminary results indicated large changes in the metabolism of these amino acids (and also of aspartate and alanine) in the C6 cell as compared to its normal counterpart. Localized proton NMR spectra of the human brain in vivo were obtained at 1.5 T, in order to evaluate the content of various metabolites, including glutamate, in peritumoral edema from a selected volume of 2 x 2 x 2 cm3. N-acetyl aspartate, glutamate, phosphocreatine, creatine, choline and inositol derivative resonances were observed in 15 min spectra. N-acetyl-aspartate was found to be at a lower level in contrast to glutamate which was detected at a higher level in the injured area as compared to the contralateral unaffected side. PMID:1674432

  17. Relationship between Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Frontoinsular Gray Matter and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Children at the Age of 4

    PubMed Central

    Herman-Sucharska, Izabela; Urbanik, Andrzej; Klimek, Małgorzata; Karcz, Paulina; Dutkowska, Grażyna; Nitecka, Magdalena; Kwinta, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Very low birth weight is associated with long term neurodevelopmental complications. Macroscopic brain abnormalities in prematurity survivors have been investigated in several studies. However, there is limited data regarding local cerebral metabolic status and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between proton magnetic resonance spectra in basal ganglia, frontal white matter and frontoinsular gray matter, neurodevelopmental outcomes assessed with the Leiter scale and the Developmental Test of Visual Perception and selected socioeconomic variables in a cohort of very low birth weight children at the age of four. Children were divided in three groups based on the severity of neurodevelopmental impairment. There were no differences in spectroscopy in basal ganglia and frontal white matter between the groups. Lower concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and myoinositol (mI) were observed in the frontoinsular cortex of the left hemisphere in children with neurodevelopmental impairment compared to children with normal neurodevelopmental outcomes. Higher parental education, daycare attendance and breastfeeding after birth were associated with more favorable neurodevelopmental prognosis, whereas rural residence was more prevalent in children with moderate and severe impairment. Our study demonstrates the role of long term neurometabolic disruption in the left frontoinsular cortex and selected socioeconomic variables in determination of neurodevelopmental prognosis in prematurity survivors. PMID:27223474

  18. Quantification of microheterogeneity in glioblastoma multiforme with ex vivo high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HRMAS) proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, L. L.; Anthony, D. C.; Comite, A. R.; Black, P. M.; Tzika, A. A.; Gonzalez, R. G.

    2000-01-01

    Microheterogeneity is a routinely observed neuropathologic characteristic in brain tumor pathology. Although microheterogeneity is readily documented by routine histologic techniques, these techniques only measure tumor status at the time of biopsy or surgery and do not indicate likely tumor progression. A biochemical screening technique calibrated against pathologic standards would greatly assist in predicting tumor progression from its biological activity. Here we demonstrate for the first time that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) with high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HRMAS), a technique introduced in 1997, can preserve tissue histopathologic features while producing well-resolved spectra of cellular metabolites in the identical intact tissue specimens. Observed biochemical alterations and tumor histopathologic characteristics can thus be correlated for the same surgical specimen, obviating the problems caused by tumor microheterogeneity. We analyzed multiple specimens of a single human glioblastoma multiforme surgically removed from a 44-year-old patient. Each specimen was first measured with HRMAS 1H MRS to determine tumor metabolites, then evaluated by quantitative histopathology. The concentrations of lactate and mobile lipids measured with HRMAS linearly reflected the percentage of tumor necrosis. Moreover, metabolic ratios of phosphorylcholine to choline correlated linearly with the percentage of the highly cellular malignant glioma. The quantification of tumor metabolic changes with HRMAS 1H MRS, in conjunction with subsequent histopathology of the same tumor specimen, has the potential to further our knowledge of the biochemistry of tumor heterogeneity during development, and thus ultimately to improve our accuracy in diagnosing, characterizing, and evaluating tumor progression. PMID:11303625

  19. Accuracy and Uncertainty of Asymmetric Magnetization Transfer Ratio Quantification for Amide Proton Transfer (APT) Imaging at 3T: A Monte Carlo Study

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Qinwei; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Wei, Juan; Zhou, Jinyuan

    2014-01-01

    Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging offers a novel and powerful MRI contrast mechanism for quantitative molecular imaging based on the principle of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). Asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) quantification is crucial for Z-spectrum analysis of APT imaging, but is still challenging, particularly at clinical field strength. This paper studies the accuracy and uncertainty in the quantification of MTRasym for APT imaging at 3T, by using high-order polynomial fitting of Z-spectrum through Monte Carlo simulation. Results show that polynomial fitting is a biased estimator that consistently underestimates MTRasym. For a fixed polynomial order, the accuracy of MTRasym is almost constant with regard to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) while the uncertainty decreases exponentially with SNR. The higher order polynomial fitting increases both the accuracy and the uncertainty of MTRasym. For different APT signal intensity levels, the relative accuracy and the absolute uncertainty keep constant for a fixed polynomial order. These results indicate the limitations and pitfalls of polynomial fitting for MTRasym quantification so better quantification technique for MTRasym estimation is warranted. PMID:24110892

  20. Accuracy and uncertainty of asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio quantification for amide proton transfer (APT) imaging at 3T: a Monte Carlo study.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Qinwei; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Wei, Juan; Zhou, Jinyuan

    2013-01-01

    Amide proton transfer (APT) imaging offers a novel and powerful MRI contrast mechanism for quantitative molecular imaging based on the principle of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST). Asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio (MTR(asym)) quantification is crucial for Z-spectrum analysis of APT imaging, but is still challenging, particularly at clinical field strength. This paper studies the accuracy and uncertainty in the quantification of MTR(asym) for APT imaging at 3T, by using high-order polynomial fitting of Z-spectrum through Monte Carlo simulation. Results show that polynomial fitting is a biased estimator that consistently underestimates MTR(asym). For a fixed polynomial order, the accuracy of MTR(asym) is almost constant with regard to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) while the uncertainty decreases exponentially with SNR. The higher order polynomial fitting increases both the accuracy and the uncertainty of MTR(asym). For different APT signal intensity levels, the relative accuracy and the absolute uncertainty keep constant for a fixed polynomial order. These results indicate the limitations and pitfalls of polynomial fitting for MTR(asym) quantification so better quantification technique for MTR(asym) estimation is warranted.

  1. Beam collimation and transport of quasineutral laser-accelerated protons by a solenoid field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harres, K.; Alber, I.; Tauschwitz, A.; Bagnoud, V.; Daido, H.; Günther, M.; Nürnberg, F.; Otten, A.; Schollmeier, M.; Schütrumpf, J.; Tampo, M.; Roth, M.

    2010-02-01

    This article reports about controlling laser-accelerated proton beams with respect to beam divergence and energy. The particles are captured by a pulsed high field solenoid with a magnetic field strength of 8.6 T directly behind a flat target foil that is irradiated by a high intensity laser pulse. Proton beams with energies around 2.3 MeV and particle numbers of 1012 could be collimated and transported over a distance of more than 300 mm. In contrast to the protons the comoving electrons are strongly deflected by the solenoid field. They propagate at a submillimeter gyroradius around the solenoid's axis which could be experimentally verified. The originated high flux electron beam produces a high space charge resulting in a stronger focusing of the proton beam than expected by tracking results. Leadoff particle-in-cell simulations show qualitatively that this effect is caused by space charge attraction due to the comoving electrons. The collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons is the first step to provide these unique beams for further applications such as postacceleration by conventional accelerator structures.

  2. Separation of Intra- and Extramyocellular Lipid Signals in Proton MR Spectra by Determination of Their Magnetic Field Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steidle, G.; Machann, J.; Claussen, C. D.; Schick, F.

    2002-02-01

    In skeletal musculature intramyocellular (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipids (EMCL) are stored in compartments of different geometry and experience different magnetic field strengths due to geometrical susceptibility effects. The effect is strong enough to-at least partly-separate IMCL and EMCL contributions in 1H MR spectroscopy, despite IMCL and EMCL consisting of the same substances. The assessment of intramyocellular lipid stores in skeletal musculature by 1H MR spectroscopy plays an important role for studying physiological and pathological aspects of lipid metabolism. Therefore, a method using mathematical tools of Fourier analysis is developed to obtain the magnetic field distribution (MFD) from the measured spectra by deconvolution. A reference lipid spectrum is required which was recorded in tibial yellow bone marrow. It is shown that the separation of IMCL contributions can be performed more precisely-compared to other methods-based on the MFD. Examples of deconvolution in model systems elucidate the principle. Applications of the proposed approach on in vivo examinations in m. soleus and m. tibialis anterior are presented. Fitting the IMCL part of the MFD by a Gaussian lineshape with a linewidth kept fixed with respect to the linewidth of creatine and with the assumption of a smooth but not necessarily symmetrical shape for the EMCL part, the only free fit parameter, the amplitude of the IMCL part, is definite and subtraction leads to the EMCL part in the MFD. This procedure is especially justified for the soleus muscle showing a severely asymmetrical distribution which might lead to a marked overestimation of IMCL using common line fitting procedures.

  3. Construction of block-coil high-field model dipoles for future hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, Raymond; Elliott, Tim; Henchel, William; McInturff, Al; McIntyre, Peter; Sattarov, Akhdior

    2002-08-04

    A family of high-field dipoles is being developed at Texas A&M University, as part of the program to improve the cost-effectiveness of superconducting magnet technology for future hadron colliders. The TAMU technology employs stress management, flux-plate control of persistent-current multipoles, conductor optimization using mixed-strand cable, and metal-filled bladders to provide pre-load and surface compliance. Construction details and status of the latest model dipole will be presented.

  4. Lattices for a high-field 30 TeV hadron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S.; Dell, F.; Harrison, M.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.

    1996-12-01

    Long arc cells would lead to major cost savings in a high field high T{sub c} hadron collider, operating in the regime of significant synchrotron radiation. Two such lattices, with half cell lengths of 110 and 260 m, are compared. Both allow flexible tuning, and have large dynamic apertures when dominated by chromatic sextupoles. Lattices with longer cells are much more sensitive to systematic magnet errors, which are expected to dominate.

  5. Brain Changes in Long-Term Zen Meditators Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Diffusion Tensor Imaging: A Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Fayed, Nicolás; Lopez del Hoyo, Yolanda; Andres, Eva; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Bellón, Juan; Aguilar, Keyla; Cebolla, Ausias; Garcia-Campayo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This work aimed to determine whether 1H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are correlated with years of meditation and psychological variables in long-term Zen meditators compared to healthy non-meditator controls. Materials and Methods Design. Controlled, cross-sectional study. Sample. Meditators were recruited from a Zen Buddhist monastery. The control group was recruited from hospital staff. Meditators were administered questionnaires on anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment and mindfulness. 1H-MRS (1.5 T) of the brain was carried out by exploring four areas: both thalami, both hippocampi, the posterior superior parietal lobule (PSPL) and posterior cingulate gyrus. Predefined areas of the brain were measured for diffusivity (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) by MR-DTI. Results Myo-inositol (mI) was increased in the posterior cingulate gyrus and Glutamate (Glu), N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and N-acetyl-aspartate/Creatine (NAA/Cr) was reduced in the left thalamus in meditators. We found a significant positive correlation between mI in the posterior cingulate and years of meditation (r = 0.518; p = .019). We also found significant negative correlations between Glu (r = −0.452; p = .045), NAA (r = −0.617; p = .003) and NAA/Cr (r = −0.448; P = .047) in the left thalamus and years of meditation. Meditators showed a lower Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) in the left posterior parietal white matter than did controls, and the ADC was negatively correlated with years of meditation (r = −0.4850, p = .0066). Conclusions The results are consistent with the view that mI, Glu and NAA are the most important altered metabolites. This study provides evidence of subtle abnormalities in neuronal function in regions of the white matter in meditators. PMID:23536796

  6. Proton Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The transport of protons across membranes is an essential process for both bioenergetics of modern cells and the origins of cellular life. All living systems make use of proton gradients across cell walls to convert environmental energy into a high-energy chemical compound, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), synthesized from adenosine diphosphate. ATP, in turn, is used as a source of energy to drive many cellular reactions. The ubiquity of this process in biology suggests that even the earliest cellular systems were relying on proton gradient for harvesting environmental energy needed to support their survival and growth. In contemporary cells, proton transfer is assisted by large, complex proteins embedded in membranes. The issue addressed in this Study was: how the same process can be accomplished with the aid of similar but much simpler molecules that could have existed in the protobiological milieu? The model system used in the study contained a bilayer membrane made of phospholipid, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) which is a good model of the biological membranes forming cellular boundaries. Both sides of the bilayer were surrounded by water which simulated the environment inside and outside the cell. Embedded in the membrane was a fragment of the Influenza-A M$_2$ protein and enough sodium counterions to maintain system neutrality. This protein has been shown to exhibit remarkably high rates of proton transport and, therefore, is an excellent model to study the formation of proton gradients across membranes. The Influenza M$_2$ protein is 97 amino acids in length, but a fragment 25 amino acids long. which contains a transmembrane domain of 19 amino acids flanked by three amino acids on each side. is sufficient to transport protons. Four identical protein fragments, each folded into a helix, aggregate to form small channels spanning the membrane. Protons are conducted through a narrow pore in the middle of the channel in response to applied voltage. This

  7. Apparatus and method for magnetically processing a specimen

    SciTech Connect

    Ludtka, Gerard M; Ludtka, Gail M; Wilgen, John B; Kisner, Roger A; Jaramillo, Roger A

    2013-09-03

    An apparatus for magnetically processing a specimen that couples high field strength magnetic fields with the magnetocaloric effect includes a high field strength magnet capable of generating a magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla and a magnetocaloric insert disposed within a bore of the high field strength magnet. A method for magnetically processing a specimen includes positioning a specimen adjacent to a magnetocaloric insert within a bore of a magnet and applying a high field strength magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla to the specimen and to the magnetocaloric insert. The temperature of the specimen changes during the application of the high field strength magnetic field due to the magnetocaloric effect.

  8. Neurochemical correlates of internet game play in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sujin; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Shi, Xianfeng; Renshaw, Perry F

    2016-08-30

    Previous studies have examined the relationship of brain metabolic changes in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and internet gaming disorder (IGD). However, these studies have been limited by a small number of subjects, a large variance in subject age, and different brain regions of interest. The present study assessed the effects of chronic internet game play in ADHD children. Twenty eight ADHD adolescents with IGD (IGD+ADHD), 27 ADHD adolescents without problematic internet game playing (ADHD only) and 42 healthy comparison adolescents (HC) were included in the study. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed on a 3T MRI scanner. Our results indicate that the levels of NAA in both ADHD groups were lower than those observed in the HC group. The levels of Glu+Gln in the ADHD only group were increased, compared to those observed in the control group. However, Glu+Gln was not increased in the IGD+ADHD group. In addition, the levels of Glu+Gln in the IGD+ADHD group were positively correlated with K-ARS total and inattention scores. ADHD and IGD subjects were both characterized by decreased NAA levels within the frontal lobe, consistent with hypofrontality. PMID:27295400

  9. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Technique for Gentamicin Drug Susceptibility Studies with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922

    PubMed Central

    García-Álvarez, Lara; Busto, Jesús H.; Avenoza, Alberto; Sáenz, Yolanda; Peregrina, Jesús Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests involving multiple time-consuming steps are still used as reference methods. Today, there is a need for the development of new automated instruments that can provide faster results and reduce operating time, reagent costs, and labor requirements. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy meets those requirements. The metabolism and antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 in the presence of gentamicin have been analyzed using NMR and compared with a reference method. Direct incubation of the bacteria (with and without gentamicin) into the NMR tube has also been performed, and differences in the NMR spectra were obtained. The MIC, determined by the reference method found in this study, would correspond with the termination of the bacterial metabolism observed with NMR. Experiments carried out directly into the NMR tube enabled the development of antimicrobial drug susceptibility tests to assess the effectiveness of the antibiotic. NMR is an objective and reproducible method for showing the effects of a drug on the subject bacterium and can emerge as an excellent tool for studying bacterial activity in the presence of different antibiotic concentrations. PMID:25972417

  10. High-field critical current enhancement by irradiation induced correlated and random defects in (Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4})Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kihlstrom, K. J.; Crabtree, G. W.; Fang, L.; Jia, Y.; Shen, B.; Koshelev, A. E.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W.-K.; Kayani, A.; Zhu, S. F.; Wen, H.-H.

    2013-11-11

    Mixed pinning landscapes in superconductors are emerging as an effective strategy to achieve high critical currents in high, applied magnetic fields. Here, we use heavy-ion and proton irradiation to create correlated and point defects to explore the vortex pinning behavior of each and combined constituent defects in the iron-based superconductor Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and find that the pinning mechanisms are non-additive. The major effect of p-irradiation in mixed pinning landscapes is the generation of field-independent critical currents in very high fields. At 7 T ‖ c and 5 K, the critical current density exceeds 5 MA/cm{sup 2}.

  11. Perspectives for the high field approach in fusion research and advances within the Ignitor Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, B.; Airoldi, A.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Belforte, G.; Boggio-Sella, E.; Cardinali, A.; Cenacchi, G.; Conti, F.; Costa, E.; D'Amico, A.; Detragiache, P.; De Tommasi, G.; DeVellis, A.; Faelli, G.; Ferraris, P.; Frattolillo, A.; Giammanco, F.; Grasso, G.; Lazzaretti, M.; Mantovani, S.; Merriman, L.; Migliori, S.; Napoli, R.; Perona, A.; Pierattini, S.; Pironti, A.; Ramogida, G.; Rubinacci, G.; Sassi, M.; Sestero, A.; Spillantini, S.; Tavani, M.; Tumino, A.; Villone, F.; Zucchi, L.

    2015-05-01

    The Ignitor Program maintains the objective of approaching D-T ignition conditions by incorporating systematical advances made with relevant high field magnet technology and with experiments on high density well confined plasmas in the present machine design. An additional objective is that of charting the development of the high field line of experiments that goes from the Alcator machine to the ignitor device. The rationale for this class of experiments, aimed at producing poloidal fields with the highest possible values (compatible with proven safety factors of known plasma instabilities) is given. On the basis of the favourable properties of high density plasmas produced systematically by this line of machines, the envisioned future for the line, based on novel high field superconducting magnets, includes the possibility of investigating more advanced fusion burn conditions than those of the D-T plasmas for which Ignitor is designed. Considering that a detailed machine design has been carried out (Coppi et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 104013), the advances made in different areas of the physics and technology that are relevant to the Ignitor project are reported. These are included within the following sections of the present paper: main components issues, assembly and welding procedures; robotics criteria; non-linear feedback control; simulations with three-dimensional structures and disruption studies; ICRH and dedicated diagnostics systems; anomalous transport processes including self-organization for fusion burning regimes and the zero-dimensional model; tridimensional structures of the thermonuclear instability and control provisions; superconducting components of the present machine; envisioned experiments with high field superconducting magnets.

  12. Proton conduction in biopolymer exopolysaccharide succinoglycan

    SciTech Connect

    Kweon, Jin Jung; Lee, Kyu Won; Kim, Hyojung; Lee, Cheol Eui; Jung, Seunho; Kwon, Chanho

    2014-07-07

    Protonic currents play a vital role in electrical signalling in living systems. It has been suggested that succinoglycan plays a specific role in alfalfa root nodule development, presumably acting as the signaling molecules. In this regard, charge transport and proton dynamics in the biopolymer exopolysaccharide succinoglycan have been studied by means of electrical measurements and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In particular, a dielectric dispersion in the system has revealed that the electrical conduction is protonic rather electronic. Besides, our laboratory- and rotating-frame {sup 1}H NMR measurements have elucidated the nature of the protonic conduction, activation of the protonic motion being associated with a glass transition.

  13. Perspectives and limitations of parallel MR imaging at high field strengths.

    PubMed

    Heidemann, Robin M; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A; Wohlfarth, Katrin; Krueger, Gunnar; Jakob, Peter M

    2006-05-01

    In medical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging, it is standard practice to use MR scanners with a field strength of 1.5 Tesla. Recently, an ongoing trend towards higher field strengths can be observed, with a new potential clinical standard of 3.0 Tesla. High-field MR imaging, with its intrinsic higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), can enable new applications for MRI in medical diagnosis, or can serve to improve existing methods. The use of high field MRI is not without its limitations, however. Besides SNR, other unwanted effects increase with a higher field strength. Without correction, these high field problems can cause a serious loss in image quality. An elegant way to address these problems is the use of parallel imaging. In many clinical applications, parallel MRI (pMRI) is part of the standard protocol, as pMRI can enhance virtually every MRI application without necessarily affecting the contrast behavior of the underlying imaging sequence. In addition to the speed advantages offered by pMRI, the capability of parallel imaging to reduce significant high field-specific problems, thereby improving image quality, will be of major importance.

  14. A Pilot In Vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of Amino Acid Neurotransmitter Response to Ketamine Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Milak, Matthew S.; Proper, Caitlin J.; Mulhern, Stephanie T.; Parter, Amy L.; Kegeles, Lawrence S.; Ogden, R. Todd; Mao, Xiangling; Rodriguez, Carolyn I.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Suckow, Raymond F.; Cooper, Thomas B.; Keilp, John C.; Shungu, Dikoma C.; Mann, J. John

    2015-01-01

    The NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine can improve major depressive disorder (MDD) within hours. To evaluate the putative role of glutamatergic and GABAergic systems in ketamine’s antidepressant action, medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) levels of glutamate + glutamine (Glx) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were measured before, during, and after ketamine administration using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Ketamine (0.5 mg/kg i.v.) was administered to eleven depressed patients with MDD. Glx and GABA mPFC responses were measured as ratios relative to unsuppressed voxel tissue water (W) successfully in 8/11 patients. Ten of 11 patients remitted (50% reduction in 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and total ≤ 10) within 230 minutes of commencing ketamine. mPFC Glx/W and GABA/W peaked at 37.8%±7.5% and 38.0%±9.1% above baseline in ~26 minutes. Mean areas under the curve (AUC) for Glx/W (p = 0.025) and GABA/W (p = 0.005) increased and correlated (r = 0.796; p=0.018). Clinical improvement correlated with 90-minute norketamine concentration (df=6, r=−0.78, p=0.023), but no other measures. Rapid increases in Glx and GABA in MDD following ketamine administration support the postulated antidepressant role of glutamate and for the first time raises the question of GABA’s role in the antidepressant action of ketamine. These data support the hypothesis1 that ketamine administration may cause an initial increase in glutamate that potentially activates mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway via AMPA receptors, since ketamine blocks NMDA receptors. The role of the contemporaneous surge in GABA remains to be determined.2 PMID:26283639

  15. Toxicometabolomics approach to urinary biomarkers for mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2})-induced nephrotoxicity using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyu-Bong; Um, So Young; Chung, Myeon Woo; Jung, Seung Chul; Oh, Ji Seon; Kim, Seon Hwa; Na, Han Sung; Lee, Byung Mu; Choi, Ki Hwan

    2010-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine and characterize surrogate biomarkers that can predict nephrotoxicity induced by mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) using urinary proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H NMR) spectral data. A procedure for {sup 1}H NMR urinalysis using pattern recognition was proposed to evaluate nephrotoxicity induced by HgCl{sub 2} in Sprague-Dawley rats. HgCl{sub 2} at 0.1 or 0.75 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), and urine was collected every 24 h for 6 days. Animals (n = 6 per group) were sacrificed 3 or 6 days post-dosing in order to perform clinical blood chemistry tests and histopathologic examinations. Urinary {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy revealed apparent differential clustering between the control and HgCl{sub 2} treatment groups as evidenced by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS)-discriminant analysis (DA). Time- and dose-dependent separation of HgCl{sub 2}-treated animals from controls was observed by PCA of {sup 1}H NMR spectral data. In HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats, the concentrations of endogenous urinary metabolites of glucose, acetate, alanine, lactate, succinate, and ethanol were significantly increased, whereas the concentrations of 2-oxoglutarate, allantoin, citrate, formate, taurine, and hippurate were significantly decreased. These endogenous metabolites were selected as putative biomarkers for HgCl{sub 2}-induced nephrotoxicity. A dose response was observed in concentrations of lactate, acetate, succinate, and ethanol, where severe disruption of the concentrations of 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, formate, glucose, and taurine was observed at the higher dose (0.75 mg/kg) of HgCl{sub 2}. Correlation of urinary {sup 1}H NMR PLS-DA data with renal histopathologic changes suggests that {sup 1}H NMR urinalysis can be used to predict or screen for HgCl{sub 2}-induced nephrotoxicity{sub .}

  16. Metabolic Characterization of All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (ATRA)–Induced Craniofacial Development of Murine Embryos Using In Vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lihong; Wu, Renhua; Hu, Xiao; Zhang, Guishan; Tang, Shijie

    2014-01-01

    Aim To characterize the abnormal metabolic profile of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)–induced craniofacial development in mouse embryos using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods Timed-pregnant mice were treated by oral gavage on the morning of embryonic gestation day 11 (E11) with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). Dosing solutions were adjusted by maternal body weight to provide 30, 70, or 100 mg/kg RA. The control group was given an equivalent volume of the carrier alone. Using an Agilent 7.0 T MR system and a combination of surface coil coils, a 3 mm×3 mm×3 mm 1H-MRS voxel was selected along the embryonic craniofacial tissue. 1H-MRS was performed with a single-voxel method using PRESS sequence and analyzed using LCModel software. Hematoxylin and eosin was used to detect and confirm cleft palate. Result 1H-MRS revealed elevated choline levels in embryonic craniofacial tissue in the RA70 and RA100 groups compared to controls (P<0.05). Increased choline levels were also found in the RA70 and RA100 groups compared with the RA30 group (P<0.01). High intra-myocellular lipids at 1.30 ppm (IMCL13) in the RA100 group compared to the RA30 group were found (P<0.01). There were no significant changes in taurine, intra-myocellular lipids at 2.10 ppm (IMCL21), and extra-myocellular lipids at 2.30 ppm (EMCL23). Cleft palate formation was observed in all fetuses carried by mice administered 70 and 100 mg/kg RA. Conclusions This novel study suggests that the elevated choline and lipid levels found by 1H-MRS may represent early biomarkers of craniofacial defects. Further studies will determine performance of this test and pathogenetic mechanisms of craniofacial malformation. PMID:24816763

  17. Investigation of Cortical Glutamate–Glutamine and γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Helen B; Shungu, Dikoma C; Bender, James; Mao, Xiangling; Xu, Xiaoyan; Slifstein, Mark; Kegeles, Lawrence S

    2012-01-01

    Glutamatergic abnormalities in corticostriatal brain circuits are thought to underlie obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Whether these abnormalities exist in adults with OCD is not clear. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to test our hypothesis that unmedicated adults with OCD have reduced glutamate plus glutamine (Glx) levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) compared with healthy controls. Levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were also explored. Twenty-four unmedicated adults with OCD and 22 matched healthy control subjects underwent 1H MRS scans at 3.0 T. Resonances of both Glx and GABA were obtained using the standard J-editing technique and assessed as ratios relative to voxel tissue water (W) in the MPFC (the region of interest) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to explore the regional specificity of any finding. In the MPFC, Glx/W did not differ by diagnostic group (p=0.98) or sex (p=0.57). However, GABA/W was decreased in OCD (2.16±0.46 × 10−3) compared with healthy controls (2.43±0.45 × 10−3, p=0.045); moreover, age of OCD onset was inversely correlated with MPFC GABA/W (r=−0.50, p=0.015). MPFC GABA/W was higher in females than in males. In the DLPFC, there were no main effects of diagnosis or gender on Glx/W or GABA/W. These data indicate that unmedicated adults with OCD do not have Glx abnormalities in a MPFC voxel that includes the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex. However, they may have decreased MPFC GABA levels. How GABA abnormalities might contribute to corticostriatal dysfunction in OCD deserves further study. PMID:22850733

  18. Analysis of brain metabolism by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder suggests a generalized differential ontogenic pattern from controls.

    PubMed

    Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Londoño, Ana C; Pineda, David A; Lopera, Francisco; Palacio, Juan David; Arbelaez, Andres; Acosta, Maria T; Vélez, Jorge I; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Muenke, Maximilian

    2012-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorder of childhood. Preliminary studies with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the brain have reported differences in brain metabolite concentration-to-Cr ratios between individuals with ADHD and unaffected controls in several frontal brain regions including anterior cingulate cortex. Using multivoxel (1)H-MRS, we compared 14 individuals affected with ADHD to 20 individuals without ADHD from the same genetic isolate. After controlling by sex, age, and multiple testing, we found significant differences at the right posterior cingulate of the Glx/Cr ratio density distribution function between ADHD cases and controls (P < 0.05). Furthermore, we found several interactions of metabolite concentration-to-Cr ratio, age, and ADHD status: Ins/Cr and Glx/Cr ratios at the left posterior cingulate, and NAA/Cr at the splenius, right posterior cingulate, and at the left posterior cingulate. We also found a differential metabolite ratio interaction between ADHD cases and controls for Ins/Cr and NAA/Cr at the right striatum. These results show that: (1) NAA/Cr, Glx/Cr, and Ins/Cr ratios, as reported in other studies, exhibit significant differences between ADHD cases and controls; (2) differences of these metabolite ratios between ADHD cases and controls evolve in specific and recognizable patterns throughout age, a finding that replicates previous results obtained by structural MRI, where is demonstrated that brain ontogeny follows a different program in ADHD cases and controls; (3) Ins/Cr and NAA/Cr ratios, at the right striatum, interact in a differential way between ADHD cases and controls. As a whole, these results replicate previous 1H-MRS findings and add new intriguing differential metabolic and ontogeny patterns between ADHD cases and controls that warrant further pursue. PMID:23012086

  19. The positive effects of high-frequency right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on memory, correlated with increases in brain metabolites detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Jun; Jin, Guixing; Lei, Licun; Wang, Lan; Du, Yaqiang; Wang, Xueyi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on memory, and its correlation with levels of hippocampal brain metabolites detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. Materials and methods In this randomized, double-blind sham-controlled trial, alcohol-dependent patients were enrolled and randomized into two groups: the experimental group (rTMS, 10 Hz, on right DLPFC, 20 sessions) and the control group (sham stimulation). Memory function was assessed using Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) before and after treatment. 1H-MRS was used to detect the levels of N-acetyl aspartic acid (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) in bilateral hippocampi before and after treatment. Results Thirty-eight patients (18 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group) were included in the analyses. The experimental group showed significantly greater changes in HVLT-R, BVMT-R, NAA/Cr, and Cho/Cr after rTMS from baseline than the control group. The percentage change in BVMT-R and HVLT-R correlated with the percentage change in NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr in the right brain. Conclusion High-frequency right DLPFC rTMS was associated with improvement in memory dysfunction, which is correlated with levels of hippocampal brain metabolites detected by 1H-MRS in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:27695332

  20. The positive effects of high-frequency right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on memory, correlated with increases in brain metabolites detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Jun; Jin, Guixing; Lei, Licun; Wang, Lan; Du, Yaqiang; Wang, Xueyi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on memory, and its correlation with levels of hippocampal brain metabolites detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients. Materials and methods In this randomized, double-blind sham-controlled trial, alcohol-dependent patients were enrolled and randomized into two groups: the experimental group (rTMS, 10 Hz, on right DLPFC, 20 sessions) and the control group (sham stimulation). Memory function was assessed using Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) before and after treatment. 1H-MRS was used to detect the levels of N-acetyl aspartic acid (NAA), choline (Cho), and creatine (Cr) in bilateral hippocampi before and after treatment. Results Thirty-eight patients (18 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group) were included in the analyses. The experimental group showed significantly greater changes in HVLT-R, BVMT-R, NAA/Cr, and Cho/Cr after rTMS from baseline than the control group. The percentage change in BVMT-R and HVLT-R correlated with the percentage change in NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr in the right brain. Conclusion High-frequency right DLPFC rTMS was associated with improvement in memory dysfunction, which is correlated with levels of hippocampal brain metabolites detected by 1H-MRS in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients.