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Sample records for high-frequency electromagnetic fields

  1. Plant Responses to High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Vian, Alain; Davies, Eric; Gendraud, Michel; Bonnet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    High frequency nonionizing electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) that are increasingly present in the environment constitute a genuine environmental stimulus able to evoke specific responses in plants that share many similarities with those observed after a stressful treatment. Plants constitute an outstanding model to study such interactions since their architecture (high surface area to volume ratio) optimizes their interaction with the environment. In the present review, after identifying the main exposure devices (transverse and gigahertz electromagnetic cells, wave guide, and mode stirred reverberating chamber) and general physics laws that govern EMF interactions with plants, we illustrate some of the observed responses after exposure to HF-EMF at the cellular, molecular, and whole plant scale. Indeed, numerous metabolic activities (reactive oxygen species metabolism, α- and β-amylase, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, chlorophyll content, terpene emission, etc.) are modified, gene expression altered (calmodulin, calcium-dependent protein kinase, and proteinase inhibitor), and growth reduced (stem elongation and dry weight) after low power (i.e., nonthermal) HF-EMF exposure. These changes occur not only in the tissues directly exposed but also systemically in distant tissues. While the long-term impact of these metabolic changes remains largely unknown, we propose to consider nonionizing HF-EMF radiation as a noninjurious, genuine environmental factor that readily evokes changes in plant metabolism. PMID:26981524

  2. Behavioral in-effectiveness of high frequency electromagnetic field in mice.

    PubMed

    Salunke, Balwant P; Umathe, Sudhir N; Chavan, Jagatpalsingh G

    2015-03-01

    The present investigation was carried out with an objective to study the influence of high frequency electromagnetic field (HF-EMF) on anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and depression-like behavior. For exposure to HF-EMF, non-magnetic material was used to fabricate the housing. Mice were exposed to HF-EMF (2.45GHz), 60min/day for 7 or 30 or 60 or 90 or 120days. The exposure was carried out by switching-on inbuilt class-I BLUETOOTH device that operates on 2.45GHz frequency in file transfer mode at a peak density of 100mW. Mice were subjected to the assessment of anxiety, OCD and depression-like behavior for 7 or 30 or 60 or 90 or 120days of exposure. The anxiety-like behavior was assessed by elevated plus maze, open field test and social interaction test. OCD-like behavior was assessed by marble burying behavior, whereas depression-like behavior was assessed by forced swim test and tail suspension test. The present experiment demonstrates that up to 120days of exposure to HF-EMF does not produce anxiety, OCD and depression-like behavior in mice.

  3. In vitro cytotoxicity of Fe-Cr-Nb-B magnetic nanoparticles under high frequency electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiriac, Horia; Petreus, Tudor; Carasevici, Eugen; Labusca, Luminita; Herea, Dumitru-Daniel; Danceanu, Camelia; Lupu, Nicoleta

    2015-04-01

    The heating potential, cytotoxicity, and efficiency of Fe68.2Cr11.5Nb0.3B20 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), as such or coated with a chitosan layer, to decrease the cell viability in a cancer cell culture model by using high frequency alternating magnetic fields (AMF) have been studied. The specific absorption rate varied from 215 W/g for chitosan-free MNPs to about 190 W/g for chitosan-coated ones, and an equilibrium temperature of 46 °C was reached when chitosan-coated MNPs were subjected to AMF. The chitosan-free Fe68.2Cr11.5Nb0.3B20 MNPs proved a good biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity in all testing conditions, while the chitosan-coated ones induced strong tumoricidal effects when a cell-particle simultaneous co-incubation approach was used. In high frequency AMF, the particle-mediated heat treatment has proved to be a critical cause for decreasing in vitro the viability of a cancer cell line.

  4. Millimeter waves or extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields in the environment: what are their effects on bacteria?

    PubMed

    Soghomonyan, Diana; Trchounian, Karen; Trchounian, Armen

    2016-06-01

    Millimeter waves (MMW) or electromagnetic fields of extremely high frequencies at low intensity is a new environmental factor, the level of which is increased as technology advance. It is of interest that bacteria and other cells might communicate with each other by electromagnetic field of sub-extremely high frequency range. These MMW affected Escherichia coli and many other bacteria, mainly depressing their growth and changing properties and activity. These effects were non-thermal and depended on different factors. The significant cellular targets for MMW effects could be water, cell plasma membrane, and genome. The model for the MMW interaction with bacteria is suggested; a role of the membrane-associated proton FOF1-ATPase, key enzyme of bioenergetic relevance, is proposed. The consequences of MMW interaction with bacteria are the changes in their sensitivity to different biologically active chemicals, including antibiotics. Novel data on MMW effects on bacteria and their sensitivity to different antibiotics are presented and discussed; the combined action of MMW and antibiotics resulted with more strong effects. These effects are of significance for understanding changed metabolic pathways and distinguish role of bacteria in environment; they might be leading to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The effects might have applications in the development of technique, therapeutic practices, and food protection technology.

  5. Abnormal responses of electronic pocket dosimeters caused by high frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from digital cellular telephones.

    PubMed

    Deji, Shizuhiko; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2005-09-01

    High frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from digital cellular telephones (cell phones) occasionally cause abnormally high and erroneous indicated dose readings on electronic pocket dosimeters (EPDs). Electric field strength distribution around a cell phone transmitting 1.5 GHz band with a maximum power of 0.8 W was analyzed by using an isotropic probe with tri-axial dipole antennas. Five types of EPDs were exposed to the fields for 50 s under configurations relative to the cell phone. The electric field distribution expanded around the phone's antenna and had a maximum electric field strength of 36.5 +/- 0.3 V m(-1). The cell phone gave rise to erroneous indicated dose readings on four out of five EPDs. The maximum value of erroneous indicated dosage for 50 s reached 1,283 microSv, which was about 2.6% of the annual effective dose limit of 50 mSv. The electromagnetic susceptibility of the EPDs was higher in the sections where the semiconductor detectors or electric circuit boards were located. The distance required to prevent electromagnetic interference differed for each EPD and ranged from 2.0 to 21.0 cm from the cell phone. The electric and magnetic field immunity levels of the EPDs varied from 9.2 V m(-1) to greater than 37.6 V m(-1), and from 0.03 A m(-1) to greater than 0.51 A m(-1). The EPDs displayed erroneous dose readings during exposure but recovered their normal performance after the cell phone ceased transmitting. The electromagnetic immunity levels of the EPDs were either equal to or greater than the IEC-standard. The immunity levels should be enhanced greater than the IEC-standard from the standpoint of radiation protection. The simplest and most reliable measure to prevent potential malfunction is to prohibit the radiation workers from carrying cell phones to their workplace.

  6. Low-amplitude, high-frequency electromagnetic field exposure causes delayed and reduced growth in Rosa hybrida.

    PubMed

    Grémiaux, Alexandre; Girard, Sébastien; Guérin, Vincent; Lothier, Jérémy; Baluška, František; Davies, Eric; Bonnet, Pierre; Vian, Alain

    2016-01-15

    It is now accepted that plants perceive high-frequency electromagnetic field (HF-EMF). We wondered if the HF-EMF signal is integrated further in planta as a chain of reactions leading to a modification of plant growth. We exposed whole small ligneous plants (rose bush) whose growth could be studied for several weeks. We performed exposures at two different development stages (rooted cuttings bearing an axillary bud and 5-leaf stage plants), using two high frequency (900MHz) field amplitudes (5 and 200Vm(-1)). We achieved a tight control on the experimental conditions using a state-of-the-art stimulation device (Mode Stirred Reverberation Chamber) and specialized culture-chambers. After the exposure, we followed the shoot growth for over a one-month period. We observed no growth modification whatsoever exposure was performed on the 5-leaf stage plants. When the exposure was performed on the rooted cuttings, no growth modification was observed on Axis I (produced from the elongation of the axillary bud). Likewise, no significant modification was noted on Axis II produced at the base of Axis I, that came from pre-formed secondary axillary buds. In contrast, Axis II produced at the top of Axis I, that came from post-formed secondary buds consistently displayed a delayed and significant reduced growth (45%). The measurements of plant energy uptake from HF-EMF in this exposure condition (SAR of 7.2 10(-4)Wkg(-1)) indicated that this biological response is likely not due to thermal effect. These results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic field only affected development of post-formed organs.

  7. Occupational exposure to high frequency electromagnetic fields and its effect on human immune parameters.

    PubMed

    Tuschl, H; Neubauer, G; Garn, H; Duftschmid, K; Winker, N; Brusl, H

    1999-01-01

    The present study recorded a considerable excess of recommended exposure limits in the vicinity of shortwave diathermy devices used for medical treatment of patients. Different kinds of field probes were used to measure electric and magnetic field strength and the whole body exposure of medical personnel operating shortwave, decimeter wave and microwave units was calculated. To investigate the influence of chronic exposure on the immune system of operators, blood was sampled from physiotherapists working at the above mentioned devices. Eighteen exposed and thirteen control persons, matched by sex and age, were examined. Total leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were performed and leucocytic subpopulations determined by flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies against surface antigens. In addition, to quantify subpopulations of immunocompetent cells, the activity of lymphocytes was measured. Lymphocytes were stimulated by mitogen phytohemagglutinin and their proliferation measured by a flow cytometric method. No statistically significant differences between the control and exposed persons were found. In both study groups all immune parameters were within normal ranges.

  8. Ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field irradiation during pregnancy leads to an increase in erythrocytes micronuclei incidence in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Amâncio Romanelli; Knakievicz, Tanise; Pasquali, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Fernández, Claudio Enrique Rodriguez; de Salles, Alvaro Augusto de Almeida; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2006-12-03

    Mobile telephones and their base stations are an important ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field (UHF-EMF) source and their utilization is increasing all over the world. Epidemiological studies suggested that low energy UHF-EMF emitted from a cellular telephone may cause biological effects, such as DNA damage and changes on oxidative metabolism. An in vivo mammalian cytogenetic test, the micronucleus (MN) assay, was used to investigate the occurrence of chromosomal damage in erythrocytes from rat offspring exposed to a non-thermal UHF-EMF from a cellular phone during their embryogenesis; the irradiated group showed a significant increase in MN occurrence. In order to investigate if UHF-EMF could also alter oxidative parameters in the peripheral blood and in the liver - an important hematopoietic tissue in rat embryos and newborns - we also measured the activity of antioxidant enzymes, quantified total sulfhydryl content, protein carbonyl groups, thiobarbituric acid-reactive species and total non-enzymatic antioxidant defense. No significant differences were found in any oxidative parameter of offspring blood and liver. The average number of pups in each litter has also not been significantly altered. Our results suggest that, under our experimental conditions, UHF-EMF is able to induce a genotoxic response in hematopoietic tissue during the embryogenesis through an unknown mechanism.

  9. 17-β-Estradiol Counteracts the Effects of High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Trophoblastic Connexins and Integrins

    PubMed Central

    Cervellati, Franco; Lunghi, Laura; Fabbri, Elena; Valbonesi, Paola; Marci, Roberto; Biondi, Carla; Vesce, Fortunato

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMFs) and 17-β-estradiol on connexins (Cxs), integrins (Ints), and estrogen receptor (ER) expression, as well as on ultrastructure of trophoblast-derived HTR-8/SVneo cells. HF-EMF, 17-β-estradiol, and their combination induced an increase of Cx40 and Cx43 mRNA expression. HF-EMF decreased Int alpha1 and β1 mRNA levels but enhanced Int alpha5 mRNA expression. All the Ints mRNA expressions were increased by 17-β-estradiol and exposure to both stimuli. ER-β mRNA was reduced by HF-EMF but augmented by 17-β-estradiol alone or with HF-EMF. ER-β immunofluorescence showed a cytoplasmic localization in sham and HF-EMF exposed cells which became nuclear after treatment with hormone or both stimuli. Electron microscopy evidenced a loss of cellular contact in exposed cells which appeared counteracted by 17-β-estradiol. We demonstrate that 17-β-estradiol modulates Cxs and Ints as well as ER-β expression induced by HF-EMF, suggesting an influence of both stimuli on trophoblast differentiation and migration. PMID:23819010

  10. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1800 MHz) on immature and mature rats.

    PubMed

    Sekeroğlu, Vedat; Akar, Ayşegül; Sekeroğlu, Zülal Atlı

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the cytogenotoxic effects of high frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) for 45 day and the effect of a recovery period of 15 day after exposure to EMF on bone marrow cells of immature and mature rats. The animals in treatment groups were exposed to 1800 MHz EMF at SAR of 0.37 W/kg and 0.49 W/kg for 2h/day for 45 day. Two recovery groups were kept for a recovery period of 15 day without EMF after exposure to HF-EMF. Two control groups for both immature and mature rats were also included. Significant differences were also observed in chromosome aberrations (CA), micronucleus (MN) frequency, mitotic index (MI) and ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in all treatment groups. The cytogenotoxic damage was more remarkable in immature rats and, the recovery period did not improve this damage in immature rats. Because much higher and irreversible cytogenotoxic damage was observed in immature rats than in mature rats, further studies are needed to understand effects of EMF on DNA damage and DNA repair, and to determine safe limits for environment and human, especially for children.

  11. Determination of High-Frequency Current Distribution Using EMTP-Based Transmission Line Models with Resulting Radiated Electromagnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Mork, B; Nelson, R; Kirkendall, B; Stenvig, N

    2009-11-30

    Application of BPL technologies to existing overhead high-voltage power lines would benefit greatly from improved simulation tools capable of predicting performance - such as the electromagnetic fields radiated from such lines. Existing EMTP-based frequency-dependent line models are attractive since their parameters are derived from physical design dimensions which are easily obtained. However, to calculate the radiated electromagnetic fields, detailed current distributions need to be determined. This paper presents a method of using EMTP line models to determine the current distribution on the lines, as well as a technique for using these current distributions to determine the radiated electromagnetic fields.

  12. A fast directional algorithm for high-frequency electromagnetic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuji, Paul; Ying Lexing

    2011-06-20

    This paper is concerned with the fast solution of high-frequency electromagnetic scattering problems using the boundary integral formulation. We extend the O(N log N) directional multilevel algorithm previously proposed for the acoustic scattering case to the vector electromagnetic case. We also detail how to incorporate the curl operator of the magnetic field integral equation into the algorithm. When combined with a standard iterative method, this results in an almost linear complexity solver for the combined field integral equations. In addition, the butterfly algorithm is utilized to compute the far field pattern and radar cross section with O(N log N) complexity.

  13. A high frequency electromagnetic impedance imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex

    2003-01-15

    Non-invasive, high resolution geophysical mapping of the shallow subsurface is necessary for delineation of buried hazardous wastes, detecting unexploded ordinance, verifying and monitoring of containment or moisture contents, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic (EM) techniques can be used for this purpose since electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity are representative of the subsurface media. Measurements in the EM frequency band between 1 and 100 MHz are very important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the subsurface distribution of both electrical properties is required. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but quantitative interpretation of the data was difficult. Accurate measurements are necessary, but difficult to achieve for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface. We are developing a broadband non-invasive method for accurately mapping the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using an EM impedance approach similar to the MT exploration technique. Electric and magnetic sensors were tested to ensure that stray EM scattering is minimized and the quality of the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system is good enough to allow high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging of hidden targets. Additional efforts are being made to modify and further develop existing sensors and transmitters to improve the imaging capability and data acquisition efficiency.

  14. Metronidazole as a protector of cells from electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Malinina, Ulia A.; Popyhova, Era B.; Rogacheva, Svetlana M.; Somov, Alexander U.

    2006-08-01

    It is well known that weak electromagnetic fields of extremely high frequencies cause significant modification of the functional status of biological objects of different levels of organization. The aim of the work was to study the combinatory effect of metronidazole - the drug form of 1-(2'hydroxiethil)-2-methil-5-nitroimidazole - and electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies (52...75 GHz) on the hemolytic stability of erythrocytes and hemotaxis activity of Infusoria Paramecium caudatum.

  15. A novel model of interaction between high frequency electromagnetic non-ionizing fields and microtubules viewed as coupled two-degrees of freedom harmonic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, Luigi Maxmilian

    2015-01-01

    The question regarding the potential biological and adverse health effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields on living organisms is of primary importance in biophysics and medicine. Despite the several experimental evidences showing such occurrence in a wide frequency range from extremely low frequency to microwaves, a definitive theoretical model able to explain a possible mechanism of interaction between electromagnetic fields and living matter, especially in the case of weak and very weak intensities, is still missing. In this paper it has been suggested a possible mechanism of interaction involving the resonant absorption of electromagnetic radiation by microtubules. To this aim these have been modeled as non-dissipative forced harmonic oscillators characterized by two coupled "macroscopic" degrees of freedom, respectively describing longitudinal and transversal vibrations induced by the electromagnetic field. We have shown that the proposed model, although at a preliminary stage, is able to explain the ability of even weak electromagnetic radiating electromagnetic fields to transfer high quantities of energy to living systems by means of a resonant mechanism, so capable to easily damage microtubules structure.

  16. Development oF High Frequency Electromagnetic Mapping (HFEM) technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesch, R. L.

    1982-04-01

    High frequency electromagnetic mapping (HFEM) techniques were developed for evaluating rubblized oil shale in the cold retort state in the modified in situ process. This technology development is also applicable for using HFEM techniques for diagnosing, monitoring, controlling and evaluating modified in situ retorts after they are ignited. The baseline data work required to design a high temperature sample holder and experiments for determining the EM properties of oil shale samples at elevated temperatures (200 to 500 C) are described. A theoretical approach is given for modeling oil shale retorts for electromagnetic sensing techniques by a spheroid with an average dielectric constant along with numerical results. Finally, the measurement results are given for the spent and raw shale samples that were obtained from portions of the ten half score samples plus the results of the electromagnetic transmission measurements taken on oil shale samples.

  17. Stationary structure of a high-frequency discharge maintained by a distributed electromagnetic source in the presence of an external magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Es'kin, V. A.; Kudrin, A. V.

    2010-04-15

    The stationary structure of an axisymmetric high-frequency discharge maintained by a given source in an external dc magnetic field is investigated. The source is assumed to be a current wave that travels over the discharge tube surface in the direction of the external magnetic field. The source current has a single azimuthal component and its frequency belongs to the lower hybrid range. The main emphasis is placed on the special case where the electron heat conduction length across the external magnetic field exceeds considerably the tube radius. The dependences of discharge plasma parameters on the current amplitude and propagation constant along the tube have been found for this case. The results of numerical calculations of the distributions of the field and the power of the Joule loss in a discharge are presented.

  18. High Frequency Resonant Electromagnetic Generation and Detection of Ultrasonic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Katsuhiro; Wright, Oliver; Hyoguchi, Takao

    1994-05-01

    High frequency resonant mode electromagnetic ultrasonic generation and detection in metals is demonstrated at frequencies up to ˜150 MHz with various metal sheet samples. Using a unified theory of the generation and detection process, it is shown how various physical quantities can be measured. The sound velocity or thickness of the sheets can be derived from the resonant frequencies. At resonance the detected amplitude is inversely proportional to the ultrasonic attenuation of the sample, whereas the resonance half-width is proportional to this attenuation. We derive the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient from the half-width, and show how the grain size of the material can be probed. In addition we present results for thin bonded sheets, and show how a measure of the bonding or delamination can be obtained. This high frequency resonant method shows great promise for the non-destructive evaluation of thin sheets and coatings in the sub- 10-µm to 1-mm thickness range.

  19. High-frequency electromagnetic scarring in three-dimensional axisymmetric convex cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry K.; Jorgenson, Roy E.

    2016-04-13

    Here, this article examines the localization of high-frequency electromagnetic fields in three-dimensional axisymmetric cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. When these orbits lead to unstable localized modes, they are known as scars. This article treats the case where the opposing sides, or mirrors, are convex. Particular attention is focused on the normalization through the electromagnetic energy theorem. Both projections of the field along the scarred orbit as well as field point statistics are examined. Statistical comparisons are made with a numerical calculation of the scars run with an axisymmetric simulation.

  20. Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic High Frequency Axisymmetric Cavity Scars.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt

    2014-10-01

    This report examines the localization of high frequency electromagnetic fi elds in three-dimensional axisymmetric cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This report treats both the case where the opposing sides, or mirrors, are convex, where there are no interior foci, and the case where they are concave, leading to interior foci. The scalar problem is treated fi rst but the approximations required to treat the vector fi eld components are also examined. Particular att ention is focused on the normalization through the electromagnetic energy theorem. Both projections of the fi eld along the scarred orbit as well as point statistics are examined. Statistical comparisons are m ade with a numerical calculation of the scars run with an axisymmetric simulation. This axisymmetric cas eformstheoppositeextreme(wherethetwomirror radii at each end of the ray orbit are equal) from the two -dimensional solution examined previously (where one mirror radius is vastly di ff erent from the other). The enhancement of the fi eldontheorbitaxiscanbe larger here than in the two-dimensional case. Intentionally Left Blank

  1. Benchmark of Different Electromagnetic Codes for the High Frequency Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Kai Tian, Haipeng Wang, Frank Marhauser, Guangfeng Cheng, Chuandong Zhou

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, we present benchmarking results for highclass 3D electromagnetic (EM) codes in designing RF cavities today. These codes include Omega3P [1], VORPAL [2], CST Microwave Studio [3], Ansoft HFSS [4], and ANSYS [5]. Two spherical cavities are selected as the benchmark models. We have compared not only the accuracy of resonant frequencies, but also that of surface EM fields, which are critical for superconducting RF cavities. By removing degenerated modes, we calculate all the resonant modes up to 10 GHz with similar mesh densities, so that the geometry approximation and field interpolation error related to the wavelength can be observed.

  2. Longitudinal ELF to LF electromagnetic oscillations and waves generated in the ionosphere under the influence of strong high-frequency electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, Y.L.

    1995-01-01

    Results of detailed numerical calculations of some parametric decay effects, arising in a magnetoplasma under the influence of a HF, sufficiently strong electric field {rvec E} = {rvec E}{sub p} {center_dot} cos{omega}{sub E}t, are given in this paper. The resonance branches and the VLF parametric resonances are calculated in the ionosphere at altitudes Z = 200, 300, and 400 km. Calculations in the resonance regions {omega}{sub E} = s{omega}{sub o} ({omega}{sub o} is the electron Langmuir frequency, s=1,2...) were done in the cold palsma and also in the kinetic approximations. It is shown that the angle dependence {omega}{sub 1}({Theta}, E{sub p}=0) of the ELF (0 < w {le} {Omega}{sub B}) resonance branch is close to the cosine law. This is in contrast with the earlier published results and with the angle dependence {omega}{sub 1}({Theta}, E=0). This important effect and the other dependencies given in the paper may be used for the search of the parametric instabilities and of the electric field in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, especially by experiments in situ on satellites. 9 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Excitation of high-frequency electromagnetic waves by energetic electrons with a loss cone distribution in a field-aligned potential drop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Shing F.; Vinas, Adolfo F.

    1994-01-01

    The electron cyclotron maser instability (CMI) driven by momentum space anisotropy (df/dp (sub perpendicular) greater than 0) has been invoked to explain many aspects, such as the modes of propagation, harmonic emissions, and the source characteristics of the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR). Recent satellite observations of AKR sources indicate that the source regions are often imbedded within the auroral acceleration region characterized by the presence of a field-aligned potential drop. In this paper we investigate the excitation of the fundamental extraordinary mode radiation due to the accelerated electrons. The momentum space distribution of these energetic electrons is modeled by a realistic upward loss cone as modified by the presence of a parallel potential drop below the observation point. On the basis of linear growth rate calculations we present the emission characteristics, such as the frequency spectrum and the emission angular distribution as functions of the plasma parameters. We will discuss the implication of our results on the generation of the AKR from the edges of the auroral density cavities.

  4. High frequency electromagnetic interference shielding magnetic polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingliang

    Electromagnetic interference is one of the most concerned pollution and problem right now since more and more electronic devices have been extensively utilized in our daily lives. Besides the interference, long time exposure to electromagnetic radiation may also result in severe damage to human body. In order to mitigate the undesirable part of the electromagnetic wave energy and maintain the long term sustainable development of our modern civilized society, new technology development based researches have been made to solve this problem. However, one of the major challenges facing to the electromagnetic interference shielding is the relatively low shielding efficiency and the high cost as well as the complicated shielding material manufacture. From the materials science point of view, the key solutions to these challenges are strongly depended on the breakthrough of the current limit of shielding material design and manufacture (such as hierarchical material design with controllable and predictable arrangement in nanoscale particle configuration via an easy in-situ manner). From the chemical engineering point of view, the upgrading of advanced material shielding performance and the enlarged production scale for shielding materials (for example, configure the effective components in the shielding material in order to lower their usage, eliminate the "rate-limiting" step to enlarge the production scale) are of great importance. In this dissertation, the design and preparation of morphology controlled magnetic nanoparticles and their reinforced polypropylene polymer nanocomposites will be covered first. Then, the functionalities of these polymer nanocomposites will be demonstrated. Based on the innovative materials design and synergistic effect on the performance advancement, the magnetic polypropylene polymer nanocomposites with desired multifunctionalities are designed and produced targeting to the electromagnetic interference shielding application. In addition

  5. Transient DNA damage induced by high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1.8 GHz) in the human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cell line evaluated with the alkaline comet assay.

    PubMed

    Franzellitti, Silvia; Valbonesi, Paola; Ciancaglini, Nicola; Biondi, Carla; Contin, Andrea; Bersani, Ferdinando; Fabbri, Elena

    2010-01-05

    One of the most controversial issue regarding high-frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) is their putative capacity to affect DNA integrity. This is of particular concern due to the increasing use of HF-EMF in communication technologies, including mobile phones. Although epidemiological studies report no detrimental effects on human health, the possible disturbance generated by HF-EMF on cell physiology remains controversial. In addition, the question remains as to whether cells are able to compensate their potential effects. We have previously reported that a 1-h exposure to amplitude-modulated 1.8 GHz sinusoidal waves (GSM-217 Hz, SAR=2 W/kg) largely used in mobile telephony did not cause increased levels of primary DNA damage in human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cells. Nevertheless, further investigations on trophoblast cell responses after exposure to GSM signals of different types and durations were considered of interest. In the present work, HTR-8/SVneo cells were exposed for 4, 16 or 24h to 1.8 GHz continuous wave (CW) and different GSM signals, namely GSM-217 Hz and GSM-Talk (intermittent exposure: 5 min field on, 10 min field off). The alkaline comet assay was used to evaluate primary DNA damages and/or strand breaks due to uncompleted repair processes in HF-EMF exposed samples. The amplitude-modulated signals GSM-217 Hz and GSM-Talk induced a significant increase in comet parameters in trophoblast cells after 16 and 24h of exposure, while the un-modulated CW was ineffective. However, alterations were rapidly recovered and the DNA integrity of HF-EMF exposed cells was similar to that of sham-exposed cells within 2h of recovery in the absence irradiation. Our data suggest that HF-EMF with a carrier frequency and modulation scheme typical of the GSM signal may affect the DNA integrity.

  6. Numerical Modeling of High Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Propagation through Ionospheric Plasma with Randomly Distributed Flute Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplinger, J.; Sotnikov, V. I.; Wallerstein, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    A three dimensional numerical ray-tracing algorithm based on a Hamilton-Jacobi geometric optics approximation is used to analyze propagation of high frequency (HF) electromagnetic waves through a plasma with randomly distributed vortex structures having a spatial dependence in the plane perpendicular to earth's magnetic field. This spatial dependence in density is elongated and uniform along the magnetic field lines. Similar vortex structures may appear in the equatorial spread F region and in the Auroral zone of the ionosphere. The diffusion coefficient associated with wave vector deflection from a propagation path can be approximated by measuring the average deflection angle of the beam of rays. Then, the beam broadening can be described statistically using the Fokker-Planck equation. Visualizations of the ray propagation through generated density structures along with estimated and analytically calculated diffusion coefficients will be presented.

  7. Development of Numerical Codes for Modeling Electromagnetic Behavior at High Frequencies Near Large Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, R. P.; Deshpande, M. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A study into the problem of determining electromagnetic solutions at high frequencies for problems involving complex geometries, large sizes and multiple sources (e.g. antennas) has been initiated. Typical applications include the behavior of antennas (and radiators) installed on complex conducting structures (e.g. ships, aircrafts, etc..) with strong interactions between antennas, the radiation patterns, and electromagnetic signals is of great interest for electromagnetic compatibility control. This includes the overall performance evaluation and control of all on-board radiating systems, electromagnetic interference, and personnel radiation hazards. Electromagnetic computational capability exists at NASA LaRC, and many of the codes developed are based on the Moment Method (MM). However, the MM is computationally intensive, and this places a limit on the size of objects and structures that can be modeled. Here, two approaches are proposed: (i) a current-based hybrid scheme that combines the MM with Physical optics, and (ii) an Alternating Direction Implicit-Finite Difference Time Domain (ADI-FDTD) method. The essence of a hybrid technique is to split the overall scattering surface(s) into two regions: (a) a MM zone (MMZ) which can be used over any part of the given geometry, but is most essential over irregular and "non-smooth" geometries, and (b) a PO sub-region (POSR). Currents induced on the scattering and reflecting surfaces can then be computed in two ways depending on whether the region belonged to the MMZ or was part of the POSR. For the MMZ, the current calculations proceed in terms of basis functions with undetermined coefficients (as in the usual MM method), and the answer obtained by solving a system of linear equations. Over the POSR, conduction is obtained as a superposition of two contributions: (i) currents due to the incident magnetic field, and (ii) currents produced by the mutual induction from conduction within the MMZ. This effectively leads to

  8. Unprecedentedly Strong and Narrow Electromagnetic Emissions Stimulated by High-Frequency Radio Waves in the Ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Norin, L.; Leyser, T. B.; Nordblad, E.; Thide, B.; McCarrick, M.

    2009-02-13

    Experimental results of secondary electromagnetic radiation, stimulated by high-frequency radio waves irradiating the ionosphere, are reported. We have observed emission peaks, shifted in frequency up to a few tens of Hertz from radio waves transmitted at several megahertz. These emission peaks are by far the strongest spectral features of secondary radiation that have been reported. The emissions are attributed to stimulated Brillouin scattering, long predicted but hitherto never unambiguously identified in high-frequency ionospheric interaction experiments. The experiments were performed at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), Alaska, USA.

  9. Unprecedentedly strong and narrow electromagnetic emissions stimulated by high-frequency radio waves in the ionosphere.

    PubMed

    Norin, L; Leyser, T B; Nordblad, E; Thidé, B; McCarrick, M

    2009-02-13

    Experimental results of secondary electromagnetic radiation, stimulated by high-frequency radio waves irradiating the ionosphere, are reported. We have observed emission peaks, shifted in frequency up to a few tens of Hertz from radio waves transmitted at several megahertz. These emission peaks are by far the strongest spectral features of secondary radiation that have been reported. The emissions are attributed to stimulated Brillouin scattering, long predicted but hitherto never unambiguously identified in high-frequency ionospheric interaction experiments. The experiments were performed at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), Alaska, USA.

  10. High Frequency Electromagnetic Impedance Measurements For Characterization, Monitoring And Verification Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex

    2000-12-31

    Electromagnetic methods in exploration geophysics include many technologies capable of imaging the subsurface. The electromagnetic geophysical spectrum for shallow subsurface imaging is roughly 1 Hz to 500 MHz, with electrical resistivity and other geometric sounding methods located at the low frequency end and the familiar GPR method at the high end of the spectrum. Baseline studies (Pellerin et al., 1997) show that electromagnetic instrumentation in the mid- and low-frequencies (< 300 kHz) and GPR systems (> 30 MHz) are well developed in the commercial sector. In the high-frequency range of 300 kHz to 100 MHz developments have been quite recent and reside within the research community. Accurate theoretical numerical modeling algorithms are available for simulations and interpretation across the entire spectrum (Mackie and Madden, 1993; Pellerin et al., 1995; Pellerin et al., 1997; Alumbaugh and Newman, 1995; Lee et al., 1995, Newmann and Alumbaugh, 1997; Newmann, 1999; Sasaki, 1999, etc.), but instrumentation suitable for collecting calibrated field data in the important high-frequency range is critically lacking. Several attempts to develop reliable, accurate and calibrated instruments (Sternberg and Poulton, 1996; Stewart et al., 1994; Wright et el., 1996) have produced mixed results. We proposed to exploit the concept of electromagnetic impedance, the ratio of orthogonal horizontal electric to horizontal magnetic fields, to provide the necessary technology in the high-frequency band described above. The effective depth of investigation for surface impedance measurements depends on the frequency, and is commonly expressed in terms of the skin depth, the distance into the conductive half space at which the amplitude of the incoming wave has decreased to e-1 of its surface value. In order to achieve skin depths between 0.5 and 10 meters in material of resistivity between 1 and 100 ohm-m and relative permittivity between 1 and 30, frequencies bet ween about 300 k

  11. Coil design considerations for a high-frequency electromagnetic induction sensing instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigman, John B.; Barrowes, Benjamin E.; Wang, Yinlin; Bennett, Hollis J.; Simms, Janet E.; Yule, Donald E.; O'Neill, Kevin; Shubitidze, Fridon

    2016-05-01

    Intermediate electrical conductivity (IEC) materials (101S/m < σ < 104S/m), such as carbon fiber (CF), have recently been used to make smart bombs. In addition, homemade improvised explosive devices (IED) can be produced with low conducting materials (10-4S/m < σ < 1S/m), such as Ammonium Nitrate (AN). To collect unexploded ordnance (UXO) from military training ranges and thwart deadly IEDs, the US military has urgent need for technology capable of detection and identification of subsurface IEC objects. Recent analytical and numerical studies have showed that these targets exhibit characteristic quadrature response peaks at high induction frequencies (100kHz - 15MHz, the High Frequency Electromagnetic Induction (HFEMI) band), and they are not detectable with traditional ultra wideband (UWB) electromagnetic induction (EMI) metal detectors operating between 100Hz - 100kHz. Using the HFEMI band for induction sensing is not so simple as driving existing instruments at higher frequencies, though. At low frequency, EMI systems use more wire turns in transmit and receive coils to boost signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), but at higher frequencies, the transmitter current has non-uniform distribution along the coil length. These non-uniform currents change the spatial distribution of the primary magnetic field and disturb axial symmetry and thwart established approaches for inferring subsurface metallic object properties. This paper discusses engineering tradeoffs for sensing with a broader band of frequencies ever used for EMI sensing, with particular focus on coil geometries.

  12. High-frequency electromagnetic radiation injury to the upper extremity: local and systemic effects.

    PubMed

    Ciano, M; Burlin, J R; Pardoe, R; Mills, R L; Hentz, V R

    1981-08-01

    Industrial use of radiofrequency and microwave energy sources (nonionizing, high-frequency electromagnetic radiation) is a growing and widespread phenomenon, with projected risks of exposure to more than 20 million workers in the United States. A description of the nature of this form of electromagnetic energy is given, with emphasis on the variability of energy absorption by humans. The current state of biological research is reviewed, and a summary of the known effects of radiofrequency and microwave radiation exposure on animals and humans provided. These known effects appear to be principally thermal, similar to conventional electrical burn injuries, but with some unique systemic expression. Derangements of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, hematological, ophthalmological, and behavioral functions are well described in animal experimentation. Two patients are presented--one a young woman exposed to a high-density radiofrequency field in an industrial setting, leading to necrosis of the entire hand and wrist as well as to a constellation of systemic effects, and one an older woman exposed to excessive microwave radiation from a malfunctioning microwave oven, leading to chronic hand pain and paresthesias resembling median nerve entrapment at the carpus. The prevalence of potential exposure in certain industries is noted and recommendations for follow-up care of workers exposed to this form of trauma are delineated.

  13. High-frequency electromagnetic radiation injury to the upper extremity: local and systemic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ciano, M.; Burlin, J.R.; Pardoe, R.; Mills, R.L.; Hentz, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    Industrial use of radiofrequency and microwave energy sources (nonionizing, high-frequency electromagnetic radiation) is a growing and widespread phenomenon, with projected risks of exposure to more than 20 million workers in the United States. A description of the nature of this form of electromagnetic energy is given, with emphasis on the variability of energy absorption by humans. The current state of biological research is reviewed, and a summary of the known effects of radiofrequency and microwave radiation exposure on animals and humans provided. These known effects appear to be principally thermal, similar to conventional electrical burn injuries, but with some unique systemic expression. Derangements of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, endocrine, hematological, ophthalmological, and behavioral functions are well described in animal experimentation. Two patients are presented--one a young woman exposed to a high-density radiofrequency field in an industrial setting, leading to necrosis of the entire hand and wrist as well as to a constellation of systemic effects, and one an older woman exposed to excessive microwave radiation from a malfunctioning microwave oven, leading to chronic hand pain and paresthesias resembling median nerve entrapment at the carpus. The prevalence of potential exposure in certain industries is noted and recommendations for follow-up care of workers exposed to this form of trauma are delineated.

  14. Heating of ions by high frequency electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zestanakis, P. A.; Kominis, Y.; Hizanidis, K.; Ram, A. K.

    2013-07-15

    The heating of ions by high frequency electrostatic waves in magnetically confined plasmas has been a paradigm for studying nonlinear wave-particle interactions. The frequency of the waves is assumed to be much higher than the ion cyclotron frequency and the waves are taken to propagate across the magnetic field. In fusion type plasmas, electrostatic waves, like the lower hybrid wave, cannot access the core of the plasma. That is a domain for high harmonic fast waves or electron cyclotron waves—these are primarily electromagnetic waves. Previous studies on heating of ions by two or more electrostatic waves are extended to two electromagnetic waves that propagate directly across the confining magnetic field. While the ratio of the frequency of each wave to the ion cyclotron frequency is large, the frequency difference is assumed to be near the ion cyclotron frequency. The nonlinear wave-particle interaction is studied analytically using a two time-scale canonical perturbation theory. The theory elucidates the effects of various parameters on the gain in energy by the ions—parameters such as the amplitudes and polarizations of the waves, the ratio of the wave frequencies to the cyclotron frequency, the difference in the frequency of the two waves, and the wave numbers associated with the waves. For example, the ratio of the phase velocity of the envelope formed by the two waves to the phase velocity of the carrier wave is important for energization of ions. For a positive ratio, the energy range is much larger than for a negative ratio. So waves like the lower hybrid waves will impart very little energy to ions. The theoretical results are found to be in good agreement with numerical simulations of the exact dynamical equations. The analytical results are used to construct mapping equations, simplifying the derivation of the motion of ions, which are, subsequently, used to follow the evolution of an ion distribution function. The heating of ions can then be

  15. High frequency electromagnetic impedance measurements for characterization, monitoring and verification efforts. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.H.; Pellerin, L.; Becker, A.

    1998-06-01

    'Non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of the shallow subsurface is needed for delineation of buried waste, detection of unexploded ordinance, verification and monitoring of containment structures, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic measurements at frequencies between 1 and 100 MHz are important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small due, and the ability to determine the dielectric permittivity in addition to electrical conductivity of the subsurface is possible. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but no quantifiable information was accurately determined. For high resolution imaging, accurate measurements are necessary so the field data can be mapped into the space of the subsurface parameters. The authors are developing a non-invasive method for accurately imaging the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using the plane wave impedance approach, known as the magnetotelluric (MT) method at low frequencies. Electric and magnetic sensors are being tested in a known area against theoretical predictions, thereby insuring that the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system will support high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging techniques. The summary of the work to date is divided into three sections: equipment procurement, instrumentation, and theoretical developments. For most earth materials, the frequency range from 1 to 100 MHz encompasses a very difficult transition zone between the wave propagation of displacement currents and the diffusive behavior of conduction currents. Test equipment, such as signal generators and amplifiers, does not cover the entire range except at great expense. Hence the authors have divided the range of investigation into three sub-ranges: 1--10 MHz, 10--30 MHz, and 30--100 MHz. Results to date are in the lowest frequency range of 1--10 MHz. Even though conduction currents

  16. High-frequency electric field measurement using a toroidal antenna

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki Ha

    2002-01-01

    A simple and compact method and apparatus for detecting high frequency electric fields, particularly in the frequency range of 1 MHz to 100 MHz, uses a compact toroidal antenna. For typical geophysical applications the sensor will be used to detect electric fields for a wide range of spectrum starting from about 1 MHz, in particular in the frequency range between 1 to 100 MHz, to detect small objects in the upper few meters of the ground. Time-varying magnetic fields associated with time-varying electric fields induce an emf (voltage) in a toroidal coil. The electric field at the center of (and perpendicular to the plane of) the toroid is shown to be linearly related to this induced voltage. By measuring the voltage across a toroidal coil one can easily and accurately determine the electric field.

  17. High-Frequency Electromagnetic Impedance Measurements for Characterization, Monitoring and Verification Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Tseng, Hung-Wen

    2004-06-16

    Non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of the shallow subsurface is needed for delineation of buried waste, detection of unexploded ordinance, verification and monitoring of containment structures, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic (EM) measurements at frequencies between 0.1 and 100 MHz are important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the dielectric permittivity in addition to electrical conductivity of the subsurface is possible. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but no quantifiable information was accurately determined. For high-resolution imaging, accurate measurements are necessary so the field data can be mapped into the space of the subsurface parameters. We are developing a non-invasive method for accurately mapping the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using the EM impedance approach (Frangos, 2001; Lee and Becker, 2001; Song et al., 2002, Tseng et al., 2003). Electric and magnetic sensors are being tested and calibrated on sea water and in a known area against theoretical predictions, thereby insuring that the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system will support high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging techniques.

  18. High Frequency Electromagnetic Impedance Measurements for Characterization, Monitoring and Verification Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Framgos, William

    1999-06-01

    Non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of the shallow subsurface is needed for delineation of buried waste, detection of unexploded ordinance, verification and monitoring of containment structures, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic measurements at frequencies between 1 and 100 MHz are important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the dielectric permittivity in addition to electrical conductivity of the subsurface is possible. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but no quantifiable information was accurately determined. For high-resolution imaging, accurate measurements are necessary so the field data can be mapped into the space of the subsurface parameters. We are developing a non-invasive method for accurately imaging the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using the plane wave impedance approach. Electric and magnetic sensors are being tested in a known area against theoretical predictions, thereby insuring that the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system will support high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging techniques.

  19. High-Frequency Electromagnetic Impedance Measurements for Characterization, Monitoring and Verification Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Tseng, Hung-Wen

    2002-11-20

    Non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of the shallow subsurface is needed for delineation of buried waste, detection of unexploded ordinance, verification and monitoring of containment structures, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic (EM) measurements at frequencies between 1 and 100 MHz are important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the dielectric permittivity in addition to electrical conductivity of the subsurface is possible. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but no quantifiable information was accurately determined. For high-resolution imaging, accurate measurements are necessary so the field data can be mapped into the space of the subsurface parameters. We are developing a non-invasive method for accurately mapping the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using the EM impedance approach (Frangos, 2001; Lee and Becker, 2001; Song et al., 2002). Electric and magnetic sensors are being tested in a known area against theoretical predictions, thereby insuring that the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system will support high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging techniques.

  20. High-Frequency Electromagnetic Impedance Measurements for Characterization, Monitoring and Verification Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Tseng, Hung-Wen; Choi, Youngki

    2001-06-10

    Non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of the shallow subsurface is needed for delineation of buried waste, detection of unexploded ordinance, verification and monitoring of containment structures, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic (EM) measurements at frequencies between 1 and 100 MHz are important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the dielectric permittivity in addition to electrical conductivity of the subsurface is possible. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but no quantifiable information was accurately determined. For high-resolution imaging, accurate measurements are necessary so the field data can be mapped into the space of the subsurface parameters. We are developing a non-invasive method for accurately mapping the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using the EM impedance approach (Frangos, 2001; Lee and Becker, 2001). Electric and magnetic sensors are being tested in a known area against theoretical predictions, thereby insuring that the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system will support high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging techniques.

  1. High-Frequency Electromagnetic Impedance Measurements for Characterization, Monitoring, and Verification Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex

    2000-06-01

    Non-invasive, high-resolution imaging of the shallow subsurface is needed for delineation of buried waste, detection of unexploded ordinance, verification and monitoring of containment structures, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic measurements at frequencies between 1 and 100 MHz are important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the dielectric permittivity in addition to electrical conductivity of the subsurface is possible. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but no quantifiable information was accurately determined. For high-resolution imaging, accurate measurements are necessary so the field data can be mapped into the space of the subsurface parameters. We are developing a non-invasive method for accurately imaging the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using the plane wave impedance approach (Song et al., 1997). Electric and magnetic sensors are being tested in a known area against theoretical predictions, thereby insuring that the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system will support high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging techniques.

  2. [Analysis of Electric Stress in Human Head in High-frequency Low-power Electromagnetic Environment].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongjun; Zhang, Hui; Niu, Zhongqi

    2015-04-01

    Action of electromagnetic radiation exerting on human body has been a concerned issue for people. Because electromagnetic waves could generate an electric stress in a discontinuous medium, we used the finite difference time domain (FDTD) as calculation methods to calculate the electric stress and its distribution in human head caused by high-frequency low-power electromagnetic environment, which was generated by dual-band (900 MHz and 1 800 MHz) PIFA antennas with radiated power 1 W, and we then performed the safety evaluation of cell phone radiation from the angle whether the electric stress further reached the human hearing threshold. The result showed that there existed the electric stress at the interface of different permittivity organization caused by the two kinds of high-frequency low-power electromagnetic environment and the maximum electric stress was located at the interface between skin and air of the phone side, and the electric stress peak at skull did not reach the threshold of auditory caused by bone tissue conduction so that it can not produce auditory effects.

  3. Gaussian beam decomposition of high frequency wave fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tanushev, Nicolay M. Engquist, Bjoern; Tsai, Richard

    2009-12-10

    In this paper, we present a method of decomposing a highly oscillatory wave field into a sparse superposition of Gaussian beams. The goal is to extract the necessary parameters for a Gaussian beam superposition from this wave field, so that further evolution of the high frequency waves can be computed by the method of Gaussian beams. The methodology is described for R{sup d} with numerical examples for d=2. In the first example, a field generated by an interface reflection of Gaussian beams is decomposed into a superposition of Gaussian beams. The beam parameters are reconstructed to a very high accuracy. The data in the second example is not a superposition of a finite number of Gaussian beams. The wave field to be approximated is generated by a finite difference method for a geometry with two slits. The accuracy in the decomposition increases monotonically with the number of beams.

  4. Renormalization of the diffusion tensor for high-frequency, electromagnetic modes

    SciTech Connect

    Litwin, C.; Sudan, R.N.

    1987-08-01

    The resonance broadening theory is used to derive the diffusion tensor for resonant particles in a spectrum of electromagnetic modes propagating parallel to the magnetic field. The magnetic trapping limit for saturation of wave amplitudes is discussed.

  5. Introducing Electromagnetic Field Momentum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    I describe an elementary way of introducing electromagnetic field momentum. By considering a system of a long solenoid and line charge, the dependence of the field momentum on the electric and magnetic fields can be deduced. I obtain the electromagnetic angular momentum for a point charge and magnetic monopole pair partially through dimensional…

  6. [Thermoelastic excitation of acoustic waves in biological models under the effect of the high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Rubanik, A V; Pashovkin, T N; Chemeris, N K

    2007-01-01

    The capability of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency (35,27 GHz, pulse widths of 100 and 600 ns, peak power of 20 kW) to excite acoustic waves in model water-containing objects and muscular tissue of animals has been experimentally shown for the first time. The amplitude and duration of excited acoustic pulses are within the limits of accuracy of theoretical assessments and have a complex nonlinear dependence on the energy input of electromagnetic radiation supplied. The velocity of propagation of acoustic pulses in water-containing models and isolated muscular tissue of animals was close to the reference data. The excitation of acoustic waves in biological systems under the action of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency is the important phenomenon, which essentially contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms of biological effects of these electromagnetic fields.

  7. Self-focusing of intense high frequency electromagnetic waves in a collisional magnetoactive plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Niknam, A. R.; Hashemzadeh, M.; Aliakbari, A.; Majedi, S.; Haji Mirzaei, F.

    2011-11-15

    The self-focusing of an intense electromagnetic beam in a collisional magnetoactive plasma has been investigated by the perturbation method. Considering the relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities and the first three terms of perturbation expansion for the electron density and velocity, the nonlinear wave equation is obtained. This wave equation is solved by applying the source dependent expansion method and the evolution of electromagnetic beam spot-size is discussed. It is shown that the laser spot-size decreases with increasing the collision frequency and external magnetic field strength.

  8. Asymptotic high frequency analysis of the electromagnetic backscattering from an inlet model consisting of piecewise linearly tapered sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altintas, A.; Pathak, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Electromagnetic backscattering from an open ended three dimensional inlet model is analyzed and computed patterns are compared with results of experimental measurements. The model is comprised of two sections. The first section consists of a linearly tapered waveguide with a rectangular opening at one end and the other end is connected to the second section which is a uniform rectangular waveguide with a planar perfectly conducting termination. The model is electrically large so that many propagating modes are excited. The method of analysis contains conventional aperture integration and modal techniques combined with high frequency techniques, which employ concepts such as modal rays, geometrical theory of diffraction and equivalent currents. For the cases considered, it is shown that only a few of the many propagating modes contribute appreciably to the backscattered field. These modes are selected according to their modal ray angle directions.

  9. Predictive factors for beneficial application of high-frequency electromagnetics for tumour vaporization and coagulation in neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Rainer; Heckl, Stefan; Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Feigl, Guenther C; Krischek, Boris; Lüdemann, Wolf; Mirzayan, Javed M; Koerbel, Andrei; Samii, Madjid; Tatagiba, Marcos; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify preoperative and intraoperative factors and conditions that predicts the beneficial application of a high-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) system for tumor vaporization and coagulation. Methods One hundred three subsequent patients with brain tumors were microsurgically treated using the EMF system in addition to the standard neurosurgical instrumentarium. A multivariate analysis was performed regarding the usefulness (ineffective/useful/very helpful/essential) of the new technology for tumor vaporization and coagulation, with respect to tumor histology and location, tissue consistency and texture, patients' age and sex. Results The EMF system could be used effectively during tumor surgery in 83 cases with an essential contribution to the overall success in 14 cases. In the advanced category of effectiveness (very helpful/essential), there was a significant difference between hard and soft tissue consistency (50 of 66 cases vs. 3 of 37 cases). The coagulation function worked well (very helpful/essential) for surface (73 of 103 cases) and spot (46 of 103 cases) coagulation when vessels with a diameter of less than one millimeter were involved. The light-weight bayonet hand piece and long malleable electrodes made the system especially suited for the resection of deep-seated lesions (34 of 52 cases) compared to superficial tumors (19 of 50 cases). The EMF system was less effective than traditional electrosurgical devices in reducing soft glial tumors. Standard methods where also required for coagulation of larger vessels. Conclusion It is possible to identify factors and conditions that predict a beneficial application of high-frequency electromagnetics for tumor vaporization and coagulation. This allows focusing the use of this technology on selective indications. PMID:18445296

  10. High frequency electromagnetism, heat transfer and fluid flow coupling in ANSYS multiphysics.

    PubMed

    Sabliov, Cristina M; Salvi, Deepti A; Boldor, Dorin

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to numerically predict the temperature of a liquid product heated in a continuous-flow focused microwave system by coupling high frequency electromagnetism, heat transfer, and fluid flow in ANSYS Multiphysics. The developed model was used to determine the temperature change in water processed in a 915 MHz microwave unit, under steady-state conditions. The influence of the flow rates on the temperature distribution in the liquid was assessed. Results showed that the average temperature of water increased from 25 degrees C to 34 degrees C at 2 l/min, and to 42 degrees C at 1 l/min. The highest temperature regions were found in the liquid near the center of the tube, followed by progressively lower temperature regions as the radial distance from the center increased, and finally followed by a slightly higher temperature region near the tube's wall corresponding to the energy distribution given by the Mathieu function. The energy distribution resulted in a similar temperature pattern, with the highest temperatures close to the center of the tube and lower at the walls. The presented ANSYS Multiphysics model can be easily improved to account for complex boundary conditions, phase change, temperature dependent properties, and non-Newtonian flows, which makes for an objective of future studies.

  11. Enhanced Airglow by High Frequency Electromagnetic Pumping of the Ionosphere at Auroral Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyser, T. B.; Gustavsson, B.; Brändström, B. U. E.; Steen, E.; Honary, F.; Rietveld, M. T.; Aso, T.; Ejiri, M.

    2000-10-01

    A powerful high frequency electromagnetic pump wave transmitted into the ionosphere from the ground may enhance the background airglow. The airglow enhancement is due to an increase in the number of electrons having energies which are an order of magnitude higher than the thermal energy in the ionospheric plasma. The energetic electrons collisionally excite, for example, the meta-stable O(1D) state in atomic oxygen, which radiates at 630 nm as the excited oxygen atom relaxes to its ground state. Airglow enhancement is used to study, for example, the dissipation of the pump-driven plasma turbulence by electron energization. We present experimental results of pumping the ionospheric F region with the EISCAT-Heating facility at auroral latitudes in Norway and detection of the airglow with the multi-station Auroral Large Imaging System (ALIS) in northern Sweden. The experimental results also include simultaneous measurements of background plasma parameter values with the EISCAT-UHF incoherent scatter radar. The multi-station imaging technique enables for the first time tomography-like inversion to estimate the spatial extent of the pumped airglow cloud. Further, the airglow enhancement is correlated with large pump-induced electron temperature enhancements of up to 250

  12. Performance analysis of high frequency single-site-location antenna arrays using numerical electromagnetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiantarelli, Harry T.

    1990-09-01

    Electronic support measures (ESM) systems play an increasingly important role in modern warfare and can influence the outcome of a military engagement. The application of ESM can be extended to anti-guerrilla and anti-drug operations where law enforcement agencies can exploit the fact that their presence is inducing the outlaw to depend more on radio communications to coordinate their activities. When a propagation path of no more than one reflection at the ionosphere (1-hop) can be assumed, position of an HF emitter can be determined by a single observing site using vertical triangulation, provided that the height of the ionosphere at the point where the radio wave is reflected, can be determined. This technique is known as high frequency direction finding single-site-location (HFDF SSL). This thesis analyzes the HFDF SSL error in measuring the direction of arrival of the signal, how this error is generated by the antenna array and its effect on emitter location. The characteristics of the two antenna arrays used by a specific HFDF SSL system that implements the phase-interferometer techniques were studied using electromagnetic modeling.

  13. Integration of infrared thermography and high-frequency electromagnetic methods in archaeological surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Maio, Rosa; Meola, Carosena; Fedi, Maurizio; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria

    2010-05-01

    An integration of high-resolution non-destructive techniques is presented for the inspection and evaluation of ancient architectonic structures. Infrared thermography (IRT) represents a valuable tool for nondestructive evaluation of architectonic structures and artworks because it is capable of giving indications about most of the degradation sources of artworks and buildings of both historical interest and civil use. In particular, it is possible to detect cracks, disbondings, alteration of material consistency, etc. Indeed, by choosing the most adequate thermographic technique, it is possible to monitor the conservation state of artworks in time and to detect the presence of many types of defects (e.g., voids, cracks, disbondings, etc.) in different types of materials (e.g., concrete, masonry structures, bronze, etc.). The main advantages of infrared thermography when dealing with precious artworks may be summarized with three words: non-contact, non-invasive, and two-dimensionality. It is possible to inspect either a large surface such as the facade of a palace, or a very small surface of only few square millimetres. Conversely, the inspection depth is quite small; generally, of the order of centimetres. However, as demonstrated in previous work, IRT well matches with electric-and electromagnetic-type geophysical methods to characterize the overlapping zone from low-to-high depth in masonry structures. In particular, the use of high-frequency electromagnetic techniques, such as the ground penetrating radar (GPR), permits to reach investigation depths of some ten of centimetres by choosing appropriate frequencies of the transmitted electromagnetic signal. In the last decade a large utilisation of the GPR methodology to non-destructive analysis of engineering and architectural materials and structures has been experienced. This includes diverse features, such as definition of layer thickness, characterisation of different constructive materials, identification of

  14. High frequency AC response, DC resistivity and magnetic studies of holmium substituted Ni-ferrite: A novel electromagnetic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervaiz, Erum; Gul, I. H.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles of holmium substituted nickel ferrites (NiHoxFe2-xO4) with x ranging from 0.0 to 0.15 have been prepared by the sol-gel auto-combustion method. Structural and morphology studies have been performed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). XRD patterns revealed the formation of pure spinel phase ferrites without any impurity phase. Lattice parameter increases along with a decrease in crystallite size with increasing the concentration of Ho3+ in the parent nickel ferrite due to large ionic radius of Ho3+ (0.901 Å) as compared to Fe3+ (0.67 Å). SEM shows the spherical, uniformly distributed homogenous nanoparticles grown by controlled reaction parameters of the sol-gel method. Complex permittivity (ɛ*) and complex electric modulus (M*) have been studied for the present nanoferrites in the frequency ranges of 1 MHz-1 GHz. Frequency dependent dielectric parameters (relative permittivity (ɛ'), dielectric loss (ɛ″), dielectric loss tangent (tan δ)) decreases due to holmium substitution in nickel ferrites, showing the electrical conduction is decreasing in the nickel holmium ferrites with increase in the concentration of holmium. Complex modulus plots shows the poorly resolved semi circles and relaxation of nanoferrite is studied in the high frequency region. Also the relaxation time increases due to increase in x (0.0-0.15). DC electrical resistivity increases (107 Ω-cm-1010 Ω-cm) due to holmium ions substitution in nickel ferrites. Magnetic behavior was also characterized using a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) under an applied magnetic field of 10 kOe and shows that magnetization decreases with increase in composition of holmium in nickel ferrites. High frequency behavior, low losses and very high DC electrical resistivity made the material a novel one for electromagnetic devices.

  15. [Antitumor effect of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on a model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Shved, D M; Mikhaĭlik, E N; Korystov, Iu N; Levitman, M Kh; Shaposhnikova, V V; Sadovnikov, V B; Alekhin, A I; Goncharov, N G; Chemeris, N K

    2009-01-01

    The influence of different exposure regimes of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on the growth rate of solid Ehrlich carcinoma in mice has been studied. It was shown that, at an optimum repetition factor of exposure (20 min daily for five consecutive days after the tumor inoculation), there is a clearly pronounced frequency dependence of the antitumor effect. The analysis of experimental data indicates that the mechanisms of antitumor effects of the radiation may be related to the modification of the immune status of the organism. The results obtained show that extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation at a proper selection of exposure regimes can result in distinct and stable antitumor effects.

  16. Radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic emissions from materials under high-frequency mechanical excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Christian; Moore, David

    2017-01-01

    Direct contact piezoelectric transducers were used to excite compacted polycrystalline dielectric material samples with high amplitude but short duration ultrasound through a frequency range of 50 kHz to 10 MHz, while near field RF emissions were measured in 12 frequency bands from 18 to 750 GHz using a suite of detectors. Emissions were observed only in three detectors, covering the 40-75 GHz, 110-170 GHz, and 170-260 GHz frequency ranges. Emission amplitudes appear to rise nonlinearly with applied ultrasound amplitude, and the emission amplitudes versus ultrasound frequency are different than the thermal responses of these samples. Data comparing thermal responses and electromagnetic emissions versus ultrasound frequency and amplitude for several sample types (oxidizers and energetic materials) are reported.

  17. Electromagnetic effects in high-frequency large-area capacitive discharges: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yong-Xin; Zhang, Yu-Ru; Wang, You-Nian; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2015-03-15

    In traditional capacitively coupled plasmas, the discharge can be described by an electrostatic model, in which the Poisson equation is employed to determine the electrostatic electric field. However, current plasma reactors are much larger and driven at a much higher frequency. If the excitation wavelength λ in the plasma becomes comparable to the electrode radius, and the plasma skin depth δ becomes comparable to the electrode spacing, the electromagnetic (EM) effects will become significant and compromise the plasma uniformity. In this regime, capacitive discharges have to be described by an EM model, i.e., the full set of Maxwell's equations should be solved to address the EM effects. This paper gives an overview of the theory, simulation and experiments that have recently been carried out to understand these effects, which cause major uniformity problems in plasma processing for microelectronics and flat panel display industries. Furthermore, some methods for improving the plasma uniformity are also described and compared.

  18. Electromagnetic Field Penetration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method is presented to determine electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of rectangular enclosure with apertures on its wall used for input and output connections, control panels, visual-access windows, ventilation panels, etc. Expressing EM fields in terms of cavity Green's function inside the enclosure and the free space Green's function outside the enclosure, integral equations with aperture tangential electric fields as unknown variables are obtained by enforcing the continuity of tangential electric and magnetic fields across the apertures. Using the Method of Moments, the integral equations are solved for unknown aperture fields. From these aperture fields, the EM field inside a rectangular enclosure due to external electromagnetic sources are determined. Numerical results on electric field shielding of a rectangular cavity with a thin rectangular slot obtained using the present method are compared with the results obtained using simple transmission line technique for code validation. The present technique is applied to determine field penetration inside a Boeing-757 by approximating its passenger cabin as a rectangular cavity filled with a homogeneous medium and its passenger windows by rectangular apertures. Preliminary results for, two windows, one on each side of fuselage were considered. Numerical results for Boeing-757 at frequencies 26 MHz, 171-175 MHz, and 428-432 MHz are presented.

  19. Proca and electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hillion, P.; Quinnerz, S.

    1986-07-01

    In the framework of the proper orthochronous Lorentz group, the old connection is revived between the electromagnetic field characterized by a self-dual tensor and a traceless second-rank spinor obeying the Proca equation. The relationship between this spinor and the Hertz potential also considered as a self-dual tensor is emphasized. The extension of this formalism to meet the covariance under the full Lorentz group is also discussed.

  20. Carter separable electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynden-Bell, D.

    2000-02-01

    The purely electromagnetic analogue in flat space of Kerr's metric in general relativity is only rarely considered. Here we carry out in flat space a programme similar to Carter's investigation of metrics in general relativity in which the motion of a charged particle is separable. We concentrate on the separability of the motion (be it classical, relativistic or quantum) of a charged particle in electromagnetic fields that lie in planes through an axis of symmetry. In cylindrical polar coordinates (t,R,φ,z) the four-vector potential takes the form [formmu2] is the unit toroidal vector. The forms of the functions Φ(R,z) and A(R,z) are sought that allow separable motion. This occurs for relativistic motion only when AR,Φ and A2-Φ2 are all of the separable form ζ(λ)-η(μ)]/(λ-μ), where ζ and η are arbitrary functions, and λ and μ are spheroidal coordinates or degenerations thereof. The special forms of A and Φ that allow this are deduced. They include the Kerr metric analogue, with E+iB=-∇{q[(r-ia).(r-ia)]-1/2}. Rather more general electromagnetic fields allow separation when the motion is non-relativistic. The investigation is extended to fields that lie in parallel planes. Connections to Larmor's theorem are remarked upon.

  1. Interaction of High Frequency Electromagnetic Waves with Vortex Density Structures: Comparison of Analytical and LSP Simulation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Lundberg, J.; Paraschiv, I.; Mehlhorn, T. A.

    2014-10-01

    Interchange or flute type density irregularities in magnetized plasma are associated with Rayleigh-Taylor type instability. In particular, we are interested in the generation of low frequency plasma density irregularities in the form of flute type vortex density structures and interaction of high frequency electromagnetic waves used for surveillance and communication with such structures. These types of density irregularities play an important role in refraction and scattering of high frequency electromagnetic signals propagating in the earth ionosphere, in high energy density physics (HEDP), and in many other applications. We will present PIC simulation results of EM scattering on vortex type density structures using the LSP code and compare them with analytical results. Two cases will be analyzed. In the first case electromagnetic wave scattering will take place in the ionospheric plasma. In the second case laser probing in a high-beta Z-pinch plasma will be presented. This work was supported by the Air Force Research laboratory, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, the Naval Research Laboratory and NNSA/DOE Grant No. DE-FC52-06NA27616 at the University of Nevada at Reno.

  2. The effect of high voltage, high frequency pulsed electric field on slain ovine cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Asgarifar, Hajarossadat; Oloyede, Adekunle; Zare, Firuz

    2014-04-01

    High power, high frequency pulsed electric fields known as pulsed power (PP) has been applied recently in biology and medicine. However, little attention has been paid to investigate the application of pulse power in musculoskeletal system and its possible effect on functional behavior and biomechanical properties of bone tissue. This paper presents the first research investigating whether or not PP can be applied safely on bone tissue as a stimuli and what will be the possible effect of these signals on the characteristics of cortical bone by comparing the mechanical properties of this type of bone pre and post expose to PP and in comparison with the control samples. A positive buck-boost converter was applied to generate adjustable high voltage, high frequency pulses (up to 500 V and 10 kHz). The functional behavior of bone in response to pulse power excitation was elucidated by applying compressive loading until failure. The stiffness, failure stress (strength) and the total fracture energy (bone toughness) were determined as a measure of the main bone characteristics. Furthermore, an ultrasonic technique was applied to determine and comprise bone elasticity before and after pulse power stimulation. The elastic property of cortical bone samples appeared to remain unchanged following exposure to pulse power excitation for all three orthogonal directions obtained from ultrasonic technique and similarly from the compression test. Nevertheless, the compressive strength and toughness of bone samples were increased when they were exposed to 66 h of high power pulsed electromagnetic field compared to the control samples. As the toughness and the strength of the cortical bone tissue are directly associated with the quality and integrity of the collagen matrix whereas its stiffness is primarily related to bone mineral content these overall results may address that although, the pulse power stimulation can influence the arrangement or the quality of the collagen network

  3. External control of ion waves in a plasma by high frequency fields

    DOEpatents

    Kaw, P.K.; Dawson, J.M.

    1973-12-18

    An apparatus and method are described for stabilizing plasma instabilities, in a magnetically confined plasma column by transmitting into the plasma high frequency electromagnetic waves at a frequency close to the electron plasma frequency. The said frequencies, e.g., are between the plasma frequency and 1.5 times the plasma frequency at a power level below the level for producing parametric instabilities in a plasma having temperatures from below 10 eV to about 10 keV or more, at densities from below 10/sup 13/ to above 10/sup 18/ particles/cm/sup 3/. (Official Gazette)

  4. Potential damage to DC superconducting magnets due to the high frequency electromagnetic waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabriel, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data are presented in support of the hypothesis that a dc superconducting magnet coil does not behave strictly as an inductor, but as a complicated electrodynamic device capable of supporting electromagnetic waves. Travel times of nanosecond pulses and evidence of sinusoidal standing waves were observed on a prototype four-layer solenoidal coil at room temperature. Ringing observed during switching transients appears as a sequence of multiple reflected square pulses whose durations are related to the layer lengths. With sinusoidal excitation of the coil, the voltage amplitude between a pair of points on the coil exhibits maxima at those frequencies such that the distance between these points is an odd multiple of half wavelength in free space. Evidence indicates that any disturbance, such as that resulting from switching or sudden fault, initiates multiple reflections between layers, thus raising the possibility for sufficiently high voltages to cause breakdown.

  5. [Biological effects of electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies combined with physiologically active compounds].

    PubMed

    Rogacheva, S M; Denisova, S A; Shul'gin, S V; Somov, A Iu; Kuznetsov, P E

    2008-01-01

    The study of the action of the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of low intensity (10 microW/cm2) in the range of frequencies 120-170 GHz at the test-reaction of Infusoria Paramecium caudatum was carried out. The resonant character of the effects was established. The EMR action at 156.6 and 161.3 GHz caused the increase of infusorians mobility, the action at frequencies 151.8, 155.7, 167.1 GHz caused the mobility reduction. Isolated and combined with EMR effects of nicotine (10(-4)-10(-15) mol/l) and antimicrobial drug metronidazole (10(-5), 10(-8), 10(-9) mol/l) were investigated. The radiation at the frequency 167.1 GHz was shown to reduce the effect of nicotine (10(-9) mol/l) and to enhance the effect of metronidazole (10(-9) mol/l). This phenomenon may be explained by different effects of the substances in low concentration at the water hydrogen bonds net structure.

  6. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    DOEpatents

    Cooke, Bradly J.; Guenther, David C.

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  7. Electromagnetic Field Effects in Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasker, D. G.; Whitley, V. H.; Lee, R. J.

    2009-12-01

    Present and previous research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the initiation and detonation of explosives and the electromagnetic properties of explosives are reviewed. Among the topics related to detonating explosives are: enhancement of performance; and control of initiation and growth of reaction. Two series of experiments were performed to determine the effects of 1-T magnetic fields on explosive initiation and growth in the modified gap test and on the propagation of explosively generated plasma into air. The results have implications for the control of reactions in explosives and for the use of electromagnetic particle velocity gauges.

  8. Theoretical analyses of cellular transmembrane voltage in suspensions induced by high-frequency fields.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yong; Wang, Changzhen; Peng, Ruiyun; Wang, Lifeng; Hu, Xiangjun

    2015-04-01

    A change of the transmembrane voltage is considered to cause biophysical and biochemical responses in cells. The present study focuses on the cellular transmembrane voltage (Δφ) induced by external fields. We detail analytical equations for the transmembrane voltage induced by external high-frequency (above the relaxation frequency of the cell membrane) fields on cells of a spherical shape in suspensions and layers. At direct current (DC) and low frequencies, the cell membrane was assumed to be non-conductive under physiologic conditions. However, with increasing frequency, the permittivity of the cytoplasm/extracellular medium and conductivity of the membrane must be accounted for. Our main work is to extend application of the analytical solution of Δφ to the high-frequency range. We first introduce the transmembrane voltage generated by DC and low-frequency exposures on a single cell. Then, we focus on cell suspensions exposed to high-frequency fields. Using the effective medium theory and the reasonable assumption, the approximate analytical solution of Δφ on cells in suspensions and layers can be derived. Phenomenological effective medium theory equations cannot be used to calculate the local electric field of cell suspensions, so we raised a possible solution based on the Bergman theory.

  9. Resonance of a Metal Drop under the Effect of Amplitude-Modulated High Frequency Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiahong; Lei, Zuosheng; Zhu, Hongda; Zhang, Lijie; Magnetic Hydrodynamics(Siamm) Team; Magnetic Mechanics; Engineering(Smse) Team

    2016-11-01

    The resonance of a sessile and a levitated drop under the effect of high frequency amplitude-modulated magnetic field (AMMF) is investigated experimentally and numerically. It is a new method to excite resonance of a metal drop, which is different from the case in the presence of a low-frequency magnetic field. The transient contour of the drop is obtained in the experiment and the simulation. The numerical results agree with the experimental results fairly well. At a given frequency and magnetic flux density of the high frequency AMMF, the edge deformations of the drop with an azimuthal wave numbers were excited. A stability diagram of the shape oscillation of the drop and its resonance frequency spectrum are obtained by analysis of the experimental and the numerical data. The results show that the resonance of the drop has a typical character of parametric resonance. The National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51274237 and 11372174).

  10. [The influence of electromagnetic fields on flora and fauna].

    PubMed

    Rochalska, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of natural and artificial electromagnetic fields (EMF) on fauna and flora. The mechanisms of Earth's magnetic field detection and the use of this skill by migratory animals to faultlessly reach the destination of their travel are discussed, as well as the positive effects of electric and magnetic fields on plants relative to their physiology, yielding and health. EMF influence on social insects and animal organisms, including possible DNA damages and DNA repair systems, is presented. The influence of high frequency electromagnetic fields on birds nesting is also discussed.

  11. Electromagnetic fields and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, T E; Easterly, C E

    1987-01-01

    A review of the literature is provided for the topic of health-related research and power frequency electromagnetic fields. Minimal evidence for concern is present on the basis of animal and plant research. General observation would accord with the implication that there is no single and manifest health effect as the result of exposure to these fields. There are persistent indications, however, that these fields have biologic activity, and consequently, there may be a deleterious component to their action, possibly in the presence of other factors. Power frequency electromagnetic field exposures are essentially ubiquitous in modern society, and their implications in the larger perspective of public health are unclear at this time. Electromagnetic fields represent a methodological obstacle for epidemiologic studies and a quandary for risk assessment; there is need for more data. PMID:3319560

  12. A high frequency analysis of electromagnetic plane wave scattering by perfectly-conducting semi-infinite parallel plate and rectangular waveguides with absorber coated inner walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noh, H. M.; Pathak, P. H.

    1986-01-01

    An approximate but sufficiently accurate high frequency solution which combines the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) and the aperture integration (AI) method is developed for analyzing the problem of electromagnetic (EM) plane wave scattering by an open-ended, perfectly-conducting, semi-infinite hollow rectangular waveguide (or duct) with a thin, uniform layer of lossy or absorbing material on its inner wall, and with a planar termination inside. In addition, a high frequency solution for the EM scattering by a two dimensional (2-D), semi-infinite parallel plate waveguide with a absorber coating on the inner walls is also developed as a first step before analyzing the open-ended semi-infinite three dimensional (3-D) rectangular waveguide geometry. The total field scattered by the semi-infinite waveguide consists firstly of the fields scattered from the edges of the aperture at the open-end, and secondly of the fields which are coupled into the waveguide from the open-end and then reflected back from the interior termination to radiate out of the open-end. The first contribution to the scattered field can be found directly via the UTD ray method. The second contribution is found via the AI method which employs rays to describe the fields in the aperture that arrive there after reflecting from the interior termination. It is assumed that the direction of the incident plane wave and the direction of observation lie well inside the forward half space tht exists outside the half space containing the semi-infinite waveguide geometry. Also, the medium exterior to the waveguide is assumed to be free space.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation: frequency and power dependence.

    PubMed

    Gapeyev, A B; Mikhailik, E N; Chemeris, N K

    2008-04-01

    Using a model of acute zymosan-induced footpad edema in NMRI mice, the frequency and power dependence of anti-inflammatory effect of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) was found. Single whole-body exposure of animals to EHF EMR at the intensity of 0.1 mW/cm(2) for 20 min at 1 h after zymosan injection reduced both the footpad edema and local hyperthermia on average by 20% at the frequencies of 42.2, 51.8, and 65 GHz. Some other frequencies from the frequency range of 37.5-70 GHz were less effective or not effective at all. At fixed frequency of 42.2 GHz and intensity of 0.1 mW/cm(2), the effect had bell-shaped dependence on exposure duration with a maximum at 20-40 min. Reduction of intensity to 0.01 mW/cm(2) resulted in a change of the effect dependence on exposure duration to a linear one. Combined action of cyclooxygenase inhibitor sodium diclofenac and EHF EMR exposure caused a partial additive effect of decrease in footpad edema. Combined action of antihistamine clemastine and EHF EMR exposure caused a dose-dependent abolishment of the anti-inflammatory effect of EHF EMR. The results obtained suggest that arachidonic acid metabolites and histamine are involved in realization of anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity EHF EMR.

  14. The role of fatty acids in anti-inflammatory effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Gapeyev, Andrew B; Kulagina, Tatiana P; Aripovsky, Alexander V; Chemeris, Nikolay K

    2011-07-01

    The effects of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR; 42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm(2) , exposure duration 20 min) on the fatty acid (FA) composition of thymic cells and blood plasma in normal mice and in mice with peritoneal inflammation were studied. It was found that the exposure of normal mice to EHF EMR increased the content of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) (eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic) in thymic cells. Using a model of zymosan-induced peritoneal inflammation, it was shown that the exposure of mice to EHF EMR significantly increased the content of PUFAs (dihomo-γ-linolenic, arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic) and reduced the content of monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) (palmitoleic and oleic) in thymic cells. Changes in the FA composition in the blood plasma were less pronounced and manifested themselves as an increase in the level of saturated FAs during the inflammation. The data obtained support the notion that MUFAs are replaced by PUFAs that can enter into the thymic cells from the external media. Taking into account the fact that the metabolites of PUFAs are lipid messengers actively involved in inflammatory and immune reactions, we assume that the increase in the content of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs in phospholipids of cellular membranes facilitates the realization of anti-inflammatory effects of EHF EMR.

  15. [Effects of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation on the immune system and systemic regulation of homeostasis].

    PubMed

    Lushnikov, K V; Gapeev, A B; Chemeris, N K

    2002-01-01

    Low-intensity of electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequencies (EHF EMR) is effectively used in medical practice for diagnostics, prevention and treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases of different etiology. However, in spite of existence of many hypotheses about mechanisms of EHF EMR effects on the molecular and cellular levels of organization of living systems, there is not conception that could explain all diversity of the EHF-therapy effects from unified approach. In our opinion, the problem of determination of mechanisms of EHF EMR effects on living organism is divided into two basic tasks: first, determining subcellular structures which can receive radiation, and, second, studying physiological reactions of the organism which are caused by radiation. It is obviously, that investigation of functions of single cells and subcellular elements can not entirely explain therapeutic effects and mechanisms of EHF EMR influence on multicellular organism on the whole. Plenty of functional relationships between organs and systems of organs should be taken into account. In the present review, a realization of the EHF-therapy effects due to the influence on immune system functions and start of system mechanisms of maintenance of the homeostasis on the organism level is hypothesized. Potential targets for EHF EMR acception on the level of different systems of the organism are analysed. The material is formed so that functional relations between immune system and other regulatory systems (nervous and endocrine systems) are traced.

  16. [Dependence of anti-inflammatory effects of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency on exposure parameters].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Mikhaĭlik, E N; Rubanik, A V; Cheremis, N K

    2007-01-01

    A pronounced anti-inflammatory effect of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency was shown for the first time in a model of zymosan-induced footpad edema in mice. Exposure to radiation of specific parameters (35, 27 GHz, peak power 20 kW, pulse widths 400-600 ns, pulse repetition frequency 5-500 Hz) decreased the exudative edema and local hyperthermia by 20% compared to the control. The kinetics and the magnitude of the anti-inflammatory effect were comparable with those induced by sodium diclofenac at a dose of 3 mg/kg. It was found that the anti-inflammatory effect linearly increased with increasing pulse width at a fixed pulse repetition frequency and had threshold dependence on the average incident power density of the radiation at a fixed pulse width. When animals were whole-body exposed in the far-field zone of radiator, the optimal exposure duration was 20 min. Increasing the average incident power density upon local exposure of the inflamed paw accelerated both the development of the anti-inflammatory effect and the reactivation time. The results obtained will undoubtedly be of great importance in the hygienic standardization of pulsed electromagnetic radiation and in further studies of the mechanisms of its biological action.

  17. High Frequency Magnetic Field Direction Finding Using MGL-S9A B-dot Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-21

    RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United ...States Air Force, the Department of Defense, or the United States Government. This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not...subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-13-M-02 HIGH FREQUENCY MAGNETIC FIELD DIRECTION FINDING USING MGL-S8A B-DOT SENSORS THESIS

  18. Field oriented control of an induction machine in a high frequency link power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sul, Seung K.; Lipo, Thomas A.

    1988-01-01

    A field-oriented controlled induction machine drive operating with a high-frequency single-phase sinusoidal voltage link is presented. System performance is investigated by computer simulation and is verified by a test on a prototype system. A novel control loop to minimize the link voltage fluctuation is proposed. The capability of rapid demagnetization of the induction machine by current regulation is investigated. A current-modulation technique termed mode control is proposed, and its performance is compared with that of the conventional delta-modulation technique.

  19. [Pulse-modulated Electromagnetic Radiation of Extremely High Frequencies Protects Cellular DNA against Damaging Effect of Physico-Chemical Factors in vitro].

    PubMed

    Gapeyev, A B; Lukyanova, N A

    2015-01-01

    Using a comet assay technique, we investigated protective effects of. extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation in combination with the damaging effect of X-ray irradiation, the effect of damaging agents hydrogen peroxide and methyl methanesulfonate on DNA in mouse whole blood leukocytes. It was shown that the preliminary exposure of the cells to low intensity pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20-min exposure, modulation frequencies of 1 and 16 Hz) caused protective effects decreasing the DNA damage by 20-45%. The efficacy of pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation depended on the type of genotoxic agent and increased in a row methyl methanesulfonate--X-rays--hydrogen peroxide. Continuous electromagnetic radiation was ineffective. The mechanisms of protective effects may be connected with an induction of the adaptive response by nanomolar concentrations of reactive oxygen species formed by pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation.

  20. String theory in electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, Jan; Makeenko, Yuri M.; Semenoff, Gordon W.; Szabo, Richard J.

    2003-02-01

    A review of various aspects of superstrings in background electromagnetic fields is presented. Topics covered include the Born-Infeld action, spectrum of open strings in background gauge fields, the Schwinger mechanism, finite-temperature formalism and Hagedorn behaviour in external fields, Debye screening, D-brane scattering, thermodynamics of D-branes, and noncommutative field and string theories on D-branes. The electric field instabilities are emphasized throughout and contrasted with the case of magnetic fields. A new derivation of the velocity-dependent potential between moving D-branes is presented, as is a new result for the velocity corrections to the one-loop thermal effective potential.

  1. Study on technology of high-frequency pulsed magnetic field strength measurement.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Mei; Liu, Zhi-Peng; Yin, Tao

    2012-01-01

    High-frequency transient weak magnetic field is always involved in researches about biomedical engineering field while common magnetic-field sensors cannot work properly at frequencies as high as MHz. To measure the value of MHz-level weak pulsed magnetic-field strength accurately, this paper designs a measurement and calibration method for pulsed magnetic-field. In this paper, a device made of Nonferromagnetic material was independently designed and applied to pulsed magnetic field measurement. It held an accurately relative position between the magnetic field generating coil and the detecting coil. By applying a sinusoidal pulse to the generator, collecting the induced electromotive force of the detector, the final magnetic field strength was worked out through algorithms written in Matlab according to Faraday's Law. Experiments were carried out for measurement and calibration. Experiments showed that, under good stability and consistency, accurate measurement of magnetic-field strength of a sinepulse magnetic-field can be achieved, with frequency at 0.5, 1, 1.5 MHz and strength level at micro-Tesla. Calibration results carried out a measuring relative error about 2.5%.

  2. Explanations, Education, and Electromagnetic Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.

    Explaining complex scientific and environmental subjects in the mass media is difficult to do, particularly under such constraints as short deadlines and lack of space or time. When a scientific controversy and human health risk are involved, this becomes an even harder task to accomplish. The subject of electromagnetic fields (EMF) involves…

  3. What Are Electromagnetic Fields?

    MedlinePlus

    ... will generate a single big wave; more rapid motion will generate a whole series of small waves. ... are hardly detectable. Magnetic fields arise from the motion of electric charges. The strength of the magnetic ...

  4. Atmospheric Electric Field Measurements at 100 Hz and High Frequency Electric Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conceição, Ricardo; Gonçalves da Silva, Hugo; Matthews, James; Bennett, Alec; Chubb, John

    2016-04-01

    Spectral response of Atmospheric Electric Potential Gradient (PG), symmetric to the Atmospheric Electric Field, gives important information about phenomena affecting these measurements with characteristic time-scales that appear in the spectra as specific periodicities. This is the case of urban pollution that has a clear weekly dependence and reveals itself on PG measurements by a ~7 day periodicity (Silva et al., 2014). While long-term time-scales (low frequencies) have been exhaustively explored in literature, short-term time-scales (high frequencies), above 1 Hz, have comparatively received much less attention (Anisimov et al., 1999). This is mainly because of the technical difficulties related with the storage of such a huge amount of data (for 100 Hz sampling two days of data uses a ~1 Gb file) and the response degradation of the field-meters at such frequencies. Nevertheless, important Electric Phenomena occurs for frequencies above 1 Hz that are worth pursuing, e.g. the Schumann Resonances have a signature of worldwide thunderstorm activity at frequencies that go from ~8 up to ~40 Hz. To that end the present work shows preliminary results on PG measurements at 100 Hz that took place on two clear-sky days (17th and 18th June 2015) on the South of Portugal, Évora (38.50° N, 7.91° W). The field-mill used is a JCI 131F installed in the University of Évora campus (at 2 m height) with a few trees and two buildings in its surroundings (~50 m away). This device was developed by John Chubb (Chubb, 2014) and manufactured by Chilworth (UK). It was calibrated in December 2013 and recent work by the author (who is honored in this study for his overwhelming contribution to atmospheric electricity) reveals basically a flat spectral response of the device up to frequencies of 100 Hz (Chubb, 2015). This makes this device suitable for the study of High Frequency Electric Phenomena. Anisimov, S.V., et al. (1999). On the generation and evolution of aeroelectric structures

  5. Theoretical and practical aspects of application of a low-energy electromagnetic radiation of the extremely high-frequency range in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapina, Elena P.; Chesnokov, Igor A.; Bushuev, Nikolay A.; Kuzyutkina, Svetlana E.; Shuldjakov, Andrey A.

    2006-02-01

    The questions concerning the mechanism of action of a low-energy electromagnetic radiation of the extremely high frequency range (EMR EHF) are considered. Also the features of biological effects are considered in their application as therapeutic actions. As an example the advantages of EHF treatment of patients with chronic brucellosis are shown, the algorithm of a choice of the scheme of treatment using EMR EHF is offered.

  6. Exposure to electromagnetic fields aboard high-speed electric multiple unit trains.

    PubMed

    Niu, D; Zhu, F; Qiu, R; Niu, Q

    2016-01-01

    High-speed electric multiple unit (EMU) trains generate high-frequency electric fields, low-frequency magnetic fields, and high-frequency wideband electromagnetic emissions when running. Potential human health concerns arise because the electromagnetic disturbances are transmitted mainly into the car body from windows, and from there to passengers and train staff. The transmission amount and amplitude distribution characteristics that dominate electromagnetic field emission need to be studied, and the exposure level of electromagnetic field emission to humans should be measured. We conducted a series of tests of the on board electromagnetic field distribution on several high-speed railway lines. While results showed that exposure was within permitted levels, the possibility of long-term health effects should be investigated.

  7. Apparatus and method for enhanced chemical processing in high pressure and atmospheric plasmas produced by high frequency electromagnetic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, P.C.; Helfritch, D.J.

    1989-11-28

    This paper describes an apparatus which creates a plasma for chemical processing of gaseous fluid. It comprises an electro-magnetic resonator cavity having first and second conductive walls and a resonant frequency; an electro-magnetic energy source which produces electro-magnetic energy having a frequency corresponding to the resonant frequency and a power level sufficient for breaking down the gaseous fluid and creating a plasma within the electro-magnetic resonator cavity; an electro-magnetic wave guiding structure connecting the electro-magnetic energy source to the first wall of the electro-magnetic cavity; the wave guiding structure having an intake port for introducing the gaseous fluid into the wave guiding structure; the second wall of the resonator cavity having an exhaust port for discharging processed gaseous fluid in the form of a plasma from the cavity; and plasma confinement means for causing the gaseous fluid to flow into the electro-magnetic resonator cavity through the aperture along with the electro-magnetic energy for confining and stabilizing the plasma within the electro-magnetic resonator cavity.

  8. Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors—Air Gap Effect

    PubMed Central

    Bore, Thierry; Wagner, Norman; Delepine Lesoille, Sylvie; Taillade, Frederic; Six, Gonzague; Daout, Franck; Placko, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Broadband electromagnetic frequency or time domain sensor techniques present high potential for quantitative water content monitoring in porous media. Prior to in situ application, the impact of the relationship between the broadband electromagnetic properties of the porous material (clay-rock) and the water content on the frequency or time domain sensor response is required. For this purpose, dielectric properties of intact clay rock samples experimental determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 GHz were used as input data in 3-D numerical frequency domain finite element field calculations to model the one port broadband frequency or time domain transfer function for a three rods based sensor embedded in the clay-rock. The sensor response in terms of the reflection factor was analyzed in time domain with classical travel time analysis in combination with an empirical model according to Topp equation, as well as the theoretical Lichtenecker and Rother model (LRM) to estimate the volumetric water content. The mixture equation considering the appropriate porosity of the investigated material provide a practical and efficient approach for water content estimation based on classical travel time analysis with the onset-method. The inflection method is not recommended for water content estimation in electrical dispersive and absorptive material. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that effects due to coupling of the sensor to the material cannot be neglected. Coupling problems caused by an air gap lead to dramatic effects on water content estimation, even for submillimeter gaps. Thus, the quantitative determination of the in situ water content requires careful sensor installation in order to reach a perfect probe clay rock coupling. PMID:27096865

  9. Error Analysis of Clay-Rock Water Content Estimation with Broadband High-Frequency Electromagnetic Sensors--Air Gap Effect.

    PubMed

    Bore, Thierry; Wagner, Norman; Lesoille, Sylvie Delepine; Taillade, Frederic; Six, Gonzague; Daout, Franck; Placko, Dominique

    2016-04-18

    Broadband electromagnetic frequency or time domain sensor techniques present high potential for quantitative water content monitoring in porous media. Prior to in situ application, the impact of the relationship between the broadband electromagnetic properties of the porous material (clay-rock) and the water content on the frequency or time domain sensor response is required. For this purpose, dielectric properties of intact clay rock samples experimental determined in the frequency range from 1 MHz to 10 GHz were used as input data in 3-D numerical frequency domain finite element field calculations to model the one port broadband frequency or time domain transfer function for a three rods based sensor embedded in the clay-rock. The sensor response in terms of the reflection factor was analyzed in time domain with classical travel time analysis in combination with an empirical model according to Topp equation, as well as the theoretical Lichtenecker and Rother model (LRM) to estimate the volumetric water content. The mixture equation considering the appropriate porosity of the investigated material provide a practical and efficient approach for water content estimation based on classical travel time analysis with the onset-method. The inflection method is not recommended for water content estimation in electrical dispersive and absorptive material. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that effects due to coupling of the sensor to the material cannot be neglected. Coupling problems caused by an air gap lead to dramatic effects on water content estimation, even for submillimeter gaps. Thus, the quantitative determination of the in situ water content requires careful sensor installation in order to reach a perfect probe clay rock coupling.

  10. Method for manufacturing compound semiconductor field-effect transistors with improved DC and high frequency performance

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, John C.; Sherwin, Marc E.; Baca, Albert G.

    2000-01-01

    A method for making compound semiconductor devices including the use of a p-type dopant is disclosed wherein the dopant is co-implanted with an n-type donor species at the time the n-channel is formed and a single anneal at moderate temperature is then performed. Also disclosed are devices manufactured using the method. In the preferred embodiment n-MESFETs and other similar field effect transistor devices are manufactured using C ions co-implanted with Si atoms in GaAs to form an n-channel. C exhibits a unique characteristic in the context of the invention in that it exhibits a low activation efficiency (typically, 50% or less) as a p-type dopant, and consequently, it acts to sharpen the Si n-channel by compensating Si donors in the region of the Si-channel tail, but does not contribute substantially to the acceptor concentration in the buried p region. As a result, the invention provides for improved field effect semiconductor and related devices with enhancement of both DC and high-frequency performance.

  11. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W. . Chemical Sciences Dept.); Stevens, R.G. ); Anderson, L.E. . Life Sciences Center)

    1990-01-01

    The authors focus on that which seems to be the central scientific issue emerging from current ELF research in epidemiology and in the laboratory; namely, can ELF electromagnetic fields interact with biological systems in such a way as to increase cancer risk The authors examine how cancer risk might be related to two reproducible biological effects of ELF exposure: effects on the pineal gland and circadian biology, and effects on calcium homeostasis in cells. Because they are concerned with the possible biological mechanisms of carcinogenesis, epidemiological studies are only briefly reviewed.

  12. Magnetic liposomes for colorectal cancer cells therapy by high-frequency magnetic field treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardiansyah, Andri; Huang, Li-Ying; Yang, Ming-Chien; Liu, Ting-Yu; Tsai, Sung-Chen; Yang, Chih-Yung; Kuo, Chih-Yu; Chan, Tzu-Yi; Zou, Hui-Ming; Lian, Wei-Nan; Lin, Chi-Hung

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we developed the cancer treatment through the combination of chemotherapy and thermotherapy using doxorubicin-loaded magnetic liposomes. The citric acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CAMNP, ca. 10 nm) and doxorubicin were encapsulated into the liposome (HSPC/DSPE/cholesterol = 12.5:1:8.25) by rotary evaporation and ultrasonication process. The resultant magnetic liposomes ( ca. 90 to 130 nm) were subject to characterization including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer, and fluorescence microscope. In vitro cytotoxicity of the drug carrier platform was investigated through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay using L-929 cells, as the mammalian cell model. In vitro cytotoxicity and hyperthermia (inductive heating) studies were evaluated against colorectal cancer (CT-26 cells) with high-frequency magnetic field (HFMF) exposure. MTT assay revealed that these drug carriers exhibited no cytotoxicity against L-929 cells, suggesting excellent biocompatibility. When the magnetic liposomes with 1 μM doxorubicin was used to treat CT-26 cells in combination with HFMF exposure, approximately 56% cells were killed and found to be more effective than either hyperthermia or chemotherapy treatment individually. Therefore, these results show that the synergistic effects between chemotherapy (drug-controlled release) and hyperthermia increase the capability to kill cancer cells.

  13. Visualization and optimization of cavitation activity at a solid surface in high frequency ultrasound fields.

    PubMed

    Kauer, Markus; Belova-Magri, Valentina; Cairós, Carlos; Schreier, Hans-Jürgen; Mettin, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of high frequency ultrasound in heterogeneous reactions, knowledge about the spatial distribution of cavitation bubbles at the irradiated solid surface is still lacking. This gap hinders controllable surface sonoreactions. Here we present an optimization study of the cavitation bubble distribution at a solid sample using sonoluminescence and sonochemiluminescence imaging. The experiments were performed at three ultrasound frequencies, namely 580, 860 and 1142kHz. We found that position and orientation of the sample to the transducer, as well as its material properties influence the distribution of active cavitation bubbles at the sample surface in the reactor. The reason is a significant modification of the acoustic field due to reflections and absorption of the ultrasonic wave by the solid. This is retraced by numerical simulations employing the Finite Element Method, yielding reasonable agreement of luminescent zones and high acoustic pressure amplitudes in 2D simulations. A homogeneous coverage of the test sample surface with cavitation is finally reached at nearly vertical inclination with respect to the incident wave.

  14. Apparatus and method for enhanced chemical processing in high pressure and atmospheric plasmas produced by high frequency electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Helfritch, Dennis J.

    1989-11-28

    An apparatus and method for creating high temperature plasmas for enhanced chemical processing of gaseous fluids, toxic chemicals, and the like, at a wide range of pressures, especially at atmospheric and high pressures includes an electro-magnetic resonator cavity, preferably a reentrant cavity, and a wave guiding structure which connects an electro-magnetic source to the cavity. The cavity includes an intake port and an exhaust port, each having apertures in the conductive walls of the cavity sufficient for the intake of the gaseous fluids and for the discharge of the processed gaseous fluids. The apertures are sufficiently small to prevent the leakage of the electro-magnetic radiation from the cavity. Gaseous fluid flowing from the direction of the electro-magnetic source through the guiding wave structure and into the cavity acts on the plasma to push it away from the guiding wave structure and the electro-magnetic source. The gaseous fluid flow confines the high temperature plasma inside the cavity and allows complete chemical processing of the gaseous fluids at a wide range of pressures.

  15. Electromagnetic fields in cased borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, Hee Joon; Uchida, Toshihiro

    2001-07-20

    Borehole electromagnetic (EM) measurements, using fiberglass-cased boreholes, have proven useful in oil field reservoir characterization and process monitoring (Wilt et al., 1995). It has been presumed that these measurements would be impossible in steel-cased wells due to the very large EM attenuation and phase shifts. Recent laboratory and field studies have indicated that detection of EM signals through steel casing should be possible at low frequencies, and that these data provide a reasonable conductivity image at a useful scale. Thus, we see an increased application of this technique to mature oilfields, and an immediate extension to geothermal industry as well. Along with the field experiments numerical model studies have been carried out for analyzing the effect of steel casing to the EM fields. The model used to be an infinitely long uniform casing embedded in a homogeneous whole space. Nevertheless, the results indicated that the formation signal could be accurately recovered if the casing characteristics were independently known (Becker et al., 1998; Lee el al., 1998). Real steel-cased wells are much more complex than the simple laboratory models used in work to date. The purpose of this study is to develop efficient numerical methods for analyzing EM fields in realistic settings, and to evaluate the potential application of EM technologies to cross-borehole and single-hole environment for reservoir characterization and monitoring.

  16. [Changes in the chromatin structure of lymphoid cells under the influence of low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation against the background of inflammatory process].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Romanova, N A; Chemeris, N K

    2011-01-01

    Using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay), changes in chromatin structure of peripheral blood leukocytes and peritoneal neutrophils have been studied in mice exposed to low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20 min at 1 h after induction of inflammation) against the background of the systemic inflammatory process. It was revealed that the exposure of mice with the developing inflammation leads to a pronounced decrease in the level of DNA damage to peripheral blood leukocytes and peritoneal neutrophils. It is supposed that the changes in the chromatin structure of lymphoid cells have a genoprotective character in the inflammatory process and can underlie the mechanisms of realization of antiinflammatory effects of the electromagnetic radiation.

  17. Electromagnetic field and brain development.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Suleyman; Deniz, Omur Gulsum; Önger, Mehmet Emin; Türkmen, Aysın Pınar; Yurt, Kıymet Kübra; Aydın, Işınsu; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Davis, Devra

    2016-09-01

    Rapid advances in technology involve increased exposures to radio-frequency/microwave radiation from mobile phones and other wireless transmitting devices. As cell phones are held close to the head during talking and often stored next to the reproductive organs, studies are mostly focused on the brain. In fact, more research is especially needed to investigate electromagnetic field (EMF)'s effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Several studies clearly demonstrate that EMF emitted by cell phones could affect a range of body systems and functions. Recent work has demonstrated that EMF inhibit the formation and differentiation of neural stem cells during embryonic development and also affect reproductive and neurological health of adults that have undergone prenatal exposure. The aim of this review is to discuss the developing CNS and explain potential impacts of EMF on this system.

  18. Electromagnetic interference impact of the proposed emitters for the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP). Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Robertshaw, G.A.; Snyder, A.L.; Weiner, M.M.

    1993-05-14

    The proposed HAARP emitters at the Gakona (Alaska) preferred site and at the Clear AFS (Alaska) alternative site are the Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI), the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR), and the Vertical Incidence Sounder(VIS). The electromagnetic interference (EMI) impact of those emitters on receiving systems in the vicinity of the sites is estimated in this study. The results are intended for use as an input to the Air Force Environmental Impact Statement as part of the Environmental Impact Analysis Process.

  19. Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Eissenberg, David M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Casada, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic field throughout the valve body and its internals is altered. A passive receiver coil carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the electromagnetic field at that location as an induced electrical voltage in the coil. With the change in position of the valve internal part, there is a corresponding change in the induced voltage as a result of the alteration in the alternating electromagnetic field at that location. Changes in the voltage provide an indication of the position and motion of valve internals.

  20. Noninvasive valve monitor using alternating electromagnetic field

    DOEpatents

    Eissenberg, D.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Casada, D.A.

    1993-03-16

    One or more electrical coils are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. An alternating current passing through the coil(s) results in an alternating electromagnetic field being transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. The electromagnetic field varies in intensity and polarity in the valve. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, the electromagnetic field throughout the valve body and its internals is altered. A passive receiver coil carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the electromagnetic field at that location as an induced electrical voltage in the coil. With the change in position of the valve internal part, there is a corresponding change in the induced voltage as a result of the alteration in the alternating electromagnetic field at that location. Changes in the voltage provide an indication of the position and motion of valve internals.

  1. Medical applications of electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Henry C.; Singh, Narendra P.

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we describe two possible applications of low-intensity non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) for the treatment of malaria and cancer, respectively. In malaria treatment, a low-intensity extremely-low frequency magnetic field can be used to induce vibration of hemozoin, a super-paramagnetic polymer particle, inside malaria parasites. This disturbance could cause free radical and mechanical damages leading to the death of the parasite. This concept has been tested in vitro on malaria parasites and found to be effective. This may provide a low cost effective treatment for malaria infection in humans. The rationale for cancer treatment using low-intensity EMF is based on two concepts that have been well established in the literature: (1) low-intensity non-thermal EMF enhances cytotoxic free radicals via the iron-mediated Fenton reaction; and (2) cancer cells have higher amounts of free iron, thus are more susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of EMF. Since normal cells contain minimal amount of free iron, the effect would be selectively targeting cancer cells. Thus, no adverse side effect would be expected as in traditional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This concept has also been tested on human cancer cell and normal cells in vitro and proved to be feasible.

  2. Finite element modeling of electromagnetic fields and waves using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, E. Thomas, Jr.; Schroeder, Erwin

    1989-01-01

    The various formulations of Maxwell's equations are reviewed with emphasis on those formulations which most readily form analogies with Navier's equations. Analogies involving scalar and vector potentials and electric and magnetic field components are presented. Formulations allowing for media with dielectric and conducting properties are emphasized. It is demonstrated that many problems in electromagnetism can be solved using the NASTRAN finite element code. Several fundamental problems involving time harmonic solutions of Maxwell's equations with known analytic solutions are solved using NASTRAN to demonstrate convergence and mesh requirements. Mesh requirements are studied as a function of frequency, conductivity, and dielectric properties. Applications in both low frequency and high frequency are highlighted. The low frequency problems demonstrate the ability to solve problems involving media inhomogeneity and unbounded domains. The high frequency applications demonstrate the ability to handle problems with large boundary to wavelength ratios.

  3. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, James T.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for generating homogenous electromagnetic fields within a volume. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented mirror symmetrically about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially cancelling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set.

  4. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, James Terry

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for generating homogenous electromagnetic fields within a volume. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented mirror symmetrically about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially canceling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set.

  5. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, J.T.

    1998-02-10

    An apparatus and method for generating homogeneous electromagnetic fields within a volume is disclosed. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented mirror symmetrically about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially canceling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set. 39 figs.

  6. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, J.T.

    1997-06-24

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for generating homogeneous electromagnetic fields within a volume. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented mirror symmetrically about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially canceling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set. 26 figs.

  7. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, James T.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for generating homogenous electromagnetic fields within a volume. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially canceling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set.

  8. Generating highly uniform electromagnetic field characteristics

    DOEpatents

    Crow, J.T.

    1998-05-05

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for generating homogeneous electromagnetic fields within a volume. The homogeneity provided may be for magnetic and/or electric fields, and for field magnitude, radial gradient, or higher order radial derivative. The invention comprises conductive pathways oriented about a desired region of homogeneity. A corresponding apparatus and method is provided for substantially canceling the electromagnetic field outside of the apparatus, comprising a second set of conductive pathways placed outside the first set. 55 figs.

  9. [A study of absorption of energy of the extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation in the rat skin by various dosimetric methods and approaches].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Sokolov, P A; Chemeris, N K

    2002-01-01

    Using experimental and theoretical methods of dosimetry, the energy absorption of extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) in the skin of laboratory rats was analyzed. Specific absorption rate (SAR) in the skin was determined on the basis of both microthermometric measurements of initial rates of temperature rise in rat skin induced by the exposure and microcalorimetric measurements of specific heat of the skin. Theoretical calculations of SAR in the skin were performed with consideration for dielectric parameters of rat skin obtained from the measurements of the standing wave ratio upon reflection of electromagnetic waves from the skin surface and for the effective area of stationary overheating measured by infrared thermography. A numerical method was developed to determine electromagnetic wave energy reflected, absorbed, and transmitted in the model of flat layers. The algorithm of the method was realized in a computer program and used to calculate SAR in the skin on the basis of the complex dielectric constant of rat skin. The SAR values obtained from experimental measurements, theoretical calculations and numerical analysis are in good mutual correspondence and make about 220-280 W/kg at a frequency of 42.25 GHz and a power of 20 mW at the radiator output. The results obtained can be used for dosimetric supply of biomedical experiments on studying the physicochemical mechanisms of the biological effects of EHF EMR.

  10. Nanomechanical electric and electromagnetic field sensor

    DOEpatents

    Datskos, Panagiotis George; Lavrik, Nickolay

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a system for detecting and analyzing at least one of an electric field and an electromagnetic field. The system includes a micro/nanomechanical oscillator which oscillates in the presence of at least one of the electric field and the electromagnetic field. The micro/nanomechanical oscillator includes a dense array of cantilevers mounted to a substrate. A charge localized on a tip of each cantilever interacts with and oscillates in the presence of the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a subsystem for recording the movement of the cantilever to extract information from the electric and/or electromagnetic field. The system further includes a means of adjusting a stiffness of the cantilever to heterodyne tune an operating frequency of the system over a frequency range.

  11. Brownian parametric oscillator: analytical results for a high-frequency driving field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouard, S.; Plata, J.

    2001-12-01

    The dissipative dynamics of a classical parametric oscillator is studied analytically. For a generic functional form of the parametric driving, a simplified description of the system is obtained by performing a sequence of transformations set up from the deterministic Floquet solutions. In the high-frequency regime, the application of an averaging method leads to the description of the secular dynamics as an effective bidimensional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. The expressions obtained for the probability density and the correlation functions allow us to unravel the mechanisms responsible for the nontrivial dependence of the variances on the driving amplitude.

  12. High-frequency sound field and bubble formation in a rat decompression model.

    PubMed

    Shupak, Avi; Arieli, Yehuda; Bitterman, Haim; Brod, Vera; Arieli, Ran; Rosenhause, Giora

    2002-05-01

    High-frequency sound might cause bubble enlargement by rectified diffusion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate gas bubble formation in the immersed diving animal during exposure to high-frequency sound. Anaesthetised rats were subjected to a simulated diving profile while immersed inside a hyperbaric chamber. An acoustic beacon (pinger) was placed ventral to the animal's abdomen, transmitting at an intensity of 208.9 dB re 1 micro Pa and a frequency of 37 kHz. Six groups of eight animals were included in the study as in Table 1, breathing air (n = 4) or Nitrox 72/28 (n = 2), at a depth of 0 m, 30 m or 40 m. Immediately after decompression, the intestinal mesenterium was imaged, and frames were acquired digitally. The number of bubbles and their radii were analysed and compared among the groups. The mean bubble density for group 1 was 1.35 +/- 0.18 bubbles/mm(2), significantly higher when compared with the other groups (p < 0.0001). The average bubble radius for groups 1 and 2 was similar (12.57 +/- 4.1 and 10.63 +/- 1.8 microm, respectively), but significantly larger than in the other groups (p < 0.0002). The percentage of bubbles with a radius greater than 50 microm was significantly higher in group 1 (p < 0.0001). The results suggest that commercially available underwater pingers might enhance bubble growth during deep air diving.

  13. Investigation of urban atmospheric visibility by high-frequency extraction: Model development and field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chin-Hsiang; Wen, Che-Yen; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Liaw, Jiun-Jian; Lo, Cho-Ching; Chiu, Shih-Hsuan

    This work investigates atmospheric visibility by employing two statistical processes for high-frequency extraction: Sobel operator and fast Fourier transform (FFT). In replacing the traditional measurement methods for atmospheric visibility, the new approaches can provide accurate digital data urban visibility by establishing the numerical indices. The procedure is illustrated as follows. Digital images of urban areas in Kaohsiung, a city at the south of Taiwan, are analyzed according to brightness. High-frequency components of the image are extracted to calculate the index values by employing the Sobel operator and FFT. Finally, the correlation between each index and the visual range estimated by trained investigators are evaluated. A good correlation between two indices and the values obtained by visual investigation is affirmed by correlation coefficients ( R2), 0.8139 and 0.7797, respectively. Furthermore, both indices are highly correlated with each other ( R2=0.9173). Convenient transmission and the exchangeability of digital images of the real-time landscape facilitate the publication of results on the world wide web (WWW).

  14. Exploring HF-induced ionospheric turbulence by Doppler sounding and stimulated electromagnetic emissions at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program heating facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, Evgeny N.; Shindin, Alexey V.; Grach, Savely M.; Milikh, Gennady M.; Mishin, Evgeny V.; Bernhardt, Paul A.; Siefring, Carl L.; Briczinski, Stanley J.; McCarrick, Michael J.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the features of the F region plasma perturbations during HF heating experiments at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program facility in March-April 2011 and May-June 2014. The diagnostics included multifrequency Doppler (phase) sounding (MDS) and stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE). The results concern modification of the electron density profile near the reflection and upper hybrid heights, as well as correlation of the density modification with temporal behavior of narrow continuum, downshifted maximum, and broad continuum SEE spectral features. We reveal also a new SEE spectral feature which appears in the SEE spectra for the pump frequency f0 near the third and fourth electron gyroharmonics. It is located in the SEE spectrum well below the pump wave frequency, f - f0 -(40-220) kHz, occupies a wide frequency range till 100-150 kHz, and is termed the broad downshifted emission.

  15. [Effect of coherent extremely high-frequency and low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on the activity of membrane systems in Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Tadevosian, A; Trchunian, A

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that the exposure of wild-type Escherichia coli K12 bacteria grown in anaerobic conditions upon fermentation of glucose to coherent extremely high-frequency (51.8 and 53 GHz) electromagnetic radiation (EMR) or millimeter waves (wavelength 5.8 to 6.7 mm) of low intensity (flux capacity 0.06 mW/cm2) caused a marked decrease in energy-dependent and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide- or azide-sensitive proton and potassium ions transport fluxes through the membrane, including proton fluxes via proton F0F1-ATPase and through the potassium uptake Trk system, correspondingly. K+ uptake was less for the E. coli mutant Trk 1110. The rate of molecular hydrogen production by formate hydrogen lyase 2 is strongly inhibited. The results indicate that the bacterial effect of coherent extremely high-frequency EMR includes changes in the activity of membrane transport and enzymatic systems in which the F0F1-ATPase plays a key role.

  16. Superdressed H+2 and H2+3 molecular ions in intense, high-frequency laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, T.; Bandrauk, A. D.

    1995-01-01

    We study the radiative distortion of the lowest two potential surfaces of H+2 and H2+3 molecular ions in a superintense (I>~1016 W/cm2), high-frequency, linearly polarized laser field, using the space-translation or acceleration representation of laser-matter interaction. The electron clouds undergo field-induced redistribution in the molecular ions due to the presence of field-induced ``dichotomous'' dressed Coulomb potentials. Such super-field-dressed systems have a greater tendency to transfer electronic charge into the region between the nuclei and hence become more ``stable'' than the field-free ones. For example, at the equilibrium nuclear separation the dissociation energy of the superdressed H+2 is found to increase by about 20% compared with the field-free H+2. More dramatically, the lowest two surfaces of H2+3 that are repulsive in zero field become attractive (bonding) in the presence of an intense, high-frequency field. The possibility of molecules becoming stabilized against both ionization and dissociation in superintense fields is discussed.

  17. Reversible cardiac conduction block and defibrillation with high-frequency electric field.

    PubMed

    Tandri, Harikrishna; Weinberg, Seth H; Chang, Kelly C; Zhu, Renjun; Trayanova, Natalia A; Tung, Leslie; Berger, Ronald D

    2011-09-28

    Electrical impulse propagation is an essential function in cardiac, skeletal muscle, and nervous tissue. Abnormalities in cardiac impulse propagation underlie lethal reentrant arrhythmias, including ventricular fibrillation. Temporary propagation block throughout the ventricular myocardium could possibly terminate these arrhythmias. Electrical stimulation has been applied to nervous tissue to cause reversible conduction block, but has not been explored sufficiently in cardiac tissue. We show that reversible propagation block can be achieved in cardiac tissue by holding myocardial cells in a refractory state for a designated period of time by applying a sustained sinusoidal high-frequency alternating current (HFAC); in doing so, reentrant arrhythmias are terminated. We demonstrate proof of concept using several models, including optically mapped monolayers of neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes, Langendorff-perfused guinea pig and rabbit hearts, intact anesthetized adult rabbits, and computer simulations of whole-heart impulse propagation. HFAC may be an effective and potentially safer alternative to direct current application, currently used to treat ventricular fibrillation.

  18. Interaction of electromagnetic fields and biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darshan Shrivastava, Bhakt; Barde, Ravindra; Mishra, Ashutosh; Phadke, S.

    2014-09-01

    This paper deals with the electromagnetic field interact in biological tissues. It is actually one of the important challenges for the electromagnetic field for the recent years. The experimental techniques are use in Broad-band Dielectric Measurement (BDM) with LCR meters. The authors used Bones and scales of Fish taken from Narmada River (Rajghat Dist. Barwani) as biological tissues. Experimental work carried out done in inter-university consortium (IUC) Indore. The major difficulties that appear are related to the material properties, to the effect of the electromagnetic problem and to the thermal model of the biological tissues.

  19. Human disease resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) include everything from cosmic rays through visible light to the electric and magnetic fields associated with electricity. While the high frequency fields have sufficient energy to cause cancer, the question of whether there are human health hazards associated with communication radiofrequency (RF) EMFs and those associated with use of electricity remains controversial. The issue is more important than ever given the rapid increase in the use of cell phones and other wireless devices. This review summarizes the evidence stating that excessive exposure to magnetic fields from power lines and other sources of electric current increases the risk of development of some cancers and neurodegenerative diseases, and that excessive exposure to RF radiation increases risk of cancer, male infertility, and neurobehavioral abnormalities. The relative impact of various sources of exposure, the great range of standards for EMF exposure, and the costs of doing nothing are also discussed.

  20. Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments.

  1. Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-11-19

    A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments. 12 figs.

  2. [Responses of thymocytes and splenocytes to low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation in normal mice and in mice with systemic inflammation].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Sirota, N P; Kudriavtsev, A A; Chemeris, N K

    2010-01-01

    Changes in T cell subsets and expression of cytokine genes in thymocytes and splenocytes after exposure of BAL/c mice to low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, exposure duration 20 min) under normal conditions and in systemic inflammation were studied using flow cytometry and the methods of reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction. It was found that the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells statistically significantly increased in the thymus and considerably decreased in the spleen of exposed animals. Apparently, the exposure of animals leads to an intensification of the host defense, by activating the T-cellular immunity. As for effector functions, the increased expression of IL-1beta and IFNgamma genes in thymocytes and essentially enhanced expression of IL-1beta, IL-10, and TNFalpha genes in splenocytes were observed in mice exposed against the background of a progressive inflammatory process. The experimental data obtained specify that the directed (anti-inflammatory) response of an organism to a specific combination of effective exposure parameters of electromagnetic radiation can be realized by the activation of particular immunocompetent cells and changes in the cytokine profile.

  3. Nanomaterial-assisted PCR based on thermal generation from magnetic nanoparticles under high-frequency AC magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, Toshiaki; Minegishi, Hiroaki; Echigo, Akinobu; Nagaoka, Yutaka; Fukuda, Takahiro; Usami, Ron; Maekawa, Toru; Hanajiri, Tatsuro

    2015-08-01

    Here the authors present a nanomaterial-assisted PCR technique based on the use of thermal generation from magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) under AC magnetic fields. In this approach, MNPs work as internal nano thermal generators to realize PCR thermal cycling. In order to suppress the non-specific absorption of DNA synthetic enzymes, MNPs are decorated with bovine serum albumin (BSA), forming BSA/MNP complexes. Under high-frequency AC magnetic fields, these complexes work as internal nano thermal generators, thereby producing the typical temperature required for PCR thermal cycling, and perform all the reaction processes of PCR amplification in the place of conventional PCR thermal cyclers.

  4. High frequency electromagnetic properties of interstitial-atom-modified Ce2Fe17NX and its composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. Z.; Wei, J. Z.; Xia, Y. H.; Wu, R.; Yun, C.; Yang, Y. B.; Yang, W. Y.; Du, H. L.; Han, J. Z.; Liu, S. Q.; Yang, Y. C.; Wang, C. S.; Yang, J. B.

    2014-07-01

    The magnetic and microwave absorption properties of the interstitial atom modified intermetallic compound Ce2Fe17NX have been investigated. The Ce2Fe17NX compound shows a planar anisotropy with saturation magnetization of 1088 kA/m at room temperature. The Ce2Fe17NX paraffin composite with a mass ratio of 1:1 exhibits a permeability of μ ' = 2.7 at low frequency, together with a reflection loss of -26 dB at 6.9 GHz with a thickness of 1.5 mm and -60 dB at 2.2 GHz with a thickness of 4.0 mm. It was found that this composite increases the Snoek limit and exhibits both high working frequency and permeability due to its high saturation magnetization and high ratio of the c-axis anisotropy field to the basal plane anisotropy field. Hence, it is possible that this composite can be used as a high-performance thin layer microwave absorber.

  5. Program For Displaying Computed Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hom, Kam W.

    1995-01-01

    EM-ANIMATE computer program specialized visualization displays and animates output data on near fields and surface currents computed by electromagnetic-field program - in particular MOM3D (LAR-15074). Program based on windows and contains user-friendly, graphical interface for setting viewing options, selecting cases, manipulating files, and like. Written in FORTRAN 77. EM-ANIMATE also available as part of package, COS-10048, includes MOM3D, IRIS program computing near-field and surface-current solutions of electromagnetic-field equations.

  6. [The effects of electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency and low intensity on the growth rate of bacteria Escherichia coli and the role of medium pH].

    PubMed

    Tadevosian, A; Kalantarian, V; Trchunian, A

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown that coherent electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) of extremely high frequency (45-53 GHz) or millimeter waves (wavelength 5.6-6.7 mm) of low intensity (flux capacity 0.06 mW/cm2) of Escherichia coli K12, grown under anaerobic conditions during the fermentation of sugar (glucose) for 30 min or 1 h, caused a decrease in their growth rate, the maximum inhibitory effect being achieved at a frequency of 51.8 or 53 GHz. This effect depended on medium pH when the maximal action was determined at pH 7.5. In addition, separate 30-min of 1-h irradiation (frequency 51.8 or 53 GHz) of doubly distilled water or some inorganic ions contained in Tris-phosphate buffer where the cells were transferred induced oppositely directed changes in further growth of these bacteria under anaerobic conditions; irradiation of water caused a decrease in the growth rate of bacteria. A significant change in pH of water (0.5-1.5 unit) was induced by a 30-irradiation at a frequency of 49, 50.3, 51.8, or 53 GHz, when the initial pH value was 6.0 or 8.0, but not 7.5. These results indicate the changes in the properties of water and its role in the effects of EMI of extremely high frequency. The marked effect of EMI on bacteria disappeared upon repeated irradiation for 1 h at a frequency of 51.8 or 53 GHz with an interval of 2 hours. This result indicates some compensatory mechanisms in bacteria.

  7. Magnetic Field Generation and B-Dot Sensor Characterization in the High Frequency Band

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    is the constant value given the parameters of an ideal Helmholtz coil (8.99x10−7). The derivative of the magnetic field with respect to r and N yields...resistance is negligible. An ideal design of an AC Helmholtz coil should have a relatively constant inductance, which is needed to keep the field in...B-field dependency on inductive reactance (ωL). In the case of the Helmholtz coil simulation, the inductance (L) is constant and the ω cancels out

  8. Controlling the Electromagnetic Field Confinement with Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Bonache, Jordi; Zamora, Gerard; Paredes, Ferran; Zuffanelli, Simone; Aguilà, Pau; Martín, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    The definition of a precise illumination region is essential in many applications where the electromagnetic field should be confined in some specific volume. By using conventional structures, it is difficult to achieve an adequate confinement distance (or volume) with negligible levels of radiation leakage beyond it. Although metamaterial structures and metasurfaces are well-known to provide high controllability of their electromagnetic properties, this feature has not yet been applied to solve this problem. We present a method of electromagnetic field confinement based on the generation of evanescent waves by means of metamaterial structures. With this method, the confinement volume can be controlled, namely, it is possible to define a large area with an intense field without radiation leakage. A prototype working in the microwave region has been implemented, and very good agreement between the measurements and the theoretical prediction of field distribution has been obtained. PMID:27886230

  9. Controlling the Electromagnetic Field Confinement with Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonache, Jordi; Zamora, Gerard; Paredes, Ferran; Zuffanelli, Simone; Aguilà, Pau; Martín, Ferran

    2016-11-01

    The definition of a precise illumination region is essential in many applications where the electromagnetic field should be confined in some specific volume. By using conventional structures, it is difficult to achieve an adequate confinement distance (or volume) with negligible levels of radiation leakage beyond it. Although metamaterial structures and metasurfaces are well-known to provide high controllability of their electromagnetic properties, this feature has not yet been applied to solve this problem. We present a method of electromagnetic field confinement based on the generation of evanescent waves by means of metamaterial structures. With this method, the confinement volume can be controlled, namely, it is possible to define a large area with an intense field without radiation leakage. A prototype working in the microwave region has been implemented, and very good agreement between the measurements and the theoretical prediction of field distribution has been obtained.

  10. Far-field momentum flux of high-frequency axisymmetric synthetic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, X.; Mohseni, K.

    2015-11-01

    This study focuses on predicting the far-field momentum flux for axisymmetric synthetic jets, which is an important parameter that characterizes the performance of such jets in flow-control applications. Previous researchers have found that a negative pressure gradient near the jet orifice is responsible for the observed decrease in the momentum flux in the streamwise direction. As a result, prediction of the far field momentum flux of synthetic jets has encountered serious challenges. In this paper, the far-field momentum flux is modeled by calculating the hydrodynamic impulse of the vortical structure formed during one actuation cycle, under the assumption that the jet is fully developed and periodic. In this manner, the complex near-field effect of a synthetic jet is explicitly captured by the interactions between the vortices and the actuator. Furthermore, the impulse of these vortical structures is predicted using only the actuation parameters of the synthetic jet, namely, the stroke length, L, the orifice diameter, d, and the actuation frequency, f. For a synthetic jet with a stroke ratio, L/d, larger than the formation number, L∗/d, this model predicts that the normalized far-field momentum flux, K/Ks, decreases when L/d increases. This can be explained by an increasing circulation fraction of the trailing jet, which contains less impulse per unit circulation compared with the leading vortex. This model is validated using hot-wire anemometry measurement of a series of synthetic jets. Moreover, by comparing with experimental data that have large L/d, this model suggests that the contribution of trailing jet to the overall far-field momentum flux is not negligible.

  11. Stable Determination of a Scattered Wave from its Far-Field Pattern: The High Frequency Asymptotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondi, Luca; Sini, Mourad

    2015-10-01

    We deal with the stability issue for the determination of outgoing time-harmonic acoustic waves from their far-field patterns. We are especially interested in keeping as explicit as possible the dependence of our stability estimates on the wavenumber of the corresponding Helmholtz equation and in understanding the high wavenumber, that is frequency, asymptotics. Applications include stability results for the determination from far-field data of solutions of direct scattering problems with sound-soft obstacles and an instability analysis for the corresponding inverse obstacle problem. The key tool consists of establishing precise estimates on the behavior of Hankel functions with large argument or order.

  12. High-frequency alternating-crossed-field gel electrophoresis with neutral or slightly charged interpenetrating networks to improve DNA separation.

    PubMed

    Boyd, B M; Prausnitz, J M; Blanch, H W

    1998-12-01

    Toward improving DNA separations, this work reports the effects of high-frequency square-wave AC fields superimposed perpendicular to the direct current (DC) separation field on DNA migration in both polyacrylamide-based interpenetrating networks (IPNs) and in agarose networks. Compared to standard polyacrylamide gels, IPNs allow the separation of larger DNA (9000 bp vs. 5000 bp at 5 V/cm). In novel polyacrylamide-based IPNs, an alternating current (AC) field of 5 Hz increased the maximum DNA size separable. This effect was extended to larger DNA sizes with increasing electric-field strength up to and apparently beyond the power supply-limited maximum electric-field strength of 48 V/cm. The orthogonal AC field also increased mobility. These two results combine to yield a reduction in separation time of up to a factor of 20 in novel polyacrylamide-based IPNs. When negatively charged acrylic-acid groups were incorporated into the IPNs, the use of the AC field changed the DNA-network interaction, which altered the size dependence of DNA mobility. In agarose gels, an AC field of 50 Hz increased the size range separable; however, there was no increase in DNA mobility. There was no change in size dependence of mobility in an AC field when the number of charged groups in the agarose network was increased. Based on results in the literature, possible mechanisms were examined for the effects of the AC field on DNA separation.

  13. The reason for synchronous disturbances in the atmospheric electric field and high-frequency geoacoustic emission during the seismotectonic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulenko, O. P.; Marapulets, Yu. V.; Kuzmin, Yu. D.

    2015-03-01

    The atmospheric electric field, the geoacoustic emission at frequencies of 0.7-2.0 kHz at three points, the volumetric activity of radon and thoron in the surface ground layer, the atmospheric pressure, the velocity of wind, and the intensity of rain were synchronously measured from August 27 to October 17, 2012, at the interception zone of various faults 41 km southwest of the town of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy. It was found for the first time that the increase in radon and thoron concentration in the surface ground layer is accompanied by a decrease in the atmospheric electric field and simultaneous disturbance of the high-frequency geoacoustic emission. The stronger emission of these gases into the atmosphere due to the increase in velocity of the extension of subsurface sedimentary rocks during seismotectonic process is the most likely reason for the decrease in the electric field, which occured along with a geoacoustic disturbance.

  14. [Effects of low-intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation on chromatin structure of lymphoid cells in vivo and in vitro].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Lushnikov, K V; Shumilina, Iu V; Sirota, N P; Sadovnikov, V B; Chemeris, N K

    2003-01-01

    Using a comet assay technique, it was shown for the first time that low-intensity extremely high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (EHF EMR) in vivo causes oppositely directed effects on spatial organization of chromatin in cells of lymphoid organs. In 3 hrs after single whole-body exposure of NMRI mice for 20 min at 42.0 GHz and 0.15 mW/cm2, an increase by 16% (p < 0.03 as compared with control) and a decrease by 16% (p < 0.001) in fluorescence intensity of nucleoids stained with ethidium bromide were found in thymocytes and splenocytes, respectively. The fluorescence intensity of stained nucleoids in peripheral blood leukocytes was not changed after the exposure. The exposure of cells of Raji hunan lymphoid line and peripheral blood leukocytes to the EHF EMR in vitro induced a decrease in fluorescence intensity by 23% (p < 0.001) and 18% (p < 0.05), respectively. These effects can be determined by changes in a number of physiological alkali-labile sites in DNA of exposed cells. We suggested that the effects of low-intensity EHF EMR on the immune system cells are realized with the participation of neuroendocrine and central nervous systems.

  15. Electromagnetic fields in bone repair and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Kenneth J.; Rubin, Clinton T.; Donahue, Henry J.

    1995-01-01

    The treatment of delayed union of bone fractures has served for the past 20 years as the principal testing ground for determining whether nonionizing electromagnetic fields can have any substantial, long-term effects in clinical medicine. Recent double-blinded clinical trials have confirmed the significance of the reported effects on bone healing and have led to the suggestion that electromagnetic fields may also be useful in the treatment of other orthopedic problems such as fresh fractures, stabilization of prosthetic implants, or even the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis. However, the design of appropriate treatment regimens for these new applications would be greatly facilitated if it were understood how the biological cells within bone tissue sense these low-frequency, and remarkably low level, electromagnetic fields. Here we address the engineering and physical science aspects of this problem. We review the characteristics of clinically used electromagnetic fields and discuss which components of these fields may actually be responsible for altering the activity of the bone cells. We then consider several physical mechanisms which have been proposed to explain how the cells within the bone or fracture tissue detect this field component.

  16. High-Frequency Alternating-Crossed-Field Gel Electrophoresis WithNeutral or Slightly Charged Interpenetrating Networks to Improve DNASeparation

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, B.; Prausnitz, J.; Blanch, H.

    1998-07-01

    Toward improving DNA separations, this work reports theeffects of high-frequency square-wave AC fields superimposedperpendicular to the direct current (DC) separation field on DNAmigration in both polyacrylamide-based interpenetrating networks (IPNs)and in agarose networks. Compared to standard polyacrylamide gels, IPNsallow the separation of larger DNA (9000 bp vs. 5000 bp at 5 V/cm). Innovel polyacrylamide-based IPNs, an alternating current (AC) field of 5Hz increased the maximum DNA size separable. This effect was extended tolarger DNA sizes with increasing electric-field strength up to andapparently beyond the power supply-limited maximum electric-fieldstrength of 48 V/cm. The orthogonal AC field also increased mobility.These two results combine to yield a reduction in separation time of upto a factor of 20 in novel polyacrylamide-based IPNs. When negativelycharged acrylic-acid groups were incorporated into the IPNs, the use ofthe AC field changed the DNA-network interaction, which altered the sizedependence of DNA mobility. In agarose gels, an AC field of 50 Hzincreased the size range separable; however, there was no increase in DNAmobility. There was no change in size dependence of mobility in an ACfield when the number of charged groups in the agarose network wasincreased. Based on results in the literature, possible mechanisms wereexamined for the effects of the AC field on DNA separation.

  17. Numerical modeling of fringing fields and their use for complex permittivity measurements at high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Camelia

    1993-08-01

    An accurate technique to measure the complex permittivity of materials based on a rigorous theoretical formulation of the admittance of an open-ended coaxial probe has been achieved. The technique was tested by measurements on standard solutions. The new technique was used to perform a comprehensive study of ionic solutions. The extensive data obtained led to the development of models to predict the dielectric parameters of ionic solutions at a given temperature as a function of concentration. The theoretical study and numerical techniques were extended to treat the case of a thin sample backed by a metallic plane. The technique was tested with standard solutions. Further analysis led to the development of expressions for the field in the sample adjacent to the probe. This enabled the pattern of power deposition to be determined and improved our understanding of the sampled volume.

  18. Cross-correlation function of acoustic fields generated by random high-frequency sources.

    PubMed

    Godin, Oleg A

    2010-08-01

    Long-range correlations of noise fields in arbitrary inhomogeneous, moving or motionless fluids are studied in the ray approximation. Using the stationary phase method, two-point cross-correlation function of noise is shown to approximate the sum of the deterministic Green's functions describing sound propagation in opposite directions between the two points. Explicit relations between amplitudes of respective ray arrivals in the noise cross-correlation function and the Green's functions are obtained and verified against specific problems allowing an exact solution. Earlier results are extended by simultaneously accounting for sound absorption, arbitrary distribution of noise sources in a volume and on surfaces, and fluid inhomogeneity and motion. The information content of the noise cross-correlation function is discussed from the viewpoint of passive acoustic characterization of inhomogeneous flows.

  19. HEATING OF SIMPLE SOLUTIONS AND EMULSIONS EXPOSED TO HIGH FREQUENCY HIGH POTENTIAL ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, W. H.

    1930-01-01

    1. It is shown that the absorption in liquid dielectrics is a function of potential gradient (field intensity) as well as frequency and that for values of potential gradient above, at least 70 volts per millimeter, the rate of rise of temperature-frequency curve increases rapidly with frequency. 2. The presence of ions in measurable quantity considerably changes the absorption characteristics and apparently causes the values to remain constant, whereas the values for water drop about 40 per cent, during exposure. The absorption also changes rapidly with the concentration of the electrolyte. 3. Very high absorption values are found for an emulsion of cotton-seed oil in 1 per cent sodium oleate. It is shown that the absorption is due to the colloidal structure (with the possibility that the energy is dissipated at the phase boundaries). PMID:19872553

  20. Electromagnetic field interactions with biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, A.H. )

    1993-02-01

    This is a report on Symposia organized by the International Society for Bioelectricity and presented at the 1992 FASEB Meeting. The presentations summarized here were intended to provide a sampling of new and fruitful lines of research. The theme topics for the Symposia were cancer, neural function, cell signaling, pineal gland function, and immune system interactions. Living organisms are complex electrochemical systems that evolved over billions of years in a world with a relatively simple weak magnetic field and with few electromagnetic energy emitters. As is characteristic of living organisms, they interacted with and adapted to this environment of electric and magnetic fields. In recent years there has been a massive introduction of equipment that emits electromagnetic fields in an enormous range of new frequencies, modulations, and intensities. As living organisms have only recently found themselves immersed in this new and virtually ubiquitous environment, they have not had the opportunity to adapt to it. This gives biologists the opportunity to use these electromagnetic fields as probes to study the functioning of living systems. This is a significant opportunity, as new approaches to studying living systems so often provide the means to make great leaps in science. In recent years, a diversity of biologists have carried out experiments using electromagnetic fields to study the function of living cells and systems. This approach is now becoming quite fruitful and is yielding data that are advancing our knowledge in diverse areas of biology. 25 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Numerical modelling of fringing fields and their use for complex permittivity measurements at high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Camelia

    1993-03-01

    A technique was developed to measure the complex permittivity of materials using an open-ended coaxial probe in contact with a semi-infinite sample. It is based on a rigorous theoretical formulation of the admittance of the probe and was tested by measurements on standard solutions at frequencies of up to 20 GHz. The technique was further used to perform measurements on aqueous ionic solutions. The data were analyzed and used to develop models to predict the dielectric parameters of NaCl and KCl solutions at a given temperature as a function of concentration with the concentration range extending from pure water to saturated salt solutions. The theoretical study and techniques were adapted to the measurement of thin samples in contact with the probe provided they are backed by a metallic plane. The success and range of applicability of the thin sample technique was tested with measurements on standard solutions. Expressions were derived for the electric field in the medium terminating the probe. These expressions were used to determine the pattern of power deposition in the medium terminating the probe. Examples are given to illustrate this statement.

  2. High frequency application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields alters cellular membrane disruption and fluorescent dye uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steelman, Zachary A.; Tolstykh, Gleb P.; Beier, Hope T.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2016-03-01

    Cells exposed to nanosecond-pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) exhibit a wide variety of nonspecific effects, including blebbing, swelling, intracellular calcium bursts, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, formation of nanopores, and depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) to induce activation of the inositol trisphosphate/diacylglycerol pathway. While several studies have taken place in which multiple pulses were delivered to cells, the effect of pulse repetition rate (PRR) is not well understood. To better understand the effects of PRR, a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to observe CHO-K1 cells exposed to ten 600ns, 200V pulses at varying repetition rates (5Hz up to 500KHz) in the presence of either FM 1-43, YO-PRO-1, or Propidium Iodide (PI) fluorescent dyes, probes frequently used to indicate nanoporation or permeabilization of the plasma membrane. Dye uptake was monitored for 30 seconds after pulse application at a rate of 1 image/second. In addition, a single long pulse of equivalent energy (200V, 6 μs duration) was applied to test the hypothesis that very fast PRR will approximate the biological effects of a single long pulse of equal energy. Upon examination of the data, we found strong variation in the relationship between PRR and uptake in each of the three dyes. In particular, PI uptake showed little frequency dependence, FM 1-43 showed a strong inverse relationship between frequency and internal cell fluorescence, and YO-PRO-1 exhibited a "threshold" point of around 50 KHz, after which the inverse trend observed in FM 1-43 was seen to reverse itself. Further, a very high PRR of 500 KHz only approximated the biological effects of a single 6 μs pulse in cells stained with YO-PRO-1, suggesting that uptake of different dyes may proceed by different physical mechanisms.

  3. Radiated fields from an electromagnetic pulse simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, M.; Delisle, G. Y.; Kashyap, S.

    Simulators of electromagnetic pulses allow generation within a limited time of very high-intensity fields such as those produced in a nuclear explosion. These fields can be radiated out of the test zone at a lower but nevertheless significant level; if the intensity of these fields is sufficiently high, damage to humans and electronic equipment can result. An evaluation of the potential danger of these simulator emissions requires knowledge of the amplitude, duration, and the energy of the radiated impulses. A technique is presented for calculating the fields radiated by a parallel-plane electromagnetic pulse simulator. The same method can also be applied to a rhombic type simulator. Sample numerical results are presented along with the calculations of the energy and power density and a discussion of the formation of the field in the frequency domain.

  4. Photon Propagation in Slowly Varying Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbstein, F.

    2017-03-01

    Effective theory of soft photons in slowly varying electromagnetic background fields is studied at one-loop order in QED. This is of relevance for the study of all-optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in realistic electromagnetic background fields as provided by high-intensity lasers. The central result derived in this article is a new analytical expression for the photon polarization tensor in two linearly polarized counterpropagating pulsed Gaussian laser beams. Treating the peak field strengths of both laser beams as free parameters, this field configuration can be considered as interpolating between the limiting cases of a purely right- or left-moving laser beam (if one of the peak field strengths is set equal to zero) and the standing-wave type scenario with two counter-propagating beams of equal strength.

  5. Electromagnetic field parameters and instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, A. R.; Jones, R. A.; Stell, M. E.; Adey, W. R.; Bawin, S.

    1986-07-01

    We studied the effects of the electric and magnetic components of a Loran-C type waveform on three biological systems. Neurochemical assays of brain neurotransmitter substances indicate field-related changes in the levels of norepinephrine in the hippocampus and in the number and affinities of the opiate receptors in the cortex. Behavioral data showed that rats trained in an operant conditioning task did not reliably detect any electric field strength used. Biochemical data demonstrated that the Loran-C field did not modify basal ornithine decarboxylase activity in primary bone cells.

  6. LEM—electromagnetic fields measurement laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annino, A.; Falciglia, F.; Musumeci, F.; Oliveri, M.; Privitera, G.; Triglia, A.

    2000-04-01

    The widespread presence of electromagnetic waves and the relative problems regarding them have favored the constitution of the LEM at the DMFCI in Catania University, where competence has been developing in this sector for about 10 years. Full operativeness has been reached as far as the electromagnetic field measurements in anthropized environments are concerned. Other research will be undertaken as soon as further funds are available. Some problems connected with the perfecting of measurements instruments and the results of emission measurements of cellular telephones are presented.

  7. Gene transcription and electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Our overall aim is to obtain sufficient information to allow us to ultimately determine whether ELF EM field exposure is an initiating factor in neoplastic transformation and/or if exposure can mimic characteristics of the second-step counterpart in neoplastic disease. This aim is based on our previous findings that levels of some transcripts are increased in cells exposed to EM fields. While the research is basic in nature, the ramifications have bearing on the general safety of exposure to EM fields in industrial and everyday life. A large array of diverse biological effects are reported to occur as the result of exposure to elf EM fields, suggesting that the cell response to EM fields is at a basic level, presumably initiated by molecular and/or biophysical events at the cell membrane. The hypothesized route is a signal transduction pathway involving membrane calcium fluxes. Information flow resulting from signal transduction can mediate the induction of regulatory factors in the cell, and directly affect how transcription is regulated.

  8. Spectroscopic Measurement of High-Frequency Electric Fields in the Interaction of Explosive Debris Plasma with Ambient, Magnetized Background Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, Anton; Schaeffer, Derek; Everson, Erik; Clark, Eric; Vincena, Stephen; van Compernolle, Bart; Tripathi, Shreekrishna; Constantin, Carmen; Niemann, Chris

    2014-10-01

    The explosive expansion of dense, high-beta debris plasma into relatively tenuous, magnetized background plasma is relevant to a wide variety of astrophysical and space environments. Electric fields play a fundamental role in the coupling of momentum and energy from debris to background, and emission spectroscopy provides a powerful diagnostic for assessing electric fields via the Stark effect. A recent experiment utilizing a unique experimental platform at UCLA that combines the Large Plasma Device and the Raptor laser facility has investigated the super-Alfvénic, quasi-perpendicular expansion of a laser-produced carbon (C) debris plasma through a preformed, ambient, magnetized helium (He) background plasma via emission spectroscopy. Spectral profiles of the He II 468.6 nm line have been analyzed via single-mode and multi-mode time-dependent Stark broadening models for hydrogen-like ions, yielding large magnitude (~100 kV/cm), high-frequency (~100 GHz) electric fields. The measurements suggest the development of an electron beam-plasma instability, and a simple instability saturation model demonstrates that the measured electric field magnitudes are feasible under the experimental conditions.

  9. Understanding possible electromagnetic counterparts to loud gravitational wave events: Binary black hole effects on electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Yoshida, Shin

    2010-04-15

    In addition to producing loud gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.

  10. Electromagnetic field of a linear antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derby, Norman; Olbert, Stanislaw

    2008-11-01

    Animated computer simulations of the electric field of a radiating antenna can capture the attention of students in introductory electromagnetism courses and stimulate active discussions. The simulations raise questions not usually addressed in textbooks. In certain cases, some of the field lines appear to move toward the antenna, the speed of the field lines can change as they move, and the field lines exhibit strange behavior (circling or splitting) at certain points. Because their fields can be expressed in terms of elementary functions, animations of point dipole antennas are common, but animations showing the fields of antennas with more realistic lengths are not as common because analytical expressions for these fields are not as well known. We show that it is possible to derive analytical expressions in terms of elementary functions for the electromagnetic field of linear antennas of finite length. We draw attention to an open-source method for displaying the fine details within the field patterns and then give a general discussion of singular points and their motions, derive expressions for their location and phase velocity, and apply these results to some of the phenomena that are visible in visualizations of the fields of various antennas.

  11. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    PubMed

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased significantly in recent decades. Therefore, there is a growing scientific and social interest in its influence on health, even upon exposure significantly below the applicable standards. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation in human environment is increasing and currently reaches astronomical levels that had never before experienced on our planet. The most influential process of EMF impact on living organisms, is its direct tissue penetration. The current established standards of exposure to EMFs in Poland and in the rest of the world are based on the thermal effect. It is well known that weak EMF could cause all sorts of dramatic non-thermal effects in body cells, tissues and organs. The observed symptoms are hardly to assign to other environmental factors occurring simultaneously in the human environment. Although, there are still ongoing discussions on non-thermal effects of EMF influence, on May 31, 2011--International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--Agenda of World Health Organization (WHO) has classified radio electromagnetic fields, to a category 2B as potentially carcinogenic. Electromagnetic fields can be dangerous not only because of the risk of cancer, but also other health problems, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a phenomenon characterized by the appearance of symptoms after exposure of people to electromagnetic fields, generated by EHS is characterized as a syndrome with a broad spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes located mainly in the skin and nervous systems, as well as in respiratory, cardiovascular systems, and musculoskeletal system. WHO does not consider the EHS as a disease-- defined on the basis of medical diagnosis and symptoms associated with any known syndrome. The symptoms may be associated with a single source of EMF

  12. High-frequency and high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR): a new spectroscopic tool for bioinorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Telser, Joshua; Krzystek, J; Ozarowski, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    This minireview describes high-frequency and high-field electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) spectroscopy in the context of its application to bioinorganic chemistry, specifically to metalloproteins and model compounds. HFEPR is defined as frequencies above ~100 GHz (i.e., above W-band) and a resonant field reaching 25 T and above. The ability of HFEPR to provide high-resolution determination of g values of S = 1/2 is shown; however, the main aim of the minireview is to demonstrate how HFEPR can extract spin Hamiltonian parameters [zero-field splitting (zfs) and g values] for species with S > 1/2 with an accuracy and precision unrivalled by other physical methods. Background theory on the nature of zfs in S = 1, 3/2, 2, and 5/2 systems is presented, along with selected examples of HFEPR spectroscopy of each that are relevant to bioinorganic chemistry. The minireview also provides some suggestions of specific systems in bioinorganic chemistry where HFEPR could be rewardingly applied, in the hope of inspiring workers in this area.

  13. The direct field boundary impedance of two-dimensional periodic structures with application to high frequency vibration prediction.

    PubMed

    Langley, Robin S; Cotoni, Vincent

    2010-04-01

    Large sections of many types of engineering construction can be considered to constitute a two-dimensional periodic structure, with examples ranging from an orthogonally stiffened shell to a honeycomb sandwich panel. In this paper, a method is presented for computing the boundary (or edge) impedance of a semi-infinite two-dimensional periodic structure, a quantity which is referred to as the direct field boundary impedance matrix. This terminology arises from the fact that none of the waves generated at the boundary (the direct field) are reflected back to the boundary in a semi-infinite system. The direct field impedance matrix can be used to calculate elastic wave transmission coefficients, and also to calculate the coupling loss factors (CLFs), which are required by the statistical energy analysis (SEA) approach to predicting high frequency vibration levels in built-up systems. The calculation of the relevant CLFs enables a two-dimensional periodic region of a structure to be modeled very efficiently as a single subsystem within SEA, and also within related methods, such as a recently developed hybrid approach, which couples the finite element method with SEA. The analysis is illustrated by various numerical examples involving stiffened plate structures.

  14. Electromagnetic field radiation model for lightning strokes to tall structures

    SciTech Connect

    Motoyama, H.; Janischewskyj, W.; Hussein, A.M.; Chisholm, W.A.; Chang, J.S.; Rusan, R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes observation and analysis of electromagnetic field radiation from lightning strokes to tall structures. Electromagnetic field waveforms and current waveforms of lightning strokes to the CN Tower have been simultaneously measured since 1991. A new calculation model of electromagnetic field radiation is proposed. The proposed model consists of the lightning current propagation and distribution model and the electromagnetic field radiation model. Electromagnetic fields calculated by the proposed model, based on the observed lightning current at the CN Tower, agree well with the observed fields at 2km north of the tower.

  15. Velocity field measurements of valvular blood flow in a human superficial vein using high-frequency ultrasound speckle image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Yeom, Eunseop; Ha, Hojin; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the blood flow around the perivalvular area in a human superficial vein using high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) speckle image velocimetry. HFUS B-mode images were captured from the superficial veins of human lower extremity with a 35-MHz transducer. To measure the instantaneous velocity fields of blood flow, a cross-correlation particle image velocimetry (PIV) algorithm was applied to two B-mode images that were captured consecutively. The echo speckles of red blood cells (RBCs) were used as flow tracers. In the vicinity of the venous valve, the opening and closing motions of valve cusps were simultaneously visualized with the phasic variation of velocity fields. Large-scale vortices were observed behind the sinus pockets while the main bloodstream was directed proximally. This measurement technique combining PIV algorithm and HFUS B-mode imaging was found to be unique and useful for investigating the hemodynamic characteristics of blood flow in the perivalvular area and for diagnosing venous insufficiency and valve abnormality in superficial blood vessels.

  16. [Safety and electromagnetic compatibility in sanitary field].

    PubMed

    Bini, M; Feroldi, P; Ferri, C; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Riminesi, C; Tobia, L

    2012-01-01

    In sanitary field and especially in a hospital, multiple sources of non ionizing radiation are used for diagnostic and therapeutic aims. In sanitary sector both workers and users are present at the same time, and in some cases general population could need higher protection than workers in relationship to the exposition to electromagnetic fields. In order to protect health and safety of patients, general population and workers of hospitals and with the aim to identify, analyze, evaluate and study its level of significance, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic sources Research Italian project Si.C.E.O. (Safety And Electromagnetic Compatibility In Sanitary Field) was instituted. Target of our research project was to deepen risk of exposition elements with analysis of outdoor (e.g. power lines, transmission cabinets) and indoor (e.g. equipment for physical therapy) sources, located in sanitary structures and to verify the level exposition of workers and common population end the respect of specific regulation, and finally to define technical and organizational measures really useful for protection and reduction of risk.

  17. Dual-Element Transducer with Phase-Inversion for Wide Depth of Field in High-Frequency Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong Seob

    2014-01-01

    In high frequency ultrasound imaging (HFUI), the quality of focusing is deeply related to the length of the depth of field (DOF). In this paper, a phase-inversion technique implemented by a dual-element transducer is proposed to enlarge the DOF. The performance of the proposed method was numerically demonstrated by using the ultrasound simulation program called Field-II. A simulated dual-element transducer was composed of a disc- and an annular-type elements, and its aperture was concavely shaped to have a confocal point at 6 mm. The area of each element was identical in order to provide same intensity at the focal point. The outer diameters of the inner and the outer elements were 2.1 mm and 3 mm, respectively. The center frequency of each element was 40 MHz and the f-number (focal depth/aperture size) was two. When two input signals with 0° and 180° phases were applied to inner and outer elements simultaneously, a multi-focal zone was generated in the axial direction. The total −6 dB DOF, i.e., sum of two −6 dB DOFs in the near and far field lobes, was 40% longer than that of the conventional single element transducer. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) was increased by about two times, especially in the far field. The point and cyst phantom simulation were conducted and their results were identical to that of the beam pattern simulation. Thus, the proposed scheme may be a potential method to improve the DOF and SNR in HFUI. PMID:25098208

  18. Magnetic Fields in Evolved Stars: Imaging the Polarized Emission of High-frequency SiO Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Humphreys, E. M. L.; Franco-Hernández, R.

    2011-02-01

    We present Submillimeter Array observations of high-frequency SiO masers around the supergiant VX Sgr and the semi-regular variable star W Hya. The J = 5-4, v = 128SiO and v = 029SiO masers of VX Sgr are shown to be highly linearly polarized with a polarization from ~5% to 60%. Assuming the continuum emission peaks at the stellar position, the masers are found within ~60 mas of the star, corresponding to ~100 AU at a distance of 1.57 kpc. The linear polarization vectors are consistent with a large-scale magnetic field, with position and inclination angles similar to that of the dipole magnetic field inferred in the H2O and OH maser regions at much larger distances from the star. We thus show for the first time that the magnetic field structure in a circumstellar envelope can remain stable from a few stellar radii out to ~1400 AU. This provides further evidence supporting the existence of large-scale and dynamically important magnetic fields around evolved stars. Due to a lack of parallactic angle coverage, the linear polarization of masers around W Hya could not be determined. For both stars, we observed the 28SiO and 29SiO isotopologues and find that they have a markedly different distributions and that they appear to avoid each other. Additionally, emission from the SO 55-44 line was imaged for both sources. Around W Hya, we find a clear offset between the red- and blueshifted SO emission. This indicates that W Hya is likely host to a slow bipolar outflow or a rotating disk-like structure.

  19. An optical-fiber-scale electro-optic probe for minimally invasive high-frequency field sensing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Joon; Whitaker, John F

    2008-12-22

    A sub-millimeter-dimension electro-optic probe that provides enhanced scanning accessibility with significantly less intrusiveness than metal-based or even other dielectric probes during electromagnetic characterization of microwave devices is presented. The quantitative and qualitative relative invasiveness of the probe on the operation of an example antenna device-under-test is explored with respect to previously demonstrated fiber and wafer electro-optic sensors. We also demonstrate that the miniaturized probe, with a diameter of 125 microm, can be used to reconstruct the three orthogonal vector components of near-electric fields without the need for different probe crystals or multiple calibration procedures. Finally, the advantages of the reduced size and invasiveness of the new micro-scale probe are demonstrated through the enhanced resolution of detailed images extracted from planar antennas, as well as the capability of reaching into circuit locations heretofore inaccessible.

  20. Influence of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on the circadian system: current stage of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Lewczuk, Bogdan; Redlarski, Grzegorz; Zak, Arkadiusz; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara; Krawczuk, Marek

    2014-01-01

    One of the side effects of each electrical device work is the electromagnetic field generated near its workplace. All organisms, including humans, are exposed daily to the influence of different types of this field, characterized by various physical parameters. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the effects of an electromagnetic field on the physiological and pathological processes occurring in cells, tissues, and organs. Numerous epidemiological and experimental data suggest that the extremely low frequency magnetic field generated by electrical transmission lines and electrically powered devices and the high frequencies electromagnetic radiation emitted by electronic devices have a potentially negative impact on the circadian system. On the other hand, several studies have found no influence of these fields on chronobiological parameters. According to the current state of knowledge, some previously proposed hypotheses, including one concerning the key role of melatonin secretion disruption in pathogenesis of electromagnetic field induced diseases, need to be revised. This paper reviews the data on the effect of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on melatonin and cortisol rhythms-two major markers of the circadian system as well as on sleep. It also provides the basic information about the nature, classification, parameters, and sources of these fields.

  1. Influence of Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields on the Circadian System: Current Stage of Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Żak, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    One of the side effects of each electrical device work is the electromagnetic field generated near its workplace. All organisms, including humans, are exposed daily to the influence of different types of this field, characterized by various physical parameters. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the effects of an electromagnetic field on the physiological and pathological processes occurring in cells, tissues, and organs. Numerous epidemiological and experimental data suggest that the extremely low frequency magnetic field generated by electrical transmission lines and electrically powered devices and the high frequencies electromagnetic radiation emitted by electronic devices have a potentially negative impact on the circadian system. On the other hand, several studies have found no influence of these fields on chronobiological parameters. According to the current state of knowledge, some previously proposed hypotheses, including one concerning the key role of melatonin secretion disruption in pathogenesis of electromagnetic field induced diseases, need to be revised. This paper reviews the data on the effect of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on melatonin and cortisol rhythms—two major markers of the circadian system as well as on sleep. It also provides the basic information about the nature, classification, parameters, and sources of these fields. PMID:25136557

  2. A New Theory of the Electromagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriske, Richard

    2017-01-01

    This author has previously introduced a new theory of the Electromagnetic Field and its interaction with matter. There was from the start a problem with Einstein's formulation of Invariants and its use in describing The EM field. The photon produced by first varying a stationary Electric field in one observer's reference frame is not the same as a photon produced from varying the a stationary Magnetic Field. The Magnetic field photon is thought of as being ``off the mass shell''. The Quantum information seems to carry with it an ordering of these events. You see this ordering in Wick's theory and in Feynman diagrams. This author is proposing that other fields can vary first in another Observers reference frame, not just the ``Scalar Field'' or the ``Fermion Field'', but many other forms of Energy. If the ``Nuclear Field'' varies first, it results in Quantum information that produces a photon that has the Nuclear Field in it and also the Magnetic Field, this is the strange effect seen in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. This author proposed that there is a large number of photons with different properties, because of this ordering of events that occurs in Quantum Information. One of these photons is the Neutrino which appears to be a three field photon. This is Kriske's Field Theory.

  3. On electromagnetic field problems in inhomogeneous media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohsen, A.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous media is of practical interest in general scattering and propagation problems and in the study of lenses. For certain types of inhomogeneities, the fields may be represented in terms of two scalars. In a general orthogonal coordinate system, these potentials satisfy second order differential equations. Exact solutions of these equations are known only for a few particular cases and in general, an approximate or numerical technique must be employed. The present work reviews and generalizes some of the main methods of attack of the problem. The results are presented in a form appropriate for numerical computation.

  4. Optimization methods in control of electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angell, Thomas S.; Kleinman, Ralph E.

    1991-05-01

    This program is developing constructive methods for certain constrained optimization problems arising in the design and control of electromagnetic fields and in the identification of scattering objects. The problems addressed fall into three categories: (1) the design of antennas with optimal radiation characteristics measured in terms of directivity; (2) the control of the electromagnetic scattering characteristics of an object, in particular the minimization of its radar cross section, by the choice of material properties; and (3) the determination of the shape of scattering objects with various electromagnetic properties from scattered field data. The main thrust of the program is toward the development of constructive methods based on the use of complete families of solutions of the time-harmonic Maxwell equations in the infinite domain exterior to the radiating or scattering body. During the course of the work an increasing amount of attention has been devoted to the use of iterative methods for the solution of various direct and inverse problems. The continued investigation and development of these methods and their application in parameter identification has become a significant part of the program.

  5. Magnetic properties and electronic structure of manganese-based blue pigments: a high-frequency and -field EPR study.

    PubMed

    Krzystek, J; Telser, Joshua; Li, Jun; Subramanian, M A

    2015-09-21

    A variety of new oxide-based materials based on hexagonal phase of YInO3 have been recently described. In some of these materials, the In(III) ions are substituted by Mn(III), which finds itself in a trigonal-bipyramidal (TBP) coordination environment. While YInO3 is colorless and YMnO3 is black, mixed systems YIn1-xMnxO3 (0.02 < x < 0.25) display intense blue color and have been proposed as novel blue pigments. Since the Mn(III) ion is paramagnetic, its presence imparts distinct magnetic properties to the whole class of materials. These properties were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in its high-frequency and -field version (HFEPR), a technique ideally suited for transition metal ions such as Mn(III) that, in contrast to, for example, Mn(II), are difficult to study by EPR at (conventional) low frequency and field. YIn1-xMnxO3 with 0.02 < x < 0.2 exhibited high-quality HFEPR spectra up to room temperature that could be interpreted as arising from isolated S = 2 paramagnets. A simple ligand-field model, based on the structure and optical spectra, explains the spin Hamiltonian parameters provided by HFEPR, which were D = +3.0 cm(-1), E = 0; g⊥ = 1.99, g∥ = 2.0. This study demonstrates the general applicability of a combined spectroscopic and classical theoretical approach to understanding the electronic structure of novel materials containing paramagnetic dopants. Moreover, HFEPR complements optical and other experimental methods as being a sensitive probe of dopant level.

  6. Gaseous bubble oscillations in anisotropic non-Newtonian fluids under influence of high-frequency acoustic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golykh, R. N.

    2016-06-01

    Progress of technology and medicine dictates the ever-increasing requirements (heat resistance, corrosion resistance, strength properties, impregnating ability, etc.) for non-Newtonian fluids and materials produced on their basis (epoxy resin, coating materials, liquid crystals, etc.). Materials with improved properties obtaining is possible by modification of their physicochemical structure. One of the most promising approaches to the restructuring of non-Newtonian fluids is cavitation generated by high-frequency acoustic vibrations. The efficiency of cavitation in non-Newtonian fluid is determined by dynamics of gaseous bubble. Today, bubble dynamics in isotropic non-Newtonian fluids, in which cavitation bubble shape remains spherical, is most full investigated, because the problem reduces to ordinary differential equation for spherical bubble radius. However, gaseous bubble in anisotropic fluids which are most wide kind of non-Newtonian fluids (due to orientation of macromolecules) deviates from spherical shape due to viscosity dependence on shear rate direction. Therefore, the paper presents the mathematical model of gaseous bubble dynamics in anisotropic non-Newtonian fluids. The model is based on general equations for anisotropic non-Newtonian fluid flow. The equations are solved by asymptotic decomposition of fluid flow parameters. It allowed evaluating bubble size and shape evolution depending on rheological properties of liquid and acoustic field characteristics.

  7. Phytophthora infestans field isolates from Gansu province, China are genetically highly diverse and show a high frequency of self fertility.

    PubMed

    Han, Miao; Liu, Gang; Li, Ji-Ping; Govers, Francine; Zhu, Xiao-Qiong; Shen, Chong-Yao; Guo, Li-Yun

    2013-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 85 isolates of Phytophthora infestans collected in 2007 from Gansu province in China was determined and compared with 21 isolates collected before 2004. Among them, 70 belonged to the A1 mating type and 15 were self-fertile (SF). The mitochondrial DNA haplotypes revealed both Ia (25%) and IIa (75%) haplotypes. Metalaxyl resistance occurred with high frequency (54%) in Gansu. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotyping revealed 26 genotypes (13 from the Tianshui region) among the 85 isolates, and 18 genotypes among the 21 isolates collected before 2004, without overlap in genotypes detected in the two groups. Cluster analysis showed clear subdivisions within the different mating type isolates. Among Gansu's isolates, Nei's and Shannon's diversity indices were highest in isolates collected in Tianshui where both A1 and SF isolates were found. Analysis of molecular variance of isolates from Gansu indicated that 51% and 49% of the variance was explained by within-area and among-area variance, respectively. The results suggest that the occurrence of SF isolates increases the risk of sexual reproduction, the formation of oospore as initial inocula in the field, and affects the genotypic diversity in the population.

  8. Highly Localized Acoustic Streaming and Size-Selective Submicrometer Particle Concentration Using High Frequency Microscale Focused Acoustic Fields.

    PubMed

    Collins, David J; Ma, Zhichao; Ai, Ye

    2016-05-17

    Concentration and separation of particles and biological specimens are fundamental functions of micro/nanofluidic systems. Acoustic streaming is an effective and biocompatible way to create rapid microscale fluid motion and induce particle capture, though the >100 MHz frequencies required to directly generate acoustic body forces on the microscale have traditionally been difficult to generate and localize in a way that is amenable to efficient generation of streaming. Moreover, acoustic, hydrodynamic, and electrical forces as typically applied have difficulty manipulating specimens in the submicrometer regime. In this work, we introduce highly focused traveling surface acoustic waves (SAW) at high frequencies between 193 and 636 MHz for efficient and highly localized production of acoustic streaming vortices on microfluidic length scales. Concentration occurs via a novel mechanism, whereby the combined acoustic radiation and streaming field results in size-selective aggregation in fluid streamlines in the vicinity of a high-amplitude acoustic beam, as opposed to previous acoustic radiation induced particle concentration where objects typically migrate toward minimum pressure locations. Though the acoustic streaming is induced by a traveling wave, we are able to manipulate particles an order of magnitude smaller than possible using the traveling wave force alone. We experimentally and theoretically examine the range of particle sizes that can be captured in fluid streamlines using this technique, with rapid particle concentration demonstrated down to 300 nm diameters. We also demonstrate that locations of trapping and concentration are size-dependent, which is attributed to the combined effects of the acoustic streaming and acoustic forces.

  9. The LASI high-frequency ellipticity system

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    A high-frequency, high-resolution, electromagnetic (EM) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHz), (4) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (5) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (6) visualization of complex structures during the survey.

  10. The LASI high-frequency ellipticity system

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1995-12-31

    A high-frequency, high-resolution, electromagnetic (EM) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHz), (4) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (5) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (6) visualization of complex structures during the survey.

  11. Effects of electromagnetic field exposure on conduction and concentration of voltage gated calcium channels: A Brownian dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Tekieh, Tahereh; Sasanpour, Pezhman; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2016-09-01

    A three-dimensional Brownian Dynamics (BD) in combination with electrostatic calculations is employed to specifically study the effects of radiation of high frequency electromagnetic fields on the conduction and concentration profile of calcium ions inside the voltage-gated calcium channels. The electrostatic calculations are performed using COMSOL Multiphysics by considering dielectric interfaces effectively. The simulations are performed for different frequencies and intensities. The simulation results show the variations of conductance, average number of ions and the concentration profiles of ions inside the channels in response to high frequency radiation. The ionic current inside the channel increases in response to high frequency electromagnetic field radiation, and the concentration profiles show that the residency of ions in the channel decreases accordingly.

  12. [Changes in physico-chemical parameters of homeopathic remedies ferrum metallicum CH6 and ferrum metallicum CH30 after exposure to high frequency electromagnetic radiation of low intensity].

    PubMed

    Mendez, N M

    2005-01-01

    It is considered the microwaves electromagnetic radiation do not affect the materials, alive or not, when used in low power. In high power, the interaction effects would be the material warming (thermal effect). However, in the last years, the studies about electromagnetic radiation with low power (non thermal effect) in the human being have been increasing. It was found out the electromagnetic radiation, even with low power, can affect the living organisms and biosubstratum. In the present work the influence of electromagnetic radiation (2.45 GHz 500 W/cm2), on physical and chemical parameters of the homeopathic pharmaceutics products in shown.

  13. Self field electromagnetism and quantum phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1994-07-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) has been extremely successful inits predictive capability for atomic phenomena. Thus the greatest hope for any alternative view is solely to mimic the predictive capability of quantum mechanics (QM), and perhaps its usefulness will lie in gaining a better understanding of microscopic phenomena. Many ?paradoxes? and problematic situations emerge in QED. To combat the QED problems, the field of Stochastics Electrodynamics (SE) emerged, wherein a random ?zero point radiation? is assumed to fill all of space in an attmept to explain quantum phenomena, without some of the paradoxical concerns. SE, however, has greater failings. One is that the electromagnetic field energy must be infinit eto work. We have examined a deterministic side branch of SE, ?self field? electrodynamics, which may overcome the probelms of SE. Self field electrodynamics (SFE) utilizes the chaotic nature of electromagnetic emissions, as charges lose energy near atomic dimensions, to try to understand and mimic quantum phenomena. These fields and charges can ?interact with themselves? in a non-linear fashion, and may thereby explain many quantum phenomena from a semi-classical viewpoint. Referred to as self fields, they have gone by other names in the literature: ?evanesccent radiation?, ?virtual photons?, and ?vacuum fluctuations?. Using self fields, we discuss the uncertainty principles, the Casimir effects, and the black-body radiation spectrum, diffraction and interference effects, Schrodinger's equation, Planck's constant, and the nature of the electron and how they might be understood in the present framework. No new theory could ever replace QED. The self field view (if correct) would, at best, only serve to provide some understanding of the processes by which strange quantum phenomena occur at the atomic level. We discuss possible areas where experiments might be employed to test SFE, and areas where future work may lie.

  14. Analyzing Exposures to Electromagnetic Fields in an Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Gökmen, Necati; Erdem, Sabri; Toker, Kadir Atilla; Öçmen, Elvan; Gökmen, Başak Ilgım; Özkurt, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this study, we conducted a numerical analysis of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in a hospital’s intensive care unit that is one of the most crucial one in terms of hazardous areas among all service units. This is a new study for measuring exposure to EMFs in an intensive care unit as well as other healthcare services in Turkey. Methods We measured the EMFs in the intensive care unit with a SRM-3006 (selective radiation metre), which was used for measurement of the absolute and the limit values of high frequency EMFs. The measurement points were chosen to represent the highest levels of exposure to which a person might be subjected. We obtained a dataset that included 5929 observations, with 96 extreme values, through measuring the magnetic field in terms of V/m. Results The measurements show the frequency varies from 47 MHz to 2.5 GHz as 17 frequency ranges at the measurement point as well. According to these findings, the referenced maximum safety limit was not exceeded. However, it was also found that mobile telecommunication was the most critical cause of magnetic fields. Conclusion Further studies need to be performed with different frequency antennas to assess the EMFs in intensive care units. PMID:27909603

  15. Giant field enhancement in electromagnetic Helmholtz nanoantenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, Paul; Bouchon, Patrick; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Pelouard, Jean-Luc; Haïdar, Riad; Pardo, Fabrice

    2014-11-01

    Inspired by the acoustic Helmholtz resonator, we propose a slit-box electromagnetic nanoantenna able to concentrate the energy of an incident beam into surfaces a thousand times smaller than with a classical lens. This design produces a giant electric field enhancement throughout the slit. The intensity enhancement reaches 104 in the visible range up to 108 in the THz range even with focused beams, thanks to an omnidirectional reception. These properties could target applications requiring extreme light concentration, such as surface-enhanced infrared absorption, nonlinear optics, and biophotonics.

  16. A uniform geometrical optics and an extended uniform geometrical theory of diffraction for evaluating high frequency EM fields near smooth caustics and composite shadow boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, E. D.; Marhefka, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    A uniform geometrical optics (UGO) and an extended uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (EUTD) are developed for evaluating high frequency electromagnetic (EM) fields within transition regions associated with a two and three dimensional smooth caustic of reflected rays and a composite shadow boundary formed by the caustic termination or the confluence of the caustic with the reflection shadow boundary (RSB). The UGO is a uniform version of the classic geometrical optics (GO). It retains the simple ray optical expressions of classic GO and employs a new set of uniform reflection coefficients. The UGO also includes a uniform version of the complex GO ray field that exists on the dark side of the smooth caustic. The EUTD is an extension of the classic uniform geometrical theory of diffraction (UTD) and accounts for the non-ray optical behavior of the UGO reflected field near caustics by using a two-variable transition function in the expressions for the edge diffraction coefficients. It also uniformly recovers the classic UTD behavior of the edge diffracted field outside the composite shadow boundary transition region. The approach employed for constructing the UGO/EUTD solution is based on a spatial domain physical optics (PO) radiation integral representation for the fields which is then reduced using uniform asymptotic procedures. The UGO/EUTD analysis is also employed to investigate the far-zone RCS problem of plane wave scattering from two and three dimensional polynomial defined surfaces, and uniform reflection, zero-curvature, and edge diffraction coefficients are derived. Numerical results for the scattering and diffraction from cubic and fourth order polynomial strips are also shown and the UGO/EUTD solution is validated by comparison to an independent moment method (MM) solution. The UGO/EUTD solution is also compared with the classic GO/UTD solution. The failure of the classic techniques near caustics and composite shadow boundaries is clearly

  17. A high-frequency and high-field EPR study of new azide and fluoride mononuclear Mn(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mantel, Claire; Hassan, Alia K; Pécaut, Jacques; Deronzier, Alain; Collomb, Marie-Noëlle; Duboc-Toia, Carole

    2003-10-08

    The isolation, structural characterization and electronic properties of three new six-coordinated Mn(III) complexes, [Mn(bpea)(F)(3)] (1), [Mn(bpea)(N(3))(3)] (2), and [Mn(terpy)(F)(3)] (3) are reported (bpea = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylamine; terpy = 2,2':6',2' '-terpyridine). As for [Mn(terpy)(N(3))(3)] (4) (previously described by Limburg J.; Vrettos J. S.; Crabtree R. H.; Brudvig G. W.; de Paula J. C.; Hassan A.; Barra A-L.; Duboc-Toia C.; Collomb M-N. Inorg. Chem. 2001, 40, 1698), all these complexes exhibit a Jahn-Teller distortion of the octahedron characteristic of high-spin Mn(III) (S = 2). The analysis of the crystallographic data shows an elongation along the tetragonal axis of the octahedron for complexes 1 and 3, while complex 2 presents an unexpected compression. The electronic properties were investigated using a high-field and high-frequency EPR study performed between 5 and 15 K (190-575 GHz). The spin Hamiltonian parameters determined in solid state are in agreement with the geometry of the complexes observed in the crystal structures. A negative D value found for 1 and 3 is related to the elongated tetragonal distortion, whereas the positive D value determined for 2 is in accordance with a compressed octahedron. The high E/D values, in the range of 0.103 to 0.230 for all complexes, are correlated with the highly distorted geometry present around the Mn(III) ion. HF-EPR experiments were also performed on complex 1 in solution and show that the D value is the only spin Hamiltonian parameter which is slightly modified compared to the solid state (D = -3.67 cm(-1) in solid state; D = -3.95 cm(-1) in solution).

  18. Transient electromagnetic fields near large earthing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grcev, L.D.; Menter, F.E.

    1996-05-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility studies require knowledge of transient voltages that may be developed near earthing systems during lightning discharge, since such voltages may be coupled to sensitive electronic circuits. For such purpose accurate evaluation of transient electric field near to and/or at the surface of the grounding conductors is necessary. In this paper, a procedure for computation of transient fields near large earthing systems, as a response to a typical lightning current impulse, based on computational methodology developed in the field of antennas, is presented. Computed results are favorably compared with published measurement results. The model is applied to check the common assumption that the soil ionization can be neglected in case of large earthing systems. Presented results show that the soil ionization threshold is met and exceeded during typical lightning discharge in a large earthing system.

  19. Near-field radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, Nina; Perov, Sergey; Belaya, Olga; Kuster, Niels; Balzano, Quirino

    2015-09-01

    Personal wireless telecommunication devices, such as radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) sources operated in vicinity of human body, have possible adverse health effects. Therefore, the correct EMF assessment is necessary in their near field. According to international near-field measurement criteria, the specific absorption rate (SAR) is used for absorbed energy distribution assessment in tissue simulating liquid phantoms. The aim of this investigation is to validate the relationship between the H-field of incident EMF and absorbed energy in phantoms. Three typical wireless telecommunication system frequencies are considered (900, 1800 and 2450 MHz). The EMF source at each frequency is an appropriate half-wave dipole antenna and the absorbing medium is a flat phantom filled with the suitable tissue simulating liquid. Two methods for SAR estimation have been used: standard procedure based on E-field measured in tissue simulating medium and a proposed evaluation by measuring the incident H-field. Compared SAR estimations were performed for various distances between sources and phantom. Also, these research data were compared with simulation results, obtained by using finite-difference time-domain method. The acquired data help to determine the source near-field space characterized by the smallest deviation between SAR estimation methods. So, this region near the RF source is suitable for correct RF energy absorption assessment using the magnetic component of the RF fields.

  20. Electromagnetic fields with vanishing scalar invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortaggio, Marcello; Pravda, Vojtěch

    2016-06-01

    We determine the class of p-forms {\\boldsymbol{F}} that possess vanishing scalar invariants (VSIs) at arbitrary order in an n-dimensional spacetime. Namely, we prove that {\\boldsymbol{F}} is a VSI if and only if if it is of type N, its multiple null direction {\\boldsymbol{\\ell }} is ‘degenerate Kundt’, and {\\pounds }{\\boldsymbol{\\ell }}{\\boldsymbol{F}}=0. The result is theory-independent. Next, we discuss the special case of Maxwell fields, both at the level of test fields and of the full Einstein-Maxwell equations. These describe electromagnetic non-expanding waves propagating in various Kundt spacetimes. We further point out that a subset of these solutions possesses a universal property, i.e. they also solve (virtually) any generalized (non-linear and with higher derivatives) electrodynamics, possibly also coupled to Einstein’s gravity.

  1. Electromagnetic field patterning or crystal light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Słupski, Piotr; Wymysłowski, Artur; Czarczyński, Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Using the orbital angular momentum of light for the development of a vortex interferometer, the underlying physics requires microwave/RF models,1 as well as quantum mechanics for light1, 2 and fluid flow for semiconductor devices.3, 4 The combination of the aforementioned physical models yields simulations and results such as optical lattices,1 or an Inverse Farday effect.5 The latter is explained as the absorption of optical angular momentum, generating extremely high instantenous magnetic fields due to radiation friction. An algorithmic reduction across the computational methods used in microwaves, lasers, quantum optics and holography is performed in order to explain electromagnetic field interactions in a single computational framework. This work presents a computational model for photon-electron interactions, being a simplified gauge theory described using differentials or disturbances (photons) instead of integrals or fields. The model is based on treating the Z-axis variables as a Laplace fluid with spatial harmonics, and the XY plane as Maxwell's equations on boundaries. The result is a unified, coherent, graphical computational method of describing the photon qualitatively, quantitatively and with proportion. The model relies on five variables and is described using two equations, which use emitted power, cavity wavelength, input frequency, phase and time. Phase is treated as a rotated physical dimension under gauge theory of Feynmann's QED. In essence, this model allows the electromagnetic field to be treated with it's specific crystallography. The model itself is described in Python programming language. PACS 42.50.Pq, 31.30.J-, 03.70.+k, 11.10.-z, 67.10.Hk

  2. Evaluation of uncertainty in the measurement of environmental electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Vulević, B; Osmokrović, P

    2010-09-01

    With regard to Non-ionising radiation protection, the relationship between human exposure to electromagnetic fields and health is controversial. Electromagnetic fields have become omnipresent in the daily environment. This paper assesses the problem of how to compare a measurement result with a limit fixed by the standard for human exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (0 Hz-300 GHz). The purpose of the paper is an appropriate representation of the basic information about evaluation of measurement uncertainty.

  3. Note on Inverse Bremsstrahlung in a Strong Electromagnetic Field

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bethe, H. A.

    1972-09-01

    The collisional energy loss of an electron undergoing forced oscillation in an electromagnetic field behaves quite differently in the low and high intensity limits. ... It is shown that in the case of an electromagnetic field v {sub o} >> v {sub t} the rate of transfer is much slower, and actually decreases with the strength of the field.

  4. Electromagnetic waves destabilized by runaway electrons in near-critical electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Komar, A.; Pokol, G. I.; Fueloep, T.

    2013-01-15

    Runaway electron distributions are strongly anisotropic in velocity space. This anisotropy is a source of free energy that may destabilize electromagnetic waves through a resonant interaction between the waves and the energetic electrons. In this work, we investigate the high-frequency electromagnetic waves that are destabilized by runaway electron beams when the electric field is close to the critical field for runaway acceleration. Using a runaway electron distribution appropriate for the near-critical case, we calculate the linear instability growth rate of these waves and conclude that the obliquely propagating whistler waves are most unstable. We show that the frequencies, wave numbers, and propagation angles of the most unstable waves depend strongly on the magnetic field. Taking into account collisional and convective damping of the waves, we determine the number density of runaways that is required to destabilize the waves and show its parametric dependences.

  5. Visualizing electromagnetic fields in metals by MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrashekar, Chandrika Sefcikova; Shellikeri, Annadanesh; Chandrashekar, S.; Taylor, Erika A.; Taylor, Deanne M.

    2017-02-01

    Based upon Maxwell's equations, it has long been established that oscillating electromagnetic (EM) fields incident upon a metal surface, decay exponentially inside the conductor, leading to a virtual absence of EM fields at sufficient depths. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizes radiofrequency (r.f.) EM fields to produce images. Here we present a visualization of a virtual EM vacuum inside a bulk metal strip by MRI, amongst several findings. At its simplest, an MRI image is an intensity map of density variations across voxels (pixels) of identical size (=Δ x Δ y Δ z ). By contrast in bulk metal MRI, we uncover that despite uniform density, intensity variations arise from differing effective elemental volumes (voxels) from different parts of the bulk metal. Further, we furnish chemical shift imaging (CSI) results that discriminate different faces (surfaces) of a metal block according to their distinct nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts, which holds much promise for monitoring surface chemical reactions noninvasively. Bulk metals are ubiquitous, and MRI is a premier noninvasive diagnostic tool. Combining the two, the emerging field of bulk metal MRI can be expected to grow in importance. The findings here may impact further development of bulk metal MRI and CSI.

  6. Inelastic deformation of conductive bodies in electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenbach, Holm; Morachkovsky, Oleg; Naumenko, Konstantin; Lavinsky, Denis

    2016-09-01

    Inelastic deformation of conductive bodies under the action of electromagnetic fields is analyzed. Governing equations for non-stationary electromagnetic field propagation and elastic-plastic deformation are presented. The variational principle of minimum of the total energy is applied to formulate the numerical solution procedure by the finite element method. With the proposed method, distributions of vector characteristics of the electromagnetic field and tensor characteristics of the deformation process are illustrated for the inductor-workpiece system within a realistic electromagnetic forming process.

  7. Mortality in workers exposed to electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Milham, S. Jr.

    1985-10-01

    In an occupational mortality analysis of 486,000 adult male death records filed in Washington State in the years 1950-1982, leukemia and the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas show increased proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) in workers employed in occupations with intuitive exposures to electromagnetic fields. Nine occupations of 219 were considered to have electric or magnetic field exposures. These were: electrical and electronic technicians, radio and telegraph operators, radio and television repairmen, telephone and power linemen, power station operators, welders, aluminum reduction workers, motion picture projectionists and electricians. There were 12,714 total deaths in these occupations. Eight of the nine occupations had PMR increases for leukemia (International Classification of Diseases (ICD), seventh revision 204) and seven of the nine occupations had PMR increases for the other lymphoma category (7th ICD 200.2, 202). The highest PMRs were seen for acute leukemia: (67 deaths observed, 41 deaths expected; PMR 162), and in the other lymphomas (51 deaths observed, 31 deaths expected; PMR 164). No increase in mortality was seen for Hodgkin's disease or multiple myeloma. These findings offer some support for the hypothesis that electric and magnetic fields may be carcinogenic.

  8. Ionospheric modifications in high frequency heating experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2015-01-15

    Featured observations in high-frequency (HF) heating experiments conducted at Arecibo, EISCAT, and high frequency active auroral research program are discussed. These phenomena appearing in the F region of the ionosphere include high-frequency heater enhanced plasma lines, airglow enhancement, energetic electron flux, artificial ionization layers, artificial spread-F, ionization enhancement, artificial cusp, wideband absorption, short-scale (meters) density irregularities, and stimulated electromagnetic emissions, which were observed when the O-mode HF heater waves with frequencies below foF2 were applied. The implication and associated physical mechanism of each observation are discussed and explained. It is shown that these phenomena caused by the HF heating are all ascribed directly or indirectly to the excitation of parametric instabilities which instigate anomalous heating. Formulation and analysis of parametric instabilities are presented. The results show that oscillating two stream instability and parametric decay instability can be excited by the O-mode HF heater waves, transmitted from all three heating facilities, in the regions near the HF reflection height and near the upper hybrid resonance layer. The excited Langmuir waves, upper hybrid waves, ion acoustic waves, lower hybrid waves, and field-aligned density irregularities set off subsequent wave-wave and wave-electron interactions, giving rise to the observed phenomena.

  9. Extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics.

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Vigliano, David; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Williams, Jeffery Thomas; Wouters, Gregg A.; Bacon, Larry Donald; Mar, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to understand the fundamental physics of extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics. To accomplish this objective, we produced models, conducted simulations, and performed measurements to identify the mechanisms of effects as frequency increases into the millimeter-wave regime. Our purpose was to answer the questions, 'What are the tradeoffs between coupling, transmission losses, and device responses as frequency increases?', and, 'How high in frequency do effects on electronic systems continue to occur?' Using full wave electromagnetics codes and a transmission-line/circuit code, we investigated how extremely high-frequency RF propagates on wires and printed circuit board traces. We investigated both field-to-wire coupling and direct illumination of printed circuit boards to determine the significant mechanisms for inducing currents at device terminals. We measured coupling to wires and attenuation along wires for comparison to the simulations, looking at plane-wave coupling as it launches modes onto single and multiconductor structures. We simulated the response of discrete and integrated circuit semiconductor devices to those high-frequency currents and voltages, using SGFramework, the open-source General-purpose Semiconductor Simulator (gss), and Sandia's Charon semiconductor device physics codes. This report documents our findings.

  10. Electromagnetically induced transparency in modulated laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yuechun; Yang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Linjie; Raithel, Georg; Zhao, Jianming; Jia, Suotang

    2017-02-01

    We study electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a room-temperature cesium vapor cell using wavelength-modulated probe laser light. In the utilized cascade level scheme, the probe laser drives the lower transition 6S {}1/2(F = 4) → 6P {}3/2 (F’ = 5), while the coupling laser drives the Rydberg transition 6P {}3/2 → 57S {}1/2. The probe laser has a fixed average frequency and is modulated at a frequency of a few kHz, with a variable modulation amplitude in the range of tens of MHz. The probe transmission is measured as a function of the detuning of the coupling laser from the Rydberg resonance. The first-harmonic demodulated EIT signal has two peaks that are, in the case of large modulation amplitude, separated by the peak-to-peak modulation amplitude of the probe laser times a scaling factor {λ }{{p}}/{λ }{{c}}, where {λ }{{p}} and {λ }{{c}} are the probe- and coupling-laser wavelengths. The scaling factor is due to Doppler shifts in the EIT geometry. Second-harmonic demodulated EIT signals, obtained with small modulation amplitudes, yield spectral lines that are much narrower than corresponding lines in the modulation-free EIT spectra. The resultant spectroscopic resolution enhancement is conducive to improved measurements of radio-frequency (RF) fields based on Rydberg-atom EIT, an approach in which the response of Rydberg atoms to RF fields is exploited to characterize RF fields. Here, we employ wavelength modulation spectroscopy to reduce the uncertainty of atom-based frequency and field measurement of an RF field in the VHF radio band.

  11. Sensing network for electromagnetic fields generated by seismic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershenzon, Naum I.; Bambakidis, Gust; Ternovskiy, Igor V.

    2014-06-01

    The sensors network is becoming prolific and play now increasingly more important role in acquiring and processing information. Cyber-Physical Systems are focusing on investigation of integrated systems that includes sensing, networking, and computations. The physics of the seismic measurement and electromagnetic field measurement requires special consideration how to design electromagnetic field measurement networks for both research and detection earthquakes and explosions along with the seismic measurement networks. In addition, the electromagnetic sensor network itself could be designed and deployed, as a research tool with great deal of flexibility, the placement of the measuring nodes must be design based on systematic analysis of the seismic-electromagnetic interaction. In this article, we review the observations of the co-seismic electromagnetic field generated by earthquakes and man-made sources such as vibrations and explosions. The theoretical investigation allows the distribution of sensor nodes to be optimized and could be used to support existing geological networks. The placement of sensor nodes have to be determined based on physics of electromagnetic field distribution above the ground level. The results of theoretical investigations of seismo-electromagnetic phenomena are considered in Section I. First, we compare the relative contribution of various types of mechano-electromagnetic mechanisms and then analyze in detail the calculation of electromagnetic fields generated by piezomagnetic and electrokinetic effects.

  12. Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ficklen, Carter B.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of an assessment of ElectroMagnetic Fields (EMF) completed at NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Langley Aerospace Research Summer Scholars Program. This project was performed to determine levels of electromagnetic fields, determine the significance of the levels present, and determine a plan to reduce electromagnetic field exposure, if necessary. This report also describes the properties of electromagnetic fields and their interaction with humans. The results of three major occupational epidemiological studies is presented to determine risks posed to humans by EMF exposure. The data for this report came from peer-reviewed journal articles and government publications pertaining to the health effects of electromagnetic fields.

  13. Fluxes of electromagnetic field energy in HTSC transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, E. P.; Dzhafarov, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    The transfer of electric power in an HTSC electromagnetic system is considered using the Poynting vector. An analysis of the process of transfer of electromagnetic field energy in HTSC transformers with and without an iron core is given. It is shown that the power of an HTSC transformer increases when its magnetic core is made from amorphous electrical steel. Schemes of HTSC transformers with a localized magnetic field are given with cylindrical and disk symmetrical interleaved windings providing the cost-saving process of transfer of large electromagnetic energy at a high degree of its uniformity and improve the factor of nonuniformity of electromagnetic flux density.

  14. Electromagnetic Fields, Oxidative Stress, and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Consales, Claudia; Merla, Caterina; Marino, Carmela; Benassi, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) originating both from both natural and manmade sources permeate our environment. As people are continuously exposed to EMFs in everyday life, it is a matter of great debate whether they can be harmful to human health. On the basis of two decades of epidemiological studies, an increased risk for childhood leukemia associated with Extremely Low Frequency fields has been consistently assessed, inducing the International Agency for Research on Cancer to insert them in the 2B section of carcinogens in 2001. EMFs interaction with biological systems may cause oxidative stress under certain circumstances. Since free radicals are essential for brain physiological processes and pathological degeneration, research focusing on the possible influence of the EMFs-driven oxidative stress is still in progress, especially in the light of recent studies suggesting that EMFs may contribute to the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders. This review synthesizes the emerging evidences about this topic, highlighting the wide data uncertainty that still characterizes the EMFs effect on oxidative stress modulation, as both pro-oxidant and neuroprotective effects have been documented. Care should be taken to avoid methodological limitations and to determine the patho-physiological relevance of any alteration found in EMFs-exposed biological system. PMID:22991514

  15. Proposal of High-Frequency Magnetic Field Immunity Test for Medical Devices, and Design and Development of Coil for the Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takahiko; Koshiji, Kohji

    Medical devices have been obliged to satisfy electromagnetic compatibility by revision of the pharmaceutical affairs law. However, even if the medical devices satisfy the electromagnetic compatibility based on the law, it is not necessarily safe. Sometimes, malfunctions of cardiac pacemaker are caused by the magnetic field leaked from an induction heating cooker. In this paper, a new method of electromagnetic susceptability (EMS) evaluation is proposed, and a loop coil for the magnetic field immunity test in the frequency range from 10kHz to 3MHz is designed and developed. As a result, the loop coil made on an experimental basis generated uniform magnetic field with a fluctuation within 3.3dB in the loop coil pane and 5.6dB along the coil axis.

  16. Interpreting marine controlled source electromagnetic field behaviour with streamlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pethick, A. M.; Harris, B. D.

    2013-10-01

    Streamlines represent particle motion within a vector field as a single line structure and have been used in many areas of geophysics. We extend the concept of streamlines to interactive three dimensional representations of the coupled vector fields generated during marine controlled source electromagnetic surveys. These vector fields have measurable amplitudes throughout many hundreds of cubic kilometres. Electromagnetic streamline representation makes electromagnetic interactions within complex geo-electrical setting comprehensible. We develop an interface to rapidly compute and interactively visualise the electric and magnetic fields as streamlines for 3D marine controlled source electromagnetic surveys. Several examples highlighting how interactive use has value in marine controlled source electromagnetic survey design, interpretation and teaching are provided. The first videos of electric, magnetic and Poynting vector field streamlines are provided along with the first published example of the airwave represented as streamlines. We demonstrate that the electric field airwave is a circulating vortex moving down and out from the air-water interface towards the ocean floor. The use of interactive streamlines is not limited to marine controlled source electromagnetic methods. Streamlines provides a high level visualisation tool for interpreting the electric and magnetic field behaviour generated by a wide range of electromagnetic survey configurations for complex 3D geo-electrical settings.

  17. [Dynamics of biomacromolecules in coherent electromagnetic radiation field].

    PubMed

    Leshcheniuk, N S; Apanasevich, E E; Tereshenkov, V I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that induced oscillations and periodic displacements of the equilibrium positions occur in biomacromolecules in the absence of electromagnetic radiation absorption, due to modulation of interaction potential between atoms and groups of atoms forming the non-valence bonds in macromolecules by the external electromagnetic field. Such "hyperoscillation" state causes inevitably the changes in biochemical properties of macromolecules and conformational transformation times.

  18. The van Cittert-Zernike theorem for electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Ostrovsky, Andrey S; Martínez-Niconoff, Gabriel; Martínez-Vara, Patricia; Olvera-Santamaría, Miguel A

    2009-02-02

    The van Cittert-Zernike theorem, well known for the scalar optical fields, is generalized for the case of vector electromagnetic fields. The deduced theorem shows that the degree of coherence of the electromagnetic field produced by the completely incoherent vector source increases on propagation whereas the degree of polarization remains unchanged. The possible application of the deduced theorem is illustrated by an example of optical simulation of partially coherent and partially polarized secondary source with the controlled statistical properties.

  19. Simulation of the influence high-frequency (2 MHz) capacitive gas discharge and magnetic field on the plasma sheath near a surface in hypersonic gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweigert, I. V.

    2012-08-01

    The plasma sheath near the surface of a hypersonic aircraft formed under associative ionization behind the shock front shields the transmission and reception of radio signals. Using two-dimensional kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, we consider the change in plasma-sheath parameters near a flat surface in a hypersonic flow under the action of electrical and magnetic fields. The combined action of a high-frequency 2-MHz capacitive discharge, a constant voltage, and a magnetic field on the plasma sheath allows the local electron density to be reduced manyfold.

  20. Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields and energy flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hacyan, Shahen

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields in stationary spacetime. > Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the electomagnetic field tensor. > Energy-momentum in terms of eigenvectors and Killing vector. > Explicit form of reference frame with vanishing Poynting vector. > Application of formalism to Bessel beams. - Abstract: The algebraic structures of a general electromagnetic field and its energy-momentum tensor in a stationary space-time are analyzed. The explicit form of the reference frame in which the energy of the field appears at rest is obtained in terms of the eigenvectors of the electromagnetic tensor and the existing Killing vector. The case of a stationary electromagnetic field is also studied and a comparison is made with the standard short-wave approximation. The results can be applied to the general case of a structured light beams, in flat or curved spaces. Bessel beams are worked out as example.

  1. Growth characteristics of mung beans and water convolvuluses exposed to 425-MHz electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Jinapang, Peeraya; Prakob, Panida; Wongwattananard, Pongtorn; Islam, Naz E; Kirawanich, Phumin

    2010-10-01

    Effects of high-frequency, continuous wave (CW) electromagnetic fields on mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) and water convolvuluses (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) were studied at different growth stages (pre-sown seed and early seedling). Specifically, the effects of the electromagnetic source's power and duration (defined as power-duration level) on the growth of the two species were studied. Mung beans and water convolvuluses were exposed to electromagnetic fields inside a specially designed chamber for optimum field absorption, and the responses of the seeds to a constant frequency at various power levels and durations of exposure were monitored. The frequency used in the experiments was 425 MHz, the field strengths were 1 mW, 100 mW, and 10 W, and the exposure durations were 1, 2, and 4 h. Results show that germination enhancement is optimum for the mung beans at 100 mW/1 h power-duration level, while for water convolvuluses the optimum germination power-duration level was 1 mW/2 h. When both seed types were exposed at the early sprouting phase with their respective optimum power-duration levels for optimum seed growth, water convolvuluses showed growth enhancement while mung bean sprouts showed no effects. Water content analysis of the seeds suggests thermal effects only at higher field strength.

  2. Tailoring the Electromagnetic Near Field with Patterned Surfaces: Near-Field Plates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-10

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0355 PECASE)TAILORING THE ELECTROMAGNETIC NEAR FIELD WITH PATTERNED SURFACES - NEAR- Anthony Grbic UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN Final...298 (Re . 8-98) v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Tailoring the Electromagnetic Near Field with Patterned Surfaces: Near-Field Plates Final Report...Unidirectional Near-Field Plates 11 8. Near-Field Plates for Wireless Non-Radiative Power Transfer 11 C. Impact 12 III. Controlling Electromagnetic

  3. [Computational radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry in evaluation of biological effects].

    PubMed

    Perov, S Iu; Kudryashov, Iu B; Rubtsova, N B

    2012-01-01

    Given growing computational resources, radiofrequency electromagnetic field dosimetry is becoming more vital in the study of biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. The study analyzes numerical methods which are used in theoretical dosimetry to assess the exposure level and specific absorption rate distribution. The advances of theoretical dosimetry are shown. Advantages and disadvantages of different methods are analyzed in respect to electromagnetic field biological effects. The finite-difference time-domain method was implemented in detail; also evaluated were possible uncertainties of complex biological structure simulation for bioelectromagnetic investigations.

  4. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Pratt, William J.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2010-10-13

    In this progress report, we describe the preliminary experiments conducted with three fish and one invertebrate species to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. During fiscal year 2010, experiments were conducted with coho salmon (Onchrohychus kisutch), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). The work described supports Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask 2.1.3.1: Electromagnetic Fields.

  5. Electromagnetic fields and potentials generated by massless charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Azzurli, Francesco; Lechner, Kurt

    2014-10-15

    We provide for the first time the exact solution of Maxwell’s equations for a massless charged particle moving on a generic trajectory at the speed of light. In particular we furnish explicit expressions for the vector potential and the electromagnetic field, which were both previously unknown, finding that they entail different physical features for bounded and unbounded trajectories. With respect to the standard Liénard–Wiechert field the electromagnetic field acquires singular δ-like contributions whose support and dimensionality depend crucially on whether the motion is (a) linear, (b) accelerated unbounded, (c) accelerated bounded. In the first two cases the particle generates a planar shock-wave-like electromagnetic field traveling along a straight line. In the second and third cases the field acquires, in addition, a δ-like contribution supported on a physical singularity-string attached to the particle. For generic accelerated motions a genuine radiation field is also present, represented by a regular principal-part type distribution diverging on the same singularity-string. - Highlights: • First exact solution of Maxwell’s equations for massless charges in arbitrary motion. • Explicit expressions of electromagnetic fields and potentials. • Derivations are rigorous and based on distribution theory. • The form of the field depends heavily on whether the motion is bounded or unbounded. • The electromagnetic field contains unexpected Dirac-delta-function contributions.

  6. Detection of flashing areas attributed to the frog cardiac function in the vagosympathetic trunk placed into a high frequency electric field.

    PubMed

    Pokrovskii, V M; Abushkevich, V G; Perova, Yu Yu; Perova, M Yu; Pokhotko, A G; Ardelyan, A N

    2016-05-01

    In a high frequency electric field, two flashing areas were observed during each contraction of the heart in the vagosympathetic trunk of a paralyzed frog with an intact brain. One area with a higher diameter was moving along the nerve from the heart at a speed of 16.6 ± 0.2 m/s. It was identified as afferent. Another area with a smaller diameter was spreading along the nerve towards the venous sinus of the frog heart at a speed of 5.6 ± 0.3 m/s, and it was efferent.

  7. Biological effects of prolonged exposure to ELF electromagnetic fields in rats: III. 50 Hz electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Zecca, L; Mantegazza, C; Margonato, V; Cerretelli, P; Caniatti, M; Piva, F; Dondi, D; Hagino, N

    1998-01-01

    Groups of adult male Sprague Dawley rats (64 rats each) were exposed for 8 months to electromagnetic fields (EMF) of two different field strength combinations: 5microT - 1kV/m and 100microT - 5kV/m. A third group was sham exposed. Field exposure was 8 hrs/day for 5 days/week. Blood samples were collected for hematology determinations before the onset of exposure and at 12 week intervals. At sacrifice, liver, heart, mesenteric lymph nodes, bone marrow, and testes were collected for morphology and histology assessments, while the pineal gland and brain were collected for biochemical determinations. At both field strength combinations, no pathological changes were observed in animal growth rate, in morphology and histology of the collected tissue specimens (liver, heart, mesenteric lymph nodes, testes, bone marrow), and in serum chemistry. An increase in norepinephrine levels occurred in the pineal gland of rats exposed to the higher field strength. The major changes in the brain involved the opioid system in frontal cortex, parietal cortex, and hippocampus. From the present findings it may be hypothesized that EMF may cause alteration of some brain functions.

  8. High frequency variations of the main magnetic field: convergence of observations and theory (Petrus Peregrinus Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jault, Dominique

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the main magnetic field variations has been hindered by the discrepancy between the periods (from months to years) of the simplest linear wave phenomena and the relatively long time intervals (10 to 100 years) over which magnetic field changes can be confidently monitored. A theoretical description of short-period waves within the Earth's fluid core is at hand. Quasi-geostrophic inertial waves (akin to Rossby waves in the atmosphere) are slightly modified in the presence of magnetic fields and torsional oscillations consist of differential motion between coaxial rigid cylindrical annuli. Torsional oscillations are sensitive to the whole magnetic field that they shear in the course of their propagation. From their modelling, we have thus gained an estimate for the magnetic field strength in the core interior. There is now ongoing work to extend the theoretical framework to longer times. Furthermore, data collected from the Swarm constellation of three satellites to be launched this year by ESA will permit to better separate the internal and external magnetic signals. We may thus dream to detect quasi-geostrophic inertial waves. As the spectral ranges of theoretical models and observations begin to overlap, we can now go beyond the understanding of the magnetic field variations as the juxtaposition of partial models, arranged as a set of nested Matryoshka dolls. This talk will give illustrations for this statement, among which the question of induction in the lower mantle.

  9. High-Frequency Fluctuations During Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jara-Almonte, J.; Ji, H.; Daughton, W. S.; Roytershteyn, V.; Yamada, M.; Yoo, J.; Fox, W. R., II

    2014-12-01

    During collisionless reconnection, the decoupling of the field from the plasma is known to occur only within the localized ion and electron diffusion regions, however predictions from fully kinetic simulations do not agree with experimental observations on the size of the electron diffusion region, implying differing reconnection mechanisms. Previous experiments, along with 2D and 3D simulations, have conclusively shown that this discrepancy cannot be explained by either classical collisions or Lower-Hybrid Drift Instability (Roytershtyn 2010, 2013). Due to computational limitations, however, previous simulations were constrained to have minimal scale separation between the electron skin depth and the Debye length (de/λD ~ 10), much smaller than in experiments (de/λD ~ 300). This lack of scale-separation can drastically modify the electrostatic microphysics within the diffusion layer. Using 3D, fully explicit kinetic simulations with a realistic and unprecedentedly large separation between the Debye length and the electron skin depth, de/λD = 64, we show that high frequency electrostatic waves (ω >> ωLH) can exist within the electron diffusion region. These waves generate small-scale turbulence within the electron diffusion region which acts to broaden the layer. Anomalous resistivity is also generated by the turbulence and significantly modifies the force balance. In addition to simulation results, initial experimental measurements of high frequency fluctuations (electrostatic and electromagnetic, f ≤ 1 GHz) in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) will be presented.

  10. FieldSpec: A field portable mass spectrometer prototype for high frequency measurements of δ (2) H and δ (18) O ratios in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Días, Veneranda; Quang Hoang, Hung; Martínez-Carreras, Núria; Barnich, François; Wirtz, Tom; Pfister, Laurent; McDonnell, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological studies relying on stable water isotopes to better understand water sources, flowpaths and transit times are currently limited by the coarse temporal resolution of sampling and analysis protocols. At present, two kinds of lab-based instruments are used : (i) the standard isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS) [1] and (ii) the laser-based instruments [2, 3]. In both cases, samples need to be collected in the field and then transferred to the laboratory for the water isotopic ratio measurements (even further complex sample preparation is required for the IRMS). Hence, past and ongoing research targets the development of field deployable instruments for measuring stable water isotopes at high temporal frequencies. While recent studies have demonstrated that laser-based instruments may be taken to the field [4, 5], their size and power consumption still restrict their use to sites equipped with mains power or generators. Here, we present progress on the development of a field portable mass spectrometer (FieldSpec) for direct high frequency measurements of δ2H and δ18O ratios in water. The FieldSpec instrument is based upon the use of a double focusing magnetic sector mass spectrometer in combination with an electron impact ion source and a membrane dual inlet system. The instrument directly collects liquid water samples in the field, which are then converted into water vapour before being injected into the mass spectrometer for the stable isotope analysis. δ2H and δ18O are derived from the measured mass spectra. All the components are arranged in a vacuum case having a suit case type dimension with portable electronics and battery. Proof-of-concept experiments have been carried out to characterize the instrument. The results show that the FieldSpec instrument has good linearity (R2 = 0.99). The reproducibility of the instrument ranges between 1 and 4 ‰ for δ2H and between 0.1 and 0.4 ‰ for δ18O isotopic ratio measurements. A measurement

  11. A model for the scattering of high-frequency electromagnetic fields from dielectrics exhibiting thermally-activated electrical losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hann, Raiford E.

    1991-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model (ECM) approach is used to predict the scattering behavior of temperature-activated, electrically lossy dielectric layers. The total electrical response of the dielectric (relaxation + conductive) is given by the ECM and used in combination with transmission line theory to compute reflectance spectra for a Dallenbach layer configuration. The effects of thermally-activated relaxation processes on the scattering properties is discussed. Also, the effect of relaxation and conduction activation energy on the electrical properties of the dielectric is described.

  12. Implementation of the Numerical Electromagnetic Code (NEC-2) for Modeling the VOR (Very-High-Frequency Omni-Directional Range) Navigation System in the Presence of Parasitic Scatterers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-13

    TIME FROM 0 TO 1/30 SECONDS IN 256 STEPS C DO 20 INC = 1,256 T = DFLOAT(INC-1)/(256.DO*30.D0) CREF = DCMPLX(O.DO,2.DO) C C CALCULATE RECEIVED FIELD... STEPS C DO 20 INC =1,256 T = FLOAT(INC-1)/(2156.D0*30.D0) CBIAS =CMPLX(0.DO,2.DO) C C CALCULATE RECEIVED FIELD FOR GIVEN TIME AND POSITION C CREC(INC...FAZR) AIMVLT(I,N)=VLTSPM(I,N)*DSIN(FAZR) 55 CONTINUE C C OUTSIDE LOOP INCREMENTS AZIMUTH ANGLE IN 5 DEGREE STEPS C 1 00 30 IAZ = 1,7.3 AZ = DFLOAT(IAZ

  13. Spectroscopic measurement of high-frequency electric fields in the interaction of explosive debris plasma with magnetized background plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, A. S. Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Niemann, C.

    2014-12-15

    The collision-less transfer of momentum and energy from explosive debris plasma to magnetized background plasma is a salient feature of various astrophysical and space environments. While much theoretical and computational work has investigated collision-less coupling mechanisms and relevant parameters, an experimental validation of the results demands the measurement of the complex, collective electric fields associated with debris-background plasma interaction. Emission spectroscopy offers a non-interfering diagnostic of electric fields via the Stark effect. A unique experiment at the University of California, Los Angeles, that combines the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) and the Phoenix laser facility has investigated the marginally super-Alfvénic, quasi-perpendicular expansion of a laser-produced carbon (C) debris plasma through a preformed, magnetized helium (He) background plasma via emission spectroscopy. Spectral profiles of the He II 468.6 nm line measured at the maximum extent of the diamagnetic cavity are observed to intensify, broaden, and develop equally spaced modulations in response to the explosive C debris, indicative of an energetic electron population and strong oscillatory electric fields. The profiles are analyzed via time-dependent Stark effect models corresponding to single-mode and multi-mode monochromatic (single frequency) electric fields, yielding temporally resolved magnitudes and frequencies. The proximity of the measured frequencies to the expected electron plasma frequency suggests the development of the electron beam-plasma instability, and a simple saturation model demonstrates that the measured magnitudes are feasible provided that a sufficiently fast electron population is generated during C debris–He background interaction. Potential sources of the fast electrons, which likely correspond to collision-less coupling mechanisms, are briefly considered.

  14. MESA: a new configuration for measuring electromagnetic field fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Harte, T M; Black, D L; Hollinshead, M T

    1999-11-01

    This paper describes how the multi-energy sensor array has been refitted to meet the needs of measuring geomagnetic and other types of electromagnetic phenomena in an environment. This portable laptop computer system was designed to measure the interaction of multiple frequencies with the psychological and physiological processes that underlie human exposure to electromagnetic fields across the spectra. New sensors and analytical software have been implemented in the new configuration.

  15. High frequency electromagnetic properties of interstitial-atom-modified Ce{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}N{sub X} and its composites

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L. Z.; Wei, J. Z.; Xia, Y. H.; Wu, R.; Yun, C.; Yang, Y. B.; Yang, W. Y.; Du, H. L.; Han, J. Z.; Liu, S. Q.; Yang, Y. C.; Wang, C. S. E-mail: jbyang@pku.edu.cn; Yang, J. B. E-mail: jbyang@pku.edu.cn

    2014-07-14

    The magnetic and microwave absorption properties of the interstitial atom modified intermetallic compound Ce{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}N{sub X} have been investigated. The Ce{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}N{sub X} compound shows a planar anisotropy with saturation magnetization of 1088 kA/m at room temperature. The Ce{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}N{sub X} paraffin composite with a mass ratio of 1:1 exhibits a permeability of μ′ = 2.7 at low frequency, together with a reflection loss of −26 dB at 6.9 GHz with a thickness of 1.5 mm and −60 dB at 2.2 GHz with a thickness of 4.0 mm. It was found that this composite increases the Snoek limit and exhibits both high working frequency and permeability due to its high saturation magnetization and high ratio of the c-axis anisotropy field to the basal plane anisotropy field. Hence, it is possible that this composite can be used as a high-performance thin layer microwave absorber.

  16. New Performance Indicators of Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors for High-Frequency Power-Conscious Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Kosuke; Fujishima, Minoru

    2012-02-01

    With the progress of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process technology, it is possible to apply CMOS devices to millimeter-wave amplifier design. However, the power consumption of the system becomes higher in proportion to its target frequency. Moreover, CMOS devices are biased at a point where the device achieves the highest gain and consumes much power. In order to reduce the power consumption without any compromise, we introduce two types of indicator. One works towards achieving the highest gain with the lowest power consumption. The other works towards achieving the highest linearity with consideration of the power consumption. In this work, we have shown the effectiveness of those indicators by applying measured data of the fabricated metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to cascade common-source amplifiers.

  17. Suppression and control of leakage field in electromagnetic helical microwiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Ohigashi, N.; Tsunawaki, Y.; Imasaki, K.

    1995-12-31

    Shortening the period of electromagnetic wiggler introduces both the radical increase of the leakage field and the decrease of the field in the gap region. The leakage field is severer problem in planar electromagnetic wiggler than in helical wiggler. Hence, in order to develop a short period electromagnetic wiggler, we have adopted {open_quotes}three poles per period{close_quotes} type electromagnetic helical microwiggler. In this work, we inserted the permanent magnet (PM) blocks with specific magnetized directions in the space between magnetic poles, for suppressing the leakage field flowing out from a pole face to the neighboring pole face. These PM-blocks must have higher intrinsic coersive force than saturation field of pole material. The gap field due to each pole is adjustable by controlling the leakage fields, that is, controlling the position of each iron screw set in each retainer fixing the PM-blocks. At present time, a test wiggler with period 7.8mm, periodical number 10 and gap length 4.6mm has been manufactured. Because the ratio of PM-block aperture to gap length is important parameter to suppress the leakage field, the parameter has been surveyed experimentally for PM-blocks with several dimensions of aperture. The field strength of 3-5kG (K=0.2-0.4) would be expected in the wiggler.

  18. Effects of an intense, high-frequency laser field on bound states in Ga1 - xInxNyAs1 - y/GaAs double quantum well.

    PubMed

    Ungan, Fatih; Yesilgul, Unal; Sakiroğlu, Serpil; Kasapoglu, Esin; Erol, Ayse; Arikan, Mehmet Cetin; Sarı, Huseyin; Sökmen, Ismail

    2012-10-31

    Within the envelope function approach and the effective-mass approximation, we have investigated theoretically the effect of an intense, high-frequency laser field on the bound states in a GaxIn1 - xNyAs1 - y/GaAs double quantum well for different nitrogen and indium mole concentrations. The laser-dressed potential, bound states, and squared wave functions related to these bound states in Ga1 - xInxNyAs1 - y/GaAs double quantum well are investigated as a function of the position and laser-dressing parameter. Our numerical results show that both intense laser field and nitrogen (indium) incorporation into the GaInNAs have strong influences on carrier localization.

  19. Analytical model for electromagnetic cascades in rotating electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Nerush, E. N.; Bashmakov, V. F.; Kostyukov, I. Yu.

    2011-08-15

    Electromagnetic cascades attract a lot of attention as an important quantum electrodynamics effect that will reveal itself in various electromagnetic field configurations at ultrahigh intensities. We study cascade dynamics in rotating electric field analytically and numerically. The kinetic equations for the electron-positron plasma and gamma-quanta are formulated. The scaling laws are derived and analyzed. For the cascades arising far above the threshold the dependence of the cascade parameters on the field frequency is derived. The spectra of high-energy cascade particles are calculated. The analytical results are verified by numerical simulations.

  20. Electromagnetic homeostasis and the role of low-amplitude electromagnetic fields on life organization.

    PubMed

    De Ninno, Antonella; Pregnolato, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The appearance of endogenous electromagnetic fields in biological systems is a widely debated issue in modern science. The electrophysiological fields have very tiny intensities and it can be inferred that they are rapidly decreasing with the distance from the generating structure, vanishing at very short distances. This makes very hard their detection using standard experimental methods. However, the existence of fast-moving charged particles in the macromolecules inside both intracellular and extracellular fluids may envisage the generation of localized electric currents as well as the presence of closed loops, which implies the existence of magnetic fields. Moreover, the whole set of oscillatory frequencies of various substances, enzymes, cell membranes, nucleic acids, bioelectrical phenomena generated by the electrical rhythm of coherent groups of cells, cell-to-cell communication among population of host bacteria, forms the increasingly complex hierarchies of electromagnetic signals of different frequencies which cover the living being and represent a fundamental information network controlling the cell metabolism. From this approach emerges the concept of electromagnetic homeostasis: that is, the capability of the human body to maintain the balance of highly complex electromagnetic interactions within, in spite of the external electromagnetic noisy environment. This concept may have an important impact on the actual definitions of heal and disease.

  1. External Field QED on Cauchy Surfaces for Varying Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckert, D.-A.; Merkl, F.

    2016-08-01

    The Shale-Stinespring Theorem (J Math Mech 14:315-322, 1965) together with Ruijsenaar's criterion (J Math Phys 18(4):720-737, 1977) provide a necessary and sufficient condition for the implementability of the evolution of external field quantum electrodynamics between constant-time hyperplanes on standard Fock space. The assertion states that an implementation is possible if and only if the spatial components of the external electromagnetic four-vector potential {A_μ} are zero. We generalize this result to smooth, space-like Cauchy surfaces and, for general {A_μ}, show how the second-quantized Dirac evolution can always be implemented as a map between varying Fock spaces. Furthermore, we give equivalence classes of polarizations, including an explicit representative, that give rise to those admissible Fock spaces. We prove that the polarization classes only depend on the tangential components of {A_μ} w.r.t. the particular Cauchy surface, and show that they behave naturally under Lorentz and gauge transformations.

  2. High frequency field measurements of diurnal carbon isotope discrimination and internal conductance in a semi-arid species, Juniperus monosperma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, C. P.; McDowell, N. G.; Erhardt, E. B.; Hanson, D. T.

    2008-12-01

    We present field observations of leaf gas exchange, carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) and internal conductance of CO2 to the sites of carboxylation (gi) collected during summer 2006 using tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDL). Δ ranged from 27.4‰ to 12.6‰ over diurnal periods with daily means of 16.3 ± 0.2‰ during drought to 19.0 ± 0.5‰ during monsoon conditions. We observed a large range in gi, from 0.03-2.03 μmol m-2 s-1 Pa-1 among measured leaves. We tested the comprehensive Farquhar, OLeary & Berry (1982) model of Δ (Δcomp), a simplified form of Δcomp (Δsimple), and recently suggested amendments (Δrevised; Wingate et al. 2007). Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that incorporating variable gi had a substantial effect on Δcomp, resulting in mean differences between observed Δ (Δobs) and Δcomp predictions as low as 0.04‰ and as high as 9.6‰. We found first order linear models adequately described the relationship between Δ and the ratio of substomatal to atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pi/pa) on all three days, but curvilinear second order models best described the relationship in July and August, potentially due to the dominance of respiration and associated isotopic signatures at high pi/pa. There was good agreement between Δobs and predictions from all models, with Δsimple producing the best fit of Δobs in June, Δcomp producing the best fit in July, and Δrevised producing the best fit in August.

  3. Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields: A Review of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, George L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) disturb cell homeostasis at very low intensities by influencing discrete intracellular magnetic fields. The article reviews current research about the health effects of EMF, examining historical implications, childhood studies, adult studies, and popular press reports, and…

  4. An interlaboratory comparison programme on radio frequency electromagnetic field measurements: the second round of the scheme.

    PubMed

    Nicolopoulou, E P; Ztoupis, I N; Karabetsos, E; Gonos, I F; Stathopulos, I A

    2015-04-01

    The second round of an interlaboratory comparison scheme on radio frequency electromagnetic field measurements has been conducted in order to evaluate the overall performance of laboratories that perform measurements in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations and broadcast antenna facilities. The participants recorded the electric field strength produced by two high frequency signal generators inside an anechoic chamber in three measurement scenarios with the antennas transmitting each time different signals at the FM, VHF, UHF and GSM frequency bands. In each measurement scenario, the participants also used their measurements in order to calculate the relative exposure ratios. The results were evaluated in each test level calculating performance statistics (z-scores and En numbers). Subsequently, possible sources of errors for each participating laboratory were discussed, and the overall evaluation of their performances was determined by using an aggregated performance statistic. A comparison between the two rounds proves the necessity of the scheme.

  5. Drivers of nitrogen dynamics in ecologically based agriculture revealed by long-term, high-frequency field measurements.

    PubMed

    Finney, Denise M; Eckert, Sara E; Kaye, Jason P

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from agriculture impacts ecosystems worldwide. One strategy to mitigate these losses, ecologically based nutrient management (ENM), seeks to recouple carbon (C) and N cycles to reduce environmental losses and supply N to cash crops. However, our capacity to apply ENM is limited by a lack of field-based high-resolution data on N dynamics in actual production contexts. We used data from a five-year study of organic cropping systems to investigate soil inorganic N (SIN) variability and nitrate (NO3-) leaching in ENM. Four production systems initiated in 2007 and 2008 in central Pennsylvania varied in crop rotation, timing and intensity of tillage, inclusion of fallow periods, and N inputs. Extractable SIN was measured fortnightly from March through November throughout the experiment, and NO3- N concentration below the rooting zone was sampled with lysimeters during the first year of the 2008 start. We used recursive partitioning models to assess the importance of management and environmental factors to SIN variability and NO3- leaching and identify interactions between influential variables. Air temperature and tillage were the most important drivers of SIN across systems. The highest SIN concentrations occurred when the average air temperature three weeks prior to measurement was above 21 degrees C. Above this temperature and within 109 days of moldboard plowing, average SIN concentrations were 22.1 mg N/kg soil; 109 days or more past plowing average SIN dropped to 7.7 mg N/kg soil. Other drivers of SIN dynamics were N available from manure and cover crops. Highest average leachate NO3- N concentrations (15.2 ppm) occurred in fall and winter when SIN was above 4.9 mg/kg six weeks prior to leachate collection. Late season tillage operations leading to elevated SIN and leachate NO3- N concentrations were a strategy to reduce weeds while meeting consumer demand for organic products. Thus, while tillage that incorporates organic N inputs preceding cash

  6. High frequency power distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Mikund R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this project was to provide the technology of high frequency, high power transmission lines to the 100 kW power range at 20 kHz frequency. In addition to the necessary design studies, a 150 m long, 600 V, 60 A transmission line was built, tested and delivered for full vacuum tests. The configuration analysis on five alternative configurations resulted in the final selection of the three parallel Litz straps configuration, which gave a virtually concentric design in the electromagnetic sense. Low inductance, low EMI and flexibility in handling are the key features of this configuration. The final design was made after a parametric study to minimize the losses, weight and inductance. The construction of the cable was completed with no major difficulties. The R,L,C parameters measured on the cable agreed well with the calculated values. The corona tests on insulation samples showed a safety factor of 3.

  7. On guided versus deflected fields in controlled-source electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swidinsky, Andrei

    2015-06-01

    The detection of electrically resistive targets in applied geophysics is of interest to the hydrocarbon, mining and geotechnical industries. Elongated thin resistive bodies have been extensively studied in the context of offshore hydrocarbon exploration. Such targets guide electromagnetic fields in a process which superficially resembles seismic refraction. On the other hand, compact resistive bodies deflect current in a process which has more similarities to diffraction and scattering. The response of a real geological structure is a non-trivial combination of these elements-guiding along the target and deflection around its edges. In this note the electromagnetic responses of two end-member models are compared: a resistive layer, which guides the electromagnetic signal, and a resistive cylinder, which deflects the fields. Results show that the response of a finite resistive target tends to saturate at a much lower resistivity than a resistive layer, under identical survey configurations. Furthermore, while the guided electromagnetic fields generated by a buried resistive layer contain both anomalous horizontal and vertical components, the process of electromagnetic deflection from a buried resistive cylinder creates mainly anomalous vertical fields. Finally, the transmitter orientation with respect to the position of a finite body is an important survey parameter: when the distance to the target is much less than the host skin depth, a transmitter pointing towards the resistive cylinder will produce a stronger signal than a transmitter oriented azimuthally with respect to the cylinder surface. The opposite situation is observed when the distance to the target is greater than the host skin depth.

  8. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields and recently updated safety guidelines for strong static magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Sekino, Masaki; Ueno, Shoogo

    2011-01-01

    Humans are exposed daily to artificial and naturally occurring magnetic fields that originate from many different sources. We review recent studies that examine the biological effects of and medical applications involving electromagnetic fields, review the properties of static and pulsed electromagnetic fields that affect biological systems, describe the use of a pulsed electromagnetic field in combination with an anticancer agent as an example of a medical application that incorporates an electromagnetic field, and discuss the recently updated safety guidelines for static electromagnetic fields. The most notable modifications to the 2009 International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines are the increased exposure limits, especially for those who work with or near electromagnetic fields (occupational exposure limits). The recommended increases in exposure were determined using recent scientific evidence obtained from animal and human studies. Several studies since the 1994 publication of the guidelines have examined the effects on humans after exposure to high static electromagnetic fields (up to 9.4 tesla), but additional research is needed to ascertain further the safety of strong electromagnetic fields.

  9. Quantum processes in short and intensive electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, A. I.; Kämpfer, Burkhard; Hosaka, Atsushi; Takabe, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    This work provides an overview of our recent results in studying two most important and widely discussed quantum processes: electron-positron pairs production off a probe photon propagating through a polarized short-pulsed electromagnetic (e.g. laser) wave field or generalized Breit-Wheeler process, and a single a photon emission off an electron interacting with the laser pules, so-called non-linear Compton scattering. We show that the probabilities of particle production in both processes are determined by interplay of two dynamical effects, where the first one is related to the shape and duration of the pulse and the second one is non-linear dynamics of the interaction of charged fermions with a strong electromagnetic field. We elaborate suitable expressions for the production probabilities and cross sections, convenient for studying evolution of the plasma in presence of strong electromagnetic fields.

  10. The effect of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on food sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Monro, Jean A; Puri, Basant K

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the involvement of the immune system in the etiology of food sensitivity, and because pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is associated with beneficial immunologic changes, it was hypothesized that pulsed electromagnetic fields may have a beneficial effect on food sensitivity. A small pilot study was carried out in patients suffering from food sensitivity, with the antigen leukocyte antibody test being employed to index the degree of food sensitivity in terms of the number of foods to which each patient reacted. It was found that a 1-week course of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy, consisting of one hour's treatment per day, resulted in a reduction in the mean number of reactive foods of 10.75 (p < 0.05). On the basis of these results, a larger study is warranted.

  11. Electromagnetic Propulsion System for Spacecraft using Geomagnetic fields and Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadhich, Anang

    This thesis concentrates on developing an innovative method to generate thrust force for spacecraft in localized geomagnetic fields by various electromagnetic systems. The proposed electromagnetic propulsion system is an electromagnet, like normal or superconducting solenoid, having its own magnetic field which interacts with the planet's magnetic field to produce a reaction thrust force. The practicality of the system is checked by performing simulations in order the find the varying radius, velocity, and acceleration changes. The advantages, challenges, various optimization techniques, and viability of such a propulsion system in present day and future are discussed. The propulsion system such developed is comparable to modern MPD Thrusters and electric engines, and has various applications like spacecraft propulsion, orbit transfer and stationkeeping.

  12. Kinetic theory of plasma equilibrium in an electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunov, L. M.; Gradov, O. M.; Ziunder, D.; Ramazashvili, R. R.

    1981-04-01

    The present study examines the equilibrium of a direct-current-carrying plasma in an electromagnetic field under the assumption that the particles escaping from the plasma have a Maxwellian distribution. It is shown that an equilibrium state is possible only in the case of a definite relationship between the amplitude of the incident wave and the concentration of escaping particles. Attention is given to spatial variations of the electromagnetic field, and of the plasma density and flow velocity. The application of these effects in microwave devices is discussed.

  13. High Frequency Electromagnetic Propagation/Scattering Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications , 77...Frequency Limiting, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications , 77, 469-481 (1980). [12] Y.T. Lo, S.W. Lee, editors, Antenna Handbook, Theory...Widom, Eigenvalue Distribution of Time and Frequency Limiting, Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications , 77, 469-481 (1980). [20] D.

  14. Near-field thermal electromagnetic transport: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edalatpour, Sheila; DeSutter, John; Francoeur, Mathieu

    2016-07-01

    A general near-field thermal electromagnetic transport formalism that is independent of the size, shape and number of heat sources is derived. The formalism is based on fluctuational electrodynamics, where fluctuating currents due to thermal agitation are added to Maxwell's curl equations, and is thus valid for heat sources in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Using a volume integral formulation, it is shown that the proposed formalism is a generalization of the classical electromagnetic scattering framework in which thermal emission is implicitly assumed to be negligible. The near-field thermal electromagnetic transport formalism is afterwards applied to a problem involving three spheres with size comparable to the wavelength, where all multipolar interactions are taken into account. Using the thermal discrete dipole approximation, it is shown that depending on the dielectric function, the presence of a third sphere slightly affects the spatial distribution of power absorbed compared to the two-sphere case. A transient analysis shows that despite a non-uniform spatial distribution of power absorbed, the sphere temperature remains spatially uniform at any instant due to the fact that the thermal resistance by conduction is much smaller than the resistance by radiation. The formalism proposed in this paper is general, and could be used as a starting point for adapting solution methods employed in traditional electromagnetic scattering problems to near-field thermal electromagnetic transport.

  15. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  16. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  17. [High frequency ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Sattler, E

    2015-07-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become a standard procedure in clinical dermatology. Devices with intermediate high frequencies of 7.5-15 MHz are used in dermato-oncology for the staging and postoperative care of skin tumor patients and in angiology for improved vessel diagnostics. In contrast, the high frequency ultrasound systems with 20-100 MHz probes offer a much higher resolution, yet with a lower penetration depth of about 1 cm. The main indications are the preoperative measurements of tumor thickness in malignant melanoma and other skin tumors and the assessment of inflammatory and soft tissue diseases, offering information on the course of these dermatoses and allowing therapy monitoring. This article gives an overview on technical principles, devices, mode of examination, influencing factors, interpretation of the images, indications but also limitations of this technique.

  18. Optimal control of electromagnetic field using metallic nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorenko, Ilya; Haas, Stephan; Balatsky, Alexander; Levi, A. F. J.

    2008-04-01

    The dielectric properties of metallic nanoclusters in the presence of an applied electromagnetic field are investigated using the non-local linear response theory. In the quantum limit we find a nontrivial dependence of the induced field and charge distributions on the spatial separation between the clusters and on the frequency of the driving field. Using a genetic algorithm, these quantum functionalities are exploited to custom-design sub-wavelength lenses with a frequency-controlled switching capability.

  19. Ion heating, burnout of the high-frequency field, and ion sound generation under the development of a modulation instability of an intense Langmuir wave in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kirichok, A. V. Kuklin, V. M.; Pryimak, A. V.; Zagorodny, A. G.

    2015-09-15

    The development of one-dimensional parametric instabilities of intense long plasma waves is considered in terms of the so-called hybrid models, with electrons being treated as a fluid and ions being regarded as particles. The analysis is performed for both cases when the average plasma field energy is lower (Zakharov's hybrid model—ZHM) or greater (Silin's hybrid model—SHM) than the plasma thermal energy. The efficiency of energy transfer to ions and to ion perturbations under the development of the instability is considered for various values of electron-to-ion mass ratios. The energy of low-frequency oscillations (ion-sound waves) is found to be much lower than the final ion kinetic energy. We also discuss the influence of the changes in the damping rate of the high-frequency (HF) field on the instability development. The decrease of the absorption of the HF field inhibits the HF field burnout within plasma density cavities and gives rise to the broadening of the HF spectrum. At the same time, the ion velocity distribution tends to the normal distribution in both ZHM and SHM.

  20. Ion heating, burnout of the high-frequency field, and ion sound generation under the development of a modulation instability of an intense Langmuir wave in a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichok, A. V.; Kuklin, V. M.; Pryimak, A. V.; Zagorodny, A. G.

    2015-09-01

    The development of one-dimensional parametric instabilities of intense long plasma waves is considered in terms of the so-called hybrid models, with electrons being treated as a fluid and ions being regarded as particles. The analysis is performed for both cases when the average plasma field energy is lower (Zakharov's hybrid model—ZHM) or greater (Silin's hybrid model—SHM) than the plasma thermal energy. The efficiency of energy transfer to ions and to ion perturbations under the development of the instability is considered for various values of electron-to-ion mass ratios. The energy of low-frequency oscillations (ion-sound waves) is found to be much lower than the final ion kinetic energy. We also discuss the influence of the changes in the damping rate of the high-frequency (HF) field on the instability development. The decrease of the absorption of the HF field inhibits the HF field burnout within plasma density cavities and gives rise to the broadening of the HF spectrum. At the same time, the ion velocity distribution tends to the normal distribution in both ZHM and SHM.

  1. Method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Ki H.; Xie, Gan Q.

    1994-01-01

    A method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields, and for interpreting the electromagnetic data using ray tomography, in order to determine the earth conductivity with high accuracy and resolution. The imaging method includes the steps of placing one or more transmitters, at various positions in a plurality of transmitter holes, and placing a plurality of receivers in a plurality of receiver holes. The transmitters generate electromagnetic signals which diffuse through a medium, such as earth, toward the receivers. The measured diffusion field data H is then transformed into wavefield data U. The traveltimes corresponding to the wavefield data U, are then obtained, by charting the wavefield data U, using a different regularization parameter .alpha. for each transform. The desired property of the medium, such as conductivity, is then derived from the velocity, which in turn is constructed from the wavefield data U using ray tomography.

  2. Method for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Lee, K.H.; Xie, G.Q.

    1994-12-13

    A method is described for imaging with low frequency electromagnetic fields, and for interpreting the electromagnetic data using ray tomography, in order to determine the earth conductivity with high accuracy and resolution. The imaging method includes the steps of placing one or more transmitters, at various positions in a plurality of transmitter holes, and placing a plurality of receivers in a plurality of receiver holes. The transmitters generate electromagnetic signals which diffuse through a medium, such as earth, toward the receivers. The measured diffusion field data H is then transformed into wavefield data U. The travel times corresponding to the wavefield data U, are then obtained, by charting the wavefield data U, using a different regularization parameter [alpha] for each transform. The desired property of the medium, such as conductivity, is then derived from the velocity, which in turn is constructed from the wavefield data U using ray tomography. 13 figures.

  3. The Study of Electron Coherence Effects in Metallic Systems with High Frequency AC Electric Fields: Weak Localization and Mesoscopic Photovoltaic Effects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin

    We have studied the effect of a high-frequency microwave electric field on electron phase coherence in thin Sb films and wires. The phase coherence is monitored through the effect of weak localization on the conductance. Through careful experimental design, we were able to calibrate the high frequency electric field. The ac effect was separated from the Joule heating with either dc measurements or the application of a magnetic field. This has made it possible to make a detailed, quantitative comparison with the theory with no free parameters. We have found good agreements between the experiments and the theory for both one and two dimensional cases. We have used the simple dc heating experiment to study the electron heating effects in Sb films. The electron temperature was reflected in the resistance, as an especially striking manner, to be quite different from the lattice temperature. This experiment was also used to study the electron-phonon scattering time in thin Sb films in the temperature range 1-4K. The magnitude of the scattering time is in reasonable accord with the theory, while the temperature dependence is of the form tau_{E_{ph}} ~ T^{-alpha }, with alpha ~ 1.4. The value of alpha appears to be significantly smaller than predicted by the theory, and is not understood. We have also studied the high frequency heating effects of thin AuPd, AuFe, and Au films at low temperatures. The analysis of the experiments yield consistent results with the theory for AuPd films with high values of the sheet resistance. However, for low-sheet-resistance films of AuPd, AuFe, and Au, the analysis suggests either that Joule heating is suppressed at microwave frequencies (as compared with that found for the same field strength at lower frequencies), or that a microwave field enhances the contribution of electron-electron interactions to the resistance. Either of these results would be at odds with current theories. Another experiment in which we were involved was the

  4. Sensing Random Electromagnetic Fields and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-23

    negative forces”, Nature Photonics 7, (2013) 6. D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, “ Near - Field Topography of Light”, Optics and Photonics...8. D. C. Kohlgraf-Owens, S. Sukhov, and A. Dogariu, “Discrimination of Field Components in Optical Probe Microscopy ”, Opt. Lett. 37, 3606 (2012) 9...reduces the optical contrast. The addition of more independent fields further reduces this contrast. However, when a fully polarized and coherent REF

  5. Deformation methods in modelling of the inner magnetospheric electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toivanen, P. K.

    2007-12-01

    Various deformation methods have been widely used in animation image processing. In common terms, they are mathematical presentations of deformations of an image drawn on an elastic material under stretching or compression of the material. Such a method has also been used in modelling of the magnetospheric magnetic fields, and recently been generalized to include also the electric fields. In this presentations, the theory of the deformation method and an application in a form of a new global magnetospheric electromagnetic field model are previewed. The main focus of the presentation is on the inner magnetospheric current systems and associated electromagnetic fields during quiet and disturbed periods. Finally, a short look at the modern deformation methods in image processing is taken. These methods include the Free Form Deformations and Moving Least Squares Deformations, and their future applications in magnetospheric field modelling are discussed.

  6. Measurement of radiated electromagnetic field levels before and after a changeover to energy-efficient lighting.

    PubMed

    Kerr, L N; Boivin, W S; Boyd, S M; Coletta, J N

    2001-01-01

    An energy-efficient lighting retrofit at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Winchester Engineering and Analytical Center (WEAC) presented the opportunity to measure the electromagnetic (EM) environments in several rooms before and after changing the fluorescent lighting systems and to compare the changes in EM fields with the proposed standard EM immunity levels. Three rooms, representing the types of work areas in the laboratory, were selected and measured before and after the lighting changeover. Electric and magnetic field measurements were taken in the extremely low frequency (ELF), very low frequency (VLF), and radio frequency (RF) ranges of the EM spectrum. In 2 rooms, ELF electric fields were reduced and VLF and RF electric fields were increased as a result of the changeover to high-frequency fixtures. A third room received low-frequency, energy-efficient fixtures during this changeover, and this change resulted in only a slight increase of the ELF electric fields. The ELF magnetic fields were greatly reduced in 2 but only slightly reduced in the third room. No significant change was seen in VLF or RF magnetic fields for any of these rooms. Some field-strength measurements exceeded the proposed immunity levels recommended in the draft International Electrotechnical Commission standard IEC 60601-1-2 (rev. 2). The data show that increasing the separation distance from the fluorescent light fixtures greatly reduces the field-strength levels, limiting the potential for EM interference.

  7. [Cellular radio systems. Problems faced in assessing exposure to electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Zmyślony, M

    2000-01-01

    Over twenty years of its existence, cellular radio systems have become one of the major sources of human exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) of high frequency. With the increasing number of cellular phones, the interest in health effects of exposure to EMF emitted by them continues to grow. At present, there is a general opinion that thermal effect (change of electromagnetic energy into thermal energy) is an essential mechanism of possible biological effects. The majority of world standards for exposure to EMF are based on this effect. The author presents Polish standards and those of the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for EMF of frequencies used in cellular radio systems, both basic that limits SAR (Specific Absorption Rate), and derived that limits the power density, as well as intensity of electric and magnetic fields. Attention was also turned to the problems concerning the application of cellular phones and those resulting from the character of the field emitted by them to which their users are exposed. Bearing in mind the results of the laboratory analyses of SAR values occurring in the user's head, and measurements of power density in the vicinity of the base station antennas, it can be stated that, in view of binding and recommended standards, cellular phones do not present any hazard to their users (private or professional). However, it should be stressed that standards adopted protect the user's head against the thermal effect, whereas the question on whether they also protect against non-thermal effects still remains without answer.

  8. Does three-dimensional electromagnetic field inherit the spacetime symmetries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvitan, M.; Dominis Prester, P.; Smolić, I.

    2016-04-01

    We prove that the electromagnetic field in a (1+2)-dimensional spacetime necessarily inherits the symmetries of the spacetime metric in a large class of generalized Einstein-Maxwell theories. The Lagrangians of the studied theories have general diff-covariant gravitational part and include both the gravitational and the gauge Chern-Simons terms.

  9. Transducer measures temperature differentials in presence of strong electromagnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Measurement of temperature rise of cooling water under pressure and in strong electromagnetic fields is accomplished by a transducer using a magnetically shielded thermocouple arrangement. The thermocouple junctions are immersed in oil to isolate them from electric currents in the water.

  10. Relativistic Particle in Electromagnetic Fields with a Generalized Uncertainty Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merad, M.; Zeroual, F.; Falek, M.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we propose to solve the relativistic Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations subjected to the action of a uniform electromagnetic field with a generalized uncertainty principle in the momentum space. In both cases, the energy eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenfunctions are obtained. The limit case is then deduced for a small parameter of deformation.

  11. What Message Should Health Educators Give regarding Electromagnetic Fields?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Khamees, Nedaa A.

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF) causing a number of medical conditions and common symptoms remains a concern and presents somewhat of a quandary to health educators in view of conflicting results. This study investigated the relationship of a number of EMF sources to reported symptoms in an attempt to,…

  12. 78 FR 33633 - Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... June 4, 2013 Part IV Federal Communications Commission 47 CFR Parts 1, 2, and 15, et al. Human Exposure..., and 95 Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields AGENCY: Federal Communications... National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) as they relate to the guidelines for human exposure to...

  13. Oscillator strength sum rules with an external electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R.; Sabin, John R.; Öhrn, Yngve; Oddershede, J.

    1998-04-01

    We demonstrate that the Bethe, and therefore the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn, sum rule is unaffected by the presence of an applied external electromagnetic field in the exact case. We use the consequence that the first-order perturbation contribution must also vanish to derive a necessary condition for the completeness of computational one-electron basis sets.

  14. [Clinical monitoring in areas of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Suvorov, I M

    2013-01-01

    Clinical syndromes induced by high intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic field chronic exposure are described. Persons injured by occupational exposure have been observed central nervous system changes in diencephalic syndrome form, cardio-vascular system changes revealed in atherosclerosis, isch(a)emic heart disease and coronary insufficiency rapid progressive expansion. General public living in territory of radar station exposure zone different functional disorders have been identified: vegetative dystonia (asthenovegetative syndrome), thrombocytopenia, decrease of blood coagulation index, and thyroid gland function changes. Observed diseases clinical variability may be determined by electromagnetic exposure characteristics.

  15. Electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base station - variability analysis.

    PubMed

    Bienkowski, Pawel; Zubrzak, Bartlomiej

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the character of electromagnetic field (EMF) in mobile phone base station (BS) surroundings and its variability in time with an emphasis on the measurement difficulties related to its pulse and multi-frequency nature. Work also presents long-term monitoring measurements performed recently in different locations in Poland - small city with dispersed building development and in major polish city - dense urban area. Authors tried to determine the trends in changing of EMF spectrum analyzing daily changes of measured EMF levels in those locations. Research was performed using selective electromagnetic meters and also EMF meter with spectrum analysis.

  16. Slow Magnetic Relaxations in Cobalt(II) Tetranitrate Complexes. Studies of Magnetic Anisotropy by Inelastic Neutron Scattering and High-Frequency and High-Field EPR Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Lei; Cui, Hui-Hui; Stavretis, Shelby E.; ...

    2016-12-07

    We synthesized and studied three mononuclear cobalt(II) tetranitrate complexes (A)2[Co(NO3)4] with different countercations, Ph4P+ (1), MePh3P+ (2), and Ph4As+ (3), using X-ray single-crystal diffraction, magnetic measurements, inelastic neutron scattering (INS), high-frequency and high-field EPR (HF-EPR) spectroscopy, and theoretical calculations. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the structure of the tetranitrate cobalt anion varies with the countercation. 1 and 2 exhibit highly irregular seven-coordinate geometries, while the central Co(II) ion of 3 is in a distorted-dodecahedral configuration. The sole magnetic transition observed in the INS spectroscopy of 1–3 corresponds to the zero-field splitting (2(D2 + 3E2)1/2) from 22.5(2) cm–1 inmore » 1 to 26.6(3) cm–1 in 2 and 11.1(5) cm–1 in 3. The positive sign of the D value, and hence the easy-plane magnetic anisotropy, was demonstrated for 1 by INS studies under magnetic fields and HF-EPR spectroscopy. The combined analyses of INS and HF-EPR data yield the D values as +10.90(3), +12.74(3), and +4.50(3) cm–1 for 1–3, respectively. Frequency- and temperature-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal the slow magnetization relaxation in 1 and 2 at an applied dc field of 600 Oe, which is a characteristic of field-induced single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Finally, the electronic structures and the origin of magnetic anisotropy of 1–3 were revealed by calculations at the CASPT2/NEVPT2 level.« less

  17. Numerical Analysis of Electromagnetic Fields in Multiscale Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ji; Fang, Guang-You; Ji, Yi-Cai

    2015-04-01

    Modeling technique for electromagnetic fields excited by antennas is an important topic in computational electromagnetics, which is concerned with the numerical solution of Maxwell's equations. In this paper, a novel hybrid technique that combines method of moments (MoM) with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is presented to handle the problem. This approach employed Huygen's principle to realize the hybridization of the two classical numerical algorithms. For wideband electromagnetic data, the interpolation scheme is used in the MoM based on the dyadic Green's function. On the other hand, with the help of equivalence principle, the scattered electric and magnetic fields on the Huygen's surface calculated by MoM are taken as the sources for FDTD. Therefore, the electromagnetic fields in the environment can be obtained by employing finite-difference time-domain method. Finally, numerical results show the validity of the proposed technique by analyzing two canonical samples. Supported in part by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 201M550839, and in part by the Key Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences under Grant No. KGZD-EW-603

  18. Multi-parametric study of temperature and thermal damage of tumor exposed to high-frequency nanosecond-pulsed electric fields based on finite element simulation.

    PubMed

    Mi, Yan; Rui, Shaoqin; Li, Chengxiang; Yao, Chenguo; Xu, Jin; Bian, Changhao; Tang, Xuefeng

    2016-11-16

    High-frequency nanosecond-pulsed electric fields were recently introduced for tumor or abnormal tissue ablation to solve some problems of conventional electroporation. However, it is necessary to study the thermal effects of high-field-intensity nanosecond pulses inside tissues. The multi-parametric analysis performed here is based on a finite element model of liver tissue with a tumor that has been punctured by a pair of needle electrodes. The pulse voltage used in this study ranges from 1 to 4 kV, the pulse width ranges from 50 to 500 ns, and the repetition frequency is between 100 kHz and 1 MHz. The total pulse length is 100 μs, and the pulse burst repetition frequency is 1 Hz. Blood flow and metabolic heat generation have also been considered. Results indicate that the maximum instantaneous temperature at 100 µs can reach 49 °C, with a maximum instantaneous temperature at 1 s of 40 °C, and will not cause thermal damage during single pulse bursts. By parameter fitting, we can obtain maximum instantaneous temperature at 100 µs and 1 s for any parameter values. However, higher temperatures will be achieved and may cause thermal damage when multiple pulse bursts are applied. These results provide theoretical basis of pulse parameter selection for future experimental researches.

  19. [Theoretical and experimental dosimetry in evaluation of biological effects of electromagnetic field for portable radio transmitters. Report 1. Flat phantoms].

    PubMed

    Perov, S Iu; Bogacheva, E V

    2014-01-01

    Results of the theoretical (numerical) and experimental dosimetry approach for portable radio transmitters are considered. The simulation and measurement results are shown. A generic type of a portable radio transmitter operating in a very high frequency range was tested as an electromagnetic field source. The analysis of specific absorption rate distribution in the flat homogeneous phantom was carried out on the basis of a portable radio transmitter. The results have shown the admissible divergence between measurements and simulation. According to these results, the authors have come to the conclusion about using the complex dosimetry approach including experimental and numerical dosimetry.

  20. Basic Materials for Electromagnetic Field Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-04

    UHF bio- logical effects. VIEM, 1937. 8. Anikin M.M., Varshaver G.S. Basics of a physiotherapy . Medgiz. 1950. 9. Osipov You.A., Ushinskaya O.F. On... strokes a 1 minute. Table. Frequency drift of frog heart beats in dependence from modulations of microwave field and initial frequency of heart...hearts with frequency of beats of 20–30 strokes a 1 minute. 23 EXAMINATIONS IN VIVO It was supposed, that the role of modulation in

  1. Electromagnetic Field Effects in Semiconductor Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulikravich, George S.

    1996-01-01

    This proposed two-year research project was to involve development of an analytical model, a numerical algorithm for its integration, and a software for the analysis of a solidification process under the influence of electric and magnetic fields in microgravity. Due to the complexity of the analytical model that was developed and its boundary conditions, only a preliminary version of the numerical algorithm was developed while the development of the software package was not completed.

  2. The electromagnetic force field, fluid flow field and temperature profiles in levitated metal droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Kaddah, N.; Szekely, J.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical representation was developed for the electromagnetic force field, the flow field, the temperature field (and for transport controlled kinetics), in a levitation melted metal droplet. The technique of mutual inductances was employed for the calculation of the electromagnetic force field, while the turbulent Navier - Stokes equations and the turbulent convective transport equations were used to represent the fluid flow field, the temperature field and the concentration field. The governing differential equations, written in spherical coordinates, were solved numerically. The computed results were in good agreement with measurements, regarding the lifting force, and the average temperature of the specimen and carburization rates, which were transport controlled.

  3. Measurement of high frequency conductivity of oxide-doped anti-ferromagnetic thin film with a near-field scanning microwave microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Souza, A. D.; Peng, B.; Sun, W. Q.; Xu, S. Y.; Ong, C. K.

    2014-04-01

    In this manuscript, we describe how the map of high frequency conductivity distribution of an oxide-doped anti-ferromagnetic 200 nm thin film can be obtained from the quality factor (Q) measured by a near-field scanning microwave microscope (NSMM). Finite element analysis (FEA) is employed to simulate the NSMM tip-sample interaction and obtain a curve related between the simulated quality factor (Q) and conductivity. The curve is calibrated by a standard Cu thin film with thickness of 200 nm, together with NSMM measured Q of Ag, Au, Fe, Cr and Ti thin films. The experimental conductivity obtained by the NSMM for IrMn thin films with various doped concentrations of Al2O3 is found consistent with conventional voltammetry measurement in the same tendency. That conductivity decreases as the content of doped Al2O3 increases. The results and images obtained demonstrate that NSMM can be employed in thin film analysis for characterization of local electrical properties of materials in a non-destructive manner and for obtaining a map of conductivity distribution on the same film.

  4. Electromagnetic fields in the exterior of an oscillating relativistic star - II. Electromagnetic damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezzolla, Luciano; Ahmedov, Bobomurat J.

    2016-07-01

    An important issue in the asteroseismology of compact and magnetized stars is the determination of the dissipation mechanism which is most efficient in damping the oscillations when these are produced. In a linear regime and for low-multipolarity modes, these mechanisms are confined to either gravitational-wave or electromagnetic losses. We here consider the latter and compute the energy losses in the form of Poynting fluxes, Joule heating and Ohmic dissipation in a relativistic oscillating spherical star with a dipolar magnetic field in vacuum. While this approach is not particularly realistic for rapidly rotating stars, it has the advantage that it is fully analytic and that it provides expressions for the electric and magnetic fields produced by the most common modes of oscillation both in the vicinity of the star and far away from it. In this way, we revisit and extend to a relativistic context the classical estimates of McDermott et al. Overall, we find that general-relativistic corrections lead to electromagnetic damping time-scales that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than in Newtonian gravity. Furthermore, with the only exception of g (gravity) modes, we find that f (fundamental), p (pressure), i (interface) and s (shear) modes are suppressed more efficiently by gravitational losses than by electromagnetic ones.

  5. [New mechanisms of biological effects of electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Buchachenko, A L; Kuznetsov, D A; Berdinskiĭ, V L

    2006-01-01

    The production of ATP in mitochondria depends on the magnesium nuclear spin and magnetic moment of a Mg2+ ion in creatine kinase and ATPase. This suggests that enzymatic synthesis of ATP is an ion-radical process and thus depends on the external magnetic field (magnetobiology originates from this fact) and microwave fields, which control the spin states of ion-radical pairs and affect the ATP synthesis. The chemical mechanism of ATP synthesis and the origin of biological effects of electromagnetic (microwave) fields are discussed.

  6. Invariant superoscillatory electromagnetic fields in 3D-space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makris, K. G.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Tzortzakis, S.

    2017-01-01

    We derive exact solutions of Maxwell’s equations based on superoscillatory superpositions of vectorial Bessel beams. These novel beams are diffraction-free and can support subwavelength features in their transverse electromagnetic fields, without the presence of any evanescent waves. These features can be propagated into the far field. Approximate solutions in closed form are also derived based on asymptotic expansions of Bessel functions for simple prescribed subwavelength patterns. The superoscillatory characteristics of both electric, magnetic field components (transverse and longitudinal), and the Poynting vector, as well as, the effect of nonparaxiality are systematically investigated.

  7. Soft hairs on isolated horizon implanted by electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Pujian; Wu, Xiaoning; Zhang, Hongbao

    2017-03-01

    Inspired by the recent proposal of soft hair on black holes in Hawking et al (2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 231301), we have shown that an isolated horizon carries soft hairs implanted by electromagnetic fields. The solution space and the asymptotic symmetries of Einstein–Maxwell theory have been worked out explicitly near the isolated horizon. The conserved current has been computed and an infinite number of near horizon charges have been introduced from the electromagnetic fields associated with the asymptotic U(1) symmetry near the horizon, which indicates the fact that the isolated horizon carries a large amount of soft electric hairs. The soft electric hairs, i.e. asymptotic U(1) charges, are shown to be equivalent to the electric multipole moments of isolated horizons. It is further argued that the isolated horizon supertranslation is from the ambiguity of its foliation and an analogue of memory effect on horizon can be expected.

  8. Controversies related to electromagnetic field exposure on peripheral nerves.

    PubMed

    Say, Ferhat; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Coşkun, Sina; Deniz, Ömür Gülsüm; Yıldız, Çağrı; Altun, Gamze; Kaplan, Arife Ahsen; Kaya, Sefa Ersan; Pişkin, Ahmet

    2016-09-01

    Electromagnetic field (EMF) is a pervasive environmental presence in modern society. In recent years, mobile phone usage has increased rapidly throughout the world. As mobile phones are generally held close to the head while talking, studies have mostly focused on the central and peripheral nervous system. There is a need for further research to ascertain the real effect of EMF exposure on the nervous system. Several studies have clearly demonstrated that EMF emitted by cell phones could affect the systems of the body as well as functions. However, the adverse effects of EMF emitted by mobile phones on the peripheral nerves are still controversial. Therefore, this review summarizes current knowledge on the possible positive or negative effects of electromagnetic field on peripheral nerves.

  9. Etna_NETVIS: A dedicated tool for automatically pre-processing high frequency data useful to extract geometrical parameters and track the evolution of the lava field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsella, Maria; Junior Valentino D'Aranno, Peppe; De Bonis, Roberto; Nardinocchi, Carla; Scifoni, Silvia; Scutti, Marianna; Sonnessa, Alberico; Wahbeh, Wissam; Biale, Emilio; Coltelli, Mauro; Pecora, Emilio; Prestifilippo, Michele; Proietti, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    In volcanic areas, where it could be difficult to gain access to the most critical zones for carrying out direct surveys, digital photogrammetry techniques are rarely experimented, although in many cases they proved to have remarkable potentialities, as the possibility to follow the evolution of volcanic (fracturing, vent positions, lava fields, lava front positions) and deformation processes (inflation/deflation and instability phenomena induced by volcanic activity). These results can be obtained, in the framework of standard surveillance activities, by acquiring multi-temporal datasets including Digital Orthophotos (DO) and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to be used for implementing a quantitative and comparative analysis. The frequency of the surveys can be intensified during emergency phases to implement a quasi real-time monitoring for supporting civil protection actions. The high level of accuracy and the short time required for image processing make digital photogrammetry a suitable tool for controlling the evolution of volcanic processes which are usually characterized by large and rapid mass displacements. In order to optimize and extend the existing permanent ground NEtwork of Thermal and VIsible Sensors located on Mt. Etna (Etna_NETVIS) and to improve the observation of the most active areas, an approach for monitoring surface sin-eruptive processes was implemented. A dedicated tool for automatically pre-processing high frequency data, useful to extract geometrical parameters as well as to track the evolution of the lava field, was developed and tested both in simulated and real scenarios. The tool allows to extract a coherent multi-temporal dataset of orthophotos useful to evaluate active flow area and to estimate effusion rates. Furthermore, Etna_NETVIS data were used to downscale the information derived from satellite data and/or to integrate the satellite datasets in case of incomplete coverage or missing acquisitions. This work was developed in the

  10. Low-frequency electromagnetic field in a Wigner crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Stupka, Anton

    2013-03-15

    Long-wave low-frequency oscillations are described in a Wigner crystal by generalization of the reverse continuum model for the case of electronic lattice. The internal self-consistent long-wave electromagnetic field is used to describe the collective motions in the system. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the obtained system of equations are derived. The velocities of longitudinal and transversal sound waves are found.

  11. Immunorehabilitating effect of ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic fields in immunocompromised animals.

    PubMed

    Pershin, S B; Bobkova, A S; Derevnina, N A; Sidorov, V D

    2013-06-01

    We observed immunorehabilitation effects of ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic fields (microwaves) in immunocompromised animals. It was shown that microwave irradiation of the thyroid gland area could abolish actinomycin D- and colchicine-induced immunosuppression and did not affect immunosuppression caused by 5-fluorouracil. These findings suggest that changes in the hormonal profile of the organism during microwave exposure can stimulate the processes of transcription and mitotic activity of lymphoid cells.

  12. Immune Response to Electromagnetic Fields through Cybernetic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godina-Nava, J. J.; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez; Cadena, S. Reyes; Sierra, L. C. Gaitán

    2008-08-01

    We study the optimality of the humoral immune response through a mathematical model, which involves the effect of electromagnetic fields over the large lymphocytes proliferation. Are used the so called cybernetic variables in the context of the matching law of microeconomics or mathematical psychology, to measure the large lymphocytes population and to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate in time during the immunologic response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen.

  13. Systemic Effects of Electromagnetic Fields in Patients with Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo-Dorantes, L.; Valle, L.; Uruchurtu, E.; Medel, A.; García-Mayen, F.; Serrano-Luna, G.

    2003-09-01

    Healing of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with inflammatory response, which promotes healing and scar formation. Activation of a local inflammatory response in patients with sequel of AMI could have an important role to enhance angiogenesis and regeneration of hibernating myocardial tissue. Chronic arterial leg ulcers have a similar etiology, and healing has been promoted by exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF). We report the evolution of three AMI patients with sequel of AMI that were exposed to ELF.

  14. Immune Response to Electromagnetic Fields through Cybernetic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Godina-Nava, J. J.; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez; Cadena, S. Reyes; Sierra, L. C. Gaitan

    2008-08-11

    We study the optimality of the humoral immune response through a mathematical model, which involves the effect of electromagnetic fields over the large lymphocytes proliferation. Are used the so called cybernetic variables in the context of the matching law of microeconomics or mathematical psychology, to measure the large lymphocytes population and to maximize the instantaneous antibody production rate in time during the immunologic response in order to most efficiently inactivate the antigen.

  15. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Osteoporosis Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaowei, Yang; Liming, Wang; Guan, Z. C.; Yaou, Zhang; Xiangpeng, Wang

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the preventive effects and long term effects of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs), generated by circular coils and pulsed electromagnetic fields stimulators, on osteoporosis in bilaterally ovariectomized rats. In preventive experiment, thirty three-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three different groups: sham (SHAM), ovariectomy (OVX), PEMFs stimulation (PEMFs). All rats were subjected to bilaterally ovariectomy except those in SHAM group. The PEMFs group was exposed to pulsed electromagnetic fields with frequency 15 Hz, peak magnetic induction density 2.2mT and exposure time 2 hours per day. The bone mineral density (BMD) of vertebra and left femur were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at eighth week, twelfth week and sixteenth week after surgery. In long term effects experiment, forty four rats were randomly divided into sham (14 rats, SHAM), ovariectomy group (10 rats, OVX), 15Hz PEMFs group(10 rats, 15Hz) and 30Hz PEMFs group(10 rats, 30Hz) at twenty-sixth week after surgery. Rats in PEMFs groups were stimulated sixteen weeks. In preventive experiment, the Corrected BMD of vertebra and femur was significantly higher than that of OVX group after 16 weeks (P<0.001, P<0.001 respectively). In long term effects experiment, the vertebral BMD of 15Hz PEMFs group and 30Hz PEMFs group was significantly higher than that of OVX groups (P<0.01, P<0.05 respectively). The experimental results demonstrated that extremely low intensity, low frequency, single pulsed electromagnetic fields significantly slowed down the loss of corrected vertebral and femoral BMD in bilaterally ovariectomized rats and suggest that PEMFs may be beneficial in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  16. Slow Magnetic Relaxations in Cobalt(II) Tetranitrate Complexes. Studies of Magnetic Anisotropy by Inelastic Neutron Scattering and High-Frequency and High-Field EPR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Lei; Cui, Hui-Hui; Stavretis, Shelby E.; Hunter, Seth C.; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Chen, Xue-Tai; Sun, Yi-Chen; Wang, Zhenxing; Song, You; Podlesnyak, Andrey A.; Ouyang, Zhong-Wen; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2016-12-07

    We synthesized and studied three mononuclear cobalt(II) tetranitrate complexes (A)2[Co(NO3)4] with different countercations, Ph4P+ (1), MePh3P+ (2), and Ph4As+ (3), using X-ray single-crystal diffraction, magnetic measurements, inelastic neutron scattering (INS), high-frequency and high-field EPR (HF-EPR) spectroscopy, and theoretical calculations. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the structure of the tetranitrate cobalt anion varies with the countercation. 1 and 2 exhibit highly irregular seven-coordinate geometries, while the central Co(II) ion of 3 is in a distorted-dodecahedral configuration. The sole magnetic transition observed in the INS spectroscopy of 1–3 corresponds to the zero-field splitting (2(D2 + 3E2)1/2) from 22.5(2) cm–1 in 1 to 26.6(3) cm–1 in 2 and 11.1(5) cm–1 in 3. The positive sign of the D value, and hence the easy-plane magnetic anisotropy, was demonstrated for 1 by INS studies under magnetic fields and HF-EPR spectroscopy. The combined analyses of INS and HF-EPR data yield the D values as +10.90(3), +12.74(3), and +4.50(3) cm–1 for 1–3, respectively. Frequency- and temperature-dependent alternating-current magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal the slow magnetization relaxation in 1 and 2 at an applied dc field of 600 Oe, which is a characteristic of field-induced single-molecule magnets (SMMs). Finally, the electronic structures and the origin of magnetic anisotropy of 1–3 were revealed by calculations at the CASPT2/NEVPT2 level.

  17. On the measurement of shear elastic moduli and viscosities of erythrocyte plasma membranes by transient deformation in high frequency electric fields.

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, H; Sackmann, E

    1988-01-01

    We present a new method to measure the shear elastic moduli and viscosities of erythrocyte membranes which is based on the fixation and transient deformation of cells in a high-frequency electric field. A frequency domain of constant force (arising by Maxwell Wagner polarization) is selected to minimize dissipative effects. The electric force is thus calculated by electrostatic principles by considering the cell as a conducting body in a dielectric fluid and neglecting membrane polarization effects. The elongation A of the cells perpendicular to their rotational axis exhibits a linear regime (A proportional to Maxwell tension or to square of the electric field E2) at small, and a nonlinear regime (A proportional to square root of Maxwell tension or to the electric field E) at large extensions with a cross-over at A approximately 0.5 micron. The nonlinearity leads to amplitude-dependent response times and to differences of the viscoelastic response and relaxation functions. The cells exhibit pronounced yet completely reversible tip formations at large extensions. Absolute values of the shear elastic modulus, mu, and membrane viscosity, eta, are determined by assuming that field-induced stretching of the biconcave cell may be approximately described in terms of a sphere to ellipsoid deformation. The (nonlinear) elongation-vs.-force relationship calculated by the elastic theory of shells agress well with the experimentally observed curves and the values of mu = 6.1 x 10(-6) N/m and eta = 3.4 x 10(-7) Ns/m are in good agreement with the micropipette results of Evans and co-workers. The effect of physical, biochemical, and disease-induced structural changes on the viscoelastic parameters is studied. The variability of mu and eta of a cell population of a healthy donor is +/- 45%, which is mainly due to differences in the cell age. The average mu value of cells of different healthy donors scatters by +/- 18%. Osmotic deflation of the cells leads to a fivefold increase of

  18. Influence of electromagnetic signal of antibiotics excited by low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on growth of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yin-Lung; Chang, Fu-Yu; Chen, Ming-Kun; Li, Shun-Lai; Jang, Ling-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Energy medicine (EM) provides a new medical choice for patients, and its advantages are the noninvasive detection and nondrug treatment. An electromagnetic signal, a kind of EM, induced from antibiotic coupling with weak, extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) is utilized for investigating the growth speed of Escherichia coli (E. coli). PEMFs are produced by solenoidal coils for coupling the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics (penicillin). The growth retardation rate (GRR) of E. coli is used to investigate the efficacy of the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. The E. coli is cultivated in the exposure of PEMFs coupling with the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. The maximum GRR of PEMFs with and without the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics on the growth of E. coli cells in the logarithmic is 17.4 and 9.08%, respectively. The electromagnetic signal of antibiotics is successfully coupled by the electromagnetic signal coupling instrument to affect the growth of E. coli. In addition, the retardation effect on E. coli growth can be improved of by changing the carrier frequency of PEMFs coupling with the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. GRR caused by the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics can be fixed by a different carrier frequency in a different phase of E. coli growth.

  19. Fluid Modeling of a Very High Frequency Capacitively Coupled Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Rochan; Raja, Laxminarayan; Ventzek, Peter; Iwao, Toshihiko; Ishibashi, Kiyotaka; Esgee Technologies Inc. Collaboration; University of Texas at Austin Collaboration; Tokyo Electron Ltd. Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Very High Frequency Capacitively Coupled Plasma (VHF-CCP) discharges have been studied extensively for semiconductor manufacturing applications for well over a decade. Modeling of these discharges however poses significant challenges owing to complexity associated with simulation of multiple coupled phenomena (electro-static/magnetic fields and plasma physics) over different scales and the representation of these phenomena in a computational framework. We present 2D simulations of a self-consistent plasma with the electromagnetic field represented using vector and scalar potentials. For a range of operating conditions, the ratio of capacitive and inductive power, calculated using empirical correlations available in the literature, are matched by adjusting both the electrostatic and electromagnetic fields in a decoupled manner. We present results using this model that demonstrate most of the important VHF-CCP discharge phenomena reported in the literature, such as electromagnetic wave versus electrostatic heating and its impact on plasma non-uniformity, wave resonances, etc. while realizing a practically feasible computational model.

  20. High-frequency ECG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tragardh, Elin; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    The standard ECG is by convention limited to 0.05-150 Hz, but higher frequencies are also present in the ECG signal. With high-resolution technology, it is possible to record and analyze these higher frequencies. The highest amplitudes of the high-frequency components are found within the QRS complex. In past years, the term "high frequency", "high fidelity", and "wideband electrocardiography" have been used by several investigators to refer to the process of recording ECGs with an extended bandwidth of up to 1000 Hz. Several investigators have tried to analyze HF-QRS with the hope that additional features seen in the QRS complex would provide information enhancing the diagnostic value of the ECG. The development of computerized ECG-recording devices that made it possible to record ECG signals with high resolution in both time and amplitude, as well as better possibilities to store and process the signals digitally, offered new methods for analysis. Different techniques to extract the HF-QRS have been described. Several bandwidths and filter types have been applied for the extraction as well as different signal-averaging techniques for noise reduction. There is no standard method for acquiring and quantifying HF-QRS. The physiological mechanisms underlying HF-QRS are still not fully understood. One theory is that HF-QRS are related to the conduction velocity and the fragmentation of the depolarization wave in the myocardium. In a three-dimensional model of the ventricles with a fractal conduction system it was shown that high numbers of splitting branches are associated with HF-QRS. In this experiment, it was also shown that the changes seen in HF-QRS in patients with myocardial ischemia might be due to the slowing of the conduction velocity in the region of ischemia. This mechanism has been tested by Watanabe et al by infusing sodium channel blockers into the left anterior descending artery in dogs. In their study, 60 unipolar ECGs were recorded from the entire

  1. Reconstruction of velocity fields in electromagnetic flow tomography.

    PubMed

    Lehtikangas, Ossi; Karhunen, Kimmo; Vauhkonen, Marko

    2016-06-28

    Electromagnetic flow meters (EMFMs) are the gold standard in measuring flow velocity in process industry. The flow meters can measure the mean flow velocity of conductive liquids and slurries. A drawback of this approach is that the velocity field cannot be determined. Asymmetric axial flows, often encountered in multiphase flows, pipe elbows and T-junctions, are problematic and can lead to serious systematic errors. Recently, electromagnetic flow tomography (EMFT) has been proposed for measuring velocity fields using several coils and a set of electrodes attached to the surface of the pipe. In this work, a velocity field reconstruction method for EMFT is proposed. The method uses a previously developed finite-element-based computational forward model for computing boundary voltages and a Bayesian framework for inverse problems. In the approach, the vz-component of the velocity field along the longitudinal axis of the pipe is estimated on the pipe cross section. Different asymmetric velocity fields encountered near pipe elbows, solids-in-water flows in inclined pipes and in stratified or multiphase flows are tested. The results suggest that the proposed reconstruction method could be used to estimate velocity fields in complicated pipe flows in which the conventional EMFMs have limited accuracy. This article is part of the themed issue 'Supersensing through industrial process tomography'.

  2. Electromagnetic field properties in the vicinity of a massive wormhole

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, I. D.; Shatskiy, A. A.

    2011-12-15

    It is proved that not only massless but also traversable massive wormholes can have electromagnetic 'hair.' An analysis is also presented of the passage from a traversable wormhole to the limit of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole, with the corresponding disappearance of 'hair.' A general method is developed for solving stationary axisymmetric Maxwell's equations in the field of a massive, spherically symmetric wormhole. As a particular example of application of the method, a solution is found to the axisymmetric magnetostatic problem for a current loop in the field of the Bronnikov-Ellis-Morris-Thorne wormhole.

  3. Electromagnetic field redistribution in hybridized plasmonic particle-film system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yurui; Huang, Yingzhou

    2013-04-01

    Combining simulation and experiment, we demonstrate that a metal nanoparticle dimer on a gold film substrate can confine more energy in the particle/film gap because of the hybridization of the dimer resonant lever and the continuous state of the film. The hybridization may even make the electric field enhancement in the dimer/film gap stronger than in the gap between particles. The resonant peak can be tuned by varying the size of the particles and the film thickness. This electromagnetic field redistribution has tremendous applications in sensor, photocatalysis and solar cell, etc., especially considering ultrasensitive detection of tracing molecule on substrates.

  4. Synergistic health effects between chemical pollutants and electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Ledoigt, Gérard; Sta, Chaima; Goujon, Eric; Souguir, Dalila; El Ferjani, Ezzeddine

    2015-01-01

    Humans and ecosystems are exposed to highly variable and unknown cocktail of chemicals and radiations. Although individual chemicals are typically present at low concentrations, they can interact with each other resulting in additive or potentially synergistic mixture effects. This was also observed with products obtained by radiation actions such as sunlight or electromagnetic fields that can change the effects of chemicals, such as pesticides, and metal trace elements on health. Concomitant presence of various pesticides and their transformation products adds further complexity to chemical risk assessment since chronic inflammation is a key step for cancer promotion. Degradation of a parent molecule can produce several by-products which can trigger various toxic effects with different impacts on health and environment. For instance, the cocktail of sunlight irradiated sulcotrione pesticide has a greater cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than parent molecule, sulcotrione, and questions about the impact of photochemical process on environment. Adjuvants were shown to modify the biological features of pesticides. Addition of other elements, metals or biological products, can differently enhance cell toxicity of pesticides or electromagnetic radiations suggesting a synergy in living organisms. Electromagnetic fields spreading, pesticide by-products and mixtures monitoring become greater for environmental contamination evaluations.

  5. Electromagnetic field occupational exposure: non-thermal vs. thermal effects.

    PubMed

    Israel, M; Zaryabova, V; Ivanova, M

    2013-06-01

    There are a variety of definitions for "non-thermal effects" included in different international standards. They start by the simple description that they are "effects of electromagnetic energy on a body that are not heat-related effects", passing through the very general definition related to low-level effects: "biological effects ascribed to exposure to low-level electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, i.e. at or below the corresponding dosimetric reference levels in the frequency range covered in this standard (0 Hz-300 GHz)", and going to the concrete definition of "the stimulation of muscles, nerves, or sensory organs, vertigo or phosfenes". Here, we discuss what kind of effect does the non-thermal one has on human body and give data of measurements in different occupations with low-frequency sources of electromagnetic field such as electric power distribution systems, transformers, MRI systems and : video display units (VDUs), whereas thermal effects should not be expected. In some of these workplaces, values above the exposure limits could be found, nevertheless that they are in the term "non-thermal effects" on human body. Examples are workplaces in MRI, also in some power plants. Here, we will not comment on non-thermal effects as a result of RF or microwave exposure because there are not proven evidence about the existance of such effects and mechanisms for them are not clear.

  6. Plasma effects in electromagnetic field interaction with biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R. P.; Batra, Karuna; Excell, Peter S.

    2011-02-01

    Theoretical analysis is presented of the nonlinear behavior of charge carriers in biological tissue under the influence of varying low-intensity electromagnetic (EM) field. The interaction occurs because of the nonlinear force arising due to the gradient of the EM field intensity acting on free electrons in the conduction band of proteins in metabolically active biological cell membrane receptors leading to a redistribution of charge carriers. Field dependence of the resulting dielectric constant is investigated by a suitable modification to include an additional electronic contribution term to the three-term Debye model. The exogenous EM field propagating in this nonlinear cellular medium satisfies the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and can be affected significantly. Resulting field effect can be substantially augmented and effective rectification/demodulation can occur. Possible implications of this modification on biological processes in white and grey matter are discussed.

  7. Noise induced calcium oscillations in a cell exposed to electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yongli; Chen, Yafei; Yuan, Changqing; Zhan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of noise on the calcium oscillations in a cell exposed to electromagnetic fields are described by a dynamic model. Noise is a very important factor to be considered in the dynamic research on the calcium oscillations in a cell exposed to electromagnetic fields. Some meaningful results have been obtained here based on the discussion. The results show that the pattern of intracellular calcium oscillations exposure to electromagnetic fields can be influenced by noise. Furthermore, the intracellular calcium oscillations exposure to electromagnetic fields can also be induced by noise. And the work has also studied the relationships between the voltage sensitive calcium channel's open probability and electromagnetic field. The result can provide new insights into constructive roles and potential applications of selecting appropriate electromagnetic field frequency during the research of biological effect of electromagnetic field.

  8. Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards.

    PubMed

    Hardell, Lennart; Sage, Cindy

    2008-02-01

    During recent years there has been increasing public concern on potential health risks from power-frequency fields (extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF) and from radiofrequency/microwave radiation emissions (RF) from wireless communications. Non-thermal (low-intensity) biological effects have not been considered for regulation of microwave exposure, although numerous scientific reports indicate such effects. The BioInitiative Report is based on an international research and public policy initiative to give an overview of what is known of biological effects that occur at low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure. Health endpoints reported to be associated with ELF and/or RF include childhood leukaemia, brain tumours, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, breast cancer, miscarriage and some cardiovascular effects. The BioInitiative Report concluded that a reasonable suspicion of risk exists based on clear evidence of bioeffects at environmentally relevant levels, which, with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. Regarding ELF a new lower public safety limit for habitable space adjacent to all new or upgraded power lines and for all other new constructions should be applied. A new lower limit should also be used for existing habitable space for children and/or women who are pregnant. A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6 W/Kg and 2 W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to

  9. The universal C*-algebra of the electromagnetic field II. Topological charges and spacelike linear fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Detlev; Ciolli, Fabio; Ruzzi, Giuseppe; Vasselli, Ezio

    2017-02-01

    Conditions for the appearance of topological charges are studied in the framework of the universal C*-algebra of the electromagnetic field, which is represented in any theory describing electromagnetism. It is shown that non-trivial topological charges, described by pairs of fields localised in certain topologically non-trivial spacelike separated regions, can appear in regular representations of the algebra only if the fields depend non-linearly on the mollifying test functions. On the other hand, examples of regular vacuum representations with non-trivial topological charges are constructed, where the underlying field still satisfies a weakened form of "spacelike linearity". Such representations also appear in the presence of electric currents. The status of topological charges in theories with several types of electromagnetic fields, which appear in the short distance (scaling) limit of asymptotically free non-abelian gauge theories, is also briefly discussed.

  10. Electromagnetic field exposure dosimeter. Final report, September 1992-May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Feaga, A.C.; Hilliard, M.P.; Link, R.

    1994-07-28

    The growing concern about adverse health effects caused by electromagnetic radiation prompted the ideas for this dosimeter. Data have been presented that link prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation from power lines to leukemia and some types of cancer. At present, though, there is a lack of recording instrumentation to measure the prolonged exposure of an individual; thus, it is not possible to correlate properly the amount of exposure or dose to health effects. With the recent advances in small, low-power devices, a small measuring device can be developed. Once this is built, a large data base can be obtained to help correlate electromagnetic field exposure to health conditions. The objective of this project is to develop an instrument which can measure electromagnetic fields over a prolonged period of time. The instrument would be small, say about the size of a radio Walkman, and would be worn throughout the day while taking data, as the individual goes about normal activities. A PC would be used to retrieve the data from the instrument at the end of the day. The dosimeter comprises a triaxial ferrite-loaded coil sensor, a set of amplifiers and filters, analog-to-digital converters, a microcontroller, and random access data memory. The signals from the sensor are filtered into three frequency ranges: one to measure 60-Hz exposure and two harmonics, another to measure high-energy pulsed energy, and a third frequency range to record the activity level of the individual. The signals from the filters are digitized and read into a microcontroller. The microcontroller performs a few calculations and controls the flow of the data to either random access memory or to a computer. A computer is used to retrieve the data from the dosimeter, and can store and display the measured data.

  11. Comparing the Robustness of High-Frequency Traveling-Wave Tube Slow-Wave Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, Christine T.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Kory, Carol L.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional electromagnetic field simulation software package was used to compute the cold-test parameters, phase velocity, on-axis interaction impedance, and attenuation, for several high-frequency traveling-wave tube slow-wave circuit geometries. This research effort determined the effects of variations in circuit dimensions on cold-test performance. The parameter variations were based on the tolerances of conventional micromachining techniques.

  12. Instability-driven electromagnetic fields in coronal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Sinenian, N.; Frenje, J. A.; Casey, D. T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Hager, J. D.; Betti, R.; Hu, S. X.; Delettrez, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2013-04-15

    Filamentary electromagnetic fields previously observed in the coronae of laser-driven spherical targets [F. H. S eguin et al., Phys. Plasma. 19, 012701 (2012)] have been further investigated in laser irradiated plastic foils. Face-on proton-radiography provides an axial view of these filaments and shows coherent cellular structure regardless of initial foil-surface conditions. The observed cellular fields are shown to have an approximately constant scale size of 210 lm throughout the plasma evolution. A discussion of possible field-generation mechanisms is provided and it is demonstrated that the likely source of the cellular field structure is the magnetothermal instability. Using predicted temperature and density profiles, the fastest growing modes of this instability were found to be slowly varying in time and consistent with the observed cellular size.

  13. Instability-driven electromagnetic fields in coronal plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; ...

    2013-04-15

    Filamentary electromagnetic fields previously observed in the coronae of laser-driven spherical targets [F. H. S eguin et al., Phys. Plasma. 19, 012701 (2012)] have been further investigated in laser irradiated plastic foils. Face-on proton-radiography provides an axial view of these filaments and shows coherent cellular structure regardless of initial foil-surface conditions. The observed cellular fields are shown to have an approximately constant scale size of 210 lm throughout the plasma evolution. A discussion of possible field-generation mechanisms is provided and it is demonstrated that the likely source of the cellular field structure is the magnetothermal instability. Using predicted temperature andmore » density profiles, the fastest growing modes of this instability were found to be slowly varying in time and consistent with the observed cellular size.« less

  14. Cosmological magnetic fields from inflation in extended electromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Beltran Jimenez, Jose; Maroto, Antonio L.

    2011-01-15

    In this work we consider an extended electromagnetic theory in which the scalar state which is usually eliminated by means of the Lorenz condition is allowed to propagate. This state has been shown to generate a small cosmological constant in the context of standard inflationary cosmology. Here we show that the usual Lorenz gauge-breaking term now plays the role of an effective electromagnetic current. Such a current is generated during inflation from quantum fluctuations and gives rise to a stochastic effective charge density distribution. Because of the high electric conductivity of the cosmic plasma after inflation, the electric charge density generates currents which give rise to both vorticity and magnetic fields on sub-Hubble scales. Present upper limits on vorticity coming from temperature anisotropies of the CMB are translated into lower limits on the present value of cosmic magnetic fields. We find that, for a nearly scale invariant vorticity spectrum, magnetic fields B{sub {lambda}>}10{sup -12} G are typically generated with coherence lengths ranging from subgalactic scales up to the present Hubble radius. Those fields could act as seeds for a galactic dynamo or even account for observations just by collapse and differential rotation of the protogalactic cloud.

  15. ELECTRON HOLOGRAPHY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS - RECENT THEORETICAL ADVANCES.

    SciTech Connect

    BELEGGIA,M.; POZZI, G.; TONOMURA, A.

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown in this work that the Fourier space approach can be fruitfully applied to the calculation of the fields and the associated electron optical phase shift of several magnetic and electrostatic structures, like superconducting vortices in conventional and high-T{sub c} superconductors, reverse biased p-n junctions, magnetic domains and nanoparticles. In all these cases, this novel approach has led to unexpected but extremely interesting results, very often expressed in analytical form, which allow the quantitative and reliable interpretation of the experimental data collected by means of electron holography or of more conventional Lorentz microscopy techniques. Moreover, it is worth recalling that whenever long-range electromagnetic fields are involved, a physical model of the object under investigation is necessary in order to take into account correctly the perturbation of the reference wave induced by the tail of the field protruding into the vacuum. For these reasons, we believe that the Fourier space approach for phase computations we have introduced and discussed in this chapter will represent an invaluable tool for the investigation of electromagnetic fields at the meso- and nano-scale.

  16. A review on Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and the reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Ali; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Rajabzadeh, Asghar; Khaki, Arash

    2016-07-01

    Environmental factors, such as electromagnetic waves, induce biological and genetic effects. One of the most important physiological systems involved with electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is the genital system. This paper reviews the effects of EMFs on human reproductive organs, female animals, fetus development and the importance of two types of natural antioxidants, i.e., vitamin E and fennel. The studies presented in this review referred to the effects of different exposures to EMFs on the reproductive system, and we tried to show the role of natural antioxidants in reducing the effects of the exposures. Many studies have been done on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing electromagnetic waves on the cell line of spermatogenesis, sexual hormones, and the structure of the testes. Also, about the hormonal cycle, folliculogenesis and female infertility related to EMF have been given more consideration. In particular, attention is directed to pregnant women due to the importance of their fetuses. However, in addition to the studies conducted on animals, further epidemiological research should be conducted.

  17. A review on Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and the reproductive system

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Ali; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Rajabzadeh, Asghar; Khaki, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors, such as electromagnetic waves, induce biological and genetic effects. One of the most important physiological systems involved with electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is the genital system. This paper reviews the effects of EMFs on human reproductive organs, female animals, fetus development and the importance of two types of natural antioxidants, i.e., vitamin E and fennel. The studies presented in this review referred to the effects of different exposures to EMFs on the reproductive system, and we tried to show the role of natural antioxidants in reducing the effects of the exposures. Many studies have been done on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing electromagnetic waves on the cell line of spermatogenesis, sexual hormones, and the structure of the testes. Also, about the hormonal cycle, folliculogenesis and female infertility related to EMF have been given more consideration. In particular, attention is directed to pregnant women due to the importance of their fetuses. However, in addition to the studies conducted on animals, further epidemiological research should be conducted. PMID:27648194

  18. Dynamics of Cometary Dust Particles in Electromagnetic Radiation Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herranen, Joonas; Markkanen, Johannes; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri

    2016-10-01

    The formation of cometary dust tails and comae is based on solar radiation pressure. The pressure effects of electromagnetic radiation were originally conceptualized in Kepler's observations of the tails of comets and formulated mathematically by Maxwell in 1873. Today, the dynamics of cometary dust are known to be governed by gravity, electromagnetic forces, drag, solar wind, and solar radiation pressure.Solar radiation pressure has its roots in absorption, emission, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation. Due to modern advances in so-called integral equation methods in electromagnetics, a new approach of studying the effect of radiation pressure on cometary dust dynamics can be constructed. We solve the forces and torques due to radiation pressure for an arbitrarily shaped dust particle using volume integral equation methods.We then present a framework for solving the equations of motion of cometary dust particles due to radiative interactions. The solution is studied in a simplified cometary environment, where the radiative effects are studied at different orbits. The rotational and translational equations of motion are solved directly using a quaternion-based integrator. The rotational and translational equations of motion affect dust particle alignment and concentration. This is seen in the polarization of the coma. Thus, our direct dynamical approach can be used in modelling the observed imaging photo-polarimetry of the coma.In future studies, the integrator can be further extended to an exemplary comet environment, taking into account the drag, and the electric and magnetic fields. This enables us to study the dynamics of a single cometary dust particle based on fundamental physics.Acknowledgments. Research supported, in part, bythe European Research Council (ERC, grant Nr. 320773).

  19. Above-threshold ionization in two electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardfield, Rina Shoshana

    1997-11-01

    Above-threshold ionization (ATI) is a process in which a target atom absorbs more than the minimum number of photons from an applied electromagnetic field than are required for ionization, and is characterized by several peaks in the photoelectron spectrum which are separated from each other by the energy of a single photon (Agostini et al. 1979). The experiments of interest in this work involve ATI at microwave frequencies (Gallagher 1988, Gallagher and Scholz 1989), where the frequency of the field is too low to be able to see individual peaks in the spectrum. What is seen is that, in the presence of a weak assisting field, a very large number of microwave photons are absorbed. This problem cannot be treated using standard methods, due both to the intensity of the microwave field and to the large numbers of photons absorbed. The focus of this work is on the development of new analytical techniques to examine the interaction of an atomic system with two simultaneous electromagnetic fields. Specifically, the work focuses on above-threshold ionization in combined microwave and laser fields, where the microwave field is a very strong, very low frequency field, so that standard techniques, such as perturbation theory, do not apply. The work is based on two theoretical methods especially designed for use in intense field problems. These are the Strong Field Approximation (SFA) (Reiss 1980, 1992, 1996), which describes the ionization of an atom by an intense field in which the detached electron remains free in the field after ionization occurs, and the Momentum Translation Approximation (MTA) (Reiss 1970a, 1970b, 1989), which describes the dressing of a bound atomic state by a strong field in which the field can alter the state of the electron without necessarily causing transitions. The laser field, which is much weaker, is treated by traditional techniques. The theory is developed in general terms using S-matrix methods, with particular cases being modeled using

  20. An Optimization of Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    To date, in our research we have focused on the use of normal human neuronal progenitor (NHNP) cells because of their importance in human nervous system regeneration, development and maintenance, but we have developed 2-D and 3-D bioreactors that can accommodate any cell line. In this Project, we will include the use of tissues important for physiological regeneration: Human osteoblasts or chondrocytes, and vascular cells. Our initial results with the NHNP cells were quite startling using extremely low-level electromagnetic fields (5 microtesla at 10Hz; 6mA). The low-amplitude, rapidly time-varying electromagnetic fields exert a very potent effect on the proliferation, morphology, and gene expression of the cells in culture, both in standard 2-dimensional culture plates as well as cells organized into 3-dimensional tissue-like assemblies (TLAs) in a 3D bioreactor. We have replicated our preliminary results many, many times, have analyzed the gene expression using gene arrays (followed by Luminex analysis for protein production), and have monitored cell proliferation, orientation, morphology, and glucose metabolism, and we are confident that we have a stable and reliable model to study the control of high-level cellular processes by application of low-amplitude, time varying electromagnetic fields (TVEMF) (1, 2). In additional studies at the University of Michigan, we have been able to generate functional in vitro engineered mammalian skeletal muscle, and have employed nerve-muscle co-culture techniques to promote axonal sprouting. We believe that nearly all tissues, in particular, neural, are susceptible to the influences of low-level TVEMF.

  1. High-frequency isotopic analysis of liquid water samples in the field - initial results from continuous water sampling and cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Freyberg, Jana; Studer, Bjørn; Kirchner, James

    2016-04-01

    Studying rapidly changing hydrochemical signals in catchments can help to improve our mechanistic understanding of their water flow pathways and travel times. For these purposes, stable water isotopes (18O and 2H) are commonly used as natural tracers. However, high-frequency isotopic analyses of liquid water samples are challenging. One must capture highly dynamic behavior with high precision and accuracy, but the lab workload (and sample storage artifacts) involved in collecting and analyzing thousands of bottled samples should also be avoided. Therefore, we have tested Picarro, Inc.'s newly developed Continuous Water Sampler Module (CoWS), which is coupled to their L2130-i Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer to enable real-time on-line measurements of 18O and 2H in liquid water samples. We coupled this isotope analysis system to a dual-channel ion chomatograph (Metrohm AG, Herisau, Switzerland) for analysis of major cations and anions, as well as a UV-Vis spectroscopy system (s::can Messtechnik GmbH, Vienna, Austria) and electrochemical probes for characterization of basic water quality parameters. The system was run unattended for up to a week at a time in the laboratory and at a small catchment. At the field site, stream-water and precipitation samples were analyzed, alternating at sub-hourly intervals. We observed that measured isotope ratios were highly sensitive to the liquid water flow rate in the CoWS, and thus to the hydraulic head difference between the CoWS and the samples from which water was drawn. We used a programmable high-precision dosing pump to control the injection flow rate and eliminate this flow-rate artifact. Our experiments showed that the precision of the CoWS-L2130-i-system for 2-minute average values was typically better than 0.06‰ for δ18O and 0.16‰ for δ2H. Carryover effects were 1% or less between isotopically contrasting water samples for 30-minute sampling intervals. Instrument drift could be minimized through periodic analysis of

  2. Difficulties in applying numerical simulations to an evaluation of occupational hazards caused by electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Due to the various physical mechanisms of interaction between a worker's body and the electromagnetic field at various frequencies, the principles of numerical simulations have been discussed for three areas of worker exposure: to low frequency magnetic field, to low and intermediate frequency electric field and to radiofrequency electromagnetic field. This paper presents the identified difficulties in applying numerical simulations to evaluate physical estimators of direct and indirect effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields at various frequencies. Exposure of workers operating a plastic sealer have been taken as an example scenario of electromagnetic field exposure at the workplace for discussion of those difficulties in applying numerical simulations. The following difficulties in reliable numerical simulations of workers' exposure to the electromagnetic field have been considered: workers' body models (posture, dimensions, shape and grounding conditions), working environment models (objects most influencing electromagnetic field distribution) and an analysis of parameters for which exposure limitations are specified in international guidelines and standards.

  3. Difficulties in applying numerical simulations to an evaluation of occupational hazards caused by electromagnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Due to the various physical mechanisms of interaction between a worker's body and the electromagnetic field at various frequencies, the principles of numerical simulations have been discussed for three areas of worker exposure: to low frequency magnetic field, to low and intermediate frequency electric field and to radiofrequency electromagnetic field. This paper presents the identified difficulties in applying numerical simulations to evaluate physical estimators of direct and indirect effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields at various frequencies. Exposure of workers operating a plastic sealer have been taken as an example scenario of electromagnetic field exposure at the workplace for discussion of those difficulties in applying numerical simulations. The following difficulties in reliable numerical simulations of workers’ exposure to the electromagnetic field have been considered: workers’ body models (posture, dimensions, shape and grounding conditions), working environment models (objects most influencing electromagnetic field distribution) and an analysis of parameters for which exposure limitations are specified in international guidelines and standards. PMID:26323781

  4. Accuracy Improvement in Magnetic Field Modeling for an Axisymmetric Electromagnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilin, Andrew V.; Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Gurieva, Yana L.; Il,in, Valery P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the accuracy and calculation speed for the magnetic field computation in an axisymmetric electromagnet. Different numerical techniques, based on an adaptive nonuniform grid, high order finite difference approximations, and semi-analitical calculation of boundary conditions are considered. These techniques are being applied to the modeling of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket. For high-accuracy calculations, a fourth-order scheme offers dramatic advantages over a second order scheme. For complex physical configurations of interest in plasma propulsion, a second-order scheme with nonuniform mesh gives the best results. Also, the relative advantages of various methods are described when the speed of computation is an important consideration.

  5. Healing of Chronic Wounds through Systemic Effects of Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo, L.; Trigos, I.; García-Cantú, R.; Godina-Nava, J. J.; Serrano, G.

    2002-08-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF) were configured to interact with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). These ELF were applied in the arm to five patients with chronic wounds resistant to medical and surgical treatment. Wound healing began in all patients during the first two weeks after ELF exposure permiting their previously unresponsive chronic wounds to function as internal controls. All lesions were cured or healed >70% in less than four months. Systemic effects were explained by ELF activation of PBMC and their transportation through the blood to the affected site. This therapy is effective in selected patients with chronic wounds.

  6. On Acceptable Exposures to Short Pulses of Electromagnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    standards and other research on the safety to humans of short pulses of electromagnetic radiation . Special attention is paid to a ten nanosecond...pulses of electromagnetic radiation have been considered. Considerations for implanted medical devices and implanted metal objects and the like are...of Electromagnetic Precursors,” Proceedings of the International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications, Torino, Italy, September

  7. Basics of quantum field theory of electromagnetic interaction processes in single-layer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2016-09-01

    The content of this work is the study of electromagnetic interaction in single-layer graphene by means of the perturbation theory. The interaction of electromagnetic field with Dirac fermions in single-layer graphene has a peculiarity: Dirac fermions in graphene interact not only with the electromagnetic wave propagating within the graphene sheet, but also with electromagnetic field propagating from a location outside the graphene sheet and illuminating this sheet. The interaction Hamiltonian of the system comprising electromagnetic field and Dirac fermions fields contains the limits at graphene plane of electromagnetic field vector and scalar potentials which can be shortly called boundary electromagnetic field. The study of S-matrix requires knowing the limits at graphene plane of 2-point Green functions of electromagnetic field which also can be shortly called boundary 2-point Green functions of electromagnetic field. As the first example of the application of perturbation theory, the second order terms in the perturbative expansions of boundary 2-point Green functions of electromagnetic field as well as of 2-point Green functions of Dirac fermion fields are explicitly derived. Further extension of the application of perturbation theory is also discussed.

  8. Electromagnetic field tapering using all-dielectric gradient index materials

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jianjia; Piau, Gérard-Pascal; de Lustrac, André; Burokur, Shah Nawaz

    2016-01-01

    The concept of transformation optics (TO) is applied to control the flow of electromagnetic fields between two sections of different dimensions through a tapering device. The broadband performance of the field taper is numerically and experimentally validated. The taper device presents a graded permittivity profile and is fabricated through three-dimensional (3D) polyjet printing technology using low-cost all-dielectric materials. Calculated and measured near-field mappings are presented in order to validate the proposed taper. A good qualitative agreement is obtained between full-wave simulations and experimental tests. Such all-dielectric taper paves the way to novel types of microwave devices that can be easily fabricated through low-cost additive manufacturing processes. PMID:27464989

  9. Conserved currents for electromagnetic fields in the Kerr spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Alexander; Flanagan, Eanna

    2017-01-01

    For any classical linear Lagrangian field theory, the symplectic product provides a conserved current that is bilinear on the space of solutions. Given a linear mapping from the space of solutions into itself, a ``symmetry operator'', one can therefore generate quadratic conserved currents for any linear classical field theory. We apply this procedure to the case of electromagnetism on a Kerr background, showing that this procedure can generate the conserved currents given by Andersson, Bäckdahl, and Blue, as well as two new conserved currents. These currents reduce to the sum of (positive powers of) the Carter constants of the photons in the geometric optics limit, and generalize the current for scalar fields discovered by Carter. We furthermore show that the fluxes of these new currents through null infinity and the horizon are finite.

  10. Electromagnetic field tapering using all-dielectric gradient index materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jianjia; Piau, Gérard-Pascal; de Lustrac, André; Burokur, Shah Nawaz

    2016-07-01

    The concept of transformation optics (TO) is applied to control the flow of electromagnetic fields between two sections of different dimensions through a tapering device. The broadband performance of the field taper is numerically and experimentally validated. The taper device presents a graded permittivity profile and is fabricated through three-dimensional (3D) polyjet printing technology using low-cost all-dielectric materials. Calculated and measured near-field mappings are presented in order to validate the proposed taper. A good qualitative agreement is obtained between full-wave simulations and experimental tests. Such all-dielectric taper paves the way to novel types of microwave devices that can be easily fabricated through low-cost additive manufacturing processes.

  11. Electromagnetic field tapering using all-dielectric gradient index materials.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jianjia; Piau, Gérard-Pascal; de Lustrac, André; Burokur, Shah Nawaz

    2016-07-28

    The concept of transformation optics (TO) is applied to control the flow of electromagnetic fields between two sections of different dimensions through a tapering device. The broadband performance of the field taper is numerically and experimentally validated. The taper device presents a graded permittivity profile and is fabricated through three-dimensional (3D) polyjet printing technology using low-cost all-dielectric materials. Calculated and measured near-field mappings are presented in order to validate the proposed taper. A good qualitative agreement is obtained between full-wave simulations and experimental tests. Such all-dielectric taper paves the way to novel types of microwave devices that can be easily fabricated through low-cost additive manufacturing processes.

  12. Time dependent electromagnetic fields and 4-dimensional Stokes' theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andosca, Ryan; Singleton, Douglas

    2016-11-01

    Stokes' theorem is central to many aspects of physics—electromagnetism, the Aharonov-Bohm effect, and Wilson loops to name a few. However, the pedagogical examples and research work almost exclusively focus on situations where the fields are time-independent so that one need only deal with purely spatial line integrals (e.g., ∮ A . d x ) and purely spatial area integrals (e.g., ∫ ( ∇ × A ) . d a = ∫ B . d a ). Here, we address this gap by giving some explicit examples of how Stokes' theorem plays out with time-dependent fields in a full 4-dimensional spacetime context. We also discuss some unusual features of Stokes' theorem with time-dependent fields related to gauge transformations and non-simply connected topology.

  13. Microwave electromagnetic field regulates gene expression in T-lymphoblastoid leukemia CCRF-CEM cell line exposed to 900 MHz.

    PubMed

    Trivino Pardo, Juan Carlos; Grimaldi, Settimio; Taranta, Monia; Naldi, Ilaria; Cinti, Caterina

    2012-03-01

    Electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields are ubiquitous in our society, and concerns have been expressed regarding possible adverse effects of these exposures. Research on Extremely Low-Frequency (ELF) magnetic fields has been performed for more than two decades, and the methodology and quality of studies have improved over time. Studies have consistently shown increased risk for childhood leukemia associated with ELF magnetic fields. There are still inadequate data for other outcomes. More recently, focus has shifted toward Radio Frequencies (RF) exposures from mobile telephony. There are no persuasive data suggesting a health risk, but this research field is still immature with regard to the quantity and quality of available data. This technology is constantly changing and there is a need for continued research on this issue. To investigate whether exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) could induce adverse health effects, we cultured acute T-lymphoblastoid leukemia cells (CCRF-CEM) in the presence of 900 MHz MW-EMF generated by a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell at short and long exposure times. We evaluated the effect of high-frequency EMF on gene expression and we identified functional pathways influenced by 900 MHz MW-EMF exposure.

  14. Weak scattering of scalar and electromagnetic random fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Zhisong

    This dissertation encompasses several studies relating to the theory of weak potential scattering of scalar and electromagnetic random, wide-sense statistically stationary fields from various types of deterministic or random linear media. The proposed theory is largely based on the first Born approximation for potential scattering and on the angular spectrum representation of fields. The main focus of the scalar counterpart of the theory is made on calculation of the second-order statistics of scattered light fields in cases when the scattering medium consists of several types of discrete particles with deterministic or random potentials. It is shown that the knowledge of the correlation properties for the particles of the same and different types, described with the newly introduced pair-scattering matrix, is crucial for determining the spectral and coherence states of the scattered radiation. The approach based on the pair-scattering matrix is then used for solving an inverse problem of determining the location of an "alien" particle within the scattering collection of "normal" particles, from several measurements of the spectral density of scattered light. Weak scalar scattering of light from a particulate medium in the presence of optical turbulence existing between the scattering centers is then approached using the combination of the Born's theory for treating the light interaction with discrete particles and the Rytov's theory for light propagation in extended turbulent medium. It is demonstrated how the statistics of scattered radiation depend on scattering potentials of particles and the power spectra of the refractive index fluctuations of turbulence. This theory is of utmost importance for applications involving atmospheric and oceanic light transmission. The second part of the dissertation includes the theoretical procedure developed for predicting the second-order statistics of the electromagnetic random fields, such as polarization and linear momentum

  15. Robust multiscale field-only formulation of electromagnetic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Klaseboer, Evert; Chan, Derek Y. C.

    2017-01-01

    We present a boundary integral formulation of electromagnetic scattering by homogeneous bodies that are characterized by linear constitutive equations in the frequency domain. By working with the Cartesian components of the electric E and magnetic H fields and with the scalar functions (r .E ) and (r .H ) where r is a position vector, the problem can be cast as having to solve a set of scalar Helmholtz equations for the field components that are coupled by the usual electromagnetic boundary conditions at material boundaries. This facilitates a direct solution for the surface values of E and H rather than having to work with surface currents or surface charge densities as intermediate quantities in existing methods. Consequently, our formulation is free of the well-known numerical instability that occurs in the zero-frequency or long-wavelength limit in traditional surface integral solutions of Maxwell's equations and our numerical results converge uniformly to the static results in the long-wavelength limit. Furthermore, we use a formulation of the scalar Helmholtz equation that is expressed as classically convergent integrals and does not require the evaluation of principal value integrals or any knowledge of the solid angle. Therefore, standard quadrature and higher order surface elements can readily be used to improve numerical precision for the same number of degrees of freedom. In addition, near and far field values can be calculated with equal precision, and multiscale problems in which the scatterers possess characteristic length scales that are both large and small relative to the wavelength can be easily accommodated. From this we obtain results for the scattering and transmission of electromagnetic waves at dielectric boundaries that are valid for any ratio of the local surface curvature to the wave number. This is a generalization of the familiar Fresnel formula and Snell's law, valid at planar dielectric boundaries, for the scattering and transmission

  16. Dynamic properties of ionospheric plasma turbulence driven by high-power high-frequency radiowaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grach, S. M.; Sergeev, E. N.; Mishin, E. V.; Shindin, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    A review is given of the current state-of-the-art of experimental studies and the theoretical understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in the ionospheric F-layer irradiated by high-power high-frequency ground-based transmitters. The main focus is on the dynamic features of high-frequency turbulence (plasma waves) and low-frequency turbulence (density irregularities of various scales) that have been studied in experiments at the Sura and HAARP heating facilities operated in temporal and frequency regimes specially designed with consideration of the characteristic properties of nonlinear processes in the perturbed ionosphere using modern radio receivers and optical instruments. Experimental results are compared with theoretical turbulence models for a magnetized collisional plasma in a high-frequency electromagnetic field, allowing the identification of the processes responsible for the observed features of artificial ionospheric turbulence.

  17. Dynamic properties of ionospheric plasma turbulence driven by high-power high-frequency radiowaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grach, S. M.; Sergeev, E. N.; Mishin, E. V.; Shindin, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    A review is given of the current state-of-the-art of experimental studies and the theoretical understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in the ionospheric F-layer irradiated by high-power high-frequency ground-based transmitters. The main focus is on the dynamic features of high-frequency turbulence (plasma waves) and low-frequency turbulence (density irregularities of various scales) that have been studied in experiments at the Sura and HAARP heating facilities operated in temporal and frequency regimes specially designed with consideration of the characteristic properties of nonlinear processes in the perturbed ionosphere using modern radio receivers and optical instruments. Experimental results are compared with theoretical turbulence models for a magnetized collisional plasma in a high-frequency electromagnetic field, allowing the identification of the processes responsible for the observed features of artificial ionospheric turbulence.

  18. Trends in residential exposure to electromagnetic fields from 2006 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Tomitsch, J; Dechant, E

    2012-05-01

    After measuring extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields (ELF-EFs, ELF-MFs) and radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) in 2006, a follow-up investigation was done in 2009. Overall, 130 measurements in bedrooms at identical and 83 at changed locations within the same or a neighbouring building were performed. The median of ELF-EFs decreased from 25.15 to 17.35 V m(-1) from 2006 to 2009. The median of all-night ELF-MFs from power supply decreased from 16.86 to 12.76 nT, whereas the arithmetic mean was almost unchanged (+0.1%). No difference in the medians of all-night ELF-MFs of railway current was observed. RF-EMFs increased from 41.35 to 59.56 µW m(-2). Increases primarily occurred in the frequency ranges of Global System for Mobile 900 MHz, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System and Wireless Local Area Network. Television changeover from analogue to digital resulted in a reduction within the Ultra-high Frequency-band from 0.47 to 0.35 µW m(-2). The base stations of the recently established terrestrial trunked radio system caused a median of 0.05 µW m(-2).

  19. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Assisted in vitro Electroporation: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novickij, Vitalij; Grainys, Audrius; Lastauskienė, Eglė; Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Pamedytytė, Dovilė; Kalėdienė, Lilija; Novickij, Jurij; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-09-01

    Electroporation is a phenomenon occurring due to exposure of cells to Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) which leads to increase of membrane permeability. Electroporation is used in medicine, biotechnology, and food processing. Recently, as an alternative to electroporation by PEF, Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields (PEMF) application causing similar biological effects was suggested. Since induced electric field in PEMF however is 2–3 magnitudes lower than in PEF electroporation, the membrane permeabilization mechanism remains hypothetical. We have designed pilot experiments where Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida lusitaniae cells were subjected to single 100–250 μs electrical pulse of 800 V with and without concomitant delivery of magnetic pulse (3, 6 and 9 T). As expected, after the PEF pulses only the number of Propidium Iodide (PI) fluorescent cells has increased, indicative of membrane permeabilization. We further show that single sub-millisecond magnetic field pulse did not cause detectable poration of yeast. Concomitant exposure of cells to pulsed electric (PEF) and magnetic field (PMF) however resulted in the increased number PI fluorescent cells and reduced viability. Our results show increased membrane permeability by PEF when combined with magnetic field pulse, which can explain electroporation at considerably lower electric field strengths induced by PEMF compared to classical electroporation.

  20. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Assisted in vitro Electroporation: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Novickij, Vitalij; Grainys, Audrius; Lastauskienė, Eglė; Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Pamedytytė, Dovilė; Kalėdienė, Lilija; Novickij, Jurij; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-01-01

    Electroporation is a phenomenon occurring due to exposure of cells to Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) which leads to increase of membrane permeability. Electroporation is used in medicine, biotechnology, and food processing. Recently, as an alternative to electroporation by PEF, Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields (PEMF) application causing similar biological effects was suggested. Since induced electric field in PEMF however is 2–3 magnitudes lower than in PEF electroporation, the membrane permeabilization mechanism remains hypothetical. We have designed pilot experiments where Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida lusitaniae cells were subjected to single 100–250 μs electrical pulse of 800 V with and without concomitant delivery of magnetic pulse (3, 6 and 9 T). As expected, after the PEF pulses only the number of Propidium Iodide (PI) fluorescent cells has increased, indicative of membrane permeabilization. We further show that single sub-millisecond magnetic field pulse did not cause detectable poration of yeast. Concomitant exposure of cells to pulsed electric (PEF) and magnetic field (PMF) however resulted in the increased number PI fluorescent cells and reduced viability. Our results show increased membrane permeability by PEF when combined with magnetic field pulse, which can explain electroporation at considerably lower electric field strengths induced by PEMF compared to classical electroporation. PMID:27634482

  1. Radio frequency electromagnetic fields: cancer, mutagenesis, and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Heynick, Louis N; Johnston, Sheila A; Mason, Patrick A

    2003-01-01

    We present critiques of epidemiologic studies and experimental investigations, published mostly in peer-reviewed journals, on cancer and related effects from exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic fields in the nominal frequency range of 3 kHz to 300 GHz of interest to Subcommittee 4 (SC4) of the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety (ICES). The major topics discussed are presented under the headings Epidemiologic and Other Findings on Human Exposure, Mammals Exposed In Vivo, Mammalian Live Tissues and Cell Preparations Exposed In Vitro, and Mutagenesis and Genotoxicity in Microorganisms and Fruit Flies. Under each major topic, we present minireviews of papers on various specific endpoints investigated. The section on Epidemiologic and Other Findings on Human Exposure is divided into two subsections, the first on possible carcinogenic effects of exposure from emitters not in physical contact with the populations studied, for example, transmitting antennas and other devices. Discussed in the second subsection are studies of postulated carcinogenic effects from use of mobile phones, with prominence given to brain tumors from use of cellular and cordless telephones in direct physical contact with an ear of each subject. In both subsections, some investigations yielded positive findings, others had negative findings, including papers directed toward experimentally verifying positive findings, and both were reported in a few instances. Further research on various important aspects may resolve such differences. Overall, however, the preponderance of published epidemiologic and experimental findings do not support the supposition that in vivo or in vitro exposures to such fields are carcinogenic.

  2. Quantum Mechanics Action of ELF Electromagnetic Fields on Living Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godina-Nava, J. J.

    2010-10-01

    There is presently an intense discussion if extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure has consequences for human health. This include exposure to structures and appliances from this range of frequency in the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. Biological effects of such exposures have been noted frequently, although the implications for specific health effects is not that clear. The basic interactions mechanisms between such fields and living matter is unknown. Numerous hypotheses have been suggested, although none is convincingly supported by experimental data. Various cellular components, processes, and systems can be affected by EMF exposure. Since it is unlikely that EMF can induce DNA damage directly, most studies have examined EMF effects on the cell membrane level, general and specific gene expression, and signal transduction pathways. Even more, a large number of studies have been performed regarding cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation, metabolism, and various physiological characteristics of cells. The aim of this letter is present the hypothesis of a possible quantum mechanic effect generated by the exposure of ELF EMF, an event which is compatible with the multitude of effects observed after exposure. Based on an extensive literature review, we suggest that ELF EMF exposure is able to perform such activation restructuring the electronic level of occupancy of free radicals in molecules interacting with DNA structures.

  3. Acceleration of adiabatic quantum dynamics in electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Shumpei; Nakamura, Katsuhiro

    2011-10-15

    We show a method to accelerate quantum adiabatic dynamics of wave functions under electromagnetic field (EMF) by developing the preceding theory [Masuda and Nakamura, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 466, 1135 (2010)]. Treating the orbital dynamics of a charged particle in EMF, we derive the driving field which accelerates quantum adiabatic dynamics in order to obtain the final adiabatic states in any desired short time. The scheme is consolidated by describing a way to overcome possible singularities in both the additional phase and driving potential due to nodes proper to wave functions under EMF. As explicit examples, we exhibit the fast forward of adiabatic squeezing and transport of excited Landau states with nonzero angular momentum, obtaining the result consistent with the transitionless quantum driving applied to the orbital dynamics in EMF.

  4. Interaction of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields with humans

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1991-07-01

    At a macroscopic level, the effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields on humans are well understood based on fundamental physical principles, but far less is known about the nature of the interactions at a cellular or molecular level. Current evidence suggests the effects of ELF on cellular biochemistry are due to interactions with the cell membrane. Elucidation of the mechanism that underlies this transmembrane signaling is critical for a molecular-level understanding of ELF field effects. Further research is also required to clarify a possible link between ELF exposure and increased cancer risk, since estimated ELF exposure in occupational or residential settings is much lower that the levels used in laboratory studies. There is a clear need for additional epidemiological research in which qualitative dosimetry is used to characterize ELF exposure and careful attention is given to possible effects of confounding variables. 24 refs.

  5. Electromagnetic field limits set by the V-Curve.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Hudson, Howard Gerald

    2014-07-01

    When emitters of electromagnetic energy are operated in the vicinity of sensitive components, the electric field at the component location must be kept below a certain level in order to prevent the component from being damaged, or in the case of electro-explosive devices, initiating. The V-Curve is a convenient way to set the electric field limit because it requires minimal information about the problem configuration. In this report we will discuss the basis for the V-Curve. We also consider deviations from the original V-Curve resulting from inductive versus capacitive antennas, increases in directivity gain for long antennas, decreases in input impedance when operating in a bounded region, and mismatches dictated by transmission line losses. In addition, we consider mitigating effects resulting from limited antenna sizes.

  6. Electromagnetic fields and the induction of DNA strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gómez, Miguel J; Martínez-Morillo, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified the extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) as "possible carcinogenic" based on the reported effects. The purpose of this work is to review and compare the recent findings related to the induction of DNA strand breaks (DNA-SB) by magnetic field (MF) exposure. We found 29 studies (genotoxic and epigenetic) about the induction of DNA-SB by MF. 50% showed effect of MF and 50% showed no DNA-SB. Nevertheless, considering only genotoxic or only epigenetic studies, 37.5% and 69.2% found induction of DNA-SB by MF, respectively. In relation to these data it seems that MF could act as a co-inductor of DNA damage rather than as a genotoxic agent per se. Nevertheless, the published results, in some cases conflicting with negative findings, do not facilitate to obtain a common consensus about MF effects and biophysical interaction mechanisms.

  7. Theory of a ring laser. [electromagnetic field and wave equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menegozzi, L. N.; Lamb, W. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Development of a systematic formulation of the theory of a ring laser which is based on first principles and uses a well-known model for laser operation. A simple physical derivation of the electromagnetic field equations for a noninertial reference frame in uniform rotation is presented, and an attempt is made to clarify the nature of the Fox-Li modes for an open polygonal resonator. The polarization of the active medium is obtained by using a Fourier-series method which permits the formulation of a strong-signal theory, and solutions are given in terms of continued fractions. It is shown that when such a continued fraction is expanded to third order in the fields, the familiar small-signal ring-laser theory is obtained.

  8. Electromagnetic plasma wave emissions from the auroral field lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    The most important types of auroral radio emissions are reviewed, both from a historical perspective as well as considering the latest results. Particular emphasis is placed on four types of electromagnetic emissions which are directly associated with the plasma on the auroral field lines. These emissions are (1) auroral hiss, (2) saucers, (3) ELF noise bands, and (4) auroral kilometric radiation. Ray tracing and radio direction finding measurements indicate that both the auroral hiss and auroral kilometric radiation are generated along the auroral field lines relatively close to the earth, at radial distances from about 2.5 to 5 R sub e. For the auroral hiss the favored mechanism appears to be amplified Cerenkov radiation. For the auroral kilometric radiation several mechanisms have been proposed, usually involving the intermediate generation of electrostatic waves by the precipitating electrons.

  9. Electromagnetic field triggered drug and chemical delivery via liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Liburdy, Robert P.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system and to a method of delivering a drug to a preselected target body site of a patient, comprising the steps of encapsulating the chemical agent within liposomes, essentially temperature insensitive, i.e. not having a specific predetermined phase transition temperature within the specific temperature range of drug administration; administering the liposomes to the target body site; and subjecting the target body site to nonionizing electromagnetic fields in an area of the preselected target body in order to release said chemical agent from the liposomes at a temperature of between about +10 and 65.degree. C. The invention further relates to the use of said liposomes to bind to the surface of or to enter target tissue or an organ in a living system, and, when subjected to a nonionizing field, to release a drug from the liposomes into the target site.

  10. Near-field electromagnetic theory for thin solar cells.

    PubMed

    Niv, A; Gharghi, M; Gladden, C; Miller, O D; Zhang, X

    2012-09-28

    Current methods for evaluating solar cell efficiencies cannot be applied to low-dimensional structures where phenomena from the realm of near-field optics prevail. We present a theoretical approach to analyze solar cell performance by allowing rigorous electromagnetic calculations of the emission rate using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Our approach shows the direct quantification of the voltage, current, and efficiency of low-dimensional solar cells. This approach is demonstrated by calculating the voltage and the efficiency of a GaAs slab solar cell for thicknesses from several microns down to a few nanometers. This example highlights the ability of the proposed approach to capture the role of optical near-field effects in solar cell performance.

  11. The dielectric response to the magnetic field of electromagnetic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Shouvik; Mukhopadhyay, Sourabh; Datta, Prasanta Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Light–matter interaction in transparent dielectrics is revisited, including the magnetic force on bound charges in the Lorentz oscillator model. The parameter ranges of incident radiation and the medium on which the magnetic field of the electromagnetic radiation will have a significant effect are traced using Floquet theory. The analysis reveals that the threshold intensity for a significant response of the magnetic field of the radiation at the second harmonic of the incident radiation can be reduced to {10}12 {{W}}{{cm}}-2 for off resonant and even lower for resonant interaction. This phenomenon has already been observed indirectly in experiments [1, 2]. Induced magnetizing current due to the magnetic force is shown to originate from a modified dielectric response, which may be useful in future magneto-optic devices, solar energy harvesting, and studying the ultrafast dynamics in doped dielectrics.

  12. Relativistic particle acceleration by obliquely propagating electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalón, Elena; Burke, William J.

    1987-12-01

    The relativistic equations of motion are analyzed for charged particles in a magnetized plasma and externally imposed electromagnetic fields (ω, k), which have wave vectors k that are at arbitrary angles. The particle energy is obtained from a set of nonlinear differential equations, as a function of time, initial conditions, and cyclotron harmonic numbers. For a given cyclotron resonance, the energy oscillates in time within the limits of a potential well; stochastic acceleration occurs if the widths of different Hamiltonian potentials overlap. The net energy gain for a given harmonic increase with the angle of propagation, and decreases as the magnitude of the wave magnetic field increases. Potential applications of these results to the acceleration of ionsopheric electrons are presented.

  13. Electromagnetic field triggered drug and chemical delivery via liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Liburdy, R.P.

    1993-03-02

    The present invention relates to a system and to a method of delivering a drug to a preselected target body site of a patient, comprising the steps of encapsulating the chemical agent within liposomes, essentially temperature insensitive, i.e. not having a specific predetermined phase transition temperature within the specific temperature range of drug administration; administering the liposomes to the target body site; and subjecting the target body site to nonionizing electromagnetic fields in an area of the preselected target body in order to release the chemical agent from the liposomes at a temperature of between about +10 and 65 C. The invention further relates to the use of the liposomes to bind to the surface of or to enter target tissue or an organ in a living system, and, when subjected to a nonionizing field, to release a drug from the liposomes into the target site.

  14. Geometric entropy and edge modes of the electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, William; Wall, Aron C.

    2016-11-01

    We calculate the vacuum entanglement entropy of Maxwell theory in a class of curved spacetimes by Kaluza-Klein reduction of the theory onto a two-dimensional base manifold. Using two-dimensional duality, we express the geometric entropy of the electromagnetic field as the entropy of a tower of scalar fields, constant electric and magnetic fluxes, and a contact term, whose leading-order divergence was discovered by Kabat. The complete contact term takes the form of one negative scalar degree of freedom confined to the entangling surface. We show that the geometric entropy agrees with a statistical definition of entanglement entropy that includes edge modes: classical solutions determined by their boundary values on the entangling surface. This resolves a long-standing puzzle about the statistical interpretation of the contact term in the entanglement entropy. We discuss the implications of this negative term for black hole thermodynamics and the renormalization of Newton's constant.

  15. Photon merging and splitting in electromagnetic field inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, Holger; Karbstein, Felix; Seegert, Nico

    2016-04-01

    We investigate photon merging and splitting processes in inhomogeneous, slowly varying electromagnetic fields. Our study is based on the three-photon polarization tensor following from the Heisenberg-Euler effective action. We put special emphasis on deviations from the well-known constant field results, also revisiting the selection rules for these processes. In the context of high-intensity laser facilities, we analytically determine compact expressions for the number of merged/split photons as obtained in the focal spots of intense laser beams. For the parameter range of typical petawatt class laser systems as pump and probe, we provide estimates for the numbers of signal photons attainable in an actual experiment. The combination of frequency upshifting, polarization dependence and scattering off the inhomogeneities renders photon merging an ideal signature for the experimental exploration of nonlinear quantum vacuum properties.

  16. A. A. Ukhtomskii`s dominance principle of brain activity in the perception of electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kholodov, Yu.A.

    1994-07-01

    Preliminary instruction of the subject plays an important role in the perception of weak electromagnetic fields acting on the hand. Active attention to a potential effect amplifies a brain state that can be called caution dominance and arises spontaneously with a {open_quotes}placebo{close_quotes} or an electromagnetic field. The radar principle of brain operation is discussed among the physiological mechanisms through which electromagnetic fields act on an organism.

  17. A. A. Ukhtomskii's dominance principle of brain activity in the perception of electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, Yu. A.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary instruction of the subject plays an important role in the perception of weak electromagnetic fields acting on the hand. Active attention to a potential effect amplifies a brain state that can be called caution dominance and arises spontaneously with a “placebo” or an electromagnetic field. The radar principle of brain operation is discussed among the physiological mechanisms through which electromagnetic fields act on an organism.

  18. Assessment of the Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    the Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5d. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr... Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) (From 1 June 2002 to 31 May 2003 for 12 months) Nikolai Konstantinovich Chemeris...International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), Moscow. 2 ISTC 2350 Assessment of the Genotoxic Effects of High Peak-Power Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

  19. Electromagnetic fields (EMF): do they play a role in children's environmental health (CEH)?

    PubMed

    Otto, Matthias; von Mühlendahl, Karl Ernst

    2007-10-01

    Possible adverse health effects of exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (EMF), and especially the question of whether there exists a special vulnerability of children, have been a much discussed topic during the last two decades. Static fields produce health effects only in very rare and exceptional circumstances at extremely high field intensities. As for low-frequency EMF, the results of epidemiological research with respect to childhood leukaemia prompted the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2001 to classify these fields as "possibly carcinogenic to humans". Current hypotheses on the mechanism of such action are presented. The effect, if existent, appears to be not very important in relation to established other causes of childhood leukaemia. High-frequency EMF, as used in mobile and wireless communication (mobile telephony according to the GSM and UMTS standard, cordless DECT phones, wireless local area networks (WLAN), Bluetooth) and since many decades also in radio and television technology, are practically omnipresent. At high intensities, the generation of heat is the principal effect. Current guidelines, limits and regulations prevent any such effect. Mobile phone calls may, in certain circumstances, lead to local exposures close to limit values. Base stations typically produce exposures lower by 2-5 magnitudes. The discussion centres on the so-called non-thermal effects, which are supposedly occurring at field intensities, which are by orders of magnitude lower than those responsible for thermal effects. The reproducibility of these effects is usually poor, and no physiologic or pathogenic mechanism, so far, has been found to explain the alleged effects. Equally, epidemiologic studies have not furnished clear and reproducible data as arguments for negative health effects. Final results of the INTERPHONE study on the risk of brain tumours, acoustic neurinoma and parotid gland tumours associated with the use of

  20. Impact of the strong electromagnetic field on the QCD effective potential for homogeneous Abelian gluon field configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Galilo, Bogdan V.; Nedelko, Sergei N.

    2011-11-01

    The one-loop quark contribution to the QCD effective potential for the homogeneous Abelian gluon field in the presence of an external strong electromagnetic field is evaluated. The structure of extrema of the potential as a function of the angles between chromoelectric, chromomagnetic, and electromagnetic fields is analyzed. In this setup, the electromagnetic field is considered as an external one while the gluon field represents domain structured nonperturbative gluon configurations related to the QCD vacuum in the confinement phase. Two particularly interesting gluon configurations, (anti-)self-dual and crossed orthogonal chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields, are discussed specifically. Within this simplified framework it is shown that the strong electromagnetic fields can play a catalyzing role for a deconfinement transition. At the qualitative level, the present consideration can be seen as a highly simplified study of an impact of the electromagnetic fields generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions on the strongly interacting hadronic matter.

  1. Probing intergalactic magnetic fields with simulations of electromagnetic cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves Batista, Rafael; Saveliev, Andrey; Sigl, Günter; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2016-10-01

    We determine the effect of intergalactic magnetic fields on the distribution of high-energy gamma rays by performing three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of the development of gamma-ray-induced electromagnetic cascades in the magnetized intergalactic medium. We employ the so-called "Large Sphere Observer" method to efficiently simulate blazar gamma ray halos. We study magnetic fields with a Batchelor spectrum and with maximal left- and right-handed helicities. We also consider the case of sources whose jets are tilted with respect to the line of sight. We verify the formation of extended gamma ray halos around the source direction, and observe spiral-like patterns if the magnetic field is helical. We apply the Q -statistics to the simulated halos to extract their spiral nature and also propose an alternative method, the S -statistics. Both methods provide a quantitative way to infer the helicity of the intervening magnetic fields from the morphology of individual blazar halos for magnetic field strengths B ≳10-15 G and magnetic coherence lengths Lc≳100 Mpc . We show that the S -statistics has a better performance than the Q -statistics when assessing magnetic helicity from the simulated halos.

  2. Setting prudent public health policy for electromagnetic field exposures.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O; Sage, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) permeate our environment, coming both from such natural sources as the sun and from manmade sources like electricity, communication technologies and medical devices. Although life on earth would not be possible without sunlight, increasing evidence indicates that exposures to the magnetic fields associated with electricity and to communication frequencies associated with radio, television, WiFi technology, and mobile cellular phones pose significant hazards to human health. The evidence is strongest for leukemia from electricity-frequency fields and for brain tumors from communication-frequency fields, yet evidence is emerging for an association with other diseases as well, including neurodegenerative diseases. Some uncertainty remains as to the mechanism(s) responsible for these biological effects, and as to which components of the fields are of greatest importance. Nevertheless, regardless of whether the associations are causal, the strengths of the associations are sufficiently strong that in the opinion of the authors, taking action to reduce exposures is imperative, especially for the fetus and children. Inaction is not compatible with the Precautionary Principle, as enunciated by the Rio Declaration. Because of ubiquitous exposure, the rapidly expanding development of new EMF technologies and the long latency for the development of such serious diseases as brain cancers, the failure to take immediate action risks epidemics of potentially fatal diseases in the future.

  3. Electromagnetic Form Factors of Hadrons in Quantum Field Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, C. A.

    2008-10-13

    In this talk, recent results are presented of calculations of electromagnetic form factors of hadrons in the framework of two quantum field theories (QFT), (a) Dual-Large N{sub c} QCD (Dual-QCD{sub {infinity}}) for the pion, proton, and {delta}(1236), and (b) the Kroll-Lee-Zumino (KLZ) fully renormalizable Abelian QFT for the pion form factor. Both theories provide a QFT platform to improve on naive (tree-level) Vector Meson Dominance (VMD). Dual-QCD{sub {infinity}} provides a tree-level improvement by incorporating an infinite number of zero-width resonances, which can be subsequently shifted from the real axis to account for the time-like behaviour of the form factors. The renormalizable KLZ model provides a QFT improvement of VMD in the framework of perturbation theory. Due to the relative mildness of the {rho}{pi}{pi} coupling, and the size of loop suppression factors, the perturbative expansion is well defined in spite of this being a strong coupling theory. Both approaches lead to considerable improvements of VMD predictions for electromagnetic form factors, in excellent agreement with data.

  4. Electromagnetic field strength levels surrounding electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems.

    PubMed

    Harris, C; Boivin, W; Boyd, S; Coletta, J; Kerr, L; Kempa, K; Aronow, S

    2000-01-01

    Electronic article surveillance (EAS) is used in many applications throughout the world to prevent theft. EAS systems produce electromagnetic (EM) energy around exits to create an EM interrogation zone through which protected items must pass before leaving the establishment. Specially designed EAS tags are attached to these items and must either be deactivated or removed prior to passing through the EAS EM interrogation zone to prevent the alarm from sounding. Recent reports in the scientific literature have noted the possibility that EM energy transmitted by EAS systems may interfere with the proper operation of sensitive electronic medical devices. The Food and Drug Administration has the regulatory responsibility to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medical devices. Because of the possibility of electromagnetic interference (EMI) between EAS systems and electronic medical devices, in situ measurements of the electric and magnetic fields were made around various types of EAS systems. Field strength levels were measured around four types of EAS systems: audio frequency magnetic, pulsed magnetic resonant, radio frequency, and microwave. Field strengths from these EAS systems varied with magnetic fields as high as 1073.6 Am(-1) (in close proximity to the audio frequency magnetic EAS system towers), and electric fields up to 23.8 Vm(-1) (in close proximity to the microwave EAS system towers). Medical devices are only required to withstand 3 Vm(-1) by the International Electrotechnical Commission's current medical device standards. The modulation scheme of the signal transmitted by some types of EAS systems (especially the pulsed magnetic resonant) has been shown to be more likely to cause EMI with electronic medical devices. This study complements other work in the field by attaching specific characteristics to EAS transmitted EM energy. The quantitative data could be used to relate medical device EMI with specific field strength levels and signal waveforms

  5. In vitro Magnetic Stimulation: A Simple Stimulation Device to Deliver Defined Low Intensity Electromagnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Grehl, Stephanie; Martina, David; Goyenvalle, Catherine; Deng, Zhi-De; Rodger, Jennifer; Sherrard, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) by electromagnetic fields appears to benefit human neurological and psychiatric conditions, although the optimal stimulation parameters and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Although, in vitro studies have begun to elucidate cellular mechanisms, stimulation is delivered by a range of coils (from commercially available human stimulation coils to laboratory-built circuits) so that the electromagnetic fields induced within the tissue to produce the reported effects are ill-defined. Here, we develop a simple in vitro stimulation device with plug-and-play features that allow delivery of a range of stimulation parameters. We chose to test low intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation (LI-rMS) delivered at three frequencies to hindbrain explant cultures containing the olivocerebellar pathway. We used computational modeling to define the parameters of a stimulation circuit and coil that deliver a unidirectional homogeneous magnetic field of known intensity and direction, and therefore a predictable electric field, to the target. We built the coil to be compatible with culture requirements: stimulation within an incubator; a flat surface allowing consistent position and magnetic field direction; location outside the culture plate to maintain sterility and no heating or vibration. Measurements at the explant confirmed the induced magnetic field was homogenous and matched the simulation results. To validate our system we investigated biological effects following LI-rMS at 1 Hz, 10 Hz and biomimetic high frequency, which we have previously shown induces neural circuit reorganization. We found that gene expression was modified by LI-rMS in a frequency-related manner. Four hours after a single 10-min stimulation session, the number of c-fos positive cells increased, indicating that our stimulation activated the tissue. Also, after 14 days of LI-rMS, the expression of genes normally present in the tissue was differentially modified

  6. Time averaged transmitter power and exposure to electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations.

    PubMed

    Bürgi, Alfred; Scanferla, Damiano; Lehmann, Hugo

    2014-08-07

    Models for exposure assessment of high frequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations need the technical data of the base stations as input. One of these parameters, the Equivalent Radiated Power (ERP), is a time-varying quantity, depending on communication traffic. In order to determine temporal averages of the exposure, corresponding averages of the ERP have to be available. These can be determined as duty factors, the ratios of the time-averaged power to the maximum output power according to the transmitter setting. We determine duty factors for UMTS from the data of 37 base stations in the Swisscom network. The UMTS base stations sample contains sites from different regions of Switzerland and also different site types (rural/suburban/urban/hotspot). Averaged over all regions and site types, a UMTS duty factor for the 24 h-average is obtained, i.e., the average output power corresponds to about a third of the maximum power. We also give duty factors for GSM based on simple approximations and a lower limit for LTE estimated from the base load on the signalling channels.

  7. Time Averaged Transmitter Power and Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Mobile Phone Base Stations

    PubMed Central

    Bürgi, Alfred; Scanferla, Damiano; Lehmann, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Models for exposure assessment of high frequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations need the technical data of the base stations as input. One of these parameters, the Equivalent Radiated Power (ERP), is a time-varying quantity, depending on communication traffic. In order to determine temporal averages of the exposure, corresponding averages of the ERP have to be available. These can be determined as duty factors, the ratios of the time-averaged power to the maximum output power according to the transmitter setting. We determine duty factors for UMTS from the data of 37 base stations in the Swisscom network. The UMTS base stations sample contains sites from different regions of Switzerland and also different site types (rural/suburban/urban/hotspot). Averaged over all regions and site types, a UMTS duty factor F ≈ 0.32 ± 0.08 for the 24 h-average is obtained, i.e., the average output power corresponds to about a third of the maximum power. We also give duty factors for GSM based on simple approximations and a lower limit for LTE estimated from the base load on the signalling channels. PMID:25105551

  8. Metrology For High-Frequency Nanoelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, T. Mitch; Imtiaz, Atif; Nembach, Hans T.; Rice, Paul; Kabos, Pavel

    2007-09-26

    Two metrological tools for high-frequency measurements of nanoscale systems are described: (i) two/N-port analysis of nanoscale devices as well as (ii) near-field scanning microwave microscopy (NSMM) for materials characterization. Calibrated two/N-port measurements were made on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) welded to a coplanar waveguide. Significant changes in the extracted high-frequency electrical response of the welded MWNT were measured when the contacts to the MWNT were modified. Additionally, NSMM was used to characterize films of nanotube soot deposited on copper and sapphire substrates. The material properties of the films showed a strong dependence on the substrate material.

  9. Using strong electromagnetic fields to control x-ray processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L.; Buth, C.; Dunford, R. W.; Ho, P.; Kanter, E. P.; Kraessig, B.; Peterson, E. R.; Rohringer, N.; Santra, R.; Southworth, S. H.

    2010-06-01

    Exploration of a new ultrafast-ultrasmall frontier in atomic and molecular physics has begun. Not only is is possible to control outer-shell electron dynamics with intense ultrafast optical lasers, but now control of inner-shell processes has become possible by combining intense infrared/optical lasers with tunable sources of X-ray radiation. This marriage of strong-field laser and X-ray physics has led to the discovery of methods to control reversibly resonant X-ray absorption in atoms and molecules on ultrafast timescales. Using a strong optical dressing field, resonant X-ray absorption in atoms can be markedly suppressed, yielding an example of electromagnetically induced transparency for x rays. Resonant X-ray absorption can also be controlled in molecules using strong non-resonant, polarized laser fields to align the framework of a molecule, and therefore its unoccupied molecular orbitals to which resonant absorption occurs. At higher laser intensities, ultrafast field ionization produces an irreversible change in X-ray absorption. Finally, the advent of X-ray free electron lasers enables first exploration of non-linear X-ray processes.

  10. [Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on mammalian spermatogenesis].

    PubMed

    Susa, Martina; Pavicić, Ivan

    2007-12-01

    This article reviews studies about the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic (RF EM) fields on male reproductive system and reproductive health in mammals. According to current data, there are almost 4 million active mobile phone lines in Croatia while this number has risen to 2 billion in the world. Increased use of mobile technology raises scientific and public concern about possible hazardous effects of RF fields on human health. The effects of radiofrequencies on reproductive health and consequences for the offspring are still mainly unknown. A number of in vivo and in vitro studies indicated that RF fields could interact with charged intracellular macromolecular structures. Results of several laboratory studies on animal models showed how the RF fields could affect the mammalian reproductive system and sperm cells. Inasmuch as, in normal physiological conditions spermatogenesis is a balanced process of division, maturation and storage of cells, it is particularly vulnerable to the chemical and physical environmental stimuli. Especially sensitive could be the cytoskeleton, composed of charged proteins; actin, intermedial filaments and microtubules. Cytoskeleton is a functional and structural part of the cell that has important role in the sperm motility, and is actively involved in the morphologic changes that occur during mammalian spermiogenesis.

  11. Equations of a moving mirror and the electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Octavio Castaños, Luis; Weder, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    We consider a system composed of a mobile slab and the electromagnetic field. We assume that the slab is made of a material that has the following properties when it is at rest: it is linear, isotropic, non-magnetizable, and ohmic with zero free charge density. Using instantaneous Lorentz transformations, we deduce the set of self-consistent equations governing the dynamics of the system and we obtain approximate equations to first order in the velocity and the acceleration of the slab. As a consequence of the motion of the slab, the field must satisfy a wave equation with damping and slowly varying coefficients plus terms that are small when the time-scale of the evolution of the mirror is much larger than that of the field. Also, the motion of the slab and its interaction with the field introduce two effects in the slab’s equation of motion. The first one is a position- and time-dependent mass related to the effective mass taken in phenomenological treatments of this type of systems. The second one is a velocity-dependent force that can give rise to friction and that is related to the much sought cooling of mechanical objects.

  12. Electromagnetic field-induced stimulation of Bruton's tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Kristupaitis, D; Dibirdik, I; Vassilev, A; Mahajan, S; Kurosaki, T; Chu, A; Tuel-Ahlgren, L; Tuong, D; Pond, D; Luben, R; Uckun, F M

    1998-05-15

    Here we present evidence that exposure of DT40 lymphoma B-cells to low energy electromagnetic fields (EMF) results in activation of phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLC-gamma2), leading to increased inositol phospholipid turnover. PLC-gamma2 activation in EMF-stimulated cells is mediated by stimulation of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a member of the Src-related TEC family of protein tyrosine kinases, which acts downstream of LYN kinase and upstream of PLC-gamma2. B-cells rendered BTK-deficient by targeted disruption of the btk gene did not show enhanced PLC-gamma2 activation in response to EMF exposure. Introduction of the wild-type (but not a kinase domain mutant) human btk gene into BTK-deficient B-cells restored their EMF responsiveness. Thus, BTK exerts a pivotal and mandatory function in initiation of EMF-induced signaling cascades in B-cells.

  13. Could Radiotherapy Effectiveness Be Enhanced by Electromagnetic Field Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Artacho-Cordón; del Mar, Salinas-Asensio María; Irene, Calvente; Sandra, Ríos-Arrabal; Josefa, León; Elisa, Román-Marinetto; Nicolás, Olea; Isabel, Núñez María

    2013-01-01

    One of the main goals in radiobiology research is to enhance radiotherapy effectiveness without provoking any increase in toxicity. In this context, it has been proposed that electromagnetic fields (EMFs), known to be modulators of proliferation rate, enhancers of apoptosis and inductors of genotoxicity, might control tumor recruitment and, thus, provide therapeutic benefits. Scientific evidence shows that the effects of ionizing radiation on cellular compartments and functions are strengthened by EMF. Although little is known about the potential role of EMFs in radiotherapy (RT), the radiosensitizing effect of EMFs described in the literature could support their use to improve radiation effectiveness. Thus, we hypothesized that EMF exposure might enhance the ionizing radiation effect on tumor cells, improving the effects of RT. The aim of this paper is to review reports of the effects of EMFs in biological systems and their potential therapeutic benefits in radiotherapy. PMID:23867611

  14. Annals of conflicting results: looking back on electromagnetic field research.

    PubMed

    Schoen, D

    1996-11-15

    Few environmental health issues are as contentious as the question of whether exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from power lines increases cancer risk. Among the many actors in this controversy, epidemiologists have played the leading role in raising the question and motivating research. Epidemiologic studies of the effects of exposure to power-line EMFs include the investigation by Dr. Gilles Thériault and colleagues into incidence rates of cancer among electric-utility workers in Quebec, Ontario and France. With the development of personal dosimeters to measure exposure to electric, magnetic and pulsed EMFs, occupational studies in the 1990s have made an important methodologic advance. But, as Thériault explains, improvements in assessing exposure have not yet translated into clear and consistent findings.

  15. Electromagnetic field energy density in homogeneous negative index materials.

    PubMed

    Shivanand; Webb, Kevin J

    2012-05-07

    An exact separation of both electric and magnetic energies into stored and lost energies is shown to be possible in the special case when the wave impedance is independent of frequency. A general expression for the electromagnetic energy density in such a dispersive medium having a negative refractive index is shown to be accurate in comparison with numerical results. Using an example metamaterial response that provides a negative refractive index, it is shown that negative time-averaged stored energy can occur. The physical meaning of this negative energy is explained as the energy temporarily borrowed by the field from the material. This observation for negative index materials is of interest when approaching properties for a perfect lens. In the broader context, the observation of negative stored energy is of consequence in the study of dispersive materials.

  16. Paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and neuroblastoma in offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, J.R. 3d.; Hundley, V.D. )

    1990-06-01

    Investigators in Texas have reported an association between paternal employment in jobs linked with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. In an attempt to replicate this finding, the authors conducted a case-control study in Ohio. A total of 101 incident cases of neuroblastoma were identified through the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital Tumor Registry. All cases were born sometime during the period 1942-1967. From a statewide roster of birth certificates, four controls were selected for each case, with individual matching on the case's year of birth, race, and sex, and the mother's county of residence at the time of the (index) child's birth. Multiple definitions were employed to infer the potential for paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from the industry/occupation statements on the birth certificates. Case-control comparisons revealed adjusted odds ratios ranging in magnitude from 0.5 to 1.9. For two of the exposure definitions employed--both of which are similar to one used by the Texas investigators--the corresponding odds ratios were modestly elevated (odds ratios = 1.6 and 1.9). Notably, the magnitude of these odds ratios is not inconsistent with the Texas findings, where the exposure definition referred to yielded an odds ratio of 2.1. Because the point estimates in this study are imprecise, and because the biologic plausibility of the association is uncertain, the results reported here must be interpreted cautiously. However, the apparent consistency between two independent studies suggests that future evaluation of the association is warranted.

  17. Do the standard expressions for the electromagnetic field momentum need any modifications?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, Ashok K.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate here the question raised in the literature about the correct expression for the electromagnetic field momentum, especially when static or stationary fields are involved. For this, we examine a couple of simple but intriguing cases. First, we consider a system configuration in which electromagnetic field momentum is present even though the system is stationary. We trace the electromagnetic momentum to be present in the form of a continuous transport of electromagnetic energy from one part of the system to another, without causing any net change in the energy of the system. In a second case, we show that the electromagnetic momentum is zero irrespective of whether the charged system is static or in motion, even though the electromagnetic energy is present throughout. We demonstrate that the conventional formulation of electromagnetic field momentum describes the systems consistently without any real contradictions. Here, we also make exposition of a curiosity where electromagnetic energy decreases when the charged system gains velocity. Then we discuss the more general question that has been raised: Are the conventional formulas for energy-momentum of electromagnetic fields valid for all cases? Specifically, in the case of so-called "bound fields," do we need to change to some modified definitions? We show that in all cases it is only the conventional formulas that lead to results consistent with the rest of physics, including the special theory of relativity, and that any proposed modifications are thus superfluous.

  18. Electromagnetic field and cylindrical compact objects in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousaf, Z.; Bhatti, M. Zaeem ul Haq

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the role of different fluid parameters particularly electromagnetic field and f(R) corrections on the evolution of cylindrical compact object. We have explored the modified field equations, kinematical quantities and dynamical equations. An expression for the mass function has been found in comparison with the Misner-Sharp formalism in modified gravity, after which different mass-radius diagrams are drawn. The coupled dynamical transport equation have been formulated to discuss the role of thermoinertial effects on the inertial mass density of the cylindrical relativistic interior. Finally, we have presented a framework, according to which all possible solutions of the metric f(R)-Maxwell field equations coupled with static fluid can be written through set of scalar functions. It is found that modified gravity induced by Lagrangians f(R) = αR2, f(R) = αR2 - βR and f(R)=α R^2-β R/1+γ R are likely to host more massive cylindrical compact objects with smaller radii as compared to general relativity.

  19. Singularities in the Transverse Fields of Electromagnetic Waves. II. Observations on the Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajnal, J. V.

    1987-12-01

    Electromagnetic waves propagating in free space contain three kinds of singularities called C lines, S surfaces and disclinations. The paper describes observations of these singularities in two different monochromatic microwave fields. The observations confirm all the theoretically predicted properties of the singularities that could be tested. As expected, the singularities were found to be prominent structural features of the fields and in consequence to provide an economical means of characterizing their structure. A notable result is the observation of both right-hand and left-hand C lines in a field that is nominally uniformly left-hand circularly polarized. This is in agreement with the previous assertion that, in general, electromagnetic wavefields contain both right-hand and left-hand polarized regions.

  20. [Medical and biologic research of electromagnetic fields in radiofrequencies range. Results and prospects].

    PubMed

    Kaliada, T V; Vishnevskiĭ, A M; Gorodetskiĭ, B N; Plekhanov, V P; Kuznetsov, A V

    2014-01-01

    The authors present research findings on the problem of technology-related electromagnetic fields as an occupational risk factor of workers health disturbances, and on the issue of prevention measures development against this adverse physical factor effects. Prospects for further research development in the field of electromagnetic safety are discussed.

  1. The use of the rotating electromagnetic field for hardening treatment of details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, V. A.; Kochubey, A. A.; Kiricheck, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    The article discusses energy aspects of details’ hardening with convective flows of freely moving indenters under the conditions of the rotating electromagnetic field. Results of theoretical studies of the kinetics of the movement of the ferromagnetic indenters are presented and the energy model of the state of the rotating magnetic liquefied layer is proposed, formed under the influence of the rotating electromagnetic field.

  2. Spontaneous topological transitions of electromagnetic fields in spatially inhomogeneous C P -odd domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Kirill

    2016-12-01

    Metastable C P -odd domains of the hot QCD matter are coupled to QED via the chiral anomaly. The topology of electromagnetic field in these domains is characterized by magnetic helicity. It is argued, using the Maxwell-Chern-Simons model, that spatial inhomogeneity of the domains induces spontaneous transitions of electromagnetic field between the opposite magnetic helicity states.

  3. Modeling of interactions of electromagnetic fields with human bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputa, Krzysztof

    Interactions of electromagnetic fields with the human body have been a subject of scientific interest and public concern. In recent years, issues in power line field effects and those of wireless telephones have been in the forefront of research. Engineering research compliments biological investigations by quantifying the induced fields in biological bodies due to exposure to external fields. The research presented in this thesis aims at providing reliable tools, and addressing some of the unresolved issues related to interactions with the human body of power line fields and fields produced by handheld wireless telephones. The research comprises two areas, namely development of versatile models of the human body and their visualisation, and verification and application of numerical codes to solve selected problems of interest. The models of the human body, which are based on the magnetic resonance scans of the body, are unique and differ considerably from other models currently available. With the aid of computer software developed, the models can be arranged to different postures, and medical devices can be accurately placed inside them. A previously developed code for modeling interactions of power line fields with biological bodies has been verified by rigorous, quantitative inter-laboratory comparison for two human body models. This code has been employed to model electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the magnetic field with implanted cardiac pacemakers. In this case, the correct placement and representation of the pacemaker leads are critical, as simplified computations have been shown to result in significant errors. In modeling interactions of wireless communication devices, the finite difference time domain technique (FDTD) has become a de facto standard. The previously developed code has been verified by comparison with the analytical solution for a conductive sphere. While previously researchers limited their verifications to principal axes of the sphere

  4. Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (formerly 'electromagnetic hypersensitivity'): An updated systematic review of provocation studies.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G James; Nieto-Hernandez, Rosa; Wessely, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF; formerly 'electromagetic hypersensitivity') is a medically unexplained illness in which subjective symptoms are reported following exposure to electrical devices. In an earlier systematic review, we reported data from 31 blind provocation studies which had exposed IEI-EMF volunteers to active or sham electromagnetic fields and assessed whether volunteers could detect these fields or whether they reported worse symptoms when exposed to them. In this article, we report an update to that review. An extensive literature search identified 15 new experiments. Including studies reported in our earlier review, 46 blind or double-blind provocation studies in all, involving 1175 IEI-EMF volunteers, have tested whether exposure to electromagnetic fields is responsible for triggering symptoms in IEI-EMF. No robust evidence could be found to support this theory. However, the studies included in the review did support the role of the nocebo effect in triggering acute symptoms in IEI-EMF sufferers. Despite the conviction of IEI-EMF sufferers that their symptoms are triggered by exposure to electromagnetic fields, repeated experiments have been unable to replicate this phenomenon under controlled conditions. A narrow focus by clinicians or policy makers on bioelectromagnetic mechanisms is therefore, unlikely to help IEI-EMF patients in the long-term.

  5. Effects of exposure to an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on hippocampal long-term potentiation in rat.

    PubMed

    Komaki, Alireza; Khalili, Afshin; Salehi, Iraj; Shahidi, Siamak; Sarihi, Abdolrahman

    2014-05-20

    Modern lifestyle exposes nearly all humans to electromagnetic fields, particularly to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs). Prolonged exposure to ELF-EMFs induces persistent changes in neuronal activity. However, the modulation of synaptic efficiency by ELF-EMFs in vivo is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether ELF-EMFs can change induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse ratio (PPR) in the rat hippocampal area. Twenty-nine adult male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (ELF-EMF exposed, sham and control groups). The ELF-EMF group was exposed to a magnetic field for 90 consecutive days (2h/day). ELF-EMFs were produced by a circular coil (50Hz, 100 micro Tesla). The sham-exposed controls were placed in an identical chamber with no electromagnetic field. After this period, rats were deeply anesthetized with urethane (2.0mg/kg) and then a bipolar stimulating and recording electrode was implanted into the perforant pathway (PP) and dentate gyrus (DG), respectively. LTP in hippocampal area was induced by high-frequency stimulation (HFS). Prolonged exposure to ELF-EMFs increased LTP induction. There was a significant difference in the slope of EPSP and amplitude of PS between the ELF-EMF group and other groups. In conclusion, our data suggest that exposure to ELF-EMFs produces a marked change in the synaptic plasticity generated in synapses of the PP-DG. No significant difference in PPR of ELF-EMF group before and after HFS suggests a postsynaptic expression site of LTP.

  6. Three-dimensional electromagnetic breathers in carbon nanotubes with the field inhomogeneity along their axes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Fedorov, Eduard G.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2013-10-01

    We study the propagation of extremely short electromagnetic three-dimensional bipolar pulses in an array of semiconductor carbon nanotubes. The heterogeneity of the pulse field along the axis of the nanotubes is accounted for the first time. The evolution of the electromagnetic field and the charge density of the sample are described by Maxwell's equations supplemented by the continuity equation. Our analysis reveals for the first time the possibility of propagation of three-dimensional electromagnetic breathers in CNTs arrays. Specifically, we found that the propagation of short electromagnetic pulse induces a redistribution of the electron density in the sample.

  7. Electromagnetic cascades and the depletion of intense fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, Stepan; Seipt, Daniel; Heinzl, Thomas; Marklund, Mattias; Ji, Qing; Steinke, Sven; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim P.

    2016-10-01

    The interaction of electrons, positrons, and photons with intense electromagnetic fields gives rise to multi-photon Compton and Breit-Wheeler processes. It is shown that electrons and/or positrons undergo a cascade-type process involving multiple emissions of photons. These photons can consequently convert into electron-positron pairs. As a result charged particles quickly lose their energy developing an exponentially decaying energy distribution. Moreover the multi-photon nature of Compton and Breit-Wheeler processes implies the absorption of a significant number of photons. As a result, the interaction of a highly charged electron bunch with an intense laser pulse can lead to a significant depletion of the laser pulse energy, thus rendering the external field approximation invalid. The relevance of these results to the proposed BELLA-i beamline at BELLA center at LBNL is discussed. We acknowledge support from the Office of Science of the US DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  8. Electromagnetic fluid drift turbulence in static ergodic magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiser, D.; Scott, B.

    2005-12-01

    Numerical simulations of three-dimensional nonlinear electromagnetic fluid drift turbulence in a tokamak plasma with externally applied stochastic magnetic-field perturbations are presented. The contributions to the radial particle transport due to nonlinearities arising from E ×B advection and magnetic flutter are investigated for perturbation fields of varying strengths in the cases of low and high collisionalities. The perturbation strength is varied to study the physics for Chirikov parameters above 1. In all the cases considered a significant increase of E ×B transport is found. A static contribution in the density and velocity perturbations contributes significantly to the total radial E ×B transport. For low collisionality, the external perturbation leads to enhanced density and velocity fluctuations over a broad range in the toroidal wave-number spectrum, resulting in an enhanced turbulent flux. For high collisionality, the density fluctuations stay roughly the same and the velocity fluctuations are increased in an intermediate range of the toroidal wave number spectrum, separated from the maximum of the density fluctuations, thus leaving the turbulent flux almost unchanged.

  9. Electromagnetically induced transparency resonances inverted in magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Sargsyan, A.; Sarkisyan, D. E-mail: david@ipr.sci.am; Pashayan-Leroy, Y.; Leroy, C.; Cartaleva, S.; Wilson-Gordon, A. D.; Auzinsh, M.

    2015-12-15

    The phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is investigated in a Λ-system of the {sup 87}Rb D{sub 1} line in an external transverse magnetic field. Two spectroscopic cells having strongly different values of the relaxation rates γ{sub rel} are used: an Rb cell with antirelaxation coating (L ∼ 1 cm) and an Rb nanometric- thin cell (nanocell) with a thickness of the atomic vapor column L = 795 nm. For the EIT in the nanocell, we have the usual EIT resonances characterized by a reduction in the absorption (dark resonance (DR)), whereas for the EIT in the Rb cell with an antirelaxation coating, the resonances demonstrate an increase in the absorption (bright resonances (BR)). We suppose that such an unusual behavior of the EIT resonances (i.e., the reversal of the sign from DR to BR) is caused by the influence of an alignment process. The influence of alignment strongly depends on the configuration of the coupling and probe frequencies as well as on the configuration of the magnetic field.

  10. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer: the epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, M N

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the epidemiologic evidence that low frequency electromagnetic fields generated by alternating current may be a cause of cancer. Studies examining residential exposures of children and adults and studies of electrical and electronics workers are reviewed. Using conventional epidemiologic criteria for inferring causal associations, including strength and consistency of the relationship, biological plausibility, and the possibility of bias as an explanation, it is concluded that the evidence is strongly suggestive that such radiation is carcinogenic. The evidence is strongest for brain and central nervous system cancers in electrical workers and children. Weaker evidence supports an association with leukemia in electrical workers. Some evidence also exists for an association with melanoma in electrical workers. Failure to find consistent evidence of a link between residential exposures and adult cancers may be attributable to exposure misclassification. Studies so far have used imperfect surrogates for any true biologically effective magnetic field exposure. The resulting exposure misclassification has produced relative risk estimates that understate any true risk. PMID:1821368

  11. Growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus induced by low-frequency electric and electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Obermeier, Andreas; Matl, Florian Dominik; Friess, Wolfgang; Stemberger, Axel

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic field therapy is an established technique in the treatment of pseudarthrosis. In cases of osteomylitis, palliation is also observed. This study focuses on the impact of different electric and electromagnetic fields on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus by in vitro technologies. Cultures of Staphylococcus aureus in fluid and gel-like medium were exposed to a low-frequency electromagnetic field, an electromagnetic field combined with an additional electric field, a sinusoidal electric field and a static electric field. In gel-like medium no significant difference between colony-forming units of exposed samples and non-exposed references was detected. In contrast, Staphylococcus aureus concentrations in fluid medium could clearly be reduced under the influence of the four different applied fields within 24 h of experiment. The strongest effects were observed for the direct current electric field which could decrease CFU/ml of 37%, and the low-frequency electromagnetic field with additional induced electric alternating field with a decrease of Staphylococci concentration by 36%. The effects of the electromagnetic treatment on Staphylococci within fluid medium are significantly higher than in gel-like medium. The application of low-frequency electromagnetic fields corroborates clinical situations of bone infections during magnetic field therapy.

  12. Binaural beats at high frequencies.

    PubMed

    McFadden, D; Pasanen, E G

    1975-10-24

    Binaural beats have long been believed to be audible only at low frequencies, but an interaction reminiscent of a binaural beat can sometimes be heard when different two-tone complexes of high frequency are presented to the two ears. The primary requirement is that the frequency separation in the complex at one ear be slightly different from that in the other--that is, that there be a small interaural difference in the envelope periodicities. This finding is in accord with other recent demonstrations that the auditory system is not deaf to interaural time differences at high frequencies.

  13. Influence of strong field vacuum polarization on gravitational-electromagnetic wave interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, M.; Brodin, G.; Papadopoulos, D.

    2010-07-15

    The interaction between gravitational and electromagnetic waves in the presence of a static magnetic field is studied. The field strength of the static field is allowed to surpass the Schwinger critical field, such that the QED effects of vacuum polarization and magnetization are significant. Equations governing the interaction are derived and analyzed. It turns out that the energy conversion from gravitational to electromagnetic waves can be significantly altered due to the QED effects. The consequences of our results are discussed.

  14. High Frequency Scattering from Arbitrarily Oriented Dielectric Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.; Meneghini, R.; Lang, R. H.; Seker, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    Calculations have been made of electromagnetic wave scattering from dielectric disks of arbitrary shape and orientation in the high frequency (physical optics) regime. The solution is obtained by approximating the fields inside the disk with the fields induced inside an identically oriented slab (i.e. infinite parallel planes) with the same thickness and dielectric properties. The fields inside the disk excite conduction and polarization currents which are used to calculate the scattered fields by integrating the radiation from these sources over the volume of the disk. This computation has been executed for observers in the far field of the disk in the case of disks with arbitrary orientation and for arbitrary polarization of the incident radiation. The results have been expressed in the form of a dyadic scattering amplitude for the disk. The results apply to disks whose diameter is large compared to wavelength and whose thickness is small compared to diameter, but the thickness need not be small compared to wavelength. Examples of the dependence of the scattering amplitude on frequency, dielectric properties of the disk and disk orientation are presented for disks of circular cross section.

  15. Investigation of iron cobalt nanocomposites for high frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kelsy J.

    FeCo-based nanocomposite soft magnetic materials were developed in collaboration with Magnetics, Division of Spang and Co., for high frequency and high temperature application. Excellent soft magnetic properties include: low coercivity, high permeability, low energy losses, etc. These and large saturation inductions make these alloys attractive for fundamental studies and industrial applications. In this thesis, nanocrystalline composites will be developed from amorphous precursors for applications in two frequency regimes: 1) High frequency (0.01-30 MHz) such as high temperature power inductors, pulsed power transformers, and radio frequency (rf) magnetic heating; and 2) Ultra high frequency (30 MHz - 30 GHz) for radio frequency materials and electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI) absorption. New nanocomposites with higher saturation induction and high-temperature stability were developed with reduced glass forming elements such as Zr, Nb, Si and B. The amounts of the magnetic transition metals and early transition metal growth inhibitors were varied to determine trade-offs between higher inductions and fine microstructures and consequently low magnetic losses. Alloys having (Fe1-xCox)80+y+zNb4-y B13-zSi2Cu1 (25 ≤ x ≤ 50 and y = 0-4 and z = 0-3) nominal compositions were cast using planar flow casting (PFC) at Magnetics. Technical magnetic properties: permeability, maximum induction, remanence ratio, coercive field and high frequency magnetic losses as a function of composition and annealing temperature are reported after primary crystallization for 1 hr in a transverse magnetic field (TMF). Of note is the development of inductor cores with maximum inductions in excess of 1.76 T and 1.67 T in cores that exhibit power losses comparable with state of the art commercial soft magnetic alloys. For application in EMI/RFI absorption, FeCo-based alloys have the largest saturation induction and a tunable magnetic anisotropy which may

  16. Consequences of rotating off-centred dipolar electromagnetic field in vacuum around Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, A.; Pétri, J.

    2016-12-01

    Studying the electromagnetic field of pulsars is one of the key themes in neutron star physics. While most of the works assume a standard central dipolar electromagnetic field model, recently some efforts had been made in explaining how inclusion of higher field components produces drastic consequences in our understanding of these objects. We put forward the effects of a unique recently presented approach in which the magnetic axis is shifted off from the centre. It is found that the rotating off-centred dipolar electromagnetic field itself reveals the presence of the higher components within. The consequences of this approach on the shape of the polar caps and the emission diagrams are discussed.

  17. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field frequencies on the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fei; Hou, Tianyong; Zhang, Zehua; Xie, Zhao; Wu, Xuehui; Xu, Jianzhong

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different frequencies of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Third-generation human mesenchymal stem cells were irradiated with different frequencies of pulsed electromagnetic fields, including 5, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 150 Hz, with a field intensity of 1.1 mT, for 30 minutes per day for 21 days. Changes in human mesenchymal stem cell morphology were observed using phase contrast microscopy. Alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin expression were also determined to evaluate human mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic differentiation.Different effects were observed on human mesenchymal stem cell osteoblast induction following exposure to different pulsed electromagnetic field frequencies. Levels of human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation increased when the pulsed electromagnetic field frequency was increased from 5 hz to 50 hz, but the effect was weaker when the pulsed electromagnetic field frequency was increased from 50 Hz to 150 hz. The most significant effect on human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation was observed at of 50 hz.The results of the current study show that pulsed electromagnetic field frequency is an important factor with regard to the induction of human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Furthermore, a pulsed electromagnetic field frequency of 50 Hz was the most effective at inducing human mesenchymal stem cell osteoblast differentiation in vitro.

  18. Effect exerted by a radio wave electromagnetic field on the rheological properties of water and portland-cement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azharonok, V. V.; Belous, N. Kh.; Rodtsevich, S. P.; Koshevar, V. D.; Shkadretsova, V. G.; Goncharik, S. V.; Chubrik, N. I.; Orlovich, A. I.

    2013-09-01

    We have studied the effect of the regimes of high-frequency (radio wave) electromagnetic treatment of gauging water on the process of structurization and on the technological characteristics of portland-cement systems. It has been established that the radio wave electromagnetic activation of water leads to a reduction in its surface tension, dynamic viscosity, and shear stress, as well as intensifies the formation of coagulation structures in a portlandcement slurry and aids in increasing the mobility of cement-sand mixtures.

  19. Electromagnetic Radiation System (EMRS) for Susceptibility Testing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, *ELECTROMAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY, COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT, ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT, ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION , ANTENNAS, ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE, RADAR SIGNALS, RADIO SIGNALS, FIELD INTENSITY.

  20. High-frequency broadband transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    London, S. E.; Tomashevich, S. V.

    1981-05-01

    A systematic review of the theory and design principles of high-frequency broadband transformers is presented. It is shown that the transformers of highest performance are those whose coils consist of strips of double-wire and multiwire transmission lines. Such devices are characterized by a wide operating frequency range, and make possible operation at microwave frequencies at high levels of transmitted power.

  1. Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the reproductive system

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Jin

    2012-01-01

    The safety of human exposure to an ever-increasing number and diversity of electromagnetic field (EMF) sources both at work and at home has become a public health issue. To date, many in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that EMF exposure can alter cellular homeostasis, endocrine function, reproductive function, and fetal development in animal systems. Reproductive parameters reported to be altered by EMF exposure include male germ cell death, the estrous cycle, reproductive endocrine hormones, reproductive organ weights, sperm motility, early embryonic development, and pregnancy success. At the cellular level, an increase in free radicals and [Ca2+]i may mediate the effect of EMFs and lead to cell growth inhibition, protein misfolding, and DNA breaks. The effect of EMF exposure on reproductive function differs according to frequency and wave, strength (energy), and duration of exposure. In the present review, the effects of EMFs on reproductive function are summarized according to the types of EMF, wave type, strength, and duration of exposure at cellular and organism levels. PMID:22563544

  2. Effect of cyclophosphamide and electromagnetic fields on mouse bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Cadossi, R.; Zucchini, P.; Emilia, G.; Torelli, G. )

    1990-02-26

    The authors have previously shown that the exposure to low frequency pulsing electromagnetic fields (PEMF) of mice X-ray irradiated resulted in an increased damage to the bone marrow. The series of experiments here reported were designed to investigate the effect of PEMF exposure after intraperitoneum injection of 200mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY). Control mice were CY injected only; experimental mice were CY injected and then exposed to PEMF. Exposure to PEMF (24 hours/day) increased the rate of decline of white blood cells in peripheral blood. Spleen weight was statistically higher among control mice than among mice exposed to PEMF at day 6, 8 and 10 after CY injection. Spleen autoradiography proved to be higher among PEMF exposed mice than among controls at day 8 and 9 after CY injection. The grafting efficiency of the bone marrow obtained from control mice was higher than the grafting efficiency of the bone marrow recovered from mice exposed to PEMF. All these data indicate that the exposure to PEMF increases the cytotoxic effect of CY.

  3. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Automated Blood Cell Measurements.

    PubMed

    Vagdatli, Eleni; Konstandinidou, Vasiliki; Adrianakis, Nikolaos; Tsikopoulos, Ioannis; Tsikopoulos, Alexios; Mitsopoulou, Kyriaki

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether the electromagnetic fields associated with mobile phones and/or laptops interfere with blood cell counts of hematology analyzers. Random blood samples were analyzed on an Aperture Impedance hematology analyzer. The analysis was performed in four ways: (A) without the presence of any mobile phone or portable computer in use, (B) with mobile phones in use (B1: one mobile, B4: four mobiles), (C) with portable computers (laptops) in use (C1: one laptop, C3: three laptops), and (D) with four mobile phones and three laptops in use simultaneously. The results obtained demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in neutrophil, erythrocyte, and platelet count and an increase in lymphocyte count, mean corpuscular volume, and red blood cell distribution width, notably in the B4 group. Despite this statistical significance, in clinical practice, only the red blood cell reduction could be taken into account, as the mean difference between the A and B4 group was 60,000 cells/µL. In group D, the analyzer gave odd results after 11 measurements and finally stopped working. The combined and multiple use of mobile phones and computers affects the function of hematology analyzers, leading to false results. Consequently, the use of such electronic devices must be avoided.

  4. Computer modeling of tactical high frequency antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Bobby G., Jr.

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to compare the performance of three tactical high frequency antennas to be used as possible replacement for the Tactical Data Communications Central (TDCC) antennas. The antennas were modeled using the Numerical Electromagnetics Code, Version 3 (NEC3), and the Eyring Low Profile and Buried Antenna Modeling Program (PAT7) for several different frequencies and ground conditions. The performance was evaluated by comparing gain at the desired takeoff angles, the voltage standing wave ratio of each antenna, and its omni-directional capability. The buried antenna models, the ELPA-302 and horizontal dipole, were most effective when employed over poor ground conditions. The best performance under all conditions tested was demonstrated by the HT-20T. Each of these antennas have tactical advantages and disadvantages and can optimize communications under certain conditions. The selection of the best antenna is situation dependent. An experimental test of these models is recommended to verify the modeling results.

  5. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and acute leukaemia: analysis of a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Willett, E; McKinney, P; Fear, N; Cartwright, R; Roman, E

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether the risk of acute leukaemia among adults is associated with occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields. Methods: Probable occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields at higher than typical residential levels was investigated among 764 patients diagnosed with acute leukaemia during 1991–96 and 1510 sex and age matched controls. A job exposure matrix was applied to the self reported employment histories to determine whether or not a subject was exposed to electromagnetic fields. Risks were assessed using conditional logistic regression for a matched analysis. Results: Study subjects considered probably ever exposed to electromagnetic fields at work were not at increased risk of acute leukaemia compared to those considered never exposed. Generally, no associations were observed on stratification by sex, leukaemia subtype, number of years since exposure stopped, or occupation; there was no evidence of a dose-response effect using increasing number of years exposed. However, relative to women considered never exposed, a significant excess of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was observed among women probably exposed to electromagnetic fields at work that remained increased irrespective of time prior to diagnosis or job ever held. Conclusion: This large population based case-control study found little evidence to support an association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and acute leukaemia. While an excess of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia among women was observed, it is unlikely that occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was responsible, given that increased risks remained during periods when exposure above background levels was improbable. PMID:12883018

  6. Exposure to electromagnetic fields from laptop use of "laptop" computers.

    PubMed

    Bellieni, C V; Pinto, I; Bogi, A; Zoppetti, N; Andreuccetti, D; Buonocore, G

    2012-01-01

    Portable computers are often used at tight contact with the body and therefore are called "laptop." The authors measured electromagnetic fields (EMFs) laptop computers produce and estimated the induced currents in the body, to assess the safety of laptop computers. The authors evaluated 5 commonly used laptop of different brands. They measured EMF exposure produced and, using validated computerized models, the authors exploited the data of one of the laptop computers (LTCs) to estimate the magnetic flux exposure of the user and of the fetus in the womb, when the laptop is used at close contact with the woman's womb. In the LTCs analyzed, EMF values (range 1.8-6 μT) are within International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation (NIR) Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines, but are considerably higher than the values recommended by 2 recent guidelines for computer monitors magnetic field emissions, MPR II (Swedish Board for Technical Accreditation) and TCO (Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees), and those considered risky for tumor development. When close to the body, the laptop induces currents that are within 34.2% to 49.8% ICNIRP recommendations, but not negligible, to the adult's body and to the fetus (in pregnant women). On the contrary, the power supply induces strong intracorporal electric current densities in the fetus and in the adult subject, which are respectively 182-263% and 71-483% higher than ICNIRP 98 basic restriction recommended to prevent adverse health effects. Laptop is paradoxically an improper site for the use of a LTC, which consequently should be renamed to not induce customers towards an improper use.

  7. The regenerative effects of electromagnetic field on spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ross, Christina L; Syed, Ishaq; Smith, Thomas L; Harrison, Benjamin S

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is typically the result of direct mechanical impact to the spine, leading to fracture and/or dislocation of the vertebrae along with damage to the surrounding soft tissues. Injury to the spinal cord results in disruption of axonal transmission of signals. This primary trauma causes secondary injuries that produce immunological responses such as neuroinflammation, which perpetuates neurodegeneration and cytotoxicity within the injured spinal cord. To date there is no FDA-approved pharmacological agent to prevent the development of secondary SCI and induce regenerative processes aimed at healing the spinal cord and restoring neurological function. An alternative method to electrically activate spinal circuits is the application of a noninvasive electromagnetic field (EMF) over intact vertebrae. The EMF method of modulating molecular signaling of inflammatory cells emitted in the extra-low frequency range of <100 Hz, and field strengths of <5 mT, has been reported to decrease inflammatory markers in macrophages, and increase endogenous mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation and differentiation rates. EMF has been reported to promote osteogenesis by improving the effects of osteogenic media, and increasing the proliferation of osteoblasts, while inhibiting osteoclast formation and increasing bone matrix in vitro. EMF has also been shown to increase chondrogenic markers and collagen and induce neural differentiation, while increasing cell viability by over 50%. As advances are made in stem cell technologies, stabilizing the cell line after differentiation is crucial to SCI repair. Once cell-seeded scaffolds are implanted, EMF may be applied outside the wound for potential continued adjunct treatment during recovery.

  8. High Frequency Chandler Wobble Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, F.; Stuck, J.; Thomas, M.

    2003-04-01

    and OMCT forcing fields give no hint for increased excitation power in the Chandler band. Thus it is assumed, that continuous high frequency excitation due to stochastic weather phenomena is responsible for the perpetuation of the Chandler wobble.

  9. Acute neuroprotective effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Ling; Wang, Yan-Gang; Fei, Zhou; Zhong, Jun; Wei, Li-Zhou; Long, Qian-Fa; Liu, Wei-Ping

    2012-05-10

    Traumatic brain injury commonly has a result of a short window of opportunity between the period of initial brain injury and secondary brain injury, which provides protective strategies and can reduce damages of brain due to secondary brain injury. Previous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. However, the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on neural damage after traumatic brain injury have not been reported yet. The present study aims to investigate effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the model of lateral fluid percussion injury, which were placed in non-electromagnetic fields and 15 Hz (Hertz) electromagnetic fields with intensities of 1 G (Gauss), 3 G and 5 G. At various time points (ranging from 0.5 to 30 h) after lateral fluid percussion injury, rats were treated with kainic acid (administered by intraperitoneal injection) to induce apoptosis in hippocampal cells. The results were as follows: (1) the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α was dramatically decreased during the neuroprotective time window. (2) The kainic acid-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus was significantly decreased in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields. (3) Electromagnetic fields exposure shortened the escape time in water maze test. (4) Electromagnetic fields exposure accelerated the recovery of the blood-brain barrier after brain injury. These findings revealed that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields significantly prolong the window of opportunity for brain protection and enhance the intensity of neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury.

  10. Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields: a content analysis of British newspaper reports.

    PubMed

    Eldridge-Thomas, Buffy; Rubin, G James

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF) is a controversial condition in which people describe symptoms following exposure to electromagnetic fields from everyday electrical devices. However, double-blind experiments have found no convincing evidence that electromagnetic fields cause these symptoms. In this study, we assessed whether recent newspaper reporting in the UK reflected this scientific evidence. We searched a database of newspaper articles to identify all those that contained IEI-EMF related keywords and selected a random sample of 60 for content analysis. For our primary outcomes, we assessed how many articles mainly or wholly presented an electromagnetic cause for IEI-EMF and how many discussed unproven treatments for the condition such as strategies intended to reduce exposure to electromagnetic fields or the use of complementary and alternative therapies. We also assessed whether the type of information source used by a newspaper article (e.g. scientist, person with IEI-EMF, politician) or the type of newspaper (broadsheet, tabloid, local or regional) was associated with either outcome. Of the 60 articles, 43 (71.7%) presented a mainly electromagnetic cause, compared to 13 (21.7%) which presented mainly non-electromagnetic causes and 4 (6.7%) which did not discuss a cause. 29 (48.3%) did not mention any potential treatment, while 24 (40.0%) mentioned eletromagnetic field related strategies and 12 (20.0%) mentioned complementary or alternative therapies. Articles which quoted someone with IEI-EMF were significantly more likely to report an electromagnetic cause and to present unproven treatments. Those which used a scientist as a source were more likely to present a non-electromagnetic cause for the condition. The widespread poor reporting we identified is disappointing and has the potential for to encourage more people to misattribute their symptoms to electromagnetic fields. Scientists should remain engaged

  11. Impact of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure on the Candida Albicans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malíková, Ivona; Janoušek, Ladislav; Fantova, Vladyslava; Jíra, Jaroslav; Kříha, Vítĕzslav

    2015-03-01

    Effect of low frequency electromagnetic field on growth of selected microorganism is studied in the article. The diploid fungus that grows both as yeast and filamentous cell was chosen for this research. The theory of ion parametric resonance was taken as the base for studying the influence of electromagnetic field on biological structures. We tested the hypothesis, whether it is possible to observe the change in growth properties of Candida albicans with an AC electromagnetic field tuned to resonance with calcium ions cyclotron frequency.

  12. More on the covariant retarded Green's function for the electromagnetic field in de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Atsushi; Lee, Yen Cheong; Nicholas, Jack R.

    2009-11-15

    In a recent paper 2 it was shown in examples that the covariant retarded Green's functions in certain gauges for electromagnetism and linearized gravity can be used to reproduce field configurations correctly in spite of the spacelike nature of past infinity in de Sitter spacetime. In this paper we extend the work of Ref. 2 concerning the electromagnetic field and show that the covariant retarded Green's function with an arbitrary value of the gauge parameter reproduces the electromagnetic field from two opposite charges at antipodal points of de Sitter spacetime.

  13. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sánchez; Pérez, Javiér; García, M. N. Jiménez; López, M. A. Jiménez; Espíndola, M. E. Sánchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernández, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodríguez

    2008-08-01

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-β) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

  14. Investigation of brain potentials in sleeping humans exposed to the electromagnetic field of mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, N N; Sulimov, A V; Sulimova, O P; Korotkovskaya, T I; Gailus, T

    2001-01-01

    An investigation was made of 8-hour EEG tracings of sleeping humans exposed to the electromagnetic field of a GSM-standard mobile phone. To analyze the EEG-patterns, manual scoring, nonlinear dynamics, and spectral analysis were employed. It was found that, when human beings were exposed to the electromagnetic field of a cellular phone, their cerebral cortex biopotentials revealed an increase in the alpha-range power density as compared to the placebo experiment. It was also found that the dimension of EEG correlation dynamics and the relation of sleep stages changed under the influence of the electromagnetic field of a mobile phone.

  15. Ultrastructural Study on Ultra-Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Transfer Factor Effects on Skin Ulcers

    SciTech Connect

    Cadena, M. S. Reyes; Chapul, L. Sanchez; Perez, Javier; Garcia, M. N. Jimenez; Lopez, M. A. Jimenez; Espindola, M. E. Sanchez; Perez, R. Paniagua; Hernandez, N. A.; Paniagua, G.; Uribe, F.; Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez

    2008-08-11

    We determined the effect of 120Hz ultra low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) on the healing process of skin in 20 Wistar rats distributed in four groups in which chronic dermal ulcers had been produced. The first two groups received a dose of the transfer factor and interferon-beta (IFN-{beta}) every 24 h during 12 days. The third group (positive control) received only electromagnetic field (ELF) sessions, and in the fourth group (negative control), no treatment was applied. The electromagnetic field was applied through a Helmholtz coils; 30 Gauss of intensity. Results shown histological changes that improve the healing process in animals subjected to ELF together with the transfer factor.

  16. Entanglement control in a superconducting qubit system by an electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Q.; Xu, J. B.

    2011-08-01

    By making use of the dynamical algebraic method we investigate a quantum system consisting of superconducting qubits interacting with data buses, where the qubits are driven by time-dependent electromagnetic field and obtain an explicit expression of time evolution operator. Furthermore, we explore the entanglement dynamics and the influence of the time-dependent electromagnetic field and the initial state on the entanglement sudden death and birth for the system. It is shown that the entanglement between the qubit and bus as well as the entanglement sudden death and birth can be controlled by the time-dependent electromagnetic field.

  17. Dynamic model for electromagnetic field and heating patterns in loaded cylindrical cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Y.L.; Black, W.M.; Sa`adaldin, H.S.; Ahmad, I.; Silberglitt, R.

    1995-07-01

    An analytical solution for the electromagnetic fields in a cylindrical cavity, partially filled with a cylindrical dielectric has been recently reported. A program based on this solution has been developed and combined with the authors` previous program for heat transfer analysis. The new software has been used to simulate the dynamic temperature profiles of microwave heating and to investigate the role of electromagnetic field in heating uniformity and stability. The effects of cavity mode, cavity dimension, the dielectric properties of loads on electromagnetic field and heating patterns can be predicted using this software.

  18. Induction of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells by ELF electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Girgert, Rainer . E-mail: rainer.girgert@med.uni-goettingen.de; Schimming, Hartmut; Koerner, Wolfgang; Gruendker, Carsten; Hanf, Volker

    2005-11-04

    The incidence of breast cancer in western societies has been rising ever since the Second World War. Besides the exposure to a multitude of new chemical compounds, electromagnetic field exposure has been linked to breast cancer through a radiation-mediated anti-melatonin pathway. We investigated, whether low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure interferes with the anti-estrogenic activity of tamoxifen. Two different clones of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 were exposed to highly homogeneous 50 Hz electromagnetic fields and IC{sub 50} values were calculated from dose-response curves of tamoxifen at various field intensities. An intensity-dependent shift of tamoxifen dose-response curves to higher concentrations with a maximal response at 1.2 {mu}T was observed. Hypothetically, electromagnetic field exposure could contribute to tamoxifen resistance observed in breast cancer after long-term treatment.

  19. Induction of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells by ELF electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Girgert, Rainer; Schimming, Hartmut; Körner, Wolfgang; Gründker, Carsten; Hanf, Volker

    2005-11-04

    The incidence of breast cancer in western societies has been rising ever since the Second World War. Besides the exposure to a multitude of new chemical compounds, electromagnetic field exposure has been linked to breast cancer through a radiation-mediated anti-melatonin pathway. We investigated, whether low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure interferes with the anti-estrogenic activity of tamoxifen. Two different clones of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 were exposed to highly homogeneous 50Hz electromagnetic fields and IC(50) values were calculated from dose-response curves of tamoxifen at various field intensities. An intensity-dependent shift of tamoxifen dose-response curves to higher concentrations with a maximal response at 1.2muT was observed. Hypothetically, electromagnetic field exposure could contribute to tamoxifen resistance observed in breast cancer after long-term treatment.

  20. A pilot neighborhood study towards establishing a benchmark for reducing electromagnetic field levels within single family residential dwellings.

    PubMed

    Richman, Russell; Munroe, Alan James; Siddiqui, Yasmeen

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) permeate the built environment in different forms and come from a number of sources including electrical wiring and devices, wireless communication, 'energy-efficient' lighting, and appliances. It can be present in the indoor environment directly from indoor sources, or can be transmitted through building materials from outside sources. Scientists have identified it as an indoor environmental pollutant or toxin that has ubiquitously plagued developed nations causing a variety of adverse health effects such as sick-building syndrome symptoms, asthma, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, leukemia, electro-hypersensitivity (EHS), behavior disorders, and more. There is currently no international consensus on guidelines and exposure limits. This paper presents the results of 29 EMF field audits in single family residential dwellings located within an urban neighborhood in Toronto (Canada). The following EMF spectra were evaluated: radio frequency, power frequency electric fields, power frequency magnetic fields and high frequency voltage transients. The field audits were conducted in order to provide initial baseline statistics to be used in future studies and in order to be compared to a low-cost EMF reduction design incorporated within the Renovation2050 research house - located within the test neighborhood. The results show the low-cost reduction strategy to be effective, on average reducing exposure by 80% for high-intensity EMF metrics. Research of this nature has not been conducted with relation to the built environment and can be used to spark an industry movement to design for low-exposure to EMF in a residential context.

  1. Exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field induces an unbalance between pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signals in T-lymphoblastoid leukemia CCRF-CEM cells.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, F; La Sala, D; Cicciotti, G; Cattini, L; Trimarchi, C; Putti, S; Zamparelli, A; Giuliani, L; Tomassetti, G; Cinti, Caterina

    2004-02-01

    It has been recently established that low-frequency electromagnetic field (EMFs) exposure induces biological changes and could be associated with increased incidence of cancer, while the issue remains unresolved as to whether high-frequency EMFs can have hazardous effect on health. Epidemiological studies on association between childhood cancers, particularly leukemia and brain cancer, and exposure to low- and high-frequency EMF suggested an etiological role of EMFs in inducing adverse health effects. To investigate whether exposure to high-frequency EMFs could affect in vitro cell survival, we cultured acute T-lymphoblastoid leukemia cells (CCRF-CEM) in the presence of unmodulated 900 MHz EMF, generated by a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell, at various exposure times. We evaluated the effects of high-frequency EMF on cell growth rate and apoptosis induction, by cell viability (MTT) test, FACS analysis and DNA ladder, and we investigated pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signaling pathways possibly involved as a function of exposure time by Western blot analysis. At short exposure times (2-12 h), unmodulated 900 MHz EMF induced DNA breaks and early activation of both p53-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways while longer continuous exposure (24-48 h) determined silencing of pro-apoptotic signals and activation of genes involved in both intracellular (Bcl-2) and extracellular (Ras and Akt1) pro-survival signaling. Overall our results indicate that exposure to 900 MHz continuous wave, after inducing an early self-defense response triggered by DNA damage, could confer to the survivor CCRF-CEM cells a further advantage to survive and proliferate.

  2. Influence of exposure to electromagnetic field on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Jeong, J H; Kim, J S; Lee, B C; Min, Y S; Kim, D S; Ryu, J S; Soh, K S; Seo, K M; Sohn, U D

    2005-01-01

    1 We examined whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) affect the basal level of cardiovascular parameters and influence of drugs acting on the sympathetic nervous system. 2 Male rats were exposed to sham control and EMF (60 Hz, 20 G) for 1 (MF-1) or 5 days (MF-5). We evaluated the alterations of blood pressure (BP), pulse pressure (PP), heart rate (HR), and the PR interval, QRS interval and QT interval on the electrocardiogram and dysrhythmic ratio in basal level and dysrhythmia induced by beta-adrenoceptor agonists. 3 In terms of the basal levels, there were no statistically significant differences among control, MF-1 and MF-5 in PR interval, QRS interval, mean BP, HR and PP. However, the QT interval, representing ventricular repolarization, was significantly reduced by MF-1 (P < 0.05). 4 (-)-Dobutamine (beta1-adrenoceptor-selective agonist)-induced tachycardia was significantly suppressed by ELF-EMF exposure in MF-1 for the increase in HR (DeltaHR), the decrease in QRS interval (DeltaQRS) and the decrease in QT (DeltaQT) interval. Adrenaline (nonselective beta-receptor agonist)-induced dysrhythmia was also significantly suppressed by ELF-EMF in MF-1 for the number of missing beats, the dysrhythmic ratio, and the increase in BP and PP. 5 These results indicated that 1-day exposure to ELF-EMF (60 Hz, 20 G) could suppress the increase in HR by affecting ventricular repolarization and may have a down-regulatory effect on responses of the cardiovascular system induced by sympathetic agonists.

  3. The effects of exposure to electromagnetic field on rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    Kiray, Amac; Tayefi, Hamid; Kiray, Muge; Bagriyanik, Husnu Alper; Pekcetin, Cetin; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Ozogul, Candan

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) causes increased adverse effects on biological systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EMF on heart tissue by biochemical and histomorphological evaluations in EMF-exposed adult rats. In this study, 28 male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were used. The rats were divided into two groups: sham group (n = 14) and EMF group (n = 14). Rats in sham group were exposed to same conditions as the EMF group except the exposure to EMF. Rats in EMF group were exposed to a 50-Hz EMF of 3 mT for 4 h/day and 7 days/week for 2 months. After 2 months of exposure, rats were killed; the hearts were excised and evaluated. Determination of oxidative stress parameters was performed spectrophotometrically. To detect apoptotic cells, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry were performed. In EMF-exposed group, levels of lipid peroxidation significantly increased and activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased compared with sham group. The number of TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 immunoreactivity increased in EMF-exposed rats compared with sham. Under electron microscopy, there were mitochondrial degeneration, reduction in myofibrils, dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum and perinuclear vacuolization in EMF-exposed rats. In conclusion, the results show that the exposure to EMF causes oxidative stress, apoptosis and morphologic damage in myocardium of adult rats. The results of our study indicate that EMF-related changes in rat myocardium could be the result of increased oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to demonstrate whether the exposure to EMF can induce adverse effects on myocardium.

  4. Effect of Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields on.

    PubMed

    Umar, Z U; Abubakar, M B; Ige, J; Igbokwe, U V; Mojiminiyi, F B O; Isezuo, S A

    2014-12-29

    Since cell phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs), this study tested the hypothesis that cell phones placed near the heart may interfere with the electrical rhythm of the heart or affect the blood pressure. Following informed consent, eighteen randomly selected apparently healthy male volunteers aged 21.44 ± 0.53 years had their blood pressure, pulse rates and ECG measured before and after acute exposure to a cell phone. The ECG parameters obtained were: heart rate (HR), QRS complex duration (QRS), PR interval (PR) and Corrected QT interval (QTc). Results are presented as mean ± SEM. Statistical analyses were done using two-tailed paired t test for blood pressure and pulse rate data and one way ANOVA with a post hoc Tukey test for the ECG data. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The blood pressure and pulse rates before and after exposure to the cell phone showed no significant difference. The ECG parameters (HR: beats/min, QRS:ms, PR:ms and QTc respectively) did not differ before (66.33 ± 2.50, 91.78 ± 1.36, 151.67 ± 5.39 and 395.44 ± 4.96), during (66.33 ± 2.40, 91.11 ± 1.61, 153.67 ± 5.06 and 394.33 ± 4.05) and after calls (67.22 ± 2.77, 91.11 ± 1.67, 157.44 ± 4.46 and 396.56 ± 4.93) compared to baseline (67.17 ± 2.19, 94.33 ± 1.57, 150.56 ± 4.93 and 399.56 ± 3.88). These results suggest that acute exposure to EMFs from cell phones placed near the heart may not interfere with the electrical activity of the heart or blood pressure in healthy individuals.

  5. Statistical analysis of personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurements with nondetects.

    PubMed

    Röösli, Martin; Frei, Patrizia; Mohler, Evelyn; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bürgi, Alfred; Fröhlich, Jürg; Neubauer, Georg; Theis, Gaston; Egger, Matthias

    2008-09-01

    Exposimeters are increasingly applied in bioelectromagnetic research to determine personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure. The main advantages of exposimeter measurements are their convenient handling for study participants and the large amount of personal exposure data, which can be obtained for several RF-EMF sources. However, the large proportion of measurements below the detection limit is a challenge for data analysis. With the robust ROS (regression on order statistics) method, summary statistics can be calculated by fitting an assumed distribution to the observed data. We used a preliminary sample of 109 weekly exposimeter measurements from the QUALIFEX study to compare summary statistics computed by robust ROS with a naïve approach, where values below the detection limit were replaced by the value of the detection limit. For the total RF-EMF exposure, differences between the naïve approach and the robust ROS were moderate for the 90th percentile and the arithmetic mean. However, exposure contributions from minor RF-EMF sources were considerably overestimated with the naïve approach. This results in an underestimation of the exposure range in the population, which may bias the evaluation of potential exposure-response associations. We conclude from our analyses that summary statistics of exposimeter data calculated by robust ROS are more reliable and more informative than estimates based on a naïve approach. Nevertheless, estimates of source-specific medians or even lower percentiles depend on the assumed data distribution and should be considered with caution.

  6. Effect of radio frequency waves of electromagnetic field on the tubulin.

    PubMed

    Taghi, Mousavi; Gholamhosein, Riazi; Saeed, Rezayi-Zarchi

    2013-09-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are macromolecular structures consisting of tubulin heterodimers and present in almost every eukaryotic cell. MTs fulfill all conditions for generation of electromagnetic field and are electrically polar due to the electrical polarity of a tubulin heterodimer. The calculated static electric dipole moment of about 1000 Debye makes them capable of being aligned parallel to the applied electromagnetic field direction. In the present study, the tubulin heterodimers were extracted and purified from the rat brains. MTs were obtained by polymerization in vitro. Samples of microtubules were adsorbed in the absence and in the presence of electromagnetic fields with radio frequency of 900 Hz. Our results demonstrate the effect of electromagnetic field with 900 Hz frequency to change the structure of MTs. In this paper, a related patent was used that will help to better understand the studied subject.

  7. Subwavelength confinement of electromagnetic field by guided modes of dielectric micro- and nanowaveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheltikov, A. M.

    2010-04-01

    Regimes enabling the strongest confinement of electromagnetic field by guided modes of dielectric micro- and nanowaveguides are identified. Waveguides of this class are shown to allow a guidance of subwavelength optical beams.

  8. Calculation of electromagnetic fields in the near-field region of a moving scattering object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, M. H.

    1990-07-01

    The problem of scattering of electromagnetic fields by perfectly conducting, moving objects is solved with the Lorentz transformation and the plane wave formulation. Apart from the physical optics approximation, the solution is exact. The result is subsequently applied to the special case of monostatic reflection by an object that moves slowly with respect to the velocity of light. The result can be used to predict the time dependent reflection from an aircraft that passes the antenna of a proximity fuze, and the optimum fuze algorithm can be selected.

  9. Grounding system analysis in transients programs applying electromagnetic field approach

    SciTech Connect

    Heimbach, M.; Grcev, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    Lightning protection studies of substations and power systems require knowledge of the dynamic behavior of large grounding grids during electromagnetic transients. This paper presents strategies which allow to incorporate complex grounding structures computed using a rigorous electromagnetic model in transients programs. A novel technique for rational function representation of frequency-dependent grounding system impedances in the EMTP is described. An arbitrary number of feeding points can be modeled as mutual coupling is taken into account. Overvoltages throughout electrical power systems and the transient ground potential rise in the surroundings of grounding structures can be computed.

  10. Risks perception of electromagnetic fields in Taiwan: the influence of psychopathology and the degree of sensitivity to electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Lin, Yi-Ping; Hu, Fu-Chang; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the perceived health risks of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and factors associated with risk perception in non-Western countries. Psychological conditions and risk perception have been postulated as factors that facilitate the attribution of health complaints to environmental factors. This study investigated people's perceived risks of EMFs and other environmental sources, as well as the relationships between risk perception, psychopathology, and the degree of self-reported sensitivity to EMFs. A total of 1,251 adults selected from a nationwide telephone interviewing system database responded to a telephone survey about the relationships between environmental sources and human health. The interview included questions assessing participants' psychiatric conditions and the presence and degree of sensitivity to EMFs. One hundred and seventy participants were self-identified as having sensitivity to EMFs, and 141 met the criteria for psychiatric conditions without EMF sensitivity. More than half of the survey respondents considered power lines and mobile phone base stations to affect people's health to a big extent. Higher sensitivity to EMFs, psychopathology, being female, being married, more years of education, and having a catastrophic illness had positive associations with perceived risks of EMF-related environmental sources as well as for all environmental sources combined. We observed no moderating effect of psychopathology on the association between degree of sensitivity to EMF and risk perception. Thus, psychopathology had influence on general people's risk perception without having influence on the relationship between people's degree of sensitivity to EMF and risk perception. The plausible explanations are discussed in the text.

  11. Regulation of osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by controlling electromagnetic field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyung Shin; Hong, Jung Min; Kang, Jo A; Rhie, Jong-Won; Jeong, Young Hun; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have reported that an electromagnetic field can promote osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, experimental results have differed depending on the experimental and environmental conditions. Optimization of electromagnetic field conditions in a single, identified system can compensate for these differences. Here we demonstrated that specific electromagnetic field conditions (that is, frequency and magnetic flux density) significantly regulate osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in vitro. Before inducing osteogenic differentiation, we determined ASC stemness and confirmed that the electromagnetic field was uniform at the solenoid coil center. Then, we selected positive (30/45 Hz, 1 mT) and negative (7.5 Hz, 1 mT) osteogenic differentiation conditions by quantifying alkaline phosphate (ALP) mRNA expression. Osteogenic marker (for example, runt-related transcription factor 2) expression was higher in the 30/45 Hz condition and lower in the 7.5 Hz condition as compared with the nonstimulated group. Both positive and negative regulation of ALP activity and mineralized nodule formation supported these responses. Our data indicate that the effects of the electromagnetic fields on osteogenic differentiation differ depending on the electromagnetic field conditions. This study provides a framework for future work on controlling stem cell differentiation. PMID:23306704

  12. Achievement of balanced high frequency and high breakdown by InGaAs-based high-electron-mobility transistors with slant field plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosotani, Tomotaka; Otsuji, Taiichi; Suemitsu, Tetsuya

    2016-11-01

    InGaAs-based high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) with SiCN-based multistep slant field plates (FPs) and two-step recess (TSR) gates are fabricated and characterized. The slant FPs, which were originally developed for GaN-HEMTs, are integrated with InGaAs-HEMTs to increase the breakdown voltage (BV). The BVs of InGaAs-HEMTs increase by a factor of 1.5-2. However, FPs have a negative effect on the current gain cutoff frequency (f T). Consequently, BV and f T have a trade-off relationship. The combination of slant FPs and TSR gates enables the achievement of a balanced BV and f T of 8.0 V and 106 GHz, respectively, in 130-nm-gate-length InGaAs-HEMTs.

  13. Radiofrequency-electromagnetic field exposures in kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Chhavi Raj; Redmayne, Mary; Billah, Baki; Abramson, Michael J; Benke, Geza

    2016-10-19

    The aim of this study was to assess environmental and personal radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposures in kindergarten children. Ten children and 20 kindergartens in Melbourne, Australia participated in personal and environmental exposure measurements, respectively. Order statistics of RF-EMF exposures were computed for 16 frequency bands between 88 MHz and 5.8 GHz. Of the 16 bands, the three highest sources of environmental RF-EMF exposures were: Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 MHz downlink (82 mV/m); Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) 2100MHz downlink (51 mV/m); and GSM 900 MHz uplink (45 mV/m). Similarly, the three highest personal exposure sources were: GSM 900 MHz downlink (50 mV/m); UMTS 2100 MHz downlink, GSM 900 MHz uplink and GSM 1800 MHz downlink (20 mV/m); and Frequency Modulation radio, Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz and Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial (10 mV/m). The median environmental exposures were: 179 mV/m (total all bands), 123 mV/m (total mobile phone base station downlinks), 46 mV/m (total mobile phone base station uplinks), and 16 mV/m (Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz). Similarly, the median personal exposures were: 81 mV/m (total all bands), 62 mV/m (total mobile phone base station downlinks), 21 mV/m (total mobile phone base station uplinks), and 9 mV/m (Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz). The measurements showed that environmental RF-EMF exposure levels exceeded the personal RF-EMF exposure levels at kindergartens.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 19 October 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.55.

  14. Electromagnetically Driven Plasma-Field Dynamics in Modified Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetov, Andrey; Terina, Galina

    Under sounding of an artificial ionospheric turbulence by short probing radio pulses of ordinary polarization the two types of scattered signals were observed: a "caviton" signal (CS) and a "plasma" signal (PS), which appeared with the heating transmitter switching on and disap-peared after its switching off (G.I. Terina J. Atm. Terr. Phys, 57, 1995, 273, Izv. VUZov, Radiofizika, 39, 1998, 203). The scattered signal of PS type was revealed also after the heating switching off. It was called an "aftereffect plasma signal" (AEPS) (G.I. Terina Izv .VUZov, Radiofizika, 43, 2000, 958). This signal had large time and spatial delays and appeared mostly when corresponding PS had envelope fluctuations. The aftereffect phenomenon was expressed at time on CS by amplitude increasing at once after the heating transmitter turning off. The theoretical model of this phenomenon is proposed in and some peculiarities of the aftereffect phenomena of the scattered signals in modified ionospheric plasma are considered and discussed. For theoretical interpretation of the characteristics of CS and AEPS the numerical solution of nonlinear Shrüdinger equation (NSE) with driven extension were carried out in inhomogeneous plasma layer with linear electron density profile (A.V. Kochetov, V.A. Mironov, G.I. Terina, Adv. Space Reseacrh, 29, 2002, 1369) and for the one with prescribed density depletion (and A.V. Kochetov, G.I. Terina, Adv. Space Reseacrh, 38, 2006, 2490). The simulation results obtained for linear inhomogeneous plasma layer and for plasma one with density depletion al-low us to interpret the aftereffect of CS and PS qualitatively. The field amplitude increase at relaxation stage displayed at calculations allows us to interpret of CS aftereffect. The large time delays of AEPS can be explained as a result of powerful radio waves trapping in the forming at the plasma resonance regions density depletions (E. Mjøhus, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1998, 14711; B. Eliasson and L. Stenflo, J

  15. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Davanipour, Z.; Sobel, E.; Bowman, J.D.; Qian, Z.; Will, A.D.

    1997-03-01

    In an hypothesis-generating case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lifetime occupational histories were obtained. The patients (n = 28) were clinic based. The occupational exposure of interest in this report is electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This is the first and so far the only exposure analyzed in this study. Occupational exposure up to 2 years prior to estimated disease symptom onset was used for construction of exposure indices for cases. Controls (n = 32) were blood and nonblood relatives of cases. Occupational exposure for controls was through the same age as exposure for the corresponding cases. Twenty (71%) cases and 28 (88%) controls had at least 20 years of work experience covering the exposure period. The occupational history and task data were used to classify blindly each occupation for each subject as having high, medium/high, medium, medium/low, or low EMF exposure, based primarily on data from an earlier and unrelated study designed to obtain occupational EMF exposure information on workers in ``electrical`` and ``nonelectrical`` jobs. By using the length of time each subject spent in each occupation through the exposure period, two indices of exposure were constructed: total occupational exposure (E{sub 1}) and average occupational exposure (E{sub 2}). For cases and controls with at least 20 years of work experience, the odds ratio (OR) for exposure at the 75th percentile of the E{sub 1} case exposure data relative to minimum exposure was 7.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.4--38.1) and the corresponding OR for E{sub 2} was 5.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.3--22.5). For all cases and controls, the ORs were 2.5 (P < 0.1; 95% CI, 0.9--8.1) for E{sub 1} and 2.3 (P = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.8--6.6) for E{sub 2}. This study should be considered an hypothesis-generating study. Larger studies, using incident cases and improved exposure assessment, should be undertaken.

  16. The Influence of High-Frequency Gravitational Waves Upon Muscles

    SciTech Connect

    Moy, Lawrence S.; Baker, Robert M. L. Jr

    2007-01-30

    The objective of this paper is to present a theory for the possible influence of high-frequency gravitational waves or HFGWs and pulsed micro-current electromagnetic waves or EMs on biological matter specifically on muscle cells and myofibroblasts. The theory involves consideration of the natural frequency of contractions and relaxations of muscles, especially underlying facial skin, and the possible influence of HFGWs on that process. GWs pass without attenuation through all material thus conventional wisdom would dictate that GWs would have no influence on biological matter. On the other hand, GWs can temporarily modify a gravitational field in some locality if they are of high frequency and such a modification might have an influence in changing the skin muscles' natural frequency. Prior to the actual laboratory generation of HFGWs their influence can be emulated by micro-current EM pulses to the skin and some evidence presented here on that effect may predict the influence of HFGWs. We believe that the HFGW pulsations lead to increased muscle activity and may serve to reverse the aging process. A novel theoretical framework concerning these relaxation phenomena is one result of the paper. Another result is the analysis of the possible delivery system of the FBAR-generated HFGWs, the actual power of the generated HFGWs, and the system's application to nanostructural modification of the skin or muscle cells. It is concluded that a series of non-evasive experiments, which are identified, will have the potential to test theory by detecting and analyzing the possible HFGWs change in polarization, refraction, etc. after their interaction with the muscle cells.

  17. Time-Variable Geophysical Background Models for High-Frequency Non-Tidal Variability in the Earth's Gravity Field, its Surface Deformation, and its Rotation provided by GFZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobslaw, Henryk; Dill, Robert; Bergmann-Wolf, Inga; Poropat, Lea; Thomas, Maik

    2016-04-01

    Mass variability in atmosphere, oceans, and the terrestrially stored water is reflected in time variations of the Earth's gravity field, its surface deformations, and its rotation that are reliably picked up by geodetic networks and satellite missions since many years. For studies attempting to unveil signatures of solid Earth processes from such observations, its is highly important to remove signals caused by geophysical fluids on or above the surface as accurately as possible. At this poster, we are going to give a summary about the current status of the time-variable geophysical background models suitable for geodetic purposes that are currently processed at GFZ Potsdam. This will include the latest versions of the GRACE AOD1B background model; effective angular momentum functions for atmosphere, oceans, and the continental hydrosphere; as well as surface deformations due to tidal and non-tidal mass loads on the continents and the ocean floor. Latest news and all access details to the datasets are available at http://www.gfz-potsdam.de/en/section/earthsystemmodelling/services.

  18. Transient effect of weak electromagnetic fields on calcium ion concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pazur, Alexander; Rassadina, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    Background Weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields can influence physiological processes in animals, plants and microorganisms, but the underlying way of perception is poorly understood. The ion cyclotron resonance is one of the discussed mechanisms, predicting biological effects for definite frequencies and intensities of electromagnetic fields possibly by affecting the physiological availability of small ions. Above all an influence on Calcium, which is crucial for many life processes, is in the focus of interest. We show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, changes in Ca2+-concentrations can be induced by combinations of magnetic and electromagnetic fields that match Ca2+-ion cyclotron resonance conditions. Results An aequorin expressing Arabidopsis thaliana mutant (Col0-1 Aeq Cy+) was subjected to a magnetic field around 65 microtesla (0.65 Gauss) and an electromagnetic field with the corresponding Ca2+ cyclotron frequency of 50 Hz. The resulting changes in free Ca2+ were monitored by aequorin bioluminescence, using a high sensitive photomultiplier unit. The experiments were referenced by the additional use of wild type plants. Transient increases of cytosolic Ca2+ were observed both after switching the electromagnetic field on and off, with the latter effect decreasing with increasing duration of the electromagnetic impact. Compared with this the uninfluenced long-term loss of bioluminescence activity without any exogenic impact was negligible. The magnetic field effect rapidly decreased if ion cyclotron resonance conditions were mismatched by varying the magnetic fieldstrength, also a dependence on the amplitude of the electromagnetic component was seen. Conclusion Considering the various functions of Ca2+ as a second messenger in plants, this mechanism may be relevant for perception of these combined fields. The applicability of recently hypothesized mechanisms for the ion cyclotron resonance effect in biological systems is discussed considering it's operating at

  19. Dispersion, High-Frequency and Power Characteristics of AlN/GaN Metal Insulator Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors with in-situ MOCVD Deposited Si3N4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Sanghyun; Cho, Eunjung; Aroshvili, Giorgi; Jin, Chong; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Considine, Laurence

    The paper presents a systematic study of in-situ passivated AlN/GaN Metal Insulator Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MISFETs) with submicron gates. DC, high frequency small signal, large signal and low frequency dispersion effects are reported. The DC characteristics are analyzed in conjunction with the power performance of the device at high frequencies. Studies of the low frequency characteristics are presented and the results are compared with those of AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). Small signal measurements showed a current gain cutoff frequency and maximum oscillation frequency of 49.9GHz and 102.3GHz respectively. The overall characteristics of the device include a peak current density of 335mA/mm, peak extrinsic transconductance of 130mS/mm, a maximum output power density of 533mW/mm with peak power added efficiency (P.A.E.) of 41.3% and linear gain of 17dB. The maximum frequency dispersion of transconductance and output resistance of the fabricated MISFETs is 20% and 21% respectively.

  20. Exposure of biological preparations to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields under low gravity.

    PubMed

    Jacquot, Jean Francois; le Bail, Jean-Luc; Bardet, Michel; Tabony, James

    2010-11-01

    There is interest as to whether the electromagnetic fields used in mobile radiotelephony might affect biological processes. Other weak fields such as gravity intervene in a number of physical and biological processes. Under appropriate in vitro conditions, the macroscopic self-organization of microtubules, a major cellular component, is triggered by gravity. We wished to investigate whether self-organization might also be affected by radiotelephone electromagnetic fields. Detecting a possible effect requires removing the obscuring effects triggered by gravity. A simple manner of doing this is by rotating the sample about the horizontal. However, if the external field does not also rotate with the sample, its possible effect might also be averaged down by rotation. Here, we describe an apparatus in which both the sample and an applied radiofrequency electromagnetic field (1.8 GHz) are stationary with respect to one another while undergoing horizontal rotation. The electromagnetic field profile within the apparatus has been measured and the apparatus tested by reproducing the in vitro behavior of microtubule preparations under conditions of weightlessness. Specific adsorption rates of electromagnetic energy within a sample are measured from the initial temperature rise the incident field causes. The apparatus can be readily adapted to expose samples to various other external fields and factors under conditions of weightlessness.

  1. Effect of low-intensity extremely high frequency radiation on reproductive function in wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Subbotina, T I; Tereshkina, O V; Khadartsev, A A; Yashin, A A

    2006-08-01

    The exposure to low-intensity extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation during spermatogenesis was accompanied by pathological changes, which resulted in degeneration and polymorphism of spermatozoa. The number of newborn rats increased in the progeny of irradiated animals.

  2. [Electromagnetic fields of mobile telephone systems--thresholds, effects and risks for cochlear implant patients and healthy people].

    PubMed

    Bischof, F; Langer, J; Begall, K

    2008-11-01

    Every day life is detectably affected by manifold natural sources of electromagnetic fields (EMF), e. g. infrared radiation, light and the terrestrial magnetic field. However, there is still uncertainty about the consequences or hazards of artificial EMF, which emerge from mobile phone or wireless network (wireless local area network [WLAN]) services, for instance. Following recommendations of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) the German Commission on Radiation Protection (SSK) defined corresponding thresholds for high frequency electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) in 2003. By observing those thresholds HF-EMF is thought to be innocent so far. However, there is still controversial discussion about induction of cancer or neurovegetative symptoms due to inconsistent study results. Patients with cochlea implants are of particular interest within the speciality of otorhinolaryngology due to specific hazards, which arise during mobile telephone use from the distance between brain and inductive metal implants (electrode) on the one hand and the electronic system of the cochlear implant and the source of HF-EMF on the other hand. Besides many studies about the impact of HF-EMF on common welfare, there are only very few surveys (n = 6) covering the effects on patients with cochlear implants. The purpose of this paper is to overview sources, thresholds and subsequently harmful or harmless effects of HFEMF. Due to the current state of knowledge about the impact of mobile phone use on health, we assume, that HF-EMF are harmless both for healthy people and patients with cochlea implants, provided that legal thresholds are observed.

  3. Simple and effective monitoring of the electromagnetic field in the smart cities arena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ares-Pena, Francisco J.; Franceschetti, Giorgio; Iodice, Antonio; Salas-Sánchez, Aarón A.

    2016-08-01

    A simple and economical method for monitoring the electromagnetic field intensity in built-up areas is presented. The method is based on the measurement of the field level over a limited number of points at street level in the city and their transmission to an operative control center, where the field values all over the city are correctly interpolated in real time. Citizens might obtain these values at their sites, via Internet, or by connecting with a dedicated call center. Numerical evaluations of the electromagnetic field intensity via the new developed model and confirming experimental results are finally presented.

  4. Terahertz electromagnetic fields (0.106 THz) do not induce manifest genomic damage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hintzsche, Henning; Jastrow, Christian; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Kärst, Uwe; Schrader, Thorsten; Stopper, Helga

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz electromagnetic fields are non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 0.1 to 10 THz. Potential applications of these electromagnetic fields include the whole body scanners, which currently apply millimeter waves just below the terahertz range, but future scanners will use higher frequencies in the terahertz range. These and other applications will bring along human exposure to these fields. Up to now, only a limited number of investigations on biological effects of terahertz electromagnetic fields have been performed. Therefore, research is strongly needed to enable reliable risk assessment.Cells were exposed for 2 h, 8 h, and 24 h with different power intensities ranging from 0.04 mW/cm(2) to 2 mW/cm(2), representing levels below, at, and above current safety limits. Genomic damage on the chromosomal level was measured as micronucleus formation. DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites were quantified with the comet assay. No DNA strand breaks or alkali-labile sites were observed as a consequence of exposure to terahertz electromagnetic fields in the comet assay. The fields did not cause chromosomal damage in the form of micronucleus induction.

  5. Terahertz Electromagnetic Fields (0.106 THz) Do Not Induce Manifest Genomic Damage In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hintzsche, Henning; Jastrow, Christian; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Kärst, Uwe; Schrader, Thorsten; Stopper, Helga

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz electromagnetic fields are non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 0.1 to 10 THz. Potential applications of these electromagnetic fields include the whole body scanners, which currently apply millimeter waves just below the terahertz range, but future scanners will use higher frequencies in the terahertz range. These and other applications will bring along human exposure to these fields. Up to now, only a limited number of investigations on biological effects of terahertz electromagnetic fields have been performed. Therefore, research is strongly needed to enable reliable risk assessment. Cells were exposed for 2 h, 8 h, and 24 h with different power intensities ranging from 0.04 mW/cm2 to 2 mW/cm2, representing levels below, at, and above current safety limits. Genomic damage on the chromosomal level was measured as micronucleus formation. DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites were quantified with the comet assay. No DNA strand breaks or alkali-labile sites were observed as a consequence of exposure to terahertz electromagnetic fields in the comet assay. The fields did not cause chromosomal damage in the form of micronucleus induction. PMID:23029508

  6. Electromagnetic Near Field Measurements of Two Critical Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Goettee, Jeffrey David

    2015-11-03

    The reactors employed, Godiva IV and WSMR Fast Burst Reactor, are described first. Then the point reactor kinetics model, electromagnetic potential, and the measurement of kinetics quantities are successively discussed. In summary, reactor power produces measurable electric energy. The electric signal mimics power curve for prompt burst operations - features in logarithmic derivatives match. The electric signature should be dependent on the power and not the derivative; therefore, steady-state modes should be measurable.

  7. Radiation of electromagnetic waves by a dipole in an external uniform electrostatic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaenkov, S. I.

    2017-01-01

    Exact solution for the electromagnetic field densities E and H of a dipole of uniformly accelerated point-charges with identical masses is discussed. It is shown that, for any fixed time t and a large distance R between the center of the dipole and the fieldpoint, | E| R -4, | H| R -5, while for large c| t| R, | E| | H| 1/ R as in spherical electromagnetic waves. Nevertheless, any irreversible radiation of electromagnetic waves is absent since the wave zone does not exist.

  8. Electromagnetic instability in plasmas heated by a laser field.

    PubMed

    Bendib, A; Bendib-Kalache, K; Cros, B; Deutsch, C; Maynard, G

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetic instability is investigated in homogeneous plasmas heated by a laser wave in the range α=v_{0}^{2}/v_{t}^{2}≤2, where v_{0} is the electron quiver velocity and v_{t} is the thermal velocity. The anisotropic electron distribution function that drives unstable quasistatic electromagnetic modes is calculated numerically with the Vlasov-Landau equation in the high ion charge number approximation. A dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves which accounts for further nonlinear terms on v_{0}^{2} from previous results is derived. In typical simulation with ion charge number Z=13, a temperature T=5keV, a density n=9.8×10^{20}cm^{-3}, and a laser wavelength λ_{laser}=1.06μm, growth rates larger than 10^{12}s^{-1} in the quasicollisionless wave-number range were found for α≥1. In the same physical conditions and in the mildly collisional range a growth rate about 10^{11}s^{-1} was also obtained. The extent of the growth wave-number region increases significantly with increasing α.

  9. Electromagnetic instability in plasmas heated by a laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendib, A.; Bendib-Kalache, K.; Cros, B.; Deutsch, C.; Maynard, G.

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetic instability is investigated in homogeneous plasmas heated by a laser wave in the range α =v02/vt2≤2 , where v0 is the electron quiver velocity and vt is the thermal velocity. The anisotropic electron distribution function that drives unstable quasistatic electromagnetic modes is calculated numerically with the Vlasov-Landau equation in the high ion charge number approximation. A dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves which accounts for further nonlinear terms on v02 from previous results is derived. In typical simulation with ion charge number Z =13 , a temperature T =5 keV , a density n =9.8 ×1020c m-3 , and a laser wavelength λlaser=1.06 μ m , growth rates larger than 1012s-1 in the quasicollisionless wave-number range were found for α ≥1 . In the same physical conditions and in the mildly collisional range a growth rate about 1011s-1 was also obtained. The extent of the growth wave-number region increases significantly with increasing α .

  10. [Reaction of the endocrine system to continuous and intermittent electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Zagorskaia, E A

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews Soviet and foreign data about the effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields of continuous and intermittent generation on the endocrine system of animals and humans. It has been shown that the pituitary-adrenal, pituitary-thyroid and reproductive systems are sensitive to these effects. It is postulated that the endocrine responses to electromagnetic effects are similar to the general adaptive reactions to various pathophysiological exposures.

  11. Electromagnetic fields (UHF) increase voltage sensitivity of membrane ion channels; possible indication of cell phone effect on living cells.

    PubMed

    Ketabi, N; Mobasheri, H; Faraji-Dana, R

    2015-03-01

    The effects of ultra high frequency (UHF) nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the channel activities of nanopore forming protein, OmpF porin, were investigated. The voltage clamp technique was used to study the single channel activity of the pore in an artificial bilayer in the presence and absence of the electromagnetic fields at 910 to 990 MHz in real time. Channel activity patterns were used to address the effect of EMF on the dynamic, arrangement and dielectric properties of water molecules, as well as on the hydration state and arrangements of side chains lining the channel barrel. Based on the varied voltage sensitivity of the channel at different temperatures in the presence and absence of EMF, the amount of energy transferred to nano-environments of accessible groups was estimated to address the possible thermal effects of EMF. Our results show that the effects of EMF on channel activities are frequency dependent, with a maximum effect at 930 MHz. The frequency of channel gating and the voltage sensitivity is increased when the channel is exposed to EMF, while its conductance remains unchanged at all frequencies applied. We have not identified any changes in the capacitance and permeability of membrane in the presence of EMF. The effect of the EMF irradiated by cell phones is measured by Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) in artificial model of human head, Phantom. Thus, current approach applied to biological molecules and electrolytes might be considered as complement to evaluate safety of irradiating sources on biological matter at molecular level.

  12. Cobalt Nanoparticle Inks for Printed High Frequency Applications on Polycarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelo, Mikko; Myllymäki, Sami; Juuti, Jari; Uusimäki, Antti; Jantunen, Heli

    2015-12-01

    In this work the high frequency properties of low curing temperature cobalt nanoparticle inks printed on polycarbonate substrates were investigated. The inks consisted of 30-70 vol.% metallic cobalt nanoparticles and poly (methylene methacrylate) polymer, having excellent adhesion on polycarbonate and a curing temperature of 110°C. The influence of binder material content on the electromagnetic properties of the ink was investigated using the shorted microstrip transmission-line perturbation method. Changes in mechanical properties were evaluated with adhesion tests using the pull-out strength test and the ASTM D 3359-B cross-hatch tape peel test. The microstructure of the printed patterns was investigated with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The inks remained mechanically durable with metal contents up to 60 vol.%, achieving pull-off strength of up to 5.2 MPa and the highest marks in adhesion of the tape peel test. The inks obtained a relative permeability of 1.5-3 in the 45 MHz-10 GHz band with a magnetic loss tangent of 0.01-0.06. The developed inks can be utilized in various printed electronics applications such as antenna miniaturization, antenna substrates and magnetic sensors or sensing.

  13. Classical electromagnetic fields from quantum sources in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, Robert; McCarty, Ryan; Peroutka, Balthazar; Tuchin, Kirill

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields are generated in high energy nuclear collisions by spectator valence protons. These fields are traditionally computed by integrating the Maxwell equations with point sources. One might expect that such an approach is valid at distances much larger than the proton size and thus such a classical approach should work well for almost the entire interaction region in the case of heavy nuclei. We argue that, in fact, the contrary is true: due to the quantum diffusion of the proton wave function, the classical approximation breaks down at distances of the order of the system size. We compute the electromagnetic field created by a charged particle described initially as a Gaussian wave packet of width 1 fm and evolving in vacuum according to the Klein-Gordon equation. We completely neglect the medium effects. We show that the dynamics, magnitude and even sign of the electromagnetic field created by classical and quantum sources are different.

  14. The nonextensive parameter for nonequilibrium electron gas in an electromagnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Haining; Du, Jiulin

    2014-11-15

    The nonextensive parameter for nonequilibrium electron gas of the plasma in an electromagnetic field is studied. We exactly obtained an expression of the q-parameter based on Boltzmann kinetic theories for plasmas, where Coulombian interactions and Lorentz forces play dominant roles. We show that the q-parameter different from unity is related by an equation to temperature gradient, electric field strength, magnetic induction as well as overall bulk velocity of the gas. The effect of the magnetic field on the q-parameter depends on the overall bulk velocity. Thus the q-parameter for the electron gas in an electromagnetic field represents the nonequilibrium nature or nonisothermal configurations of the plasma with electromagnetic interactions. - Highlights: • An expression of the q-parameter is obtained for nonequilibrium plasma with electromagnetic interactions. • The q-parameter is related to temperature gradient, electric field strength, magnetic induction as well as overall bulk velocity of the plasma. • The q-parameter represents the nonequilibrium nature of the complex plasma with electromagnetic interactions.

  15. Noise temperature in graphene at high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengel, Raúl; Iglesias, José M.; Pascual, Elena; Martín, María J.

    2016-07-01

    A numerical method for obtaining the frequency-dependent noise temperature in monolayer graphene is presented. From the mobility and diffusion coefficient values provided by Monte Carlo simulation, the noise temperature in graphene is studied up to the THz range, considering also the influence of different substrate types. The influence of the applied electric field is investigated: the noise temperature is found to increase with the applied field, dropping down at high frequencies (in the sub-THz range). The results show that the low-frequency value of the noise temperature in graphene on a substrate tends to be reduced as compared to the case of suspended graphene due to the important effect of remote polar phonon interactions, thus indicating a reduced emitted noise power; however, at very high frequencies the influence of the substrate tends to be significantly reduced, and the differences between the suspended and on-substrate cases tend to be minimized. The values obtained are comparable to those observed in GaAs and semiconductor nitrides.

  16. Porous material for protection from electromagnetic radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmina, Olga E-mail: bdushkina89@mail.ru; Dushkina, Maria E-mail: bdushkina89@mail.ru; Suslyaev, Valentin; Semukhin, Boris

    2014-11-14

    It is shown that the porous glass crystalline material obtained by a low temperature technology can be used not only for thermal insulation, but also for lining of rooms as protective screens decreasing harmful effect of electromagnetic radiation as well as to establish acoustic chambers and rooms with a low level of electromagnetic background. The material interacts with electromagnetic radiation by the most effective way in a high frequency field (above 100 GHz). At the frequency of 260 GHz the value of the transmission coefficient decreases approximately in a factor times in comparison with foam glass.

  17. Public health risk from ELF (electromagnetic fields) exposure -- can it be assessed

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, T.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF) are a ubiquitous environmental agent. There are persistent indications that these fields have biologic activity, and consequently, there may be a deleterious component to their action. Epidemiologic researchers of ELF face several methodological obstacles, and quantitative risk assessment is in a quandary. Simply stated there is a need for more data---especially with regard to exposure assessment.

  18. Exact Electromagnetic Fields Produced by a Finite Wire with Constant Current

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, J. L.; Campos, I.; Aquino, N.

    2008-01-01

    We solve exactly the problem of calculating the electromagnetic fields produced by a finite wire with a constant current, by using two methods: retarded potentials and Jefimenko's formalism. One result in this particular case is that the usual Biot-Savart law of magnetostatics gives the correct magnetic field of the problem. We also show…

  19. High Frequency Linacs for Hadrontherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaldi, Ugo; Braccini, Saverio; Puggioni, Paolo

    The use of radiofrequency linacs for hadrontherapy was proposed about 20 years ago, but only recently has it been understood that the high repetition rate together with the possibility of very rapid energy variations offers an optimal solution to the present challenge of hadrontherapy: "paint" a moving tumor target in three dimensions with a pencil beam. Moreover, the fact that the energy, and thus the particle range, can be electronically adjusted implies that no absorber-based energy selection system is needed, which, in the case of cyclotron-based centers, is the cause of material activation. On the other side, a linac consumes less power than a synchrotron. The first part of this article describes the main advantages of high frequency linacs in hadrontherapy, the early design studies, and the construction and test of the first high-gradient prototype which accelerated protons. The second part illustrates some technical issues relevant to the design of copper standing wave accelerators, the present developments, and two designs of linac-based proton and carbon ion facilities. Superconductive linacs are not discussed, since nanoampere currents are sufficient for therapy. In the last two sections, a comparison with circular accelerators and an overview of future projects are presented.

  20. Effects of electromagnetic fields produced by radiotelevision broadcasting stations on the immune system of women.

    PubMed

    Boscol, P; Di Sciascio, M B; D'Ostilio, S; Del Signore, A; Reale, M; Conti, P; Bavazzano, P; Paganelli, R; Di Gioacchino, M

    2001-06-12

    The object of this study was to investigate the immune system of 19 women with a mean age of 35 years, for at least 2 years (mean = 13 years) exposed to electromagnetic fields (ELMFs) induced by radiotelevision broadcasting stations in their residential area. In September 1999, the ELMFs (with range 500 KHz-3 GHz) in the balconies of the homes of the women were (mean +/- S.D.) 4.3 +/- 1.4 V/m. Forty-seven women of similar age, smoking habits and atopy composed the control group, with a nearby resident ELMF exposure of < 1.8 V/m. Blood lead and urinary trans-trans muconic acid (a metabolite of benzene), markers of exposure to urban traffic, were higher in the control women. The ELMF exposed group showed a statistically significant reduction of blood NK CD16+-CD56+, cytotoxic CD3(-)-CD8+, B and NK activated CD3(-)-HLA-DR+ and CD3(-)-CD25+ lymphocytes. 'In vitro' production of IL-2 and interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of the ELMF exposed group, incubated either with or without phytohaemoagglutinin (PHA), was significantly lower; the 'in vitro' production of IL-2 was significantly correlated with blood CD16+-CD56+ lymphocytes. The stimulation index (S.I.) of blastogenesis (ratio between cell proliferation with and without PHA) of PBMC of ELMF exposed women was lower than that of the control subjects. The S.I. of blastogenesis of the ELMF exposed group (but not blood NK lymphocytes and the 'in vitro' production of IL-2 and INF-gamma by PBMC) was significantly correlated with the ELMF levels. Blood lead and urinary trans-trans muconic acid were barely correlated with immune parameters: the urinary metabolite of benzene of the control group was only correlated with CD16+-CD56+ cells indicating a slight effect of traffic on the immune system. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that high frequency ELMFs reduce cytotoxic activity in the peripheral blood of women without a dose-response effect.

  1. Molecular based magnets comprising vanadium tetracyanoethylene complexes for shielding electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Epstein, Arthur J.; Morin, Brian G.

    1998-01-01

    The invention presents a vanadium tetracyanoethylene solvent complex for electromagnetic field shielding, and a method for blocking low frequency and magnetic fields using these vanadium tetracyanoethylene compositions. The compositions of the invention can be produced at ambient temperature and are light weight, low density and flexible. The materials of the present invention are useful as magnetic shields to block low frequency fields and static fields, and for use in cores in transformers and motors.

  2. Molecular based magnets comprising vanadium tetracyanoethylene complexes for shielding electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Epstein, A.J.; Morin, B.G.

    1998-10-13

    The invention presents a vanadium tetracyanoethylene solvent complex for electromagnetic field shielding, and a method for blocking low frequency and magnetic fields using these vanadium tetracyanoethylene compositions. The compositions of the invention can be produced at ambient temperature and are light weight, low density and flexible. The materials of the present invention are useful as magnetic shields to block low frequency fields and static fields, and for use in cores in transformers and motors. 21 figs.

  3. Magnetic field instability of a plasma in a beam of electromagnetic radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1980-04-01

    A beam of electromagnetic radiation can generate magnetic fields in plasmas. It is shown that those fields grow significantly when the incident radiation is sufficiently strong. We obtain expressions for the characteristic time of the growth of the fields as well as for their spatial distribution and point out a possible mechanism, which can lead to the formation of a quasi-stationary state. The maximum value of the magnetic field strength is estimated.

  4. High frequency-heated air turbojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miron, J. H. D.

    1986-01-01

    A description is given of a method to heat air coming from a turbojet compressor to a temperature necessary to produce required expansion without requiring fuel. This is done by high frequency heating, which heats the walls corresponding to the combustion chamber in existing jets, by mounting high frequency coils in them. The current transformer and high frequency generator to be used are discussed.

  5. Broadband field enhancement of THz electromagnetic wave by surface-textured micron PVDF cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinxin; Liu, Xuan; Zhang, Luoning; Zhou, Jing; Liu, Dahe

    2015-07-01

    A cylindrical dimmer system is proposed to realize broadband field enhancement for terahertz (THz) electromagnetic wave. A surface-textured crescent-shaped cylinder is proposed to red-shift the absorption spectrum comparing to the traditional crescent-shaped cylinder based on the concept of spoof surface plasmons. Such cylinders made of ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride can realize the electromagnetic wave harvesting at terahertz frequencies with a broadband and huge absorption cross section. Two such cylinders in close proximity could achieve considerable electromagnetic field enhancement and field confinement in the gap, which could be applied in THz molecules detection, toxic chemical sensing, and safety screening and could break the detection binding that limits the molecules <100 nm.

  6. Growth stimulation of biological cells and tissue by electromagnetic fields and uses thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides systems for growing two or three dimensional mammalian cells within a culture medium facilitated by an electromagnetic field, and preferably, a time varying electromagnetic field. The cells and culture medium are contained within a fixed or rotating culture vessel, and the electromagnetic field is emitted from at least one electrode. In one embodiment, the electrode is spaced from the vessel. The invention further provides methods to promote neural tissue regeneration by means of culturing the neural cells in the claimed system. In one embodiment, neuronal cells are grown within longitudinally extending tissue strands extending axially along and within electrodes comprising electrically conductive channels or guides through which a time varying electrical current is conducted, the conductive channels being positioned within a culture medium.

  7. Growth Stimulation of Biological Cells and Tissue by Electromagnetic Fields and Uses Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides systems for growing two or three dimensional mammalian cells within a culture medium facilitated by an electromagnetic field, and preferably, a time varying electromagnetic field. The cells, and culture medium are contained within a fixed or rotating culture vessel, and the electromagnetic field is emitted from at least one electrode. In one embodiment, the electrode is spaced from the vessel. The invention further provides methods to promote neural tissue regeneration by means of culturing the neural cells in the claimed system. In one embodiment, neuronal cells are grown within longitudinally extending tissue strands extending axially along and within electrodes comprising electrically conductive channels or guides through which a time varying electrical current is conducted, the conductive channels being positioned within a culture medium.

  8. Chronic prenatal exposure to the 900 megahertz electromagnetic field induces pyramidal cell loss in the hippocampus of newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Bas, O; Odaci, E; Mollaoglu, H; Ucok, K; Kaplan, S

    2009-07-01

    Widespread use of mobile phones which are a major source of electromagnetic fields might affect living organisms. However, there has been no investigation concerning prenatal exposure to electromagnetic fields or their roles in the development of the pyramidal cells of the cornu ammonis in postnatal life. Two groups of pregnant rats, a control group and an experimental group, that were exposed to an electromagnetic field were used. For obtaining electromagnetic field offspring, the pregnant rats were exposed to 900 megahertz electromagnetic fields during the 1-19th gestation days. There were no actions performed on the control group during the same period. The offspring rats were spontaneously delivered--control group (n = 6) and electromagnetic field group (n = 6). Offspring were sacrificed for stereological analyses at the end of the 4th week. Pyramidal cell number in rat cornu ammonis was estimated using the optical fractionator technique. It was found that 900 megahertz of electromagnetic field significantly reduced the total pyramidal cell number in the cornu ammonis of the electromagnetic field group (P < 0.001). Therefore, although its exact mechanism is not clear, it is suggested that pyramidal cell loss in the cornu ammonis could be due to the 900 megahertz electromagnetic field exposure in the prenatal period.

  9. Influence of electromagnetic field intensity on the metastable zone width of CaCO3 crystallization in circulating water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianguo; Liang, Yandong; Chen, Si

    2016-09-01

    In this study, changes in the metastable zone width of CaCO3 crystallization was determined through conductivity titration by altering electromagnetic field parameters applied to the circulating water system. The critical conductivity value and metastable zone curves of CaCO3 crystallization were determined under different solution concentrations and electromagnetic field intensities. Experimental results indicate that the effect of the electromagnetic field intensity on the critical conductivity value intensifies with the increase of solution concentration. Moreover, the metastable zone width of CaCO3 crystallization increases with the increase of electromagnetic field intensity within 200 Gs, thereby prolonging the induction period of nucleation.

  10. Particle Production in Strong Electromagnetic Fields in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Tuchin, Kirill

    2013-01-01

    I reviewmore » the origin and properties of electromagnetic fields produced in heavy-ion collisions. The field strength immediately after a collision is proportional to the collision energy and reaches ~ m π 2 at RHIC and ~ 10 m π 2 at LHC. I demonstrate by explicit analytical calculation that after dropping by about one-two orders of magnitude during the first fm/c of plasma expansion, it freezes out and lasts for as long as quark-gluon plasma lives as a consequence of finite electrical conductivity of the plasma. Magnetic field breaks spherical symmetry in the direction perpendicular to the reaction plane, and therefore all kinetic coefficients are anisotropic. I examine viscosity of QGP and show that magnetic field induces azimuthal anisotropy on plasma flow even in spherically symmetric geometry. Very strong electromagnetic field has an important impact on particle production. I discuss the problem of energy loss and polarization of fast fermions due to synchrotron radiation, consider photon decay induced by magnetic field, elucidate J / ψ dissociation via Lorentz ionization mechanism, and examine electromagnetic radiation by plasma. I conclude that all processes in QGP are affected by strong electromagnetic field and call for experimental investigation.« less

  11. Oxidative and genotoxic effects of 900 MHz electromagnetic fields in the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Tkalec, Mirta; Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja; Malarić, Krešimir; Klobučar, Göran I V

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) can have various biological effects. In this study the oxidative and genotoxic effects were investigated in earthworms Eisenia fetida exposed in vivo to RF-EMF at the mobile phone frequency (900 MHz). Earthworms were exposed to the homogeneous RF-EMF at field levels of 10, 23, 41 and 120 V m(-1) for a period of 2h using a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic (GTEM) cell. At the field level of 23 V m(-1) the effect of longer exposure (4h) and field modulation (80% AM 1 kHz sinusoidal) was investigated as well. All exposure treatments induced significant genotoxic effect in earthworms coelomocytes detected by the Comet assay, demonstrating DNA damaging capacity of 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Field modulation additionally increased the genotoxic effect. Moreover, our results indicated the induction of antioxidant stress response in terms of enhanced catalase and glutathione reductase activity as a result of the RF-EMF exposure, and demonstrated the generation of lipid and protein oxidative damage. Antioxidant responses and the potential of RF-EMF to induce damage to lipids, proteins and DNA differed depending on the field level applied, modulation of the field and duration of E. fetida exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic radiation. Nature of detected DNA lesions and oxidative stress as the mechanism of action for the induction of DNA damage are discussed.

  12. Electromagnetic field of a charge intersecting a cold plasma boundary in a waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Alekhina, Tatiana Yu.; Tyukhtin, Andrey V.

    2011-06-15

    We analyze the electromagnetic field of a charge crossing a boundary between a vacuum and cold plasma in a waveguide. We obtain exact expressions for the field components and the spectral density of the transition radiation. With the steepest descent technique, we investigate the field components. We show that the electromagnetic field has a different structure in a vacuum than in cold plasma. We also develop an algorithm for the computation of the field based on a certain transformation of the integration path. The behavior of the field depending on distance and time and the spectral density depending on frequency are explored for different charge velocities. Some important physical effects are noted. A considerable increase and concentration of the field near the wave front in the plasma is observed for the case of ultrarelativistic particles. In the plasma, the mode envelopes and spectral density show zero points when the charge velocity is within certain limits.

  13. Computer Simulation of Interactions between High-Power Electromagnetic Fields and Electronic Systems in a Complex Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-01

    and immune to interior resonance corruption. This work lays a foundation for the development of a very useful and powerful technique, which...show that the resulting solution has a good efficiency and accuracy and is completely immune to the problem of interior resonance . The technical...electromagnetic modeling for high-frequency MRI applications," International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Fifth Scientific Meeting, Vancouver, Canada

  14. [Patient exposure to electromagnetic fields in magnetic resonance scanners: a review].

    PubMed

    Guibelalde del Castillo, E

    2013-12-01

    The use of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in the low frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum and static fields, radiofrequencies (RF), and microwaves is fundamental both in modern communication systems and in diagnostic medical imaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The proliferation of these applications in recent decades has led to intense activity in developing regulations to guarantee their safety and to the establishment of guidelines and legal recommendations for the public, workers, and patients. In April 2012 it was foreseen that the European Parliament and Council would approve and publish a directive on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from electromagnetic fields, which would modify Directive 2004/40/EC. New studies related to the exposure to electromagnetic radiation and its impact on health published in recent years have led to a new postponement, and it is now foreseen that the directive will come into effect in October 2013. One of the most noteworthy aspects of the new version of the directive is the exclusion of the limits of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in the clinical use of MRI. In exchange for this exception, physicians and experts in protection against non-ionizing radiation are asked to make additional efforts to train workers exposed to non-ionizing radiation and to establish mechanisms to guarantee the correct application of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields in patients, along similar lines to the principles of justification and optimization established for ionizing radiation. On the basis of the most recently published studies, this article reviews some safety-related aspects to take into account when examining patients with MRI with high magnetic fields.

  15. A spaceborne receiver for measuring electromagnetic field intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reich, B. W.; Van Dusen, M. R.; Habib, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a very accurately controlled receiver for monitoring the electromagnetic radiations in both existing and projected space communication bands. Based on analysis of the existing and projected space communication bands, 108 to 174 MHz, 240 to 478 MHz, and 1535 to 1665 MHz were covered. The receiver achieves accurate control via a digitally tuned synthesizer and a wide range of digital control including frequency band coverage and gain control selection. Digital memory was provided to store 16 separate digital command instructions which can be programmed via a command data link. The receiver provides for transmission to the ground of both a predetection signal and signals in digital format, which in turn, were provided by sampling and analog-to-digital conversions.

  16. Human osteoarthritic chondrocytes exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF) and therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic fields (TAMMEF) systems: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Corallo, Claudio; Volpi, Nila; Franci, Daniela; Vannoni, Daniela; Leoncini, Roberto; Landi, Giacomo; Guarna, Massimo; Montella, Antonio; Albanese, Antonietta; Battisti, Emilio; Fioravanti, Antonella; Nuti, Ranuccio; Giordano, Nicola

    2013-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease, characterized by matrix degradation and changes in chondrocyte morphology and metabolism. Literature reported that electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can produce benefits in OA patients, even if EMFs mechanism of action is debated. Human osteoarthritic chondrocytes isolated from femoral heads were cultured in vitro in bidimensional (2-D) flasks and in three-dimensional (3-D) alginate beads to mimic closely cartilage environment in vivo. Cells were exposed 30 min/day for 2 weeks to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) with fixed frequency (100 Hz) and to therapeutic application of musically modulated electromagnetic field (TAMMEF) with variable frequencies, intensities, and waveforms. Cell viability was measured at days 7 and 14, while healthy-cell density, heavily vacuolized (hv) cell density, and cluster density were measured by light microscopy only for 3-D cultures after treatments. Cell morphology was observed for 2-D and 3-D cultures by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Chondrocyte exposure to TAMMEF enhances cell viability at days 7 and 14 compared to ELF. Light microscopy analysis showed that TAMMEF enhances healthy-cell density, reduces hv-cell density and clustering, compared to ELF. Furthermore, TEM analysis showed different morphology for 2-D (fibroblast-like) and 3-D (rounded shape) cultures, confirming light microscopy results. In conclusion, EMFs are effective and safe for OA chondrocytes. TAMMEF can positively interfere with OA chondrocytes representing an innovative non-pharmacological approach to treat OA.

  17. Localization from near-source quasi-static electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, John Compton

    1993-09-01

    A wide range of research has been published on the problem of estimating the parameters of electromagnetic and acoustical sources from measurements of signals measured at an array of sensors. In the quasi-static electromagnetic cases examined here, the signal variation from a point source is relatively slow with respect to the signal propagation and the spacing of the array of sensors. As such, the location of the point sources can only be determined from the spatial diversity of the received signal across the array. The inverse source localization problem is complicated by unknown model order and strong local minima. The nonlinear optimization problem is posed for solving for the parameters of the quasi-static source model. The transient nature of the sources can be exploited to allow subspace approaches to separate out the signal portion of the spatial correlation matrix. Decomposition techniques are examined for improved processing, and an adaptation of MUtiple SIgnal Characterization (MUSIC) is presented for solving the source localization problem. Recent results on calculating the Cramer-Rao error lower bounds are extended to the multidimensional problem here. This thesis focuses on the problem of source localization in magnetoencephalography (MEG), with a secondary application to thunderstorm source localization. Comparisons are also made between MEG and its electrical equivalent, electroencephalography (EEG). The error lower bounds are examined in detail for several MEG and EEG configurations, as well as localizing thunderstorm cells over Cape Canaveral and Kennedy Space Center. Time-eigenspectrum is introduced as a parsing technique for improving the performance of the optimization problem.

  18. High frequency, small signal MH loops of ferromagnetic thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, C. A.; Ong, K. G.

    2000-01-01

    A method is presented for transforming the high frequency bias susceptibility measurements of ferromagnetic thin films into the form of a MH loop with, depending upon the measurement geometry, the y-axis zero crossing giving a measure of the coercive force or anisotropy field. The loops provide a measure of the quantitative and qualitative high frequency switching properties of ferromagnetic thin films. c2000 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Resonances and circuit theory for the interaction of metallic disks and annuli with an electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, S. T.; Du, J. J.; Yau, S. T.

    2014-11-01

    To understand the nature of the electromagnetic resonances of finite metallic surfaces, we formulate a rigorous and rapidly convergent circuit theory for the interaction of a metallic disk and a metallic annulus with an electromagnetic field. Expressions for the current induced and the resonance condition are derived. A new understanding of the nature of the resonances is obtained. For half of the resonances we find a divergent electric field at the edge of the disk, even though it is smooth in shape. For the disk, we compare with previous results using vector spheroidal wave functions and found good agreement for the resonance condition. Our approach can be generalized to other finite surfaces.

  20. Influence of electromagnetic fields on the enzyme activity of rheumatoid synovial fluid cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mohamed-Ali, H; Kolkenbrock, H; Ulbrich, N; Sörensen, H; Kramer, K D; Merker, H J

    1994-04-01

    Since positive clinical effects have been observed in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with electromagnetic fields of weak strength and low frequency range (magnetic field strength: 70 microT; frequency: 1.36-14.44 Hz), an attempt was made to analyse the effects of these electromagnetic fields on enzyme activity in monolayer cultures of rheumatoid synovial fluid cells after single irradiation of the cultures for 24 hours. We only investigated the matrix metalloproteinases (collagenase, gelatinase, proteinase 24.11 and aminopeptidases). It was found that electromagnetic fields of such a weak strength and low frequency range do not generally have a uniform effect on the activity of the different proteinases in vitro. While aminopeptidases do not show any great changes in activity, the peptidases hydrolysing N(2,4)-dinitrophenyl-peptide exhibit a distinct increase in activity in the late phase in culture medium without fetal calf serum. In the presence of fetal calf serum this effect is not observed and enzyme activity is diminished. Our experiments do not show whether such a phase-bound increase in the activity of proteinases in vitro is only one finding in a much broader range of effects of electromagnetic fields, or whether it is a specific effect of weak pulsed magnetic fields of 285 +/- 33 nT on enzyme activity after single irradiation. This question requires further elucidation.

  1. Association between electromagnetic field exposure and abortion in pregnant women living in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Masoumeh; Malekafzali, Hossein; Simbar, Masoumeh; Seyed Mosaavi, Hassan; Merghati Khoei, Effat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health-related quality of life is affected by electromagnetic field exposure in each person everyday life. However, this is extremely controversial issue. Objective: Investigation of the associations between electromagnetic field exposure and miscarriage among women of Tehran. Materials and Methods: In this longitudinal study, 462 pregnant women with gestational age <12 wks from seven main regions of Tehran city in Iran with similar social and cultural status were participated. Women were interviewed face-to face to collect data. Reproductive information was collected using medical file recorded in those hospitals the subjects had delivery. The measuring device measured electromagnetic waves, Narda safety test solutions with valid calibration date at the entrance door of their houses. Results: A significant likelihood of miscarriage in women who exposed to significant level of electromagnetic wave. However, this association was not confirmed by Wald test. Conclusion: This study may not provide strong or consistent evidence that electromagnetic field exposure is associated or cause miscarriage. This issue may be due to small sample size in this study. PMID:27326421

  2. Exposure of salivary gland cells to low-frequency electromagnetic fields alters polypeptide synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, R; Henderson, A S

    1988-01-01

    This study demonstrates that exposure of cells to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields can cause measurable changes in protein synthesis. Sciara coprophila salivary gland cells were exposed to five low-frequency (1.5-72 Hz) electromagnetic signals: three signals (1.5, 15, and 72 Hz) produced pulsed asymmetric electromagnetic fields and two signals (60 and 72 Hz) were sinusoidal. Subsequent analyses of two-dimensional gels showed that cell exposure to either type of low-frequency electromagnetic field resulted in both qualitative and quantitative changes in patterns of protein synthesis. Thus, signals producing diverse waveform characteristics induced previously undetectable polypeptides, some of which were signal specific and augmented or suppressed other polypeptides as compared with nonexposed cells. The pattern of polypeptide synthesis differed from that seen with heat shock: only five polypeptides in cells exposed to electromagnetic signals overlap those polypeptides exposed to heat shock, and the suppression of protein synthesis characteristic of heat shock does not occur. Images PMID:3375247

  3. Spectral degree of coherence of a random three-dimensional electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Korotkova, Olga; Wolf, Emil

    2004-12-01

    The complex spectral degree of coherence of a general random, statistically stationary electromagnetic field is introduced in a manner similar to the way it is defined for a beamlike field, namely, by means of Young's interference experiment. Both its modulus and its phase are measurable. We illustrate the definition by applying it to blackbody radiation emerging from a cavity. The results are of particular interest for near-field optics.

  4. [Metrology of pulse modulated electromagnetic fields with diode-type meters].

    PubMed

    Kubacki, Roman; Kieliszek, Jarosław; Sobiech, Jaromir; Puta, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Electromagnetic field meters used for occupational and general public health protection are commonly calibrated in the continuous wave conditions, but a large number of medical devices, mobile base station antennas and radars generate pulse modulated fields. The results of an analysis of additional errors of pulse fields measurements by diode-type meters (EMR 200/300, PMM and MEH) are presented in this paper.

  5. DiPerna-Lions Flow for Relativistic Particles in an Electromagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabin, P.-E.; Masmoudi, N.

    2015-09-01

    We show the existence and uniqueness of a DiPerna-Lions flow for relativistic particles subject to a Lorentz force in an electromagnetic field. The electric and magnetic fields solve the linear Maxwell system in the vacuum but for singular initial conditions which are only in the physical energy space. As the corresponding force field is only in L 2, we have to perform a careful analysis of the cancellations over a trajectory.

  6. Epilepsy and electromagnetic fields: effects of simulated atmospherics and 100-Hz magnetic fields on audiogenic seizure in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juutilainen, J.; Björk, E.; Saali, K.

    1988-03-01

    In order to study the possible association between epileptic seizures and natural electromagnetic fields, 32 female audiogenic seizure (AGS)-susceptible rats were exposed to simulated 10 kHz and 28 kHz atmospherics and to a sinusoidally oscillating magnetic field with a frequency of 100 Hz and field strength of 1 A/m. After the electromagnetic exposure, seizures were induced in the rats with a sound stimulus. The severity of the seizure was determined on an ordinal scale, the audiogenic response score (ARS). The time from the beginning of the sound stimulus to the onset of the seizure (seizure latency) and the duration of the convulsion was measured. No differences from the control experiments were found in the experiments with simulated atmospherics, but the 100 Hz magnetic field increased the seizure latency by about 13% ( P<0.02). The results do not support the hypothesis that natural atmospheric electromagnetic signals could affect the onset of epileptic seizures, but they suggest that AGS-susceptible rats may be a useful model for studying the biological effects of electromagnetic fields.

  7. Magnetic healing, quackery, and the debate about the health effects of electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Macklis, R M

    1993-03-01

    Although the biological effects of low-frequency electromagnetic radiation have been studied since the time of Paracelsus, there is still no consensus on whether these effects are physiologically significant. The recent discovery of deposits of magnetite within the human brain as well as recent, highly publicized tort litigation charging adverse effects after exposure to magnetic fields has rekindled the debate. New data suggest that electromagnetic radiation generated from power lines may lead to physiologic effects with potentially dangerous results. Whether these effects are important enough to produce major epidemiologic consequences remains to be established. The assumption of quackery that has attended this subject since the time of Mesmer's original "animal magnetism" investigations continues to hamper efforts to compile a reliable data base on the health effects of electromagnetic fields.

  8. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field measurements at the Hylaty station and methodology of signal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulak, Andrzej; Kubisz, Jerzy; Klucjasz, Slawomir; Michalec, Adam; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Nieckarz, Zenon; Ostrowski, Michal; Zieba, Stanislaw

    2014-06-01

    We present the Hylaty geophysical station, a high-sensitivity and low-noise facility for extremely low frequency (ELF, 0.03-300 Hz) electromagnetic field measurements, which enables a variety of geophysical and climatological research related to atmospheric, ionospheric, magnetospheric, and space weather physics. The first systematic observations of ELF electromagnetic fields at the Jagiellonian University were undertaken in 1994. At the beginning the measurements were carried out sporadically, during expeditions to sparsely populated areas of the Bieszczady Mountains in the southeast of Poland. In 2004, an automatic Hylaty ELF station was built there, in a very low electromagnetic noise environment, which enabled continuous recording of the magnetic field components of the ELF electromagnetic field in the frequency range below 60 Hz. In 2013, after 8 years of successful operation, the station was upgraded by extending its frequency range up to 300 Hz. In this paper we show the station's technical setup, and how it has changed over the years. We discuss the design of ELF equipment, including antennas, receivers, the time control circuit, and power supply, as well as antenna and receiver calibration. We also discuss the methodology we developed for observations of the Schumann resonance and wideband observations of ELF field pulses. We provide examples of various kinds of signals recorded at the station.

  9. Microfabricated sensors for the measurement of electromagnetic fields in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monberg, James; Henning, Albert K.

    1995-09-01

    Public awareness of the risks of exposure to electromagnetic radiation has grown over the past ten yeras. The effects of power lines on human and animal health have drawn particular attention. Some longitudinal studies of cancer rates near power lines show a significant correlation, while others show a null result. The studies have suffered from inadequate sensors for the measurement of electromagnetic radiation in vivo. In this work, we describe the design, construction, and testing of electrically passive, microfabricated single-pole antennas and coils. These sensors will be used in vivo to study the effects of electromagnetic radiation on animals. Our testing to date has been limited to in vitro studies of the magnetic field probes. Magnetic field pickup coils were fabricated with up to 100 turns, over a length of up to 1000 micrometers . Measurements were carried out with the sensors in air, and in water of various saline concentrations. Magnetic fields were applied using a Helmholtz coil. Both dc and ac fields were applied. The results indicate that small-area measurements of electromagnetic fields in vitro can be made successfully, provided adequate shielding and amplification are used.

  10. Possible action mechanism of the electromagnetic fields in the liver cancer development: A mathematical proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez-García, Mónica Noemí; Godina-Nava, Juan José

    2012-02-08

    Currently it is known that electromagnetic field exposure can induce biological changes, although the precise effects and action mechanism of the interaction between the electromagnetic field and biological systems are not well understood. In this work we propose a possible action mechanism, concerning the effect that the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure has on the early stage of liver cancer development. The model is developed studying the phenomena called oxidative stress that it appears after it is applied a carcinogenic agent used to induce hepatic cancer chemically in an experimental animal model. This physical-chemical process involves the movement of magnetic field dependent free charged particles, called free radicals. We will consider the use of the radical pairs theory as a framework, in which we will describe the spin density operator evolution by implementing the stochastic Liouville equation with hyperfine interaction. This describes how the selectivity of the interaction between spin states of the free radicals with the applied electromagnetic field, influences the development of pre-neoplastic lesions in the liver. AIP Publishing is retracting this article due to the substantial use of content in the Results and Conclusions section without proper citation of a previously published paper in Chemical Physics Letters 361 (2012) 219-225. This article is retracted from the scientific record with effect from 15 October 2015.

  11. Possible action mechanism of the electromagnetic fields in the liver cancer development: A mathematical proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-García, Mónica Noemí; Godina-Nava, Juan José

    2012-02-01

    Currently it is known that electromagnetic field exposure can induce biological changes, although the precise effects and action mechanism of the interaction between the electromagnetic field and biological systems are not well understood. In this work we propose a possible action mechanism, concerning the effect that the extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure has on the early stage of liver cancer development. The model is developed studying the phenomena called oxidative stress that it appears after it is applied a carcinogenic agent used to induce hepatic cancer chemically in an experimental animal model. This physical-chemical process involves the movement of magnetic field dependent free charged particles, called free radicals. We will consider the use of the radical pairs theory as a framework, in which we will describe the spin density operator evolution by implementing the stochastic Liouville equation with hyperfine interaction. This describes how the selectivity of the interaction between spin states of the free radicals with the applied electromagnetic field, influences the development of pre-neoplastic lesions in the liver. AIP Publishing is retracting this article due to the substantial use of content in the Results and Conclusions section without proper citation of a previously published paper in Chemical Physics Letters 361 (2012) 219-225. This article is retracted from the scientific record with effect from 15 October 2015.

  12. The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Behari, Jitendra

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Environmental exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields has been steadily increasing with the growing demand for electronic items that are operational at various frequencies. Testicular function is particularly susceptible to radiation emitted by electromagnetic fields. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the therapeutic effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (100 Hz) on the reproductive systems of male Wistar rats (70 days old). METHODS: The experiments were divided into five groups: microwave sham, microwave exposure (2.45 GHz), pulsed electromagnetic field sham, pulsed electromagnetic field (100 Hz) exposure, and microwave/pulsed electromagnetic field exposure. The animals were exposed for 2 hours/day for 60 days. After exposure, the animals were sacrificed, their sperm was used for creatine and caspase assays, and their serum was used for melatonin and testosterone assays. RESULTS: The results showed significant increases in caspase and creatine kinase and significant decreases in testosterone and melatonin in the exposed groups. This finding emphasizes that reactive oxygen species (a potential inducer of cancer) are the primary cause of DNA damage. However, pulsed electromagnetic field exposure relieves the effect of microwave exposure by inducing Faraday currents. CONCLUSIONS: Electromagnetic fields are recognized as hazards that affect testicular function by generating reactive oxygen species and reduce the bioavailability of androgen to maturing spermatozoa. Thus, microwave exposure adversely affects male fertility, whereas pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is a non-invasive, simple technique that can be used as a scavenger agent to combat oxidative stress. PMID:21876981

  13. Effects of phase conjugation on electromagnetic optical fields propagating in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanseri, Bhaskar

    2017-03-01

    By using the property of phase conjugation, we demonstrate that the inverse of van Cittert–Zernike theorem holds for electromagnetic (EM) fields propagating in free space. This essentially implies that spatially incoherent partially polarized field distributions can be generated from spatially coherent partially polarized optical fields. We further utilize phase conjugation with a polarization rotator to swap the spatial coherence properties of orthogonal polarization components of EM fields on propagation, at least in free space. This study suggests that the method of phase conjugation could be potentially useful in arbitrarily manipulating spatial coherence properties of vector optical fields in the field plane.

  14. High-frequency plasma-heating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brambilla, Marco; Lallia, Pascal

    1978-01-01

    An array of adjacent wave guides feed high-frequency energy into a vacuum chamber in which a toroidal plasma is confined by a magnetic field, the wave guide array being located between two toroidal current windings. Waves are excited in the wave guide at a frequency substantially equal to the lower frequency hybrid wave of the plasma and a substantially equal phase shift is provided from one guide to the next between the waves therein. For plasmas of low peripheral density gradient, the guides are excited in the TE.sub.01 mode and the output electric field is parallel to the direction of the toroidal magnetic field. For exciting waves in plasmas of high peripheral density gradient, the guides are excited in the TM.sub.01 mode and the magnetic field at the wave guide outlets is parallel to the direction of the toroidal magnetic field. The wave excited at the outlet of the wave guide array is a progressive wave propagating in the direction opposite to that of the toroidal current and is, therefore, not absorbed by so-called "runaway" electrons.

  15. High-Frequency Electromagnetic Propagation/Scattering Codes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-31

    particular, a Gl-continuous surface can be constructed by using the al- gorithm introduced by Nielsen [3]. The method uses as input three curved edges...1998. [22] R. Jakob -Chien and B. Alpert, "A Fast Spherical Filter with Uni- form Resolution", Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 136, No. 2

  16. Fundamentals of bipolar high-frequency surgery.

    PubMed

    Reidenbach, H D

    1993-04-01

    In endoscopic surgery a very precise surgical dissection technique and an efficient hemostasis are of decisive importance. The bipolar technique may be regarded as a method which satisfies both requirements, especially regarding a high safety standard in application. In this context the biophysical and technical fundamentals of this method, which have been known in principle for a long time, are described with regard to the special demands of a newly developed field of modern surgery. After classification of this method into a general and a quasi-bipolar mode, various technological solutions of specific bipolar probes, in a strict and in a generalized sense, are characterized in terms of indication. Experimental results obtained with different bipolar instruments and probes are given. The application of modern microprocessor-controlled high-frequency surgery equipment and, wherever necessary, the integration of additional ancillary technology into the specialized bipolar instruments may result in most useful and efficient tools of a key technology in endoscopic surgery.

  17. Electromagnetic field of fractal distribution of charged particles

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2005-08-15

    Electric and magnetic fields of fractal distribution of charged particles are considered. The fractional integrals are used to describe fractal distribution. The fractional integrals are considered as approximations of integrals on fractals. Using the fractional generalization of integral Maxwell equation, the simple examples of the fields of homogeneous fractal distribution are considered. The electric dipole and quadrupole moments for fractal distribution are derived.

  18. Guiding and collimating fast electron beam by the quasi-static electromagnetic field array

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Zhao, Z. Q.; He, W. H.; Dong, K. G.; Wu, Y. C.; Zhu, B.; Zhang, T. K.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, Z. M.; Gu, Y. Q.; Cao, L. H.

    2014-10-15

    A guidance and collimation scheme for fast electron beam in a traverse periodic quasi-static electromagnetic field array is proposed with the semi-analytic method and the particle-in-cell simulation. The sheath electric fields on the surfaces of nanowires and the magnetic fields around the nanowires form a traverse periodic quasi-static electromagnetic field array. Therefore, most of the fast electrons are confined at the nanowire surfaces and transport forward. More importantly, due to the divergent property of the beams, the magnitudes of the generated fields decrease with the target depth. The lateral momenta of the electrons convert into the forward momenta through Lorenz force, and they cannot recover their initial values. Therefore, the fast electrons can be guided and collimated efficiently in the gaps between the nanowires. In our particle-in-cell simulations, the observed guiding efficiency exceeds 80% compared with the reference target.

  19. Assessment of Electromagnetic Fields inside the Communication Module of a Telecom Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birreck, D.; Guida, G.; Marley, D.; Marliani, F.; Marra, S.; Martorelli, V.

    2012-05-01

    The paper describes the evaluation of the internal electromagnetic fields in overmoded regime inside the telecommunications satellite SGEO. The sources taken into account are the leakages due to both the internal high power transmit chains and the external antennas fields coupled to the internal cavities by means of the numerous apertures present in the satellite skin. The evaluation of the antenna fields has been performed using the GTD and the PTD modules of Antenna Design Framework - Electromagnetic Satellite (ADF- EMS). The internal field computation has been performed with IDSOCT, a code integrated in ADF- EMS based on the Oversized Cavity Theory (OCT). All the transfer functions between sources and internal fields have been computed for easier evaluation of possible mitigations.

  20. Electromagnetic Scattered Field Evaluation and Data Compression Using Imaging Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, I. J.; Burnside, W. D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report on Project #727625 between The Ohio State University and NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. Under this project, a data compression technique for scattered field data of electrically large targets is developed. The technique was applied to the scattered fields of two targets of interest. The backscattered fields of the scale models of these targets were measured in a ra compact range. For one of the targets, the backscattered fields were also calculated using XPATCH computer code. Using the technique all scattered field data sets were compressed successfully. A compression ratio of the order 40 was achieved. In this report, the technique is described briefly and some sample results are included.

  1. Electromagnetic field exposure assessment in Europe radiofrequency fields (10 MHz-6 GHz).

    PubMed

    Gajšek, Peter; Ravazzani, Paolo; Wiart, Joe; Grellier, James; Samaras, Theodoros; Thuróczy, György

    2015-01-01

    Average levels of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of the general public in Europe are difficult to summarize, as exposure levels have been reported differently in those studies in which they have been measured, and a large proportion of reported measurements were very low, sometimes falling below detection limits of the equipment used. The goal of this paper is to present an overview of the scientific literature on RF EMF exposure in Europe and to characterize exposure within the European population. A comparative analysis of the results of spot or long-term RF EMF measurements in the EU indicated that mean electric field strengths were between 0.08 V/m and 1.8 V/m. The overwhelming majority of measured mean electric field strengths were <1 V/m. It is estimated that <1% were above 6 V/m and <0.1% were above 20 V/m. No exposure levels exceeding European Council recommendations were identified in these surveys. Most population exposures from signals of radio and television broadcast towers were observed to be weak because these transmitters are usually far away from exposed individuals and are spatially sparsely distributed. On the other hand, the contribution made to RF exposure from wireless telecommunications technology is continuously increasing and its contribution was above 60% of the total exposure. According to the European exposure assessment studies identified, three population exposure categories (intermittent variable partial body exposure, intermittent variable low-level whole-body (WB) exposure and continuous low-level WB exposure) were recognized by the authors as informative for possible future risk assessment.

  2. Electromagnetic induction in New Zealand: analogue model and field results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Dosso, H. W.; Ingham, M.

    The behaviour of electric and magnetic variations over North Island (New Zealand) is studied with the aid of a laboratory analogue model. The source field frequencies used in the analogue modelling simulate naturally occurring geomagnetic variations of 5-120 min periods. In-phase and quadrature magnetic and electric fields for a selection of traverses for the modelled region of North Island are presented. Since North Island is of a relatively narrow cross-section, the field responses, even for inland locations, are expected to show strongly the effects of the surrounding ocean. The irregular coastlines, as well as the strait between North and South Islands, lead to coastal and inland field anomalies due to induced currents being deflected and channelled to produce localized current densities. The comparison of model results with field station measurements obtained earlier individually by Ingham and by Midha for sites in the northeastern, central, and southern (near Cook Strait) regions of North Island demonstrates the large role the ocean has in the observed field responses. Differences in the model and field results at some sites are expected and should reflect the effects of the local geology and the conductive substructure related to the complex tectonics of the region not simulated in the model.

  3. Effect of non-ionizing electromagnetic field on the alteration of ovarian follicles in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Seyed Shahin; Khaki, Amir Afshin; Ainehchi, Nava; Alihemmati, Alireza; Khatooni, Azam Asghari; Khaki, Arash; Asghari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, there has been an increase in the attention paid to safety effects, environmental and society’s health, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF), and radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). The aim of this research was to determine the effect of EMF on the alteration of ovarian follicles. Methods In this experimental study at Tabriz Medical University in 2015, we did EMF exposures and assessed the alteration of rats’ ovarian follicles. Thirty three-month old rats were selected randomly from laboratory animals, and, after their ages and weights were determined, they were divided randomly into three groups. The control group consisted of 10 rats without any treatment, and they were kept in normal conditions. The second group of rats was influenced by a magnetic field of 50 Hz for eight weeks (three weeks intrauterine and five weeks ectopic). The third group of rats was influenced by a magnetic field of 50 Hz for 13 weeks (three weeks intrauterine and ten weeks ectopic). Samples were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde and cleared with Xylol and embedded in paraffin. After sectioning and staining, samples were studied by optic microscopy. Finally, SPSS version 17, were used for data analysis. Results EMF radiation increased the harmful effects on the formation of ovarian follicles and oocytes implantation. Studies on the effects of electromagnetic fields on ovarian follicles have shown that the nuclei of the oocytes become smaller and change shape. There were significant, harmful changes in the groups affected by electromagnetic waves. Atresia of ovarian follicles was significantly significant in both study groups compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion Exposure to electromagnetic fields during embryonic development can cause morphological changes in oocytes and affect the differentiation of oocytes and folliculogenesis, resulting in decreased ovarian reserve leading to infertility or reduced

  4. Strings: A possible alternative explanation for the Unification of Gravitation Field and Electromagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Susana

    Throughout the last century, since the last decades of the XIX century, until present day, there had been many attempts to achieve the unification of the Forces of Nature. First unification was done by James Clerk Maxwell, with his Electromagnetic Theory. Then Max Plank developed his Quantum Theory. In 1905, Albert Einstein gave birth to the Special Relativity Theory, and in 1916 he came out with his General Relativity Theory. He noticed that there was an evident parallelism between the Gravitational Force, and the Electromagnetic Force. So, he tried to unify these forces of Nature. But Quantum Theory interposed on his way. On the 1940’s it had been developed the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), and with it, the unified field theory had an arise interest. On the 60’s and 70’s there was developed the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Along with these theories came the discovery of the strong interaction force and weak interaction force. And though there had been many attempts to unify all these forces of the nature, it could only be achieved the Unification of strong interaction, weak interaction and Electromagnetic Force. On the late 80”s and throughout the last two decades, theories such as “super-string theory”, “or the “M-theory”, among others, groups of Scientists, had been doing grand efforts and finally they came out with the unification of the forces of nature, being the only limitation the use of more than 11 dimensions. Using an ingenious mathematical tool known as the super symmetries, based on the Kaluza - Klein work, they achieve this goal. The strings of these theories are in the rank of 10-33 m. Which make them undetectable. There are many other string theories. The GEUFT theory is based on the existence of concentrated energy lines, which vibrates, expands and contracts, submitting and absorbing energy, matter and antimatter, and which yields a determined geometry, that gives as a result the formation of stars, galaxies, nebulae, clusters

  5. The Role of Angular Momentum in the Construction of Electromagnetic Multipolar Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischler, Nora; Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Multipolar solutions of Maxwell's equations are used in many practical applications and are essential for the understanding of light-matter interactions at the fundamental level. Unlike the set of plane wave solutions of electromagnetic fields, the multipolar solutions do not share a standard derivation or notation. As a result, expressions…

  6. Electrical Engineers' Perceptions on Education--Electromagnetic Field Theory and Its Connection to Working Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keltikangas, K.; Wallen, H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates electrical engineers' perceptions on their education in Finland, with particular emphasis on the basic electromagnetic field theory courses and their applicability in working life, using two online surveys (n = 99 and n = 120). The answers show a reasonably good satisfaction with the electrical engineering studies in…

  7. Apparent Paradoxes in Classical Electrodynamics: A Fluid Medium in an Electromagnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kholmetskii, A. L.; Yarman, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyse a number of teaching paradoxes of classical electrodynamics, dealing with the relativistic transformation of energy and momentum for a fluid medium in an external electromagnetic field. In particular, we consider a moving parallel plate charged capacitor, where the electric attraction of its plates is balanced by the…

  8. [Effect of electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency on ATPase activity of actomyosin].

    PubMed

    Tseĭslier, Iu V; Sheliuk, O V; Martyniuk, V S; Nuryshchenko, N Ie

    2012-01-01

    The Mg2+/Ca2+ and K(+)-ATPase actomyosin activity of rabbit skeletal muscle was evaluated by the Fiske-Subbarow method during a five-hour exposition of protein solutions in electromagnetic field of extremely low frequency of 8 Hz and 25 microT induction. The results of the study of the ATPase activity of actomyosin upon electromagnetic exposure have shown statistically significant changes that are characterized by a rather complex time dynamics. After 1, 2 and 4 hours of exposure of protein solutions the effect of ELF EMF exposure inhibits the ATPase activity compared to control samples, which are not exposed to the magnetic field. By the third and fifth hours of exposure to the electromagnetic field, there is a significant increase in the ATPase activity of actomyosin. It should be noted that a similar pattern of change in enzyme activity was universal, both for the environment by Mg2+ and Ca2+, and in the absence of these ions in the buffer. This can evidence for Ca(2+)-independent ways of the infuence of electromagnetic field (EMP) on biologic objects. In our opinion, the above effects are explained by EMP influence on the dynamic properties of actomyosin solutions, which are based on the processes of spontaneous dynamic formation of structure.

  9. [Development of innovative methods of electromagnetic field evaluation for portable radio-station].

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, N B; Perov, S Iu; Bogacheva, E V; Kuster, N

    2013-01-01

    The results of portable radio-station "Radiy-301" electromagnetic fields (EMF) emission measurement and specific absorption rate data evaluation has shown that workers' exposure EMF levels may elevate hygienic norms and hereupon can be health risk factor. Possible way of portable radio-station EMF dosimetry enhancement by means of domestic and international approaches harmonization is considered.

  10. Meta-gated channel for the discrete control of electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Wang, Hui; Shi, Ayuan; Zhang, Aofang; Wang, Jing; Gao, Dongxing; Lei, Zhenya; Hu, Bowei

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the meta-gate controlled wave propagation through multiple metallic plates with properly devised sub-wavelength defect apertures. Different from using gradient refractive-index meta-materials or phase-discontinuity meta-surfaces to produce the discrepancy between the incident angle and the refractive angle, our technique redirects electromagnetic fields by setting-up discrete transmission gateways between adjacent meta-gates and creates the perfect channels for the wave propagation. Electromagnetic fields can be assigned in the response of the driving frequency of meta-gates with extraordinary transmissions and propagate simply relying on their pre-set locations as illustrated by the meta-gate guided electromagnetic fields travelling in the paths of the Silk-Road and the contour line of Xi'an city where the Silk-Road starts. The meta-gate concept, offering the feasibility of the discrete control of electromagnetic fields with gating routes, may pave an alternative way for precisely transmitting of signals and efficiently sharing of resource in the communication.

  11. Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields cause DNA strand breaks in normal cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields aren’t considered as a real carcinogenic agent despite the fact that some studies have showed impairment of the DNA integrity in different cells lines. The aim of this study was evaluation of the late effects of a 100 Hz and 5.6 mT electromagnetic field, applied continuously or discontinuously, on the DNA integrity of Vero cells assessed by alkaline Comet assay and by cell cycle analysis. Normal Vero cells were exposed to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (100 Hz, 5.6 mT) for 45 minutes. The Comet assay and cell cycle analysis were performed 48 hours after the treatment. Results Exposed samples presented an increase of the number of cells with high damaged DNA as compared with non-exposed cells. Quantitative evaluation of the comet assay showed a significantly (<0.001) increase of the tail lengths, of the quantity of DNA in tail and of Olive tail moments, respectively. Cell cycle analysis showed an increase of the frequency of the cells in S phase, proving the occurrence of single strand breaks. The most probable mechanism of induction of the registered effects is the production of different types of reactive oxygen species. Conclusions The analysis of the registered comet indices and of cell cycle showed that extremely low frequency electromagnetic field of 100 Hz and 5.6 mT had a genotoxic impact on Vero cells. PMID:24401758

  12. Nondiagonal Values of the Heat Kernel for Scalars in a Constant Electromagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinichenko, I. S.; Kazinski, P. O.

    2017-03-01

    An original method for finding the nondiagonal values of the heat kernel associated with the wave operator Fourier-transformed in time is proposed for the case of a constant external electromagnetic field. The connection of the trace of such a heat kernel to the one-loop correction to the grand thermodynamic potential is indicated. The structure of its singularities is analyzed.

  13. Jet engine with electromagnetic field excitation of expendable solid-state material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsybin, O. Yu.; Makarov, S. B.; Ostapenko, O. N.

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic field action on a solid-state natural raw material is considered here in the context of producing a mechanical reactive momentum. We suggest the development of a jet engine that possesses fast control and low thrust based on desorption or sputtering of particles flow from a solid surface.

  14. Electromagnetic field distributions in waveguide-based axial-type microwave plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowska, H.; Jasiński, M.; Mizeraczyk, J.

    2009-08-01

    We present results from simulations of 2D distributions of the electromagnetic field inside a waveguide-based axial-type microwave plasma source (MPS) used for hydrogen production via methane reforming. The studies are aimed at optimization of discharge processes and hydrogen production. We derive equations for determining electromagnetic field distributions and next determine the electromagnetic field distributions for two cases - without and with plasma inside the MPS. For the first case, we examine the influence of the length of the inner conductor of the coaxial line on electromagnetic field distributions. We have obtained standing wave patterns along the coaxial line and found resonances for certain positions of the coaxial line inner conductor. For the case with plasma inside the MPS, we perform calculations assuming that distributions of plasma parameters are known. Simulations are done for several values of maximum electron density. We have found that for values of electron density greater than 3× 10^{18} m^{-3} strong skin effect in the plasma is observed. Consequently, plasma may be treated as an extension of the inner conductor of the coaxial line. We have used FlexPDE software for the calculations.

  15. Possible Mechanism of Action of the Electromagnetic Fields of Ultralow Frequency on G-protein

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, J. J. Godina; Segura, M. A. Rodriguez; Garcia, M. N. Jimenez; Cadena, M. S. Reyes

    2008-08-11

    Based in several clinical achievements and mathematical simulation of the immune sytem, previously studied, permit us to establish that a possible Mechanism of Action of ultralow frequency Electromagnetic Fields (ELF) is on G-protein as it has been proposed in specialized literature.

  16. Biological Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Field on Healthy and Infected Lime (Citrus aurantifolia) Trees with Phytoplasma

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Niknam, Vahid; Ghanati, Faezeh; Masroor, Faribors; Noorbakhsh, Seyyed Nasr

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) has become an issue of concern for a great many people and is an active area of research. Phytoplasmas, also known as mycoplasma-like organisms, are wall-less prokaryotes that are pathogens of many plant species throughout the world. Effects of electromagnetic fields on the changes of lipid peroxidation, content of H2O2, proline, protein, and carbohydrates were investigated in leaves of two-year-old trees of lime (Citrus aurantifolia) infected by the Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifoliae. The healthy and infected plants were discontinuously exposed to a 10 KHz quadratic EMF with maximum power of 9 W for 5 days, each 5 h, at 25°C. Fresh and dry weight of leaves, content of MDA, proline, and protein increased in both healthy and infected plants under electromagnetic fields, compared with those of the control plants. Electromagnetic fields decreased hydrogen peroxide and carbohydrates content in both healthy and infected plants compared to those of the controls. PMID:22649313

  17. Terahertz Solitons in Biomolecular Systems and their Excitation by External Electromagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugay, A. N.

    2015-09-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of charge and acoustic excitations in cellular microtubules is considered. Different types of nonlinear solitary waves were studied taking account for dissipation. The mechanism of electro-acoustic pulse excitation by external electromagnetic field of terahertz frequency is recognized.

  18. Fields and permeances of flat rectangular and cylindrical DC electromagnetic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Zayirnyak, M.V.; Nasar, S.A.

    1985-03-01

    Analytical solutions to the field problem of flat rectangular and axially symmetric cylindrical dc electromagnetic systems are presented. It is shown that the flat configuration is a special case of the general solution. The results are presented in normalized forms as permeance functions. Calculated results are compared with those obtained experimentally.

  19. A wave guide model of lightning currents and their electromagnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volland, H.

    1980-01-01

    Lightning channels are considered as resonant wave guides in which only standing resonant wave modes can be excited. Two types of discharging currents develop. Type 1 is an aperiodic wave; type 2 is a damped oscillation. The electromagnetic radiation field of both types of currents is calculated and compared with the observation.

  20. Experimental evidence of a potentially increased thrombo-embolic disease risk by domestic electromagnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Caprani, A; Richert, A; Flaud, P

    2004-05-01

    We have used the EaHy926 endothelial cell line, able to secrete both pro and anti-aggregant platelet agents, as a model for thrombo-embolic diseases. We experimentally established, by comparing these two secretions with or without a Faraday cage, that the environmental electromagnetic field significantly increases the thrombo-embolic risks in this endothelial cell line.