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Sample records for high-frequency peaked blazars

  1. High-Frequency Observations of Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, A. P.; Marchenko-Jorstad, S. G.; Mattox, J. R.; Wehrle, A. E.; Aller, M. F.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the results of high-frequency VLBA observations of 42 gamma-ray bright blazars monitored at 22 and 43 GHz between 1993.9 and 1997.6. In 1997 the observations included polarization-sensitive imaging. The cores of gamma-ray blazars are only weakly polarized, with EVPAs (electric-vector position angles) usually within 40 deg of the local direction of the jet. The EVPAs of the jet components are usually within 20 deg of the local jet direction. The apparent speeds of the gamma-ray bright blazars are considerably faster than in the general population of bright compact radio sources. Two X-ray flares (observed with RXTE) of the quasar PKS 1510-089 appear to be related to radio flares, but with the radio leading the X-ray variations by about 2 weeks. This can be explained either by synchrotron self-Compton emission in a component whose variations are limited by light travel time or by the Mirror Compton model.

  2. High-Frequency Observations of Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, A. P.; Marchenko-Jorstad, S. G.; Mattox, J. R.; Wehrle, A. E.; Aller, M. F.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the results of high-frequency VLBA observations of 42 gamma ray bright blazars monitored at 22 and 43 GHz between 1993.9 and 1997-6. In 1997 the observations included polarization-sensitive imaging. The cores of gamma ray blazars are only weakly polarized, with EVPAs (electric-vector position angles) usually within 40 degrees of the local direction of the jet. The EVPAs of the jet components are usually within 20 degrees of the local jet direction. The apparent speeds of the gamma ray bright blazars are considerably faster than in the general population of bright compact radio sources. Two X-ray flares (observed with RXTE) of the quasar PKS 1510-089 appear to be related to radio flares, but with the radio leading the X-ray variations by about 2 weeks. This can be explained either by synchrotron self-Compton emission in a component whose variations are limited by light travel time or by the Mirror Compton model.

  3. High-Frequency Observations of Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, A. P.; Marchenko-Jorstad, S. G.; Mattox, J. R.; Wehrle, A. E.; Aller, M. F.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the results of high-frequency VLBA observations of 42 gamma ray bright blazars monitored at 22 and 43 GHz between 1993.9 and 1997-6. In 1997 the observations included polarization-sensitive imaging. The cores of gamma ray blazars are only weakly polarized, with EVPAs (electric-vector position angles) usually within 40 degrees of the local direction of the jet. The EVPAs of the jet components are usually within 20 degrees of the local jet direction. The apparent speeds of the gamma ray bright blazars are considerably faster than in the general population of bright compact radio sources. Two X-ray flares (observed with RXTE) of the quasar PKS 1510-089 appear to be related to radio flares, but with the radio leading the X-ray variations by about 2 weeks. This can be explained either by synchrotron self-Compton emission in a component whose variations are limited by light travel time or by the Mirror Compton model.

  4. The Compact Structure of Blazars at High Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marscher, A. P.

    2009-08-01

    VSOP-2 will provide a quantum leap in angular resolution at 43 GHz. Whether we can make use of this technological breakthrough depends critically on whether everything from the core of the jet to the central engine is opaque at this frequency. I argue that current data from the VLBA indicate that the core is often a physical structure rather than the location in the jet where the optical depth becomes unity. New superluminal knots identified by their polarization position angle are sometimes seen upstream in 43 GHz VLBA images. X-ray and γ-ray flares in BL Lac occur both as a knot propagates down a region with helical magnetic field and when it passes through the core. This bodes very well for the ability of VSOP-2 to explore the most interesting regions of blazar jets.

  5. Characterizing Earthquake Rupture Properties Using Peak High-Frequency Offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, L.; Meng, L.

    2014-12-01

    Teleseismic array back-projection (BP) of high frequency (~1Hz) seismic waves has been recently applied to image the aftershock sequence of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. The BP method proves to be effective in capturing early aftershocks that are difficult to be detected due to the contamination of the mainshock coda wave. Furthermore, since the event detection is based on the identification of the local peaks in time series of the BP power, the resulting event location corresponds to the peak high-frequency energy rather than the hypocenter. In this work, we show that the comparison between the BP-determined catalog and conventional phase-picking catalog provides estimates of the spatial and temporal offset between the hypocenter and the peak high-frequency radiation. We propose to measure this peak high-frequency shift of global earthquakes between M4.0 to M7.0. We average the BP locations calibrated by multiple reference events to minimize the uncertainty due to the variation of 3D path effects. In our initial effort focusing on the foreshock and aftershock sequence of the 2014 Iquique earthquake, we find systematic shifts of the peak high-frequency energy towards the down-dip direction. We find that the amount of the shift is a good indication of rupture length, which scales with the earthquake magnitude. Further investigations of the peak high frequency offset may provide constraints on earthquake source properties such as rupture directivity, rupture duration, rupture speed, and stress drop.

  6. The Fermi blazars' divide based on the diagnostic of the SEDs peak frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramacere, A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Giommi, P.; Mazziotta, N.; Monte, C.

    2010-03-01

    We have studied the quasi-simultaneous Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) of 48 LBAS blazars, detected within the three months of the LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS) data taking period, combining Fermi and Swift data with radio NIR-Optical and hard- X/gamma-ray data. Using these quasi-simultaneous SEDs, sampling both the low and the high energy peak of the blazars broad band emission, we were able to apply a diagnostic tool based on the estimate of the peak frequencies of the synchrotron (S) and Inverse Compton (IC) components. Our analysis shows a Fermi blazar's divide based on the peak frequencies of the SED. The robust result is that the Synchrotron Self Compton (SSC) region divides in two the νpS-γpSSC plane. Objects within or below this region, radiating likely via the SSC process, are high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object (HBL), or low/intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lac object (LBL/IBL). All of the IBLs/LBLs within or below the SSC region are not Compton dominated. The objects lying above the SSC region, radiating likely via the External radiation Compton (ERC) process, are Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars and IBLs/LBLs. All of the IBLs/LBLs in the ERC region show a significant Compton dominance.

  7. A hadronic origin for ultra-high-frequency-peaked BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerruti, M.; Zech, A.; Boisson, C.; Inoue, S.

    2015-03-01

    Current Cherenkov telescopes have identified a population of ultra-high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects (UHBLs), also known as extreme blazars, that exhibit exceptionally hard TeV spectra, including 1ES 0229+200, 1ES 0347-121, RGB J0710+591, 1ES 1101-232, and 1ES 1218+304. Although one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) models have been generally successful in interpreting the high-energy emission observed in other BL Lac objects, they are problematic for UHBLs, necessitating very large Doppler factors and/or extremely high minimum Lorentz factors of the emitting leptonic population. In this context, we have investigated alternative scenarios where hadronic emission processes are important, using a newly developed (lepto-)hadronic numerical code to systematically explore the physical parameters of the emission region that reproduces the observed spectra while avoiding the extreme values encountered in pure SSC models. Assuming a fixed Doppler factor δ = 30, two principal parameter regimes are identified, where the high-energy emission is due to: (1) proton-synchrotron radiation, with magnetic fields B ˜ 1-100 G and maximum proton energies Ep; max ≲ 1019 eV; and (2) synchrotron emission from p-γ-induced cascades as well as SSC emission from primary leptons, with B ˜ 0.1-1 G and Ep; max ≲ 1017 eV. This can be realized with plausible, sub-Eddington values for the total (kinetic plus magnetic) power of the emitting plasma, in contrast to hadronic interpretations for other blazar classes that often warrant highly super-Eddington values.

  8. Peak High-Frequency HRV and Peak Alpha Frequency Higher in PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Oken, Barry S.

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is difficult to treat and current PTSD treatments are not effective for all people. Despite limited evidence for its efficacy, some clinicians have implemented biofeedback for PTSD treatment. As a first step in constructing an effective biofeedback treatment program, we assessed respiration, electroencephalography (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV) as potential biofeedback parameters for a future clinical trial. This cross-sectional study included 86 veterans; 59 with and 27 without PTSD. Data were collected on EEG measures, HRV, and respiration rate during an attentive resting state. Measures were analyzed to assess sensitivity to PTSD status and the relationship to PTSD symptoms. Peak alpha frequency was higher in the PTSD group (F(1,84) = 6.14, p = 0.01). Peak high-frequency HRV was lower in the PTSD group (F(2,78) = 26.5, p<0.00005) when adjusting for respiration rate. All other EEG and HRV measures and respiration were not different between groups. Peak high-frequency HRV and peak alpha frequency are sensitive to PTSD status and may be potential biofeedback parameters for future PTSD clinical trials. PMID:23178990

  9. Peak of spectral energy distribution plays an important role in intra-day variability of blazars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Alok C.; Kalita, Nibedita; Gaur, Haritma; Duorah, Kalpana

    2016-10-01

    Blazars can be divided into two sub-classes namely high energy and low energy peaked blazars. In spectral energy distribution, the first synchrotron hump of the former class peaks in UV/X-rays and in IR/optical bands for the latter class. The peak of the spectral energy distribution seems to be responsible for variability properties of these classes of blazars in X-ray and optical bands. Since, in low energy peaked blazars, the X-ray bands lies well below the synchrotron hump, one expects that the highest energy electrons available for the synchrotron emission would have slower effect of variability on X-ray intra-day time-scale. In this paper, by taking the advantage of a sample of 12 low energy peaked blazars with total 50 observations from XMM-Newton since its launch, we confirm that this class is less variable in X-ray bands. We found that out of 50 observational light curves, genuine intra-day variability is present in only two of light curves i.e 4 per cent. Similar results we obtained from our earlier optical intra-day variability studies of high energy peaked blazars where out of 144 light curves, only genuine intra-day variability was detected in 6 light curves i.e ˜4 per cent. Since, X-ray bands lie below the peak of the spectral energy distribution of LSPs where inverse Compton mechanism is dominating rather than synchrotron radiation at the peak of the optical band, leads to slower variability in the X-ray bands. Hence, reducing their intra-day variability in X-ray bands as compared to the variability in optical bands.

  10. Compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for converter type modulator applications.

    PubMed

    Reghu, T; Mandloi, V; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-04-01

    The design and development of a compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for a converter type modulator of klystron amplifiers is presented. The transformer has been designed to operate at a frequency of 20 kHz and at a flux swing of ±0.6 T. Iron (Fe) based nanocrystalline material has been selected as a core for the construction of the transformer. The transformer employs a specially designed solid Teflon bobbin having 120 kV insulation for winding the high voltage secondary windings. The flux swing of the core has been experimentally found by plotting the hysteresis loop at actual operating conditions. Based on the design, a prototype transformer has been built which is per se a unique combination of high voltage, high frequency, and peak power specifications. The transformer was able to provide 58 kV (pk-pk) at the secondary with a peak power handling capability of 700 kVA. The transformation ratio was 1:17. The performance of the transformer is also presented and discussed.

  11. Compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for converter type modulator applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reghu, T.; Mandloi, V.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2016-04-01

    The design and development of a compact high voltage, high peak power, high frequency transformer for a converter type modulator of klystron amplifiers is presented. The transformer has been designed to operate at a frequency of 20 kHz and at a flux swing of ±0.6 T. Iron (Fe) based nanocrystalline material has been selected as a core for the construction of the transformer. The transformer employs a specially designed solid Teflon bobbin having 120 kV insulation for winding the high voltage secondary windings. The flux swing of the core has been experimentally found by plotting the hysteresis loop at actual operating conditions. Based on the design, a prototype transformer has been built which is per se a unique combination of high voltage, high frequency, and peak power specifications. The transformer was able to provide 58 kV (pk-pk) at the secondary with a peak power handling capability of 700 kVA. The transformation ratio was 1:17. The performance of the transformer is also presented and discussed.

  12. Effect of water on Debye peak in mono-hydroxy liquid: A high frequency dielectric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Lokendra P.

    2017-07-01

    High frequency dielectric spectroscopy has been used to investigate the dielectric behavior of the pure as well as the aqueous solutions of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol at 270 and 300 K. It was found that the strength of Debye peak decreases systematically with increasing concentration of water. This behavior has been explained on the basis of the fact that alcohol favors more reduced structure in presence of water. This result is consistent with the simulation work as well as low frequency dielectric results on alcohol-water system.

  13. Bifurcation and chaos in high-frequency peak current mode Buck converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang-Yuan, Chang; Xin, Zhao; Fan, Yang; Cheng-En, Wu

    2016-07-01

    Bifurcation and chaos in high-frequency peak current mode Buck converter working in continuous conduction mode (CCM) are studied in this paper. First of all, the two-dimensional discrete mapping model is established. Next, reference current at the period-doubling point and the border of inductor current are derived. Then, the bifurcation diagrams are drawn with the aid of MATLAB. Meanwhile, circuit simulations are executed with PSIM, and time domain waveforms as well as phase portraits in i L-v C plane are plotted with MATLAB on the basis of simulation data. After that, we construct the Jacobian matrix and analyze the stability of the system based on the roots of characteristic equations. Finally, the validity of theoretical analysis has been verified by circuit testing. The simulation and experimental results show that, with the increase of reference current I ref, the corresponding switching frequency f is approaching to low-frequency stage continuously when the period-doubling bifurcation happens, leading to the converter tending to be unstable. With the increase of f, the corresponding I ref decreases when the period-doubling bifurcation occurs, indicating the stable working range of the system becomes smaller. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61376029), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China, and the College Graduate Research and Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. SJLX15_0092).

  14. HESS J1943+213: A Non-classical High-frequency-peaked BL Lac Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straal, S. M.; Gabányi, K. É.; van Leeuwen, J.; Clarke, T. E.; Dubner, G.; Frey, S.; Giacani, E.; Paragi, Z.

    2016-05-01

    HESS J1943+213 is an unidentified TeV source that is likely a high-frequency-peaked BL Lac (HBL) object, but that is also compatible with a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) nature. Each of these enormously different astronomical interpretations is supported by some of the observed unusual characteristics. In order to finally classify and understand this object, we took a three-pronged approach, through time-domain, high angular resolution, and multi-frequency radio studies. First, our deep time-domain observations with the Arecibo telescope failed to uncover the putative pulsar powering the proposed PWN. We conclude with ˜70% certainty that HESS J1943+213 does not host a pulsar. Second, long-baseline interferometry of the source with e-MERLIN at 1.5 and 5 GHz shows only a core, that is, a point source at ˜ 1-100 mas resolution. Its 2013 flux density is about one-third lower than that detected in the 2011 observations with similar resolution. This radio variability of the core strengthens the HBL object hypothesis. Third, additional evidence against the PWN scenario comes from the radio spectrum we compiled. The extended structure follows a power-law behavior with spectral index α \\=\\-0.54+/- 0.04 while the core component displays a flat spectrum (α \\=\\-0.03+/- 0.03). In contrast, the radio synchrotron emission of PWNe predicts a single power-law distribution. Overall, we rule out the PWN hypothesis and conclude that the source is a BL Lac object. The consistently high fraction (70%) of the flux density from the extended structure then leads us to conclude that HESS J1943+213 must be a non-classical HBL object.

  15. Communication: High-frequency acoustic excitations and boson peak in glasses: A study of their temperature dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruta, B.; Baldi, G.; Giordano, V. M.; Orsingher, L.; Rols, S.; Scarponi, F.; Monaco, G.

    2010-07-01

    The results of a combined experimental study of the high-frequency acoustic dynamics and of the vibrational density of states (VDOS) as a function of temperature in a glass of sorbitol are reported here. The excess in the VDOS at ˜4.5 meV over the Debye, elastic continuum prediction (boson peak) is found to be clearly related to anomalies observed in the acoustic dispersion curve in the mesoscopic wavenumber range of few nm-1. The quasiharmonic temperature dependence of the acoustic dispersion curves offers a natural explanation for the observed scaling of the boson peak with the elastic medium properties.

  16. Optical variability of the high synchrotron energy peaked blazar 1ES 1959+650 on various time-scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, You-Hong; Li, Jia-Chen

    2017-08-01

    We report the results of optical monitoring of the high synchrotron energy peaked blazar (HSP), 1ES 1959+650, performed with the 80-cm optical telescope at Xinglong Optical Observatory in 2010-2016. Our study was focused on the optical variability of the source on diverse time-scales over about 6 yr, which is helpful in understanding the variability mechanisms of blazars. Over 19 nights of intense photometric observations, we obtained 38 intranight light curves in the different bands. Intranight variability was not detected from all of these light curves. However, 1ES 1959+650 exhibited significant variations on the short-term (months) and long-term (years) time-scales. During the whole period of our monitoring, the maximum changes in the brightness of the source was 1.38 ± 0.05 and 1.17 ± 0.03 mag in the B and R waveband, respectively. The larger variability amplitude in the blue band than in the red one is demonstrated by the bluer-when-brighter spectral trend. The B - R colour index showed a change of 0.21 ± 0.06 mag across our monitoring period. The non-detection of intranight variations of 1ES 1959+650 is in agreement with previous observations, showing that the optical fluxes of HSPs are less variable than those of intermediate/low synchrotron energy peaked blazars (ISPs/LSPs) on time-scales of hours. In contrast, the detections of significant short-term and long-term variability of the source suggest that the optical variability of HSPs might not be very different from those of ISPs/LSPs on time-scales of months and years. Finally, we discuss some possible scenarios for the differences and the similarities of optical variability on various time-scales between the two blazar subclasses.

  17. DETECTION OF INTRA-DAY VARIABILITY TIMESCALES OF FOUR HIGH-ENERGY PEAKED BLAZARS WITH XMM-NEWTON

    SciTech Connect

    Gaur, Haritma; Gupta, Alok C.; Lachowicz, Pawel; Wiita, Paul J. E-mail: acgupta30@gmail.co E-mail: wiita@chara.gsu.ed

    2010-07-20

    We selected a sample of 24 XMM-Newton light curves (LCs) of four high energy peaked blazars, PKS 0548 - 322, ON 231, 1ES 1426+428, and PKS 2155 - 304. These data comprise continuous LCs of 7.67-18.97 hr in length. We searched for possible quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) and intra-day variability (IDV) timescales in the LCs of these blazars. We found a likely QPO in one LC of PKS 2155 - 304 which was reported elsewhere. In the remaining 23 LCs we found hints of possible weak QPOs in one LC of each ON 231 and PKS 2155 - 304, but neither is statistically significant. We found IDV timescales that ranged from 15.7 to 46.8 ks in eight LCs. In 13 LCs any variability timescales were longer than the length of the data. Assuming that the possible weak QPO periods in the blazars PKS 2155 - 304 and ON 231 are real and are associated with the innermost portions of their accretion disk, we can estimate that their central black hole masses exceed 1.2 x 10{sup 7} M{sub sun}. Emission models for radio-loud active galactic nuclei that could explain our results are briefly discussed.

  18. Twin peak high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations as a spectral imprint of dual oscillation modes of accretion tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakala, P.; Goluchová, K.; Török, G.; Šrámková, E.; Abramowicz, M. A.; Vincent, F. H.; Mazur, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    Context. High-frequency (millisecond) quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) are observed in the X-ray power-density spectra of several microquasars and low-mass X-ray binaries. Two distinct QPO peaks, so-called twin peak QPOs, are often detected simultaneously exhibiting their frequency ratio close or equal to 3:2. A widely discussed class of proposed QPOs models is based on oscillations of accretion toroidal structures orbiting in the close vicinity of black holes or neutron stars. Aims: Following the analytic theory and previous studies of observable spectral signatures, we aim to model the twin peak QPOs as a spectral imprint of specific dual oscillation regime defined by a combination of the lowest radial and vertical oscillation mode of slender tori. We consider the model of an optically thick slender accretion torus with constant specific angular momentum. We examined power spectra and fluorescent Kα iron line profiles for two different simulation setups with the mode frequency relations corresponding to the epicyclic resonance HF QPOs model and modified relativistic precession QPOs model. Methods: We used relativistic ray-tracing implemented in the parallel simulation code LSDplus. In the background of the Kerr spacetime geometry, we analyzed the influence of the distant observer inclination and the spin of the central compact object. Relativistic optical projection of the oscillating slender torus is illustrated by images in false colours related to the frequency shift. Results: We show that performed simulations yield power spectra with the pair of dominant peaks that correspond to the frequencies of radial and vertical oscillation modes and with the peak frequency ratio equal to the proper value 3:2 on a wide range of inclinations and spin values. We also discuss exceptional cases of a very low and very high inclination, as well as unstable high spin relativistic precession-like configurations that predict a constant frequency ratio equal to 1:2. We

  19. BLAZAR 3C 454.3 IN OUTBURST AND QUIESCENCE DURING 2005-2007: TWO VARIABLE SYNCHROTRON EMISSION PEAKS

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, Patrick M.; Wehrle, Ann E.; Balonek, Thomas; Gurwell, Mark A.

    2011-08-01

    We monitored the flaring blazar 3C 454.3 during 2005 June-July with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS: 15 epochs), Infrared Array Camera (IRAC: 12 epochs), and Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS: 2 epochs). We also made Spitzer IRS, IRAC, and MIPS observations from 2006 December to 2007 January when the source was in a low state, the latter simultaneous with a single Chandra X-ray observation. In addition, we present optical and submillimeter (sub-mm) monitoring data. The 2005-2007 period saw three major outbursts. We present evidence that the radio-optical spectral energy distribution (SED) actually consists of two variable synchrotron peaks, the primary at IR and the secondary at sub-mm wavelengths. The lag between the optical and sub-mm outbursts may indicate that these two peaks arise from two distinct regions along the jet separated by a distance of 0.9-3 pc. The flux at 5-35 {mu}m varied by a factor of 40 and the IR peak varied in frequency from 4 x 10{sup 12} Hz to 4 x 10{sup 13} Hz between the highest and lowest states in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Variability was well correlated across the mid-IR band, with no measurable lag. Flares that doubled in flux occurred on a timescale of {approx}5 days, yielding a variability size of <0.05 pc. The IR SED peak moved to higher frequency as a flare brightened, then returned to lower frequency as it decayed. The fractional variability amplitude increased with frequency, which we attribute to decreasing synchrotron self-absorption optical depth. Mid-IR flares may signal the re-energization of a shock that runs into inhomogeneities along the pre-existing jet or in the external medium. The synchrotron peak frequencies during each major outburst may depend upon both the distance from the jet apex and the physical conditions in the shocks. Variation of the Doppler parameter along a curved or helical jet is another possibility. Frequency variability of the IR synchrotron peak may have important consequences for the

  20. Model simulation for periodic double-peaked outbursts in blazar OJ 287: binary black hole plus lighthouse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shan-Jie

    2015-05-01

    The mechanism of formation for double-peaked optical outbursts observed in blazar OJ 287 is studied. It is shown that they could be explained in terms of a lighthouse effect for superluminal optical knots ejected from the center of the galaxy that move along helical magnetic fields. It is assumed that the orbital motion of the secondary black hole in the supermassive binary black hole system induces the 12-year quasi-periodicity in major optical outbursts by the interaction with the disk around the primary black hole. This interaction between the secondary black hole and the disk of the primary black hole (e.g. tidal effects or magnetic coupling) excites or injects plasmons (or relativistic plasmas plus magnetic field) into the jet which form superluminal knots. These knots are assumed to move along helical magnetic field lines to produce the optical double-peaked outbursts by the lighthouse effect. The four double-peaked outbursts observed in 1972, 1983, 1995 and 2005 are simulated using this model. It is shown that such lighthouse models are quite plausible and feasible for fitting the double-flaring behavior of the outbursts. The main requirement may be that in OJ 287 there exists a rather long (~40-60 pc) highly collimated zone, where the lighthouse effect occurs.

  1. [Thermoelastic excitation of acoustic waves in biological models under the effect of the high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Rubanik, A V; Pashovkin, T N; Chemeris, N K

    2007-01-01

    The capability of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency (35,27 GHz, pulse widths of 100 and 600 ns, peak power of 20 kW) to excite acoustic waves in model water-containing objects and muscular tissue of animals has been experimentally shown for the first time. The amplitude and duration of excited acoustic pulses are within the limits of accuracy of theoretical assessments and have a complex nonlinear dependence on the energy input of electromagnetic radiation supplied. The velocity of propagation of acoustic pulses in water-containing models and isolated muscular tissue of animals was close to the reference data. The excitation of acoustic waves in biological systems under the action of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency is the important phenomenon, which essentially contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms of biological effects of these electromagnetic fields.

  2. Is the Blazar Sequence related to accretion disk winds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boula, Stella; Mastichiadis, Apostolos; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2016-08-01

    Adopting the hypothesis that the nonthermal emission of blazars is primarily due to the acceleration of electrons, we construct a simple leptonic model in order to explain the Blazar Sequence. The acceleration process is assumed to be of the first order Fermi type and the injected electrons and photons in the emitting region of the blazar are described by spatially averaged kinetic equations. According to the leptonic scenario, the spectral energy distributions of blazars have two basic components: a low frequency component, peaking in the optical through X-rays, from synchrotron emission; and a high frequency one, peaking in the γ rays, probably originating from Compton scattering of some seed photon source, either internal (synchrotron self-Compton) and/or external to the jet (external Compton). We find an adequate description of the Blazar Sequence by assuming a wind density profile of the form n(r) 1/r. Higher luminosity objects have higher accretion rates, higher optical thicknesses of the wind to Compton scattering and thus higher external photon fields than the lower luminosity ones. Therefore, we present indicative Blazar Sequence models which reproduce the basic observational trends just by varying one parameter, namely the mass accretion rate dot{m}.

  3. [Dependence of anti-inflammatory effects of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency on exposure parameters].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Mikhaĭlik, E N; Rubanik, A V; Cheremis, N K

    2007-01-01

    A pronounced anti-inflammatory effect of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency was shown for the first time in a model of zymosan-induced footpad edema in mice. Exposure to radiation of specific parameters (35, 27 GHz, peak power 20 kW, pulse widths 400-600 ns, pulse repetition frequency 5-500 Hz) decreased the exudative edema and local hyperthermia by 20% compared to the control. The kinetics and the magnitude of the anti-inflammatory effect were comparable with those induced by sodium diclofenac at a dose of 3 mg/kg. It was found that the anti-inflammatory effect linearly increased with increasing pulse width at a fixed pulse repetition frequency and had threshold dependence on the average incident power density of the radiation at a fixed pulse width. When animals were whole-body exposed in the far-field zone of radiator, the optimal exposure duration was 20 min. Increasing the average incident power density upon local exposure of the inflamed paw accelerated both the development of the anti-inflammatory effect and the reactivation time. The results obtained will undoubtedly be of great importance in the hygienic standardization of pulsed electromagnetic radiation and in further studies of the mechanisms of its biological action.

  4. Gamma-ray Excess from a Stacked Sample of High- and Intermediate-frequency Peaked Blazars Observed with the MAGIC Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Britzger, D.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Commichau, S.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Costado, M. T.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De los Reyes, R.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Godinovic, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hsu, C. C.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; La Barbera, A.; Laille, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moles, M.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Ninkovic, J.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paiano, S.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pascoli, D.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Prada, F.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzic, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2011-03-01

    Between 2004 and 2009, a sample of 28 X-ray selected high- and intermediate-frequency peaked blazars with an X-ray flux larger than 2 μJy at 1 keV in the redshift range from 0.018 to 0.361 was observed with the MAGIC telescope at energies above 100 GeV. Seven among them were detected and the results of these observations are discussed elsewhere. Here we concentrate on the remaining 21 blazars which were not detected during this observation campaign and present the 3σ (99.7%) confidence upper limits on their flux. The individual flux upper limits lie between 1.6% and 13.6% of the integral flux from the Crab Nebula. Applying a stacking method to the sample of non-detections with a total of 394.1 hr exposure time, we find evidence for an excess with a cumulative significance of 4.9 standard deviations. It is not dominated by individual objects or flares, but increases linearly with the observation time as for a constant source with an integral flux level of ~1.5% of that observed from the Crab Nebula above 150 GeV.

  5. Doubling the Sample of Jet Speed Measurements for the TeV Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piner, B. Glenn; Tiet, V. C.; Edwards, P. G.

    2011-05-01

    We report on our observations of the parsec-scale radio jet structures of five blazars that have been detected by ground-based TeV gamma-ray telescopes. These five blazars all belong to the class of High-frequency peaked BL Lac objects (HBLs), which are the most common blazar type detected at the TeV energy range. Because of their relative faintness in the radio, these HBLs are not well represented in other radio blazar surveys. Our observations consist of five epochs of Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) imaging from 2006 to 2009, of each of the five blazars 1ES 1101-232, Markarian 180, 1ES 1218+304, PG 1553+113, and H 2356-309, at frequencies from 5 to 22 GHz. Fundamental jet properties, including the apparent jet speeds, that can be measured from these multi-epoch series of VLBA images are presented and compared with other gamma-ray blazars. This study approximately doubles the number of TeV blazars with multi-epoch parsec-scale structural measurements. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant 0707523.

  6. High redshift blazars .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.

    Blazars are sources whose jet is pointing at us. Since their jets are relativistic, the flux is greatly amplified in the direction of motion, making blazars the most powerful persistent objects in the Universe. This is true at all frequencies, but especially where their spectrum peaks. Although the spectrum of moderate powerful sources peaks in the ˜GeV range, extremely powerful sources at high redshifts peak in the ˜MeV band. This implies that the hard X-ray band is the optimal one to find powerful blazars beyond a redshift of ˜4. First indications strongly suggest that powerful high-z blazars harbor the most massive and active early black holes, exceeding a billion solar masses. Since for each detected blazars there must exist hundreds of similar, but misaligned, sources, the search for high-z blazars is becoming competitive with the search of early massive black holes using radio-quiet quasars. Finding how the two populations of black holes (one in jetted sources, the other in radio-quiet objects) evolve in redshift will shed light on the growth of the most massive black holes and possibly on the feedback between the central engine and the rest of the host galaxy.

  7. Blazar Compton Efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, J. A.; Browne, I. W. A.; Peel, M. W.

    2012-03-01

    The Fermi gamma-ray space telescope has dramatically increased the number of gamma-ray blazars known and means that for the first time, a large sample of blazars selected by the strength of their inverse Compton emission exists. We have cross-identified the blazars listed in the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL) with the CRATES radio catalogue. Using the 8.4 GHz flux density as a proxy for the jet power, we have computed their Compton efficiencies, a measure of the ability of the jet to convert the power in the ultrarelativistic jet electrons into gamma-rays through the inverse Compton process. We have compared the Compton efficiencies of the two blazar subsets, BL Lacs and FSRQs, and find no evidence that they are different. We also do not find an anti-correlation between Compton efficiency and synchrotron peak frequency.

  8. HIGH-FREQUENCY-PEAKED BL LACERTAE OBJECTS AS SPECTRAL CANDLES TO MEASURE THE EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT IN THE FERMI AND AIR CHERENKOV TELESCOPES ERA

    SciTech Connect

    Mankuzhiyil, Nijil; Persic, Massimo; Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2010-05-20

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is the integrated light from all the stars that have ever formed, and spans the IR-UV range. The interaction of very high-energy (VHE: E > 100 GeV) {gamma}-rays, emitted by sources located at cosmological distances, with the intervening EBL results in e {sup -} e {sup +} pair production that leads to energy-dependent attenuation of the observed VHE flux. This introduces a fundamental ambiguity into the interpretation of measured VHE {gamma}-ray spectra: neither the intrinsic spectrum nor the EBL are separately known-only their combination is. In this Letter, we propose a method to measure the EBL photon number density. It relies on using simultaneous observations of BL Lac objects in the optical, X-ray, high-energy (HE: E > 100 MeV) {gamma}-ray (from the Fermi telescope), and VHE {gamma}-ray (from Cherenkov telescopes) bands. For each source, the method involves best-fitting the spectral energy distribution from optical through HE {gamma}-rays (the latter being largely unaffected by EBL attenuation as long as z {approx_lt} 1) with a synchrotron self-Compton model. We extrapolate such best-fitting models into the VHE regime and assume they represent the BL Lacs' intrinsic emission. Contrasting measured versus intrinsic emission leads to a determination of the {gamma}{gamma} opacity to VHE photons. Using, for each given source, different states of emission will only improve the accuracy of the proposed method. We demonstrate this method using recent simultaneous multifrequency observations of the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 and discuss how similar observations can more accurately probe the EBL.

  9. The Fermi blazar sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Righi, C.; Costamante, L.; Tavecchio, F.

    2017-07-01

    We revisit the blazar sequence exploiting the complete, flux-limited sample of blazars with known redshift detected by the Fermi satellite after 4 yr of operations (the 3LAC sample). We divide the sources into γ-ray luminosity bins, collect all the archival data for all blazars, and construct their spectral energy distribution (SED). We describe the average SED of blazars in the same luminosity bin through a simple phenomenological function consisting of two broken power laws connecting with a power law describing the radio emission. We do that separately for BL Lacs and for flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and also for all blazars together. The main results are: (i) FSRQs display approximately the same SED as the luminosity increases, but the relative importance of the high-energy peak increases; (ii) as a consequence, the X-ray spectra of FSRQs become harder for larger luminosities; (iii) BL Lacs indeed form a sequence: they become redder (i.e. smaller peak frequencies) with increasing luminosities, with a softer γ-ray slope and a larger dominance of the high-energy peak; (iv) for all blazars (BL Lacs+FSRQs), these properties become more prominent, as the highest luminosity bin is populated mostly by FSRQs and the lowest luminosity bin mostly by BL Lacs. This agrees with the original blazar sequence, although BL Lacs never have an average γ-ray slope as hard as found in the original sequence. (v) At high luminosities, a large fraction of FSRQs show signs of thermal emission from the accretion disc, contributing to the optical-UV (ultraviolet).

  10. GAMMA-RAY LOUDNESS, SYNCHROTRON PEAK FREQUENCY, AND PARSEC-SCALE PROPERTIES OF BLAZARS DETECTED BY THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Schinzel, F. K.

    2012-09-20

    The parsec-scale radio properties of 232 active galactic nuclei, most of which are blazars, detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed contemporaneously by the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at 5 GHz. Data from both the first 11 months (1FGL) and the first 2 years (2FGL) of the Fermi mission were used to investigate these sources' {gamma}-ray properties. We use the ratio of the {gamma}-ray-to-radio luminosity as a measure of {gamma}-ray loudness. We investigate the relationship of several radio properties to {gamma}-ray loudness and to the synchrotron peak frequency. There is a tentative correlation between {gamma}-ray loudness and synchrotron peak frequency for BL Lac objects in both 1FGL and 2FGL, and for flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in 2FGL. We find that the apparent opening angle tentatively correlates with {gamma}-ray loudness for FSRQs, but only when we use the 2FGL data. We also find that the total VLBA flux density correlates with the synchrotron peak frequency for BL Lac objects and FSRQs. The core brightness temperature also correlates with synchrotron peak frequency, but only for the BL Lac objects. The low-synchrotron-peaked (LSP) BL Lac object sample shows indications of contamination by FSRQs which happen to have undetectable emission lines. There is evidence that the LSP BL Lac objects are more strongly beamed than the rest of the BL Lac object population.

  11. Lone Blazar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-12

    This image from NASA WISE spacecraft shows a blazar, a voracious supermassive black hole inside a galaxy with a jet that happens to be pointed right toward Earth. Active black holes are often found at the hearts of elliptical galaxies.

  12. The nature of transition blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Ruan, J. J.; Anderson, S. F.; Plotkin, R. M.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P.; Burnett, T. H.; Myers, A. D.

    2014-12-10

    Blazars are classically divided into the BL Lacertae (BLL) and flat-spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) subclasses, corresponding to radiatively inefficient and efficient accretion regimes, respectively, largely based on the equivalent width (EW) of their optical broad emission lines (BELs). However, EW-based classification criteria are not physically motivated, and a few blazars have previously transitioned' from one subclass to the other. We present the first systematic search for these transition blazars in a sample of 602 unique pairs of repeat spectra of 354 blazars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, finding six clear cases. These transition blazars have bolometric Eddington ratios of ∼0.3 and low-frequency synchrotron peaks, and are thus FSRQ-like. We show that the strong EW variability (up to an unprecedented factor of >60) is due to swamping of the BELs from variability in jet continuum emission, which is stronger in amplitude and shorter in timescale than typical blazars. Although these transition blazars appear to switch between FSRQ and BLL according to the phenomenologically based EW scheme, we show that they are most likely rare cases of FSRQs with radiatively efficient accretion flows and especially strongly beamed jets. These results have implications for the decrease of the apparent BLL population at high redshifts, and may lend credence to claims of a negative BLL redshift evolution.

  13. VERITAS Blazar Observations - Recent Results

    SciTech Connect

    Cogan, Peter

    2008-12-24

    We present the discovery of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object 1ES 0806+524 (z = 0.138) and the intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lac object W Comae (z = 0.102) with VERITAS. VHE emission was discovered from these objects during the 2007/2008 observing campaign, with a strong outburst from W Comae detected in mid-March, lasting a few days. Quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions are presented, incorporating optical (AAVSO), and X-ray (Swift/RXTE) observations. We also present the energy spectrum of the distant BL Lac (z = 0.182) 1ES 1218+304 which was detected by VERITAS during the 2006/2007 observing campaign. The energy spectrum is discussed in the context of different models of absorption from the diffuse extragalactic background radiation. We present multiwavelength observations of the blazar Markarian 421 (z = 0.03), including a strong flare initially detected by the Whipple 10 m gamma-ray telescope. Finally we present a broadband spectral energy distribution for 1ES 2344+514 (z = 0.044) which is successfully fit using a one zone synchrotron self-Compton model.

  14. Optical Observations Of Fermi LAT Monitored Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kyle; Carini, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    For the past 8 years the Bell Observatory at Western Kentucky University has been conducting R band monitoring of the variability of approximately 50 Blazars. A subset of these objects are being routinely observed with the LAT instrument on-board the Fermi Space Telescope. Adding the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak National Observatory and observations with the AZT-11 telescope at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CRAO), we are intensively monitoring the Blazars on the Lat monitoring list. We present the results of our long term monitoring of the LAT monitored Blazars, as well as the recent contemporaneous optical R band observations we have obtained of the LAT Blazars.

  15. Blazar Anti-Sequence of Spectral Variability for Individual TeV Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Liang, En-Wei

    2013-01-01

    We compile from literature the broadband SEDs of twelve TeV blazars observed simultaneously or quasi-simultaneously with Fermi/LAT and other instruments. Two SEDs are available for each of the objects and the state is identified as a low or high state according to its flux density at GeV/TeV band. The observed SEDs of BL Lac objects (BL Lacs) are fitted well with the synchrotron + synchrotron-self-Compton (syn+SSC) model, whereas the SEDs of the two flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) need to include the contributions of external Compton scattering. In this scenario, it is found that the Doppler factor δ of FSRQs is smaller than that of BL Lacs, but the magnetic field strength B of FSRQs is larger than that of BL Lacs. The increase of the peak frequency of the SEDs is accompanied with the increase of the flux for the individual sources, which seems opposite to the observational phenomena of the blazar sequence. We refer this phenomenonto blazar anti-sequence of spectral variability for individual TeV blazars. However, both the blazar sequence from FSRQs to BL Lacs and blazar anti-sequence of the spectral variability from low state to high state are accompanied by an increase of the break Lorentz factor of the electron's spectrum γb and a decrease of B. We propose a model in which the mass accretion rate Ṁ is the driving force behind both the blazar sequence for ensembles of blazars and the blazar anti-sequence for individual blazars. Specifically we suggest that the differences in <Ṁ> of different blazars produce the observed blazar sequence, but ΔṀ in each blazar results in the observed blazar anti-sequence.

  16. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF FERMI -LAT BLAZARS ABOVE 50 GEV

    DOE PAGES

    Domínguez, Alberto; Ajello, Marco

    2015-11-04

    We present an analysis of the intrinsic (unattenuated by the extragalactic background light, EBL) power-law spectral indices of 128 extragalactic sources detected up to z ~ 2 with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) at very high energies (VHEs, E ≥50 GeV). The median of the intrinsic index distribution is 2.20 (versus 2.54 for the observed distribution). We also analyze the observed spectral breaks (i.e., the difference between the VHE and high energy, HE, 100 MeV ≤ E ≤ 300 GeV, spectral indices). The Fermi-LAT has now provided a large sample of sources detected both at VHE and HE with comparablemore » exposure that allows us to test models of extragalactic γ-ray photon propagation. We find that our data are compatible with simulations that include intrinsic blazar curvature and EBL attenuation. There is also no evidence of evolution with redshift of the physics that drives the photon emission in high-frequency synchrotron peak (HSP) blazars. This makes HSP blazars excellent probes of the EBL.« less

  17. High-redshift Fermi blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Foschini, L.; Ghirlanda, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Della Ceca, R.; Haardt, F.; Volonteri, M.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-02-01

    With the release of the first-year Fermi catalogue, the number of blazars detected above 100 MeV lying at high redshift has been largely increased. There are 28 blazars at z > 2 in the `clean' sample. All of them are flat spectrum radio quasars. We study and model their overall spectral energy distribution in order to find the physical parameters of the jet-emitting region, and for all of them, we estimate their black hole masses and accretion rates. We then compare the jet with the accretion disc properties, setting these sources in the broader context of all the other bright γ-ray or hard X-ray blazars. We confirm that the jet power correlates with the accretion luminosity. We find that the high-energy emission peak shifts to smaller frequencies as the observed luminosity increases, according to the blazar sequence, making the hard X-ray band the most suitable for searching the most-luminous and distant blazars.

  18. Very High Energy gamma-rays from blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sol, Helene

    2014-07-01

    The extragalactic very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray sky is dominated at the moment by more than fifty blazars detected by the present imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACT), with a majority (about 90%) of high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects (HBL) and a small number of low-frequency peaked and intermediate BL Lac objects (LBL and IBL) and flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ). A significant variability is often observed, with time scales from a few minutes to months and years. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of these blazars typically shows two bumps from the radio to the TeV range, which can usually be described by leptonic or hadronic processes. While elementary bricks of the VHE emission scenarios seem now reasonably well identified, a global picture of these sources, describing the geometry and dynamics of the VHE zone, is not yet available. Multiwavelength monitoring and global alert network will be important to better constrain the picture, especially with the perspective of CTA, a major project of the next generation in ground-based gamma-ray astronomy.

  19. The Intrinsic Demographics of Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, C. Megan; Mao, Peiyuan; Brandt, Timothy D.

    2017-08-01

    Blazar surveys over the past three decades have revealed a range of spectral energy distributions (SEDs), with large systematic differences depending on survey wavelength. This means blazar samples suffer from strong selection effects. To date there has been no agreement on how to infer intrinsic population demographics from these samples, with a key issue being whether blazar jet power is related to the shape of the spectral energy distribution. We investigate this issue using Monte Carlo simulations of BL Lac and flat-spectrum radio quasar populations. We rule out the hypothesis that the SED shape is not linked to luminosity, as the simulated samples in that case disagree strongly with observed surveys. This means that the low-power blazars found primarily in X-ray surveys must be more common than the high-power blazars found primarily in radio surveys. Given an intrinsic correlation between luminosity and SED shape, our simulations predict distributions of flux, redshift, luminosity, and spectral index consistent with existing surveys. We also show that the observed evolution of X-ray-selected blazars, as measured through the average V/Vmax ratio, appears to be negative even when the underlying evolution is actually mildly positive. The apparent negative evolution of X-ray bright BL Lacs is a selection effect caused by redshifting a steeply falling UV-to-X-ray spectrum out of the X-ray band. As this conclusion would suggest, our simulations also show that the deeper the X-ray flux limit and/or the lower the frequency of the synchrotron peak in the SED, the less negative the apparent evolution.

  20. The Spectral Energy Distributions of Fermi Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Yang, J. H.; Liu, Y.; Luo, G. Y.; Lin, C.; Yuan, Y. H.; Xiao, H. B.; Zhou, A. Y.; Hua, T. X.; Pei, Z. Y.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, multiwavelength data are compiled for a sample of 1425 Fermi blazars to calculate their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). A parabolic function, {{log}}{(ν {F}ν )={P}1({{log}}ν -{P}2)}2+{P}3, is used for SED fitting. Synchrotron peak frequency ({log}{ν }{{p}}), spectral curvature (P1), peak flux ({ν }{{p}}{F}{ν {{p}}}), and integrated flux (ν {F}ν ) are successfully obtained for 1392 blazars (461 flat-spectrum radio quasars [FSRQs], 620 BL Lacs [BLs], and 311 blazars of uncertain type [BCUs]; 999 sources have known redshifts). Monochromatic luminosity at radio 1.4 GHz, optical R band, X-ray at 1 keV and γ-ray at 1 GeV, peak luminosity, integrated luminosity, and effective spectral indices of radio to optical ({α }{{RO}}) and optical to X-ray ({α }{{OX}}) are calculated. The “Bayesian classification” is employed to log {ν }{{p}} in the rest frame for 999 blazars with available redshift, and the results show that three components are enough to fit the log {ν }{{p}} distribution; there is no ultra-high peaked subclass. Based on the three components, the subclasses of blazars using the acronyms of Abdo et al. are classified, and some mutual correlations are also studied. Conclusions are finally drawn as follows: (1) SEDs are successfully obtained for 1392 blazars. The fitted peak frequencies are compared with common sources from available samples. (2) Blazars are classified as low synchrotron peak sources if log {ν }{{p}}({Hz})≤slant 14.0, intermediate synchrotron peak sources if 14.0\\lt {log} {ν }{{p}}({Hz})≤slant 15.3, and high synchrotron peak sources if {log} {ν }{{p}}({Hz})\\gt 15.3. (3) Gamma-ray emissions are strongly correlated with radio emissions. Gamma-ray luminosity is also correlated with synchrotron peak luminosity and integrated luminosity. (4) There is an anticorrelation between peak frequency and peak luminosity within the whole blazar sample. However, there is a marginally positive correlation for high

  1. Time Delays of Blazar Flares Observed at Different Wavebands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, Alan P.

    2001-01-01

    Correlated variability at different frequencies can probe the structure and physics of the jet of a blazar on size scales much smaller than can be resolved by telescopes and interferometers. I discuss some observations of frequency dependent time lags and how these place constraints on models for the nonthermal emission in blazars. The time lags can be either positive (high frequency variations leading those at lower frequencies) or negative, while simultaneous flares are also possible.

  2. Time Delays of Blazar Flares Observed at Different Wavebands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, Alan P.

    2000-01-01

    Correlated variability at different frequencies can probe the structure and physics of the jet of a blazar on size scales much smaller than can be resolved by telescopes and interferometers. I discuss some observations of frequency dependent time lags and how these place constraints on models for the nonthermal emission in blazars. The time lags can be either positive (high frequency variations leading those at lower frequencies) or negative, while simultaneous flares are also possible.

  3. What determines the observational differences of blazars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xu-Liang; Bai, Jin-Ming; Mao, Ji-Rong

    2016-11-01

    We examine the scenario that the Doppler factor determines the observational differences of blazars. Significantly negative correlations are found between the observational synchrotron peak frequency and the Doppler factor. After correcting the Doppler boosting, the intrinsic peak frequency has a tight linear relation with the Doppler factor. It is interesting that this relation is consistent with the scenario that the black hole mass governs both the bulk Lorentz factor and the synchrotron peak frequency. In addition, the distinction between the kinetic jet powers of BL Lac objects and flat spectrum radio quasars disappears after the boosting factor δ 2 is considered. The negative correlation between the peak frequency and the observational isotropic luminosity, known as the blazar sequence, also disappears after the Doppler boosting is corrected. We also find that the correlation between the Compton dominance and the Doppler factor exists for all types of blazars. Therefore, this correlation is unsuitable for examining the external Compton emission dominance.

  4. An Investigation of Blazars without Redshifts: Not a Missing Population at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Peiyuan; Urry, C. Megan

    2017-06-01

    We investigate a sample of 622 blazars with measured fluxes at 12 wavebands across the radio-to-gamma-ray spectrum but without spectroscopic or photometric redshifts. This sample includes hundreds of sources with newly analyzed X-ray spectra reported here. From the synchrotron peak frequencies, estimated by fitting the broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs), we find that the fraction of high-synchrotron-peaked blazars in these 622 sources is roughly the same as in larger samples of blazars that do have redshifts. We characterize the no-redshift blazars using their infrared colors, which lie in the distinct locus called the WISE blazar strip, then estimate their redshifts using a KNN regression based on the redshifts of the closest blazars in the WISE color-color plot. Finally, using randomly drawn values from plausible redshift distributions, we simulate the SEDs of these blazars and compare them to known blazar SEDs. Based on all these considerations, we conclude that blazars without redshift estimates are unlikely to be high-luminosity, high-synchrotron-peaked objects, which had been suggested in order to explain the “blazar sequence”—an observed trend of SED shape with luminosity—as a selection effect. Instead, the observed properties of no-redshift blazars are compatible with a causal connection between jet power and electron cooling, i.e., a true blazar sequence.

  5. Does the Blazar Gamma-ray Spectrum Harden with Increasing Flux? - Analysis of Nine Years of EGRET Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nandikotkur, Giridhar; Jahoda, Keith M.; Hartman, R. C.; Mukherjee, R.; Sreekumar, P.; Boettcher, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) discovered gamma-ray emission from more than 67 blazars during its nine-year lifetime. We conducted an exhaustive search of the EGRET archives and selected all the blazars that were observed multiple times and were bright enough to enable a spectral analysis using standard powerlaw models. The sample consists of 18 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), 6 low-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (LBLs) and 2 high-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs). We do not detect any clear pattern in'the variation of spectral index with flux. Some of the blazars do not show any statistical evidence for spectral variability. The spectrum hardens with increasing flux in a few cases. There is also evidence for a flux-hardness anticorrelation at lo\\v fluxes in five blazars. The well observed blazars (3C 279,3C 273, PKS 0528-i-134, PKS 1622-297, PKS 0208- 512) do not show any overall trend in the long-term spectral dependence on flux, but the sample shows a mixture of hard and soft states. We observed spectral hysteresis at weekly timescales in all the three FSRQs for which data from flares lasting for 3 approx. 4 weeks were available. All three sources show a counterclockwise rotation despite the widely different flux profiles. Hysteresis in the spectral index vs. flux space has never been observed in FSRQs in gamma-rays at weekly timescales. itre analyze the observed spectral behavior in the context of various inverse-Compton mechanisms believed to be responsible for emission in the EGRET energy range. Our analysis uses the EGRET skymaps that were regenerated to include the changes in performance during the mission.

  6. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF FERMI -LAT BLAZARS ABOVE 50 GEV

    SciTech Connect

    Domínguez, Alberto; Ajello, Marco

    2015-11-04

    We present an analysis of the intrinsic (unattenuated by the extragalactic background light, EBL) power-law spectral indices of 128 extragalactic sources detected up to z ~ 2 with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) at very high energies (VHEs, E ≥50 GeV). The median of the intrinsic index distribution is 2.20 (versus 2.54 for the observed distribution). We also analyze the observed spectral breaks (i.e., the difference between the VHE and high energy, HE, 100 MeV ≤ E ≤ 300 GeV, spectral indices). The Fermi-LAT has now provided a large sample of sources detected both at VHE and HE with comparable exposure that allows us to test models of extragalactic γ-ray photon propagation. We find that our data are compatible with simulations that include intrinsic blazar curvature and EBL attenuation. There is also no evidence of evolution with redshift of the physics that drives the photon emission in high-frequency synchrotron peak (HSP) blazars. This makes HSP blazars excellent probes of the EBL.

  7. [High frequency ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Sattler, E

    2015-07-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has become a standard procedure in clinical dermatology. Devices with intermediate high frequencies of 7.5-15 MHz are used in dermato-oncology for the staging and postoperative care of skin tumor patients and in angiology for improved vessel diagnostics. In contrast, the high frequency ultrasound systems with 20-100 MHz probes offer a much higher resolution, yet with a lower penetration depth of about 1 cm. The main indications are the preoperative measurements of tumor thickness in malignant melanoma and other skin tumors and the assessment of inflammatory and soft tissue diseases, offering information on the course of these dermatoses and allowing therapy monitoring. This article gives an overview on technical principles, devices, mode of examination, influencing factors, interpretation of the images, indications but also limitations of this technique.

  8. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  9. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  10. Are Jets Monoparametric? Extending the Blazar Sequence to the Blazar Envelope in the Fermi Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Fossati, G.; Georganopoulos, M.; Lister, M.

    2011-01-01

    The blazar sequence, first discovered by Fossati et al. (1998), unified the broad emission line, high-powered flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) with the optically featureless BL Lac objects through a simple anti-correlation between synchrotron peak luminosity and peak frequency. This paradigm has come under scrutiny as increasing numbers of sources have emerged off the sequence. We have found evidence for a simple underlying scheme for the apparent 'blazar envelope': blazar jets are mono-parametric engines, such that source power (as measured from the low-frequency, un-beamed extended emission) creates a monotonic relationship between the intrinsic peak luminosity and peak frequency of the synchrotron and inverse Compton components. The envelope naturally emerges below the sequence due to the drop in peak luminosity and frequency as sources are progressively aligned away from our line-of-sight and relativistic beaming drops. We present key evidence for this scheme which has impact on theoretical models of blazar jets with velocity profiles. The envelope also allows us to more clearly unify blazars and the parent population of FR I and II radio galaxies. I will discuss some of the difficulties and caveats in measuring the source power through extended emission, current results, and future applications of this simple idea to broader unification schemes and other source classes.

  11. Blazars in Hard X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2009-05-01

    Although blazars are thought to emit most of their luminosity in the γ-ray band, there are subclasses of them very prominent in hard X-rays. These are the best candidates to be studied by Simbol-X. They are at the extremes of the blazar sequence, having very small or very high jet powers. The former are the class of TeV emitting BL Lacs, whose synchrotron emission often peaks at tens of keV or more. The latter are the blazars with the most powerful jets, have high black hole masses accreting at high (i.e. close to Eddington) rates. These sources are predicted to have their high energy peak even below the MeV band, and therefore are very promising candidates to be studied with Simbol-X.

  12. Mrk 421 and other blazars at 60 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David

    2002-04-01

    The CELESTE gamma ray telescope collects atmospheric Cherenkov light using 53 heliostats of the former solar facility "Themis", in the French Pyrennees. The CAT Cherenkov imager operates at the same site.We present measurements of the flux from Mrk 421 obtained with both instruments in March 2000 which we use to constrain the Inverse Compton peak of this blazar's spectral energy distribution. Combining this information with BeppoSAX measurements of the synchrotron peak position allows us to constrain the physical parameters of the blazar in a simple Synchrotron Self Compton framework. We further present the results of searches for other blazars in this previously unexplored energy range.

  13. ALMA High Frequency Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J. D.; Mason, B.; Impellizzeri, V.; Kameno, S.; Fomalont, E.; Chibueze, J.; Takahashi, S.; Remijan, A.; Wilson, C.; ALMA Science Team

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the ALMA High Frequency Campaign is to improve the quality and efficiency of science observing in Bands 8, 9, and 10 (385-950 GHz), the highest frequencies available to the ALMA project. To this end, we outline observing modes which we have demonstrated to improve high frequency calibration for the 12m array and the ACA, and we present the calibration of the total power antennas at these frequencies. Band-to-band (B2B) transfer and bandwidth switching (BWSW), techniques which improve the speed and accuracy of calibration at the highest frequencies, are most necessary in Bands 8, 9, and 10 due to the rarity of strong calibrators. These techniques successfully enable increased signal-to-noise on the calibrator sources (and better calibration solutions) by measuring the calibrators at lower frequencies (B2B) or in wider bandwidths (BWSW) compared to the science target. We have also demonstrated the stability of the bandpass shape to better than 2.4% for 1 hour, hidden behind random noise, in Band 9. Finally, total power observing using the dual sideband receivers in Bands 9 and 10 requires the separation of the two sidebands; this procedure has been demonstrated in Band 9 and is undergoing further testing in Band 10.

  14. GPS Quasars as Special Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J. M.; Lee, Myung Gyong

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, we argue that the gigahertz peaked spectrum (GPS) quasars are special blazars, blazars in dense and dusty gas enviornment. The ROSAT detection rate of GPS quasars is similar to that of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), suggesting that the relativistic jets in GPS quasars are oriented at small angle to the line of sight. Due to strong inverse Compton scattering off infrared photons from dense and dusty nuclear interstellar media in GPS quasars, most of them may have significant soft gamma-ray and X-ray emission, which is consistent with ASCA X-ray observations. Because Compton cooling in GPS quasars is stronger than that in FSRQs, synchrotron emission in GPS quasars may less dominate over thermal emission of the accretion disk and hot dust, hence most GPS quasars show low optical polarization and small variability, consistent with observations. We suggest that it is the significant radio emission of electron/positron pairs produced by the interaction of gamma-rays with the dense gas and dust grains in GPS quasars that makes GPS quasars show steep radio spectra, low radio polarization, and relatively faint VLBI/VLBA cores. Whether GPS quasars are special blazars can be tested by gamma-ray observations with GLAST in the near future, with the detection rate of GPS quasars being similar to that of FSRQs.

  15. High Frequency EPR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatteschi, D.

    EPR has traditionally been used in order to obtain structural information on transition metal compounds, with exciting frequencies in the range 9-35 GHz.The recent availability of high magnetic field has prompted the use of higher frequencies. In this contribution the advantages of using High-Field-High-Frequency EPR (HF EPR) experiments are reviewed. After a brief introduction aiming to recall the fundamentals of EPR spectroscopy, a short description of the experimental apparatus needed to perform HF EPR measurements is provided. The remaining sections report selected examples showing how much information can be obtained by HF EPR spectra. They range from individual ions with integer spin to molecular clusters. Particular attention is devoted to the so called Single Molecule Magnets, SMM, i.e. to molecular clusters which show slow relaxation of the magnetization at low temperature. This effect is due to Ising type magnetic anisotropy which has been efficiently monitored through HF EPR s pectroscopy.

  16. High-frequency ECG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tragardh, Elin; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    The standard ECG is by convention limited to 0.05-150 Hz, but higher frequencies are also present in the ECG signal. With high-resolution technology, it is possible to record and analyze these higher frequencies. The highest amplitudes of the high-frequency components are found within the QRS complex. In past years, the term "high frequency", "high fidelity", and "wideband electrocardiography" have been used by several investigators to refer to the process of recording ECGs with an extended bandwidth of up to 1000 Hz. Several investigators have tried to analyze HF-QRS with the hope that additional features seen in the QRS complex would provide information enhancing the diagnostic value of the ECG. The development of computerized ECG-recording devices that made it possible to record ECG signals with high resolution in both time and amplitude, as well as better possibilities to store and process the signals digitally, offered new methods for analysis. Different techniques to extract the HF-QRS have been described. Several bandwidths and filter types have been applied for the extraction as well as different signal-averaging techniques for noise reduction. There is no standard method for acquiring and quantifying HF-QRS. The physiological mechanisms underlying HF-QRS are still not fully understood. One theory is that HF-QRS are related to the conduction velocity and the fragmentation of the depolarization wave in the myocardium. In a three-dimensional model of the ventricles with a fractal conduction system it was shown that high numbers of splitting branches are associated with HF-QRS. In this experiment, it was also shown that the changes seen in HF-QRS in patients with myocardial ischemia might be due to the slowing of the conduction velocity in the region of ischemia. This mechanism has been tested by Watanabe et al by infusing sodium channel blockers into the left anterior descending artery in dogs. In their study, 60 unipolar ECGs were recorded from the entire

  17. Blazars: Artist Conception

    NASA Image and Video Library

    What astronomers once thought were two blazar families may in fact be one, as shown in this artist's concept. Energy stored in the black hole during its salad days of intense accretion may later be...

  18. VARIABILITY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM BLAZARS ON BLACK HOLE TIMESCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Vovk, Ie.; Neronov, A.

    2013-04-20

    We investigate the variability properties of blazars in the GeV band using data from the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) telescope. We find that blazars exhibit variability down to the minimum timescale resolvable by Fermi; this variability is a function of the peak photon count rate in the LAT. This implies that the real minimum variability timescales for the majority of blazars are typically shorter than those resolvable by the LAT. We find that for several blazars these minimum variability timescales reach those associated with the blazar central engine, the supermassive black hole. At the same time, none of the blazars exhibits variability on a timescale shorter than the black hole horizon light-crossing time and/or the period of rotation around the last stable circular orbit. Based on this fact, we argue that the timing properties of the {gamma}-ray signal could be determined by the processes in the direct vicinity of the supermassive black hole.

  19. Core shift effect in blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, A.; Mohan, P.; Gupta, Alok C.; Mangalam, A.; Volvach, A. E.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Gu, M. F.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Volvach, L. N.

    2017-07-01

    We studied the pc-scale core shift effect using radio light curves for three blazars, S5 0716+714, 3C 279 and BL Lacertae, which were monitored at five frequencies (ν) between 4.8 and 36.8 GHz using the University of Michigan Radio Astronomical Observatory (UMRAO), the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and Metsähovi Radio Observatory for over 40 yr. Flares were Gaussian fitted to derive time delays between observed frequencies for each flare (Δt), peak amplitude (A) and their half width. Using A ∝ να, we infer α in the range of -16.67-2.41 and using Δ t ∝ ν ^{1/k_r}, we infer kr ∼ 1, employed in the context of equipartition between magnetic and kinetic energy density for parameter estimation. From the estimated core position offset (Ωrν) and the core radius (rcore), we infer that opacity model may not be valid in all cases. The mean magnetic field strengths at 1 pc (B1) and at the core (Bcore) are in agreement with previous estimates. We apply the magnetically arrested disc model to estimate black hole spins in the range of 0.15-0.9 for these blazars, indicating that the model is consistent with expected accretion mode in such sources. The power-law-shaped power spectral density has slopes -1.3 to -2.3 and is interpreted in terms of multiple shocks or magnetic instabilities.

  20. Blazar Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-24

    Black-hole-powered galaxies called blazars are the most common sources detected by NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. As matter falls toward the supermassive black hole at the galaxy's center, some of it is accelerated outward at nearly the speed of light along jets pointed in opposite directions. When one of the jets happens to be aimed in the direction of Earth, as illustrated here, the galaxy appears especially bright and is classified as a blazar. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20912

  1. From the Blazar Sequence to the Blazar Envelope: Revisiting the Relativistic Jet Dichotomy in Radio-Loud AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Eileen T.; Fossati, Giovanini; Georganopoulos, Markos; Lister, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the concept of a blazar sequence that relates the synchrotron peak frequency (Vpeak) in blazars with synchrotron peak luminosity (Lpeak, in vLv) using a large sample of radio-loud AGN. We present observational evidence that the blazar sequence is formed from two populations in the synchrotron Vpeak - Lpeak plane, each forming an upper edge to an envelope of progressively misaligned blazars, and connecting to an adjacent group of radio galaxies having jets viewed at much larger angles to the line of sight. When binned by jet kinetic power (Lkin; as measured through a scaling relationship with extended radio power), we find that radio core dominance decreases with decreasing synchrotron Lpeak, revealing that sources in the envelope are generally more misaligned. We find population-based evidence of velocity gradients in jets at low kinetic powers (approximately 10(exp 42) - 10(exp 44.5) erg s(exp -1)), corresponding to FR I radio galaxies and most BL Lacs. These low jet power 'weak jet' sources, thought to exhibit radiatively inefficient accretion, are distinguished from the population of non-decelerating, low synchrotron-peaking (LSP) blazars and FR II radio galaxies ('strong' jets) which are thought to exhibit radiatively efficient accretion. The two-population interpretation explains the apparent contradiction of the existence of highly core-dominated, low-power blazars at both low and high synchrotron peak frequencies, and further implies that most intermediate synchrotron peak (ISP) sources are not intermediate in intrinsic jet power between LSP and high synchrotron-peaking (HSP) sources, but are more misaligned versions of HSP sources with similar jet powers.

  2. ATCA follow-up of blazar candidates in the H-ATLAS fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massardi, Marcella; Ricci, Roberto; de Zotti, Gianfranco; White, Glenn; Michalowski, Michal; Ivison, Rob; Baes, Maarten; Lapi, Andrea; Temi, Pasquale; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Herranz, Diego; Seymour, Nick; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; Bonavera, Laura; Negrello, Mattia

    2012-04-01

    The Herschel-ATLAS (H-ATLAS) survey that is covering 550 sq.deg. in 5 bands from 100 to 500 micron, allows for the first time a flux limited selection of blazars at sub-mm wavelengths. This wavelength range is particularly interesting because it is where the most luminous blazars are expected to show the synchrotron peak. The peak frequency and luminosity carry key information on the blazar physics. However, blazars constitute a tiny fraction of H-ATLAS sources and therefore picking them up isn't easy. A criterion to efficiently select candidate blazars exploiting the roughly flat blazar continuum spectrum from radio to sub-mm wavelengths has been devised by Lopez-Caniego et al. (in prep.). Multifrequency radio follow-up is however a necessary step to assess the nature of candidates. We propose to complete the validation of candidates in the H-ATLAS equatorial fields (partly done during few hours of ATCA DDT allocated time and with Medicina radiotelescope observations) and to extend the investigation to the Southern (SGP) fields reconstructing the blazars SED between 1.1 and 40 GHz. This will provide the first statistically significant blazar sample selected at sub-mm wavelengths.

  3. [Principals of high frequency surgery].

    PubMed

    Bergler, W F; Hörmann, K; Hammerschmitt, N; Huber, K

    2004-10-01

    Electrosurgical instruments are routinely and daily applied at a variety of indications in Otorhinolaryngology. They can be used for cutting, coagulation and devitalisation. All have in common that the high frequency energy is transported into the tissue via an instrument and by this causes a thermal change. Depending on the duration and characteristic of the electricity a vaporisation of the tissue is effected through coagulation, devitalisation and carbonisation. The knowledge of the effects on the tissue by the choice of the different instrument parameters and application systems is essential for an ingenious therapeutically indication. In principal the following application methods for electrosurgery by modulation of the high frequency parameters are distinguished: the monopolar and the bipolar coagulation and devitalisation and the monopolar and the bipolar cutting. This article deals with the physical basis, the effects in the tissue as well as the single application methods of the high frequency surgery.

  4. Catching blazars in the act exlamation GLAST triggers for TeV observation of blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Behera, Bagmeet; Wagner, Stefan J.

    2008-12-24

    The double humped SED (Spectral Energy Distribution) of blazars, and their flaring phenomena can be explained by various leptonic and hadronic models. However, accurate modeling of the high frequency component and clear identification of the correct emission mechanism would require simultaneous measurements in both the MeV-GeV band and the TeV band. Due to the differences in the sensitivity and the field of view of the instruments required to do these measurements, it is essential to identify active states of blazars likely to be detected with TeV instruments.Using a reasonable intergalactic attenuation model, various extrapolations of the EGRET spectra, as a proxy for GLAST (Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope) measurements, are made into TeV energies for selecting EGRET blazars expected to be VHE-bright. Furthermore, estimates of the threshold fluxes at GLAST energies are provided, at which sources are expected to be detectable at TeV energies, with Cherenkov telescopes like HESS, MAGIC or VERITAS.

  5. Binaural beats at high frequencies.

    PubMed

    McFadden, D; Pasanen, E G

    1975-10-24

    Binaural beats have long been believed to be audible only at low frequencies, but an interaction reminiscent of a binaural beat can sometimes be heard when different two-tone complexes of high frequency are presented to the two ears. The primary requirement is that the frequency separation in the complex at one ear be slightly different from that in the other--that is, that there be a small interaural difference in the envelope periodicities. This finding is in accord with other recent demonstrations that the auditory system is not deaf to interaural time differences at high frequencies.

  6. High-frequency broadband transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    London, S. E.; Tomashevich, S. V.

    1981-05-01

    A systematic review of the theory and design principles of high-frequency broadband transformers is presented. It is shown that the transformers of highest performance are those whose coils consist of strips of double-wire and multiwire transmission lines. Such devices are characterized by a wide operating frequency range, and make possible operation at microwave frequencies at high levels of transmitted power.

  7. High frequency integrated MOS filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, C.

    1990-01-01

    Several techniques exist for implementing integrated MOS filters. These techniques fit into the general categories of sampled and tuned continuous-time filters. Advantages and limitations of each approach are discussed. This paper focuses primarily on the high frequency capabilities of MOS integrated filters.

  8. OSSE Observations of Blazars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    directly down a relativistically out owing jet of matter expelled from a supermassive black hole . Many of the current theoretical interpretations of...these results indicate that the gamma rays are associated with jet activity near a supermassive back hole , but the origin of the gamma radia- tion is...standard model for blazar sources involves a black - hole accretion disk with colli- mated jets that are oriented at nearly right angles to the plane of

  9. Gamma-Ray Blazars within the First 2 Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Conrad, J.; Costantin, D.; Costanza, F.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Lalla, N.; Di Mauro, M.; Di Venere, L.; Domínguez, A.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Finke, J.; Focke, W. B.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Green, D.; Grenier, I. A.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hartmann, D. H.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kuss, M.; La Mura, G.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J. D.; Maldera, S.; Manfreda, A.; Marcotulli, L.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mirabal, N.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Negro, M.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Ojha, R.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paliya, V. S.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Persic, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Principe, G.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Rani, B.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Romani, R. W.; Sgrò, C.; Simone, D.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stalin, C. S.; Stawarz, L.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, M.; Tanaka, K.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Torres, D. F.; Torresi, E.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Wood, K. S.

    2017-03-01

    The detection of high-redshift (z > 3) blazars enables the study of the evolution of the most luminous relativistic jets over cosmic time. More importantly, high-redshift blazars tend to host massive black holes and can be used to constrain the space density of heavy black holes in the early universe. Here, we report the first detection with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope of five γ-ray-emitting blazars beyond z = 3.1, more distant than any blazars previously detected in γ-rays. Among these five objects, NVSS J151002+570243 is now the most distant known γ-ray-emitting blazar at z = 4.31. These objects have steeply falling γ-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and those that have been observed in X-rays have a very hard X-ray spectrum, both typical of powerful blazars. Their Compton dominance (ratio of the inverse Compton to synchrotron peak luminosities) is also very large (> 20). All of these properties place these objects among the most extreme members of the blazar population. Their optical spectra and the modeling of their optical-UV SEDs confirm that these objects harbor massive black holes ({M}{BH}˜ {10}8-10 {M}⊙ ). We find that, at z≈ 4, the space density of > {10}9 {M}⊙ black holes hosted in radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei are similar, implying that radio-loudness may play a key role in rapid black hole growth in the early universe.

  10. Gamma-ray blazars within the first 2 billion years

    DOE PAGES

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; ...

    2017-02-27

    Here, the detection of high-redshift (more » $$z\\,\\gt 3$$) blazars enables the study of the evolution of the most luminous relativistic jets over cosmic time. More importantly, high-redshift blazars tend to host massive black holes and can be used to constrain the space density of heavy black holes in the early universe. Here, we report the first detection with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope of five γ-ray-emitting blazars beyond z = 3.1, more distant than any blazars previously detected in γ-rays. Among these five objects, NVSS J151002+570243 is now the most distant known γ-ray-emitting blazar at z = 4.31. These objects have steeply falling γ-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and those that have been observed in X-rays have a very hard X-ray spectrum, both typical of powerful blazars. Their Compton dominance (ratio of the inverse Compton to synchrotron peak luminosities) is also very large ($$\\gt 20$$). All of these properties place these objects among the most extreme members of the blazar population. Their optical spectra and the modeling of their optical-UV SEDs confirm that these objects harbor massive black holes ($${M}_{\\mathrm{BH}}\\sim {10}^{8-10}\\,{M}_{\\odot }$$). We find that, at $$z\\approx 4$$, the space density of $$\\gt {10}^{9}\\,{M}_{\\odot }$$ black holes hosted in radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei are similar, implying that radio-loudness may play a key role in rapid black hole growth in the early universe.« less

  11. High-Frequency Channel Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-30

    High-Frequency Channel Characterization Michael B. Porter, Paul Hursky, Martin Siderius Heat , Light, and Sound Research, Inc. 12730 High...Physical Sciences (Bruce Abraham) • Arizona State University (Tolga Duman, Subhadeep Roy) • Heat , Light, and Sound Research, Inc.(M. Porter, A. Abawi, P...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Heat , Light, and Sound Research, Inc,12730 High

  12. Initial Blazar Studies with the CELESTE Cherenkov Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münz, F.

    1999-08-01

    CELESTE began systematic blazar observations in March 1999 with a 40-heliostat array at the site of the solar array at Themis in the French Pyrenees. Data is recorded using 1 GHz Flash ADC's which allow faint Cherenkov pulses to be measured. The hybrid analog-logic trigger scheme provides good hadron rejection and high efficiency for low-energy showers. A trigger threshold below 50 GeV allows CELESTE to probe the region near the peak of the inverse compton spectrum observed in many blazars. In this first observation campaign we are concentrating on Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and 1ES 1426+428.

  13. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    DOE PAGES

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D’Abrusco, R.; ...

    2016-04-01

    Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. In this paper, we characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. We cross-correlated the 6100 deg2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detected bymore » Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120–180 MHz) blazar spectral index is (αlow) = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Finally, upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population.« less

  14. Variability-Based Identifications of Blazar Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Tim; Djorgovski, S.; Glikman, E.; Mahabal, A.; Nugent, P.

    2009-01-01

    We present initial results of a study exploring the feasibility of blazar identification by optical variability alone. Using multi-epoch data from the Palomar-Quest survey, supplemented by the data from the JPL NEAT team processed at the LBNL Nearby Supernova Factory, we investigate the optical variability in the fields of a sample of WMAP point sources, all of which we assume to be blazars. Most of these sources have previously reported radio counterparts. In 10 arcmin fields around each of these objects, we find that in about half the cases, these purported WMAP point source IDs are the most variable objects. We suggest that IDs with low variability may be mis-identifications, and propose several alternate IDs selected on the basis of higher variability, which will be targets for future spectroscopic study. We also present potential IDs for previously unidentified WMAP sources. Understanding the variability of high-frequency radio sources will be important for the interpretation of the cosmological CMBR measurements at high angular frequencies. Moreover, since the positional uncertainties of WMAP sources are similar to those expected for the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, we conclude that optical variability selection will be a useful tool in correctly identifying optical counterparts to previously unknown Fermi point sources.

  15. An innovative blazar classification based on radio jet kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervet, O.; Boisson, C.; Sol, H.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Blazars are usually classified following their synchrotron peak frequency (νF(ν) scale) as high, intermediate, low frequency peaked BL Lacs (HBLs, IBLs, LBLs), and flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), or, according to their radio morphology at large scale, FR I or FR II. However, the diversity of blazars is such that these classes seem insufficient to chart the specific properties of each source. Aims: We propose to classify a wide sample of blazars following the kinematic features of their radio jets seen in very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). Methods: For this purpose we use public data from the MOJAVE collaboration in which we select a sample of blazars with known redshift and sufficient monitoring to constrain apparent velocities. We selected 161 blazars from a sample of 200 sources. We identify three distinct classes of VLBI jets depending on radio knot kinematics: class I with quasi-stationary knots, class II with knots in relativistic motion from the radio core, and class I/II, intermediate, showing quasi-stationary knots at the jet base and relativistic motions downstream. Results: A notable result is the good overlap of this kinematic classification with the usual spectral classification; class I corresponds to HBLs, class II to FSRQs, and class I/II to IBLs/LBLs. We deepen this study by characterizing the physical parameters of jets from VLBI radio data. Hence we focus on the singular case of the class I/II by the study of the blazar BL Lac itself. Finally we show how the interpretation that radio knots are recollimation shocks is fully appropriate to describe the characteristics of these three classes.

  16. External Compton Scattering in Blazar Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, Justin

    2017-08-01

    In many low-peaked blazars, especially flat spectrum radio quasars, it is thought that the gamma-rays are produced through the Compton scattering of seed photons external to the jet, most likely from the broad line region and dust torus. I will present detailed, realistic models of broad line regions and dust tori, useful for computation of Compton scattering. I will discuss the location of the gamma-ray emitting region in the context of Compton-scattering of these seed radiation fields.

  17. Observations of low and intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lacs above 100 GeV with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errando, M.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the ~ 50 blazars detected to date at TeV energies (E > 0.1 TeV) are high-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs). Only a handful episodic detections of low- and intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (LBL/IBLs, with synchrotron peak frequencies in the infrared and optical regime) have been reported by ground-based gamma-ray telescopes, typically during high-flux states. The VERITAS array located in southern Arizona has observed five known TeV LBL/IBLs since 2009: 3C 66A, WComae, PKS 1424+240, S5 0716+714 and BL Lacertae, with exposures of 5-10 hours/year, which so far resulted in the detection of a bright, sub-hour timescale gamma-ray flare of BL Lacertae in June 2011. We also report the detection and characterization of two new IBLs: VER J0521+211 and B2 1215+30.

  18. High frequency power distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Mikund R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this project was to provide the technology of high frequency, high power transmission lines to the 100 kW power range at 20 kHz frequency. In addition to the necessary design studies, a 150 m long, 600 V, 60 A transmission line was built, tested and delivered for full vacuum tests. The configuration analysis on five alternative configurations resulted in the final selection of the three parallel Litz straps configuration, which gave a virtually concentric design in the electromagnetic sense. Low inductance, low EMI and flexibility in handling are the key features of this configuration. The final design was made after a parametric study to minimize the losses, weight and inductance. The construction of the cable was completed with no major difficulties. The R,L,C parameters measured on the cable agreed well with the calculated values. The corona tests on insulation samples showed a safety factor of 3.

  19. High frequency power distribution system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mikund R.

    1986-04-01

    The objective of this project was to provide the technology of high frequency, high power transmission lines to the 100 kW power range at 20 kHz frequency. In addition to the necessary design studies, a 150 m long, 600 V, 60 A transmission line was built, tested and delivered for full vacuum tests. The configuration analysis on five alternative configurations resulted in the final selection of the three parallel Litz straps configuration, which gave a virtually concentric design in the electromagnetic sense. Low inductance, low EMI and flexibility in handling are the key features of this configuration. The final design was made after a parametric study to minimize the losses, weight and inductance. The construction of the cable was completed with no major difficulties. The R,L,C parameters measured on the cable agreed well with the calculated values. The corona tests on insulation samples showed a safety factor of 3.

  20. A model for periodic blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobacchi, Emanuele; Sormani, Mattia C.; Stamerra, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    We describe a scenario to explain blazar periodicities with time-scales of ˜ few years. The scenario is based on a binary supermassive black hole (SMBH) system in which one of the two SMBHs carries a jet. We discuss the various mechanisms that can cause the jet to precess and produce corkscrew patterns through space with a scale of ˜ few pc. It turns out that the dominant mechanism responsible for the precession is simply the imprint of the jet-carrying SMBH orbital speed on the jet. Gravitational deflection and Lense-Thirring precession (due to the gravitational field of the other SMBH) are second-order effects. We complement the scenario with a kinematical jet model which is inspired to the spine-sheath structure observed in M87. One of the main advantages of such a structure is that it allows the peak of the synchrotron emission to scale with frequency according to νF ∝ νξ as the viewing angle is changed, where ξ is not necessarily 3 or 4 as in the case of jets with uniform velocity, but can be ξ ˜ 1. Finally, we apply the model to the source PG1553+113, which has been recently claimed to show a Tobs = (2.18 ± 0.08) yr periodicity. We are able to reproduce the optical and gamma-ray light curves and multiple synchrotron spectra simultaneously. We also give estimates of the source mass and size.

  1. High-frequency resonant-tunneling oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. R.; Parker, C. D.; Calawa, A. R.; Manfra, M. J.; Chen, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in high-frequency resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) oscillators are described. Oscillations up to a frequency of 420 GHz have been achieved in the GaAs/AlAs system. Recent results obtained with In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs and InAs/AlSb RTDs show a greatly increased power density and indicate the potential for fundamental oscillations up to about 1 THz. These results are consistent with a lumped-element equivalent circuit model of the RTD. The model shows that the maximum oscillation frequency of the GaAs/AlAs RTDs is limited primarily by series resistance, and that the power density is limited by low peak-to-valley current ratio.

  2. Polarization swings in blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Kravchenko, Evgeniya V.

    2017-06-01

    We present a model of blazar variability that can both reproduce smooth large polarization angle swings and at the same time allow for the seemingly random behaviour of synchrotron fluxes, polarization fraction and, occasionally, π/2 polarization jumps. We associate the blazar flaring activity with a jet carrying helical magnetic fields and propagating along a variable direction (and possibly with a changing bulk Lorentz factor). The model predicts that for various jet trajectories (i) electric vector position angle (EVPA) can experience large smooth temporal variations, while at the same time polarization fraction (Π) can be highly variable; (ii) Π ∼ 0 near sudden EVPA jumps of 90°, but can also remain constant for large, smoother EVPA swings; (iii) the total angle of EVPA rotation can be arbitrarily large; and (iv) intensity I is usually maximal at points of fastest EVPA changes, but can have a minimum. Thus, even for a regular, deterministic motion of a steadily emitting jet, the observed properties can vary in a non-monotonic and/or seemingly stochastic way. Intrinsic fluctuations of the emissivity will further complicate the intensity profiles, but are expected to preserve the polarization structure.

  3. Synchrotron Polarization in Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Chen, Xuhui; Böttcher, Markus

    2014-07-01

    We present a detailed analysis of time- and energy-dependent synchrotron polarization signatures in a shock-in-jet model for γ-ray blazars. Our calculations employ a full three-dimensional radiation transfer code, assuming a helical magnetic field throughout the jet. The code considers synchrotron emission from an ordered magnetic field, and takes into account all light-travel-time and other relevant geometric effects, while the relevant synchrotron self-Compton and external Compton effects are handled with the two-dimensional Monte-Carlo/Fokker-Planck (MCFP) code. We consider several possible mechanisms through which a relativistic shock propagating through the jet may affect the jet plasma to produce a synchrotron and high-energy flare. Most plausibly, the shock is expected to lead to a compression of the magnetic field, increasing the toroidal field component and thereby changing the direction of the magnetic field in the region affected by the shock. We find that such a scenario leads to correlated synchrotron + synchrotron-self-Compton flaring, associated with substantial variability in the synchrotron polarization percentage and position angle. Most importantly, this scenario naturally explains large polarization angle rotations by >~ 180°, as observed in connection with γ-ray flares in several blazars, without the need for bent or helical jet trajectories or other nonaxisymmetric jet features.

  4. The intrinsic γ-ray emissions of Fermi blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chao; Fan, Jun-Hui; Xiao, Hu-Bing

    2017-07-01

    The beaming effect is important for understanding the observational properties of blazars. In this work, we collect 91 Fermi blazars with available radio Doppler factors. γ-ray Doppler factors are estimated and compared with radio Doppler factors for some sources. The intrinsic (de-beamed) γ-ray flux density ({f}γ {{in}}), intrinsic γ-ray luminosity ({L}γ {{in}}) and intrinsic synchrotron peak frequency ({v}{{p}}{{in}}) are calculated. Then we study the correlations between {f}γ {{in}} and redshift and find that they follow the theoretical relation: {log} f=-2.0 {log} z+{{const}}. When the subclasses are considered, we find that stationary jets are perhaps dominant in low synchrotron peaked blazars. Sixty-three Fermi blazars with both available short variability time scales ({{Δ }}T) and Doppler factors are also collected. We find that the intrinsic relationship between {L}γ {{in}} and {{Δ }}{T}{{in}} obeys the Elliot & Shapiro and Abramowicz & Nobili relations. Strong positive correlation between {f}γ {{in}} and {v}{{p}}{{in}} is found, suggesting that synchrotron emissions are highly correlated with γ-ray emissions.

  5. High-redshift Blazars through NuSTAR Eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotulli, L.; Paliya, V. S.; Ajello, M.; Kaur, A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Gasparrini, D.; Greiner, J.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Baloković, M.; Stern, D.; Madejski, G.

    2017-04-01

    The most powerful sources among the blazar family are MeV blazars. Often detected at z > 2, they usually display high X- and γ-ray luminosities, larger-than-average jet powers, and black hole masses ≳109 M ⊙. In the present work, we perform a multiwavelength study of three high-redshift blazars: 3FGL J0325.5+2223 (z = 2.06), 3FGL J0449.0+1121 (z = 2.15), and 3FGL J0453.2-2808 (z = 2.56), analyzing quasi-simultaneous data from GROND, Swift-UVOT and XRT, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), and Fermi-LAT. Our main focus is on the hard X-ray band recently unveiled by NuSTAR (3-79 keV) where these objects show a hard spectrum that enables us to constrain the inverse Compton (IC) peak and the jet power. We found that all three targets resemble the most powerful blazars, with the synchrotron peak located in the submillimeter range and the IC peak in the MeV range, and therefore belong to the MeV blazar class. Using a simple one-zone leptonic emission model to reproduce the spectral energy distributions, we conclude that a simple combination of synchrotron and accretion disk emission reproduces the infrared-optical spectra, while the X-ray to γ-ray part is well reproduced by the IC scattering of low-energy photons supplied by the broad-line region. The black hole masses for each of the three sources are calculated to be ≳4 × 108 M ⊙. The three studied sources have jet power at the level of, or beyond, the accretion luminosity.

  6. High-redshift Blazars through NuSTAR eyes

    DOE PAGES

    Marcotulli, L.; Paliya, V. S.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2017-04-20

    The most powerful sources among the blazar family are MeV blazars. Often detected at z > 2, they usually display high X- and γ-ray luminosities, larger-than-average jet powers, and black hole masses ≳109 M⊙. In the present work, we perform a multiwavelength study of three high-redshift blazars: 3FGL J0325.5+2223 (z = 2.06), 3FGL J0449.0+1121 (z = 2.15), and 3FGL J0453.2–2808 (z = 2.56), analyzing quasi-simultaneous data from GROND, Swift-UVOT and XRT, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), and Fermi-LAT. Our main focus is on the hard X-ray band recently unveiled by NuSTAR (3–79 keV) where these objects show a hard spectrummore » that enables us to constrain the inverse Compton (IC) peak and the jet power. We found that all three targets resemble the most powerful blazars, with the synchrotron peak located in the submillimeter range and the IC peak in the MeV range, and therefore belong to the MeV blazar class. Using a simple one-zone leptonic emission model to reproduce the spectral energy distributions, we conclude that a simple combination of synchrotron and accretion disk emission reproduces the infrared–optical spectra, while the X-ray to γ-ray part is well reproduced by the IC scattering of low-energy photons supplied by the broad-line region. The black hole masses for each of the three sources are calculated to be ≳4 × 108 M⊙. Finally, the three studied sources have jet power at the level of, or beyond, the accretion luminosity.« less

  7. THE SPECTRAL INDEX PROPERTIES OF FERMI BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, J. H.; Yang, J. H.; Yuan, Y. H.; Wang, J.; Gao, Y.

    2012-12-20

    In this paper, a sample of 451 blazars (193 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), 258 BL Lacertae objects) with corresponding X-ray and Fermi {gamma}-ray data is compiled to investigate the correlation both between the X-ray spectral index and the {gamma}-ray spectral index and between the spectral index and the luminosity, and to compare the spectral indexes {alpha}{sub X}, {alpha}{sub {gamma}}, {alpha}{sub X{gamma}}, and {alpha}{sub {gamma}X{gamma}} for different subclasses. We also investigated the correlation between the X-ray and the {gamma}-ray luminosity. The following results have been obtained. Our analysis indicates that an anti-correlation exists between the X-ray and the {gamma}-ray spectral indexes for the whole sample. However, when we considered the subclasses of blazars (FSRQs, the low-peaked BL Lacertae objects (LBLs) and the high-peaked BL Lacertae objects (HBLs)) separately, there is not a clear relationship for each subclass. Based on the Fermi-detected sources, we can say that the HBLs are different from FSRQs, while the LBLs are similar to FSRQs.

  8. High Frequency Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qing Zhe; Daviso, Eugenio; Can, Thach V.; Markhasin, Evgeny; Jawla, Sudheer K.; Swager, Timothy M.; Temkin, Richard J.; Herzfeld, Judith; Griffin, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Conspectus During the three decades 1980–2010, magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR developed into the method of choice to examine many chemical, physical and biological problems. In particular, a variety of dipolar recoupling methods to measure distances and torsion angles can now constrain molecular structures to high resolution. However, applications are often limited by the low sensitivity of the experiments, due in large part to the necessity of observing spectra of low-γ nuclei such as the I = ½ species 13C or 15N. The difficulty is still greater when quadrupolar nuclei, like 17O or 27Al, are involved. This problem has stimulated efforts to increase the sensitivity of MAS experiments. A particularly powerful approach is dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) which takes advantage of the higher equilibrium polarization of electrons (which conventionally manifests in the great sensitivity advantage of EPR over NMR). In DNP, the sample is doped with a stable paramagnetic polarizing agent and irradiated with microwaves to transfer the high polarization in the electron spin reservoir to the nuclei of interest. The idea was first explored by Overhauser and Slichter in 1953. However, these experiments were carried out on static samples, at magnetic fields that are low by current standards. To be implemented in contemporary MAS NMR experiments, DNP requires microwave sources operating in the subterahertz regime — roughly 150–660 GHz — and cryogenic MAS probes. In addition, improvements were required in the polarizing agents, because the high concentrations of conventional radicals that are required to produce significant enhancements compromise spectral resolution. In the last two decades scientific and technical advances have addressed these problems and brought DNP to the point where it is achieving wide applicability. These advances include the development of high frequency gyrotron microwave sources operating in the subterahertz frequency range. In addition, low

  9. Amplifying High Frequency Acoustic Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, C

    2004-02-05

    In search of the hypothetical Higgs boson, a prototype electron accelerator structure has been developed for use in the Next Linear Collider (NLC), SLAC's proposed version of the machine necessary to create the predicted particle. The Next Linear Test Accelerator (NLCTA), designed to provide O.5GeV-lTeV center-of-mass collision energy, generates electromagnetic breakdowns inside its copper structure while the beam is running. The sparks vaporize the surface of the copper, and will eventually ruin the accelerator. They also create high-frequency (hf) acoustic signals (100 kHz-1 MHz). Acoustic sensors have been placed on the structure, however current knowledge regarding sound propagation in copper limits spark location to within one centimeter. A system was needed that simulates the sparks so further study of acoustic propagation can be pursued; the goal is locate them to within one millimeter. Various tests were done in order to identify an appropriate hf signal source, and to identify appropriate acoustic sensors to use. A high-voltage spark generator and the same sensors used on the actual structure proved most useful for the system. Two high-pass filters were also fabricated in order to measure signals that might be created above 2MHz. The 11-gain filter was used on the acoustic simulation system that was developed, and the 100-gain filter will be used on the NLCTA.

  10. High Frequency Linacs for Hadrontherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaldi, Ugo; Braccini, Saverio; Puggioni, Paolo

    The use of radiofrequency linacs for hadrontherapy was proposed about 20 years ago, but only recently has it been understood that the high repetition rate together with the possibility of very rapid energy variations offers an optimal solution to the present challenge of hadrontherapy: "paint" a moving tumor target in three dimensions with a pencil beam. Moreover, the fact that the energy, and thus the particle range, can be electronically adjusted implies that no absorber-based energy selection system is needed, which, in the case of cyclotron-based centers, is the cause of material activation. On the other side, a linac consumes less power than a synchrotron. The first part of this article describes the main advantages of high frequency linacs in hadrontherapy, the early design studies, and the construction and test of the first high-gradient prototype which accelerated protons. The second part illustrates some technical issues relevant to the design of copper standing wave accelerators, the present developments, and two designs of linac-based proton and carbon ion facilities. Superconductive linacs are not discussed, since nanoampere currents are sufficient for therapy. In the last two sections, a comparison with circular accelerators and an overview of future projects are presented.

  11. High-Frequency Inductor Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, L. K.

    2014-01-01

    The Finemet-type nanocrystalline alloy represents an advanced soft-magnetic metal-metal-type nanocomposite with an eddy-current-determined high- frequency limit. A survey of different heat treatments under tensile stress is presented to tailor the hysteresis loop by induced transversal anisotropy. The flattened loop having reduced effective permeability enhances the eddy- current limit in the MHz region; For example, continuous stress annealing in a tubular furnace of 1 m length at 650°C, pulling the ribbon with a velocity of 4 m/min under a tensile stress of 200 MPa, results in a wound core having a permeability of 120 and a frequency limit of 10 MHz. Careful annealing preserves the static coercivity below 10 A/m. The power loss at 0.1 T and 100 kHz is only 82 mW/cm3, which is an order of magnitude lower then the values obtained for Sendust™ cores in similar conditions.

  12. Rapid optical variability of TeV blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal-Krishna; Goyal, Arti; Joshi, S.; Karthick, Chrisphin; Sagar, R.; Wiita, Paul J.; Anupama, G. C.; Sahu, D. K.

    2011-09-01

    In this first systematic attempt to characterize the intranight optical variability (INOV) of TeV-detected blazars, we have monitored a well-defined set of nine TeV blazars on total 26 nights during 2004-10. In this R- or V-band-monitoring programme only one blazar was monitored per night and the minimum duration was close to 4 h, the average being 5.3 h per night. Using the CCD for strictly simultaneous photometry of the blazar and nearby reference stars (N-star photometry), an INOV detection threshold of ˜1-2 per cent was achieved in the densely sampled differential light curves derived from our data. We have further expanded the sample by including another 13 TeV blazars, taking advantage of the availability in the literature of INOV data, including those published earlier in our programme. The selection criteria for this set of 13 blazars conform to the basic criteria we had adopted for the first set of nine blazars we have monitored presently. This enlarged, well-defined representative sample of 22 TeV blazars, monitored on a total of 116 nights (including 55 nights newly reported here), has enabled us to arrive at the first estimate of the INOV duty cycle (DC) of TeV-detected blazars. Applying the conservative, but commonly employed, C-test, the INOV DC is found to be 59 per cent, which decreases to 47 per cent if only INOV fractional amplitudes (ψ) above 3 per cent are considered. These observations also permit, for the first time, a comparison of the INOV characteristics of the two major subclasses of TeV-detected BL Lac objects, namely low-peaked BL Lac objects (LBLs) and high-peaked BL Lac objects (HBLs), for which we find the INOV DCs to be ˜63 and 38 per cent, respectively. This demonstrates that the previously recognized INOV differential between LBLs and HBLs persists even when only their TeV-detected subsets are considered. Despite dense sampling, the intranight light curves of the 22 TeV blazars have not revealed even a single feature on time

  13. High frequency-heated air turbojet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miron, J. H. D.

    1986-01-01

    A description is given of a method to heat air coming from a turbojet compressor to a temperature necessary to produce required expansion without requiring fuel. This is done by high frequency heating, which heats the walls corresponding to the combustion chamber in existing jets, by mounting high frequency coils in them. The current transformer and high frequency generator to be used are discussed.

  14. Effects of interelectrode gap on high frequency and very high frequency capacitively coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, Kallol; Rauf, Shahid; Ramaswamy, Kartik; Collins, Ken

    2009-07-15

    Capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) discharges using high frequency (HF) and very high frequency (VHF) sources are widely used for dielectric etching in the semiconductor industry. A two-dimensional fluid plasma model is used to investigate the effects of interelectrode gap on plasma spatial characteristics of both HF and VHF CCPs. The plasma model includes the full set of Maxwell's equations in their potential formulation. The peak in plasma density is close to the electrode edge at 13.5 MHz for a small interelectrode gap. This is due to electric field enhancement at the electrode edge. As the gap is increased, the plasma produced at the electrode edge diffuses to the chamber center and the plasma becomes more uniform. At 180 MHz, where electromagnetic standing wave effects are strong, the plasma density peaks at the chamber center at large interelectrode gap. As the interelectrode gap is decreased, the electron density increases near the electrode edge due to inductive heating and electrostatic electron heating, which makes the plasma more uniform in the interelectrode region.

  15. Optical Variability of the Blazar 3C 454.3: Long-term Behavior and the Dramatic 2005 Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balonek, T. J.; Gadway, B.; Mullan, B.; Wortel, S.; Pierkowski, D.; Forsyth, C.

    2006-06-01

    In May of 2005, observations at R, V, and I with the Foggy Bottom Observatory 16-inch Cassegrain reflecting telescope at Colgate University revealed an unprecedented outburst in the blazar type quasar 3C 454.3. At its peak, R 11.9, the blazar was four times brighter than during any previously observed period in our seventeen-year blazar monitoring program. This object had undergone only relatively mild flaring amid low-level optical meandering in the past. The blazar 3C 454.3 exhibits a variety of variability timescales (from hours to years) in which there is a discernible correlation between the brightness and optical color indices. A two-component model (with distinct variable and non-variable components) to the blazar optical variations can account for the general trends seen in the color (spectral index) and brightness variations.

  16. Multiwavelength Observations Of The Previously Unidentified Blazar RX J0648.7+1516

    DOE PAGES

    Aliu, E.

    2011-11-15

    We report on the VERITAS discovery of very-high-energy (VHE) gammaray emission above 200 GeV from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object RXJ0648.7+1516 (GBJ0648+1516), associated with 1FGL J0648.8+1516. The photon spectrum above 200 GeV is fit by a power law dN/dE = F0(E/E0)-Γ with a photon index Γ of 4.4 ± 0.8stat ± 0.3syst and a flux normalization F0 of (2.3±0.5stat ±1.2sys)×10-11 TeV-1cm-2s-1 with E0 = 300 GeV. No VHE variability is detected during VERITAS observations of RXJ0648.7+1516 between 2010 March 4 and April 15. Following the VHE discovery, the optical identification and spectroscopic redshift were obtained using the Shane 3–m Telescopemore » at the Lick Observatory, showing the unidentified object to be a BL Lac type with a redshift of z = 0.179. Broadband multiwavelength observations contemporaneous with the VERITAS exposure period can be used to sub-classify the blazar as a high-frequency-peaked BL Lac (HBL) object, including data from the MDM observatory, Swift -UVOT and XRT, and continuous monitoring at photon energies above 1 GeV from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We find that in the absence of undetected, high-energy rapid variability, the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model (SSC) overproduces the high-energy gamma-ray emission measured by the Fermi -LAT over 2.3 years. The SED can be parameterized satisfactorily with an external-Compton or lepto-hadronic model, which have two and six additional free parameters, respectively, compared to the one-zone SSC model.« less

  17. High Frequency Chandler Wobble Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, F.; Stuck, J.; Thomas, M.

    2003-04-01

    and OMCT forcing fields give no hint for increased excitation power in the Chandler band. Thus it is assumed, that continuous high frequency excitation due to stochastic weather phenomena is responsible for the perpetuation of the Chandler wobble.

  18. The broadband spectral energy distributions of SDSS blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huai-Zhen; Chen, Luo-En; Jiang, Yun-Guo; Yi, Ting-Feng

    2015-07-01

    We compiled the radio, optical and X-ray data of blazars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database, and presented the distribution of luminosities and broadband spectral indices. The distribution of luminosities shows that the averaged luminosity of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) is larger than that of BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects. On the other hand, the broadband spectral energy distribution reveals that FSRQs and low energy peaked BL Lac objects have similar spectral properties, but high energy peaked BL Lac objects have a distinct spectral property. This may be due to the fact that different subclasses of blazars have different intrinsic environments and are at different cooling levels. Even so, a unified scheme is also revealed from the color-color diagram, which hints that there are similar physical processes operating in all objects under a range of intrinsic physical conditions or beaming parameters. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  19. Quasi-periodicities at Year-like Timescales in Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrinelli, A.; Covino, S.; Dotti, M.; Treves, A.

    2016-03-01

    We searched for quasi-periodicities on year-like timescales in the light curves of six blazars in the optical—near-infrared bands and we made a comparison with the high energy emission. We obtained optical/NIR light curves from Rapid Eye Mounting photometry plus archival Small & Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System data and we accessed the Fermi light curves for the γ-ray data. The periodograms often show strong peaks in the optical and γ-ray bands, which in some cases may be inter-related. The significance of the revealed peaks is then discussed, taking into account that the noise is frequency dependent. Quasi-periodicities on a year-like timescale appear to occur often in blazars. No straightforward model describing these possible periodicities is yet available, but some plausible interpretations for the physical mechanisms causing periodic variabilities of these sources are examined.

  20. QUASI-PERIODICITIES AT YEAR-LIKE TIMESCALES IN BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A.; Covino, S.; Dotti, M.

    2016-03-15

    We searched for quasi-periodicities on year-like timescales in the light curves of six blazars in the optical—near-infrared bands and we made a comparison with the high energy emission. We obtained optical/NIR light curves from Rapid Eye Mounting photometry plus archival Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System data and we accessed the Fermi light curves for the γ-ray data. The periodograms often show strong peaks in the optical and γ-ray bands, which in some cases may be inter-related. The significance of the revealed peaks is then discussed, taking into account that the noise is frequency dependent. Quasi-periodicities on a year-like timescale appear to occur often in blazars. No straightforward model describing these possible periodicities is yet available, but some plausible interpretations for the physical mechanisms causing periodic variabilities of these sources are examined.

  1. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D’Abrusco, R.; Lico, R.; Burlon, D.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Morgan, J.; Pavlidou, V.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bhat, R.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; Ewall-Rice, A.; Emrich, D.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kratzenberg, E.; Feng, L.; Jacobs, D.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2016-04-01

    Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. In this paper, we characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. We cross-correlated the 6100 deg2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detected by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120–180 MHz) blazar spectral index is (αlow) = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Finally, upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population.

  2. Disentangling Hadronic and Leptonic Cascade Scenarios from the Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission of Distant Hard-Spectrum Blazars

    DOE PAGES

    Takami, Hajime; Murase, Kohta; Dermer, Charles D.

    2013-06-26

    We show that recent data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope have revealed about a dozen distant hard-spectrum blazars that have very-high-energy (VHE; ≳ 100 eV) photons associated with them, but most of them have not yet been detected by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. Most of these high-energy gamma-ray spectra, like those of other extreme high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects, can be well explained either by gamma rays emitted at the source or by cascades induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, as we show specifically for KUV 00311–1938. We consider the prospects for detection of the VHE sources by the plannedmore » Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and show how it can distinguish the two scenarios by measuring the integrated flux above ~500 GeV (depending on source redshift) for several luminous sources with z ≲ 1 in the sample. Strong evidence for the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays could be obtained from VHE observations with CTA. Depending on redshift, if the often quoted redshift of KUV 00311–1938 (z = 0.61) is believed, then preliminary H.E.S.S. data favor cascades induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. Lastly, accurate redshift measurements of hard-spectrum blazars are essential for this study.« less

  3. DISENTANGLING HADRONIC AND LEPTONIC CASCADE SCENARIOS FROM THE VERY-HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION OF DISTANT HARD-SPECTRUM BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, Hajime; Murase, Kohta; Dermer, Charles D. E-mail: murase@ias.edu

    2013-07-10

    Recent data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope have revealed about a dozen distant hard-spectrum blazars that have very-high-energy (VHE; {approx}> 100 GeV) photons associated with them, but most of them have not yet been detected by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. Most of these high-energy gamma-ray spectra, like those of other extreme high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects, can be well explained either by gamma rays emitted at the source or by cascades induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, as we show specifically for KUV 00311-1938. We consider the prospects for detection of the VHE sources by the planned Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and show how it can distinguish the two scenarios by measuring the integrated flux above {approx}500 GeV (depending on source redshift) for several luminous sources with z {approx}< 1 in the sample. Strong evidence for the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays could be obtained from VHE observations with CTA. Depending on redshift, if the often quoted redshift of KUV 00311-1938 (z = 0.61) is believed, then preliminary H.E.S.S. data favor cascades induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. Accurate redshift measurements of hard-spectrum blazars are essential for this study.

  4. Disentangling Hadronic and Leptonic Cascade Scenarios from the Very-High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission of Distant Hard-Spectrum Blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, Hajime; Murase, Kohta; Dermer, Charles D.

    2013-06-26

    We show that recent data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope have revealed about a dozen distant hard-spectrum blazars that have very-high-energy (VHE; ≳ 100 eV) photons associated with them, but most of them have not yet been detected by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. Most of these high-energy gamma-ray spectra, like those of other extreme high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects, can be well explained either by gamma rays emitted at the source or by cascades induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, as we show specifically for KUV 00311–1938. We consider the prospects for detection of the VHE sources by the planned Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and show how it can distinguish the two scenarios by measuring the integrated flux above ~500 GeV (depending on source redshift) for several luminous sources with z ≲ 1 in the sample. Strong evidence for the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays could be obtained from VHE observations with CTA. Depending on redshift, if the often quoted redshift of KUV 00311–1938 (z = 0.61) is believed, then preliminary H.E.S.S. data favor cascades induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. Lastly, accurate redshift measurements of hard-spectrum blazars are essential for this study.

  5. 2WHSP: A multi-frequency selected catalog of VHE gamma-ray blazars and blazar candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu Lin; Arsioli, Bruno; Giommi, Paolo; Padovani, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    High Synchrotron Peaked Blazars (HSPs) are extremely important for VHE astronomy. We built the largest existing catalog of High Synchrotron Blazars (2WHSP) based on multi-frequency data. The catalog is an extension of the 1WHSP list. We compared several general properties of HSPs such as the synchrotron peak, the redshift and IR the color-color diagram. We also built the logN-logS for the sources, trying to see the evolution and the deficiency of the catalog. The catalog will provide a unique sample of targets for VHE observations in future since the HSPs are the dominant extra-Galactic sources in VHE sky. This might help find more VHE sources later. In the future, we will use this catalog to estimate other VHE properties of HSPs.

  6. A three-year multi-wavelength study of the very-high-energy γ-ray blazar 1ES 0229+200

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Behera, B.; Chen, X.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Byrum, K.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J. E-mail: jeremy.s.perkins@nasa.gov; and others

    2014-02-10

    The high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae object 1ES 0229+200 is a relatively distant (z = 0.1396), hard-spectrum (Γ ∼ 2.5), very-high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) emitting γ-ray blazar. VHE measurements of this active galactic nucleus have been used to place constraints on the intensity of the extragalactic background light and the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF). A multi-wavelength study of this object centered around VHE observations by Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) is presented. This study obtained, over a period of three years, an 11.7 standard deviation detection and an average integral flux F(E > 300 GeV) = (23.3 ± 2.8{sub stat} ± 5.8{sub sys}) × 10{sup –9} photons m{sup –2} s{sup –1}, or 1.7% of the Crab Nebula's flux (assuming the Crab Nebula spectrum measured by H.E.S.S). Supporting observations from Swift and RXTE are analyzed. The Swift observations are combined with previously published Fermi observations and the VHE measurements to produce an overall spectral energy distribution which is then modeled assuming one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton emission. The χ{sup 2} probability of the TeV flux being constant is 1.6%. This, when considered in combination with measured variability in the X-ray band, and the demonstrated variability of many TeV blazars, suggests that the use of blazars such as 1ES 0229+200 for IGMF studies may not be straightforward and challenges models that attribute hard TeV spectra to secondary γ-ray production along the line of sight.

  7. 75 FR 81284 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology... of High Frequency (HF) and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) Technology... less than a week; however, for environmental disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill,...

  8. High-frequency nanophotonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bimberg, D.; Fiol, G.; Meuer, C.; Laemmlin, M.; Kuntz, M.

    2007-02-01

    Recent results on GaAs-based high-speed mode-locked quantum dot (QD) lasers and optical amplifiers with an operation wavelength centered at 1290 nm are reviewed and their complex dependence on device and operating parameters is discussed on the basis of experimental data obtained with integrated fiber-based QD device modules. Hybrid and passive mode-locking of QD lasers with repetition frequencies between 5 and 80 GHz, sub-ps pulse widths, ultra-low timing jitter down to 190 fs, high output peak power beyond 1 W and suppression of Q-switching are reported, showing the large potential of this class of devices for O-band optical fiber applications. Results on cw and dynamical characterization of quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers are presented. QD amplifiers exhibit a close-to-ideal noise figure of 4 dB and demonstrate multi-wavelength amplification of three CWDM wavelengths simultaneously. Modelling of QD polarization dependence shows that it should be possible to achieve polarization insensitive SOAs using vertically coupled QD stacks. Amplification of ultra-fast 80 GHz optical combs and bit-error-free data signal amplification at 40 Gb/s with QD SOAs show the potential for their application in future 100 Gb Ethernet networks.

  9. Blazar flares powered by plasmoids in relativistic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulou, Maria; Giannios, Dimitrios; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2016-11-01

    Powerful flares from blazars with short (˜min) variability time-scales are challenging for current models of blazar emission. Here, we present a physically motivated ab initio model for blazar flares based on the results of recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic magnetic reconnection. PIC simulations demonstrate that quasi-spherical plasmoids filled with high-energy particles and magnetic fields are a self-consistent by-product of the reconnection process. By coupling our PIC-based results (i.e. plasmoid growth, acceleration profile, particle and magnetic content) with a kinetic equation for the evolution of the electron distribution function we demonstrate that relativistic reconnection in blazar jets can produce powerful flares whose temporal and spectral properties are consistent with the observations. In particular, our model predicts correlated synchrotron and synchrotron self-Compton flares of duration of several hours-days powered by the largest and slowest moving plasmoids that form in the reconnection layer. Smaller and faster plasmoids produce flares of sub-hour duration with higher peak luminosities than those powered by the largest plasmoids. Yet, the observed fluence in both types of flares is similar. Multiple flares with a range of flux-doubling time-scales (minutes to several hours) observed over a longer period of flaring activity (days or longer) may be used as a probe of the reconnection layer's orientation and the jet's magnetization. Our model shows that blazar flares are naturally expected as a result of magnetic reconnection in a magnetically dominated jet.

  10. High Frequency Radar Astronomy With HAARP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    a period of several years, the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) transmitting array near Gakona, Alaska , has increased in total...High Frequency Radar Astronomy With HAARP Paul Rodriguez Naval Research Laboratory Information Technology Division Washington, DC 20375, USA Edward...high frequency (HF) radar facility used for research purposes. The basic science objective of HAARP is to study nonlinear effects associated with

  11. FLARING PATTERNS IN BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Paggi, A.; Cavaliere, A.; Tavani, M.; Vittorini, V.; D'Ammando, F.

    2011-08-01

    Blazars radiate from relativistic jets launched by a supermassive black hole along our line of sight; the subclass of flat spectrum radio quasars exhibits broad emission lines, a telltale sign of a gas-rich environment and high accretion rate, contrary to the other subclass of the BL Lacertae objects. We show that this dichotomy of the sources in physical properties is enhanced in their flaring activity. The BL Lac flares yielded spectral evidence of being driven by further acceleration of highly relativistic electrons in the jet. Here, we discuss spectral fits of multi-{lambda} data concerning strong flares of the two flat spectrum radio quasars 3C 454.3 and 3C 279 recently detected in {gamma}-rays by the AGILE and Fermi satellites. We find that optimal spectral fits are provided by external Compton radiation enhanced by increasing production of thermal seed photons by growing accretion. We find such flares to trace patterns on the jet-power-electron-energy plane that diverge from those followed by flaring BL Lac objects and discuss why these occur.

  12. Lightning protection devices for high frequencies equipments

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre, J.

    1983-01-01

    Contents: Mechanism of a Lightning Stroke from Antenna to Ground; Principles of Protection Devices for Feeders; Electrical Characteristics of H.F. Protection Devices; Calculation of H.F. Protection Devices; Catalogue Devices for High Frequency Protection; Some Measurement Results for Tees; Measurement Results for Decoupling Line Devices; Installation of High Frequency Devices.

  13. Intrinsic Correlations for Flaring Blazars Detected by Fermi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Yang, J. H.; Xiao, H. B.; Lin, C.; Constantin, D.; Luo, G. Y.; Pei, Z. Y.; Hao, J. M.; Mao, Y. W.

    2017-02-01

    Blazars are an extreme subclass of active galactic nuclei. Their rapid variability, luminous brightness, superluminal motion, and high and variable polarization are probably due to a beaming effect. However, this beaming factor (or Doppler factor) is very difficult to measure. Currently, a good way to estimate it is to use the timescale of their radio flares. In this Letter, we use multiwavelength data and Doppler factors reported in the literature for a sample of 86 flaring blazars detected by Fermi to compute their intrinsic multiwavelength data and intrinsic spectral energy distributions and investigate the correlations among observed and intrinsic data. Quite interestingly, intrinsic data show a positive correlation between luminosity and peak frequency, in contrast with the behavior of observed data, and a tighter correlation between γ-ray luminosity and the lower-energy ones. For flaring blazars detected by Fermi, we conclude that (1) observed emissions are strongly beamed; (2) the anti-correlation between luminosity and peak frequency from the observed data is an apparent result, the correlation between intrinsic data being positive; and (3) intrinsic γ-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with other intrinsic luminosities.

  14. RXTE Observations of Selected Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.

    2002-01-01

    The work completed includes the analysis of observations obtained during Cycles 4 and 5 of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The project is part of a longer-term, continuing program to study the X-ray emission process in blazars in collaboration with Dr. Ian McHardy (U. of Southampton, UK).

  15. High frequency fishbones excited by near perpendicular neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Deng

    2006-07-15

    The high frequency fishbone instability observed in experiments with near perpendicular neutral beam injection is interpreted as the ideal internal kink mode destabilized by circulating energetic ions. The mode frequency is close to the transit frequency of circulating ions. The beta value of the circulating ions is required to peak on the magnetic axis and the average value within the q=1 magnetic surface must exceed a critical value for the mode to grow up.

  16. Polarization Properties of AGN at High Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorstad, S. G.

    2009-08-01

    I discuss variability of polarization in the core region of parsec scale radio jets and connections between 7 mm polarization in the VLBI core and polarization at shorter wavelengths from the whole source for a sample of AGN with highly relativistic jets known as blazars. The sources show pronounced diversity in polarization behavior that is not clearly understood. I discuss possible reasons for these differences as well as the role that VSOP-2 can play in exploring the magnetic field in the most compact regions of jets.

  17. High-energy sources at low radio frequency: the Murchison Widefield Array view of Fermi blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giroletti, M.; Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Lico, R.; Burlon, D.; Hurley-Walker, N.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Morgan, J.; Pavlidou, V.; Bell, M.; Bernardi, G.; Bhat, R.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Corey, B. E.; Deshpande, A. A.; Ewall-Rice, A.; Emrich, D.; Gaensler, B. M.; Goeke, R.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Hindson, L.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Kratzenberg, E.; Feng, L.; Jacobs, D.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Lenc, E.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lynch, M. J.; McKinley, B.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Oberoi, D.; Offringa, A. R.; Ord, S. M.; Pindor, B.; Prabu, T.; Procopio, P.; Riding, J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Roshi, A.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Waterson, M.; Wayth, R. B.; Webster, R. L.; Whitney, A. R.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Low-frequency radio arrays are opening a new window for the study of the sky, both to study new phenomena and to better characterize known source classes. Being flat-spectrum sources, blazars are so far poorly studied at low radio frequencies. Aims: We characterize the spectral properties of the blazar population at low radio frequency, compare the radio and high-energy properties of the gamma-ray blazar population, and search for radio counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources. Methods: We cross-correlated the 6100 deg2 Murchison Widefield Array Commissioning Survey catalogue with the Roma blazar catalogue, the third catalogue of active galactic nuclei detected by Fermi-LAT, and the unidentified members of the entire third catalogue of gamma-ray sources detected by Fermi-LAT. When available, we also added high-frequency radio data from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz catalogue. Results: We find low-frequency counterparts for 186 out of 517 (36%) blazars, 79 out of 174 (45%) gamma-ray blazars, and 8 out of 73 (11%) gamma-ray blazar candidates. The mean low-frequency (120-180 MHz) blazar spectral index is ⟨αlow⟩ = 0.57 ± 0.02: blazar spectra are flatter than the rest of the population of low-frequency sources, but are steeper than at ~GHz frequencies. Low-frequency radio flux density and gamma-ray energy flux display a mildly significant and broadly scattered correlation. Ten unidentified gamma-ray sources have a (probably fortuitous) positional match with low radio frequency sources. Conclusions: Low-frequency radio astronomy provides important information about sources with a flat radio spectrum and high energy. However, the relatively low sensitivity of the present surveys still misses a significant fraction of these objects. Upcoming deeper surveys, such as the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-Sky MWA (GLEAM) survey, will provide further insight into this population. Tables 5-7 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  18. Can Turbulence Dominate Depolarization of Optical Blazars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaotong; Mao, Jirong; Wang, Jiancheng

    2017-07-01

    We carefully examine the depolarization feature of blazars in the optical and near-infrared bands using the sample of Mead et al. Magnetohydrodynamics turbulence could be one possible reason for the depolarization of optical/infrared blazars when we apply the theoretical analysis of Lazarian & Pogosyan. We further identify in the sample that the depolarization results shown in most blazars roughly obey the form of the three-dimensional anisotropic Kolmogorov scaling. The effective Faraday rotation window length scale is not small enough to resolve the polarization correlation length scale in the blazar sample. The depolarization and the related turbulent features show diversities in different blazar sources. We suggest more simultaneous observations in both the optical/infrared and the high-energy bands for the study of the blazar polarization.

  19. Prestin and high frequency hearing in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuyi; Liu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the evolution of ultrasonic hearing in echolocating bats and cetaceans has involved adaptive amino acid replacements in the cochlear gene prestin. A substantial number of these changes have occurred in parallel in both groups, suggesting that particular amino acid residues might confer greater auditory sensitivity to high frequencies. Here we review some of these findings, and consider whether similar signatures of prestin protein sequence evolution also occur in mammals that possess high frequency hearing for passive localization and conversely, whether this gene has undergone less change in mammals that lack high frequency hearing. PMID:21655450

  20. Propagation of high frequencies in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, D.

    1989-04-01

    To determine if seismic signals at frequencies up to 50 Hz are useful for detecting events and discriminating between earthquakes and explosions, approximately 180 events from the three-component high-frequency seismic element (HFSE) installed at the center of the Norwegian Regional Seismic Array (NRSA) have been analyzed. The attenuation of high-frequency signals in Scandinavia varies with distance, azimuth, magnitude, and source effects. Most of the events were detected with HFSE, although detections were better on the NRSA where signal processing techniques were used. Based on a preliminary analysis, high-frequency data do not appear to be a useful discriminant in Scandinavia. 21 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. 78 FR 70567 - Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...] Nationwide Use of High Frequency and Ultra High Frequency Active SONAR Technology; Final Programmatic... Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for the Nationwide Use of High Frequency (HF) and Ultra High..., for environmental disasters such as the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, SONAR equipment could be used...

  2. The Spectral Energy Distribution of Fermi Bright Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Agudo, I.; Ajello, M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Arkharov, A. A.; Axelsson, M.; Bach, U.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Benitiez, E.; Berdyugin, A.; Gehrels, N.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Marshall, F.; Scargle, J. D.; Thompson, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broadband spectral properties of the gamma-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi gamma-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical, and other hard X-ray /gamma-ray data, collected within 3 months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars. The SED of these gamma-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual log v-log v Fv representation, the typical broadband spectral signatures normally attributed to a combination of low-energy synchrotron radiation followed by inverse Compton emission of one or more components. We have used these SED to characterize the peak intensity of both the low- and the high-energy components. The results have been used to derive empirical relationships that estimate the position of the two peaks from the broadband colors (i.e., the radio to optical, alpha(sub ro) , and optical to X-ray, alpha(sub ox), spectral slopes) and from the gamma-ray spectral index. Our data show that the synchrotron peak frequency (v(sup S) (sub peak)) is positioned between 10(exp 12.5) and 10(exp 14) Hz in broad-lined flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and between 10(exp 13) and 10(exp 17) Hz in featureless BL Lacertae objects. We find that the gamma-ray spectral slope is strongly correlated with the synchrotron peak energy and with the X-ray spectral index, as expected at first order in synchrotron-inverse Compton scenarios. However, simple homogeneous, one-zone, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models cannot explain most of our SED, especially in the case of FSRQs and low energy peaked (LBL) BL Lacs. More complex models involving external Compton radiation or multiple SSC components are required to reproduce the overall SED and the observed spectral variability. While more than

  3. The Spectral Energy Distribution of Fermi bright blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Agudo, I.; Ajello, M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Arkharov, A. A.; Axelsson, M.; Bach, U.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Benitez, E.; Berdyugin, A.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Boettcher, M.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Burrows, D.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Calzoletti, L.; Cameron, R. A.; Capalbi, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carosati, D.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, W. P.; Chiang, J.; Chincarini, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Costamante, L.; Cutini, S.; D'ammando, F.; Deitrick, R.; D'Elia, V.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Donnarumma, I.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dultzin, D.; Dumora, D.; Falcone, A.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Forné, E.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gómez, J. L.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giuliani, A.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Gronwall, C.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Heidt, J.; Hiriart, D.; Horan, D.; Hoversten, E. A.; Hughes, R. E.; Itoh, R.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Jorstad, S. G.; Kadler, M.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kennea, J.; Kerr, M.; Kimeridze, G.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocian, M. L.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Koptelova, E.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larionov, V. M.; Latronico, L.; Leto, P.; Lindfors, E.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Marchegiani, P.; Marscher, A. P.; Marshall, F.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nestoras, I.; Nilsson, K.; Nizhelsky, N. A.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Ojha, R.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Osborne, J.; Ozaki, M.; Pacciani, L.; Padovani, P.; Pagani, C.; Page, K.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pasanen, M.; Pavlidou, V.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Perri, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piranomonte, S.; Piron, F.; Pittori, C.; Porter, T. A.; Puccetti, S.; Rahoui, F.; Rainò, S.; Raiteri, C.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Richards, J. L.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Romani, R. W.; Ros, J. A.; Roth, M.; Roustazadeh, P.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sadun, A.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Parkinson, P. M. Saz; Scargle, J. D.; Sellerholm, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Sigua, L. A.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Starck, J. -L.; Stevenson, M.; Stratta, G.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Takalo, L. O.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vasileiou, V.; Verrecchia, F.; Vilchez, N.; Villata, M.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Zensus, J. A.; Zhekanis, G. V.; Ziegler, M.

    2010-05-13

    We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broadband spectral properties of the γ-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi γ-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical, and other hard X-ray/γ-ray data, collected within 3 months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars. The SED of these γ-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual log ν-log ν F ν representation, the typical broadband spectral signatures normally attributed to a combination of low-energy synchrotron radiation followed by inverse Compton emission of one or more components. Here, we have used these SED to characterize the peak intensity of both the low- and the high-energy components. The results have been used to derive empirical relationships that estimate the position of the two peaks from the broadband colors (i.e., the radio to optical, αro, and optical to X-ray, αox, spectral slopes) and from the γ-ray spectral index. Our data show that the synchrotron peak frequency (ν S peak) is positioned between 1012.5 and 1014.5 Hz in broad-lined flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and between 1013 and 1017 Hz in featureless BL Lacertae objects. We find that the γ-ray spectral slope is strongly correlated with the synchrotron peak energy and with the X-ray spectral index, as expected at first order in synchrotron-inverse Compton scenarios. However, simple homogeneous, one-zone, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models cannot explain most of our SED, especially in the case of FSRQs and low energy peaked (LBL) BL Lacs. More complex models involving external Compton radiation or multiple SSC components are required to reproduce the overall SED and the

  4. The Spectral Energy Distribution of Fermi Bright Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Agudo, I.; Ajello, M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Arkharov, A. A.; Axelsson, M.; Bach, U.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broadband spectral properties of the gamma-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi gamma-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical, and other hard X-ray /gamma-ray data, collected within 3 months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars. The SED of these gamma-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual log v-log v Fv representation, the typical broadband spectral signatures normally attributed to a combination of low-energy synchrotron radiation followed by inverse Compton emission of one or more components. We have used these SED to characterize the peak intensity of both the low- and the high-energy components. The results have been used to derive empirical relationships that estimate the position of the two peaks from the broadband colors (i.e., the radio to optical, alpha(sub ro) , and optical to X-ray, alpha(sub ox), spectral slopes) and from the gamma-ray spectral index. Our data show that the synchrotron peak frequency (v(sup S) (sub peak)) is positioned between 10(exp 12.5) and 10(exp 14) Hz in broad-lined flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and between 10(exp 13) and 10(exp 17) Hz in featureless BL Lacertae objects. We find that the gamma-ray spectral slope is strongly correlated with the synchrotron peak energy and with the X-ray spectral index, as expected at first order in synchrotron-inverse Compton scenarios. However, simple homogeneous, one-zone, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models cannot explain most of our SED, especially in the case of FSRQs and low energy peaked (LBL) BL Lacs. More complex models involving external Compton radiation or multiple SSC components are required to reproduce the overall SED and the observed spectral variability. While more than

  5. The Spectral Energy Distribution of Fermi bright blazars

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Agudo, I.; ...

    2010-05-13

    We have conducted a detailed investigation of the broadband spectral properties of the γ-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining our accurately estimated Fermi γ-ray spectra with Swift, radio, infra-red, optical, and other hard X-ray/γ-ray data, collected within 3 months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars. The SED of these γ-ray sources is similar to that of blazars discovered at other wavelengths, clearly showing, in the usual log ν-log ν F ν representation, the typical broadband spectral signaturesmore » normally attributed to a combination of low-energy synchrotron radiation followed by inverse Compton emission of one or more components. Here, we have used these SED to characterize the peak intensity of both the low- and the high-energy components. The results have been used to derive empirical relationships that estimate the position of the two peaks from the broadband colors (i.e., the radio to optical, αro, and optical to X-ray, αox, spectral slopes) and from the γ-ray spectral index. Our data show that the synchrotron peak frequency (ν S peak) is positioned between 1012.5 and 1014.5 Hz in broad-lined flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and between 1013 and 1017 Hz in featureless BL Lacertae objects. We find that the γ-ray spectral slope is strongly correlated with the synchrotron peak energy and with the X-ray spectral index, as expected at first order in synchrotron-inverse Compton scenarios. However, simple homogeneous, one-zone, synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models cannot explain most of our SED, especially in the case of FSRQs and low energy peaked (LBL) BL Lacs. More complex models involving external Compton radiation or multiple SSC components are required to reproduce the overall SED and the observed spectral variability. While more than 50% of known radio bright high energy peaked (HBL

  6. High frequency testing of rubber mounts.

    PubMed

    Vahdati, Nader; Saunders, L Ken Lauderbaugh

    2002-04-01

    Rubber and fluid-filled rubber engine mounts are commonly used in automotive and aerospace applications to provide reduced cabin noise and vibration, and/or motion accommodations. In certain applications, the rubber mount may operate at frequencies as high as 5000 Hz. Therefore, dynamic stiffness of the mount needs to be known in this frequency range. Commercial high frequency test machines are practically nonexistent, and the best high frequency test machine on the market is only capable of frequencies as high as 1000 Hz. In this paper, a high frequency test machine is described that allows test engineers to study the high frequency performance of rubber mounts at frequencies up to 5000 Hz.

  7. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  8. High power, high frequency component test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen; Krawczonek, Walter

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has available a high frequency, high power laboratory facility for testing various components of aerospace and/or terrestrial power systems. This facility is described here. All of its capabilities and potential applications are detailed.

  9. An introduction to high frequency radioteletype systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnau, Roger R.

    1989-10-01

    A basic introductory guide is provided to modern High Frequency (HF) data communications systems. Described are modern commercial radioteletype systems, data communication protocols, and various secrets of the trade.

  10. Neural coding of high-frequency tones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Available evidence was presented indicating that neural discharges in the auditory nerve display characteristic periodicities in response to any tonal stimulus including high-frequency stimuli, and that this periodicity corresponds to the subjective pitch.

  11. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as RAZs. RAZs are displayed as go, no-go signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  12. High-frequency conductivity of photoionized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Anakhov, M. V.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2016-08-15

    The tensor of the high-frequency conductivity of a plasma created via tunnel ionization of atoms in the field of linearly or circularly polarized radiation is derived. It is shown that the real part of the conductivity tensor is highly anisotropic. In the case of a toroidal velocity distribution of photoelectrons, the possibility of amplification of a weak high-frequency field polarized at a sufficiently large angle to the anisotropy axis of the initial nonequilibrium distribution is revealed.

  13. RXTE Observations of Selected Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, Margo F.

    2002-01-01

    The work completed includes the analysis of observations obtained during Cycles 4 and 5 of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The project is part of a longer-term, continuing program to study the X-ray emission process in blazars in cooperation with Dr. Ian McHardy (U. of Southampton, UK). The goals of the program are to study the X-ray emission mechanism in blazars and the relation of the X-ray emission to changes in the relativistic jet. The program includes contemporaneous brightness and linear polarization monitoring at radio and optical wavelengths, total and polarized intensity imaging at 43 GHz with a resolution of 0.1 milliarcseconds with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), and well-sampled X-ray light curves obtained from a series of approved RXTE programs.

  14. TEMPORAL CORRELATIONS BETWEEN OPTICAL AND GAMMA-RAY ACTIVITY IN BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Daniel P.; Romani, Roger W.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Zheng, WeiKang; Li, Weidong

    2014-12-08

    For this research, we have been using the 0.76 m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) at Lick Observatory to optically monitor a sample of 157 blazars that are bright in gamma-rays being detected with high significance (≥10σ) in one year by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We attempt to observe each source on a three-day cadence with KAIT, subject to weather and seasonal visibility. The gamma-ray coverage is essentially continuous. KAIT observations extend over much of the five-year Fermi mission for several objects, and most have >100 optical measurements spanning the last three years. These blazars (flat-spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects) exhibit a wide range of flaring behavior. Using the discrete correlation function (DCF), here we search for temporal relationships between optical and gamma-ray light curves in the 40 brightest sources in hopes of placing constraints on blazar acceleration and emission zones. We find strong optical-gamma-ray correlation in many of these sources at time delays of ~1 to ~10 days, ranging between –40 and +30 days. A stacked average DCF of the 40 sources verifies this correlation trend, with a peak above 99% significance indicating a characteristic time delay consistent with 0 days. These findings strongly support the widely accepted leptonic models of blazar emission. However, we also find examples of apparently uncorrelated flares (optical flares with no gamma-ray counterpart and gamma-ray flares with no optical counterpart) that challenge simple, one-zone models of blazar emission. Moreover, we find that flat-spectrum radio quasars tend to have gamma-rays leading the optical, while intermediate- and high-synchrotron peak blazars with the most significant peaks have smaller lags/leads. In conclusion, it is clear that long-term monitoring at high cadence is necessary to reveal the underlying physical correlation.

  15. TEMPORAL CORRELATIONS BETWEEN OPTICAL AND GAMMA-RAY ACTIVITY IN BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Daniel P.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Zheng, WeiKang; Li, Weidong; Romani, Roger W.; Cenko, S. Bradley

    2014-12-20

    We have been using the 0.76 m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) at Lick Observatory to optically monitor a sample of 157 blazars that are bright in gamma-rays being detected with high significance (≥10σ) in one year by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We attempt to observe each source on a three-day cadence with KAIT, subject to weather and seasonal visibility. The gamma-ray coverage is essentially continuous. KAIT observations extend over much of the five-year Fermi mission for several objects, and most have >100 optical measurements spanning the last three years. These blazars (flat-spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects) exhibit a wide range of flaring behavior. Using the discrete correlation function (DCF), here we search for temporal relationships between optical and gamma-ray light curves in the 40 brightest sources in hopes of placing constraints on blazar acceleration and emission zones. We find strong optical-gamma-ray correlation in many of these sources at time delays of ∼1 to ∼10 days, ranging between –40 and +30 days. A stacked average DCF of the 40 sources verifies this correlation trend, with a peak above 99% significance indicating a characteristic time delay consistent with 0 days. These findings strongly support the widely accepted leptonic models of blazar emission. However, we also find examples of apparently uncorrelated flares (optical flares with no gamma-ray counterpart and gamma-ray flares with no optical counterpart) that challenge simple, one-zone models of blazar emission. Moreover, we find that flat-spectrum radio quasars tend to have gamma-rays leading the optical, while intermediate- and high-synchrotron peak blazars with the most significant peaks have smaller lags/leads. It is clear that long-term monitoring at high cadence is necessary to reveal the underlying physical correlation.

  16. Contemporaneous Multiwaveband Observations of Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marscher, Alan P.; Bloom, Steven D.; Zhang, Yun Fei; Gear, Walter K.

    1994-01-01

    We have observed a number of blazars at wavebands ranging from radio to gamma-ray. We find bright gamma-ray emission to be associated with strong synchrotron flares observed at lower frequencies. The x-ray flux and entire radio spectrum of 4C 39.25 have each increased in strength by 30% over a 2-year period, in agreement with the prediction of the bent relativistic jet model.

  17. Probing acceleration and turbulence at relativistic shocks in blazar jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baring, Matthew G.; Böttcher, Markus; Summerlin, Errol J.

    2017-02-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) at relativistic shocks is widely thought to be an important acceleration mechanism in various astrophysical jet sources, including radio-loud active galactic nuclei such as blazars. Such acceleration can produce the non-thermal particles that emit the broad-band continuum radiation that is detected from extragalactic jets. An important recent development for blazar science is the ability of Fermi-Large Area Telescope spectroscopy to pin down the shape of the distribution of the underlying non-thermal particle population. This paper highlights how multiwavelength spectra spanning optical to X-ray to gamma-ray bands can be used to probe diffusive acceleration in relativistic, oblique, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in blazar jets. Diagnostics on the MHD turbulence near such shocks are obtained using thermal and non-thermal particle distributions resulting from detailed Monte Carlo simulations of DSA. These probes are afforded by the characteristic property that the synchrotron νFν peak energy does not appear in the gamma-ray band above 100 MeV. We investigate self-consistently the radiative synchrotron and inverse Compton signatures of the simulated particle distributions. Important constraints on the diffusive mean free paths of electrons, and the level of electromagnetic field turbulence are identified for three different case study blazars, Mrk 501, BL Lacertae and AO 0235+164. The X-ray excess of AO 0235+164 in a flare state can be modelled as the signature of bulk Compton scattering of external radiation fields, thereby tightly constraining the energy-dependence of the diffusion coefficient for electrons. The concomitant interpretations that turbulence levels decline with remoteness from jet shocks, and the probable significant role for non-gyroresonant diffusion, are posited.

  18. Simultaneous Planck, Swift, and Fermi Observations of X-Ray and gamma-Ray Selected Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giommi, P.; Polenta, G.; Laehteenmaeki, A.; Thompson, D. J.; Capalbi, M.; Cutini, S.; Gasparrini, D.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present simultaneous Planck, Swift, Fermi, and ground-based data for 105 blazars belonging to three samples with flux limits in the soft X-ray, hard X-ray, and -ray bands, and we compare our results to those of a companion paper presenting simultaneous Planck and multi-frequency observations of 104 radio-loud northern active galactic nuclei selected at radio frequencies. While we confirm several previous results, our unique data set has allowed us to demonstrate that the selection method strongly influences the results, producing biases that cannot be ignored. Almost all the BL Lac objects have been detected by Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), whereas 30 to 40% of the flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in the radio, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray selected samples are still below the gamma ray detection limit even after integrating 27 months of Fermi-LAT data. The radio to sub-millimetre spectral slope of blazars is quite flat, with [alpha] approximately 0 up to about 70 GHz, above which it steepens to [alpha] approximately -0.65. BL Lacs have significantly flatter spectra than FSRQs at higher frequencies. The distribution of the rest-frame synchrotron peak frequency (v(sup IC) (sub (PEAK)), ranges from 10(sup 21) to 10(sup 22) HZ. The distribution of the rest-frame synchrotron peak frequency (v(sup s)(sub peak)) in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of FSRQs is the same in all the blazar samples with (v(sup s)(sub peak) = 10(sup 13:1 plus or minus 0.1) Hz, while the mean inverse-Compton peak frequency,(v(sup IC)(sub peak) ranges from 10(sup 21) to 10(sup 22) Hz. The distributions of v(sup S)(sub peak) and of v(sup IC)(sub peak) of BL Lacs are much broader and are shifted to higher energies than those of FSRQs; their shapes strongly depend on the selection method. The Compton dominance of blazars ranges from less than 0.2 to nearly 100, with only FSRQs reaching values larger than about 3. Its distribution is broad and depends strongly on the selection method

  19. Chasing the most powerful blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotulli, Lea; Paliya, Vaidehi; Ajello, Marco; Gasparrini, Dario; Ojha, Roopesh

    2017-08-01

    High-redshift blazars are some of the most extreme sources in the Universe. With jet power exceeding 10^47 erg s-1, they host billion solar masses black holes and are found up to when the Universe was only two billions years old. These sources are of great astrophysical interest as they provide us crucial information about the origin and growth of supermassive black-holes in the early Universe. Detections in the hard X-rays and gamma-rays are desired to find the most powerful objects of this class. With the advent of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), it has been possible to increase the sample of high-redshift blazars and to constrain more accurately their physical properties. The improved sensitivity of the LAT has also allowed gamma-ray detection of such sources up to redshift 4.3. Here we present the latest high-redshift blazar detection with NuSTAR and the LAT, and discuss some of their implications.

  20. Unprecedentedly Strong and Narrow Electromagnetic Emissions Stimulated by High-Frequency Radio Waves in the Ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Norin, L.; Leyser, T. B.; Nordblad, E.; Thide, B.; McCarrick, M.

    2009-02-13

    Experimental results of secondary electromagnetic radiation, stimulated by high-frequency radio waves irradiating the ionosphere, are reported. We have observed emission peaks, shifted in frequency up to a few tens of Hertz from radio waves transmitted at several megahertz. These emission peaks are by far the strongest spectral features of secondary radiation that have been reported. The emissions are attributed to stimulated Brillouin scattering, long predicted but hitherto never unambiguously identified in high-frequency ionospheric interaction experiments. The experiments were performed at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), Alaska, USA.

  1. Unprecedentedly strong and narrow electromagnetic emissions stimulated by high-frequency radio waves in the ionosphere.

    PubMed

    Norin, L; Leyser, T B; Nordblad, E; Thidé, B; McCarrick, M

    2009-02-13

    Experimental results of secondary electromagnetic radiation, stimulated by high-frequency radio waves irradiating the ionosphere, are reported. We have observed emission peaks, shifted in frequency up to a few tens of Hertz from radio waves transmitted at several megahertz. These emission peaks are by far the strongest spectral features of secondary radiation that have been reported. The emissions are attributed to stimulated Brillouin scattering, long predicted but hitherto never unambiguously identified in high-frequency ionospheric interaction experiments. The experiments were performed at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), Alaska, USA.

  2. Unprecedentedly Strong and Narrow Electromagnetic Emissions Stimulated by High-Frequency Radio Waves in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norin, L.; Leyser, T. B.; Nordblad, E.; Thidé, B.; McCarrick, M.

    2009-02-01

    Experimental results of secondary electromagnetic radiation, stimulated by high-frequency radio waves irradiating the ionosphere, are reported. We have observed emission peaks, shifted in frequency up to a few tens of Hertz from radio waves transmitted at several megahertz. These emission peaks are by far the strongest spectral features of secondary radiation that have been reported. The emissions are attributed to stimulated Brillouin scattering, long predicted but hitherto never unambiguously identified in high-frequency ionospheric interaction experiments. The experiments were performed at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), Alaska, USA.

  3. The Blazar 3C 66A in 2003-2004: hadronic versus leptonic model fits

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, A.

    2008-12-24

    The low-frequency peaked BL Lac object 3C 66A was the subject of an extensive multi-wavelength campaign from July 2003 till April 2004, which included quasi-simultaneous observations at optical, X-rays and very high energy gamma-rays. Here we apply the hadronic Synchrotron-Proton Blazar (SPB) model to the observed spectral energy distribution time-averaged over a flaring state, and compare the resulting model fits to those obtained from the application of the leptonic Synchrotron-Self-Compton (SSC) model. The results are used to identify diagnostic key predictions of the two blazar models for future multi-wavelength observations.

  4. Simultaneous Planck , Swift , and Fermi observations of X-ray and γ -ray selected blazars

    DOE PAGES

    Giommi, P.; Polenta, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; ...

    2012-05-22

    We present simultaneous Planck, Swift, Fermi, and ground-based data for 105 blazars belonging to three samples with flux limits in the soft X-ray, hard X-ray, and γ-ray bands, with additional 5GHz flux-density limits to ensure a good probability of a Planck detection. We compare our results to those of a companion paper presenting simultaneous Planck and multi-frequency observations of 104 radio-loud northern active galactic nuclei selected at radio frequencies. While we confirm several previous results, our unique data set allows us to demonstrate that the selection method strongly influences the results, producing biases that cannot be ignored. Almost all themore » BL Lac objects have been detected by the Fermi Large AreaTelescope (LAT), whereas 30% to 40% of the flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in the radio, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray selected samples are still below the γ-ray detection limit even after integrating 27 months of Fermi-LAT data. The radio to sub-millimetre spectral slope of blazars is quite flat, with >α> ~ 0 up to about 70GHz, above which it steepens to <α> ~ -0.65. The BL Lacs have significantly flatter spectra than FSRQs at higher frequencies. The distribution of the rest-frame synchrotron peak frequency (νpeakS) in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of FSRQs is the same in all the blazar samples with <νpeakS> = 1013.1 ± 0.1 Hz, while the mean inverse Compton peak frequency, >νpeakIC>, ranges from 1021 to 1022 Hz. The distributions of νpeakS and νpeakIC of BL Lacs are much broader and are shifted to higher energies than those of FSRQs; their shapes strongly depend on the selection method. The Compton dominance of blazars, defined as the ratio of the inverse Compton to synchrotron peak luminosities, ranges from less than 0.2 to nearly 100, with only FSRQs reaching values larger than about 3. Its distribution is broad and depends strongly on the selection method, with γ-ray selected blazars peaking at ~7 or more, and radio

  5. Simultaneous Planck, Swift, and Fermi Observations of X-ray and Gamma-ray Selected Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giommi, P.; Polenta, G.; Laehteenmaeki, A.; Thompson, D. J.; Capalbi, M.; Cutini, S.; Gasparrini, D.; Gonzalez, Nuevo, J.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present simultaneous Planck, Swift, Fermi, and ground-based data for 105 blazars belonging to three samples with flux limits in the soft X-ray, hard X-ray, and gamma-ray bands, with additional 5 GHz flux-density limits to ensure a good probability of a Planck detection. We compare our results to those of a companion paper presenting simultaneous Planck and multi-frequency observations of 104 radio-loud northern active galactic nuclei selected at radio frequencies. While we confirm several previous results, our unique data set allows us to demonstrate that the selection method strongly influences the results, producing biases that cannot be ignored. Almost all the BL Lac objects have been detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), whereas 30% to 40% of the flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in the radio, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray selected samples are still below the gamma-ray detection limit even after integrating 27 months of Fermi-LAT data. The radio to sub-millimetre spectral slope of blazars is quite flat, with (alpha) approx 0 up to about 70GHz, above which it steepens to (alpha) approx -0.65. The BL Lacs have significantly flatter spectra than FSRQs at higher frequencies. The distribution of the rest-frame synchrotron peak frequency (nu(sup s)(sub peak)) in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of FSRQs is the same in all the blazar samples with (nu(sup s)(sub peak)) = 10(exp 13.1 +/- 0.1) Hz, while the mean inverse Compton peak frequency, (nu(sup IC)(sub peak)), ranges from 10(exp 21) to 10(exp 22) Hz. The distributions of nu(sup s)(sub peak) and nu(sup IC)(sub peak) of BL Lacs are much broader and are shifted to higher energies than those of FSRQs; their shapes strongly depend on the selection method. The Compton dominance of blazars. defined as the ratio of the inverse Compton to synchrotron peak luminosities, ranges from less than 0.2 to nearly 100, with only FSRQs reaching values larger than about 3. Its distribution is broad and depends

  6. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES. V. TNG, KPNO, AND OAN OBSERVATIONS OF BLAZAR CANDIDATES OF UNCERTAIN TYPE IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Álvarez Crespo, N.; Massaro, F.; Masetti, N.; Ricci, F.; La Franca, F.; Landoni, M.; Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Chavushyan, V.; Torrealba, J.; D’Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Latronico, L.; Tosti, G.

    2016-02-15

    The extragalactic γ-ray sky is dominated by emission from blazars, a peculiar class of active galactic nuclei. Many of the γ-ray sources included in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope Third Source catalog (3FGL) are classified as blazar candidates of uncertain type (BCUs) because there are no optical spectra available in the literature to confirm their nature. In 2013, we started a spectroscopic campaign to look for the optical counterparts of the BCUs and of the unidentified γ-ray sources to confirm their blazar nature. Whenever possible we also determine their redshifts. Here, we present the results of the observations carried out in the northern hemisphere in 2013 and 2014 at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, Kitt Peak National Observatory, and Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in San Pedro Mártir. In this paper, we describe the optical spectra of 25 sources. We confirmed that all of the 15 BCUs observed in our campaign and included in our sample are blazars and we estimated the redshifts for three of them. In addition, we present the spectra for three sources classified as BL Lacs in the literature but with no optical spectra available to date. We found that one of them is a quasar (QSO) at a redshift of z = 0.208 and the other two are BL Lacs. Moreover, we also present seven new spectra for known blazars listed in the Roma-BZCAT that have an uncertain redshift or are classified as BL Lac candidates. We found that one of them, 5BZB J0724+2621, is a “changing look” blazar. According to the spectrum available in the literature, it was classified as a BL Lac, but in our observation we clearly detected a broad emission line that led us to classify this source as a QSO at z = 1.17.

  7. [High-frequency ventilation. I. Distribution of alveolar pressure amplitudes during high frequency oscillation in the lung model].

    PubMed

    Theissen, J; Lunkenheimer, P P; Niederer, P; Bush, E; Frieling, G; Lawin, P

    1987-09-01

    The pattern of intrapulmonary pressure distribution was studied during high-frequency ventilation in order to explain the inconsistent results reported in the literature. Methods. Pressure and flow velocity (hot-wire anemometry) were measured in different lung compartments: 1. In transalveolar chambers sealed to the perforated pleural surfaces of dried pig lungs; 2. In emphysema-simulating airbags sealed to the isolated bronchial trees of dried pig lungs; and 3. In transalveolar chambers sealed to the perforated pleural surfaces of freshly excised pig lungs. Results. 1. The pressure amplitudes change from one area to another and depending on the exciting frequency. 2. High-frequency oscillation is associated with an increase in pressure amplitude when the exciting frequency rises, whereas with conventional high-frequency jet ventilation the pressure amplitude is more likely to decrease with frequency. 3. During high-frequency jet ventilation the local pressure amplitude changes with the position of the tube in the trachea rather than with the exciting frequency. 4. When the volume of the measuring chamber is doubled the resulting pressure amplitude falls to half the control value. 5. The pressure amplitude and mean pressure measured in the transalveolar chamber vary more or less independently from the peak flow velocity. High-frequency ventilation is thus seen to be a frequency-dependant, inhomogeneous mode of ventilation that can essentially be homogenized by systematically changing the exciting frequency. The frequency-dependant response to different lung areas to excitation is likely to result from an intrabronchially-localized aerodynamic effect rather than the mechanical properties of the lung parenchyma.

  8. B-FlaP: Classifying Gamma-ray Blazars Using Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, David John; Chiaro, Graziano; Giroletti, Marcello; Salvetti, David; La Mura, Giovanni; Bastieri, Denis

    2017-01-01

    In the Third Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog of high-energy gamma-ray sources, 573 are listed as Blazar Candidates of Uncertain type (BCU), or sources without a conclusive classification. Blazar Flaring Patterns (B-FlaP) uses Empirical Cumulative Distribution Function and Artificial Neural Network machine-learning techniques for a fast method of screening and classification of BCUs based on gamma-ray data only, when rigorous multiwavelength analysis is not available. In this study radio analysis and direct observations by ground-based optical observatories are used to validate the B-FlaP method. Tests indicate that the method is effective, suggesting that 342 sources are likely BL Lac objects, 154 are likely Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars, with only 77 remaining uncertain. 53 of the BCUs appear to be High Synchrotron Peaked blazars, a class of particular interest to ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes.

  9. A high frequency silicon pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahng, S. K.; Gross, C.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical and design considerations as well as fabrication and experimental work involved in the development of high-frequency silicon pressure sensors with an ultra-small diaphragm are discussed. A sensor is presented with a rectangular diaphragm of 0.0127 cm x 0.0254 cm x 1.06 micron; the sensor has a natural frequency of 625 kHz and a sensitivity of 0.82 mv/v-psi. High-frequency results from shock tube testing and low-frequency (less than 50 kHz) comparison with microphones are given.

  10. Metrology For High-Frequency Nanoelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, T. Mitch; Imtiaz, Atif; Nembach, Hans T.; Rice, Paul; Kabos, Pavel

    2007-09-26

    Two metrological tools for high-frequency measurements of nanoscale systems are described: (i) two/N-port analysis of nanoscale devices as well as (ii) near-field scanning microwave microscopy (NSMM) for materials characterization. Calibrated two/N-port measurements were made on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) welded to a coplanar waveguide. Significant changes in the extracted high-frequency electrical response of the welded MWNT were measured when the contacts to the MWNT were modified. Additionally, NSMM was used to characterize films of nanotube soot deposited on copper and sapphire substrates. The material properties of the films showed a strong dependence on the substrate material.

  11. HIGH ENERGY POLARIZATION OF BLAZARS: DETECTION PROSPECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, N.; Pavlidou, V.; Fields, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (with X-Calibur offering the most promising prospects), space-based missions should detect the brightest blazars for polarization fractions down to a few percent. Typical flaring activity of blazars could boost the overall number of polarimetric detections by nearly a factor of five to six purely accounting for flux increase of the brightest of the comprehensive, all-sky, Fermi-LAT blazar distribution. The instantaneous increase in the number of detections is approximately a factor of two, assuming a duty cycle of 20% for every source. The detectability of particular blazars may be reduced if variations in the flux and polarization fraction are anticorrelated. Simultaneous use of variability and polarization trends could guide the selection of blazars for high-energy polarimetric observations.

  12. High Energy Polarization of Blazars: Detection Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, N.; Pavlidou, V.; Fields, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    Emission from blazar jets in the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared is polarized. If these low-energy photons were inverse-Compton scattered, the upscattered high-energy photons retain a fraction of the polarization. Current and future X-ray and gamma-ray polarimeters such as INTEGRAL-SPI, PoGOLITE, X-Calibur, Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter, GEMS-like missions, ASTRO-H, and POLARIX have the potential to discover polarized X-rays and gamma-rays from blazar jets for the first time. Detection of such polarization will open a qualitatively new window into high-energy blazar emission; actual measurements of polarization degree and angle will quantitatively test theories of jet emission mechanisms. We examine the detection prospects of blazars by these polarimetry missions using examples of 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3, bright sources with relatively high degrees of low-energy polarization. We conclude that while balloon polarimeters will be challenged to detect blazars within reasonable observational times (with X-Calibur offering the most promising prospects), space-based missions should detect the brightest blazars for polarization fractions down to a few percent. Typical flaring activity of blazars could boost the overall number of polarimetric detections by nearly a factor of five to six purely accounting for flux increase of the brightest of the comprehensive, all-sky, Fermi-LAT blazar distribution. The instantaneous increase in the number of detections is approximately a factor of two, assuming a duty cycle of 20% for every source. The detectability of particular blazars may be reduced if variations in the flux and polarization fraction are anticorrelated. Simultaneous use of variability and polarization trends could guide the selection of blazars for high-energy polarimetric observations.

  13. Radio variability of the blazar AO 0235 + 164

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, S. L.; Dennison, B.; Broderick, J. J.; Altschuler, D. R.; Condon, J. J.; Payne, H. E.; Mitchell, K. J.

    1988-01-01

    The high-redshift blazar A0 0235 + 164 exhibits flux-density variations which are primarily of the less common variety in which low-frequency flux-density variations track the high-frequency variations but are delayed and of smaller amplitude. Observational results based on five years of monitoring are presented which are correlated over at least a factor of 50 frequency range in the sense expected for an expanding synchrotron component: outbursts propagating toward lower frequencies with diminishing amplitudes. A simple, semiempirical jet model is developed which accounts reasonably well for the radio properties of the object. The predictions of the model are compared with observations, examining the radio flux-density histories, the radio spectral evolution, the radio structure, and evidence for relativistic bulk motion.

  14. 2WHSP: A multi-frequency selected catalogue of high energy and very high energy γ-ray blazars and blazar candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y.-L.; Arsioli, B.; Giommi, P.; Padovani, P.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: High synchrotron peaked blazars (HSPs) dominate the γ-ray sky at energies higher than a few GeV; however, only a few hundred blazars of this type have been cataloged so far. In this paper we present the 2WHSP sample, the largest and most complete list of HSP blazars available to date, which is an expansion of the 1WHSP catalogue of γ-ray source candidates off the Galactic plane. Methods: We cross-matched a number of multi-wavelength surveys (in the radio, infrared and X-ray bands) and applied selection criteria based on the radio to IR and IR to X-ray spectral slopes. To ensure the selection of genuine HSPs, we examined the SED of each candidate and estimated the peak frequency of its synchrotron emission (νpeak) using the ASDC SED tool, including only sources with νpeak > 1015 Hz (equivalent to νpeak > 4 eV). Results: We have assembled the largest and most complete catalogue of HSP blazars to date, which includes 1691 sources. A number of population properties, such as infrared colours, synchrotron peak, redshift distributions, and γ-ray spectral properties have been used to characterise the sample and maximize completeness. We also derived the radio log N-log S distribution. This catalogue has already been used to provide seeds to discover new very high energy objects within Fermi-LAT data and to look for the counterparts of neutrino and ultra high energy cosmic ray sources, showing its potential for the identification of promising high-energy γ-ray sources and multi-messenger targets. Table 4 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/598/A17

  15. Psychophysical tuning curves at very high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Ifat; Plack, Christopher J.

    2005-10-01

    For most normal-hearing listeners, absolute thresholds increase rapidly above about 16 kHz. One hypothesis is that the high-frequency limit of the hearing-threshold curve is imposed by the transmission characteristics of the middle ear, which attenuates the sound input [Masterton et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 45, 966-985 (1969)]. An alternative hypothesis is that the high-frequency limit of hearing is imposed by the tonotopicity of the cochlea [Ruggero and Temchin, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 13206-13210 (2002)]. The aim of this study was to test these hypotheses. Forward-masked psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs) were derived for signal frequencies of 12-17.5 kHz. For the highest signal frequencies, the high-frequency slopes of some PTCs were steeper than the slope of the hearing-threshold curve. The results also show that the human auditory system displays frequency selectivity for characteristic frequencies (CFs) as high as 17 kHz, above the frequency at which absolute thresholds begin to increase rapidly. The findings suggest that, for CFs up to 17 kHz, the high-frequency limitation in humans is imposed in part by the middle-ear attenuation, and not by the tonotopicity of the cochlea.

  16. Landau damping with high frequency impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz,M.

    2009-05-04

    Coupled bunch longitudinal stability in the presence of high frequency impedances is considered. A frequency domain technique is developed and compared with simulations. The frequency domain technique allows for absolute stability tests and is applied to the problem of longitudinal stability in RHIC with the new 56 MHz RF system.

  17. Multiwavelength Observations Of The Previously Unidentified Blazar RX J0648.7+1516

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.

    2011-11-15

    We report on the VERITAS discovery of very-high-energy (VHE) gammaray emission above 200 GeV from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object RXJ0648.7+1516 (GBJ0648+1516), associated with 1FGL J0648.8+1516. The photon spectrum above 200 GeV is fit by a power law dN/dE = F0(E/E0) with a photon index Γ of 4.4 ± 0.8stat ± 0.3syst and a flux normalization F0 of (2.3±0.5stat ±1.2sys)×10-11 TeV-1cm-2s-1 with E0 = 300 GeV. No VHE variability is detected during VERITAS observations of RXJ0648.7+1516 between 2010 March 4 and April 15. Following the VHE discovery, the optical identification and spectroscopic redshift were obtained using the Shane 3–m Telescope at the Lick Observatory, showing the unidentified object to be a BL Lac type with a redshift of z = 0.179. Broadband multiwavelength observations contemporaneous with the VERITAS exposure period can be used to sub-classify the blazar as a high-frequency-peaked BL Lac (HBL) object, including data from the MDM observatory, Swift -UVOT and XRT, and continuous monitoring at photon energies above 1 GeV from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We find that in the absence of undetected, high-energy rapid variability, the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model (SSC) overproduces the high-energy gamma-ray emission measured by the Fermi -LAT over 2.3 years. The SED can be parameterized satisfactorily with an external-Compton or lepto-hadronic model, which have two and six additional free parameters, respectively, compared to the one-zone SSC model.

  18. On the influence of a hybrid thermal-non-thermal distribution in the internal shocks model for blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda-Becerril, J. M.; Mimica, P.; Aloy, M. A.

    2017-06-01

    Internal shocks occurring in blazars may accelerate both thermal and non-thermal electrons. While the non-thermal tail fills the higher end of the electron energy distribution (EED), thermal electrons populate the lowest energies of the shock-accelerated particles. In this paper, we examine the consequences that such a hybrid (thermal-non-thermal) EED has on the spectrum of blazars. Since the thermal component of the EED may extend to very low energies, the synchrotron emission of ultrarelativistic electrons may not be sufficiently accurate to compute blazar spectra. Thus, we replace the standard synchrotron process by the more general magneto-bremsstrahlung (MBS) mechanism encompassing the discrete emission of harmonics in the cyclotron regime, the transition from the discrete to continuum and the continuum emission in the synchrotron realm. In the γ-ray band, an EED of mostly thermal particles displays significant differences with respect to the one dominated by non-thermal particles. A thermally dominated EED produces a synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) peak extending only up to a few MeV, and the valley separating the MBS and the SSC peaks is much deeper than if the EED is dominated by non-thermal particles. The combination of these effects modifies the Compton dominance of a blazar, suggesting that the vertical scatter in the distribution of FSRQs and BL Lacs in the peak synchrotron frequency-Compton dominance parameter space could be attributed to different proportions of thermal/non-thermal particles in the EED of blazars.

  19. TIMING SIGNATURES OF THE INTERNAL-SHOCK MODEL FOR BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Boettcher, M.; Dermer, C. D.

    2010-03-01

    We investigate the spectral and timing signatures of the internal-shock model for blazars. For this purpose, we develop a semi-analytical model for the time-dependent radiative output from internal shocks arising from colliding relativistic shells in a blazar jet. The emission through synchrotron and synchrotron-self Compton radiation as well as Comptonization of an isotropic external radiation field are taken into account. We evaluate the discrete correlation function (DCF) of the model light curves in order to evaluate features of photon-energy-dependent time lags and the quality of the correlation, represented by the peak value of the DCF. The almost completely analytic nature of our approach allows us to study in detail the influence of various model parameters on the resulting spectral and timing features. This paper focuses on a range of parameters in which the gamma-ray production is dominated by Comptonization of external radiation, most likely appropriate for gamma-ray bright flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) or low-frequency peaked BL Lac objects (LBLs). In most cases relevant for FSRQs and LBLs, the variability of the optical emission is highly correlated with the X-ray and high-energy (HE: > 100 MeV) gamma-ray emission. Our baseline model predicts a lead of the optical variability with respect to the higher-energy bands by 1-2 hr and of the HE gamma-rays before the X-rays by about 1 hr. We show that variations of certain parameters may lead to changing signs of inter-band time lags, potentially explaining the lack of persistent trends of time lags in most blazars.

  20. Turbulence in unsteady flow at high frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    Turbulent flows subjected to oscillations of the mean flow were simulated using a large-eddy simulation computer code for flow in a channel. The objective of the simulations was to provide better understanding of the effects of time-dependent disturbances on the turbulence of a boundary layer and of the underlying physical phenomena regarding the basic interaction between the turbulence and external disturbances. The results confirmed that turbulence is sensitive to certain ranges of frequencies of disturbances. However, no direct connection was found between the frequency of imposed disturbances and the characteristic 'burst' frequency of turbulence. New insight into the nature of turbulence at high frequencies was found. Viscous phenomena near solid walls were found to be the dominant influence for high-frequency perturbations.

  1. Turbulence in unsteady flow at high frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    Turbulent flows subjected to oscillations of the mean flow were simulated using a large-eddy simulation computer code for flow in a channel. The objective of the simulations was to provide better understanding of the effects of time-dependent disturbances on the turbulence of a boundary layer and of the underlying physical phenomena regarding the basic interaction between the turbulence and external disturbances. The results confirmed that turbulence is sensitive to certain ranges of frequencies of disturbances. However, no direct connection was found between the frequency of imposed disturbances and the characteristic 'burst' frequency of turbulence. New insight into the nature of turbulence at high frequencies was found. Viscous phenomena near solid walls were found to be the dominant influence for high-frequency perturbations.

  2. High frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Abukari, S. S. Mensah, S. Y.; Twum, A.; Mensah, N. G.; Adu, K. A.; Rabiu, M.

    2012-12-15

    We report on theoretical analysis of high frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes. Using the kinetic equation with constant relaxation time, an analytical expression for the complex conductivity is obtained. The real part of the complex conductivity is initially negative at zero frequency and become more negative with increasing frequency, until it reaches a resonance minimum at ω ∼ ω{sub B} for metallic zigzag CNs and ω < ω{sub B} for armchair CNs. This resonance enhancement is indicative for terahertz gain without the formation of current instabilities induced by negative dc conductivity. We noted that due to the high density of states of conduction electrons in metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes and the specific dispersion law inherent in hexagonal crystalline structure result in a uniquely high frequency conductivity than the corresponding values for metallic armchair carbon nanotubes. We suggest that this phenomenon can be used to suppress current instabilities that are normally associated with a negative dc differential conductivity.

  3. High-current, high-frequency capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renz, D. D.

    1983-06-01

    The NASA Lewis high-current, high-frequency capacitor development program was conducted under a contract with Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., San Diego, California. The program was started to develop power components for space power systems. One of the components lacking was a high-power, high-frequency capacitor. Some of the technology developed in this program may be directly usable in an all-electric airplane. The materials used in the capacitor included the following: the film is polypropylene, the impregnant is monoisopropyl biphenyl, the conductive epoxy is Emerson and Cuming Stycast 2850 KT, the foil is aluminum, the case is stainless steel (304), and the electrode is a modified copper-ceramic.

  4. High-current, high-frequency capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renz, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    The NASA Lewis high-current, high-frequency capacitor development program was conducted under a contract with Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., San Diego, California. The program was started to develop power components for space power systems. One of the components lacking was a high-power, high-frequency capacitor. Some of the technology developed in this program may be directly usable in an all-electric airplane. The materials used in the capacitor included the following: the film is polypropylene, the impregnant is monoisopropyl biphenyl, the conductive epoxy is Emerson and Cuming Stycast 2850 KT, the foil is aluminum, the case is stainless steel (304), and the electrode is a modified copper-ceramic.

  5. Diffusion coefficient in hydrogel under high-frequency ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Akira; Tanaka, Kei; Kumata, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Miyata, Shogo; Furukawa, Katsuko; Ushida, Takashi

    2007-03-01

    Modulating hydrogel properties by external stimuli can be applied for drug delivery system. For example, ultrasound can enhance drug release from hydrogel by the mechanism which is not fully understood. We measured diffusion coefficient in hydrogel under high-frequency ultrasound to understand mass transport property. To estimate diffusion coefficient, FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) technique was applied with time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and we analyzed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of FITC-dextran (4˜40 kDa) which was fully fused in agarose gel (1˜3 %). As a result, diffusion coefficient was altered when agarose gel was sonicated by 1MHz ultrasound with 400kPa (peak-peak). We discussed several possible underlying mechanisms such as cavitation, heat and phase transition with extended experimental data.

  6. Blazar emission modeling: going beyond spherical cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannios, Dimitrios

    Blazars are a subclass of Active Galactic Nuclei with non-thermal, variable emission extending over most of the electromagnetic spectrum, i.e., from radio up to gamma-rays. The blazar emission is believed to originate in relativistic jets emerging from supermassive black holes at galactic centers, when the jet points close to the line of sight. Because of their very high-energy emission and high luminosity, blazars have long been considered as prime candidates for the acceleration of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs). It comes as no surprise, therefore, that blazars have been the target of multiple observational campaigns. NASA satellite missions in synergy with ground-based facilities have led to huge observational progress in recent years. Yet, the theoretical understanding of the non-thermal processes responsible for the blazar emission lags far behind the observational progress. There is no reliable theory built from first principles for the energy dissipation and particle acceleration mechanisms at work in blazar jets. As a result, there exists no broadly-accepted framework for the particle distribution, geometry and magnetic field in the high-energy emitting regions in blazars. Over the past several years, Co-PI Giannios has argued that blazar emission can be understood as the result of magnetic energy dissipation via magnetic reconnection. In particular, the physical properties in the reconnection layer - where the emission is assumed to take place - can naturally reproduce the extreme energetics and timescales of the observed flaring episodes in blazars. Here, we propose to put the theory of magnetic reconnection in the context of blazar emission on a much more robust footing by capitalizing on new observational constraints and large progress in fully-kinetic particlein-cell (PIC) simulations led by Co-PI Sironi. Thanks to large-scale PIC simulations, we have recently demonstrated that reconnection can satisfy all the basic conditions for the blazar

  7. Apparatus for measuring high frequency currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagmann, Mark J. (Inventor); Sutton, John F. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring high frequency currents includes a non-ferrous core current probe that is coupled to a wide-band transimpedance amplifier. The current probe has a secondary winding with a winding resistance that is substantially smaller than the reactance of the winding. The sensitivity of the current probe is substantially flat over a wide band of frequencies. The apparatus is particularly useful for measuring exposure of humans to radio frequency currents.

  8. High Frequency Guided Wave Virtual Array SAFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, R.; Pardini, A.; Diaz, A.

    2003-03-01

    The principles of the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) are generalized for application to high frequency plate wave signals. It is shown that a flaw signal received in long-range plate wave propagation can be analyzed as if the signals were measured by an infinite array of transducers in an unbounded medium. It is shown that SAFT-based flaw sizing can be performed with as few as three or less actual measurement positions.

  9. High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    physiologic and clin- ical outcomes. Pediatric and adult inhalational injury studies have linked HFPV to an improvement in static lung compliance...sedation–analgesic combinations (usually fentanyl with the individual or combined use of midazolam and propofol and/or dexmedetomidine), patient...1998;84:1174–7. 34. Frantz ID III, Close RH. Alveolar pressure swings during high frequency ventilation in rabbits. Pediatr Res 1985;19:162–6. 35. Pillow

  10. [High-frequency oscillatory ventilation in neonates].

    PubMed

    2002-09-01

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) may be considered as an alternative in the management of severe neonatal respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. In patients with diffuse pulmonary disease, HFOV can applied as a rescue therapy with a high lung volume strategy to obtain adequate alveolar recruitment. We review the mechanisms of gas exchange, as well as the indications, monitoring and special features of the use HVOF in the neonatal period.

  11. Extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics.

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Vigliano, David; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Williams, Jeffery Thomas; Wouters, Gregg A.; Bacon, Larry Donald; Mar, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to understand the fundamental physics of extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics. To accomplish this objective, we produced models, conducted simulations, and performed measurements to identify the mechanisms of effects as frequency increases into the millimeter-wave regime. Our purpose was to answer the questions, 'What are the tradeoffs between coupling, transmission losses, and device responses as frequency increases?', and, 'How high in frequency do effects on electronic systems continue to occur?' Using full wave electromagnetics codes and a transmission-line/circuit code, we investigated how extremely high-frequency RF propagates on wires and printed circuit board traces. We investigated both field-to-wire coupling and direct illumination of printed circuit boards to determine the significant mechanisms for inducing currents at device terminals. We measured coupling to wires and attenuation along wires for comparison to the simulations, looking at plane-wave coupling as it launches modes onto single and multiconductor structures. We simulated the response of discrete and integrated circuit semiconductor devices to those high-frequency currents and voltages, using SGFramework, the open-source General-purpose Semiconductor Simulator (gss), and Sandia's Charon semiconductor device physics codes. This report documents our findings.

  12. Ionospheric modifications in high frequency heating experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2015-01-15

    Featured observations in high-frequency (HF) heating experiments conducted at Arecibo, EISCAT, and high frequency active auroral research program are discussed. These phenomena appearing in the F region of the ionosphere include high-frequency heater enhanced plasma lines, airglow enhancement, energetic electron flux, artificial ionization layers, artificial spread-F, ionization enhancement, artificial cusp, wideband absorption, short-scale (meters) density irregularities, and stimulated electromagnetic emissions, which were observed when the O-mode HF heater waves with frequencies below foF2 were applied. The implication and associated physical mechanism of each observation are discussed and explained. It is shown that these phenomena caused by the HF heating are all ascribed directly or indirectly to the excitation of parametric instabilities which instigate anomalous heating. Formulation and analysis of parametric instabilities are presented. The results show that oscillating two stream instability and parametric decay instability can be excited by the O-mode HF heater waves, transmitted from all three heating facilities, in the regions near the HF reflection height and near the upper hybrid resonance layer. The excited Langmuir waves, upper hybrid waves, ion acoustic waves, lower hybrid waves, and field-aligned density irregularities set off subsequent wave-wave and wave-electron interactions, giving rise to the observed phenomena.

  13. Ionospheric modifications in high frequency heating experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2015-01-01

    Featured observations in high-frequency (HF) heating experiments conducted at Arecibo, EISCAT, and high frequency active auroral research program are discussed. These phenomena appearing in the F region of the ionosphere include high-frequency heater enhanced plasma lines, airglow enhancement, energetic electron flux, artificial ionization layers, artificial spread-F, ionization enhancement, artificial cusp, wideband absorption, short-scale (meters) density irregularities, and stimulated electromagnetic emissions, which were observed when the O-mode HF heater waves with frequencies below foF2 were applied. The implication and associated physical mechanism of each observation are discussed and explained. It is shown that these phenomena caused by the HF heating are all ascribed directly or indirectly to the excitation of parametric instabilities which instigate anomalous heating. Formulation and analysis of parametric instabilities are presented. The results show that oscillating two stream instability and parametric decay instability can be excited by the O-mode HF heater waves, transmitted from all three heating facilities, in the regions near the HF reflection height and near the upper hybrid resonance layer. The excited Langmuir waves, upper hybrid waves, ion acoustic waves, lower hybrid waves, and field-aligned density irregularities set off subsequent wave-wave and wave-electron interactions, giving rise to the observed phenomena.

  14. High frequency x-ray generator basics.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Wlad T

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present basic functional principles of high frequency x-ray generators. The emphasis is put on physical concepts that determine the engineering solutions to the problem of efficient generation and control of high voltage power required to drive the x-ray tube. The physics of magnetically coupled circuits is discussed first, as a background for the discussion of engineering issues related to high-frequency power transformer design. Attention is paid to physical processes that influence such factors as size, efficiency, and reliability of a high voltage power transformer. The basic electrical circuit of a high frequency generator is analyzed next, with focus on functional principles. This section investigates the role and function of basic components, such as power supply, inverter, and voltage doubler. Essential electronic circuits of generator control are then examined, including regulation of voltage, current and timing of electrical power delivery to the x-ray tube. Finally, issues related to efficient feedback control, including basic design of the AEC circuitry are reviewed.

  15. VERITAS OBSERVATIONS OF SIX BRIGHT, HARD-SPECTRUM FERMI-LAT BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bouvier, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Benbow, W.; Boettcher, M.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J.; Falcone, A. E-mail: pafortin@cfa.harvard.edu; Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; and others

    2012-11-10

    We report on VERITAS very high energy (VHE; E {>=} 100 GeV) observations of six blazars selected from the Fermi Large Area Telescope First Source Catalog (1FGL). The gamma-ray emission from 1FGL sources was extrapolated up to the VHE band, taking gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light into account. This allowed the selection of six bright, hard-spectrum blazars that were good candidate TeV emitters. Spectroscopic redshift measurements were attempted with the Keck Telescope for the targets without Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic data. No VHE emission is detected during the observations of the six sources described here. Corresponding TeV upper limits are presented, along with contemporaneous Fermi observations and non-concurrent Swift UVOT and X-Ray Telescope data. The blazar broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are assembled and modeled with a single-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. The SED built for each of the six blazars shows a synchrotron peak bordering between the intermediate- and high-spectrum-peak classifications, with four of the six resulting in particle-dominated emission regions.

  16. VERITAS Observations of Six Bright, Hard-Spectrum Fermi-LAT Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    E. Aliu; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Boettcher, M.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We report on VERITAS very-high-energy (VHE; E >= 100 GeV) observations of six blazars selected from the Fermi Large Area Telescope First Source Catalog (1FGL). The gamma-ray emission from 1FGL sources was extrapolated up to the VHE band, taking gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light into account. This allowed the selection of six bright, hard-spectrum blazars that were good candidate TeV emitters. Spectroscopic redshift measurements were attempted with the Keck Telescope for the targets without Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic data. No VHE emission is detected during the observations of the six sources described here. Corresponding TeV upper limits are presented, along with contemporaneous Fermi observations and non-concurrent Swift UVOT and XRT data. The blazar broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are assembled and modeled with a single-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. The SED built for each of the six blazars show a synchrotron peak bordering between the intermediate- and high-spectrum-peak classifications, with four of the six resulting in particle-dominated emission region.

  17. VERITAS Observations of Six Bright, Hard-Spectrum Fermi-LAT Blazars

    DOE PAGES

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; ...

    2012-10-25

    In this paper, we report on VERITAS very high energy (VHE; E ≥ 100 GeV) observations of six blazars selected from the Fermi Large Area Telescope First Source Catalog (1FGL). The gamma-ray emission from 1FGL sources was extrapolated up to the VHE band, taking gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light into account. This allowed the selection of six bright, hard-spectrum blazars that were good candidate TeV emitters. Spectroscopic redshift measurements were attempted with the Keck Telescope for the targets without Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic data. No VHE emission is detected during the observations of the six sources describedmore » here. Corresponding TeV upper limits are presented, along with contemporaneous Fermi observations and non-concurrent Swift UVOT and X-Ray Telescope data. The blazar broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are assembled and modeled with a single-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. Finally, the SED built for each of the six blazars shows a synchrotron peak bordering between the intermediate- and high-spectrum-peak classifications, with four of the six resulting in particle-dominated emission regions.« less

  18. VERITAS Observations of Six Bright, Hard-Spectrum Fermi-LAT Blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Archambault, S.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Bouvier, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Dumm, J.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huan, H.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lee, K.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nelson, T.; de Bhróithe, A. O’Faoláin; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Saxon, D. B.; Sembroski, G. H.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Tsurusaki, K.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Vivier, M.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; Fortin, P.; Horan, D.; Fumagalli, M.; Kaplan, K.; Prochaska, J. X.

    2012-10-25

    In this paper, we report on VERITAS very high energy (VHE; E ≥ 100 GeV) observations of six blazars selected from the Fermi Large Area Telescope First Source Catalog (1FGL). The gamma-ray emission from 1FGL sources was extrapolated up to the VHE band, taking gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic background light into account. This allowed the selection of six bright, hard-spectrum blazars that were good candidate TeV emitters. Spectroscopic redshift measurements were attempted with the Keck Telescope for the targets without Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopic data. No VHE emission is detected during the observations of the six sources described here. Corresponding TeV upper limits are presented, along with contemporaneous Fermi observations and non-concurrent Swift UVOT and X-Ray Telescope data. The blazar broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are assembled and modeled with a single-zone synchrotron self-Compton model. Finally, the SED built for each of the six blazars shows a synchrotron peak bordering between the intermediate- and high-spectrum-peak classifications, with four of the six resulting in particle-dominated emission regions.

  19. High Frequency VLBI Studies of Sagittarius A* and NRAO 530

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ru-Sen

    2010-10-01

    Compact radio sources (Kellermann & Pauliny-Toth 1981) are widely accepted to be associated with supermassive black holes at the centers of active galaxies. Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations at short millimeter wavelengths offer the unique advantage to look "deeper" into the central core regions. In this thesis we study two com pact radio sources (Sagittarius A* and NRAO 530) with high frequency VLBI techniques. As a starting point, we give in Chapter 1 a general introduction to observational properties of Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and a theoretical basis. In Chapter 2, the compact radio source at the center of the Milky Way, Sagittarius A*, is reviewed. In Chapter 3, the technical basis of VLBI is outlined and then the difficulties of VLBI (and therefore the ways to improve) at short millimeter wavelengths are discussed. Due to its proximity, Sagittarius A* has the largest apparent event horizon of any black hole candidate and therefore it provides a unique opportunity for testing the SMBH paradigm. However, direct imaging of the nucleus is only accessible at short millimeter wavelengths due to the scatter broadening. In Chapter 4, we present results of an inter-day VLBI monitoring of Sagittarius A* at wavelengths of 13, 7, and 3 mm during a global observing campaign in 2007. We measure the flux density and source structure and study their variability on daily time scales. In addition to the VLBI monitoring of the Galactic Center, we present in Chapter 5 results of multi-epoch multi-frequency VLBI observations of the blazar nrao 530. NRAO 530 is an optically violent variable (OVV) source and was observed as a VLBI calibrator in our observations of Sagittarius A*. We investigate the spectral properties of jet components, their frequency-dependent position shifts, and variability of flux density and structure on daily time scales. Analysis of archival data over the last ten years allows us to study the detailed jet kinematics. Finally, a

  20. Strong constraints on hadronic models of blazar activity from Fermi and IceCube stacking analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neronov, Andrii; Semikoz, Dmitri V.; Ptitsyna, Ksenia

    2017-07-01

    Context. High-energy emission from blazars is produced by electrons that are either accelerated directly, under the assumption of leptonic models of blazar activity, or produced in interactions of accelerated protons with matter and radiation fields, under the assumption of hadronic models. The hadronic models predict that γ-ray emission is accompanied by neutrino emission with comparable total energy. Aims: We derive constraints on the hadronic models of activity of blazars imposed by non-detection of neutrino flux from a population of γ-ray emitting blazars. Methods: We stacked the γ-ray and muon neutrino flux from 749 blazars situated in the declination strip above - 5°. Results: Non-detection of neutrino flux from the stacked blazar sample rules out the proton-induced cascade models in which the high-energy emission is powered by interactions of a shock-accelerated proton beam in the active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet with the ambient matter or radiation field of the black hole accretion disk. The result also remains valid for the case of interactions in the scattered radiation field in the broad line region. The IceCube constraint could be avoided if the spectrum of accelerated protons is sharply peaking in the ultra-high-energy cosmic ray range, as in the models of acceleration in the magnetic reconnection regions or in the vacuum gaps of black hole magnetospheres. Models based on these acceleration mechanisms are only consistent with the data if characteristic energies of accelerated protons are higher than 1019 eV. The constraint could also be avoided if the hadronic emission component of γ-ray flux is largely sub-dominant compared to the leptonic component and/or if it only appears during flaring activity episodes, which provide negligible contribution to the time-averaged source flux.

  1. Radio variability and random walk noise properties of four blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jong-Ho; Trippe, Sascha E-mail: trippe@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2014-04-10

    We present the results of a time series analysis of the long-term radio light curves of four blazars: 3C 279, 3C 345, 3C 446, and BL Lacertae. We exploit the database of the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory monitoring program which provides densely sampled light curves spanning 32 years in time in three frequency bands located at 4.8, 8, and 14.5 GHz. Our sources show mostly flat or inverted (spectral indices –0.5 ≲ α ≲ 0) spectra, in agreement with optically thick emission. All light curves show strong variability on all timescales. Analyzing the time lags between the light curves from different frequency bands, we find that we can distinguish high-peaking flares and low-peaking flares in accordance with the classification of Valtaoja et al. The periodograms (temporal power spectra) of the observed light curves are consistent with random-walk power-law noise without any indication of (quasi-)periodic variability. The fact that all four sources studied are in agreement with being random-walk noise emitters at radio wavelengths suggests that such behavior is a general property of blazars.

  2. Blazar Observations with the Robotically Controlled Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, R.; Carini, M. T.; Mattox, J.; Gelderman, R.

    2004-12-01

    Blazars are the most highly variable AGNs known. By virtue of their featureless spectrum, the only diagnostic we have of the physics at work in these objects is their continuum variability. Optical continuum variations, when combined with observations at higher energies, provide valuable insights into the nature of the emission processes at work in these objects. We present the first results of our program to obtain and analyze high time resolution light curves of Blazars using the Robotically Controlled Telescope.

  3. High-frequency Rayleigh-wave method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, C.; Liu, J.; Ivanov, J.; Zeng, C.

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency (???2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave data acquired with a multichannel recording system have been utilized to determine shear (S)-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. This overview article discusses the main research results of high-frequency surface-wave techniques achieved by research groups at the Kansas Geological Survey and China University of Geosciences in the last 15 years. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is a non-invasive acoustic approach to estimate near-surface S-wave velocity. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that simultaneous inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. The other important seismic property, quality factor (Q), can also be estimated with the MASW method by inverting attenuation coefficients of Rayleigh waves. An inverted model (S-wave velocity or Q) obtained using a damped least-squares method can be assessed by an optimal damping vector in a vicinity of the inverted model determined by an objective function, which is the trace of a weighted sum of model-resolution and model-covariance matrices. Current developments include modeling high-frequency Rayleigh-waves in near-surface media, which builds a foundation for shallow seismic or Rayleigh-wave inversion in the time-offset domain; imaging dispersive energy with high resolution in the frequency-velocity domain and possibly with data in an arbitrary acquisition geometry, which opens a door for 3D surface-wave techniques; and successfully separating surface-wave modes, which provides a valuable tool to perform S-wave velocity profiling with high-horizontal resolution. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

  4. High frequency dynamic pressure calibration technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, P. A.; Zasimowich, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    A high frequency dynamic calibration technique for pressure transducers has been developed using a siren pressure generator (SPG). The SPG is an inlet-area-modulated device generating oscillating waveforms with dynamic pressure amplitudes up to 58.6 kPa (8.5 psi) in a frequency range of 1 to 10 kHz. A description of the generator, its operating characteristics and instrumentation used for pressure amplitude and frequency measurements is given. Waveform oscillographs and spectral analysis of the pressure transducers' output signals are presented.

  5. High frequency dynamic pressure calibration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, P. A.; Zasimowich, R. F.

    A high frequency dynamic calibration technique for pressure transducers has been developed using a siren pressure generator (SPG). The SPG is an inlet-area-modulated device generating oscillating waveforms with dynamic pressure amplitudes up to 58.6 kPa (8.5 psi) in a frequency range of 1 to 10 kHz. A description of the generator, its operating characteristics and instrumentation used for pressure amplitude and frequency measurements is given. Waveform oscillographs and spectral analysis of the pressure transducers' output signals are presented.

  6. RF Breakdown in High Frequency Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Doebert, S

    2004-05-27

    RF breakdown in high-frequency accelerators appears to limit the maximum achievable gradient as well as the reliability of such devices. Experimental results from high power tests, obtained mostly in the framework of the NLC/GLC project at 11 GHz and from the CLIC study at 30 GHz, will be used to illustrate the important issues. The dependence of the breakdown phenomena on rf pulse length, operating frequency and fabrication material will be described. Since reliability is extremely important for large scale accelerators such as a linear collider, the measurements of breakdown rate as a function of the operating gradient will be highlighted.

  7. The LASI high-frequency ellipticity system

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1995-12-31

    A high-frequency, high-resolution, electromagnetic (EM) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHz), (4) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (5) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (6) visualization of complex structures during the survey.

  8. The LASI high-frequency ellipticity system

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    A high-frequency, high-resolution, electromagnetic (EM) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHz), (4) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (5) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (6) visualization of complex structures during the survey.

  9. Inverter design for high frequency power distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A class of simple resonantly commutated inverters are investigated for use in a high power (100 KW - 1000 KW) high frequency (10 KHz - 20 KHz) AC power distribution system. The Mapham inverter is found to provide a unique combination of large thyristor turn-off angle and good utilization factor, much better than an alternate 'current-fed' inverter. The effects of loading the Mapham inverter entirely with rectifier loads are investigated by simulation and with an experimental 3 KW 20 KHz inverter. This inverter is found to be well suited to a power system with heavy rectifier loading.

  10. Classification of peaked spectrum sources by using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, R. J. C.; Tornikoski, M.; Lähteenmäki, A.

    2017-07-01

    Compact steep-spectrum sources (CSS), high frequency peakers (HFP), and gigahertz-peaked spectrum sources (GPS) are compact radio sources with an intense emission (O'Dea 1998, and references therein). Morphological studies, dense gas analyses, and surveys suggesting the absence of a halo diffusion emission, suggest the idea that peaked spectrum sources (PSS) are young AGN (see, Fanti et al. 1995; Readhead et al. 1996; Stanghellini et al. 1997; Bicknell et al. 1997). Previously, Torniainen et al. (2008) carried out a study of GPS sources, finding that those sources do not follow a distinct morphological classification. In addition, they found that many blazars in a flaring state are misclassified as GPS sources (Torniainen et al. 2005). These findings compromised the simple vision of the g alaxy-quasar dualism, and the amount of genuine GPS sources. For this reason, we endeavour a new classification of 363 sources with the aim to find new insights about their spectral properties using neural networks. Through clustering methods, we have grouped galaxies that present a set of similar physical properties. In total, 18 physical variables were used for this purpose. In particular, we used Multi-dimensional Scaling (MDS) and t-distributed Stochastic Neighbour Embedding (t-SNE) analyses. Those analyses proved to be robust for analysing data of the order of hundreds of data. From our analyses, we were unable to find a clear classification for PSS. Moreover, new galaxies presented a flat spectra emission, or high variability in the radio emission, compromising their classification as genuine PSS.

  11. The RINGO2 and DIPOL optical polarization catalogue of blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jermak, H.; Steele, I. A.; Lindfors, E.; Hovatta, T.; Nilsson, K.; Lamb, G. P.; Mundell, C.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Berdyugin, A.; Kadenius, V.; Reinthal, R.; Takalo, L.

    2016-11-01

    We present ˜2000 polarimetric and ˜3000 photometric observations of 15 γ-ray bright blazars over a period of 936 days (2008-10-11 to 2012-10-26) using data from the Tuorla blazar monitoring program (KVA DIPOL) and Liverpool Telescope (LT) RINGO2 polarimeters (supplemented with data from SkyCamZ (LT) and Fermi-LAT γ-ray data). In 11 out of 15 sources we identify a total of 19 electric vector position angle (EVPA) rotations and 95 flaring episodes. We group the sources into subclasses based on their broad-band spectral characteristics and compare their observed optical and γ-ray properties. We find that (1) the optical magnitude and γ-ray flux are positively correlated, (2) EVPA rotations can occur in any blazar subclass, four sources show rotations that go in one direction and immediately rotate back, (3) we see no difference in the γ-ray flaring rates in the sample; flares can occur during and outside of rotations with no preference for this behaviour, (4) the average degree of polarization (DoP), optical magnitude and γ-ray flux are lower during an EVPA rotation compared with during non-rotation and the distribution of the DoP during EVPA rotations is not drawn from the same parent sample as the distribution outside rotations, (5) the number of observed flaring events and optical polarization rotations are correlated, however we find no strong evidence for a temporal association between individual flares and rotations and (6) the maximum observed DoP increases from ˜10 per cent to ˜30 per cent to ˜40 per cent for subclasses with synchrotron peaks at high, intermediate and low frequencies, respectively.

  12. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Dymond, Jr., Lauren E.; Gitsevich, Aleksandr; Grimm, William G.; Kipling, Kent; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Ola, Samuel A.; Simpson, James E.; Trimble, William C.; Tsai, Peter; Turner, Brian P.

    2001-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and I or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to adjust the driving frequency of the oscillator.

  13. High frequency inductive lamp and power oscillator

    DOEpatents

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Dolan, James T.; Kirkpatrick, Douglas A.; Leng, Yongzhang

    2000-01-01

    A high frequency inductively coupled electrodeless lamp includes an excitation coil with an effective electrical length which is less than one half wavelength of a driving frequency applied thereto, preferably much less. The driving frequency may be greater than 100 MHz and is preferably as high as 915 MHz. Preferably, the excitation coil is configured as a non-helical, semi-cylindrical conductive surface having less than one turn, in the general shape of a wedding ring. At high frequencies, the current in the coil forms two loops which are spaced apart and parallel to each other. Configured appropriately, the coil approximates a Helmholtz configuration. The lamp preferably utilizes an bulb encased in a reflective ceramic cup with a pre-formed aperture defined therethrough. The ceramic cup may include structural features to aid in alignment and/or a flanged face to aid in thermal management. The lamp head is preferably an integrated lamp head comprising a metal matrix composite surrounding an insulating ceramic with the excitation integrally formed on the ceramic. A novel solid-state oscillator preferably provides RF power to the lamp. The oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  14. High-Frequency Fluctuations During Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jara-Almonte, J.; Ji, H.; Daughton, W. S.; Roytershteyn, V.; Yamada, M.; Yoo, J.; Fox, W. R., II

    2014-12-01

    During collisionless reconnection, the decoupling of the field from the plasma is known to occur only within the localized ion and electron diffusion regions, however predictions from fully kinetic simulations do not agree with experimental observations on the size of the electron diffusion region, implying differing reconnection mechanisms. Previous experiments, along with 2D and 3D simulations, have conclusively shown that this discrepancy cannot be explained by either classical collisions or Lower-Hybrid Drift Instability (Roytershtyn 2010, 2013). Due to computational limitations, however, previous simulations were constrained to have minimal scale separation between the electron skin depth and the Debye length (de/λD ~ 10), much smaller than in experiments (de/λD ~ 300). This lack of scale-separation can drastically modify the electrostatic microphysics within the diffusion layer. Using 3D, fully explicit kinetic simulations with a realistic and unprecedentedly large separation between the Debye length and the electron skin depth, de/λD = 64, we show that high frequency electrostatic waves (ω >> ωLH) can exist within the electron diffusion region. These waves generate small-scale turbulence within the electron diffusion region which acts to broaden the layer. Anomalous resistivity is also generated by the turbulence and significantly modifies the force balance. In addition to simulation results, initial experimental measurements of high frequency fluctuations (electrostatic and electromagnetic, f ≤ 1 GHz) in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) will be presented.

  15. High Frequency Plasma Generators for Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divergilio, W. F.; Goede, H.; Fosnight, V. V.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a one year program to experimentally adapt two new types of high frequency plasma generators to Argon ion thrusters and to analytically study a third high frequency source concept are presented. Conventional 30 cm two grid ion extraction was utilized or proposed for all three sources. The two plasma generating methods selected for experimental study were a radio frequency induction (RFI) source, operating at about 1 MHz, and an electron cyclotron heated (ECH) plasma source operating at about 5 GHz. Both sources utilize multi-linecusp permanent magnet configurations for plasma confinement. The plasma characteristics, plasma loading of the rf antenna, and the rf frequency dependence of source efficiency and antenna circuit efficiency are described for the RFI Multi-cusp source. In a series of tests of this source at Lewis Research Center, minimum discharge losses of 220+/-10 eV/ion were obtained with propellant utilization of .45 at a beam current of 3 amperes. Possible improvement modifications are discussed.

  16. High frequency ultrasonic scattering by biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shung, K. Kirk; Maruvada, Subha

    2002-05-01

    High frequency (HF) diagnostic ultrasonic imaging devices at frequencies higher than 20 MHz have found applications in ophthalmology, dermatology, and vascular surgery. To be able to interpret these images and to further the development of these devices, a better understanding of ultrasonic scattering in biological tissues such as blood, liver, myocardium in the high frequency range is crucial. This work has previously been hampered by the lack of suitable transducers. With the availability of HF transducers going to 90 MHz, HF attenuation and backscatter experiments have been made on porcine red blood cell (RBC) suspensions, for which much data on attenuation and backscatter can be found in the literature in the lower frequency range for frequencies, from 30 to 90 MHz and on bovine tissues for frequencies from 10 to 30 MHz using a modified substitution method that allow the utilization of focused transducers. These results will be reviewed in this talk along with relevant theoretical models that could be applied to interpreting them. The relevance of the parameter that has been frequently used in the biomedical ultrasound literature to describe backscattering, the backscattering coefficient, will be critically examined.

  17. Protection circuitry for high frequency ultrasonic NDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaggares, N. Chris; Tang, Raymond K.; Sinclair, A. N., Prof.; Foster, F. S., Prof.; Haraierciwz, Kasia; Starkoski, Brian

    2000-05-01

    Most commercial ultrasonic NDE equipment employs a voltage spike to stimulate a piezoelectric transducer. To protect the signal processing unit from damage from this spike, a voltage limiter or "diode clamp" is included in the pulser-receiver, and limits the voltage reaching the amplifier or oscilloscope. In this project, the deleterious effects of such limiters on the ultrasonic echo in the high frequency (50-100 MHz range) have been quantified: these effects include significant distortion in the frequency content, and oscillations causing a drop in timing resolution by over a factor of 2. To address these problems, a high-voltage high-frequency switch has been designed to replace the voltage limiter; the switch directs the high-voltage spike away from the signal processing/display unit, towards an impedance-matched termination. A prototype circuit has been built, based on two high-voltage MOSFET's acting as a switch for the bi-polar stimulation pulse. The reduction in echo distortion and improvement in time resolution have been successfully modeled with the CAD tool HSPICE, although parasitic capacitance in the current generation of commercial MOSFET's is a continuing concern.

  18. Noise temperature in graphene at high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengel, Raúl; Iglesias, José M.; Pascual, Elena; Martín, María J.

    2016-07-01

    A numerical method for obtaining the frequency-dependent noise temperature in monolayer graphene is presented. From the mobility and diffusion coefficient values provided by Monte Carlo simulation, the noise temperature in graphene is studied up to the THz range, considering also the influence of different substrate types. The influence of the applied electric field is investigated: the noise temperature is found to increase with the applied field, dropping down at high frequencies (in the sub-THz range). The results show that the low-frequency value of the noise temperature in graphene on a substrate tends to be reduced as compared to the case of suspended graphene due to the important effect of remote polar phonon interactions, thus indicating a reduced emitted noise power; however, at very high frequencies the influence of the substrate tends to be significantly reduced, and the differences between the suspended and on-substrate cases tend to be minimized. The values obtained are comparable to those observed in GaAs and semiconductor nitrides.

  19. High-Frequency Excitation of a Plane Wake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, Alan B.; Rogers, Michael M.

    2000-01-01

    an open cavity flow. This work was funded by the US Air Force Research Laboratory, and the experiments were developed and executed at Boeing by Raman and Kibens. These experiments involved high-frequency forcing applied to low-speed flows using wedge piezo actuators and powered resonance tubes. The system is simple, open loop, compact, potentially requires little power, and is easily integrated. Dramatic results, such as reductions of 20 dB in spectral peaks and 5-8 dB in overall levels across the entire acoustic spectrum, were obtained in some cases. Sample results are presented. Following this success in low-speed flows, an international cooperative program continuing this work involved transonic experiments in a mid-size facility in the United Kingdom. Similar reductions in noise level were obtained in these transonic experiments. Discussion of this work is given in Raman et at. and Stanek, Raman, Kibens, and Ross. Other experiments at Georgia Tech have shown significant potential of high-frequency forcing in controlling reaction rates in chemically reacting flows.

  20. High-frequency dynamics of ultrasound contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Kruse, Dustin E; Dayton, Paul A; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2005-11-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents enhance echoes from the microvasculature and enable the visualization of flow in smaller vessels. Here, we optically and acoustically investigate microbubble oscillation and echoes following insonation with a 10 MHz center frequency pulse. A high-speed camera system with a temporal resolution of 10 ns, which provides two-dimensional (2-D) frame images and streak images, is used in optical experiments. Two confocally aligned transducers, transmitting at 10 MHz and receiving at 5 MHz, are used in acoustical experiments in order to detect subharmonic components. Results of a numerical evaluation of the modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation are used to predict the dynamics of a microbubble and are compared to results of in vitro experiments. From the optical observations of a single microbubble, nonlinear oscillation, destruction, and radiation force are observed. The maximum bubble expansion, resulting from insonation with a 20-cycle, 10-MHz linear chirp with a peak negative pressure of 3.5 MPa, has been evaluated. For an initial diameter ranging from 1.5 to 5 microm, a maximum diameter less than 8 microm is produced during insonation. Optical and acoustical experiments provide insight into the mechanisms of destruction, including fragmentation and active diffusion. High-frequency pulse transmission may provide the opportunity to detect contrast echoes resulting from a single pulse, may be robust in the presence of tissue motion, and may provide the opportunity to incorporate high-frequency ultrasound into destruction-replenishment techniques.

  1. High-Frequency Dynamics of Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Kruse, Dustin E.; Dayton, Paul A.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents enhance echoes from the microvasculature and enable the visualization of flow in smaller vessels. Here, we optically and acoustically investigate microbubble oscillation and echoes following insonation with a 10 MHz center frequency pulse. A high-speed camera system with a temporal resolution of 10 ns, which provides two-dimensional (2-D) frame images and streak images, is used in optical experiments. Two confocally aligned transducers, transmitting at 10 MHz and receiving at 5 MHz, are used in acoustical experiments in order to detect subharmonic components. Results of a numerical evaluation of the modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation are used to predict the dynamics of a microbubble and are compared to results of in vitro experiments. From the optical observations of a single microbubble, nonlinear oscillation, destruction, and radiation force are observed. The maximum bubble expansion, resulting from insonation with a 20-cycle, 10-MHz linear chirp with a peak negative pressure of 3.5 MPa, has been evaluated. For an initial diameter ranging from 1.5 to 5 μm, a maximum diameter less than 8 μm is produced during insonation. Optical and acoustical experiments provide insight into the mechanisms of destruction, including fragmentation and active diffusion. High-frequency pulse transmission may provide the opportunity to detect contrast echoes resulting from a single pulse, may be robust in the presence of tissue motion, and may provide the opportunity to incorporate high-frequency ultrasound into destruction-replenishment techniques. PMID:16422410

  2. Constraining Emission Models of Luminous Blazar Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, Marek; Stawarz, Lukasz; Moderski, Rafal; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Madejski, Greg; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    Many luminous blazars which are associated with quasar-type active galactic nuclei display broad-band spectra characterized by a large luminosity ratio of their high-energy ({gamma}-ray) and low-energy (synchrotron) spectral components. This large ratio, reaching values up to 100, challenges the standard synchrotron self-Compton models by means of substantial departures from the minimum power condition. Luminous blazars have also typically very hard X-ray spectra, and those in turn seem to challenge hadronic scenarios for the high energy blazar emission. As shown in this paper, no such problems are faced by the models which involve Comptonization of radiation provided by a broad-line-region, or dusty molecular torus. The lack or weakness of bulk Compton and Klein-Nishina features indicated by the presently available data favors production of {gamma}-rays via up-scattering of infrared photons from hot dust. This implies that the blazar emission zone is located at parsec-scale distances from the nucleus, and as such is possibly associated with the extended, quasi-stationary reconfinement shocks formed in relativistic outflows. This scenario predicts characteristic timescales for flux changes in luminous blazars to be days/weeks, consistent with the variability patterns observed in such systems at infrared, optical and {gamma}-ray frequencies. We also propose that the parsec-scale blazar activity can be occasionally accompanied by dissipative events taking place at sub-parsec distances and powered by internal shocks and/or reconnection of magnetic fields. These could account for the multiwavelength intra-day flares occasionally observed in powerful blazars sources.

  3. Parametric nanomechanical amplification at very high frequency.

    PubMed

    Karabalin, R B; Feng, X L; Roukes, M L

    2009-09-01

    Parametric resonance and amplification are important in both fundamental physics and technological applications. Here we report very high frequency (VHF) parametric resonators and mechanical-domain amplifiers based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Compound mechanical nanostructures patterned by multilayer, top-down nanofabrication are read out by a novel scheme that parametrically modulates longitudinal stress in doubly clamped beam NEMS resonators. Parametric pumping and signal amplification are demonstrated for VHF resonators up to approximately 130 MHz and provide useful enhancement of both resonance signal amplitude and quality factor. We find that Joule heating and reduced thermal conductance in these nanostructures ultimately impose an upper limit to device performance. We develop a theoretical model to account for both the parametric response and nonequilibrium thermal transport in these composite nanostructures. The results closely conform to our experimental observations, elucidate the frequency and threshold-voltage scaling in parametric VHF NEMS resonators and sensors, and establish the ultimate sensitivity limits of this approach.

  4. Degradation of PAHs by high frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Manariotis, Ioannis D; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2011-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are persistent organic compounds, which have been reported in the literature to efficiently degrade at low (e.g. 20 kHz) and moderate (e.g. 506 kHz) ultrasound frequencies. The present study focuses on degradation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene by ultrasound at three different relatively high frequencies (i.e. 582, 862, and 1142 kHz). The experimental results indicate that for all three frequencies and power inputs ≥ 133 W phenanthrene degrades to concentrations lower than our experimental detection limit (<1 μg/L). Phenanthrene degrades significantly faster at 582 kHz than at 862 and 1142 kHz. For all three frequencies, the degradation rates per unit mass are similar for naphthalene and phenanthrene and lower for pyrene. Furthermore, naphthalene degradation requires less energy than phenanthrene, which requires less energy than pyrene under the same conditions. No hexane-extractable metabolites were identified in the solutions.

  5. Computer modeling of tactical high frequency antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Bobby G., Jr.

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to compare the performance of three tactical high frequency antennas to be used as possible replacement for the Tactical Data Communications Central (TDCC) antennas. The antennas were modeled using the Numerical Electromagnetics Code, Version 3 (NEC3), and the Eyring Low Profile and Buried Antenna Modeling Program (PAT7) for several different frequencies and ground conditions. The performance was evaluated by comparing gain at the desired takeoff angles, the voltage standing wave ratio of each antenna, and its omni-directional capability. The buried antenna models, the ELPA-302 and horizontal dipole, were most effective when employed over poor ground conditions. The best performance under all conditions tested was demonstrated by the HT-20T. Each of these antennas have tactical advantages and disadvantages and can optimize communications under certain conditions. The selection of the best antenna is situation dependent. An experimental test of these models is recommended to verify the modeling results.

  6. Plasma effects in high frequency radiative transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C.T.

    1981-02-08

    This paper is intended as a survey of collective plasma processes which can affect the transfer of high frequency radiation in a hot dense plasma. We are rapidly approaching an era when this subject will become important in the laboratory. For pedagogical reasons we have chosen to examine plasma processes by relating them to a particular reference plasma which will consist of fully ionized carbon at a temperature kT=1 KeV (10/sup 70/K) and an electron density N = 3 x 10/sup 23/cm/sup -3/, (which corresponds to a mass density rho = 1 gm/cm/sup 3/ and an ion density N/sub i/ = 5 x 10/sup 22/ cm/sup -3/). We will consider the transport in such a plasma of photons ranging from 1 eV to 1 KeV in energy. Such photons will probably be frequently used as diagnostic probes of hot dense laboratory plasmas.

  7. High-frequency micromechanical columnar resonators

    PubMed Central

    Kehrbusch, Jenny; Ilin, Elena A; Bozek, Peter; Radzio, Bernhard; Oesterschulze, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency silicon columnar microresonators are fabricated using a simple but effective technological scheme. An optimized fabrication scheme was invented to obtain mechanically protected microcolumns with lateral dimensions controlled on a scale of at least 1 μm. In this paper, we investigate the influence of the environmental conditions on the mechanical resonator properties. At ambient conditions, we observed a frequency stability δf/f of less than 10−6 during 5 h of operation at almost constant temperature. However, varying the temperature shifts the frequency by approximately −173 Hz °C− 1. In accordance with a viscous damping model of the ambient gas, we perceived that the quality factor of the first flexural mode decreased with the inverse of the square root of pressure. However, in the low-pressure regime, a linear dependence was observed. We also investigated the influence of the type of the immersing gas on the resonant frequency. PMID:27877296

  8. High-Frequency Mechanostimulation of Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kadem, Laith F; Suana, K Grace; Holz, Michelle; Wang, Wei; Westerhaus, Hannes; Herges, Rainer; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine

    2017-01-02

    Cell adhesion is regulated by molecularly defined protein interactions and by mechanical forces, which can activate a dynamic restructuring of adhesion sites. Previous attempts to explore the response of cell adhesion to forces have been limited to applying mechanical stimuli that involve the cytoskeleton. In contrast, we here apply a new, oscillatory type of stimulus through push-pull azobenzenes. Push-pull azobenzenes perform a high-frequency, molecular oscillation upon irradiation with visible light that has frequently been applied in polymer surface relief grating. We here use these oscillations to address single adhesion receptors. The effect of molecular oscillatory forces on cell adhesion has been analyzed using single-cell force spectroscopy and gene expression studies. Our experiments demonstrate a reinforcement of cell adhesion as well as upregulated expression levels of adhesion-associated genes as a result of the nanoscale "tickling" of integrins. This novel type of mechanical stimulus provides a previously unprecedented molecular control of cellular mechanosensing.

  9. High-frequency ultrasonic wire bonding systems

    PubMed

    Tsujino; Yoshihara; Sano; Ihara

    2000-03-01

    The vibration characteristics of longitudinal-complex transverse vibration systems with multiple resonance frequencies of 350-980 kHz for ultrasonic wire bonding of IC, LSI or electronic devices were studied. The complex vibration systems can be applied for direct welding of semiconductor tips (face-down bonding, flip-chip bonding) and packaging of electronic devices. A longitudinal-complex transverse vibration bonding system consists of a complex transverse vibration rod, two driving longitudinal transducers 7.0 mm in diameter and a transverse vibration welding tip. The vibration distributions along ceramic and stainless-steel welding tips were measured at up to 980 kHz. A high-frequency vibration system with a height of 20.7 mm and a weight of less than 15 g was obtained.

  10. Fundamentals of bipolar high-frequency surgery.

    PubMed

    Reidenbach, H D

    1993-04-01

    In endoscopic surgery a very precise surgical dissection technique and an efficient hemostasis are of decisive importance. The bipolar technique may be regarded as a method which satisfies both requirements, especially regarding a high safety standard in application. In this context the biophysical and technical fundamentals of this method, which have been known in principle for a long time, are described with regard to the special demands of a newly developed field of modern surgery. After classification of this method into a general and a quasi-bipolar mode, various technological solutions of specific bipolar probes, in a strict and in a generalized sense, are characterized in terms of indication. Experimental results obtained with different bipolar instruments and probes are given. The application of modern microprocessor-controlled high-frequency surgery equipment and, wherever necessary, the integration of additional ancillary technology into the specialized bipolar instruments may result in most useful and efficient tools of a key technology in endoscopic surgery.

  11. High frequency conductivity of hot electrons in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amekpewu, M.; Mensah, S. Y.; Musah, R.; Mensah, N. G.; Abukari, S. S.; Dompreh, K. A.

    2016-05-01

    High frequency conductivity of hot electrons in undoped single walled achiral Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) under the influence of ac-dc driven fields was considered. We investigated semi-classically Boltzmann's transport equation with and without the presence of the hot electrons' source by deriving the current densities in CNTs. Plots of the normalized current density versus frequency of ac-field revealed an increase in both the minimum and maximum peaks of normalized current density at lower frequencies as a result of a strong injection of hot electrons. The applied ac-field plays a twofold role of suppressing the space-charge instability in CNTs and simultaneously pumping an energy for lower frequency generation and amplification of THz radiations. These have enormous promising applications in very different areas of science and technology.

  12. High-frequency (1000 Hz) tympanometry in normal neonates.

    PubMed

    Kei, Joseph; Allison-Levick, Julie; Dockray, Jacqueline; Harrys, Rachel; Kirkegard, Christina; Wong, Janet; Maurer, Marion; Hegarty, Jayne; Young, June; Tudehope, David

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of high frequency (1000 Hz) acoustic admittance results obtained from normal neonates were described in this study. Participants were 170 healthy neonates (96 boys and 74 girls) aged between 1 and 6 days (mean = 3.26 days, SD = 0.92). Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), and 226 Hz and 1000 Hz probe tone tympanograms were obtained from the participants using a Madsen Capella OAE/middle ear analyser. The results showed that of the 170 neonates, 34 were not successfully tested in both ears, 14 failed the TEOAE screen in one or both ears, and 122 (70 boys, 52 girls) passed the TEOAE screen in both ears and also maintained an acceptable probe seal during tympanometry. The 1000 Hz tympanometric data for the 122 neonates (244 ears) showed a single-peaked tympanogram in 225 ears (92.2%), a flat-sloping tympanogram in 14 ears (5.7%), a double-peaked tympanogram in 3 ears (1.2%) and other unusual shapes in 2 ears (0.8%). There was a significant ear effect, with right ears showing significantly higher mean peak compensated static admittance and tympanometric width, but lower mean acoustic admittance at +200 daPa and gradient than left ears. No significant gender effects or its interaction with ear were found. The normative tympanometric data derived from this cohort may serve as a guide for detecting middle ear dysfunction in neonates.

  13. Nonlinear interactions in planar jet flow with high frequency excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutzfeldt, Timothy

    An experimental active flow control study was conducted involving excitation of a tabletop planar turbulent jet with a high frequency piezoelectric actuator. The excitation frequencies considered corresponded to the dissipative subrange of turbulent kinetic energy and were orders of magnitude greater than classical shear layer instability modes. Single-wire and dual-wire hot wire probes were used to determine how excitation induces alterations to bulk flow quantities as well as nonlinear interactions. Differences in flow receptivity to high frequency excitation were investigated by varying the development length of the turbulent jet at a Reynolds number of 8,700 and Strouhal number of 21.3. Excitation of developed turbulent flow yielded larger increases in the energy dissipation rate and higher magnitude velocity power spectrum peaks at the forcing frequency than undeveloped turbulent flow. Further tests with excitation of reduced mean velocity flow at a Reynolds number of 6,600 and a Strouhal number of 27.8 demonstrated that high frequency forcing resulted in transfer of energy from large to small scales in the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum. This phenomenon appeared to support past literature that indicated that the mechanics of high frequency forcing are fundamentally different from conventional instability-based forcing. Theoretical arguments are presented to support these experimental observations where it is shown that coupling between the applied forcing and background turbulent fluctuations is enhanced. An eddy viscosity model first proposed under the assumption of instability-based forcing was shown to be an effective approximation for the experimental measurements presented here in which the flow was forced directly at turbulence scales. Dimensional analysis of the coupling between the induced oscillations and the turbulent fluctuations supported experimental findings that receptivity to excitation was increased for forced flow with higher turbulent

  14. 1WHSP: An IR-based sample of ~1000 VHE γ-ray blazar candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsioli, B.; Fraga, B.; Giommi, P.; Padovani, P.; Marrese, P. M.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Blazars are the dominant type of extragalactic sources at microwave and at γ-ray energies. In the most energetic part of the electromagnetic spectrum (E ≳ 100 GeV) a high fraction of high Galactic latitude sources are blazars of the high synchrotron peaked (HSP) type, that is BL Lac objects with synchrotron power peaking in the UV or in the X-ray band. Building new large samples of HSP blazars is key to understand the properties of jets under extreme conditions, and to study the demographics and the peculiar cosmological evolution of these sources. Aims: High synchrotron peaked blazars are remarkably rare, with only a few hundreds of them expected to be above the sensitivity limits of currently available surveys, some of which include hundreds of millions of sources. To find these very uncommon objects, we have devised a method that combines ALLWISE survey data with multi-frequency selection criteria. Methods: The sample was defined starting from a primary list of infrared colour-colour selected sources from the ALLWISE all sky survey database, and applying further restrictions on IR-radio and IR-X-ray flux ratios. Using a polynomial fit to the multi-frequency data (radio to X-ray), we estimated synchrotron peak frequencies and fluxes of each object. Results: We assembled a sample including 992 sources, which is currently the largest existing list of confirmed and candidates HSP blazars. All objects are expected to radiate up to the highest γ-ray photon energies. In fact, 299 of these are confirmed emitters of GeV γ-ray photons (based on Fermi-LAT catalogues), and 36 have already been detected in the TeV band. The majority of sources in the sample are within reach of the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), and many may be detectable even by the current generation of Cherenkov telescopes during flaring episodes. The sample includes 425 previously known blazars, 151 new identifications, and 416 HSP candidates (mostly faint sources) for which no

  15. Radio core dominance of Fermi blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Zhi-Yuan; Fan, Jun-Hui; Liu, Yi; Yuan, Yi-Hai; Cai, Wei; Xiao, Hu-Bing; Lin, Chao; Yang, Jiang-He

    2016-07-01

    During the first 4 years of mission, Fermi/LAT detected 1444 blazars (3FGL) (Ackermann et al. in Astrophys. J. 810:14, 2015). Fermi/LAT observations of blazars indicate that Fermi blazars are luminous and strongly variable with variability time scales, for some cases, as short as hours. Those observations suggest a strong beaming effect in Fermi/LAT blazars. In the present work, we will investigate the beaming effect in Fermi/LAT blazars using a core-dominance parameter, R = S_{core}/ S_{ext.}, where S_{core} is the core emission, while S_{ext.} is the extended emission. We compiled 1335 blazars with available core-dominance parameter, out of which 169 blazars have γ-ray emission (from 3FGL). We compared the core-dominance parameters, log R, between the 169 Fermi-detected blazars (FDBs) and the rest non-Fermi-detected blazars (non-FDBs), and we found that the averaged values are < log Rrangle = 0.99±0.87 for FDBs and < log Rrangle = -0.62±1.15 for the non-FDBs. A K-S test shows that the probability for the two distributions of FDBs and non-FDBs to come from the same parent distribution is near zero (P =9.12×10^{-52}). Secondly, we also investigated the variability index (V.I.) in the γ-ray band for FDBs, and we found V.I.=(0.12 ±0.07) log R+(2.25±0.10), suggesting that a source with larger log R has larger V.I. value. Thirdly, we compared the mean values of radio spectral index for FDBs and non-FDBs, and we obtained < α_{radio}rangle =0.06±0.35 for FDBs and < α_{radio}rangle =0.57±0.46 for non-FDBs. If γ-rays are composed of two components like radio emission (core and extended components), then we can expect a correlation between log R and the γ-ray spectral index. When we used the radio core-dominance parameter, log R, to investigate the relationship, we found that the spectral index for the core component is α_{γ}|_{core} = 1.11 (a photon spectral index of α_{γ}^{ph}|_{core} = 2.11) and that for the extended component is α_{γ}|_{ext.} = 0

  16. A physical classification scheme for blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landt, Hermine; Padovani, Paolo; Perlman, Eric S.; Giommi, Paolo

    2004-06-01

    Blazars are currently separated into BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and flat spectrum radio quasars based on the strength of their emission lines. This is performed rather arbitrarily by defining a diagonal line in the Ca H&K break value-equivalent width plane, following Marchã et al. We readdress this problem and put the classification scheme for blazars on firm physical grounds. We study ~100 blazars and radio galaxies from the Deep X-ray Radio Blazar Survey (DXRBS) and 2-Jy radio survey and find a significant bimodality for the narrow emission line [OIII]λ5007. This suggests the presence of two physically distinct classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show that all radio-loud AGN, blazars and radio galaxies, can be effectively separated into weak- and strong-lined sources using the [OIII]λ5007-[OII]λ3727 equivalent width plane. This plane allows one to disentangle orientation effects from intrinsic variations in radio-loud AGN. Based on DXRBS, the strongly beamed sources of the new class of weak-lined radio-loud AGN are made up of BL Lacs at the ~75 per cent level, whereas those of the strong-lined radio-loud AGN include mostly (~97 per cent) quasars.

  17. Pushing the Limits: High Redshift Fermi-LAT Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Roopesh; Gasparrini, Dario; Lott, Benoit; Cutini, Sara; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    High-redshift blazars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) are of great astrophysical import as they are extreme objects whose energetics remain a mystery. Such blazars are intrinsically interesting since they inform us about the evolution of gamma-ray blazars and are, by definition, some of the more luminous blazars in the LAT sample. They are also an excellent tool to study the EBL and thus the gamma-ray horizon. We present the latest high redshift blazar detections in the LAT and discuss some of their implications.

  18. A figure of merit for blazar-like source identification in the gamma-ray energy band

    SciTech Connect

    Cavazzuti, Elisabetta; Pittori, Carlotta; Giommi, Paolo; Colafrancesco, Sergio

    2007-07-12

    The microwave to gamma-ray slope {alpha}{mu}{gamma} can be used as a viable figure of merit for blazar-like source identification in gamma-rays. Taking into account the constraints from the observed extragalactic gamma-ray background, one can estimate the maximum duty cycle allowed for a selected sample of low energy peaked (LBL) blazars, in order to be detectable for the nominal sensitivity values of AGILE and GLAST gamma-ray experiments. This work is based on the results of a recently derived blazar radio LogN-LogS obtained by combining several multi-frequency surveys. We present our estimates of duty cycle constraints applied on a sample composed by 146 high latitude and 74 medium latitude LBL blazars from the new WMAP3 yr catalog. Our results can be used as an indicator to identify good gamma-ray blazar candidates: sources with high values of duty cycle can in principle be detectable also in a ''steady'' state by AGILE and GLAST without over-predicting the extragalactic background.

  19. Spectral properties of bright Fermi-detected blazars in the gamma-ray band

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.

    2010-01-28

    We investigated the gamma-ray energy spectra of bright blazars of the LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS) using Fermi-LAT data. Spectral properties (hardness, curvature, and variability) established using a data set accumulated over 6 months of operation are presented and discussed for different blazar classes and subclasses: flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), low-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (LSP-BLLacs), intermediate-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (ISP-BLLacs), and high-synchrotron peaked BLLacs (HSP-BLLacs). Furthermore, the distribution of photon index (Γ, obtained from a power-law fit above 100 MeV) is found to correlate strongly with blazar subclass. The change in spectral index from that averaged over the 6 months observingmore » period is < 0.2-0.3 when the flux varies by about an order of magnitude, with a tendency toward harder spectra when the flux is brighter for FSRQs and LSP-BLLacs. A strong departure from a single power-law spectrum appears to be a common feature for FSRQs. Finally, we present this feature for some high-luminosity LSP-BLLacs, and a small number of ISP-BLLacs. It is absent in all LBAS HSP-BLLacs. For 3C 454.3 and AO 0235+164, the two brightest FSRQ source and LSP-BLLac source, respectively, a broken power law (BPL) gives the most acceptable of power law, BPL, and curved forms. The consequences of these findings are discussed.« less

  20. Plant Responses to High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Vian, Alain; Davies, Eric; Gendraud, Michel; Bonnet, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    High frequency nonionizing electromagnetic fields (HF-EMF) that are increasingly present in the environment constitute a genuine environmental stimulus able to evoke specific responses in plants that share many similarities with those observed after a stressful treatment. Plants constitute an outstanding model to study such interactions since their architecture (high surface area to volume ratio) optimizes their interaction with the environment. In the present review, after identifying the main exposure devices (transverse and gigahertz electromagnetic cells, wave guide, and mode stirred reverberating chamber) and general physics laws that govern EMF interactions with plants, we illustrate some of the observed responses after exposure to HF-EMF at the cellular, molecular, and whole plant scale. Indeed, numerous metabolic activities (reactive oxygen species metabolism, α- and β-amylase, Krebs cycle, pentose phosphate pathway, chlorophyll content, terpene emission, etc.) are modified, gene expression altered (calmodulin, calcium-dependent protein kinase, and proteinase inhibitor), and growth reduced (stem elongation and dry weight) after low power (i.e., nonthermal) HF-EMF exposure. These changes occur not only in the tissues directly exposed but also systemically in distant tissues. While the long-term impact of these metabolic changes remains largely unknown, we propose to consider nonionizing HF-EMF radiation as a noninjurious, genuine environmental factor that readily evokes changes in plant metabolism. PMID:26981524

  1. A High Frequency Model of Cascade Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    1998-01-01

    Closed form asymptotic expressions for computing high frequency noise generated by an annular cascade in an infinite duct containing a uniform flow are presented. There are two new elements in this work. First, the annular duct mode representation does not rely on the often-used Bessel function expansion resulting in simpler expressions for both the radial eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the duct. In particular, the new representation provides an explicit approximate formula for the radial eigenvalues obviating the need for solutions of the transcendental annular duct eigenvalue equation. Also, the radial eigenfunctions are represented in terms of exponentials eliminating the numerical problems associated with generating the Bessel functions on a computer. The second new element is the construction of an unsteady response model for an annular cascade. The new construction satisfies the boundary conditions on both the cascade and duct walls simultaneously adding a new level of realism to the noise calculations. Preliminary results which demonstrate the effectiveness of the new elements are presented. A discussion of the utility of the asymptotic formulas for calculating cascade discrete tone as well as broadband noise is also included.

  2. Extremely high-frequency therapy in oncology.

    PubMed

    Teppone, Mikhail; Avakyan, Romen

    2010-11-01

    This article represents a review of the literature, mainly from Russian sources, dealing with the therapeutic application of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation in the millimeter band applied to experimental and clinical oncology. At the early stage of these studies, efficacy and safety of millimeter electromagnetic radiation (extremely high frequency [EHF]) was proved for various types of malignant tumors. The majority of the further studies demonstrated the high efficacy and safety of millimeter wave radiation in treating patients suffering from both benign and malignant tumors. Developments led to treatment on skin melanoma, cancer of the ear-nose-throat, bowel and breast cancer, cancer of the uterus, lung, and stomach, solid tumors, as well as lymphoma. The main indications for this therapy are (1) preparation prior to radical treatment; (2) prevention and treatment of side-effects and complications from chemotherapy and radiotherapy; (3) prevention of metastases, relapses, and dissemination of the tumor; (4) treatment of the paraneoplastic syndrome; and (5) palliative therapy of incurable patients. In spite of the fact that not all mechanisms underlying effects of EHF therapy are known as yet, this therapeutic modality has been shown to have great potential in clinical oncology from studies performed in Eastern Europe and Russia.

  3. High frequency, high power capacitor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, C. W.; Hoffman, P. S.

    1983-01-01

    A program to develop a special high energy density, high power transfer capacitor to operate at frequency of 40 kHz, 600 V rms at 125 A rms plus 600 V dc bias for space operation. The program included material evaluation and selection, a capacitor design was prepared, a thermal analysis performed on the design. Fifty capacitors were manufactured for testing at 10 kHz and 40 kHz for 50 hours at Industrial Electric Heating Co. of Columbus, Ohio. The vacuum endurance test used on environmental chamber and temperature plate furnished by Maxwell. The capacitors were energized with a special power conditioning apparatus developed by Industrial Electric Heating Co. Temperature conditions of the capacitors were monitored by IEHCo test equipment. Successful completion of the vacuum endurance test series confirmed achievement of the main goal of producing a capacitor or reliable operation at high frequency in an environment normally not hospitable to electrical and electronic components. The capacitor developed compared to a typical commercial capacitor at the 40 kHz level represents a decrease in size and weight by a factor of seven.

  4. A high frequency electromagnetic impedance imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex

    2003-01-15

    Non-invasive, high resolution geophysical mapping of the shallow subsurface is necessary for delineation of buried hazardous wastes, detecting unexploded ordinance, verifying and monitoring of containment or moisture contents, and other environmental applications. Electromagnetic (EM) techniques can be used for this purpose since electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity are representative of the subsurface media. Measurements in the EM frequency band between 1 and 100 MHz are very important for such applications, because the induction number of many targets is small and the ability to determine the subsurface distribution of both electrical properties is required. Earlier workers were successful in developing systems for detecting anomalous areas, but quantitative interpretation of the data was difficult. Accurate measurements are necessary, but difficult to achieve for high-resolution imaging of the subsurface. We are developing a broadband non-invasive method for accurately mapping the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of the shallow subsurface using an EM impedance approach similar to the MT exploration technique. Electric and magnetic sensors were tested to ensure that stray EM scattering is minimized and the quality of the data collected with the high-frequency impedance (HFI) system is good enough to allow high-resolution, multi-dimensional imaging of hidden targets. Additional efforts are being made to modify and further develop existing sensors and transmitters to improve the imaging capability and data acquisition efficiency.

  5. High-frequency plasma-heating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Brambilla, Marco; Lallia, Pascal

    1978-01-01

    An array of adjacent wave guides feed high-frequency energy into a vacuum chamber in which a toroidal plasma is confined by a magnetic field, the wave guide array being located between two toroidal current windings. Waves are excited in the wave guide at a frequency substantially equal to the lower frequency hybrid wave of the plasma and a substantially equal phase shift is provided from one guide to the next between the waves therein. For plasmas of low peripheral density gradient, the guides are excited in the TE.sub.01 mode and the output electric field is parallel to the direction of the toroidal magnetic field. For exciting waves in plasmas of high peripheral density gradient, the guides are excited in the TM.sub.01 mode and the magnetic field at the wave guide outlets is parallel to the direction of the toroidal magnetic field. The wave excited at the outlet of the wave guide array is a progressive wave propagating in the direction opposite to that of the toroidal current and is, therefore, not absorbed by so-called "runaway" electrons.

  6. High frequency, high power capacitor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. W.; Hoffman, P. S.

    1983-03-01

    A program to develop a special high energy density, high power transfer capacitor to operate at frequency of 40 kHz, 600 V rms at 125 A rms plus 600 V dc bias for space operation. The program included material evaluation and selection, a capacitor design was prepared, a thermal analysis performed on the design. Fifty capacitors were manufactured for testing at 10 kHz and 40 kHz for 50 hours at Industrial Electric Heating Co. of Columbus, Ohio. The vacuum endurance test used on environmental chamber and temperature plate furnished by Maxwell. The capacitors were energized with a special power conditioning apparatus developed by Industrial Electric Heating Co. Temperature conditions of the capacitors were monitored by IEHCo test equipment. Successful completion of the vacuum endurance test series confirmed achievement of the main goal of producing a capacitor or reliable operation at high frequency in an environment normally not hospitable to electrical and electronic components. The capacitor developed compared to a typical commercial capacitor at the 40 kHz level represents a decrease in size and weight by a factor of seven.

  7. Aerodynamics of high frequency flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zheng; Roll, Jesse; Cheng, Bo; Deng, Xinyan

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the aerodynamic performance of high frequency flapping wings using a 2.5 gram robotic insect mechanism developed in our lab. The mechanism flaps up to 65Hz with a pair of man-made wing mounted with 10cm wingtip-to-wingtip span. The mean aerodynamic lift force was measured by a lever platform, and the flow velocity and vorticity were measured using a stereo DPIV system in the frontal, parasagittal, and horizontal planes. Both near field (leading edge vortex) and far field flow (induced flow) were measured with instantaneous and phase-averaged results. Systematic experiments were performed on the man-made wings, cicada and hawk moth wings due to their similar size, frequency and Reynolds number. For insect wings, we used both dry and freshly-cut wings. The aerodynamic force increase with flapping frequency and the man-made wing generates more than 4 grams of lift at 35Hz with 3 volt input. Here we present the experimental results and the major differences in their aerodynamic performances.

  8. High-frequency graphene voltage amplifier.

    PubMed

    Han, Shu-Jen; Jenkins, Keith A; Valdes Garcia, Alberto; Franklin, Aaron D; Bol, Ageeth A; Haensch, Wilfried

    2011-09-14

    While graphene transistors have proven capable of delivering gigahertz-range cutoff frequencies, applying the devices to RF circuits has been largely hindered by the lack of current saturation in the zero band gap graphene. Herein, the first high-frequency voltage amplifier is demonstrated using large-area chemical vapor deposition grown graphene. The graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) has a 6-finger gate design with gate length of 500 nm. The graphene common-source amplifier exhibits ∼5 dB low frequency gain with the 3 dB bandwidth greater than 6 GHz. This first AC voltage gain demonstration of a GFET is attributed to the clear current saturation in the device, which is enabled by an ultrathin gate dielectric (4 nm HfO(2)) of the embedded gate structures. The device also shows extrinsic transconductance of 1.2 mS/μm at 1 V drain bias, the highest for graphene FETs using large-scale graphene reported to date.

  9. Comparisons of Jet Properties between GeV Radio Galaxies and Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zi-Wei; Zhang, Jin; Cui, Wei; Liang, En-Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2017-09-01

    We compile a sample of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 12 GeV radio galaxies (RGs), including eight FR I RGs and four FR II RGs. These SEDs can be represented with the one-zone leptonic model. No significant unification, as expected in the unification model, is found for the derived jet parameters between FR I RGs and BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and between FR II RGs and flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). However, on average FR I RGs have a larger {γ }{{b}} (break Lorentz factor of electrons) and lower B (magnetic field strength) than FR II RGs, analogous to the differences between BL Lacs and FSRQs. The derived Doppler factors (δ) of RGs are on average smaller than those of blazars, which is consistent with the unification model such that RGs are the misaligned parent populations of blazars with smaller δ. On the basis of jet parameters from SED fits, we calculate their jet powers and the powers carried by each component, and compare their jet compositions and radiation efficiencies with blazars. Most of the RG jets may be dominated by particles, like BL Lacs, not FSRQs. However, the jets of RGs with higher radiation efficiencies tend to have higher jet magnetization. A strong anticorrelation between synchrotron peak frequency and jet power is observed for GeV RGs and blazars in both the observer and co-moving frames, indicating that the “sequence” behavior among blazars, together with the GeV RGs, may be intrinsically dominated by jet power.

  10. TEMPORAL CORRELATIONS BETWEEN OPTICAL AND GAMMA-RAY ACTIVITY IN BLAZARS

    DOE PAGES

    Cohen, Daniel P.; Romani, Roger W.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; ...

    2014-12-08

    For this research, we have been using the 0.76 m Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT) at Lick Observatory to optically monitor a sample of 157 blazars that are bright in gamma-rays being detected with high significance (≥10σ) in one year by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. We attempt to observe each source on a three-day cadence with KAIT, subject to weather and seasonal visibility. The gamma-ray coverage is essentially continuous. KAIT observations extend over much of the five-year Fermi mission for several objects, and most have >100 optical measurements spanning the last three years.more » These blazars (flat-spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects) exhibit a wide range of flaring behavior. Using the discrete correlation function (DCF), here we search for temporal relationships between optical and gamma-ray light curves in the 40 brightest sources in hopes of placing constraints on blazar acceleration and emission zones. We find strong optical-gamma-ray correlation in many of these sources at time delays of ~1 to ~10 days, ranging between –40 and +30 days. A stacked average DCF of the 40 sources verifies this correlation trend, with a peak above 99% significance indicating a characteristic time delay consistent with 0 days. These findings strongly support the widely accepted leptonic models of blazar emission. However, we also find examples of apparently uncorrelated flares (optical flares with no gamma-ray counterpart and gamma-ray flares with no optical counterpart) that challenge simple, one-zone models of blazar emission. Moreover, we find that flat-spectrum radio quasars tend to have gamma-rays leading the optical, while intermediate- and high-synchrotron peak blazars with the most significant peaks have smaller lags/leads. In conclusion, it is clear that long-term monitoring at high cadence is necessary to reveal the underlying physical correlation.« less

  11. 1WHSP: An IR-based sample of ~1000 VHE γ -ray blazar candidates

    DOE PAGES

    Arsioli, B.; Fraga, B.; Giommi, P.; ...

    2015-06-23

    Context. Blazars are the dominant type of extragalactic sources at microwave and at γ-ray energies. In the most energetic part of the electromagnetic spectrum (E > ≳ 100 GeV) a large fraction of high Galactic latitude sources are blazars of the High Synchrotron Peaked (HSP) type, that is BL Lac objects with synchrotron power peaking in the UV or in the X-ray band. Building new large samples of HSP blazars is key to understand the properties of jets under extreme conditions, and to study the demographics and the peculiar cosmological evolution of these sources. Aims. HSP blazars are remarkably rare,more » with only a few hundreds of them expected to be above the sensitivity limits of currently available surveys, some of which include hundreds of millions of sources. To find these very uncommon objects, we have devised a method that combines ALLWISE survey data with multi-frequency selection criteria. Methods. The sample was defined starting from a primary list of infrared colour-colour selected sources from the ALLWISE all sky survey database, and applying further restrictions on IR-radio and IR-X-ray flux ratios. Using a polynomial fit to the multi-frequency data (radio to X-ray) we estimated synchrotron peak frequencies and fluxes of each object. Results. We assembled a sample including 992 sources, which is currently the largest existing list of confirmed and candidates HSP blazars. All objects are expected to radiate up to the highest γ-ray photon energies. In fact, 299 of these are confirmed emitters of GeV γ-ray photons (based on Fermi-LAT catalogues), and 36 have already been detected in the TeV band. The majority of sources in the sample are within reach of the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), and many may be detectable even by the current generation of Cherenkov telescopes during flaring episodes. The sample includes 425 previously known blazars, 151 new identifications, and 416 HSP candidates (mostly faint sources) for which no optical

  12. Optical spectroscopic observations of blazars and γ-ray blazar candidates in the sloan digital sky survey data release nine

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; Masetti, N.; D'Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Funk, S.

    2014-09-09

    We present an analysis of the optical spectra available in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release nine (SDSS DR9) for the blazars listed in the ROMA-BZCAT and for the γ-ray blazar candidates selected according to their IR colors. First, we adopt a statistical approach based on Monte Carlo simulations to find the optical counterparts of the blazars listed in the ROMA-BZCAT catalog. Then, we crossmatched the SDSS spectroscopic catalog with our selected samples of blazars and γ-ray blazar candidates, searching for those with optical spectra available to classify our blazar-like sources and, whenever possible, to confirm their redshifts. Our main objectives are to determine the classification of uncertain blazars listed in the ROMA-BZCAT and to discover new gamma-ray blazars. For the ROMA-BZCAT sources, we investigated a sample of 84 blazars, confirming the classification for 20 of them and obtaining 18 new redshift estimates. For the γ-ray blazars, indicated as potential counterparts of unassociated Fermi sources or with uncertain nature, we established the blazar-like nature of 8 out of the 27 sources analyzed and confirmed 14 classifications.

  13. Quasars, blazars, and gamma rays.

    PubMed

    Dermer, C D; Schlickeiser, R

    1992-09-18

    Before the launch of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO), the only source of >100-megaelectron volt (MeV) gamma radiation known outside our galaxy was the quasar 3C 273. After less than a year of observing, 13 other extragalactic sources have been discovered with the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on CGRO, and it is expected that many more will be found before the full sky survey is complete. All 14 sources show evidence of blazar properties at other wavelengths; these properties include high optical polarization, extreme optical variability, flat-spectrum radio emission associated with a compact core, and apparent superluminal motion. Such properties are thought to be produced by those few, rare extragalactic radio galaxies and quasars that are favorably aligned to permit us to look almost directly down a relativistically outflowing jet of matter expelled from a supermassive black hole. Although the origin of the gamma rays from radio jets is a subject of much controversy, the gamma-ray window probed by CGRO is providing a wealth of knowledge about the central engines of active galactic nuclei and the most energetic processes occurring in nature.

  14. Fourier Analysis of Blazar Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, Justin D.; Becker, Peter A.

    2014-08-01

    Blazars display strong variability on multiple timescales and in multiple radiation bands. Their variability is often characterized by power spectral densities (PSDs) and time lags plotted as functions of the Fourier frequency. We develop a new theoretical model based on the analysis of the electron transport (continuity) equation, carried out in the Fourier domain. The continuity equation includes electron cooling and escape, and a derivation of the emission properties includes light travel time effects associated with a radiating blob in a relativistic jet. The model successfully reproduces the general shapes of the observed PSDs and predicts specific PSD and time lag behaviors associated with variability in the synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton, and external Compton emission components, from submillimeter to γ-rays. We discuss applications to BL Lacertae objects and to flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), where there are hints that some of the predicted features have already been observed. We also find that FSRQs should have steeper γ-ray PSD power-law indices than BL Lac objects at Fourier frequencies <~ 10-4 Hz, in qualitative agreement with previously reported observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope.

  15. Q0906+6930: Highest Redshift Blazar

    SciTech Connect

    Romani, R

    2004-06-25

    The authors report the discovery of a radio-loud flat-spectrum QSO at z = 5.47 with properties similar to those of the EGRET {gamma}-ray blazars. This source is the brightest radio QSO at z > 5, with a pc-scale radio jet and a black hole mass estimate {approx}> 10{sup 10} M{sub {circle_dot}}. It appears to be the most distant blazar discovered to date. High energy observations of this source can provide powerful probes of the background radiation in the early universe.

  16. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES. IV. RESULTS OF THE 2014 FOLLOW-UP CAMPAIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, F.; Massaro, F.; Landoni, M.; D’Abrusco, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A.; Stern, D.; Masetti, N.; Tosti, G.

    2015-05-15

    The extragalactic γ-ray sky is dominated by the emission arising from blazars, one of the most peculiar classes of radio-loud active galaxies. Since the launch of Fermi several methods were developed to search for blazars as potential counterparts of unidentified γ-ray sources (UGSs). To confirm the nature of the selected candidates, optical spectroscopic observations are necessary. In 2013 we started a spectroscopic campaign to investigate γ-ray blazar candidates selected according to different procedures. The main goals of our campaign are: (1) to confirm the nature of these candidates, and (2) whenever possible, determine their redshifts. Optical spectroscopic observations will also permit us to verify the robustness of the proposed associations and check for the presence of possible source class contaminants to our counterpart selection. This paper reports the results of observations carried out in 2014 in the northern hemisphere with Kitt Peak National Observatory and in the southern hemisphere with the Southern Astrophysical Research telescopes. We also report three sources observed with the Magellan and Palomar telescopes. Our selection of blazar-like sources that could be potential counterparts of UGSs is based on their peculiar infrared colors and on their combination with radio observations both at high and low frequencies (i.e., above and below ∼1 GHz) in publicly available large radio surveys. We present the optical spectra of 27 objects. We confirm the blazar-like nature of nine sources that appear to be potential low-energy counterparts of UGSs. Then we present new spectroscopic observations of 10 active galaxies of uncertain type associated with Fermi sources, classifying all of them as blazars. In addition, we present the spectra for five known γ-ray blazars with uncertain redshift estimates and three BL Lac candidates that were observed during our campaign. We also report the case for WISE J173052.85−035247.2, candidate counterpart of the

  17. The TANAMI Multiwavelength Program: Dynamic spectral energy distributions of southern blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Krauß, F.; Wilms, J.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Schulz, R.; Trüstedt, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Stevens, J.; Ros, E.; Baumgartner, W.; Beuchert, T.; Blanchard, J.; Buson, S.; Carpenter, B.; Dauser, T.; Falkner, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gräfe, C.; Gulyaev, S.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Langejahn, M.; Leiter, K.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Müller, C.; Nesci, R.; Pursimo, T.; Phillips, C.; Plötz, C.; Quick, J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Weston, S.

    2016-06-28

    Simultaneous broadband spectral and temporal studies of blazars are an important tool for investigating active galactic nuclei (AGN) jet physics. Aims. Here, we study the spectral evolution between quiescent and flaring periods of 22 radio-loud AGN through multiepoch, quasi-simultaneous broadband spectra. For many of these sources these are the first broadband studies. We also use a Bayesian block analysis of Fermi/LAT light curves to determine time ranges of constant flux for constructing quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The shapes of the resulting 81 SEDs are described by two logarithmic parabolas and a blackbody spectrum where needed. The peak frequencies and luminosities agree well with the blazar sequence for low states with higher luminosity implying lower peak frequencies. This is not true for sources in high states. The γ-ray photon index in Fermi/LAT correlates with the synchrotron peak frequency in low and intermediate states. No correlation is present in high states. The black hole mass cannot be determined from the SEDs. Surprisingly, the thermal excess often found in FSRQs at optical/UV wavelengths can be described by blackbody emission and not an accretion disk spectrum. The so-called harder-when-brighter trend, typically seen in X-ray spectra of flaring blazars, is visible in the blazar sequence. Furthermore, our results for low and intermediate states, as well as the Compton dominance, are in agreement with previous results. Black hole mass estimates using recently published parameters are in agreement with some of the more direct measurements. For two sources, estimates disagree by more than four orders of magnitude, possibly owing to boosting effects. The shapes of the thermal excess seen predominantly in flat spectrum radio quasars are inconsistent with a direct accretion disk origin.

  18. The TANAMI Multiwavelength Program: Dynamic spectral energy distributions of southern blazars

    DOE PAGES

    Krauß, F.; Wilms, J.; Kadler, M.; ...

    2016-06-28

    Simultaneous broadband spectral and temporal studies of blazars are an important tool for investigating active galactic nuclei (AGN) jet physics. Aims. Here, we study the spectral evolution between quiescent and flaring periods of 22 radio-loud AGN through multiepoch, quasi-simultaneous broadband spectra. For many of these sources these are the first broadband studies. We also use a Bayesian block analysis of Fermi/LAT light curves to determine time ranges of constant flux for constructing quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The shapes of the resulting 81 SEDs are described by two logarithmic parabolas and a blackbody spectrum where needed. The peak frequencies andmore » luminosities agree well with the blazar sequence for low states with higher luminosity implying lower peak frequencies. This is not true for sources in high states. The γ-ray photon index in Fermi/LAT correlates with the synchrotron peak frequency in low and intermediate states. No correlation is present in high states. The black hole mass cannot be determined from the SEDs. Surprisingly, the thermal excess often found in FSRQs at optical/UV wavelengths can be described by blackbody emission and not an accretion disk spectrum. The so-called harder-when-brighter trend, typically seen in X-ray spectra of flaring blazars, is visible in the blazar sequence. Furthermore, our results for low and intermediate states, as well as the Compton dominance, are in agreement with previous results. Black hole mass estimates using recently published parameters are in agreement with some of the more direct measurements. For two sources, estimates disagree by more than four orders of magnitude, possibly owing to boosting effects. The shapes of the thermal excess seen predominantly in flat spectrum radio quasars are inconsistent with a direct accretion disk origin.« less

  19. AGN Astrophysics via Multi-Frequency Monitoring of γ-ray Blazars in the Fermi-GST Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelakis, E.; Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Zensus, J. A.; Nestoras, I.; Marchili, N.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Ungerechts, H.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Pavlidou, V.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Stevenson, M. A.

    2010-10-01

    The F-GAMMA-project is the coordinated effort of several observatories to understand the AGN phenomenon and specifically blazars via multi-frequency monitoring in collaboration with the Fermi-GST satellite since January 2007. The core observatories are: the Effelsberg 100-m, the IRAM 30-m and the OVRO 40-m telescope covering the range between 2.6 and 270 GHz. Effelsberg and IRAM stations do a monthly monitoring of the cm to sub-mm radio spectra of 60 selected blazars whereas the OVRO telescope is observing roughly 1200 objects at 15 GHz with a dense sampling of 2 points per week. The calibration uncertainty even at high frequencies, is of a few percent. 47% of the Effelsberg/Pico Veleta sample is included in the LBAS list. An update of the monitored sample is currently underway.

  20. Blazar flaring patterns (B-FlaP) classifying blazar candidate of uncertain type in the third Fermi-LAT catalogue by artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaro, G.; Salvetti, D.; La Mura, G.; Giroletti, M.; Thompson, D. J.; Bastieri, D.

    2016-11-01

    The Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) is currently the most important facility for investigating the GeV γ-ray sky. With Fermi-LAT, more than three thousand γ-ray sources have been discovered so far. 1144 (˜40 per cent) of the sources are active galaxies of the blazar class, and 573 (˜20 per cent) are listed as blazar candidate of uncertain type (BCU), or sources without a conclusive classification. We use the empirical cumulative distribution functions and the artificial neural networks for a fast method of screening and classification for BCUs based on data collected at γ-ray energies only, when rigorous multiwavelength analysis is not available. Based on our method, we classify 342 BCUs as BL Lacs and 154 as flat-spectrum radio quasars, while 77 objects remain uncertain. Moreover, radio analysis and direct observations in ground-based optical observatories are used as counterparts to the statistical classifications to validate the method. This approach is of interest because of the increasing number of unclassified sources in Fermi catalogues and because blazars and in particular their subclass high synchrotron peak objects are the main targets of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes.

  1. The spatial and signal characteristics of physiologic high frequency oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Alkawadri, Rafeed; Gaspard, Nicolas; Goncharova, Irina I.; Spencer, Dennis D.; Gerrard, Jason L.; Zaveri, Hitten; Duckrow, Robert B.; Blumenfeld, Hal; Hirsch, Lawrence J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives To study the incidence, spatial distribution, and signal characteristics of high frequency oscillations (HFOs) outside the epileptic network. Methods We included patients who underwent invasive evaluations at Yale Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 2012 to 2013, had all major lobes sampled, and had localizable seizure onsets. Segments of non–rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep prior to the first seizure were analyzed. We implemented a semiautomated process to analyze oscillations with peak frequencies >80 Hz (ripples 80–250 Hz; fast ripples 250–500 Hz). A contact location was considered epileptic if it exhibited epileptiform discharges during the intracranial evaluation or was involved ictally within 5 s of seizure onset; otherwise it was considered nonepileptic. Results We analyzed recordings from 1,209 electrode contacts in seven patients. The nonepileptic contacts constituted 79.1% of the total number of contacts. Ripples constituted 99% of total detections. Eighty-two percent of all HFOs were seen in 45.2% of the nonepileptic contacts (82.1%, 47%, 34.6%, and 34% of the occipital, parietal, frontal, and temporal nonepileptic contacts, respectively). The following sublobes exhibited physiologic HFOs in all patients: Perirolandic, basal temporal, and occipital subregions. The ripples from nonepileptic sites had longer duration, higher amplitude, and lower peak frequency than ripples from epileptic sites. A high HFO rate (>1/min) was seen in 110 nonepileptic contacts, of which 68.2% were occipital. Fast ripples were less common, seen in nonepileptic parietooccipital regions only in two patients and in the epileptic mesial temporal structures. Conclusions There is consistent occurrence of physiologic HFOs over vast areas of the neocortex outside the epileptic network. HFOs from nonepileptic regions were seen in the occipital lobes and in the perirolandic region in all patients. Although duration of ripples and peak frequency of HFOs are the most

  2. RoboPol: the optical polarization of gamma-ray-loud and gamma-ray-quiet blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelakis, E.; Hovatta, T.; Blinov, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Kiehlmann, S.; Myserlis, I.; Böttcher, M.; Mao, P.; Panopoulou, G. V.; Liodakis, I.; King, O. G.; Baloković, M.; Kus, A.; Kylafis, N.; Mahabal, A.; Marecki, A.; Paleologou, E.; Papadakis, I.; Papamastorakis, I.; Pazderski, E.; Pearson, T. J.; Prabhudesai, S.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reig, P.; Tassis, K.; Urry, M.; Zensus, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    We present average R-band optopolarimetric data, as well as variability parameters, from the first and second RoboPol observing season. We investigate whether gamma-ray-loud and gamma-ray-quiet blazars exhibit systematic differences in their optical polarization properties. We find that gamma-ray-loud blazars have a systematically higher polarization fraction (0.092) than gamma-ray-quiet blazars (0.031), with the hypothesis of the two samples being drawn from the same distribution of polarization fractions being rejected at the 3σ level. We have not found any evidence that this discrepancy is related to differences in the redshift distribution, rest-frame R-band luminosity density, or the source classification. The median polarization fraction versus synchrotron-peak-frequency plot shows an envelope implying that high-synchrotron-peaked sources have a smaller range of median polarization fractions concentrated around lower values. Our gamma-ray-quiet sources show similar median polarization fractions although they are all low-synchrotron-peaked. We also find that the randomness of the polarization angle depends on the synchrotron peak frequency. For high-synchrotron-peaked sources, it tends to concentrate around preferred directions while for low-synchrotron-peaked sources, it is more variable and less likely to have a preferred direction. We propose a scenario which mediates efficient particle acceleration in shocks and increases the helical B-field component immediately downstream of the shock.

  3. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  4. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing

  5. X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY POLARIZATION IN LEPTONIC AND HADRONIC JET MODELS OF BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Boettcher, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the expected X-ray and {gamma}-ray polarization signatures resulting from synchrotron self-Compton emission in leptonic models compared to the polarization signatures from proton synchrotron and cascade synchrotron emission in hadronic models for blazars. Source parameters resulting from detailed spectral-energy-distribution modeling are used to calculate photon-energy-dependent upper limits on the degree of polarization, assuming a perfectly organized mono-directional magnetic field. In low-synchrotron-peaked blazars, hadronic models exhibit substantially higher maximum degrees of X-ray and gamma-ray polarization than leptonic models, which may be within reach of existing X-ray and {gamma}-ray polarimeters. In high-synchrotron-peaked blazars (with electron-synchrotron-dominated X-ray emission), leptonic and hadronic models predict the same degree of X-ray polarization but substantially higher maximum {gamma}-ray polarization in hadronic models than leptonic ones. These predictions are particularly relevant in view of the new generation of balloon-borne X-ray polarimeters (and possibly GEMS, if revived), and the ability of Fermi-LAT to measure {gamma}-ray polarization at <200 MeV. We suggest observational strategies combining optical, X-ray, and {gamma}-ray polarimetry to determine the degree of ordering of the magnetic field and to distinguish between leptonic and hadronic high-energy emissions.

  6. General physical properties of bright Fermi blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Foschini, L.; Ghirlanda, G.; Maraschi, L.; Celotti, A.

    2010-02-01

    We studied all blazars of known redshift detected by the Fermi satellite during its first 3-month survey. For the majority of them, pointed Swift observations ensure a good multiwavelength coverage, enabling us to reliably construct their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We model the SEDs using a one-zone leptonic model and study the distributions of the derived interesting physical parameters as a function of the observed γ-ray luminosity. We confirm previous findings concerning the relation of the physical parameters with source luminosity which are at the origin of the blazar sequence. The SEDs allow to estimate the luminosity of the accretion disc for the majority of broad emitting line blazars, while for the lineless BL Lac objects in the sample upper limits can be derived. We find a positive correlation between the jet power and the luminosity of the accretion disc in broad-line blazars. In these objects, we argue that the jet must be proton dominated, and that the total jet power is of the same order of (or slightly larger than) the disc luminosity. We discuss two alternative scenarios to explain this result.

  7. Intra-night Optical Variability Monitoring of Fermi Blazars: First Results from 1.3 m J. C. Bhattacharya Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Stalin, C. S.; Ajello, M.; Kaur, A.

    2017-07-01

    We report the first results obtained from our campaign to characterize the intra-night-optical variability (INOV) properties of Fermi detected blazars, using the observations from the recently commissioned 1.3 m J. C. Bhattacharya telescope (JCBT). During the first run, we were able to observe 17 blazars in the Bessel R filter for ∼137 hr. Using C- and scaled F-statistics, we quantify the extent of INOV and derive the duty cycle (DC), which is the fraction of time during which a source exhibits a substantial flux variability. We find a high DC of 40% for BL Lac objects and the flat spectrum radio quasars are relatively less variable (DC ∼ 15%). However, when estimated for blazars sub-classes, a high DC of ∼59% is found in low synchrotron peaked (LSP) blazars, whereas, intermediate and high synchrotron peaked objects have a low DC of ∼11% and 13%, respectively. We find evidence of the association of the high amplitude INOV with the γ-ray flaring state. We also notice a high polarization during the elevated INOV states (for the sources that have polarimetric data available), thus supporting the jet based origin of the observed variability. We plan to enlarge the sample and utilize the time availability from the small telescopes, such as 1.3 m JCBT, to strengthen/verify the results obtained in this work and those existing in the literature.

  8. Estimation of HRV spectrogram using multiple window methods focussing on the high frequency power.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Maria; Jönsson, Peter

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, the results of different multiple window spectrum analysis methods are compared in the estimation of heart rate variability (HRV) power spectra, in the high frequency band (HF), around 0.25 Hz, related to respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). The evaluation is performed by simulating different spectrum shapes and peak frequency locations and calculating the mean squared error of a frequency range close around the strongest spectral peak. The results show that it is preferable to use the Peak Matched Multiple Windows in most situations, but the Welch method and the Sinusoid Multiple Windows can be as reliable in certain aspects.

  9. Transient high-frequency ultrasonic water atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreras, F.; Amaveda, H.; Lozano, A.

    2002-06-01

    An experimental study was performed to improve the understanding of the characteristics of ultrasonic water atomization when excited with waves in the MHz range. In the present experiments, small volumes of water were atomized, observing the temporal evolution of the process. Typical diameters of the resulting droplets are of the order of a few microns. To visualize them, images were acquired with very high magnification. Appropriate lenses were used to enable high resolution at a distance from the flow. Droplet size distributions were also calculated with a Malvern diffractometer. Droplet exit velocity was measured using particle image velocimetry. It was noticeable that, as the remaining liquid mass deposited over the ultrasonic transducer decreased, the atomization characteristics changed, and a second peak of larger droplets appeared in the size distribution function. This phenomenon is related to the change in the curvature of the liquid surface. Although results are not conclusive, it appears that, under the conditions in this study, some observations about droplet formation are better described by cavitation phenomena rather than by the simplified surface wave theory usually invoked to explain these processes.

  10. High Frequency Acoustic Propagation using Level Set Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    solution of the high frequency approximation to the wave equation. Traditional solutions to the Eikonal equation in high frequency acoustics are...curvature can be extracted at any point of the front from the level set function (provided the normal and curvature are well-defined at that point ), and... points per wavelength to resolve the wave). Ray tracing is therefore the current standard for high frequency propagation modeling. LSM may provide

  11. High-frequency Probing Diagnostic for Hall Current Plasma Thrusters

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Litvak; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2001-10-25

    High-frequency oscillations (1-100 MHz) in Hall thrusters have apparently eluded significant experimental scrutiny. A diagnostic setup, consisting of a single Langmuir probe, a special shielded probe connector-positioner, and an electronic impedance-matching circuit, was successfully built and calibrated. Through simultaneous high-frequency probing of the Hall thruster plasma at multiple locations, high-frequency plasma waves have been identified and characterized for various thruster operating conditions.

  12. On-clip high frequency reliability and failure test structures

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, E.S.; Campbell, D.V.

    1997-04-29

    Self-stressing test structures for realistic high frequency reliability characterizations. An on-chip high frequency oscillator, controlled by DC signals from off-chip, provides a range of high frequency pulses to test structures. The test structures provide information with regard to a variety of reliability failure mechanisms, including hot-carriers, electromigration, and oxide breakdown. The system is normally integrated at the wafer level to predict the failure mechanisms of the production integrated circuits on the same wafer. 22 figs.

  13. On-clip high frequency reliability and failure test structures

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Eric S.; Campbell, David V.

    1997-01-01

    Self-stressing test structures for realistic high frequency reliability characterizations. An on-chip high frequency oscillator, controlled by DC signals from off-chip, provides a range of high frequency pulses to test structures. The test structures provide information with regard to a variety of reliability failure mechanisms, including hot-carriers, electromigration, and oxide breakdown. The system is normally integrated at the wafer level to predict the failure mechanisms of the production integrated circuits on the same wafer.

  14. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE VERY HIGH ENERGY BLAZAR 1ES 2344+514

    SciTech Connect

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Fegan, S. J.; Aune, T.; Furniss, A.; Beilicke, M.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Cannon, A.; Ciupik, L.; Fortson, L. F.; Cogan, P.; Colin, P.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Gall, D.; Fortin, P.

    2011-09-10

    Multiwavelength observations of the high-frequency-peaked blazar 1ES 2344+514 were performed from 2007 October to 2008 January. The campaign represents the first contemporaneous data on the object at very high energy (VHE, E >100 GeV) {gamma}-ray, X-ray, and UV energies. Observations with VERITAS in VHE {gamma}-rays yield a strong detection of 20{sigma} with 633 excess events in a total exposure of 18.1 hr live time. A strong VHE {gamma}-ray flare on 2007 December 7 is measured at F(>300 GeV) = (6.76 {+-} 0.62) x 10{sup -11} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, corresponding to 48% of the Crab Nebula flux. Excluding this flaring episode, nightly variability at lower fluxes is observed with a time-averaged mean of F(>300 GeV) = (1.06 {+-} 0.09) x 10{sup -11} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} (7.6% of the Crab Nebula flux). The differential photon spectrum between 390 GeV and 8.3 TeV for the time-averaged observations excluding 2007 December 7 is well described by a power law with a photon index of {Gamma} = 2.78 {+-} 0.09{sub stat} {+-} 0.15{sub syst}. On the flaring night of 2007 December 7 the measured VHE {gamma}-ray photon index was {Gamma} = 2.43 {+-} 0.22{sub stat} {+-} 0.15{sub syst}. Over the full period of VERITAS observations contemporaneous X-ray and UV data were taken with Swift and RXTE. The measured 2-10 keV flux ranged by a factor of {approx}7 during the campaign. On 2007 December 8 the highest ever observed X-ray flux from 1ES 2344+514 was measured by Swift X-ray Telescope at a flux of F(2-10 keV) = (6.28 {+-} 0.31) x 10{sup -11} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Evidence for a correlation between the X-ray flux and VHE {gamma}-ray flux on nightly timescales is indicated with a Pearson correlation coefficient of r = 0.60 {+-} 0.11. Contemporaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 1ES 2344+514 are presented for two distinct flux states. A one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model describes both SEDs using parameters consistent with previous SSC modeling of 1ES

  15. MULTIWAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE PREVIOUSLY UNIDENTIFIED BLAZAR RX J0648.7+1516

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Aune, T.; Bouvier, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Benbow, W.; Boettcher, M.; Bradbury, S. M.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Decerprit, G.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A. E-mail: miki@ucolick.org; Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; and others

    2011-12-01

    We report on the VERITAS discovery of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission above 200 GeV from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac (HBL) object RX J0648.7+1516 (GB J0648+1516), associated with 1FGL J0648.8+1516. The photon spectrum above 200 GeV is fitted by a power law dN/dE = F{sub 0}(E/E{sub 0}){sup -{Gamma}} with a photon index {Gamma} of 4.4 {+-} 0.8{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub syst} and a flux normalization F{sub 0} of (2.3 {+-} 0.5{sub stat} {+-} 1.2{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with E{sub 0} = 300 GeV. No VHE variability is detected during VERITAS observations of RX J0648.7+1516 between 2010 March 4 and April 15. Following the VHE discovery, the optical identification and spectroscopic redshift were obtained using the Shane 3 m Telescope at the Lick Observatory, showing the unidentified object to be a BL Lac type with a redshift of z = 0.179. Broadband multiwavelength observations contemporaneous with the VERITAS exposure period can be used to subclassify the blazar as an HBL object, including data from the MDM observatory, Swift-UVOT, and X-Ray Telescope, and continuous monitoring at photon energies above 1 GeV from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We find that in the absence of undetected, high-energy rapid variability, the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model overproduces the high-energy gamma-ray emission measured by the Fermi-LAT over 2.3 years. The spectral energy distribution can be parameterized satisfactorily with an external-Compton or lepto-hadronic model, which have two and six additional free parameters, respectively, compared to the one-zone SSC model.

  16. Multiwavelength Observations of the Very High Energy Blazar 1ES 2344+514

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Boltuch, D.; Bugaev, V.; Cannon, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Colin, P.; Dickherber, R.; Falcone, A.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L. F.; Furniss, A.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Horan, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Kildea, J.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Toner, J. A.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wagner, R.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.

    2011-09-01

    Multiwavelength observations of the high-frequency-peaked blazar 1ES 2344+514 were performed from 2007 October to 2008 January. The campaign represents the first contemporaneous data on the object at very high energy (VHE, E >100 GeV) γ-ray, X-ray, and UV energies. Observations with VERITAS in VHE γ-rays yield a strong detection of 20σ with 633 excess events in a total exposure of 18.1 hr live time. A strong VHE γ-ray flare on 2007 December 7 is measured at F(>300 GeV) = (6.76 ± 0.62) × 10-11 photons cm-2 s-1, corresponding to 48% of the Crab Nebula flux. Excluding this flaring episode, nightly variability at lower fluxes is observed with a time-averaged mean of F(>300 GeV) = (1.06 ± 0.09) × 10-11 photons cm-2 s-1 (7.6% of the Crab Nebula flux). The differential photon spectrum between 390 GeV and 8.3 TeV for the time-averaged observations excluding 2007 December 7 is well described by a power law with a photon index of Γ = 2.78 ± 0.09stat ± 0.15syst. On the flaring night of 2007 December 7 the measured VHE γ-ray photon index was Γ = 2.43 ± 0.22stat ± 0.15syst. Over the full period of VERITAS observations contemporaneous X-ray and UV data were taken with Swift and RXTE. The measured 2-10 keV flux ranged by a factor of ~7 during the campaign. On 2007 December 8 the highest ever observed X-ray flux from 1ES 2344+514 was measured by Swift X-ray Telescope at a flux of F(2-10 keV) = (6.28 ± 0.31) × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1. Evidence for a correlation between the X-ray flux and VHE γ-ray flux on nightly timescales is indicated with a Pearson correlation coefficient of r = 0.60 ± 0.11. Contemporaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 1ES 2344+514 are presented for two distinct flux states. A one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model describes both SEDs using parameters consistent with previous SSC modeling of 1ES 2344+514 from non-contemporaneous observations.

  17. Alveolar recruitment of atelectasis under combined high-frequency jet ventilation: a computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Kraincuk, Paul; Körmöczi, Günther; Prokop, Mathias; Ihra, Gerald; Aloy, Alexander

    2003-08-01

    To quantify the effect of superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation on lung recruitment in adult patients with acute lung injury. Prospective clinical study in the intensive care unit of a university teaching hospital. Eight adults suffering from acute lung injury with a mean lung injury score of 2.6+/-0.6 and pronounced atelectasis in at least two lung quadrants. The cause was either pneumonia ( n=5) or postoperative sepsis ( n=3). Superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation was initiated in patients following a mean of 4.4+/-1.7 days of conventional ventilation. Before and 4 h after the start of superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation differential lung volumes were determined by volumetry using computed tomography. Superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation significantly increased the lung volume of every patient due to alveolar recruitment. This was achieved despite lower peak inspiratory pressures and higher PaO(2)/FIO(2) ratios than with conventional ventilation. Treatment with superimposed high-frequency jet ventilation for 4 h resulted in rapid alveolar recruitment in dependent lung areas, improved gas exchange, and better arterial oxygenation. It offers an effective and advantageous alternative to conventional ventilation for ventilatory management of respiratory insufficient patients.

  18. Novel high frequency devices with graphene and GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pei

    This work focuses on exploring new materials and new device structures to develop novel devices that can operate at very high speed. In chapter 2, the high frequency performance limitations of graphene transistor with channel length less than 100 nm are explored. The simulated results predict that intrinsic cutoff frequency fT of graphene transistor can be close to 2 THz at 15 nm channel length. In chapter 3, we explored the possibility of developing a 2D materials based vertical tunneling device. An analytical model to calculate the channel potentials and current-voltage characteristics in a Symmetric tunneling Field-Effect-Transistor (SymFET) is presented. The symmetric resonant peak in SymFET is a good candidate for high-speed analog applications. Rest of the work focuses on Gallium Nitride (GaN), several novel device concepts based on GaN heterostructure have been proposed for high frequency and high power applications. In chapter 4, we compared the performance of GaN Schottky diodes on bulk GaN substrates and GaN-on-sapphire substrates. In addition, we also discussed the lateral GaN Schottky diode between metal/2DEGs. The advantage of lateral GaN Schottky diodes is the intrinsic cutoff frequency is in the THz range. In chapter 5, a GaN Heterostructure barrier diode (HBD) is designed using the polarization charge and band offset at the AlGaN/GaN heterojunction. The polarization charge at AlGaN/GaN interface behaves as a delta-doping which induces a barrier without any chemical doping. The IV characteristics can be explained by the barrier controlled thermionic emission current. GaN HBDs can be directly integrated with GaN HEMTs, and serve as frequency multipliers or mixers for RF applications. In chapter 6, a GaN based negative effective mass oscillator (NEMO) is proposed. The current in NEMO is estimated under the ballistic limits. Negative differential resistances (NDRs) can be observed with more than 50% of the injected electrons occupied the negative

  19. The cosmic monster quest: hunting MeV blazars with AMEGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buson, Sara; Ajello, Marco; Sharan Paliya, Vaidehi; Hartmann, Dieter; Venters, Tonia M.

    2017-08-01

    The All-Sky Medium Energy Gamma-ray Observatory (AMEGO) will explore the energy regime from 200 keV and 10 GeV with unprecedented sensitivity. Its wide field of view will allow us to observe the entire sky every three hours, making AMEGO a prime mission to study the long-term and short-term behavior of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) in the MeV band. This relatively unexplored energy range is particularly important since it enables us to investigate the emission mechanisms and environments of the MeV blazars, i.e. AGN whose peak power output lies in the MeV range. These distant MeV blazars host monster black holes, i.e., >1 billion solar mass, and are some of the most luminous and most distant gamma-ray AGN. Beside helping us in studying the evolution of supermassive black holes in the early Universe, MeV blazars play a key role in the context of extragalactic gamma ray background studies, especially in the challenging MeV regime.

  20. BLAZAR FLARES FROM COMPTON DRAGGED SHELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, Omri; Levinson, Amir

    2015-08-10

    We compute the dynamics and emission of dissipative shells that are subject to a strong Compton drag, under simplifying assumptions about the dissipation mechanism. We show that under conditions prevailing in blazars, substantial deceleration is anticipated on sub-parsec and parsec scales in cases of rapid dissipation. Such episodes may be the origin of some of the flaring activity occasionally observed in gamma-ray blazars. The shape of the light curves thereby produced reflects the geometry of the emitting surface if the deceleration is very rapid, or the dynamics of the shell if the deceleration is delayed, or initially more gradual, owing, e.g., to continuous injection of energy and momentum.

  1. The spatial and signal characteristics of physiologic high frequency oscillations.

    PubMed

    Alkawadri, Rafeed; Gaspard, Nicolas; Goncharova, Irina I; Spencer, Dennis D; Gerrard, Jason L; Zaveri, Hitten; Duckrow, Robert B; Blumenfeld, Hal; Hirsch, Lawrence J

    2014-12-01

    To study the incidence, spatial distribution, and signal characteristics of high frequency oscillations (HFOs) outside the epileptic network. We included patients who underwent invasive evaluations at Yale Comprehensive Epilepsy Center from 2012 to 2013, had all major lobes sampled, and had localizable seizure onsets. Segments of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep prior to the first seizure were analyzed. We implemented a semiautomated process to analyze oscillations with peak frequencies >80 Hz (ripples 80-250 Hz; fast ripples 250-500 Hz). A contact location was considered epileptic if it exhibited epileptiform discharges during the intracranial evaluation or was involved ictally within 5 s of seizure onset; otherwise it was considered nonepileptic. We analyzed recordings from 1,209 electrode contacts in seven patients. The nonepileptic contacts constituted 79.1% of the total number of contacts. Ripples constituted 99% of total detections. Eighty-two percent of all HFOs were seen in 45.2% of the nonepileptic contacts (82.1%, 47%, 34.6%, and 34% of the occipital, parietal, frontal, and temporal nonepileptic contacts, respectively). The following sublobes exhibited physiologic HFOs in all patients: Perirolandic, basal temporal, and occipital subregions. The ripples from nonepileptic sites had longer duration, higher amplitude, and lower peak frequency than ripples from epileptic sites. A high HFO rate (>1/min) was seen in 110 nonepileptic contacts, of which 68.2% were occipital. Fast ripples were less common, seen in nonepileptic parietooccipital regions only in two patients and in the epileptic mesial temporal structures. There is consistent occurrence of physiologic HFOs over vast areas of the neocortex outside the epileptic network. HFOs from nonepileptic regions were seen in the occipital lobes and in the perirolandic region in all patients. Although duration of ripples and peak frequency of HFOs are the most effective measures in distinguishing pathologic

  2. Effects of high frequency current in welding aluminum alloy 6061

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Uncontrolled high frequency current causes cracking in the heat-affected zone of aluminum alloy 6061 weldments during tungsten inert gas ac welding. Cracking developed when an improperly adjusted superimposed high frequency current was agitating the semimolten metal in the areas of grain boundary.

  3. Influence of Smoking on Ultra-High-Frequency Auditory Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Prashanth; Varma, Gowtham; Dutta, Kristi Kaveri; Kumar, Prajwal; Goyal, Swati

    2017-04-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to determine the effect of smoking on ultra-high-frequency auditory sensitivity. The study also attempted to determine the relationship between the nature of smoking and ultra-high-frequency otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and thresholds. The study sample included 25 smokers and 25 non-smokers. A detailed history regarding their smoking habits was collected. High-frequency audiometric thresholds and amplitudes of high-frequency distortion-product OAEs were analyzed for both ears from all participants. The results showed that the ultra-high-frequency thresholds were elevated and that there was reduction in the amplitudes of ultra-high-frequency OAEs in smokers. There was an increased risk of auditory damage with chronic smoking. The study results highlight the application of ultra-high-frequency OAEs and ultra-high-frequency audiometry for the early detection of auditory impairment. However, similar studies should be conducted on a larger population for better generalization of the results.

  4. Twin Peaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two hills in the distance, approximately one to two kilometers away, have been dubbed the 'Twin Peaks' and are of great interest to Pathfinder scientists as objects of future study. The white areas on the left hill, called the 'Ski Run' by scientists, may have been formed by hydrologic processes.

    The image was taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) after its deployment on Sol 3. Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  5. Synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission from blazar jets - III. Compton-dominant blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, William J.; Cotter, Garret

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we develop the extended jet model of Potter & Cotter to model the simultaneous multiwavelength spectra of six Compton-dominant blazars. We include an accelerating parabolic base transitioning to a slowly decelerating conical jet with a geometry set by observations of M87 and consistent with simulations and theory. We investigate several jet models and find that the optically thick to thin synchrotron break in the radio spectrum requires the jet to first come into equipartition at large distances along the jet, consistent with the observed transition from parabolic to conical at 105Rs in the jet of M87. We confirm this result analytically and calculate the expected frequency core-shift relations for the models under consideration. We find that a parabolic jet transitioning to a ballistic conical jet at 105Rs, which starts in equipartition and becomes more particle dominated at larger distances, fits the multiwavelength data of the six blazars well, whilst an adiabatic equipartition conical section requires very large bulk Lorentz factors to reproduce the Compton dominance of the blazars. We find that all these blazars require high power (>1039 W), high bulk Lorentz factor (>20) jets observed close to the line of sight (<2°) as we expect from the blazar sequence and consistent with the results from Paper II. The inverse-Compton emission in our fits is due to inverse-Compton scattering of high-redshift cosmic microwave background photons at large distances along the jet due to the high bulk Lorentz factors of the jets. We postulate a new interpretation of the blazar sequence based on the radius of the transition region of the jet (where the jet is brightest in synchrotron emission) scaling linearly with black hole mass.

  6. Monitoring method and apparatus using high-frequency carrier

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, H.D.

    1996-04-30

    A method and apparatus for monitoring an electrical-motor-driven device by injecting a high frequency carrier signal onto the power line current. The method is accomplished by injecting a high frequency carrier signal onto an AC power line current. The AC power line current supplies the electrical-motor-driven device with electrical energy. As a result, electrical and mechanical characteristics of the electrical-motor-driven device modulate the high frequency carrier signal and the AC power line current. The high frequency carrier signal is then monitored, conditioned and demodulated. Finally, the modulated high frequency carrier signal is analyzed to ascertain the operating condition of the electrical-motor-driven device. 6 figs.

  7. Monitoring method and apparatus using high-frequency carrier

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring an electrical-motor-driven device by injecting a high frequency carrier signal onto the power line current. The method is accomplished by injecting a high frequency carrier signal onto an AC power line current. The AC power line current supplies the electrical-motor-driven device with electrical energy. As a result, electrical and mechanical characteristics of the electrical-motor-driven device modulate the high frequency carrier signal and the AC power line current. The high frequency carrier signal is then monitored, conditioned and demodulated. Finally, the modulated high frequency carrier signal is analyzed to ascertain the operating condition of the electrical-motor-driven device.

  8. The Evolution of Swift/BAT blazars and the origin of the MeV background

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Costamante, L.; Sambruna, R.M.; Gehrels, N.; Chiang, J.; Rau, A.; Escala, A.; Greiner, J.; Tueller, J.; Wall, J.V.; Mushotzky, R.F.; /NASA, Goddard

    2009-10-17

    We use 3 years of data from the Swift/BAT survey to select a complete sample of X-ray blazars above 15 keV. This sample comprises 26 Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs) and 12 BL Lac objects detected over a redshift range of 0.03 < z < 4.0. We use this sample to determine, for the first time in the 15-55 keV band, the evolution of blazars. We find that, contrary to the Seyfert-like AGNs detected by BAT, the population of blazars shows strong positive evolution. This evolution is comparable to the evolution of luminous optical QSOs and luminous X-ray selected AGNs. We also find evidence for an epoch-dependence of the evolution as determined previously for radio-quiet AGNs. We interpret both these findings as a strong link between accretion and jet activity. In our sample, the FSRQs evolve strongly, while our best-fit shows that BL Lacs might not evolve at all. The blazar population accounts for 10-20% (depending on the evolution of the BL Lacs) of the Cosmic X-ray background (CXB) in the 15-55 keV band. We find that FSRQs can explain the entire CXB emission for energies above 500 keV solving the mystery of the generation of the MeV background. The evolution of luminous FSRQs shows a peak in redshift (z{sub c} = 4.3 {+-} 0.5) which is larger than the one observed in QSOs and X-ray selected AGNs. We argue that FSRQs can be used as tracers of massive elliptical galaxies in the early Universe.

  9. Radio observations of a few selected blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saikia, D. J.; Salter, C. J.; Neff, S. G.; Gower, A. C.; Sinha, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents total-intensity and linear-polarization observations of four selected blazars, 0716+714, 0752+258, 1156+295 and 1400+162, with the VLA A-array, and MERLIN and EVN observations of 1400+162. The sources 0752+258 and 1400+162 which have nearly constant optical polarization, have well-defined double-lobed radio structure, with relatively weak radio cores, and are likely to be at large viewing angles. In addition, 0752+258 appears to be a twin-jet blazar. The position angle (PA) of the VLBI jet in 1400+162 is close to that of the arcsec-scale jet near the nucleus, as well as the optical and 2-cm core polarization PAs. The blazars 0716+714 and 1156+295, which exhibit strongly variable optical polarization, have a core-dominated radio structure and perhaps have their jet axes close to the line-of-sight. From polarization observations at 20, 18, 6, and 2 cm, it is found that the rotation measure of the radio core in 0716+714 is about -20 rad/sq m. It is suggested that low values of core rotation measure in core-dominated sources could be consistent with the relativistic beaming models.

  10. The Spectral Index Distribution of EGRET Blazars: Prospects for GLAST

    SciTech Connect

    Venters, Tonia M.; Pavlidou, Vasiliki; /SLAC

    2011-11-29

    The intrinsic distribution of spectral indices in GeV energies of gamma-ray-loud blazars is a critical input in determining the spectral shape of the unresolved blazar contribution to the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background, as well as an important test of blazar emission theories. We present a maximum-likelihood method of determining the intrinsic spectral index distribution (ISID) of a population of {gamma}-ray emitters which accounts for error in measurement of individual spectral indices, and we apply it to EGRET blazars. We find that the most likely Gaussian ISID for EGRET blazars has a mean of 2.27 and a standard deviation of 0.20. We additionally find some indication that FSRQs and BL Lacs may have different ISIDs (with BL Lacs being harder). We also test for spectral index hardening associated with blazar variability for which we find no evidence. Finally, we produce simulated GLAST spectral index datasets and perform the same analyses. With improved statistics due to the much larger number of resolvable blazars, GLAST data will help us determine the ISIDs with much improved accuracy. Should any difference exist between the ISIDs of BL Lacs and FSRQs or between the ISIDs of blazars in the quiescent and flaring states, GLAST data will be adequate to separate these ISIDs at a significance better than 3{sigma}.

  11. Relationship between low and high frequencies in the \\delta Scuti star KIC 9764965

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostopchina, A.; Breger, M.

    2014-10-01

    Two years of Kepler spacecraft data of the \\delta Sct/\\gamma Dor star KIC 9764965 revealed 67 statistically significant frequencies from 0.45 to 59.17 c d-1 (0.005 to 0.685 mHz). The 19 low frequencies do not show equidistant period spacing predicted for gravity modes of successive radial order. We note a favored frequency spacing of 2.053 c d-1 that appears in both the low-frequency (gravity mode) region and high-frequency (pressure mode) regions. The value of this frequency spacing also occurs as a dominant low frequency and in a high-frequency triplet. A peak at exactly twice the value of the 2.053 c d-1 mode is shown not to be a Fourier harmonic of the low-frequency peak due to a different amplitude variability. This behavior is also seen in other \\delta Sct stars. The test for resonant mode coupling between low and high frequencies could not be carried out due to the small amplitudes of the peaks, making it difficult to separate the parent and child modes.

  12. Simultaneous Planck , Swift , and Fermi observations of X-ray and γ -ray selected blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Giommi, P.; Polenta, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Thompson, D. J.; Capalbi, M.; Cutini, S.; Gasparrini, D.; González-Nuevo, J.; León-Tavares, J.; López-Caniego, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Monte, C.; Perri, M.; Rainò, S.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Verrecchia, F.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Angelakis, E.; Bastieri, D.; Berdyugin, A.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Burigana, C.; Burrows, D. N.; Buson, S.; Cavazzuti, E.; Chincarini, G.; Colafrancesco, S.; Costamante, L.; Cuttaia, F.; D’Ammando, F.; de Zotti, G.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Galeotta, S.; Gargano, F.; Gehrels, N.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Keihänen, E.; King, O.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Lasenby, A.; Lavonen, N.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leto, C.; Lindfors, E.; Mandolesi, N.; Massardi, M.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Michelson, P. F.; Mingaliev, M.; Natoli, P.; Nestoras, I.; Nieppola, E.; Nilsson, K.; Partridge, B.; Pavlidou, V.; Pearson, T. J.; Procopio, P.; Rachen, J. P.; Readhead, A.; Reeves, R.; Reimer, A.; Reinthal, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, J.; Riquelme, D.; Saarinen, J.; Sajina, A.; Sandri, M.; Savolainen, P.; Sievers, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sotnikova, Y.; Stevenson, M.; Tagliaferri, G.; Takalo, L.; Tammi, J.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Turunen, M.; Umana, G.; Ungerechts, H.; Villa, F.; Wu, J.; Zacchei, A.; Zensus, J. A.; Zhou, X.

    2012-05-22

    We present simultaneous Planck, Swift, Fermi, and ground-based data for 105 blazars belonging to three samples with flux limits in the soft X-ray, hard X-ray, and γ-ray bands, with additional 5GHz flux-density limits to ensure a good probability of a Planck detection. We compare our results to those of a companion paper presenting simultaneous Planck and multi-frequency observations of 104 radio-loud northern active galactic nuclei selected at radio frequencies. While we confirm several previous results, our unique data set allows us to demonstrate that the selection method strongly influences the results, producing biases that cannot be ignored. Almost all the BL Lac objects have been detected by the Fermi Large AreaTelescope (LAT), whereas 30% to 40% of the flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) in the radio, soft X-ray, and hard X-ray selected samples are still below the γ-ray detection limit even after integrating 27 months of Fermi-LAT data. The radio to sub-millimetre spectral slope of blazars is quite flat, with >α> ~ 0 up to about 70GHz, above which it steepens to <α> ~ -0.65. The BL Lacs have significantly flatter spectra than FSRQs at higher frequencies. The distribution of the rest-frame synchrotron peak frequency (νpeakS) in the spectral energy distribution (SED) of FSRQs is the same in all the blazar samples with <νpeakS> = 1013.1 ± 0.1 Hz, while the mean inverse Compton peak frequency, >νpeakIC>, ranges from 1021 to 1022 Hz. The distributions of νpeakS and νpeakIC of BL Lacs are much broader and are shifted to higher energies than those of FSRQs; their shapes strongly depend on the selection method. The Compton dominance of blazars, defined as the ratio of the inverse Compton to synchrotron peak luminosities, ranges from less than 0.2 to nearly 100, with only FSRQs reaching values larger than about 3. Its distribution is

  13. Recent Improvements in High-Frequency Eddy Current Conductivity Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.; Nagy, Peter B.

    2008-02-01

    Due to its frequency-dependent penetration depth, eddy current measurements are capable of mapping near-surface residual stress profiles based on the so-called piezoresistivity effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of electric conductivity. To capture the peak compressive residual stress in moderately shot-peened (Almen 4-8A) nickel-base superalloys, the eddy current inspection frequency has to go as high as 50-80 MHz. Recently, we have reported the development of a new high-frequency eddy current conductivity measuring system that offers an extended inspection frequency range up to 80 MHz. Unfortunately, spurious self- and stray-capacitance effects render the complex coil impedance variation with lift-off more nonlinear as the frequency increases, which makes it difficult to achieve accurate apparent eddy current conductivity (AECC) measurements with the standard four-point linear interpolation method beyond 25 MHz. In this paper, we will demonstrate that reducing the coil size reduces its sensitivity to capacitive lift-off variations, which is just the opposite of the better known inductive lift-off effect. Although reducing the coil size also reduces its absolute electric impedance and relative sensitivity to conductivity variations, a smaller coil still yields better overall performance for residual stress assessment. In addition, we will demonstrate the benefits of a semi-quadratic interpolation scheme that, together with the reduced lift-off sensitivity of the smaller probe coil, minimizes and in some cases completely eliminates the sensitivity of AECC measurements to lift-off uncertainties. These modifications allow us to do much more robust measurements up to as high as 80-100 MHz with the required high relative accuracy of +/-0.1%.

  14. High frequency noise studies at the Hartousov mofette area (CZE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Andreas; Flores-Estrella, Hortencia; Pommerencke, Julia; Umlauft, Josefine

    2014-05-01

    Ambient noise analysis has been used as a reliable tool to investigate sub-surface structures at seismological quiet regions with none or less specific seismic events. Here, we consider the acoustic signals from a single mofette at the Hartoušov area (CZE) as a noise-like high frequency source caused by multiple near surface degassing processes in a restricted location. From this assumption we have used different array geometries for recording at least one hour of continuous noise. We installed triangular arrays with 3 component geophones: the first deployment consisted on two co-centric triangles with side length of 30 and 50 m with the mofette in the center; the second deployment consisted on two triangular arrays, both with side length of 30 m, co-directional to the mofette. Furthermore, we also installed profiles with 24 channels and vertical geophones locating them in different positions with respect to the mofette. In this work, we present preliminary results from the data analysis dependent on the geometry, to show the characteristics of the noise wave-field referring to frequency content and propagation features, such as directionality and surface wave velocity. The spectral analysis shows that the energy is concentrated in a frequency band among 10 and 40 Hz. However, in this interval there is no evidence of any exclusive fundamental frequencies. From this, man-induced influences can be identified as intermittent signal peaks in narrow frequency bands and can be separated to receive the revised mofette wave-field record. The inversion of dispersive surface waves, that were detected by interferometric methods, provides a velocity model down to 12 m with an S-wave velocity between 160 and 180 m/s on the uppermost layer. Furthermore, the interferometric signal properties indicate that it is not possible to characterize the mofette as a punctual source, but rather as a conglomerate of multiple sources with time and location variations.

  15. [Experiences in high frequency audiometry and possible applications (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Dieroff, H G

    1976-09-01

    Observations on the ultrasonic perception of noise-impaired persons gave rise to use the high frequency audiometry described by Fletcher for the early recognition of noise-induced damages. Using commercial equipment we found that the earpiece was not adapted to high frequency conditions. The adaptation problem and ways of modification are described in detail. After having improved the coupling features reproducible hearing curves were obtained. Examinations were carried out on workers, whose noise exposure exceeded the critical intensity by only a few dB. The following 3 categories of impairment were found: 1. Normal hearing between 125 and 8,000 Hz as well as in the high frequency region. 2. Unsignificant noise-induced impairments between 125 and 8,000 Hz; no high frequency hearing. 3. Acoustic hearing; no high frequency hearing. The results are discussed. It is supposed that high frequency hearing losses due to noise and chemical noxious exposure (streptomycin) are valuable in diagnostics and prognostics. Accordingly persons are to be assessed as noise sensitive, when there is no more high frequency hearing before practising noise work.

  16. High-frequency energy in singing and speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monson, Brian Bruce

    While human speech and the human voice generate acoustical energy up to (and beyond) 20 kHz, the energy above approximately 5 kHz has been largely neglected. Evidence is accruing that this high-frequency energy contains perceptual information relevant to speech and voice, including percepts of quality, localization, and intelligibility. The present research was an initial step in the long-range goal of characterizing high-frequency energy in singing voice and speech, with particular regard for its perceptual role and its potential for modification during voice and speech production. In this study, a database of high-fidelity recordings of talkers was created and used for a broad acoustical analysis and general characterization of high-frequency energy, as well as specific characterization of phoneme category, voice and speech intensity level, and mode of production (speech versus singing) by high-frequency energy content. Directionality of radiation of high-frequency energy from the mouth was also examined. The recordings were used for perceptual experiments wherein listeners were asked to discriminate between speech and voice samples that differed only in high-frequency energy content. Listeners were also subjected to gender discrimination tasks, mode-of-production discrimination tasks, and transcription tasks with samples of speech and singing that contained only high-frequency content. The combination of these experiments has revealed that (1) human listeners are able to detect very subtle level changes in high-frequency energy, and (2) human listeners are able to extract significant perceptual information from high-frequency energy.

  17. The Effect of Blazar Spectral Breaks on the Blazar Contribution to the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venters, Tonia M.; Pavlidou, Vasiliki

    2011-01-01

    The spectral shapes of the contributions of different classes of unresolved gamma-ray emitters can provide insight into their relative contributions to the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) and the natures of their spectra at GeV energies, We calculate the spectral shapes of the contributions to the EGB arising from BL Lacertae type objects (BL Lacs) and flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) assuming blazar spectra can be described as broken power laws, We fit the resulting total blazar spectral shape to the Fermi Large Area Telescope measurements of the EGB, finding that the best-fit shape reproduces well the shape of the Fermi EGB for various break scenarios. We conclude that a scenario in which the contribution of blazars is dominant cannot be excluded on spectral grounds alone, even if spectral breaks are shown to be common among Fermi blazars. We also find that while the observation of a featureless (within uncertainties) power-law EGB spectrum by Fermi does not necessarily imply a single class of contributing unresolved sources with featureless individual spectra, such an observation and the collective spectra of the separate contributing populations determine the ratios of their contributions. As such, a comparison with studies including blazar gamma-ray luminosity functions could have profound implications for the blazar contribution to the EGB, blazar evolution, and blazar gamma-ray spectra and emission.

  18. Structural drilling using the high-frequency (sonic) rotary method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šporin, Jurij; Vukelić, Željko

    2017-03-01

    In Slovenia, there is widespread use of structural drilling along with classical core drilling. Recently, however, the need has arisen for a highly effective core drilling method with the aid of which high-quality core might be obtained. In order to achieve this aim, one among several Slovenian companies dealing with geological surveying has decided to implement structural drilling using a high-frequency drilling method. The following article presents the theoretical foundations for such a high-frequency method, as well as the manner of its implementation. In the final part of the article, a practical comparison between the conventional and the high-frequency core drilling methods is also provided.

  19. High-frequency threshold measurements using insert earphones.

    PubMed

    Tang, H; Letowski, T

    1992-10-01

    Several recent studies have reported large intersubject variability of high-frequency thresholds measured with circumaural earphones. In the present study, high-frequency thresholds of 10 subjects were measured with circumaural (Sennheiser HD-250) and insert (Etymotic ER-1) earphones at 10, 12, 14, and 16 kHz. Overall results show significantly smaller variability of the threshold data obtained with insert earphones than with circumaural earphones. The above data indicate that insert earphones may be more suitable for high-frequency testing than circumaural earphones.

  20. 1WHSP: An IR-based sample of ~1000 VHE γ -ray blazar candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Arsioli, B.; Fraga, B.; Giommi, P.; Padovani, P.; Marrese, P. M.

    2015-06-23

    Context. Blazars are the dominant type of extragalactic sources at microwave and at γ-ray energies. In the most energetic part of the electromagnetic spectrum (E > ≳ 100 GeV) a large fraction of high Galactic latitude sources are blazars of the High Synchrotron Peaked (HSP) type, that is BL Lac objects with synchrotron power peaking in the UV or in the X-ray band. Building new large samples of HSP blazars is key to understand the properties of jets under extreme conditions, and to study the demographics and the peculiar cosmological evolution of these sources. Aims. HSP blazars are remarkably rare, with only a few hundreds of them expected to be above the sensitivity limits of currently available surveys, some of which include hundreds of millions of sources. To find these very uncommon objects, we have devised a method that combines ALLWISE survey data with multi-frequency selection criteria. Methods. The sample was defined starting from a primary list of infrared colour-colour selected sources from the ALLWISE all sky survey database, and applying further restrictions on IR-radio and IR-X-ray flux ratios. Using a polynomial fit to the multi-frequency data (radio to X-ray) we estimated synchrotron peak frequencies and fluxes of each object. Results. We assembled a sample including 992 sources, which is currently the largest existing list of confirmed and candidates HSP blazars. All objects are expected to radiate up to the highest γ-ray photon energies. In fact, 299 of these are confirmed emitters of GeV γ-ray photons (based on Fermi-LAT catalogues), and 36 have already been detected in the TeV band. The majority of sources in the sample are within reach of the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), and many may be detectable even by the current generation of Cherenkov telescopes during flaring episodes. The sample includes 425 previously known blazars, 151 new identifications, and 416 HSP candidates (mostly faint sources) for which no optical spectra is

  1. High-frequency matrix converter with square wave input

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Joseph Alexander; Balda, Juan Carlos

    2015-03-31

    A device for producing an alternating current output voltage from a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage comprising, high-frequency, square-wave input a matrix converter and a control system. The matrix converter comprises a plurality of electrical switches. The high-frequency input and the matrix converter are electrically connected to each other. The control system is connected to each switch of the matrix converter. The control system is electrically connected to the input of the matrix converter. The control system is configured to operate each electrical switch of the matrix converter converting a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage across the first input port of the matrix converter and the second input port of the matrix converter to an alternating current output voltage at the output of the matrix converter.

  2. An inkjet vision measurement technique for high-frequency jetting

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Kye-Si Jang, Min-Hyuck; Park, Ha Yeong; Ko, Hyun-Seok

    2014-06-15

    Inkjet technology has been used as manufacturing a tool for printed electronics. To increase the productivity, the jetting frequency needs to be increased. When using high-frequency jetting, the printed pattern quality could be non-uniform since the jetting performance characteristics including the jetting speed and droplet volume could vary significantly with increases in jet frequency. Therefore, high-frequency jetting behavior must be evaluated properly for improvement. However, it is difficult to measure high-frequency jetting behavior using previous vision analysis methods, because subsequent droplets are close or even merged. In this paper, we present vision measurement techniques to evaluate the drop formation of high-frequency jetting. The proposed method is based on tracking target droplets such that subsequent droplets can be excluded in the image analysis by focusing on the target droplet. Finally, a frequency sweeping method for jetting speed and droplet volume is presented to understand the overall jetting frequency effects on jetting performance.

  3. Self-demodulation of high-frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Vos, Hendrik J; Goertz, David E; de Jong, Nico

    2010-03-01

    High-frequency (>10 MHz) ultrasound is used in, e.g., small animal imaging or intravascular applications. Currently available ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have a suboptimal response for high frequencies. This study therefore investigates the nonlinear propagation effects in a high-frequency ultrasound field (25 MHz) and its use for standard UCA and diagnostic frequencies (1-3 MHz). Nonlinear mixing of two high-frequency carrier waves produces a low-frequency wave, known as the self-demodulation or parametric array effect. Hydrophone experiments showed that the self-demodulated field of a focused 25 MHz transducer (850 kPa source pressure) has an amplitude of 45 kPa at 1.5 MHz in water. Such pressure level is sufficient for UCA excitation. Experimental values are confirmed by numerical simulations using the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation on a spatially convergent grid.

  4. An inkjet vision measurement technique for high-frequency jetting.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Kye-Si; Jang, Min-Hyuck; Park, Ha Yeong; Ko, Hyun-Seok

    2014-06-01

    Inkjet technology has been used as manufacturing a tool for printed electronics. To increase the productivity, the jetting frequency needs to be increased. When using high-frequency jetting, the printed pattern quality could be non-uniform since the jetting performance characteristics including the jetting speed and droplet volume could vary significantly with increases in jet frequency. Therefore, high-frequency jetting behavior must be evaluated properly for improvement. However, it is difficult to measure high-frequency jetting behavior using previous vision analysis methods, because subsequent droplets are close or even merged. In this paper, we present vision measurement techniques to evaluate the drop formation of high-frequency jetting. The proposed method is based on tracking target droplets such that subsequent droplets can be excluded in the image analysis by focusing on the target droplet. Finally, a frequency sweeping method for jetting speed and droplet volume is presented to understand the overall jetting frequency effects on jetting performance.

  5. The origin of the Debye relaxation in liquid water and fitting the high frequency excess response.

    PubMed

    Elton, Daniel C

    2017-07-19

    We critically review the literature on the Debye absorption peak of liquid water and the excess response found on the high frequency side of the Debye peak. We find a lack of agreement on the microscopic phenomena underlying both of these features. To better understand the molecular origin of Debye peak we ran large scale molecular dynamics simulations and performed several different distance-dependent decompositions of the low frequency dielectric spectra, finding that it involves processes that take place on scales of 1.5-2.0 nm. We also calculated the k-dependence of the Debye relaxation, finding it to be highly dispersive. These findings are inconsistent with models that relate Debye relaxation to local processes such as the rotation/translation of molecules after H-bond breaking. We introduce the spectrumfitter Python package for fitting dielectric spectra and analyze different ways of fitting the high frequency excess, such as including one or two additional Debye peaks. We propose using the generalized Lydanne-Sachs-Teller (gLST) equation as a way of testing the physicality of model dielectric functions. Our attempts at fitting the experimental spectrum using the gLST relation as a constraint indicate that the traditional way of fitting the excess response with secondary and tertiary Debye relaxations is problematic. All of our work is consistent with the recent theory of Popov et al. (2016) that Debye relaxation is due to the migration of Bjerrum-like defects in the hydrogen bond network. Under this theory, the mechanism of Debye relaxation in liquid water is similar to the mechanism in ice, but the heterogeneity and power-law dynamics of the H-bond network in water results in excess response on the high frequency side of the peak.

  6. High frequency ultrasound with color Doppler in dermatology*

    PubMed Central

    Barcaui, Elisa de Oliveira; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; Lopes, Flavia Paiva Proença Lobo; Piñeiro-Maceira, Juan; Barcaui, Carlos Baptista

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a method of imaging that classically is used in dermatology to study changes in the hypoderma, as nodules and infectious and inflammatory processes. The introduction of high frequency and resolution equipments enabled the observation of superficial structures, allowing differentiation between skin layers and providing details for the analysis of the skin and its appendages. This paper aims to review the basic principles of high frequency ultrasound and its applications in different areas of dermatology. PMID:27438191

  7. Basis of Ionospheric Modification by High-Frequency Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    for conducting ionospheric heating experiments in Gakona, Alaska, as part of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) [5], is being...upgraded. The upgraded HAARP HF transmitting system will be a phased-array antenna of 180 elements. Each element is a cross dipole, which radiates a...supported by the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ), the Air Force Research Laboratory at Hanscom Air Force Base, MA, and by the Office

  8. High frequency, small signal MH loops of ferromagnetic thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimes, C. A.; Ong, K. G.

    2000-01-01

    A method is presented for transforming the high frequency bias susceptibility measurements of ferromagnetic thin films into the form of a MH loop with, depending upon the measurement geometry, the y-axis zero crossing giving a measure of the coercive force or anisotropy field. The loops provide a measure of the quantitative and qualitative high frequency switching properties of ferromagnetic thin films. c2000 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Noninvasive Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease Using 12-Lead High-Frequency Electrocardiograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian

    2006-01-01

    method is the presence versus the absence of reduced-amplitude zones (RAZs). In terms that must be simplified for the sake of brevity, an RAZ comprises several cycles of a high-frequency QRS signal during which the amplitude of the high-frequency oscillation in a portion of the signal is abnormally low (see figure). A given signal sample exhibiting an interval of reduced amplitude may or may not be classified as an RAZ, depending on quantitative criteria regarding peaks and troughs within the reduced-amplitude portion of the high-frequency QRS signal. This analysis is performed in all 12 leads in real time.

  10. The Whole Earth Blazar Telescope Campaign on the Intermediate BL Lac Object 3C 66A in 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, M.; Fultz, K.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Apodaca, J.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bach, U.; Bachev, R.; Berdyugin, A.; Buemi, C.; Calcidese, P.; Carosati, D.; Charlot, P.; Ciprini, S.; di Paola, A.; Dolci, M.; Efimova, N. V.; Scurrats, E. Forné; Frasca, A.; Gupta, A. C.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Heidt, J.; Hiriart, D.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lanteri, L.; Larionov, V. M.; LeCampion, J.-F.; Leto, P.; Lindfors, E.; Mihov, E. Marilli B.; Nieppola, E.; Nilsson, K.; Ovcharov, J. M. Ohlert E.; Pääkkönen, P.; Pasanen, M.; Ragozzine, B.; Raiteri, C. M.; Ros, J. A.; Sadun, A.; Sanchez, A.; Semkov, E.; Sorcia, M.; Strigachev, A.; Takalo, L.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Valcheva, A.; Villata, M.; Volvach, A.; Wu, J.-H.; Zhou, X.

    2009-03-01

    Prompted by a high optical state in 2007 September, the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope consortium organized an intensive optical, near-IR (JHK) and radio observing campaign on the intermediate BL Lac object 3C 66A throughout the fall and winter of 2007-2008. In this paper, we present data from 28 observatories in 12 countries, covering the observing season from late 2007 July through 2008 February. The source remained in a high optical state throughout the observing period and exhibited several bright flares on timescales of ~10 days. This included an exceptional outburst around 2007 September 15-20, reaching a peak brightness at R~ 13.4. Our campaign revealed microvariability with flux changes up to |dR/dt|~ 0.02 mag hr-1. Our observations do not reveal evidence for systematic spectral variability in the overall high state covered by our campaign, in agreement with previous results. In particular, we do not find evidence for spectral hysteresis in 3C 66A for which hints were found in an earlier campaign in a somewhat lower flux state. We also did not find any evidence for spectral lags in the discrete correlation functions between different optical bands. We infer a value of the magnetic field in the emission region of B~ 19 e 2/7 B τ-6/7 h D 13/7 1 G, where eB is the magnetic field equipartition fraction, τ h is the shortest observed variability timescale in units of hours, and D 1 is the Doppler factor in units of 10. From the lack of systematic spectral variability, we can derive an upper limit on the Doppler factor, D <= 28 τ-1/8 h e 3/16 B . This is in perfect agreement with superluminal motion measurements with the VLBI/VLBA of βapp <= 27 and argues against models with very high Lorentz factors of Γ gsim 50, required for a one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton interpretation of some high-frequency-peaked BL Lac objects detected at TeV γ-ray energies. The radio-to-optical data presented in this paper are stored in the WEBT archive; for questions regarding

  11. The sequence of Compton dominance in blazars based on data from WISE and Fermi-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Gupta, Maitrayee

    2017-10-01

    The two-component broad-band spectral energy distributions of blazars were suggested to form a sequence in which (1) the peak frequency of the low-energy (synchrotron) component νsyn is anticorrelated with the bolometric synchrotron luminosity Lsyn and (2) the luminosity ratio of the high-energy (inverse Compton) to synchrotron components q = LIC/Lsyn (Compton dominance) increases with Lsyn from the BL Lac objects (BL Lacs) to the flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). The Compton dominance parameter is an important probe of plasma magnetisation in the blazar zones within relativistic jets. We investigate a sample of blazars detected by WISE in the mid-infrared (MIR) band and by Fermi-LAT in the GeV gamma-ray band, with the focus on the distribution of luminosities and photon indices. Our findings are the following: (1) the MIR photon index ΓW12 is a useful probe of the blazar sequence, with the exception of low-luminosity BL Lacs that are most likely contaminated by their host galaxies (LW1 1044erg s-1 and ΓW12< 1); (2) ΓW12 is correlated with the gamma-ray photon index Γ1 - 100GeV, with the MIR luminosity LW1, and with the Fermi/WISE Compton dominance qFW = L1GeV/LW1; (3) a clean separation between FSRQs and BL Lacs can be seen in the parameter space of ΓW12 and qFW; and (4) the observed distribution of MIR luminosity LW1 versus Compton dominance qFW for the entire sample of blazars can be modelled as a sequence of lepto-magnetic jet powers in the range log 10PeB ∈ [ 42:45 ] with the preference for sub-equipartition magnetic fields PB/Pe ∈ [ 0.05:1 ], assuming fixed bulk Lorentz factor Γj = 15, fixed jet opening angle ΓjΘj = 0.3, fixed radiative efficiency of jet electrons ɛem = 50%, and that external radiation luminosity scales like Lext ∝ PeB1.6 (parameter degeneracies are discussed).

  12. Bimodal radio variability in OVRO-40 m-monitored blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liodakis, I.; Pavlidou, V.; Hovatta, T.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Pearson, T. J.; Richards, J. L.; Readhead, A. C. S.

    2017-06-01

    Blazars are known to show periods of quiescence followed by outbursts visible throughout the electromagnetic spectrum. We present a novel maximum likelihood approach to capture this bimodal behaviour by examining blazar radio variability in the flux-density domain. We separate quiescent and flaring components of a source's light curve by modelling its flux-density distribution as a series of 'off'- and 'on'-states. Our modelling allows us to extract information regarding the flaring ratio, duty cycle, and the modulation index in the 'off'-state, in the 'on'-state, as well as throughout the monitoring period of each blazar. We apply our method to a flux-density-limited subsample from the Owens Valley Radio Observatory's 15 GHz blazar monitoring programme, and explore differences in the variability characteristics between BL Lacs and FSRQs as well as between γ-ray detected and non-detected sources. We find that (1) BL Lacs are more variable and have relatively larger outbursts than the FSRQs; (2) unclassified blazar candidates in our sample show similar variability characteristics as the FSRQs and (3) γ-ray detected differ from the γ-ray non-detected sources in all their variability properties, suggesting a link between the production of γ-rays and the mechanism responsible for the radio variability. Finally, we fit distributions for blazar flaring ratios, duty cycles, and on- and off-modulation indices that can be used in population studies of variability-dependent blazar properties.

  13. Little effect of natural noise on high-frequency hearing in frogs, Odorrana tormota.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Yang, Han; Hu, Guang-Lei; Li, Shan; Xu, Zhi-Min; Qi, Zhi; Shen, Jun-Xian

    2015-10-01

    Ambient noise influences acoustic communication in animals. The concave-eared frogs (Odorrana tormota) produce high-frequency sound signals to avoid potential masking from noise. However, whether environmental noise has effect on the high-frequency hearing of frogs is largely unclear. By measuring the auditory evoked near-field potentials (AENFPs) from the torus semicircularis of the midbrain at frequencies 1-23 kHz in the presence of three noise levels, we found no significant difference in the peak-to-peak amplitude, threshold and latency of AENFP between low-level (35 dB SPL) background noise and mid-level (65 dB SPL) broadcast natural noise. For a natural noise level of 85 dB SPL, AENFP amplitude decreased and threshold and latency increased at frequencies 3-13 kHz. Spike counts evoked by stimuli at the best excitatory frequency under 85 dB SPL natural noise exposure were lower in 7-kHz CF neurons than in exposures to 35 and 65 dB SPL noise. However spike counts were similar for 14- and 20-kHz CF neurons at the three exposure levels. These findings indicate that environmental noise does not mask the responses of high-frequency tuned auditory neurons, and suggest that the acoustic communication system of O. tormota is efficiently adapted to noisy habitats.

  14. NIR flaring of the blazar OJ248

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, L.; Carramiñana, A.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Valdes, J. R.; Escobedo, G.; Torres, I.

    2010-09-01

    We report on our recent observation of the blazar OJ248 also known as 3EGJ0829+2413 and B2 0827+24 with the CANICA NIR camera on the 2.1m telescope at the Observatorio Astrofísico Guillermo Haro, located in Cananea, Mexico. On September 30th, 2010 (JD245554569.9898), we found this source to be in outburst. On this date the source was found to have a flux corresponding to H = 14.59 +/- 0.02, J=15.29 +/- 0.04 and Ks = 13.72 +/- 0.06.

  15. Fermi Spots a Record Flare from Blazar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-10

    Blazar 3C 279's historic gamma-ray flare can be seen in this image from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on NASA's Fermi satellite. Gamma rays with energies from 100 million to 100 billion electron volts (eV) are shown; for comparison, visible light has energies between 2 and 3 eV. The image spans 150 degrees, is shown in a stereographic projection, and represents an exposure from June 11 at 00:28 UT to June 17 at 08:17 UT. Credit: NASA/DOE/Fermi LAT Collaboration

  16. Extended high frequency audiometry in users of personal listening devices.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Poornima; Upadhyay, Prabhakar; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Gautam Bir

    Noise exposure leads to high frequency hearing loss. Use of Personal Listening Devices may lead to decline in high frequency hearing sensitivity because of prolonged exposure to these devices at high volume. This study explores the changes in hearing thresholds by Extended High Frequency audiometry in users of personal listening devices. A descriptive, hospital based observational study was performed with total 100 subjects in age group of 15-30years. Subjects were divided in two groups consisting of 30 subjects (Group A) with no history of Personal Listening Devices use and (Group B) having 70 subjects with history of use of Personal Listening Devices. Conventional pure tone audiometry with extended high frequency audiometry was performed in all the subjects. Significant differences in hearing thresholds of Personal Listening Device users were seen at high frequencies (3kHz, 4kHz and 6kHz) and extended high frequencies (9kHz, 10kHz, 11kHz, 13kHz, 14kHz, 15kHz and 16kHz) with p value <0.05. Elevated hearing thresholds were observed in personal listening devices users which were directly proportional to volume and duration of usage. In present study no significant changes were noted in hearing thresholds in PLD users before 5years of PLD use. However, hearing thresholds were significantly increased at 3kHz, 10kHz, 13kHz in PLD users having >5years usage at high volume. Thus, it can be reasonably concluded that extended high frequencies can be used for early detection of NIHL in PLD users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The TANAMI Multiwavelength Program: Dynamic spectral energy distributions of southern blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauß, F.; Wilms, J.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Schulz, R.; Trüstedt, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Stevens, J.; Ros, E.; Baumgartner, W.; Beuchert, T.; Blanchard, J.; Buson, S.; Carpenter, B.; Dauser, T.; Falkner, S.; Gehrels, N.; Gräfe, C.; Gulyaev, S.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Langejahn, M.; Leiter, K.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Müller, C.; Natusch, T.; Nesci, R.; Pursimo, T.; Phillips, C.; Plötz, C.; Quick, J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Weston, S.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Simultaneous broadband spectral and temporal studies of blazars are an important tool for investigating active galactic nuclei (AGN) jet physics. Aims: We study the spectral evolution between quiescent and flaring periods of 22 radio-loud AGN through multiepoch, quasi-simultaneous broadband spectra. For many of these sources these are the first broadband studies. Methods: We use a Bayesian block analysis of Fermi/LAT light curves to determine time ranges of constant flux for constructing quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The shapes of the resulting 81 SEDs are described by two logarithmic parabolas and a blackbody spectrum where needed. Results: The peak frequencies and luminosities agree well with the blazar sequence for low states with higher luminosity implying lower peak frequencies. This is not true for sources in high states. The γ-ray photon index in Fermi/LAT correlates with the synchrotron peak frequency in low and intermediate states. No correlation is present in high states. The black hole mass cannot be determined from the SEDs. Surprisingly, the thermal excess often found in FSRQs at optical/UV wavelengths can be described by blackbody emission and not an accretion disk spectrum. Conclusions: The so-called harder-when-brighter trend, typically seen in X-ray spectra of flaring blazars, is visible in the blazar sequence. Our results for low and intermediate states, as well as the Compton dominance, are in agreement with previous results. Black hole mass estimates using recently published parameters are in agreement with some of the more direct measurements. For two sources, estimates disagree by more than four orders of magnitude, possibly owing to boosting effects. The shapes of the thermal excess seen predominantly in flat spectrum radio quasars are inconsistent with a direct accretion disk origin. Tables of the fluxes are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or

  18. Curvature of the spectral energy distributions of blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Liang

    2014-06-20

    In this paper, spectral energy distributions (SED) of both synchrotron and inverse Compton (IC) components of a sample of Fermi bright blazars are fitted by a log-parabolic law. The second-degree term of the log parabola measures the curvature of an SED. We find a statistically significant correlation between the synchrotron peak frequency and its curvature. This result is in agreement with the theoretical prediction and confirms previous studies that dealt with a single source with observations at various epochs or a small sample. If a broken power law is employed to fit the SED, the difference between the two spectral indices (i.e., |α{sub 2} – α{sub 1}|) can be considered a 'surrogate' of the SED curvature. We collect data from the literature and find a correlation between the synchrotron peak frequency and the spectral difference. We do not find a significant correlation between the IC peak frequency and its curvature, which may be caused by a complicated seed photon field. It is also found that the synchrotron curvatures are on average larger than those of IC curvatures, and there is no correlation between these two parameters. As suggested by previous works, both the log-parabolic law of the SED and the above correlation can be explained by statistical and/or stochastic particle accelerations. Based on a comparison of the slops of the correlation, our result seems to favor stochastic acceleration mechanisms and emission processes. Additional evidence, including SED modeling, particle acceleration simulation, and comparisons between some predictions and empirical relations/correlations, also seems to support the idea that the electron energy distribution (and/or synchrotron SED) may be log-parabolic.

  19. X-Ray Intraday Variability of Five TeV Blazars with NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Ashwani; Gupta, Alok C.; Wiita, Paul J.

    2017-06-01

    We have examined 40 Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) light curves (LCs) of five TeV emitting high synchrotron peaked blazars: 1ES 0229+200, Mrk 421, Mrk 501, 1ES 1959+650, and PKS 2155-304. Four of the blazars showed intraday variability in the NuSTAR energy range of 3-79 keV. Using an autocorrelation function analysis we searched for intraday variability timescales in these LCs and found indications of several between 2.5 and 32.8 ks in eight LCs of Mrk 421, a timescale around 8.0 ks for one LC of Mrk 501, and timescales of 29.6 and 57.4 ks in two LCs of PKS 2155-304. The other two blazars’ LCs do not show any evidence for intraday variability timescales shorter than the lengths of those observations; however, the data were both sparser and noisier for them. We found positive correlations with zero lag between soft (3-10 keV) and hard (10-79 keV) bands for most of the LCs, indicating that their emissions originate from the same electron population. We examined spectral variability using a hardness ratio analysis and noticed a general “harder-when-brighter” behavior. The 22 LCs of Mrk 421 observed between 2012 July and 2013 April show that this source was in a quiescent state for an extended period of time and then underwent an unprecedented double-peaked outburst while monitored on a daily basis during 2013 April 10-16. We briefly discuss models capable of explaining these blazar emissions.

  20. THE WISE BLAZAR-LIKE RADIO-LOUD SOURCES: AN ALL-SKY CATALOG OF CANDIDATE γ-RAY BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    D'Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, H. A.; Massaro, F.; Masetti, N.

    2014-11-01

    We present a catalog of radio-loud candidate γ-ray emitting blazars with WISE mid-infrared colors similar to the colors of confirmed γ-ray blazars. The catalog is assembled from WISE sources detected in all four WISE filters, with colors compatible with the three-dimensional locus of the WISE γ-ray emitting blazars, and which can be spatially cross-matched with radio sources from one of the three radio surveys: NVSS, FIRST, and/or SUMSS. Our initial WISE selection uses a slightly modified version of previously successful algorithms. We then select only the radio-loud sources using a measure of the radio-to-IR flux, the q {sub 22} parameter, which is analogous to the q {sub 24} parameter known in the literature but which instead uses the WISE band-four flux at 22 μm. Our final catalog contains 7855 sources classified as BL Lacs, FSRQs, or mixed candidate blazars; 1295 of these sources can be spatially re-associated as confirmed blazars. We describe the properties of the final catalog of WISE blazar-like radio-loud sources and consider possible contaminants. Finally, we discuss why this large catalog of candidate γ-ray emitting blazars represents a new and useful resource to address the problem of finding low-energy counterparts to currently unidentified high-energy sources.

  1. High Frequency Performance of SiGeC HBTs with Selectively & Non-Selectively Grown Collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvar, Erdal; Haralson, Erik; Radamson, Henry H.; Wang, Yong-Bin; Malm, B. Gunnar; Östling, Mikael

    2004-01-01

    Two high-frequency heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) architectures based on SiGeC have been fabricated and characterized. Different collector designs were applied either by using selective epitaxial growth doped with phosphorous or by nonselective epitaxial growth doped with arsenic. Both designs have a nonselectively deposited SiGeC base doped with boron and a poly-crystalline emitter doped with phosphorous. Both HBT designs exhibit similar electrical characteristics with a peak DC current gain of around 1600 and a BVCEO of 1.8V. The cut-off frequency (fT) and maximum frequency of oscillation (fmax) vary from 40 80GHz and 15 30GHz, respectively, depending on lateral design relations. Good high frequency performance for a device with a selectively grown collector is demonstrated for the first time.

  2. On the Importance of High Frequency Gravity Waves for Ice Nucleation in the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations of the influence of atmospheric waves on ice nucleation in cirrus have identified a number of key processes and sensitivities: (1) ice concentrations produced by homogeneous freezing are strongly dependent on cooling rates, with gravity waves dominating upper tropospheric cooling rates; (2) rapid cooling driven by high-frequency waves are likely responsible for the rare occurrences of very high ice concentrations in cirrus; (3) sedimentation and entrainment tend to decrease ice concentrations as cirrus age; and (4) in some situations, changes in temperature tendency driven by high-frequency waves can quench ice nucleation events and limit ice concentrations. Here we use parcel-model simulations of ice nucleation driven by long-duration, constant-pressure balloon temperature time series, along with an extensive dataset of cold cirrus microphysical properties from the recent ATTREX high-altitude aircraft campaign, to statistically examine the importance of high-frequency waves as well as the consistency between our theoretical understanding of ice nucleation and observed ice concentrations. The parcel-model simulations indicate common occurrence of peak ice concentrations exceeding several hundred per liter. Sedimentation and entrainment would reduce ice concentrations as clouds age, but 1-D simulations using a wave parameterization (which underestimates rapid cooling events) still produce ice concentrations higher than indicated by observations. We find that quenching of nucleation events by high-frequency waves occurs infrequently and does not prevent occurrences of large ice concentrations in parcel simulations of homogeneous freezing. In fact, the high-frequency variability in the balloon temperature data is entirely responsible for production of these high ice concentrations in the simulations.

  3. High frequency ocean acoustic tomography observation at coastal estuary areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zongxi; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Wuyi; Chen, Dongsheng

    2012-11-01

    The ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) technique can obtain oceanographic information and has received much interest. High frequency OAT (in a narrow kHz range) can be used for small and confined areas, such as estuaries and bays, with complicated hydrological conditions. In this study, we investigate the application of high-frequency reciprocal transmission OAT to assess the sound speed, temperature, and current field in the Xiamen sea area using computer simulations and sea experiments. Based on the temperature data obtained from remote sensing and the predefined stream function, high frequency OAT is employed to reconstruct the two-dimensional sound speed, temperature, and current fields of a 1.2km×1.2km small-scale region. The correlation coefficient of the computer inversion result and the original data is higher than 0.8. The result shows that increasing the number of acoustic stations decreases the influence of the travel-time errors in high frequency OAT; however, excessively increasing the number of stations could not significantly improve the inversion accuracy. Furthermore, this method has been tested by a sea experiment on monitoring the shallow water temperature of Wuyuan Bay. High frequency OAT might provide an effective method for temperature and current observation at coastal estuary areas.

  4. High-frequency thresholds: circumaural earphone versus insert earphone.

    PubMed

    Valente, M; Valente, M; Goebel, J

    1992-11-01

    Benefits of high-frequency audiometry in monitoring hearing sensitivity of patients administered ototoxic medications are well established. High-frequency thresholds have been reported to be variable, due in part to small differences in the placement of the earphone diaphragm over the opening of the ear canal. Reliability may be improved by using insert earphones (ER-2) when obtaining high-frequency thresholds. The purposes of this study were to determine high-frequency threshold test-retest reliability using Koss HV/1A+ and ER-2 earphones and to determine if significant differences are present between high-frequency thresholds obtained using these two earphones. Results obtained on 40 ears of 20 normal hearing adults revealed that differences between the test and retest thresholds for each earphone were not significant. Intrasubject threshold differences between the test and retest thresholds for each earphone were, for the most part, within +/- 10 dB at all test frequencies. Further, significantly greater intensity was required to measure threshold when using the ER-2 earphone when compared to the Koss HV/1A+ at all test frequencies.

  5. Frequency-dependent core shifts and parameter estimation in Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Aditi

    2016-07-01

    We study the core shift effect in the parsec-scale jet of blazars using the 4.8-36.8 GHz radio light curves obtained from four decades of continuous monitoring. From a piecewise Gaussian fit to each flare, time lags between the observation frequencies and spectral indices (α) based on peak amplitudes (A) are determined. Index k is calculated and found to be ˜1, indicating equipartition between the magnetic field energy density and the particle energy density. A mean magnetic field strength at 1 pc (B1) and at the core (Bcore) are inferred which are found to be consistent with previous estimates. The measure of core position offset is also performed by averaging over all frequency pairs. Based on the statistical trend shown by the measured core radius as a function of frequency, we infer that the synchrotron opacity model may not be valid for all cases. A Fourier periodogram analysis yields power-law slopes in the range -1.6 to -3.5 describing the power spectral density shape and gives bend timescales. This result, and both positive and negative spectral indices, indicate that the flares originate from multiple shocks in a small region. Important objectives met in our study include: the demonstration of the computational efficiency and statistical basis of the piecewise Gaussian fit; consistency with previously reported results; evidence for the core shift dependence on observation frequency and its utility in jet diagnostics in the region close to the resolving limit of very long baseline interferometry observations.

  6. The Utilization of the RCT Telescope for Studies of Blazar Continuum Emission during the GLAST Gamma-Ray Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattox, J. R.; Cominsky, L.; Spear, G.; Carinni, M.; Gelderman, R.; McGruder, C. H.; Guinan, E.; Howell, S.; Davis, D. R.; Everett, M.; Walter, D. K.

    2003-05-01

    The RCT Consortium successfully proposed to refurbish and automate the Kitt Peak 1.3-m telescope, and to operate it as the Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT). Refurbishment is nearing completion, and observations have begun. The capabilities of the RCT for broad-band optical photometry will be described. A program for systematic optical monitoring of blazars with the RCT is planned. We anticipate that an important utilization of the RCT will be in conjunction with multi-wavelength studies of blazar continuum emission during the operation of NASA's Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) satellite, now scheduled for launch in 2006. Refurbishment of the RCT has been made possible by NASA grant NAG58762.

  7. Expanding the Gamma-ray Universe: High Redshift Fermi-LAT Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Roopesh; Paliya, Vaidehi; Gasparrini, Dario; Ajello, Marco; Cutini, Sara; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    High-redshift blazars detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) are of great astrophysical import as they are extreme objects whose energetics remain a mystery. Such blazars are intrinsically interesting since they inform us about the evolution of gamma-ray blazars and are, by definition, some of the more luminous blazars in the Fermi-LAT sample. These blazars appear to host very massive black holes and could shed light on the origin and growth of black holes in the early Universe. We present the latest high redshift blazar detections in the LAT and discuss some of their implications.

  8. Modifying the size distribution of microbubble contrast agents for high-frequency subharmonic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shekhar, Himanshu; Rychak, Joshua J.; Doyley, Marvin M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Subharmonic imaging is of interest for high frequency (>10 MHz) nonlinear imaging, because it can specifically detect the response of ultrasound contrast agents (UCA). However, conventional UCA produce a weak subharmonic response at high frequencies, which limits the sensitivity of subharmonic imaging. We hypothesized that modifying the size distribution of the agent can enhance its high-frequency subharmonic response. The overall goal of this study was to investigate size-manipulated populations of the agent to determine the range of sizes that produce the strongest subharmonic response at high frequencies (in this case, 20 MHz). A secondary goal was to assess whether the number or the volume-weighted size distribution better represents the efficacy of the agent for high-frequency subharmonic imaging. Methods: The authors created six distinct agent size distributions from the native distribution of a commercially available UCA (Targestar-P®). The median (number-weighted) diameter of the native agent was 1.63 μm, while the median diameters of the size-manipulated populations ranged from 1.35 to 2.99 μm. The authors conducted acoustic measurements with native and size-manipulated agent populations to assess their subharmonic response to 20 MHz excitation (pulse duration 1.5 μs, pressure amplitudes 100–398 kPa). Results: The results showed a considerable difference between the subharmonic response of the agent populations that were investigated. The subharmonic response peaked for the agent population with a median diameter of 2.15 μm, which demonstrated a subharmonic signal that was 8 dB higher than the native agent. Comparing the subharmonic response of different UCA populations indicated that microbubbles with diameters between 1.3 and 3 μm are the dominant contributors to the subharmonic response at 20 MHz. Additionally, a better correlation was observed between the subharmonic response of the agent and the number-weighted size-distribution (R2

  9. The 'Crazy Diamond' (and other blazars)

    SciTech Connect

    Vercellone, S.; Giuliani, A.

    2009-04-08

    During the first year of observations, AGILE detected several blazars at high significance: 3 C 279, 3C 454.3, PKS 1510-089, S5 0716+714, 3 C 273, MKN 421, and W Comae. We obtained long-term coverage of the Crazy Diamond 3 C 454.3, for more than 100 days at energies above 100 MeV. 3 C 273 was the first blazar detected simultaneously by the AGILE gamma-ray imaging detector and by its hard X-ray monitor. S5 0716+714, an intermediate BL Lac object, exhibited a very fast and intense gamma-ray transient event during an optical high-state phase, while MKN 421 and W Comae where detected during an AGILE target of opportunity (ToO) repointing. Thanks to the rapid dissemination of our alerts, we were able to obtain multi-wavelength ToO data from other observatories such as Spitzer, Swift, INTEGRAL, RXTE, Suzaku, MAGIC, VERITAS, as well as optical coverage by means of the WEBT Consortium and REM.

  10. A Radiative Transport Model for Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Tiffany; Finke, Justin; Becker, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are observed across the electromagnetic spectrum, often with strong variability throughout. We start from first-principles to build up a transport model, whose solution is the electron distribution, rather than assuming a convenient functional form. Our analytical transport model considers shock acceleration, adiabatic expansion, stochastic acceleration, Bohm diffusion, and synchrotron radiation. We use this solution to give predictions for the X-ray spectrum and time lags, comparing the results with BeppoSAX observations of X-ray flares from Mrk 421. This new self-consistent model provides an unprecedented view into the jet physics at play in this source, especially the strength of the shock and stochastic acceleration components and the size of the acceleration region. More recently, we augmented the transport model to incorporate Compton scattering, including Klein-Nishina effects. Here, an analytical solution cannot be derived. Therefore we obtain the steady-state electron distribution computationally. We compare the resulting radiation spectrum with multi-wavelength data for 3C 279. We show that our new Compton + synchrotron blazar model is the first to successfully fit the FermiLAT gamma-ray data for this source based on a first-principles physical calculation.

  11. A Radiative Transport Model for Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Tiffany; Justin, Finke; Becker, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Blazars are observed across the electromagnetic spectrum, often with strong variability throughout. The underlying electron distribution associated with the observed emission is typically not computed from first principles. We start from first-principles to build up a transport model, whose solution is the electron distribution, rather than assuming a convenient functional form. Our analytical transport model considers shock acceleration, adiabatic expansion, stochastic acceleration, Bohm diffusion, and synchrotron radiation. We use this solution to generate predictions for the X-ray spectrum and time lags, and compare the results with data products from BeppoSAX observations of X-ray flares from Mrk 421. This new self-consistent model provides an unprecedented view into the jet physics at play in this source, especially the strength of the shock and stochastic acceleration components and the size of the acceleration region.More recently, we augmented the transport model to incorporate Compton scattering, including Klein-Nishina effects. In this case, an analytical solution cannot be derived, and therefore we obtain the steady-state electron distribution computationally. We compare the resulting radiation spectrum with multi-wavelength data for 3C 279. We show that our new Compton + synchrotron blazar model is the first to successfully fit the FermiLAT gamma-ray data for this source based on a first-principles physical calculation.

  12. High-frequency modulated signals of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Simonis, Anne E; Baumann-Pickering, Simone; Oleson, Erin; Melcón, Mariana L; Gassmann, Martin; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-04-01

    Killer whales in the North Pacific, similar to Atlantic populations, produce high-frequency modulated signals, based on acoustic recordings from ship-based hydrophone arrays and autonomous recorders at multiple locations. The median peak frequency of these signals ranged from 19.6-36.1 kHz and median duration ranged from 50-163 ms. Source levels were 185-193 dB peak-to-peak re: 1 μPa at 1 m. These uniform, repetitive, down-swept signals are similar to bat echolocation signals and possibly could have echolocation functionality. A large geographic range of occurrence suggests that different killer whale ecotypes may utilize these signals.

  13. Switch over to the high frequency rf systems near transition

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, J.M.; Wei, J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to point out that since bunch narrowing naturally occurs in the acceleration process in the vicinity of transition, it should be possible to switch over to the high frequency system close to transition when the bunch has narrowed enough to fit directly into the high frequency bucket. The advantage of this approach is the simplicity, no extra components or gymnastics are required of the low frequency system. The disadvantage, of course, is for protons which do not go through transition. But on the other hand, there is no shortage of intensity for protons and so it should be possible to keep the phase space area low for protons, and then matching to the high frequency bucket should be easily accomplished by adiabatic compression. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Design of matching layers for high-frequency ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Chunlong; Ma, Jianguo; Chiu, Chi Tat; Williams, Jay A.; Fong, Wayne; Chen, Zeyu; Zhu, BenPeng; Xiong, Rui; Shi, Jing; Hsiai, Tzung K.; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2015-09-01

    Matching the acoustic impedance of high-frequency (≥100 MHz) ultrasound transducers to an aqueous loading medium remains a challenge for fabricating high-frequency transducers. The traditional matching layer design has been problematic to establish high matching performance given requirements on both specific acoustic impedance and precise thickness. Based on both mass-spring scheme and microwave matching network analysis, we interfaced metal-polymer layers for the matching effects. Both methods hold promises for guiding the metal-polymer matching layer design. A 100 MHz LiNbO3 transducer was fabricated to validate the performance of the both matching layer designs. In the pulse-echo experiment, the transducer echo amplitude increased by 84.4% and its -6dB bandwidth increased from 30.2% to 58.3% comparing to the non-matched condition, demonstrating that the matching layer design method is effective for developing high-frequency ultrasonic transducers.

  15. Design of matching layers for high-frequency ultrasonic transducers.

    PubMed

    Fei, Chunlong; Ma, Jianguo; Chiu, Chi Tat; Williams, Jay A; Fong, Wayne; Chen, Zeyu; Zhu, BenPeng; Xiong, Rui; Shi, Jing; Hsiai, Tzung K; Shung, K Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2015-09-21

    Matching the acoustic impedance of high-frequency (≥100 MHz) ultrasound transducers to an aqueous loading medium remains a challenge for fabricating high-frequency transducers. The traditional matching layer design has been problematic to establish high matching performance given requirements on both specific acoustic impedance and precise thickness. Based on both mass-spring scheme and microwave matching network analysis, we interfaced metal-polymer layers for the matching effects. Both methods hold promises for guiding the metal-polymer matching layer design. A 100 MHz LiNbO3 transducer was fabricated to validate the performance of the both matching layer designs. In the pulse-echo experiment, the transducer echo amplitude increased by 84.4% and its -6dB bandwidth increased from 30.2% to 58.3% comparing to the non-matched condition, demonstrating that the matching layer design method is effective for developing high-frequency ultrasonic transducers.

  16. Interface Strategy To Achieve Tunable High Frequency Attenuation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hualiang; Zhang, Haiqian; Ji, Guangbin; Xu, Zhichuan J

    2016-03-01

    Among all polarizations, the interface polarization effect is the most effective, especially at high frequency. The design of various ferrite/iron interfaces can significantly enhance the materials' dielectric loss ability at high frequency. This paper presents a simple method to generate ferrite/iron interfaces to enhance the microwave attenuation at high frequency. The ferrites were coated onto carbonyl iron and could be varied to ZnFe2O4, CoFe2O4, Fe3O4, and NiFe2O4. Due to the ferrite/iron interface inducing a stronger dielectric loss effect, all of these materials achieved broad effective frequency width at a coating layer as thin as 1.5 mm. In particular, an effective frequency width of 6.2 GHz could be gained from the Fe@NiFe2O4 composite.

  17. Near-equipartition Jets with Log-parabola Electron Energy Distribution and the Blazar Spectral-index Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Charles D.; Yan, Dahai; Zhang, Li; Finke, Justin D.; Lott, Benoit

    2015-08-01

    Fermi-LAT analyses show that the γ-ray photon spectral indices {{{Γ }}}γ of a large sample of blazars correlate with the ν {F}ν peak synchrotron frequency {ν }s according to the relation {{{Γ }}}γ =d-k{log} {ν }s. The same function, with different constants d and k, also describes the relationship between {{{Γ }}}γ and peak Compton frequency {ν }{{C}}. This behavior is derived analytically using an equipartition blazar model with a log-parabola description of the electron energy distribution (EED). In the Thomson regime, k={k}{EC}=3b/4 for external Compton (EC) processes and k={k}{SSC}=9b/16 for synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) processes, where b is the log-parabola width parameter of the EED. The BL Lac object Mrk 501 is fit with a synchrotron/SSC model given by the log-parabola EED, and is best fit away from equipartition. Corrections are made to the spectral-index diagrams for a low-energy power-law EED and departures from equipartition, as constrained by absolute jet power. Analytic expressions are compared with numerical values derived from self-Compton and EC scattered γ-ray spectra from Lyα broad-line region and IR target photons. The {{{Γ }}}γ versus {ν }s behavior in the model depends strongly on b, with progressively and predictably weaker dependences on γ-ray detection range, variability time, and isotropic γ-ray luminosity. Implications for blazar unification and blazars as ultra-high energy cosmic-ray sources are discussed. Arguments by Ghisellini et al. that the jet power exceeds the accretion luminosity depend on the doubtful assumption that we are viewing at the Doppler angle.

  18. Real-Time, High-Frequency QRS Electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; DePalma, Jude L.; Moradi, Saeed

    2003-01-01

    An electronic system that performs real-time analysis of the low-amplitude, high-frequency, ordinarily invisible components of the QRS portion of an electrocardiographic signal in real time has been developed. Whereas the signals readily visible on a conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) have amplitudes of the order of a millivolt and are characterized by frequencies <100 Hz, the ordinarily invisible components have amplitudes in the microvolt range and are characterized by frequencies from about 150 to about 250 Hz. Deviations of these high-frequency components from a normal pattern can be indicative of myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarction

  19. A MEMS-based high frequency x-ray chopper.

    PubMed

    Siria, A; Dhez, O; Schwartz, W; Torricelli, G; Comin, F; Chevrier, J

    2009-04-29

    Time-resolved x-ray experiments require intensity modulation at high frequencies (advanced rotating choppers have nowadays reached the kHz range). We here demonstrate that a silicon microlever oscillating at 13 kHz with nanometric amplitude can be used as a high frequency x-ray chopper. We claim that using micro-and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS), it will be possible to achieve higher frequencies in excess of hundreds of megahertz. Working at such a frequency can open a wealth of possibilities in chemistry, biology and physics time-resolved experiments.

  20. High-frequency generation in two coupled semiconductor superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matharu, Satpal; Kusmartsev, Feodor V.; Balanov, Alexander G.

    2013-10-01

    We theoretically show that two semiconductor superlattices arranged on the same substrate and coupled with the same resistive load can be used for a generation of high-frequency periodic and quasiperiodic signals. Each superlattice involved is capable to generate current oscillations associated with drift of domains of high charge concentration. However, the coupling with the common load can eventually lead to synchronization of the current oscillations in the interacting superlattices. We reveal how synchronization depends on detuning between devices and the resistance of the common load, and discuss the effects of coupling and detuning on the high-frequency power output from the system.

  1. Condenser Microphone Protective Grid Correction for High Frequency Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Erik; Bennett, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    Use of a protective grid on small diameter microphones can prolong the lifetime of the unit, but the high frequency effects can complicate data interpretation. Analytical methods have been developed to correct for the grid effect at high frequencies. Specifically, the analysis pertains to quantifying the microphone protective grid response characteristics in the acoustic near field of a rocket plume noise source. A frequency response function computation using two microphones will be explained. Experimental and instrumentation setup details will be provided. The resulting frequency response function for a B&K 4944 condenser microphone protective grid will be presented, along with associated uncertainties

  2. High frequency microbubble-switched oscillations modulated by microfluidic transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fanghao; Dai, Xianming; Li, Chen

    2012-08-01

    Creating high frequency two-phase oscillations (HF-TPOs) remains an important goal in advancing microscale fluidic logic devices, micro-mixers, micro-actuators, and flow controls. However, thermally driven TPO frequency has been hindered by confinements of compressible vapor bubbles and low thermal diffusivity in microfluidic systems. In this study, a mechanism creating high frequency microbubbles growth/collapse cycle has been developed to achieve HF-TPOs. A "microfluidic transistor" was conceptualized and fabricated to passively sustain and modulate HF-TPOs. Three orders of magnitude higher TPO frequency has been achieved compared to TPOs reported in literatures under similar working conditions.

  3. Casimir force between δ -δ' mirrors transparent at high frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Alessandra N.; Silva, Jeferson Danilo L.; Alves, Danilo T.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate, in the context of a real massless scalar field in 1 +1 dimensions, models of partially reflecting mirrors simulated by Dirac δ -δ' point interactions. In the literature, these models do not exhibit full transparency at high frequencies. In order to provide a more realistic feature for these models, we propose a modified δ -δ' point interaction that enables full transparency in the limit of high frequencies. Taking this modified δ -δ' model into account, we investigate the Casimir force, comparing our results with those found in the literature.

  4. Implications for High Energy Blazar Spectra from Intergalactic Absorption Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F

    2008-01-01

    Given a knowledge of the density spectra intergalactic low energy photons as a function of redshift, one can derive the intrinsic gamma-ray spectra and luminosities of blazars over a range of redshifts and look for possible trends in blazar evolution. Stecker, Baring & Summerlin have found some evidence hinting that TeV blazars with harder spectra have higher intrinsic TeV gamma-ray luminosities and indicating that there may be a correlation of spectral hardness and luminosity with redshift. Further work along these lines, treating recent observations of the blazers lES02291+200 and 3C279 in the TeV and sub-TeV energy ranges, has recently been explored by Stecker & Scully. GLAST will observe and investigate many blazars in the GeV energy range and will be sensitive to blazers at higher redshifts. I examine the implications high redshift gamma-ray absorption for both theoretical and observational blazer studies.

  5. Unified Models of AGN Accretion Disks and Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, M.; Ramos, E.; Becker, P.; Subramanian, P.; Yang, R.

    1996-01-01

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes are expected to be the power sources in all AGNS, including blazars. To date, though, little direct evidence for such disks exists in AGN observations. In blazars, the intense relativistic beaming would mask any underlying disk component. Here we present relevant work that our group at GMU is carrying out on unified aspects of disk accretion onto supermassive black holes and the possible coupling of thick disks to beams in the inner regions.

  6. The Kiloparsec Properties of Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Nathaniel J.

    2010-12-01

    In this dissertation, we explore the properties of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) on kiloparsec scales at a radio frequency of 1.4 GHz. These properties include flux density, luminosity, and morphology. We compare these kiloparsec scale properties to similar properties on the parsec scale at 15 GHz, such as jet misalignment angle and other parsec scale properties, such as γ-ray flux density and luminosity. The AGN studied are the 135 from the Monitoring Of Jets in Active galaxies using VLBA Experiments (MOJAVE) survey, MOJAVE-I sample. Using Monte Carlo Simulations with matching sample statistics, We find that the most likely distribution of intrinsic pc-to-kpc scale bend angles is a uniform distribution with a range of 0° - ˜ 10°. The maximum bend angle is unlikely to be < 5° or > 30°. Furthermore, power law distributions with an index > 1.25 or < -0.5 are ruled out at the 95% confidence level. Narrowly peaked Gaussian distributions are likewise excluded. Using the ASURV statistics package, We find that gamma-ray (Lγ ) and kpc-scale radio luminosities (Lext ) are strongly correlated. Since Lext is correlated with jet power, it is likely that this is indicative of a mutual dependence of intrinsic γ-ray and extended radio emission on jet power. Partial correlation coefficients increase if Lγ is de-boosted by either the synchrotron-self Compton or external Compton models. Furthermore, no convincing correlation between Lγ and unresolved VLA core luminosity (Lc ) is present. Based on previous findings that use median VLBA flux densities a correlation with Lγ may be present. However, considering that the VLA data are from a single epoch and not taken simultaneously with the γ-ray data, this greatly reduces the chances of detecting Lc - γ-ray correlations after redshift bias is factored out. Although a recent discovery of extended γ-ray emission from Centaurus A could suggest a contribution to the Lγ -Lext correlation, this emission is diffuse and most

  7. Decelerating Flows in the TeV Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2004-01-01

    TeV emission from a class of BL Lacertae (BL) objects is commonly modeled as radiation from relativistically moving homogeneous plasma blobs. In the context of these models, the blob Lorentz factors needed to reproduce the (corrected for absorption by the IR background) TeV emission are large ($\\delta \\gtrsim 50$) are required to reproduce via Synchrotron-Self Compton (SSC) the observed TeV emission. The main reason for this is that stronger beaming eases the problem of the lack of $\\sim$ IR-UV synchrotron seed photons needed to produce the de-absorbed $\\sim$ few TeV peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED). However, such high Doppler factors are in strong disagreement with the unified scheme, according to which BLs are FR I radio galaxies with their jets closely aligned to the line of sight. Here, motivated by the detection of sub-luminal velocities in the sub-pc scale jets of the best studied TeV blazars, MKN 421 and MKN 501. we examine the possibility that the relativistic flow in the TeV BLs is longitudinally decelerating. In this case, the problem of the missing seed photons is solved due to Upstream Compton (UC) scattering, a process in which the upstream energetic electrons from the fast base of the flow 'see' the synchrotron seed photons produced in the slow part of the flow relativistically beamed. Modest Lorentz factors ($\\Gamma kim 15s). decelerating down to values compatible with the recent radio interferometric observations, reproduce the $\\sim$ few TeV peak energy of these sources. Furthermore, such decelerating flows are shown to be in agreement with the BL - FR I unification.

  8. Collocations of High Frequency Noun Keywords in Prescribed Science Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menon, Sujatha; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the discourse of science through the study of collocational patterns of high frequency noun keywords in science textbooks used by upper secondary students in Malaysia. Research has shown that one of the areas of difficulty in science discourse concerns lexis, especially that of collocations. This paper describes a corpus-based…

  9. Practical techniques for enhancing the high-frequency MASW method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For soil exploration in the vadose zone, a high-frequency multi-channel analysis of surface waves (HF-MASW) method has been developed. In the study, several practical techniques were applied to enhance the overtone image of the HF-MASW method. They included (1) the self-adaptive MASW method using a ...

  10. Piezoelectric films for high frequency ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qifa; Lau, Sienting; Wu, Dawei; Shung, K. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Piezoelectric films have recently attracted considerable attention in the development of various sensor and actuator devices such as nonvolatile memories, tunable microwave circuits and ultrasound transducers. In this paper, an overview of the state of art in piezoelectric films for high frequency transducer applications is presented. Firstly, the basic principles of piezoelectric materials and design considerations for ultrasound transducers will be introduced. Following the review, the current status of the piezoelectric films and recent progress in the development of high frequency ultrasonic transducers will be discussed. Then details for preparation and structure of the materials derived from piezoelectric thick film technologies will be described. Both chemical and physical methods are included in the discussion, namely, the sol–gel approach, aerosol technology and hydrothermal method. The electric and piezoelectric properties of the piezoelectric films, which are very important for transducer applications, such as permittivity and electromechanical coupling factor, are also addressed. Finally, the recent developments in the high frequency transducers and arrays with piezoelectric ZnO and PZT thick film using MEMS technology are presented. In addition, current problems and further direction of the piezoelectric films for very high frequency ultrasound application (up to GHz) are also discussed. PMID:21720451

  11. Music students: conventional hearing thresholds and at high frequencies.

    PubMed

    Lüders, Débora; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira; Lacerda, Adriana Bender de Moreira; Ribas, Ângela; Conto, Juliana de

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that hearing loss in musicians may cause difficulty in timbre recognition and tuning of instruments. To analyze the hearing thresholds from 250 Hz to 16,000 Hz in a group of music students and compare them to a non-musician group in order to determine whether high-frequency audiometry is a useful tool in the early detection of hearing impairment. Study design was a retrospective observational cohort. Conventional and high-frequency audiometry was performed in 42 music students (Madsen Itera II audiometer and TDH39P headphones for conventional audiometry, and HDA 200 headphones for high-frequency audiometry). Of the 42 students, 38.1% were female students and 61.9% were male students, with a mean age of 26 years. At conventional audiometry, 92.85% had hearing thresholds within normal limits; but even within the normal limits, the worst results were observed in the left ear for all frequencies, except for 4000 Hz; compared to the non-musician group, the worst results occurred at 500 Hz in the left ear, and at 250 Hz, 6000 Hz, 9000 Hz, 10,000 Hz, and 11,200 Hz in both the ears. The periodic evaluation of high-frequency thresholds may be useful in the early detection of hearing loss in musicians. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of high frequency waves using a wave follower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, S.; Shemdin, O. H.

    1983-01-01

    High frequency waves were measured using a laser-optical sensor mounted on a wave follower. Measured down-wind wave slope spectra are shown to be wind speed dependent; the mean square wave-slopes are generally larger than those measured by Cox and Munk (1954) using the sun glitter method.

  13. Fuzzy and conventional control of high-frequency ventilation.

    PubMed

    Noshiro, M; Matsunami, T; Takakuda, K; Ryumae, S; Kagawa, T; Shimizu, M; Fujino, T

    1994-07-01

    A high-frequency ventilator was developed, consisting of a single-phase induction motor, an unbalanced mass and a mechanical vibration system. Intermittent positive pressure respiration was combined with high-frequency ventilation to measure end-tidal pCO2. Hysteresis was observed between the rotational frequency of the high-frequency ventilator and end-tidal pCO2. A fuzzy proportional plus integral control system, designed on the basis of the static characteristics of the controlled system and a knowledge of respiratory physiology, successfully regulated end-tidal pCO2. The characteristics of gas exchange under high-frequency ventilation was approximated by a first-order linear model. A conventional PI control system, designed on the basis of the approximated model, regulated end-tidal pCO2 with a performance similar to that of the fuzzy PI control system. The design of the fuzzy control system required less knowledge about the controlled system than that of the conventional control system.

  14. High-Frequency Oscillations and Seizure Generation in Neocortical Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Greg A.; Parish, Landi; Cranstoun, Stephen D.; Jonas, Rachel; Baltuch, Gordon; Litt, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Neocortical seizures are often poorly localized, explosive and widespread at onset, making them poorly amenable to epilepsy surgery in the absence of associated focal brain lesions. We describe, for the first time in an unselected group of patients with neocortical epilepsy, the finding that high-frequency (60--100 Hz) epileptiform oscillations…

  15. Piezoelectric films for high frequency ultrasonic transducers in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qifa; Lau, Sienting; Wu, Dawei; Shung, K Kirk

    2011-02-01

    Piezoelectric films have recently attracted considerable attention in the development of various sensor and actuator devices such as nonvolatile memories, tunable microwave circuits and ultrasound transducers. In this paper, an overview of the state of art in piezoelectric films for high frequency transducer applications is presented. Firstly, the basic principles of piezoelectric materials and design considerations for ultrasound transducers will be introduced. Following the review, the current status of the piezoelectric films and recent progress in the development of high frequency ultrasonic transducers will be discussed. Then details for preparation and structure of the materials derived from piezoelectric thick film technologies will be described. Both chemical and physical methods are included in the discussion, namely, the sol-gel approach, aerosol technology and hydrothermal method. The electric and piezoelectric properties of the piezoelectric films, which are very important for transducer applications, such as permittivity and electromechanical coupling factor, are also addressed. Finally, the recent developments in the high frequency transducers and arrays with piezoelectric ZnO and PZT thick film using MEMS technology are presented. In addition, current problems and further direction of the piezoelectric films for very high frequency ultrasound application (up to GHz) are also discussed.

  16. High-Frequency Axial Fatigue Test Procedures for Spectrum Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-20

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER AIRCRAFT DIVISION PATUXENT RIVER, MARYLAND TECHNICAL INFORMATION MEMORANDUM...REPORT NO: NAWCADPAX/TIM-2016/49 HIGH-FREQUENCY AXIAL FATIGUE TEST PROCEEDURES FOR SPECTRUM LOADING by David T. Rusk, AIR ...4.3.3.5 Robert E. Taylor, AIR 4.3.4.1 20 July 2016 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. DEPARTMENT

  17. Factors Affecting the Benefits of High-Frequency Amplification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Amy R.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Dubno, Judy R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to determine the extent to which high-frequency amplification helped or hindered speech recognition as a function of hearing loss, gain-frequency response, and background noise. Method: Speech recognition was measured monaurally under headphones for nonsense syllables low-pass filtered in one-third-octave steps…

  18. Surface modification of lignocellulosic fibers using high-frequency ultrasound

    Treesearch

    Jayant B. Gadhe; Ram B. Gupta; Thomas Elder

    2005-01-01

    Enzymatic and chemical oxidation of fiber surfaces has been reported in the literature as a method for producing medium density fiberboards without using synthetic adhesives. This work focuses on modifying the surface properties of wood fibers by the generation of free radicals using high-frequency ultrasound. A sonochemical reactor operating at 610 kHz is used to...

  19. Dynamics of high-frequency synchronization during seizures.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Giri P; Filatov, Gregory; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2013-05-01

    Pathological synchronization of neuronal firing is considered to be an inherent property of epileptic seizures. However, it remains unclear whether the synchrony increases for the high-frequency multiunit activity as well as for the local field potentials (LFPs). We present spatio-temporal analysis of synchronization during epileptiform activity using wide-band (up to 2,000 Hz) spectral analysis of multielectrode array recordings at up to 60 locations throughout the mouse hippocampus in vitro. Our study revealed a prominent structure of LFP profiles during epileptiform discharges, triggered by elevated extracellular potassium, with characteristic distribution of current sinks and sources with respect to anatomical structure. The cross-coherence of high-frequency activity (500-2,000 Hz) across channels was reduced during epileptic bursts compared with baseline activity and showed the opposite trend for lower frequencies. Furthermore, the magnitude of cross-coherence during epileptiform activity was dependent on distance: electrodes closer to the epileptic foci showed increased cross-coherence and electrodes further away showed reduced cross-coherence for high-frequency activity. These experimental observations were re-created and supported in a computational model. Our study suggests that different intrinsic and synaptic processes can mediate paroxysmal synchronization at low, medium, and high frequencies.

  20. High-frequency hearing in seals and sea lions.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Kane A; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests that some pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) can detect underwater sound at frequencies well above the traditional high-frequency hearing limits for their species. This phenomenon, however, is not well studied: Sensitivity patterns at frequencies beyond traditional high-frequency limits are poorly resolved, and the nature of the auditory mechanism mediating hearing at these frequencies is unknown. In the first portion of this study, auditory sensitivity patterns in the 50-180 kHz range were measured for one California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), one harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), and one spotted seal (Phoca largha). Results show the presence of two distinct slope-regions at the high-frequency ends of the audiograms of all three subjects. The first region is characterized by a rapid decrease in sensitivity with increasing frequency-i.e. a steep slope-followed by a region of much less rapid sensitivity decrease-i.e. a shallower slope. In the second portion of this study, a masking experiment was conducted to investigate how the basilar membrane of a harbor seal subject responded to acoustic energy from a narrowband masking noise centered at 140 kHz. The measured masking pattern suggests that the initial, rapid decrease in sensitivity on the high-frequency end of the subject's audiogram is not due to cochlear constraints, as has been previously hypothesized, but rather to constraints on the conductive mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High-Frequency Oscillations and Seizure Generation in Neocortical Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrell, Greg A.; Parish, Landi; Cranstoun, Stephen D.; Jonas, Rachel; Baltuch, Gordon; Litt, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Neocortical seizures are often poorly localized, explosive and widespread at onset, making them poorly amenable to epilepsy surgery in the absence of associated focal brain lesions. We describe, for the first time in an unselected group of patients with neocortical epilepsy, the finding that high-frequency (60--100 Hz) epileptiform oscillations…

  2. Studies of high-frequency seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minster, Jean-Bernard; Berger, Jonathan

    1991-03-01

    This final report results are: (1) a study of the location of regional seismic events using a sparse network, with an application to eastern Kazakhstan; (2) an analysis of high frequency seismic observations collected in eastern Kazakhstan, including in particular calibration chemical explosions; (3) a study of the discrimination of quarry blasts from single explosions, using sonogram analysis of data collected in eastern Kazakhstan; (4) the extension of the discrimination methodology developed in the previous paper to small aperture array data, and application to the automated discrimination between earthquake and quarry blasts at NORESS; (5) the use of a new technique, labelled beam stack imaging, to map shallow crust scatterers near a small aperture array, with applications to NORESS; (6) a study of the polarization characteristics of high-frequency borehole seismograms recorded near Anza, California; and (7) an analysis of attenuation and site effects on high-frequency seismic waves, using high-frequency borehole seismograms recorded in the San Jacinto fault zone, near Anza, California.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Dynamic SEDs of southern blazars - DSSB (Krauss+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, F.; Wilms, J.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Schulz, R.; Trustedt, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Stevens, J.; Ros, E.; Baumgartner, W.; Beuchert, T.; Blanchard, J.; Buson, S.; Carpenter, B.; Dauser, T.; Falkner, S.; Gehrels, N.; Grafe, C.; Gulyaev, S.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Langejahn, M.; Leiter, K.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Muller, C.; Natusch, T.; Nesci, R.; Pursimo, T.; Phillips, C.; Plotz, C.; Quick, J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Weston, S.

    2016-05-01

    The Dynamic SEDs of southern blazars catalog is based on a TANAMI multiwavelength project that has been monitoring a sample of 22 radio-loud blazars of the southern sky from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths. (4 data files).

  4. Automated Screening for High-Frequency Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, Robert C.; Jansen, Marije; Moore, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hearing loss at high frequencies produces perceptual difficulties and is often an early sign of a more general hearing loss. This study reports the development and validation of two new speech-based hearing screening tests in English that focus on detecting hearing loss at frequencies above 2000 Hz. Design: The Internet-delivered, speech-in noise tests used closed target-word sets of digit triplets or consonant–vowel–consonant (CVC) words presented against a speech-shaped noise masker. The digit triplet test uses the digits 0 to 9 (excluding the disyllabic 7), grouped in quasi-random triplets. The CVC test uses simple words (e.g., “cat”) selected for the high-frequency spectral content of the consonants. During testing, triplets or CVC words were identified in an adaptive procedure to obtain the speech reception threshold (SRT) in noise. For these new, high-frequency (HF) tests, the noise was low-pass filtered to produce greater masking of the low-frequency speech components, increasing the sensitivity of the test for HF hearing loss. Individual test tokens (digits, CVCs) were first homogenized using a group of 10 normal-hearing (NH) listeners by equalizing intelligibility across tokens at several speech-in-noise levels. Both tests were then validated and standardized using groups of 24 NH listeners and 50 listeners with hearing impairment. Performance on the new high frequency digit triplet (HF-triplet) and CVC (HF-CVC) tests was compared with audiometric hearing loss, and with that on the unfiltered, broadband digit triplet test (BB-triplet) test, and the ASL (Adaptive Sentence Lists) speech-in-noise test. Results: The HF-triplet and HF-CVC test results (SRT) both correlated positively and highly with high-frequency audiometric hearing loss and with the ASL test. SRT for both tests as a function of high-frequency hearing loss increased at nearly three times the rate as that of the BB-triplet test. The intraindividual variability (SD) on the

  5. Automated screening for high-frequency hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Vlaming, Marcel S M G; MacKinnon, Robert C; Jansen, Marije; Moore, David R

    2014-01-01

    Hearing loss at high frequencies produces perceptual difficulties and is often an early sign of a more general hearing loss. This study reports the development and validation of two new speech-based hearing screening tests in English that focus on detecting hearing loss at frequencies above 2000 Hz. The Internet-delivered, speech-in noise tests used closed target-word sets of digit triplets or consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words presented against a speech-shaped noise masker. The digit triplet test uses the digits 0 to 9 (excluding the disyllabic 7), grouped in quasi-random triplets. The CVC test uses simple words (e.g., "cat") selected for the high-frequency spectral content of the consonants. During testing, triplets or CVC words were identified in an adaptive procedure to obtain the speech reception threshold (SRT) in noise. For these new, high-frequency (HF) tests, the noise was low-pass filtered to produce greater masking of the low-frequency speech components, increasing the sensitivity of the test for HF hearing loss. Individual test tokens (digits, CVCs) were first homogenized using a group of 10 normal-hearing (NH) listeners by equalizing intelligibility across tokens at several speech-in-noise levels. Both tests were then validated and standardized using groups of 24 NH listeners and 50 listeners with hearing impairment. Performance on the new high frequency digit triplet (HF-triplet) and CVC (HF-CVC) tests was compared with audiometric hearing loss, and with that on the unfiltered, broadband digit triplet test (BB-triplet) test, and the ASL (Adaptive Sentence Lists) speech-in-noise test. The HF-triplet and HF-CVC test results (SRT) both correlated positively and highly with high-frequency audiometric hearing loss and with the ASL test. SRT for both tests as a function of high-frequency hearing loss increased at nearly three times the rate as that of the BB-triplet test. The intraindividual variability (SD) on the tests was about 2.1 (HF-triplet) and 1

  6. Broadband Observations of High Redshift Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C.; Stalin, C. S.

    2016-07-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of four high redshift blazars, S5 0014+81 (z = 3.37), CGRaBS J0225+1846 (z = 2.69), BZQ J1430+4205 (z = 4.72), and 3FGL J1656.2-3303 (z = 2.40) using quasi-simultaneous data from the Swift, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) and also archival XMM-Newton observations. Other than 3FGL J1656.2-3303, none of the sources were known as γ-ray emitters, and our analysis of ˜7.5 yr of LAT data reveals the first time detection of statistically significant γ-ray emission from CGRaBS J0225+1846. We generate the broadband spectral energy distributions (SED) of all the objects, centering at the epoch of NuSTAR observations and reproduce them using a one-zone leptonic emission model. The optical-UV emission in all the objects can be explained by radiation from the accretion disk, whereas the X-ray to γ-ray windows of the SEDs are found to be dominated by inverse Compton scattering off the broad line region photons. All of them host black holes that are billions of solar masses. Comparing the accretion disk luminosity and the jet power of these sources with a large sample of blazars, we find them to occupy a high disk luminosity-jet power regime. We also investigate the X-ray spectral properties of the sources in detail with a major focus on studying the causes of soft X-ray deficit, a feature generally seen in high redshift radio-loud quasars. We summarize that this feature could be explained based on the intrinsic curvature in the jet emission rather than being due to the external effects predicted in earlier studies, such as host galaxy and/or warm absorption.

  7. Detecting the elusive blazar counter-jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liodakis, I.; Pavlidou, V.; Angelakis, E.

    2017-02-01

    Detection of blazar pc scale counter-jets is difficult, but it can provide invaluable insight into the relativistic effects, radiative processes and the complex mechanisms of jet production, collimation and accelation in blazars. We build on recent populations models (optimized using the MOJAVE apparent velocity and redshift distributions) in order to derive the distribution of jet-to-counter-jet ratios and the flux densities of the counter-jet at different frequencies, in an effort to set minimum sensitivity limits required for existing and future telescope arrays in order to detect these elusive counter-jets. We find that: for the BL Lacs, 5 per cent of their counter-jets have a flux density higher than 100 mJy, 15 per cent are higher than 10 mJy, and 32 per cent have higher flux density than 1 mJy, whereas for the FSRQs, 8 per cent have a flux density higher than 10 mJy, 17 per cent are higher than 1 mJy, and 32 per cent are higher than 0.1 mJy (at 15 GHz). Future telescopes like the SKA and newly operating like e-MERLIN and JVLA may detect up to 99 per cent of the BL Lac and 77 per cent of the FSRQ counter-jets. Sources with both low apparent velocity and a low Doppler factor make prime candidates for counter-jet detection. Combining our findings with the literature values, we have identified five such counter-jet detection candidates. Finally, we discuss possible effects beyond relativistic deboosting that may complicate the detection of counter-jets and that need to be accounted for in the interpretation of detections.

  8. Increased Low- and High-Frequency Oscillatory Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex of Fibromyalgia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Manyoel; Kim, June Sic; Kim, Dajung J.; Chung, Chun Kee

    2016-01-01

    Recent human neuroimaging studies have suggested that fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic widespread pain disorder, exhibits altered thalamic structure and function. Since the thalamus has extensive reciprocal connection with the cortex, structural and functional thalamic alterations in FM might be linked to aberrant thalamocortical oscillation. This study investigated the presence of abnormal brain rhythmicity in low- and high-frequency bands during resting state in patients with FM and their relationship to clinical pain symptom. Spontaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG) activity was recorded in 18 females with FM and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) subjects. The most remarkable finding was that FM patients had general increases in theta, beta and gamma power along with a slowing of the dominant alpha peak. Increased spectral powers in the theta-band were primarily localized to the left dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Beta and gamma over-activation were localized to insular, primary motor and primary and secondary somatosensory (S2) cortices, as well as the DLPFC and OFC. Furthermore, enhanced high-frequency oscillatory activities in the DLPFC and OFC were associated with higher affective pain scores in patients with FM. Our results demonstrate that FM patients feature enhanced low- and high-frequency oscillatory activity in the brain areas related to cognitive and emotional modulation of pain. Increased low- and high-frequency activity of the prefrontal cortex may contribute to persistent perception of pain in FM. Therapeutic intervention based on manipulating neural oscillation to restore normal thalamocortical rhythmicity may be beneficial to pain relief in FM. PMID:27014041

  9. Data mining neocortical high-frequency oscillations in epilepsy and controls.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Justin A; Stead, Matt; Krieger, Abba; Stacey, William; Maus, Douglas; Marsh, Eric; Viventi, Jonathan; Lee, Kendall H; Marsh, Richard; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A

    2011-10-01

    Transient high-frequency (100-500 Hz) oscillations of the local field potential have been studied extensively in human mesial temporal lobe. Previous studies report that both ripple (100-250 Hz) and fast ripple (250-500 Hz) oscillations are increased in the seizure-onset zone of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Comparatively little is known, however, about their spatial distribution with respect to seizure-onset zone in neocortical epilepsy, or their prevalence in normal brain. We present a quantitative analysis of high-frequency oscillations and their rates of occurrence in a group of nine patients with neocortical epilepsy and two control patients with no history of seizures. Oscillations were automatically detected and classified using an unsupervised approach in a data set of unprecedented volume in epilepsy research, over 12 terabytes of continuous long-term micro- and macro-electrode intracranial recordings, without human preprocessing, enabling selection-bias-free estimates of oscillation rates. There are three main results: (i) a cluster of ripple frequency oscillations with median spectral centroid = 137 Hz is increased in the seizure-onset zone more frequently than a cluster of fast ripple frequency oscillations (median spectral centroid = 305 Hz); (ii) we found no difference in the rates of high frequency oscillations in control neocortex and the non-seizure-onset zone neocortex of patients with epilepsy, despite the possibility of different underlying mechanisms of generation; and (iii) while previous studies have demonstrated that oscillations recorded by parenchyma-penetrating micro-electrodes have higher peak 100-500 Hz frequencies than penetrating macro-electrodes, this was not found for the epipial electrodes used here to record from the neocortical surface. We conclude that the relative rate of ripple frequency oscillations is a potential biomarker for epileptic neocortex, but that larger prospective studies correlating high-frequency

  10. High-frequency Oscillations in Eyewalls of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weibiao; Chen, Shumin

    2017-04-01

    High-frequency oscillations, with periods of about 2 hours, are first identified by applying wavelet analysis to observed minutely wind speeds around the eye and eyewall of tropical cyclones (TCs). Analysis of a model simulation of Typhoon Hagupit (2008) shows that the oscillations also occur in the intensity of TC, vertical motion, convergence activity and air density around the eyewall. Sequences of oscillations in these variables follow a certain order. In a typical cycle, the drop of density in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is followed by an increase in the inward radial wind; this enhanced frictional convergence causes increase in density, followed by a decrease in the inward radial wind. The increase in convergence in the PBL causes increase of updraft at the top of the PBL, followed by high vertical velocity at high altitude of 8-10 km, then the increase of the maximum wind speed, and vice versa. Key words: tropical cyclone, high-frequency oscillations, eyewall, intensity

  11. Parametric Study of High Frequency Pulse Detonation Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Anderw D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes development of high frequency pulse detonation tubes similar to a small pulse detonation engine (PDE). A high-speed valve injects a charge of a mixture of fuel and air at rates of up to 1000 Hz into a constant area tube closed at one end. The reactants detonate in the tube and the products exit as a pulsed jet. High frequency pressure transducers are used to monitor the pressure fluctuations in the device and thrust is measured with a balance. The effects of injection frequency, fuel and air flow rates, tube length, and injection location are considered. Both H2 and C2H4 fuels are considered. Optimum (maximum specific thrust) fuel-air compositions and resonant frequencies are identified. Results are compared to PDE calculations. Design rules are postulated and applications to aerodynamic flow control and propulsion are discussed.

  12. High-frequency acoustic modes in an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Mauro C C

    2013-09-21

    High-frequency collective dynamics of the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, [C6C1im]Br, has been investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Time correlation functions of mass current fluctuations were calculated for several wavevectors and the dispersion curves of excitations, ω(k), for longitudinal and transverse acoustic sound modes were obtained at different temperatures and pressures. Two different thermodynamic states have the same high-frequency sound velocity irrespective of the temperature provided that both have the same density. Partial time correlation functions of mass currents were calculated for the atoms belonging to the polar or the non-polar domains resulting from the heterogeneous structure of [C6C1im]Br. The partial correlation functions indicate that the polar domains are stiffer than the non-polar domains of the simulated ionic liquid.

  13. High-frequency oscillations and the neurobiology of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Uhlhaas, Peter J; Singer, Wolf

    2013-09-01

    Neural oscillations at low- and high-frequency ranges are a fundamental feature of large-scale networks. Recent evidence has indicated that schizophrenia is associated with abnormal amplitude and synchrony of oscillatory activity, in particular, at high (beta/gamma) frequencies. These abnormalities are observed during task-related and spontaneous neuronal activity which may be important for understanding the pathophysiology of the syndrome. In this paper, we shall review the current evidence for impaired beta/gamma-band oscillations and their involvement in cognitive functions and certain symptoms of the disorder. In the first part, we will provide an update on neural oscillations during normal brain functions and discuss underlying mechanisms. This will be followed by a review of studies that have examined high-frequency oscillatory activity in schizophrenia and discuss evidence that relates abnormalities of oscillatory activity to disturbed excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance. Finally, we shall identify critical issues for future research in this area.

  14. Clustered Desynchronization from High-Frequency Deep Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dan; Moehlis, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    While high-frequency deep brain stimulation is a well established treatment for Parkinson’s disease, its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that two competing hypotheses, desynchronization and entrainment in a population of model neurons, may not be mutually exclusive. We find that in a noisy group of phase oscillators, high frequency perturbations can separate the population into multiple clusters, each with a nearly identical proportion of the overall population. This phenomenon can be understood by studying maps of the underlying deterministic system and is guaranteed to be observed for small noise strengths. When we apply this framework to populations of Type I and Type II neurons, we observe clustered desynchronization at many pulsing frequencies. PMID:26713619

  15. High-Frequency Power Gain in the Mammalian Cochlea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maoiléidigh, Dáibhid Ó.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2011-11-01

    Amplification in the mammalian inner ear is thought to result from a nonlinear active process known as the cochlear amplifier. Although there is much evidence that outer hair cells (OHCs) play a central role in the cochlear amplifier, the mechanism of amplification remains uncertain. In non-mammalian ears hair bundles can perform mechanical work and account for the active process in vitro, yet in the mammalian cochlea membrane-based electromotility is required for amplification in vivo. A key issue is how OHCs conduct mechanical power amplification at high frequencies. We present a physical model of a segment of the mammalian cochlea that can amplify the power of external signals. In this representation both electromotility and active hair-bundle motility are required for mechanical power gain at high frequencies. We demonstrate how the endocochlear potential, the OHC resting potential, Ca2+ gradients, and ATP-fueled myosin motors serve as the energy sources underlying mechanical power gain in the cochlear amplifier.

  16. Analysis of winding losses in high frequency foil wound inductors

    SciTech Connect

    Kutkut, N.H.; Novotny, D.W.; Divan, D.M.; Yeow, E.

    1995-12-31

    The design of high power and high frequency foil wound inductors is not a straightforward task. At high frequencies, additional losses occur within the foil windings due to the eddy currents induced by skin, proximity, fringing and other ac effects. In addition, the winding structure greatly affects the distribution of losses within the windings. In this paper, the various loss mechanisms of a foil winding are analyzed and quantified. Both analytical and finite element analysis tools are utilized to investigate and understand the different loss mechanisms. The results show a strong correlation between the current and field distributions within the windings where the current is always attracted to the high field regions. By shaping and controlling the field distribution in a given design, the current distribution can be improved which results in an improvement in the winding losses.

  17. How High Frequency Trading Affects a Market Index

    PubMed Central

    Kenett, Dror Y.; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Stanley, H. Eugene; gur-Gershgoren, Gitit

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between a market index and its constituent stocks is complicated. While an index is a weighted average of its constituent stocks, when the investigated time scale is one day or longer the index has been found to have a stronger effect on the stocks than vice versa. We explore how this interaction changes in short time scales using high frequency data. Using a correlation-based analysis approach, we find that in short time scales stocks have a stronger influence on the index. These findings have implications for high frequency trading and suggest that the price of an index should be published on shorter time scales, as close as possible to those of the actual transaction time scale. PMID:23817553

  18. High Frequency Resonant Electromagnetic Generation and Detection of Ultrasonic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Katsuhiro; Wright, Oliver; Hyoguchi, Takao

    1994-05-01

    High frequency resonant mode electromagnetic ultrasonic generation and detection in metals is demonstrated at frequencies up to ˜150 MHz with various metal sheet samples. Using a unified theory of the generation and detection process, it is shown how various physical quantities can be measured. The sound velocity or thickness of the sheets can be derived from the resonant frequencies. At resonance the detected amplitude is inversely proportional to the ultrasonic attenuation of the sample, whereas the resonance half-width is proportional to this attenuation. We derive the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient from the half-width, and show how the grain size of the material can be probed. In addition we present results for thin bonded sheets, and show how a measure of the bonding or delamination can be obtained. This high frequency resonant method shows great promise for the non-destructive evaluation of thin sheets and coatings in the sub- 10-µm to 1-mm thickness range.

  19. High-frequency oscillation of the airway and chest wall.

    PubMed

    Fink, James B; Mahlmeister, Michael J

    2002-07-01

    High-frequency oscillation (HFO), applied to either the airway or chest wall, has been associated with changes in sputum attributes and clearance. The evolution of evidence, both in vitro and in vivo, supporting the use of HFO is reviewed. Devices that apply HFO to the airway range from the relatively simple mechanical Flutter and Acapella devices to the more complex Percussionaire Intrapercussive Ventilators. and the Hayek Oscillator are designed to provide high-frequency chest wall compression. Operation and use of these devices are described with examples of differentiation of device types by characterization of flows, and airway and esophageal pressures. Although HFO devices span a broad range of costs, they provide a reasonable therapeutic option to support secretion clearance for patients with cystic fibrosis.

  20. High frequency amplitude detector for GMI magnetic sensors.

    PubMed

    Asfour, Aktham; Zidi, Manel; Yonnet, Jean-Paul

    2014-12-19

    A new concept of a high-frequency amplitude detector and demodulator for Giant-Magneto-Impedance (GMI) sensors is presented. This concept combines a half wave rectifier, with outstanding capabilities and high speed, and a feedback approach that ensures the amplitude detection with easily adjustable gain. The developed detector is capable of measuring high-frequency and very low amplitude signals without the use of diode-based active rectifiers or analog multipliers. The performances of this detector are addressed throughout the paper. The full circuitry of the design is given, together with a comprehensive theoretical study of the concept and experimental validation. The detector has been used for the amplitude measurement of both single frequency and pulsed signals and for the demodulation of amplitude-modulated signals. It has also been successfully integrated in a GMI sensor prototype. Magnetic field and electrical current measurements in open- and closed-loop of this sensor have also been conducted.

  1. High Frequency Amplitude Detector for GMI Magnetic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Asfour, Aktham; Zidi, Manel; Yonnet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    A new concept of a high-frequency amplitude detector and demodulator for Giant-Magneto-Impedance (GMI) sensors is presented. This concept combines a half wave rectifier, with outstanding capabilities and high speed, and a feedback approach that ensures the amplitude detection with easily adjustable gain. The developed detector is capable of measuring high-frequency and very low amplitude signals without the use of diode-based active rectifiers or analog multipliers. The performances of this detector are addressed throughout the paper. The full circuitry of the design is given, together with a comprehensive theoretical study of the concept and experimental validation. The detector has been used for the amplitude measurement of both single frequency and pulsed signals and for the demodulation of amplitude-modulated signals. It has also been successfully integrated in a GMI sensor prototype. Magnetic field and electrical current measurements in open- and closed-loop of this sensor have also been conducted. PMID:25536003

  2. Extracting cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xulei; Cong, Zhibin; Jiang, Rong; Shen, Ming; Wagner, Mary B.; Kirshbom, Paul; Fei, Baowei

    2013-03-01

    Cardiac myofiber plays an important role in stress mechanism during heart beating periods. The orientation of myofibers decides the effects of the stress distribution and the whole heart deformation. It is important to image and quantitatively extract these orientations for understanding the cardiac physiological and pathological mechanism and for diagnosis of chronic diseases. Ultrasound has been wildly used in cardiac diagnosis because of its ability of performing dynamic and noninvasive imaging and because of its low cost. An extraction method is proposed to automatically detect the cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images. First, heart walls containing myofibers are imaged by B-mode high frequency (<20 MHz) ultrasound imaging. Second, myofiber orientations are extracted from ultrasound images using the proposed method that combines a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter, Canny edge detector, Hough transform, and K-means clustering. This method is validated by the results of ultrasound data from phantoms and pig hearts.

  3. High-frequency Broadband Modulations of Electroencephalographic Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Onton, Julie; Makeig, Scott

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency cortical potentials in electroencephalographic (EEG) scalp recordings have low amplitudes and may be confounded with scalp muscle activities. EEG data from an eyes-closed emotion imagination task were linearly decomposed using independent component analysis (ICA) into maximally independent component (IC) processes. Joint decomposition of IC log spectrograms into source- and frequency-independent modulator (IM) processes revealed three distinct classes of IMs that separately modulated broadband high-frequency (∼15–200 Hz) power of brain, scalp muscle, and likely ocular motor IC processes. Multi-dimensional scaling revealed significant but spatially complex relationships between mean broadband brain IM effects and the valence of the imagined emotions. Thus, contrary to prevalent assumption, unitary modes of spectral modulation of frequencies encompassing the beta, gamma, and high gamma frequency ranges can be isolated from scalp-recorded EEG data and may be differentially associated with brain sources and cognitive activities. PMID:20076775

  4. How high frequency trading affects a market index.

    PubMed

    Kenett, Dror Y; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Stanley, H Eugene; Gur-Gershgoren, Gitit

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between a market index and its constituent stocks is complicated. While an index is a weighted average of its constituent stocks, when the investigated time scale is one day or longer the index has been found to have a stronger effect on the stocks than vice versa. We explore how this interaction changes in short time scales using high frequency data. Using a correlation-based analysis approach, we find that in short time scales stocks have a stronger influence on the index. These findings have implications for high frequency trading and suggest that the price of an index should be published on shorter time scales, as close as possible to those of the actual transaction time scale.

  5. Self-integrating inductive loop for measuring high frequency pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Moreno, Mónica V.; Robles, Guillermo; Martínez-Tarifa, Juan M.; Sanz-Feito, Javier

    2011-08-01

    High frequency pulses can be measured by means of inductive sensors. The main advantage of these sensors consists of non-contact measurements that isolate and protect measuring equipment. The objective of this paper is to present the implementation of an inductive sensor for measuring rapidly varying currents. It consists of a rectangular loop with a resistor at its terminals. The inductive loop gives the derivative of the current according to Faraday's law and the resistor connected to the loop modifies the sensor's frequency response to obtain an output proportional to the current pulse. The self-integrating inductive sensor was validated with two sensors, a non-inductive resistor and a commercial high frequency current transformer. The results were compared to determine the advantages and drawbacks of the probe as an adequate inductive transducer.

  6. High-frequency microrheology reveals cytoskeleton dynamics in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigato, Annafrancesca; Miyagi, Atsushi; Scheuring, Simon; Rico, Felix

    2017-08-01

    Living cells are viscoelastic materials, dominated by an elastic response on timescales longer than a millisecond. On shorter timescales, the dynamics of individual cytoskeleton filaments are expected to emerge, but active microrheology measurements on cells accessing this regime are scarce. Here, we develop high-frequency microrheology experiments to probe the viscoelastic response of living cells from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. We report the viscoelasticity of different cell types under cytoskeletal drug treatments. On previously inaccessible short timescales, cells exhibit rich viscoelastic responses that depend on the state of the cytoskeleton. Benign and malignant cancer cells revealed remarkably different scaling laws at high frequencies, providing a unique mechanical fingerprint. Microrheology over a wide dynamic range--up to the frequency characterizing the molecular components--provides a mechanistic understanding of cell mechanics.

  7. Extracting Cardiac Myofiber Orientations from High Frequency Ultrasound Images.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xulei; Cong, Zhibin; Jiang, Rong; Shen, Ming; Wagner, Mary B; Kishbom, Paul; Fei, Baowei

    2013-03-29

    Cardiac myofiber plays an important role in stress mechanism during heart beating periods. The orientation of myofibers decides the effects of the stress distribution and the whole heart deformation. It is important to image and quantitatively extract these orientations for understanding the cardiac physiological and pathological mechanism and for diagnosis of chronic diseases. Ultrasound has been wildly used in cardiac diagnosis because of its ability of performing dynamic and noninvasive imaging and because of its low cost. An extraction method is proposed to automatically detect the cardiac myofiber orientations from high frequency ultrasound images. First, heart walls containing myofibers are imaged by B-mode high frequency (>20 MHz) ultrasound imaging. Second, myofiber orientations are extracted from ultrasound images using the proposed method that combines a nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filter, Canny edge detector, Hough transform, and K-means clustering. This method is validated by the results of ultrasound data from phantoms and pig hearts.

  8. A high frequency transformer model for the EMTP

    SciTech Connect

    Morched, A.; Marti, L.; Ottevangers, J. )

    1993-07-01

    A model to simulate the high frequency behavior of a power transformer is presented. This model is based on the frequency characteristics of the transformer admittance matrix between its terminals over a given range of frequencies. The transformer admittance characteristics can be obtained from measurements or from detailed internal models based on the physical layout of the transformer. The elements of the nodal admittance matrix are approximated with rational functions consisting of real as well as complex conjugate poles and zeros. These approximations are realized in the form of an RLC network in a format suitable for direct use with EMTP. The high frequency transformer model can be used as a stand-alone linear model or as an add-on module of a more comprehensive model where iron core nonlinearities are represented in detail.

  9. High-frequency jet ventilation in a neonatal foal.

    PubMed

    Bain, F T; Brock, K A; Koterba, A M

    1988-04-01

    High-frequency jet ventilation was performed on a premature foal for respiratory difficulty attributable to in utero-acquired pneumonia. The procedure involves delivery of compressed gas through a small-bore cannula at frequencies up to 400 cycles/min. Ventilation settings of drive pressure, frequency, and FIO2 were varied to optimize PaO2 and PaCO2 values. The foal was ventilated with this equipment for 14 hours. Evidence of a favorable response to this method of ventilation was observed in the form of improvement in arterial blood gas values as well as the foal's attitude and degree of respiratory effort. High-frequency jet ventilation appears to be a useful method of ventilation for respiratory disease in neonatal foals; however, there remains no clear-cut advantage over conventional positive-pressure ventilation.

  10. Broadband high-frequency waves detected at dipolarization fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Cao, J. B.; Fu, H. S.; Wang, T. Y.; Liu, W. L.; Yao, Z. H.

    2017-04-01

    Dipolarization front (DF) is a sharp boundary most probably separating the reconnection jet from the background plasma sheet. So far at this boundary, the observed waves are mainly in low-frequency range (e.g., magnetosonic waves and lower hybrid waves). Few high-frequency waves are observed in this region. In this paper, we report the broadband high-frequency wave emissions at the DF. These waves, having frequencies extending from the electron cyclotron frequency fce, up to the electron plasma frequency fpe, could contribute 10% to the in situ measurement of intermittent energy conversion at the DF layer. Their generation may be attributed to electron beams, which are simultaneously observed at the DF as well.

  11. Experimental observation of standing wave effect in low-pressure very-high-frequency capacitive discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Jia; Wang, You-Nian

    2014-07-28

    Radial uniformity measurements of plasma density were carried out by using a floating double probe in a cylindrical (21 cm in electrode diameter) capacitive discharge reactor driven over a wide range of frequencies (27–220 MHz). At low rf power, a multiple-node structure of standing wave effect was observed at 130 MHz. The secondary density peak caused by the standing wave effect became pronounced and shifts toward the axis as the driving frequency further to increase, indicative of a much more shortened standing-wave wavelength. With increasing rf power, the secondary density peak shift toward the radial edge, namely, the standing-wave wavelength was increased, in good qualitative agreement with the previous theory and simulation results. At higher pressures and high frequencies, the rf power was primarily deposited at the periphery of the electrode, due to the fact that the waves were strongly damped as they propagated from the discharge edge into the center.

  12. Microstrip antenna modeling and measurement at high frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Bevensee, R.M.

    1986-04-30

    This report addresses the task C(i) of the Proposal for Microstrip Antenna Modeling and Measurement at High Frequencies by the writer, July 1985. The task is: Assess the advantages and disadvantages of the three computational approaches outlined in the Proposal, including any difficulties to be resolved and an estimate of the time required to implement each approach. The three approaches are (1) Finite Difference, (2) Sommerfeld-GTD-MOM, and (3) Surface Intergral Equations - MOM. These are discussed in turn.

  13. High-Frequency Propagation in the Ocean Waveguide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    High-Frequency Propagation in the Ocean Waveguide Michael B. Porter Heat , Light, and Sound Research, Inc. 3366 N. Torrey Pines Court, Suite 310...La Jolla, CA 92037 phone: (858) 457-0800 email: michael.porter@HLSResearch.com Katherine H. Kim Heat , Light, and Sound Research, Inc. 3366 N...ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Heat , Light

  14. High Frequency Acoustic Reflection and Transmission in Ocean Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    scattering in ocean environments with special emphasis on propagation in shallow water waveguides and scattering from ocean sediments. 3 ) Development of...TYPE 3 . DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High Frequency Acoustic Reflection and Transmission in Ocean Sediments...REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 3

  15. Automated composite ellipsoid modelling for high frequency GTD analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sze, K. Y.; Rojas, R. G.; Klevenow, F. T.; Scheick, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary results of a scheme currently being developed to fit a composite ellipsoid to the fuselage of a helicopter in the vicinity of the antenna location are discussed under the assumption that the antenna is mounted on the fuselage. The parameters of the close-fit composite ellipsoid would then be utilized as inputs into NEWAIR3, a code programmed in FORTRAN 77 for high frequency Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) Analysis of the radiation of airborne antennas.

  16. Design of 1 MHz Solid State High Frequency Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, Darshan; Singh, N. P.; Gajjar, Sandip; Thakar, Aruna; Patel, Amit; Raval, Bhavin; Dhola, Hitesh; Dave, Rasesh; Upadhay, Dishang; Gupta, Vikrant; Goswami, Niranjan; Mehta, Kush; Baruah, Ujjwal

    2017-04-01

    High Frequency Power supply (HFPS) is used for various applications like AM Transmitters, metallurgical applications, Wireless Power Transfer, RF Ion Sources etc. The Ion Source for a Neutral beam Injector at ITER-India uses inductively coupled power source at High Frequency (∼1 MHz). Switching converter based topology used to generate 1 MHz sinusoidal output is expected to have advantages on efficiency and reliability as compared to traditional RF Tetrode tubes based oscillators. In terms of Power Electronics, thermal and power coupling issues are major challenges at such a high frequency. A conceptual design for a 200 kW, 1 MHz power supply and a prototype design for a 600 W source been done. The prototype design is attempted with Class-E amplifier topology where a MOSFET is switched resonantly. The prototype uses two low power modules and a ferrite combiner to add the voltage and power at the output. Subsequently solution with Class-D H-Bridge configuration have been evaluated through simulation where module design is stable as switching device do not participate in resonance, further switching device voltage rating is substantially reduced. The rating of the modules is essentially driven by the maximum power handling capacity of the MOSFETs and ferrites in the combiner circuit. The output passive network including resonance tuned network and impedance matching network caters for soft switching and matches the load impedance to 50ohm respectively. This paper describes the conceptual design of a 200 kW high frequency power supply and experimental results of the prototype 600 W, 1 MHz source.

  17. Factors controlling high-frequency radiation from extended ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresnev, Igor A.

    2017-04-01

    Small-scale slip heterogeneity or variations in rupture velocity on the fault plane are often invoked to explain the high-frequency radiation from earthquakes. This view has no theoretical basis, which follows, for example, from the representation integral of elasticity, an exact solution for the radiated wave field. The Fourier transform, applied to the integral, shows that the seismic spectrum is fully controlled by that of the source time function, while the distribution of final slip and rupture acceleration/deceleration only contribute to directivity. This inference is corroborated by the precise numerical computation of the full radiated field from the representation integral. We compare calculated radiation from four finite-fault models: (1) uniform slip function with low slip velocity, (2) slip function spatially modulated by a sinusoidal function, (3) slip function spatially modulated by a sinusoidal function with random roughness added, and (4) uniform slip function with high slip velocity. The addition of "asperities," both regular and irregular, does not cause any systematic increase in the spectral level of high-frequency radiation, except for the creation of maxima due to constructive interference. On the other hand, an increase in the maximum rate of slip on the fault leads to highly amplified high frequencies, in accordance with the prediction on the basis of a simple point-source treatment of the fault. Hence, computations show that the temporal rate of slip, not the spatial heterogeneity on faults, is the predominant factor forming the high-frequency radiation and thus controlling the velocity and acceleration of the resulting ground motions.

  18. Correlations and multi-affinity in high frequency financial datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baviera, Roberto; Pasquini, Michele; Serva, Maurizio; Vergni, Davide; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2001-11-01

    In this paper we perform a quantitative check of long term correlations and multi-affinity in Deutsche Mark/US Dollar exchange rates using high frequency data. We show that the use of business time, i.e., the ranking of the quotes in the sequences, eliminates most of the seasonality in financial-time series, allowing a precise estimation of some return anomalies.

  19. High frequency scattering by a thin lossless dielectric slab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, W. D.; Burgener, K. W.

    1983-01-01

    A high frequency solution for scattering from a thin dielectric slab is developed, based on a modification of the uniform geometrical theory of diffraction solution for a half-plane, with the intention of developing a model for a windshield of a small private aircraft. Results of the theory are compared with experimental measurements and moment method calculations showing good agreement. Application of the solution is also addressed.

  20. Factors controlling high-frequency radiation from extended ruptures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresnev, Igor A.

    2017-09-01

    Small-scale slip heterogeneity or variations in rupture velocity on the fault plane are often invoked to explain the high-frequency radiation from earthquakes. This view has no theoretical basis, which follows, for example, from the representation integral of elasticity, an exact solution for the radiated wave field. The Fourier transform, applied to the integral, shows that the seismic spectrum is fully controlled by that of the source time function, while the distribution of final slip and rupture acceleration/deceleration only contribute to directivity. This inference is corroborated by the precise numerical computation of the full radiated field from the representation integral. We compare calculated radiation from four finite-fault models: (1) uniform slip function with low slip velocity, (2) slip function spatially modulated by a sinusoidal function, (3) slip function spatially modulated by a sinusoidal function with random roughness added, and (4) uniform slip function with high slip velocity. The addition of "asperities," both regular and irregular, does not cause any systematic increase in the spectral level of high-frequency radiation, except for the creation of maxima due to constructive interference. On the other hand, an increase in the maximum rate of slip on the fault leads to highly amplified high frequencies, in accordance with the prediction on the basis of a simple point-source treatment of the fault. Hence, computations show that the temporal rate of slip, not the spatial heterogeneity on faults, is the predominant factor forming the high-frequency radiation and thus controlling the velocity and acceleration of the resulting ground motions.

  1. Design and characterization of very high frequency pulse tube prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Diogo; Duval, Jean-Marc; Charles, Ivan; Butterworth, James; Trollier, Thierry; Tanchon, Julien; Ravex, Alain; Daniel, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    Weight and size are important features of a cryocooler when it comes to space applications. Given their reliability and low level of exported vibrations (due to the absence of moving cold parts), pulse tubes are good candidates for spatial purposes and their miniaturization has been the focus of many studies. We report on the design and performance of a small-scale very high frequency pulse tube prototype, modeled after two previous prototypes which were optimized with a numerical code.

  2. High frequency fluoroptic thermometry current sensing for weapon susceptibility testing

    SciTech Connect

    Cernosek, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    A high frequency current measurement technique for susceptibility testing is proposed. This technique uses a resistive element to produce a temperature change that is sensed by a fluoroptic thermometer. Laboratory testing has shown that RF currents as small as 1.5 mA are measureable for frequencies up to 10 GHz. Errors bounds in determining the current are 6 dB. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  3. High frequency fatigue testing of Udimet 700 at 1400 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conn, A. F.; Rudy, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation pertaining to the development of life prediction methods for materials subjected to high temperature creep/fatigue conditions is presented. High frequency (13.4 kHz) fatigue data were measured at 1400 F on specimens of the nickel-based alloy Udimet 700. Tests were conducted on the virgin material, as well as on specimens which had received prior exposures to high temperature, fatigue, and creep.

  4. Modeling high-frequency capacitance in SOI MOS capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łukasiak, Lidia; Jasiński, Jakub; Beck, Romuald B.; Ikraiam, Fawzi A.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a model of high frequency capacitance of a SOI MOSCAP. The capacitance in strong inversion is described with minority carrier redistribution in the inversion layer taken into account. The efficiency of the computational process is significantly improved. Moreover, it is suitable for the simulation of thin-film SOI structures. It may also be applied to the characterization of non-standard SOI MOSCAPS e.g. with nanocrystalline body.

  5. Distribution and deposition of organic fouling on the microfiltration membrane evaluated by high-frequency ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Hsun; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    A 50 MHz high-frequency ultrasound and analysis method were developed to further improve the in situ assessment of deposition and distribution of organic fouling on the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes. Measurements of fouling depositions were performed from PVDF membranes filtrated with aqueous humic acid solutions (HAS) of 2 and 4 ppm concentrations in a flat-sheet module. Ultrasound signals reflected from the PVDF membranes, following filtrations at various durations including 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, and 100 min, were acquired. The thickness and distribution of fouling estimated and assessed by peak-to-peak echo voltage (Vpp) and C-mode images were found to be non-homogeneously deposited on the membranes. Following the filtrations with 2 and 4 ppm HAS for 100 min, the corresponding thickness of fouling deposition increased from 1.81±9 to 2.4571.57 mm, respectively; those average Vpp decreased from 2.05±07 to 1.13±16 V and from 2.11±08 to 0.94±15 V. These results demonstrated that the deposition and distribution of organic fouling could be sensitively and rapidly evaluated by high-frequency ultrasound image incorporated with the analysis method. PMID:25309028

  6. Distribution and deposition of organic fouling on the microfiltration membrane evaluated by high-frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Hsun; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2013-04-15

    A 50 MHz high-frequency ultrasound and analysis method were developed to further improve the in situ assessment of deposition and distribution of organic fouling on the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes. Measurements of fouling depositions were performed from PVDF membranes filtrated with aqueous humic acid solutions (HAS) of 2 and 4 ppm concentrations in a flat-sheet module. Ultrasound signals reflected from the PVDF membranes, following filtrations at various durations including 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, and 100 min, were acquired. The thickness and distribution of fouling estimated and assessed by peak-to-peak echo voltage (Vpp) and C-mode images were found to be non-homogeneously deposited on the membranes. Following the filtrations with 2 and 4 ppm HAS for 100 min, the corresponding thickness of fouling deposition increased from 1.81±9 to 2.4571.57 mm, respectively; those average Vpp decreased from 2.05±07 to 1.13±16 V and from 2.11±08 to 0.94±15 V. These results demonstrated that the deposition and distribution of organic fouling could be sensitively and rapidly evaluated by high-frequency ultrasound image incorporated with the analysis method.

  7. A new high-frequency magnetic stimulator with an oil-cooled coil.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J F; Klemar, B; Kiilerich, H

    1995-09-01

    A new high frequency magnetic stimulator, Labmag, is described which may be used in clinical neurophysiology and for the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis. In order to avoid heating of the coil during repetitive stimulation, an oil/air cooling system was employed. The magnetic stimulus waveform is a half cosine with a rise time of 200 microseconds and a pulse width of 400 microseconds induced by alternating capacitor voltage. The Labmag product was compared with a commercially available high frequency stimulator, MagPro. The electric fields induced by Labmag were half the size of those induced by MagPro at identical stimulus intensities. Using a leaky integrator to simulate the effects on neurons, only minor differences in integrated electric fields were observed. There were no changes of the electric fields in relation to coil geometry. A minor difference in electric fields (1.0 +/- 0.8%) was observed when the polarity of the capacitor voltage alternated. Compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) in eight subjects. Threshold intensities of CMAPs evoked by Labmag (58 +/- 7%) were significantly smaller (p < 0.05) than threshold intensities obtained with MagPro (63 +/- 8%). Peak-to-peak amplitudes, P-Pamps, of CMAPs were significantly smaller after single stimulations with Labmag at stimulation intensities of 130 and 140% of threshold intensity.

  8. Influence of inhomogeneous magnetic field on the characteristics of very high frequency capacitively coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, Kallol; Rauf, Shahid; Kenney, Jason; Dorf, Leonid; Collins, Ken

    2010-03-15

    The effect of inhomogeneous magnetic field on the spatial structure of very high frequency (VHF) plasmas is investigated for different coil configurations, gas pressures, high frequency bias powers, and degrees of electronegativity. The simulation results show that the electron density peaks in the center of the chamber for VHF plasmas due to the standing electromagnetic wave effect. On application of a magnetic field, the density increases near the wafer edge and decreases at the chamber center. The radial magnetic field component is found to limit electron loss to the electrodes and locally enhance the electron density. The axial magnetic field component limits plasma diffusion in the radial direction helping preserve the effect of improved electron confinement by the radial magnetic field. The peak electron density decreases with increasing magnetic field as the plasma moves toward the electrode edge occupying a larger volume. The effect of magnetic field becomes weaker at higher pressure due to the increased electron-neutral collisions which reduce the effectiveness of electron confinement around the magnetic field lines. The impact of magnetic field on plasma profile is somewhat weaker in an electronegative Ar/CF{sub 4} plasma because of the presence of less mobile and unmagnetized negative ions.

  9. Development of Integrated Preamplifier for High-Frequency Ultrasonic Transducers and Low-Power Handheld Receiver

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hojong; Li, Xiang; Lau, Sien-Ting; Hu, ChangHong; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a front-end circuit consisting of an integrated preamplifier with a Sallen-Key Butterworth filter for very-high-frequency ultrasonic transducers and a low-power handheld receiver. This preamplifier was fabricated using a 0.18-μm 7WL SiGe bi-polar complementary metal oxide semiconductor (BiCMOS) process. The Sallen-Key filter is used to increase the voltage gain of the front-end circuit for high-frequency transducers which are generally low in sensitivity. The measured peak voltage gain of the frontend circuits for the BiCMOS preamplifier with the Sallen-Key filter was 41.28 dB at 100 MHz with a −6-dB bandwidth of 91%, and the dc power consumption of the BiCMOS preamplifier was 49.53 mW. The peak voltage gain of the front-end circuits for the CMOS preamplifier with the Sallen-Key filter was 39.52 dB at 100 MHz with a −6-dB bandwidth of 108%, and the dc power consumption of the CMOS preamplifier was 43.57 mW. Pulse-echo responses and wire phantom images with a single-element ultrasonic transducer have been acquired to demonstrate the performance of the front-end circuit. PMID:23443700

  10. Development of integrated preamplifier for high-frequency ultrasonic transducers and low-power handheld receiver.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hojong; Li, Xiang; Lau, Sien-Ting; Hu, ChangHong; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K Kirk

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the design of a front-end circuit consisting of an integrated preamplifier with a Sallen-Key Butterworth filter for very-high-frequency ultrasonic transducers and a low-power handheld receiver. This preamplifier was fabricated using a 0.18-μm 7WL SiGe bi-polar complementary metal oxide semiconductor (BiCMOS) process. The Sallen-Key filter is used to increase the voltage gain of the front-end circuit for high-frequency transducers which are generally low in sensitivity. The measured peak voltage gain of the frontend circuits for the BiCMOS preamplifier with the Sallen-Key filter was 41.28 dB at 100 MHz with a-6-dB bandwidth of 91%, and the dc power consumption of the BiCMOS preamplifier was 49.53 mW. The peak voltage gain of the front-end circuits for the CMOS preamplifier with the Sallen-Key filter was 39.52 dB at 100 MHz with a-6-dB bandwidth of 108%, and the dc power consumption of the CMOS preamplifier was 43.57 mW. Pulse-echo responses and wire phantom images with a single-element ultrasonic transducer have been acquired to demonstrate the performance of the front-end circuit.

  11. High frequency resolution terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangala, Bagvanth Reddy

    2013-12-01

    A new method for the high frequency resolution terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is developed based on the characteristic matrix method. This method is useful for studying planar samples or stack of planar samples. The terahertz radiation was generated by optical rectification in a ZnTe crystal and detected by another ZnTe crystal via electro-optic sampling method. In this new characteristic matrix based method, the spectra of the sample and reference waveforms will be modeled by using characteristic matrices. We applied this new method to measure the optical constants of air. The terahertz transmission through the layered systems air-Teflon-air-Quartz-air and Nitrogen gas-Teflon-Nitrogen gas-Quartz-Nitrogen gas was modeled by the characteristic matrix method. A transmission coefficient is derived from these models which was optimized to fit the experimental transmission coefficient to extract the optical constants of air. The optimization of an error function involving the experimental complex transmission coefficient and the theoretical transmission coefficient was performed using patternsearch algorithm of MATLAB. Since this method takes account of the echo waveforms due to reflections in the layered samples, this method allows analysis of longer time-domain waveforms giving rise to very high frequency resolution in the frequency-domain. We have presented the high frequency resolution terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of air and compared the results with the literature values. We have also fitted the complex susceptibility of air to the Lorentzian and Gaussian functions to extract the linewidths.

  12. Neuronal morphology generates high-frequency firing resonance.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Srdjan; Szapiro, Germán; Schwartz, Eric; Barbour, Boris; Brunel, Nicolas; Hakim, Vincent

    2015-05-06

    The attenuation of neuronal voltage responses to high-frequency current inputs by the membrane capacitance is believed to limit single-cell bandwidth. However, neuronal populations subject to stochastic fluctuations can follow inputs beyond this limit. We investigated this apparent paradox theoretically and experimentally using Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, a motor structure that benefits from rapid information transfer. We analyzed the modulation of firing in response to the somatic injection of sinusoidal currents. Computational modeling suggested that, instead of decreasing with frequency, modulation amplitude can increase up to high frequencies because of cellular morphology. Electrophysiological measurements in adult rat slices confirmed this prediction and displayed a marked resonance at 200 Hz. We elucidated the underlying mechanism, showing that the two-compartment morphology of the Purkinje cell, interacting with a simple spiking mechanism and dendritic fluctuations, is sufficient to create high-frequency signal amplification. This mechanism, which we term morphology-induced resonance, is selective for somatic inputs, which in the Purkinje cell are exclusively inhibitory. The resonance sensitizes Purkinje cells in the frequency range of population oscillations observed in vivo.

  13. Asynchronous BCI control using high-frequency SSVEP.

    PubMed

    Diez, Pablo F; Mut, Vicente A; Avila Perona, Enrique M; Laciar Leber, Eric

    2011-07-14

    Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) is a visual cortical response evoked by repetitive stimuli with a light source flickering at frequencies above 4 Hz and could be classified into three ranges: low (up to 12 Hz), medium (12-30) and high frequency (> 30 Hz). SSVEP-based Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) are principally focused on the low and medium range of frequencies whereas there are only a few projects in the high-frequency range. However, they only evaluate the performance of different methods to extract SSVEP. This research proposed a high-frequency SSVEP-based asynchronous BCI in order to control the navigation of a mobile object on the screen through a scenario and to reach its final destination. This could help impaired people to navigate a robotic wheelchair. There were three different scenarios with different difficulty levels (easy, medium and difficult). The signal processing method is based on Fourier transform and three EEG measurement channels. The research obtained accuracies ranging in classification from 65% to 100% with Information Transfer Rate varying from 9.4 to 45 bits/min. Our proposed method allows all subjects participating in the study to control the mobile object and to reach a final target without prior training.

  14. Effects of High-Frequency Torsional Impacts on Rock Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Tang, Liping; Tong, Hua

    2014-07-01

    High-frequency torsional impact drilling (HFTID) is a new technology which provides stable and efficient drilling. The goal of the present study is to investigate the effects of high-frequency torsional impacts on rock drilling. The impact parameters of the high-frequency torsional impact generator (HFTIG) are obtained by conducting a series of laboratory tests. The results of the tests reveal that the impact time decreases and the impact force increases with increasing impact frequency. The parameters are used as input for simulations of the rock crushing process, and a series of models for investigating the respective performance of HFTID and conventional drilling are developed. In addition, the Drucker-Prager criterion is used to describe the constitutive laws of the rock element, and the equivalent plastic strain criterion is adopted as the damage criterion. The models are run to simulate the dynamic rock crushing processes. The results of the simulations show that increase of the impact frequency results in a significant improvement in the rate of penetration (ROP), and a decrease in the life of the HFTIG. Considering the tool life and ROP, the optimum impact frequency of the HFTIG is 15 Hz. Finally, the performance of the HFTID technique is evaluated.

  15. High frequency estimation of 2-dimensional cavity scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dering, R. S.

    1984-12-01

    This thesis develops a simple ray tracing approximation for the high frequency scattering from a two-dimensional cavity. Whereas many other cavity scattering algorithms are very time consuming, this method is very swift. The analytical development of the ray tracing approach is performed in great detail, and it is shown how the radar cross section (RCS) depends on the cavity's length and width along with the radar wave's angle of incidence. This explains why the cavity's RCS oscillates as a function of incident angle. The RCS of a two dimensional cavity was measured experimentally, and these results were compared to computer calculations based on the high frequency ray tracing theory. The comparison was favorable in the sense that angular RCS minima and maxima were exactly predicted even though accuracy of the RCS magnitude decreased for incident angles far off-axis. Overall, once this method is extended to three dimensions, the technique shows promise as a fast first approximation of high frequency cavity scattering.

  16. Design of matching layers for high-frequency ultrasonic transducers

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Chunlong; Ma, Jianguo; Chiu, Chi Tat; Williams, Jay A.; Fong, Wayne; Chen, Zeyu; Zhu, BenPeng; Xiong, Rui; Shi, Jing; Hsiai, Tzung K.; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2015-01-01

    Matching the acoustic impedance of high-frequency (≥100 MHz) ultrasound transducers to an aqueous loading medium remains a challenge for fabricating high-frequency transducers. The traditional matching layer design has been problematic to establish high matching performance given requirements on both specific acoustic impedance and precise thickness. Based on both mass-spring scheme and microwave matching network analysis, we interfaced metal-polymer layers for the matching effects. Both methods hold promises for guiding the metal-polymer matching layer design. A 100 MHz LiNbO3 transducer was fabricated to validate the performance of the both matching layer designs. In the pulse-echo experiment, the transducer echo amplitude increased by 84.4% and its −6dB bandwidth increased from 30.2% to 58.3% comparing to the non-matched condition, demonstrating that the matching layer design method is effective for developing high-frequency ultrasonic transducers. PMID:26445518

  17. High-frequency audiometry: test reliability and procedural considerations.

    PubMed

    Stelmachowicz, P G; Beauchaine, K A; Kalberer, A; Kelly, W J; Jesteadt, W

    1989-02-01

    This study compared the reliability of a recently developed high-frequency audiometer (HFA) [Stevens et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 81, 470-484 (1987)] with a less complicated system that uses supraaural earphones (Koss system). The new approach permits calibration on an individual basis, making it possible to express thresholds at high frequencies in dB SPL. Data obtained from 50 normal-hearing subjects, ranging in age from 10-60 years, were used to evaluate the effects on reliability of threshold variance, earpiece/earphone fitting variance, and the variance associated with the HFA calibration process. Without earpiece/earphone replacement, the reliability of thresholds for the two systems is similar. With replacement, the HFA showed poorer reliability than the Koss system above 11 kHz, largely due to errors in estimating the calibration function. HFA reliability is greater for subjects with valid calibration functions over the entire frequency range. When average correction factors are applied to the Koss data in an effort to convert threshold estimates to dB SPL, individual transfer functions are not represented accurately. Thus the benefit of being able to express thresholds at high frequencies in dB SPL must be weighed against the additional source of variability introduced by the HFA calibration process.

  18. High-frequency observations of signals and noise near RSON: implications for the discrimination of ripple-fired mining blasts

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.T.; Grose, R.D.

    1987-04-27

    Discrimination of large chemical explosions from possible clandestine nuclear tests is a significant issue for seismic verification. Unless discrimination is possible, the numerous mining blasts within the USSR would give ample opportunity for concealing a clandestine test. Evernden et al. (1986) advocate high frequencies as a means to detect these clandestine tests; however, mining blasts must still give a unique signature for their discrimination. Specific conditions are also necessary for high-frequency verification: low attenuation and quiet seismic stations are among the most important. In this study we address these problems under conditions representing a best case scenerio. During the summer of 1985, LLNL deployed a regional array and high-frequency station near RSON (Red Lake, Ontario, Canada) to study regional seismic signals at a low-noise site with excellent propagation characteristics, the continental shield. One objective was to evaluate the performance of regional seismic arrays and high-frequency stations in this geological environment. Using high-frequency data from mining blasts within the Masabi Iron Range in northern Minnesota (distance of 400 km), we observed the high-frequency P/sub n/ phase of ripple-fired blasts, modelled their source properties, and evaluated a possible discriminant for chemical explosions. This study suggests the existence of a distinctive signature for large chemical explosions: strong, high-frequency spectral peaks in the P spectra introduced by delay shooting or ripple-firing. Its application depends, however, on a frequency band extending to at least 35 Hz at regional distances and predictably quiet seismic sites.

  19. IGR J12319-0749: Evidence for Another Extreme Blazar Found with INTEGRAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassani, L.; Landi, R.; Marshall, F. E.; Malizia, A.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Gehrels, N.; Ubertini, P.; Masetti, N.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the identification of a new soft gamma-ray source, IGR J12319-0749, detected with the IBIS imager on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The source, which has an observed 20-100 keV flux of approx 8.3 × 10(exp -12) erg/sq. cm/ s, is spatially coincident with an active galactic nucleus (AGN) at redshift z = 3.12. The broad-band continuum, obtained by combining XRT and IBIS data, is flat (Gamma = 1.3) with evidence for a spectral break around 25 keV (100 keV in the source restframe). X-ray observations indicate flux variability, which is also supported by a comparison with a previous ROSAT measurement. IGR J12319-0749 is also a radio-emitting object likely characterised by a flat spectrum and high radio loudness; optically it is a broad-line emitting object with a massive black hole (2.8 × 10(exp 9) solar masses) at its centre. The source spectral energy distribution is similar to another high-redshift blazar, 225155+2217 at z = 3.668: both objects are bright, with a high accretion disk luminosity and a Compton peak located in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray band. IGR J12319-0749 is likely the second-most distant blazar detected so far by INTEGRAL.

  20. IGR J12319-0749: Evidence for Another Extreme Blazar Found with INTEGRAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassani, L.; Landi, R.; Marshall, F. E.; Malizia, A.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Gehrels, N.; Ubertini, P.; Masetti, N.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the identification of a new soft gamma-ray source, IGR J12319 C0749, detected with the IBIS imager on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The source, which has an observed 20 C100 keV flux of 8.3 10.12 erg cm.2 s.1, is spatially coincident with an AGN at redshift z = 3.12. The broad-band continuum, obtained by combining XRT and IBIS data, is flat ( =1.3) with evidence for a spectral break around 25 keV (100 keV in the source rest frame). X-ray observations indicate flux variability which is further supported by a comparison with a previous ROSAT measurement. IGR J12319 C0749 is also a radio emitting object likely characterized by a flat spectrum and high radio loudness; optically it is a broad-line emitting object with a massive black hole (2.8 109 solar masses) at its center. The source Spectral Energy Distribution is similar to another high redshift blazar, 225155+2217 at z = 3.668: both objects are bright, with a large accretion disk luminosity and a Compton peak located in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray band. IGR J12319 C0749 is likely the second most distant blazar detected so far by INTEGRAL.

  1. Observations of the Blazar 3C 66A with the Magic Telescopes in Stereoscopic Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thom, M.; Torres, D. F.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report new observations of the intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lacertae object 3C 66A with the MAGIC telescopes. The data sample we use were taken in 2009 December and 2010 January, and comprises 2.3 hr of good quality data in stereoscopic mode. In this period, we find a significant signal from the direction of the blazar 3C 66A. The new MAGIC stereoscopic system is shown to play an essential role for the separation between 3C 66A and the nearby radio galaxy 3C 66B, which is at a distance of only 6'. The derived integral flux above 100 GeV is 8.3% of the Crab Nebula flux and the energy spectrum is reproduced by a power law of photon index 3.64 ± 0.39stat ± 0.25sys. Within errors, this is compatible with the one derived by VERITAS in 2009. From the spectra corrected for absorption by the extragalactic background light, we only find small differences between the four models that we applied, and constrain the redshift of the blazar to z < 0.68.

  2. EXTERNAL COMPTON EMISSION IN BLAZARS OF NONLINEAR SYNCHROTRON SELF-COMPTON-COOLED ELECTRONS

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharias, Michael; Schlickeiser, Reinhard E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de

    2012-12-20

    The origin of the high-energy component in spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of blazars is still something of a mystery. While BL Lac objects can be successfully modeled within the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) scenario, the SED of low-peaked flat spectrum radio quasars is more difficult to reproduce. Their high-energy component needs the abundance of strong external photon sources, giving rise to stronger cooling via the inverse Compton (IC) channel, and thus to a powerful component in the SED. Recently, we have been able to show that such a powerful inverse Compton component can also be achieved within the SSC framework. This, however, is only possible if the electrons cool by SSC, which results in a nonlinear process, since the cooling depends on an energy integral over the electrons. In this paper, we aim to compare the nonlinear SSC framework with the external Compton (EC) output by calculating analytically the EC component with the underlying electron distribution being either linearly or nonlinearly cooled. Due to the additional linear cooling of the electrons with the external photons, higher number densities of electrons are required to achieve nonlinear cooling, resulting in more powerful IC components. If the electrons initially cool nonlinearly, the resulting SED can exhibit a dominant SSC over the EC component. However, this dominance depends strongly on the input parameters. We conclude that, with the correct time-dependent treatment, the SSC component should be taken into account in modeling blazar flares.

  3. Gamma-ray blazars and active galactic nuclei seen by the Fermi-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lott, B.; Cavazzuti, E.; Ciprini, S.; Cutini, S.; Gasparrini, D.

    2015-03-01

    The third catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Fermi-LAT (3LAC) is presented. It is based on the third Fermi-LAT catalog (3FGL) of sources detected with a test statistic (TS) greater than 25 using the first 4 years of data. The 3LAC includes 1591 AGNs located at high Galactic latitudes, |b| > 10 (with 28 duplicate associations, thus corresponding to 1563 gamma-ray sources among 2192 sources in the 3FGL catalog), a 71% increase over the second catalog based on 2 years of data. A very large majority of these AGNs (98%) are blazars. About half of the newly detected blazars are of unknown type, i.e., they lack spectroscopic information of sufficient quality to determine the strength of their emission lines. The general properties of the 3LAC sample confirm previous findings from earlier catalogs, but some new subclasses (e.g., intermediate- and high-synchrotron-peaked FSRQs) have now been significantly detected.

  4. OBSERVATIONS OF THE BLAZAR 3C 66A WITH THE MAGIC TELESCOPES IN STEREOSCOPIC MODE

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksic, J.; Blanch, O.; Antonelli, L. A.; Bonnoli, G.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bose, D.; Bastieri, D.; Gonzalez, J. Becerra; Berger, K.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Bock, R. K.; Tridon, D. Borla; Bordas, P.; Bosch-Ramon, V. E-mail: ksaito@mppmu.mpg.de

    2011-01-10

    We report new observations of the intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lacertae object 3C 66A with the MAGIC telescopes. The data sample we use were taken in 2009 December and 2010 January, and comprises 2.3 hr of good quality data in stereoscopic mode. In this period, we find a significant signal from the direction of the blazar 3C 66A. The new MAGIC stereoscopic system is shown to play an essential role for the separation between 3C 66A and the nearby radio galaxy 3C 66B, which is at a distance of only 6'. The derived integral flux above 100 GeV is 8.3% of the Crab Nebula flux and the energy spectrum is reproduced by a power law of photon index 3.64 {+-} 0.39{sub stat} {+-} 0.25{sub sys}. Within errors, this is compatible with the one derived by VERITAS in 2009. From the spectra corrected for absorption by the extragalactic background light, we only find small differences between the four models that we applied, and constrain the redshift of the blazar to z < 0.68.

  5. γ-Ray And Parsec-Scale Jet Properties Of A Complete Sample Of Blazars From The Mojave Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, M. L.

    2011-11-02

    We investigate the Fermi LAT -ray and 15 GHz VLBA radio properties of a joint -ray- and radio-selected sample of AGNs obtained during the first 11 months of the Fermi mission (2008 Aug 4 - 2009 Jul 5). Our sample contains the brightest 173 AGNs in these bands above declination -30° during this period, and thus probes the full range of -ray loudness ( -ray to radio band luminosity ratio) in the bright blazar population. The latter quantity spans at least four orders ofmagnitude, reflecting a wide range of spectral energy distribution (SED) parameters in the bright blazar population. The BL Lac objects, however, display a linear correlation of increasing -ray loudness with synchrotron SED peak frequency, suggesting a universal SED shape for objects of this class. The synchrotron self-Compton model is favored for the -ray emission in these BL Lacs over external seed photon models, since the latter predict a dependence of Compton dominance on Doppler factor that would destroy any observed synchrotron SED peak - -ray loudness correlation. The high-synchrotron peaked (HSP) BL Lac objects are distinguished by lower than average radio core brightness temperatures, and none display large radio modulation indices or high linear core polarization levels. No equivalent trends are seen for the flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) in our sample. Given the association of such properties with relativistic beaming, we suggest that the HSP BL Lacs have generally lower Doppler factors than the lower-synchrotron peaked BL Lacs or FSRQs in our sample.

  6. Phosphorus geochemical cycling inferences from high frequency lake monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockford, Lucy; Jordan, Philip; Taylor, David

    2013-04-01

    Freshwater bodies in Europe are required to return to good water quality status under the Water Framework Directive by 2015. A small inter-drumlin lake in the northeast of Ireland has been susceptible to eutrophic episodes and the presence of algal blooms during summer since annual monitoring began in 2002. While agricultural practice has been controlled by the implementation of the Nitrates Directive in 2006, the lake is failing to recover to good water quality status to meet with the Water Framework Directive objectives. Freshwaters in Ireland are regarded, in the main, as phosphorus (P) limited so identifying the sources of P possibly fuelling the algal blooms may provide an insight into how to improve water quality conditions. In a lake, these sources are divided between external catchment driven loads, as a result of farming and point sources, and P released from sediments made available to photic waters through internal lake mechanisms. High frequency sensors on data-sondes, installed on the lake in three locations, have provided chlorophyll a, redox potential, dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, conductivity and turbidity data since March 2010. A data-sonde was installed in the hypolimnion to observe the change in lake conditions as P is released from lake sediments as a result of geochemical cycling with iron during anoxic periods. As compact high frequency sampling equipment for P analysis is still in its infancy for freshwaters, a proxy measurement of geochemical cycling in lakes would be useful to determine fully the extent of P contribution from sediments to the overall P load. Phosphorus was analysed once per month along with a number of other parameters and initial analysis of the high frequency data has shown changes in readings when known P release from lake sediments has occurred. Importantly, these data have shown when these P enriched hypolimnetic waters may be re-introduced to shallower waters in the photic zone, by changes in dissolved oxygen

  7. Spectral evolution of flaring blazars from numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromm, C. M.; Perucho, M.; Mimica, P.; Ros, E.

    2016-04-01

    Context. High-resolution Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of active galactic nuclei revealed traveling and stationary or quasi-stationary radio components in several blazar jets. The traveling radio components are, in general, interpreted as shock waves generated by pressure perturbations injected at the jet nozzle. The stationary features can be interpreted as recollimation shocks in nonpressure matched jets if they show a quasi-symmetric bump in the spectral index distribution. In some jets there may be interactions between the two kinds of shocks. These shock-shock interactions are observable with VLBI techniques and their signature should also be imprinted on the single-dish light curves. Aims: In this paper, we investigate the spectral evolution produced by the interaction between a recollimation shock with traveling shock waves to address the question of whether these interactions contribute to the observed flares and what their signature in both single-dish and VLBI observations looks like. Methods: We performed relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of overpressured and pressure-matched jets. To simulate the shock interaction we injected a perturbation at the jet nozzle once a steady state was reached. We computed the nonthermal emission, including adiabatic and synchotron losses, resulting from the simulation. Results: We show that the injection of perturbations in a jet can produce a bump in emission at GHz frequencies previous to the main flare, which is produced when the perturbation fills the jet in the observer's frame. The detailed analysis of our simulations and the nonthermal emission calculations show that interaction between a recollimation shock and traveling shock produce a typical and clear signature in both the single-dish light curves and in the VLBI observations: the flaring peaks are higher and delayed with respect to the evolution of a perturbation through a conical jet. This fact can allow us to detect such

  8. Studying Gamma-Ray Blazars With the GLAST-LAT

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, B.; Carson, J.; Madejski, G.; Ciprini, S.; Dermer, C.D.; Giommi, P.; Lonjou, V.; Reimer, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-11-13

    Thanks to its sensitivity (4 10{sup -9} ph (E> 100 MeV) cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for one year of observation), the GLAST LAT should detect many more (over a thousand) gamma-ray blazars than currently known. This large blazar sample will enable detailed population studies to be carried out. Moreover, the LAT large field-of-view combined with the scanning mode will provide a very uniform exposure over the sky, allowing a constant monitoring of several tens of blazars and flare alerts to be issued. This poster presents the LAT performance relevant to blazar studies, more particularly related to timing and spectral properties. Major specific issues regarding the blazar phenomenon that the LAT data should shed light on thanks to these capabilities will be discussed, as well as the different approaches foreseen to address them. The associated data required in other bands, to be collected in contemporaneous/simultaneous multiwavelength campaigns are mentioned as well.

  9. UNIDENTIFIED {gamma}-RAY SOURCES: HUNTING {gamma}-RAY BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; Ajello, M.; D'Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Tosti, G.; Gasparrini, D.

    2012-06-10

    One of the main scientific objectives of the ongoing Fermi mission is unveiling the nature of unidentified {gamma}-ray sources (UGSs). Despite the major improvements of Fermi in the localization of {gamma}-ray sources with respect to the past {gamma}-ray missions, about one-third of the Fermi-detected objects are still not associated with low-energy counterparts. Recently, using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer survey, we discovered that blazars, the rarest class of active galactic nuclei and the largest population of {gamma}-ray sources, can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources on the basis of their infrared (IR) colors. Based on this result, we designed an association method for the {gamma}-ray sources to recognize if there is a blazar candidate within the positional uncertainty region of a generic {gamma}-ray source. With this new IR diagnostic tool, we searched for {gamma}-ray blazar candidates associated with the UGS sample of the second Fermi {gamma}-ray LAT catalog (2FGL). We found that our method associates at least one {gamma}-ray blazar candidate as a counterpart to each of 156 out of 313 UGSs analyzed. These new low-energy candidates have the same IR properties as the blazars associated with {gamma}-ray sources in the 2FGL catalog.

  10. Unidentified Gamma-Ray Sources: Hunting Gamma-Ray Blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; D'Abrusco, R.; Tosti, G.; Ajello, M.; Gasparrini, A.Paggi.D.

    2012-04-02

    One of the main scientific objectives of the ongoing Fermi mission is unveiling the nature of the unidentified {gamma}-ray sources (UGSs). Despite the large improvements of Fermi in the localization of {gamma}-ray sources with respect to the past {gamma}-ray missions, about one third of the Fermi-detected objects are still not associated to low energy counterparts. Recently, using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) survey, we discovered that blazars, the rarest class of Active Galactic Nuclei and the largest population of {gamma}-ray sources, can be recognized and separated from other extragalactic sources on the basis of their infrared (IR) colors. Based on this result, we designed an association method for the {gamma}-ray sources to recognize if there is a blazar candidate within the positional uncertainty region of a generic {gamma}-ray source. With this new IR diagnostic tool, we searched for {gamma}-ray blazar candidates associated to the UGS sample of the second Fermi {gamma}-ray catalog (2FGL). We found that our method associates at least one {gamma}-ray blazar candidate as a counterpart each of 156 out of 313 UGSs analyzed. These new low-energy candidates have the same IR properties as the blazars associated to {gamma}-ray sources in the 2FGL catalog.

  11. Optical Generation and Detection of High-Frequency Focused Ultrasound and Associated Nonlinear Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baac, Hyoung Won

    In this thesis, optical generation and detection of high-frequency ultrasound are presented. On the generation side, high-efficiency optical transmitters have been devised and developed which can generate high-frequency and high-amplitude pressure. Conventional optoacoustic transmitters have suffered from poor optoacoustic energy conversion efficiency (10-7˜10-8). Therefore, pressure amplitudes were usually weak for long-range imaging (several cm) and too weak to induce any therapeutic effects. Here, far beyond such traditional regime, therapeutic pressure amplitudes of tens of MPa were achieved optoacoustically. First, high-efficiency optoacoustic sources were developed in planar geometries by using carbon nanotubepolymer composites. The planar transmitters could generate 18-fold stronger pressure than thin metallic films used as references, together with providing broadband and high-frequency spectra over 120 MHz. Then, the thin-film transmitters were formed on concave substrates to generate and simultaneously focus the ultrasound. Unprecedented optoacoustic pressure was achieved at lens focus: >50 MPa in positive and >20 MPa in negative peaks. These amplitudes were sufficient to induce strong shock waves and acoustic cavitation. Due to the high-frequency operation, such therapeutic pressure and the induced effects were tightly localized onto focal widths of 75microm in lateral and 400 microm in axial directions, which are an order of magnitude smaller than those of traditional piezoelectric transducers. The shock waves and the cavitation effects were investigated in various ways. High focal gains and short distances for shock formation were suggested as main features. The optoacoustic approach is expected to open numerous opportunities for a broad range of biomedical applications demanding high-accuracy treatment with minimal damage volumes around focal zones. For optical detection of ultrasound, optical microring resonators have been used due to their

  12. Understanding the general feature of microvariability in Kepler blazar W2R 1926+42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasada, Mahito; Mineshige, Shin; Yamada, Shinya; Negoro, Hitoshi

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the Kepler monitoring light curve of a blazar W2R 1926+42 to examine features of microvariability by means of the "shot analysis" technique. We select 195 intra-day, flare-like variations (shots) for the continuous light curve of Quarter 14 with a duration of 100 d. In the application of the shot analysis, an averaged profile of variations is assumed to converge with a universal profile which reflects a physical mechanism generating the microvariability in a blazar jet, although light-variation profiles of selected shots show a variety. A mean profile, which is obtained by aligning the peaks of the 195 shots, is composed of a spiky-shaped shot component at ± 0.1 d (with respect to the time of the peak), and two slow varying components ranging from -0.50 d to -0.15 d and from 0.10 d to 0.45 d of the peak time. The former spiky feature is well represented by an exponential rise of 0.043 ± 0.001 d and an exponential decay of 0.061 ± 0.002 d. These timescales are consistent with that corresponding to a break frequency of a power spectrum density calculated from the obtained light curve. After verification with the Monte Carlo method, the exponential shape, but not the observed asymmetry, of the shot component can be explained by noise variation. The asymmetry is difficult to explain through a geometrical effect (i.e., changes of the geometry of the emitting region), but is more likely to be caused by the production and dissipation of high-energy accelerated particles in the jet. Additionally, the durations of the detected shots show a systematic variation with a dispersion caused by a statistical randomness. A comparison with the variability of Cygnus X-1 is also briefly discussed.

  13. Study of switching transients in high frequency converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinger, Donald S.; Elbuluk, Malik E.; Lee, Tony

    1993-06-01

    As the semiconductor technologies progress rapidly, the power densities and switching frequencies of many power devices are improved. With the existing technology, high frequency power systems become possible. Use of such a system is advantageous in many aspects. A high frequency ac source is used as the direct input to an ac/ac pulse-density-modulation (PDM) converter. This converter is a new concept which employs zero voltage switching techniques. However, the development of this converter is still in its infancy stage. There are problems associated with this converter such as a high on-voltage drop, switching transients, and zero-crossing detecting. Considering these problems, the switching speed and power handling capabilities of the MOS-Controlled Thyristor (MCT) makes the device the most promising candidate for this application. A complete insight of component considerations for building an ac/ac PDM converter for a high frequency power system is addressed. A power device review is first presented. The ac/ac PDM converter requires switches that can conduct bi-directional current and block bi-directional voltage. These bi-directional switches can be constructed using existing power devices. Different bi-directional switches for the converter are investigated. Detailed experimental studies of the characteristics of the MCT under hard switching and zero-voltage switching are also presented. One disadvantage of an ac/ac converter is that turn-on and turn-off of the switches has to be completed instantaneously when the ac source is at zero voltage. Otherwise shoot-through current or voltage spikes can occur which can be hazardous to the devices. In order for the devices to switch softly in the safe operating area even under non-ideal cases, a unique snubber circuit is used in each bi-directional switch. Detailed theory and experimental results for circuits using these snubbers are presented.

  14. Study of switching transients in high frequency converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinger, Donald S.; Elbuluk, Malik E.; Lee, Tony

    1993-01-01

    As the semiconductor technologies progress rapidly, the power densities and switching frequencies of many power devices are improved. With the existing technology, high frequency power systems become possible. Use of such a system is advantageous in many aspects. A high frequency ac source is used as the direct input to an ac/ac pulse-density-modulation (PDM) converter. This converter is a new concept which employs zero voltage switching techniques. However, the development of this converter is still in its infancy stage. There are problems associated with this converter such as a high on-voltage drop, switching transients, and zero-crossing detecting. Considering these problems, the switching speed and power handling capabilities of the MOS-Controlled Thyristor (MCT) makes the device the most promising candidate for this application. A complete insight of component considerations for building an ac/ac PDM converter for a high frequency power system is addressed. A power device review is first presented. The ac/ac PDM converter requires switches that can conduct bi-directional current and block bi-directional voltage. These bi-directional switches can be constructed using existing power devices. Different bi-directional switches for the converter are investigated. Detailed experimental studies of the characteristics of the MCT under hard switching and zero-voltage switching are also presented. One disadvantage of an ac/ac converter is that turn-on and turn-off of the switches has to be completed instantaneously when the ac source is at zero voltage. Otherwise shoot-through current or voltage spikes can occur which can be hazardous to the devices. In order for the devices to switch softly in the safe operating area even under non-ideal cases, a unique snubber circuit is used in each bi-directional switch. Detailed theory and experimental results for circuits using these snubbers are presented. A current regulated ac/ac PDM converter built using MCT's and IGBT's is

  15. Cholinergic mechanisms of high-frequency stimulation in entopeduncular nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Chronic, high-frequency (>100 Hz) electrical stimulation, known as deep brain stimulation (DBS), of the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) is a highly effective therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonia. Despite some understanding of how it works acutely in PD models, there remain questions about its mechanisms of action. Several hypotheses have been proposed, such as depolarization blockade, activation of inhibitory synapses, depletion of neurotransmitters, and/or disruption/alteration of network oscillations. In this study we investigated the cellular mechanisms of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) in entopeduncular nucleus (EP; rat equivalent of GPi) neurons using whole cell patch-clamp recordings. We found that HFS applied inside the EP nucleus induced a prolonged afterdepolarization that was dependent on stimulation frequency, pulse duration, and current amplitude. The high frequencies (>100 Hz) and pulse widths (>0.15 ms) used clinically for dystonia DBS could reliably induce these afterdepolarizations, which persisted under blockade of ionotropic glutamate (kynurenic acid, 2 mM), GABAA (picrotoxin, 50 μM), GABAB (CGP 55845, 1 μM), and acetylcholine nicotinic receptors (DHβE, 2 μM). However, this effect was blocked by atropine (2 μM; nonselective muscarinic antagonist) or tetrodotoxin (0.5 μM). Finally, the muscarinic-dependent afterdepolarizations were sensitive to Ca2+-sensitive nonspecific cationic (CAN) channel blockade. Hence, these data suggest that muscarinic receptor activation during HFS can lead to feedforward excitation through the opening of CAN channels. This study for the first time describes a cholinergic mechanism of HFS in EP neurons and provides new insight into the underlying mechanisms of DBS. PMID:26334006

  16. High Frequency Ground Motion from Finite Fault Rupture Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crempien, Jorge G. F.

    There are many tectonically active regions on earth with little or no recorded ground motions. The Eastern United States is a typical example of regions with active faults, but with low to medium seismicity that has prevented sufficient ground motion recordings. Because of this, it is necessary to use synthetic ground motion methods in order to estimate the earthquake hazard a region might have. Ground motion prediction equations for spectral acceleration typically have geometric attenuation proportional to the inverse of distance away from the fault. Earthquakes simulated with one-dimensional layered earth models have larger geometric attenuation than the observed ground motion recordings. We show that as incident angles of rays increase at welded boundaries between homogeneous flat layers, the transmitted rays decrease in amplitude dramatically. As the receiver distance increases away from the source, the angle of incidence of up-going rays increases, producing negligible transmitted ray amplitude, thus increasing the geometrical attenuation. To work around this problem we propose a model in which we separate wave propagation for low and high frequencies at a crossover frequency, typically 1Hz. The high-frequency portion of strong ground motion is computed with a homogeneous half-space and amplified with the available and more complex one- or three-dimensional crustal models using the quarter wavelength method. We also make use of seismic coda energy density observations as scattering impulse response functions. We incorporate scattering impulse response functions into our Green's functions by convolving the high-frequency homogeneous half-space Green's functions with normalized synthetic scatterograms to reproduce scattering physical effects in recorded seismograms. This method was validated against ground motion for earthquakes recorded in California and Japan, yielding results that capture the duration and spectral response of strong ground motion.

  17. Engineering Graphene Conductivity for Flexible and High-Frequency Applications.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Alexander J; Carey, J David

    2015-10-14

    Advances in lightweight, flexible, and conformal electronic devices depend on materials that exhibit high electrical conductivity coupled with high mechanical strength. Defect-free graphene is one such material that satisfies both these requirements and which offers a range of attractive and tunable electrical, optoelectronic, and plasmonic characteristics for devices that operate at microwave, terahertz, infrared, or optical frequencies. Essential to the future success of such devices is therefore the ability to control the frequency-dependent conductivity of graphene. Looking to accelerate the development of high-frequency applications of graphene, here we demonstrate how readily accessible and processable organic and organometallic molecules can efficiently dope graphene to carrier densities in excess of 10(13) cm(-2) with conductivities at gigahertz frequencies in excess of 60 mS. In using the molecule 3,6-difluoro-2,5,7,7,8,8-hexacyanoquinodimethane (F2-HCNQ), a high charge transfer (CT) of 0.5 electrons per adsorbed molecule is calculated, resulting in p-type doping of graphene. n-Type doping is achieved using cobaltocene and the sulfur-containing molecule tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) with a CT of 0.41 and 0.24 electrons donated per adsorbed molecule, respectively. Efficient CT is associated with the interaction between the π electrons present in the molecule and in graphene. Calculation of the high-frequency conductivity shows dispersion-less behavior of the real component of the conductivity over a wide range of gigahertz frequencies. Potential high-frequency applications in graphene antennas and communications that can exploit these properties and the broader impacts of using molecular doping to modify functional materials that possess a low-energy Dirac cone are also discussed.

  18. High-Frequency Wave Measurements in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorkqvist, J. V.; Kahma, K. K.; Pettersson, H.; Drennan, W. M.

    2016-02-01

    The high-frequency part of the wave field is essential for the understanding of air-sea exchange related processes and the turbulent energy dissipation of breaking waves. The quantification of the dimensionless spectra will aid wave model development and contribute to a better understanding of the fundamental laws governing the evolution of wind driven waves. However, typical wave observation devices, such as wave buoys, are limited to observing frequencies under e.g. 0.6 Hz. Dedicated experiments with devices suitable for high-frequency measurements are, in comparison, rare.We have made high-frequency wave measurements with capacitive wave staffs from RV Aranda. Air turbulence and wind speed measurements are also available and a full motion correction was applied to all measurements. A frequency rage up to 2-3 Hz is enough to study the tail of the wave spectra even during its early development. The unusually high sampling frequency of 200 Hz guarantees that spurious spectral shapes that could be the joint effect of noise and the anti-aliasing filter can be excluded. Directional measurements were made using four wave staffs located 15 or 50 cm apart in the grid.The mobility of the research vessel has enabled measurements in a wide variety of conditions from the Baltic Proper to the irregular Finnish coastal archipelagos. The aim is to determine the conditions and frequency ranges when the shape of the dimensionless spectra is wind dependent. Especially, it's still not clear whether the use of the wind speed or the friction velocity as the scaling parameter produces better results, or where the transition to the Phillips spectra takes place. The directional measurements can shed light on theories that use the directional spread of the two-dimensional spectrum to explain the shape of the one-dimensional spectrum.

  19. High-energy Neutrinos from Recent Blazar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halzen, Francis; Kheirandish, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The energy density of cosmic neutrinos measured by IceCube matches the one observed by Fermi in extragalactic photons that predominantly originate in blazars. This has inspired attempts to match Fermi sources with IceCube neutrinos. A spatial association combined with a coincidence in time with a flaring source may represent a smoking gun for the origin of the IceCube flux. In 2015 June, the Fermi Large Area Telescope observed an intense flare from blazar 3C 279 that exceeded the steady flux of the source by a factor of 40 for the duration of a day. We show that IceCube is likely to observe neutrinos, if indeed hadronic in origin, in data that are still blinded at this time. We also discuss other opportunities for coincident observations that include a recent flare from blazar 1ES 1959+650 that previously produced an intriguing coincidence with AMANDA observations.

  20. A sample of Swift/SDSS faint blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Bernardo; Giommi, Paolo; Turriziani, Sara

    2015-12-01

    We aim here to provide a complete sample of faint (fr ≳ 1 mJy, fx ≳ 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1) blazars and blazar candidates serendipitously discovered in deep Swift images centered on Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). By stacking all available images, we obtain exposures ranging from 104 to more than a million seconds. Since GRBs are thought to explode randomly across the sky, this set of deep fields can be considered as an unbiased survey of ≈ 12 square degrees of extragalactic sky, with sensitivities reaching a few 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.5-2 keV band. We then derive the x-ray Log N Log S and show that, considering that our sample may be contaminated by sources other than blazars, we are in agreement with previous estimations based on data and simulations.

  1. Polarization swings reveal magnetic energy dissipation in blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haocheng; Chen, Xuhui; Böttcher, Markus; Guo, Fan; Li, Hui

    2015-05-01

    The polarization signatures of blazar emissions are known to be highly variable. In addition to small fluctuations of the polarization angle around a mean value, large (≳ 180°) polarization angle swings are observed. We suggest that such phenomena can be interpreted as arising from light-travel-time effects within an underlying axisymmetric emission region. We present the first simultaneous fitting of the multi-wavelength spectrum, variability, and time-dependent polarization features of a correlated optical and gamma-ray flaring event of the prominent blazar 3C279, which was accompanied by a drastic change in its polarization signatures. This unprecedented combination of spectral, variability, and polarization information in a coherent physical model allows us to place stringent constraints on the particle acceleration and magnetic-field topology in the relativistic jet of a blazar, strongly favoring a scenario in which magnetic energy dissipation is the primary driver of the flare event.

  2. Analysis of the Spectral Energy Distributions of Fermi bright blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Gasparrini, D.; Cutini, S.; Colafrancesco, S.; Giommi, P.; Raino, S.

    2010-03-26

    Blazars are a small fraction of all extragalactic sources but, unlike other objects, they are strong emitters across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. In this study we have conducted a detailed investigation of the broad-band spectral properties of the gamma-ray selected blazars of the Fermi LAT Bright AGN Sample (LBAS). By combining the accurately estimated Fermi gamma-ray spectra with Swift, radio, NIR-Optical and hard-X/gamma-ray data, collected within three months of the LBAS data taking period, we were able to assemble high-quality and quasi-simultaneous Spectral Energy Distributions (SED) for 48 LBAS blazars. Here we show the procedure for the multi wavelength analysis.

  3. A spine-sheath model for strong-line blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Marek; Rutkowski, Mieszko; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a quasi-analytical model for the production of radiation in strong-line blazars, assuming a spine-sheath jet structure. The model allows us to study how the spine and sheath spectral components depend on parameters describing the geometrical and physical structure of `the blazar zone'. We show that typical broad-band spectra of strong-line blazars can be reproduced by assuming the magnetization parameter to be of order unity and reconnection to be the dominant dissipation mechanism. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the spine-sheath model can explain why γ-ray variations are often observed to have much larger amplitudes than the corresponding optical variations. The model is also less demanding of jet power than one-zone models, and can reproduce the basic features of extreme γ-ray events.

  4. Roma-BZCAT: a multifrequency catalogue of blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, E.; Giommi, P.; Leto, C.; Marchegiani, P.; Maselli, A.; Perri, M.; Piranomonte, S.; Sclavi, S.

    2009-02-01

    We present a new catalogue of blazars based on multifrequency surveys and on an extensive review of the literature. Blazars are classified as BL Lacertae objects, as flat spectrum radio quasars or as blazars of uncertain/transitional type. Each object is identified by a root name, coded as BZB, BZQ and BZU for these three subclasses respectively, and by its coordinates. This catalogue is being built as a tool useful for the identification of the extragalactic sources that will be detected by present and future experiments for X and gamma-ray astronomy, like Swift, AGILE, Fermi-GLAST and Simbol-X. An electronic version is available from the ASI Science Data Center web site at http://www.asdc.asi.it/bzcat.

  5. POLARIZATION SWINGS REVEAL MAGNETIC ENERGY DISSIPATION IN BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haocheng; Böttcher, Markus; Chen, Xuhui; Guo, Fan; Li, Hui

    2015-05-01

    The polarization signatures of blazar emissions are known to be highly variable. In addition to small fluctuations of the polarization angle around a mean value, large (≳180°) polarization angle swings are sometimes observed. We suggest that such phenomena can be interpreted as arising from light travel time effects within an underlying axisymmetric emission region. We present the first simultaneous fitting of the multi-wavelength spectrum, variability, and time-dependent polarization features of a correlated optical and gamma-ray flaring event of the prominent blazar 3C279, which was accompanied by a drastic change in its polarization signatures. This unprecedented combination of spectral, variability, and polarization information in a coherent physical model allows us to place stringent constraints on the particle acceleration and magnetic field topology in the relativistic jet of a blazar, strongly favoring a scenario in which magnetic energy dissipation is the primary driver of the flare event.

  6. Polarization Swings Reveal Magnetic Energy Dissipation in Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Chen, Xuhui; Böttcher, Markus; Guo, Fan; Li, Hui

    2015-05-01

    The polarization signatures of blazar emissions are known to be highly variable. In addition to small fluctuations of the polarization angle around a mean value, large (≳180°) polarization angle swings are sometimes observed. We suggest that such phenomena can be interpreted as arising from light travel time effects within an underlying axisymmetric emission region. We present the first simultaneous fitting of the multi-wavelength spectrum, variability, and time-dependent polarization features of a correlated optical and gamma-ray flaring event of the prominent blazar 3C279, which was accompanied by a drastic change in its polarization signatures. This unprecedented combination of spectral, variability, and polarization information in a coherent physical model allows us to place stringent constraints on the particle acceleration and magnetic field topology in the relativistic jet of a blazar, strongly favoring a scenario in which magnetic energy dissipation is the primary driver of the flare event.

  7. Probing the scale of ALP interactions with Fermi blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Reesman, Rebecca; Walker, T.P. E-mail: walker.33@osu.edu

    2014-08-01

    Gamma-rays from cosmological sources contain information about gamma-ray interactions. Standard model and non-standard model photon interactions along the path between the source and the observer can lead to changes in the energy or state of the photons, which in turn alters the observed energy spectrum of the source. In general, these interactions are a function of photon energy as well as source distance. Here we show how existing high energy gamma-ray observations of blazars can be used to constrain the coupling of axion-like-particles (ALPs) to the photon. The same ALP-photon coupling that has been invoked to explain the observations of TeV blazars beyond their pair production horizon is shown to have a potential effect on the data set of Fermi blazars.

  8. Optical polarization of gamma-ray bright blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, Dmitry; Angelakis, E.; Balokovic, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Hovatta, T.; Katarzyski, K.; Khodade, P.; King, O.; Kus, A.; Kylafis, N.; Myserlis, I.; Panopoulou, G.; Papadakis, I.; Papamastorakis, I.; Pavlidou, V.; Pazderska, B.; Pazderski, E.; Pearson, T.; Rajarshi, C.; Ramaprakash, A.; Readhead, A.; Reig, P.; Rouneq, R.; Tassis, K.; Zensus, A.

    2014-07-01

    We report about first results of the RoboPol project. RoboPol is a large-sample, high-cadence, polarimetric monitoring program of blazars in optical wavelengths, using a camera specifically constructed for this project, mounted at the University of Crete's Skinakas Observatory 1.3 m telescope. The analysis of RoboPol data is conducted in conjunction with Fermi LAT gamma-ray data, and multifrequency radio data from the OVRO (Caltech), F-GAMMA (MPIfR), and Torun (NCU) monitoring programs. Using carefully selected samples of gamma-ray bright and weak blazars we investigate a connection between their optical polarization behaviour and variability properties in gamma. We examine a relationship of gamma flares with polarization angle rotations relying on robust statistical criteria. We analyse also the optical polarization variability itself in order to establish some restrictions on physical models of blazars jets.

  9. Polarization swings reveal magnetic energy dissipation in blazars

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Haocheng; Chen, Xuhui; Böttcher, Markus; ...

    2015-05-01

    The polarization signatures of blazar emissions are known to be highly variable. In addition to small fluctuations of the polarization angle around a mean value, large (≳ 180°) polarization angle swings are observed. We suggest that such phenomena can be interpreted as arising from light-travel-time effects within an underlying axisymmetric emission region. We present the first simultaneous fitting of the multi-wavelength spectrum, variability, and time-dependent polarization features of a correlated optical and gamma-ray flaring event of the prominent blazar 3C279, which was accompanied by a drastic change in its polarization signatures. This unprecedented combination of spectral, variability, and polarization informationmore » in a coherent physical model allows us to place stringent constraints on the particle acceleration and magnetic-field topology in the relativistic jet of a blazar, strongly favoring a scenario in which magnetic energy dissipation is the primary driver of the flare event.« less

  10. Acoustic trapping with a high frequency linear phased array.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fan; Li, Ying; Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Liu, Changgeng; Tat Chiu, Chi; Lee, Changyang; Ham Kim, Hyung; Shung, K Kirk

    2012-11-19

    A high frequency ultrasonic phased array is shown to be capable of trapping and translating microparticles precisely and efficiently, made possible due to the fact that the acoustic beam produced by a phased array can be both focused and steered. Acoustic manipulation of microparticles by a phased array is advantageous over a single element transducer since there is no mechanical movement required for the array. Experimental results show that 45 μm diameter polystyrene microspheres can be easily and accurately trapped and moved to desired positions by a 64-element 26 MHz phased array.

  11. High-Frequency-Induced Cathodic Breakdown during Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nominé, A.; Nominé, A. V.; Braithwaite, N. St. J.; Belmonte, T.; Henrion, G.

    2017-09-01

    The present communication shows the possibility of observing microdischarges under cathodic polarization during plasma electrolytic oxidation at high frequency. Cathodic microdischarges can ignite beyond a threshold frequency found close to 2 kHz. The presence (respectively, absence) of an electrical double layer is put forward to explain how the applied voltage can be screened, which therefore prevents (respectively, promotes) the ignition of a discharge. Interestingly, in the conditions of the present study, the electrical double layer requires between 175 and 260 μ s to form. This situates the expected threshold frequency between 1.92 and 2.86 kHz, which is in good agreement with the value obtained experimentally.

  12. High-frequency nonreciprocal reflection from magnetic films with overlayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ying; Nie, Yan; Camley, R. E.

    2013-11-14

    We perform a theoretical study of the nonreciprocal reflection of high-frequency microwave radiation from ferromagnetic films with thin overlayers. Reflection from metallic ferromagnetic films is always near unity and shows no nonreciprocity. In contrast, reflection from a structure which has a dielectric overlayer on top of a film composed of insulated ferromagnetic nanoparticles or nanostructures can show significant nonreciprocity in the 75–80 GHz frequency range, a very high value. This can be important for devices such as isolators or circulators.

  13. ZCS High Frequency Inverter for Aluminum Vessel Induction Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiwara, Hiroyuki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    Recent induction cooking apparatus are utilized for induction heating of ferromagnetic materials at 20-50kHz with a high efficiency. They can not, however, be applied for non-magnetic materials such as aluminum vessels. Here, we present a voltage-clamp reverse conducting ZCS high frequency inverter of half bridge type for induction heating of an aluminum vessel. The switching devices utilized for this inverter are SITs and its operating frequency is determined as 200kHz. This paper describes its circuit constitution and the obtained experimental results from a practical point of view.

  14. Material considerations for high frequency, high power capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W.; Galperin, I.

    1983-01-01

    Dielectric materials chosen for use in this high frequency, high power capacitor must endure hard vacuum conditions, high currents (up to 125 A rms), and frequencies up to 40 kHz. Temperature requirements for this type of capacitor are that capacitor operation must be efficient up to 125 C. A more stringent requirement for the sold dielectric is that the temperature coefficient of dissipation factor should indicate self stabilization well below 125 C. In addition, the dielectric temperature coefficient of capacitance should be negative.

  15. High frequency columnar silicon microresonators for mass detection

    SciTech Connect

    Kehrbusch, J.; Ilin, E. A.; Hullin, M.; Oesterschulze, E.

    2008-07-14

    A simple but effective technological scheme for the fabrication of high frequency silicon columnar microresonators is presented. With the proposed technique the dimensions of the microresonators are controlled on a scale of at least 1 {mu}m. Characterization of the mechanical properties of silicon columns gave resonant frequencies of the lowest flexural mode of 3-7 MHz with quality factors of up to 2500 in air and {approx}8800 under vacuum condition. Columnar microresonators were operated as mass balance with a sensitivity of 1 Hz/fg. A mass detection limit of 25 fg was deduced from experiments.

  16. Acoustic trapping with a high frequency linear phased array

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fan; Li, Ying; Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Liu, Changgeng; Tat Chiu, Chi; Lee, Changyang; Ham Kim, Hyung; Shung, K. Kirk

    2012-01-01

    A high frequency ultrasonic phased array is shown to be capable of trapping and translating microparticles precisely and efficiently, made possible due to the fact that the acoustic beam produced by a phased array can be both focused and steered. Acoustic manipulation of microparticles by a phased array is advantageous over a single element transducer since there is no mechanical movement required for the array. Experimental results show that 45 μm diameter polystyrene microspheres can be easily and accurately trapped and moved to desired positions by a 64-element 26 MHz phased array. PMID:23258939

  17. Accuracy of High Frequency Maximum Usable Frequencies (MUF) Prediction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-15

    shown in Figure 35 to be rat er constant at about 20 percent for MINIMUF-3.5. Whereas for HFMUFES 4 it is above 30 per- 57 CL - a / C 4L 4’ w I Z. LL U...Predictin2 the Performance of High-Frequency Skywave Telecomunication Systems (the use of the HFMJFES 4 Program), by GW Haydon, M Leftin , and R Rosich...in Ionospheric Maping by Numerical Methods, by WB Jones, RP Graham, and M Leftin , 12 May 1966. (Also Environmental Science Services Administration

  18. High frequency drift instabilities in a dusty plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, M.; Krall, N. A.

    1994-01-01

    High frequency drift instabilities with omega(sub ce) much greater than omega which is greater than omega(sub ci) are investigated in a dusty magnetized plasma in which locally there is an electron density gradient which is opposite in sign to a dust density gradient. Two different equilibria are considered, characterized by rho(sub d) greater than L(sub d) and less than L(sub d), where rho(sub d) is the dust gyroradius and L(sub nd) is the dust density scale length. Possible application to Saturn's F-ring is discussed.

  19. A fast directional algorithm for high-frequency electromagnetic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuji, Paul; Ying Lexing

    2011-06-20

    This paper is concerned with the fast solution of high-frequency electromagnetic scattering problems using the boundary integral formulation. We extend the O(N log N) directional multilevel algorithm previously proposed for the acoustic scattering case to the vector electromagnetic case. We also detail how to incorporate the curl operator of the magnetic field integral equation into the algorithm. When combined with a standard iterative method, this results in an almost linear complexity solver for the combined field integral equations. In addition, the butterfly algorithm is utilized to compute the far field pattern and radar cross section with O(N log N) complexity.

  20. Investigation of iron cobalt nanocomposites for high frequency applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kelsy J.

    FeCo-based nanocomposite soft magnetic materials were developed in collaboration with Magnetics, Division of Spang and Co., for high frequency and high temperature application. Excellent soft magnetic properties include: low coercivity, high permeability, low energy losses, etc. These and large saturation inductions make these alloys attractive for fundamental studies and industrial applications. In this thesis, nanocrystalline composites will be developed from amorphous precursors for applications in two frequency regimes: 1) High frequency (0.01-30 MHz) such as high temperature power inductors, pulsed power transformers, and radio frequency (rf) magnetic heating; and 2) Ultra high frequency (30 MHz - 30 GHz) for radio frequency materials and electromagnetic interference (EMI) or radio frequency interference (RFI) absorption. New nanocomposites with higher saturation induction and high-temperature stability were developed with reduced glass forming elements such as Zr, Nb, Si and B. The amounts of the magnetic transition metals and early transition metal growth inhibitors were varied to determine trade-offs between higher inductions and fine microstructures and consequently low magnetic losses. Alloys having (Fe1-xCox)80+y+zNb4-y B13-zSi2Cu1 (25 ≤ x ≤ 50 and y = 0-4 and z = 0-3) nominal compositions were cast using planar flow casting (PFC) at Magnetics. Technical magnetic properties: permeability, maximum induction, remanence ratio, coercive field and high frequency magnetic losses as a function of composition and annealing temperature are reported after primary crystallization for 1 hr in a transverse magnetic field (TMF). Of note is the development of inductor cores with maximum inductions in excess of 1.76 T and 1.67 T in cores that exhibit power losses comparable with state of the art commercial soft magnetic alloys. For application in EMI/RFI absorption, FeCo-based alloys have the largest saturation induction and a tunable magnetic anisotropy which may

  1. Kapitza thermal resistance studied by high-frequency photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Horny, Nicolas; Chirtoc, Mihai; Hamaoui, Georges; Fleming, Austin; Ban, Heng

    2016-07-18

    Kapitza thermal resistance is determined using high-frequency photothermal radiometry (PTR) extended for modulation up to 10 MHz. Interfaces between 50 nm thick titanium coatings and silicon or stainless steel substrates are studied. In the used configuration, the PTR signal is not sensitive to the thermal conductivity of the film nor to its optical absorption coefficient, thus the Kapitza resistance is directly determined from single thermal parameter fits. Results of thermal resistances show the significant influence of the nature of the substrate, as well as of the presence of free electrons at the interface.

  2. High frequency SAW devices based on third harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Le Brizoual, L; Elmazria, O; Sarry, F; El Hakiki, M; Talbi, A; Alnot, P

    2006-12-01

    We demonstrate the third harmonic generation in a ZnO/Si layered structure to obtain high frequency SAW devices. This configuration eliminates the need of high lithography resolution and allows easy integration of such devices and electronics on the same wafer. A theoretical study was carried out for the determination of the phase velocity and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (K(2)) dispersion curves of the surface acoustic waves. These results are also in agreement with those measured on a SAW filter designed for the third harmonic generation and the operating frequency is up to 2468 MHz.

  3. High frequency properties of a CNT-based nanorelay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, L. M.; Axelsson, S.; Nord, T.; Viefers, S.; Kinaret, J. M.

    2004-11-01

    We have theoretically investigated the high frequency properties of a carbon-nanotube-based three-terminal nanoelectromechanical relay. The intrinsic mechanical frequency of the relay is in the GHz regime, and the electromechanical coupling shows a non-linear resonant behaviour in this frequency range. We discuss how these resonances may be detected and show that the resonance frequencies can be tuned by the bias voltage. Also, we show that the influence of external electromagnetic fields on the relay is negligible at all frequencies.

  4. HIGH FREQUENCY ULTRASOUND OF ARMOR-GRADE ALUMINA CERAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Bottiglieri, S.; Haber, R. A.

    2009-03-03

    Different lots of high density, commercial, armor-grade alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were tested using high frequency ultrasound in order to determine any correlation between measured properties and ballistic performance. C-scan images were taken using a 15 MHz ultrasonic transducer in order to form attenuation coefficient and elastic property maps. These samples were further characterized by using quantitative analysis. The results indicate that attenuation coefficient values appear to have the strongest correlation, of every property measured, to ballistic classifications.

  5. Fluctuation patterns in high-frequency financial asset returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preis, T.; Paul, W.; Schneider, J. J.

    2008-06-01

    We introduce a new method for quantifying pattern-based complex short-time correlations of a time series. Our correlation measure is 1 for a perfectly correlated and 0 for a random walk time series. When we apply this method to high-frequency time series data of the German DAX future, we find clear correlations on short time scales. In order to subtract trivial autocorrelation parts from the pattern conformity, we introduce a simple model for reproducing the antipersistent regime and use alternatively level 1 quotes. When we remove the pattern conformity of this stochastic process from the original data, remaining pattern-based correlations can be observed.

  6. Motor monitoring method and apparatus using high frequency current components

    DOEpatents

    Casada, D.A.

    1996-05-21

    A motor current analysis method and apparatus for monitoring electrical-motor-driven devices are disclosed. The method and apparatus utilize high frequency portions of the motor current spectra to evaluate the condition of the electric motor and the device driven by the electric motor. The motor current signal produced as a result of an electric motor is monitored and the low frequency components of the signal are removed by a high-pass filter. The signal is then analyzed to determine the condition of the electrical motor and the driven device. 16 figs.

  7. Motor monitoring method and apparatus using high frequency current components

    DOEpatents

    Casada, Donald A.

    1996-01-01

    A motor current analysis method and apparatus for monitoring electrical-motor-driven devices. The method and apparatus utilize high frequency portions of the motor current spectra to evaluate the condition of the electric motor and the device driven by the electric motor. The motor current signal produced as a result of an electric motor is monitored and the low frequency components of the signal are removed by a high-pass filter. The signal is then analyzed to determine the condition of the electrical motor and the driven device.

  8. Explanation of persistent high frequency density structure in coalesced bunches

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Gerald P.

    1988-07-01

    It has been observed that after the Main Ring rf manipulation of coalescing (where 5 to 13 primary bunches are transferred into a single rf bucket) the new secondary bunch displays evidence of high frequency density structure superimposed on the approximately Gaussian longitudinal bunch length distribution. This structure is persistent over a period of many seconds (hundreds of synchrotron oscillation periods). With the help of multiparticle simulation programs, an explanation of this phenomenon is given in terms of single particle longitudinal phase space dynamics. No coherent effects need be taken into account. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Material considerations for high frequency, high power capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, W.; Galperin, I.

    1983-10-01

    Dielectric materials chosen for use in this high frequency, high power capacitor must endure hard vacuum conditions, high currents (up to 125 A rms), and frequencies up to 40 kHz. Temperature requirements for this type of capacitor are that capacitor operation must be efficient up to 125 C. A more stringent requirement for the sold dielectric is that the temperature coefficient of dissipation factor should indicate self stabilization well below 125 C. In addition, the dielectric temperature coefficient of capacitance should be negative.

  10. Effects of intravenous diazepam on high-frequency oscillations in EEGs with CSWS.

    PubMed

    Toda, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Yumiko; Inoue, Takushi; Oka, Makio; Ohtsuka, Yoko

    2013-06-01

    High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) associated with continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (CSWS) are speculated to be linked to the disturbance of higher brain function. We intended to investigate the generative mechanisms of HFOs in CSWS by clarifying the effects of intravenous injection (IV) of diazepam (DZP), an agonist for the gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor in the GABAergic interneuron system, in patients who had previously been treated with IV DZP. The subjects were three patients with epilepsy with CSWS. For each patient, EEG data before and after IV DZP were separated into consecutive 5-min sections. Time-frequency power spectral analysis was performed on the spikes of each section, and peak-power and frequency of detected high-frequency spectral spots were compared before and after IV DZP. Spectral spots with peak-frequencies at 85.9-121.1Hz in the ripple band were revealed in all three patients. Although the amplitudes of the spikes largely returned to the baseline levels 20-25min after IV DZP, the recovery of the peak-power levels of HFOs lagged behind that of the spike amplitudes, and the power levels of HFOs were lower than the baseline data within 25min after the injection of DZP. No consistent changes were found regarding the spectral frequencies of HFOs. The dissociation of the effect of IV DZP in terms of recovery when comparing spike-amplitudes and the power of HFOs may correspond to an already suggested difference in the pathophysiological mechanisms that generate the spikes and HFOs. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence for quasi-periodic oscillations in the optical polarization of the blazar PKS 2155-304

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekeur, N. W.; Taylor, A. R.; Potter, S. B.; Kraan-Korteweg, R. C.

    2016-10-01

    Evidence for the presence of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the optical polarization of the blazar PKS 2155-304, during a period of enhanced gamma-ray brightness, is presented. The periodogram of the polarized flux revealed the existence of a prominent peak at T ˜ 13 min, detected at >99.7 per cent significance, and T ˜ 30 min, which was nominally significant at >99 per cent. This is the first evidence of QPOs in the polarization of an active galactic nucleus, potentially opening up a new avenue of studying this phenomenon.

  12. Fermi-LAT and Swift-XRT observe exceptionally high activity from the nearby TeV blazar Mrk421

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneque, D.; D'Ammando, F.; Orienti, M.; Falcon, A.

    2013-04-01

    The high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lac Mrk421 (also known as 2FGL J1104.4+3812, Nolan et al. 2012, ApJS, 199, 31; R.A.= 11h04m27.3139s, Dec.= +38d12m31.799s, J2000.0, Fey et al. 2004, AJ, 127, 3587), at redshift z=0.03, is the subject of an extensive multi-year and multi-instrument program that aims at characterizing with exquisite detail the temporal evolution of the blazar emission across the electromagnetic spectrum.

  13. Fermi Spots a Record Flare from Blazar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Blazar 3C 279's historic gamma-ray flare can be seen in this image from the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on NASA's Fermi satellite. Gamma rays with energies from 100 million to 100 billion electron volts (eV) are shown; for comparison, visible light has energies between 2 and 3 eV. The image spans 150 degrees, is shown in a stereographic projection, and represents an exposure from June 11 at 00:28 UT to June 17 at 08:17 UT. Read more: go.nasa.gov/1TqBAdJ Credit: NASA/DOE/Fermi LAT Collaboration NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  14. NIR flaring of the blazar PKS0048-097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, L.; Carramiñana, A.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Escobedo, G.; Mayya, Y. D.; Valdes, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    We call attention on our recent NIR observations of the gamma ray source 1FGL J0050.6-0928, an intermediate redshift Blazar PKS0048-097 (z=0.634), also known as FBQS J0050-0929. The observations were carried out with the CANICA NIR camera on the 2.1m telescope at the Observatorio Astrofísico Guillermo Haro, located in Cananea, Mexico. We found this blazar to be in outburst. It shows fluxes about 1.7 magnitudes brighter than our previous NIR photometry (JD2455450.944784, H = 14.427 ± 0.11).

  15. High-frequency wave normals in the solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, F.; Smith, L.D.; Sonett, C.P.

    1984-05-01

    High-frequency (0.01--0.04 Hz) magnetic fluctuations in 506 ten-minute intervals of contemporaneous Explorer 35 and Apollo 12 measurements made in the solar wind near the morning side of the Earth's bow shock show the presence of a large population of disturbances resembling Alfven waves. Each wavefront normal n is systematically aligned (median deviation = 35/sup 0/) with , the associated ten-minute average of the magnetic field. Because of variability in the direction of from one interval to another, the coupled distribution of n is nearly isotropic in solar ecliptic coordinates, in contrast with the results of other studies of waves at much lower frequency indicating outward propagation from the sun. Presumably the high frequency waves discussed here are stirred into isotropy (in solar ecliptic coordinates) by following the low frequency fluctuations. As these waves maintain their alignement of n with despite the great variation of , a strong physical alignment constraint is inferred.

  16. A high-frequency electrospray driven by gas volume charges

    SciTech Connect

    Lastochkin, Dmitri; Chang, H.-C.

    2005-06-15

    High-frequency (>10 kHz) ac electrospray is shown to eject volatile dielectric liquid drops by an entirely different mechanism from dc sprays. The steady dc Taylor conic tip is absent and continuous spraying of submicron drops is replaced by individual dynamic pinchoff events involving the entire drop. We attribute this spraying mechanism to a normal Maxwell force produced by an undispersed plasma cloud in front of the meniscus that produces a visible glow at the spherical tip. The volume charge within the cloud is formed by electron-induced gas ionization of the evaporated liquid and produces a large normal field that is much higher than the nominal applied field such that drop ejection occurs at a voltage (at high frequencies) that is as much as ten times lower than that for dc sprays. The ejection force is sensitive to the liquid properties (but not its electrolyte composition), the ac frequency and trace amounts of inert gases, which are believed to catalyze the ionization reactions. As electroneutral drops are ejected, due to the large (>100) ratio between individual drop ejection time and the ac frequency, this mechanism can produce large (microns) electroneutral drops at relatively low voltages.

  17. High-Frequency Normal Mode Propagation in Aluminum Cylinders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.; Waite, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic measurements made using compressional-wave (P-wave) and shear-wave (S-wave) transducers in aluminum cylinders reveal waveform features with high amplitudes and with velocities that depend on the feature's dominant frequency. In a given waveform, high-frequency features generally arrive earlier than low-frequency features, typical for normal mode propagation. To analyze these waveforms, the elastic equation is solved in a cylindrical coordinate system for the high-frequency case in which the acoustic wavelength is small compared to the cylinder geometry, and the surrounding medium is air. Dispersive P- and S-wave normal mode propagations are predicted to exist, but owing to complex interference patterns inside a cylinder, the phase and group velocities are not smooth functions of frequency. To assess the normal mode group velocities and relative amplitudes, approximate dispersion relations are derived using Bessel functions. The utility of the normal mode theory and approximations from a theoretical and experimental standpoint are demonstrated by showing how the sequence of P- and S-wave normal mode arrivals can vary between samples of different size, and how fundamental normal modes can be mistaken for the faster, but significantly smaller amplitude, P- and S-body waves from which P- and S-wave speeds are calculated.

  18. Mechanism of high frequency signaling at a depressing ribbon synapse

    PubMed Central

    Grabner, Chad P.; Ratliff, Charles P.; Light, Adam C.; DeVries, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Ribbon synapses mediate continuous release in neurons that have graded voltage responses. While mammalian retinas can signal visual flicker at 80-100 Hz, the time constant, τ, for refilling of a depleted vesicle release pool at cone photoreceptor ribbons is 0.7–1.1 s. Due to this prolonged depression, the mechanism for encoding high temporal frequencies is unclear. To determine the mechanism of high frequency signaling, we focused on an Off cone bipolar cell type in the ground squirrel, the cb2, whose transient postsynaptic responses recovered following presynaptic depletion with a τ of ~0.1 s, or 7-10-fold faster than the τ for presynaptic pool refilling. The difference in recovery time course is caused by AMPA receptor saturation, where partial refilling of the presynaptic pool is sufficient for a full postsynaptic response. By limiting the dynamic range of the synapse, receptor saturation counteracts ribbon depression to produce rapid recovery and facilitate high frequency signaling. PMID:27292536

  19. High Frequency PIN-Diode Switches for Radiometer Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montes, Oliver; Dawson, Douglas E.; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Reising, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Internally calibrated radiometers are needed for ocean topography and other missions. Typically internal calibration is achieved with Dicke switching as one of the techniques. We have developed high frequency single-pole double-throw (SPDT) switches in the form of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) that can be easily integrated into Dicke switched radiometers that utilize microstrip technology. In particular, the switches we developed can be used for a radiometer such as the one proposed for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Satellite Mission whose three channels at 92, 130, and 166 GHz would allow for wet-tropospheric path delay correction near coastal zones and over land. This feat is not possible with the current Jason-class radiometers due to their lower frequency signal measurement and thus lower resolution. The MMIC chips were fabricated at NGST using their InP PIN diode process and measured at JPL using high frequency test equipment. Measurement and simulation results will be presented.

  20. Planck 2013 results. VI. High Frequency Instrument data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bowyer, J. W.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R.-R.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Girard, D.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Herent, O.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hou, Z.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Le Jeune, M.; Leonardi, R.; Leroy, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; MacTavish, C. J.; Maffei, B.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marleau, F.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melot, F.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Mottet, S.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; North, C.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Orieux, F.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Racine, B.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sanselme, L.; Santos, D.; Sauvé, A.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Techene, S.; Terenzi, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vibert, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; White, S. D. M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    Wedescribe the processing of the 531 billion raw data samples from the High Frequency Instrument (HFI), which we performed to produce six temperature maps from the first 473 days of Planck-HFI survey data. These maps provide an accurate rendition of the sky emission at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, and 857GHz with an angular resolution ranging from 9.´7 to 4.´6. The detector noise per (effective) beam solid angle is respectively, 10, 6 , 12, and 39 μK in the four lowest HFI frequency channels (100-353GHz) and 13 and 14 kJy sr-1 in the 545 and 857 GHz channels. Relative to the 143 GHz channel, these two high frequency channels are calibrated to within 5% and the 353 GHz channel to the percent level. The 100 and 217 GHz channels, which together with the 143 GHz channel determine the high-multipole part of the CMB power spectrum (50 <ℓ < 2500), are calibrated relative to 143 GHz to better than 0.2%.

  1. Optoacoustics for high-frequency ultrasonic imaging and manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, Matthew; Buma, Takashi

    2004-05-01

    Pulsed lasers can generate ultrasound through thermoelastic expansion of a thin optical absorber. By carefully designing the optical absorbing structure, efficient transduction is possible for a number of biomedical applications including high-frequency imaging, microfluidics, and sensing. The major key for efficient optoacoustic transduction in biomedical applications is to engineer a nearly perfect optical absorber possessing a large coefficient of thermal expansion with acoustic properties well matched to a water medium. We have obtained an optoacoustic efficiency increase of over 20 dB compared to conventional approaches using a thin, optically absorbing layer consisting of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and carbon black spin coated onto a clear PDMS substrate. This structure has been extensively analyzed both experimentally and analytically and seems to provide opportunities for a wide range of optoacoustic devices. In this talk we show how PDMS-based optoacoustic transduction can be used for high-frequency imaging using longitudinal waves and acoustic tweezing using Lamb waves. The basic mechanism of optoacoustic transduction will be described, and specific devices will be presented.

  2. Carbon nanotube transistor based high-frequency electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroter, Michael

    At the nanoscale carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have higher carrier mobility and carrier velocity than most incumbent semiconductors. Thus CNT based field-effect transistors (FETs) are being considered as strong candidates for replacing existing MOSFETs in digital applications. In addition, the predicted high intrinsic transit frequency and the more recent finding of ways to achieve highly linear transfer characteristics have inspired investigations on analog high-frequency (HF) applications. High linearity is extremely valuable for an energy efficient usage of the frequency spectrum, particularly in mobile communications. Compared to digital applications, the much more relaxed constraints for CNT placement and lithography combined with already achieved operating frequencies of at least 10 GHz for fabricated devices make an early entry in the low GHz HF market more feasible than in large-scale digital circuits. Such a market entry would be extremely beneficial for funding the development of production CNTFET based process technology. This talk will provide an overview on the present status and feasibility of HF CNTFET technology will be given from an engineering point of view, including device modeling, experimental results, and existing roadblocks. Carbon nanotube transistor based high-frequency electronics.

  3. [High-frequency transistor tract for UHF therapy device].

    PubMed

    Tamarchak, D Ia

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with the specific features of construction of a common circuit and individual units of high-frequency transistor tracts for physiotherapeutic UHF apparatuses whose design is a possible way of conversion of radioelectron equipment. The design of UHF tracts gives rise to some radio engineering problems due to the low output resistance of bipolar transistors and to the operational characteristics of physiotherapeutic equipment and, as a result, the load of the tract is a two-conductor long line loaded with complex resistance whose active part changes slightly and the reactive one varies very greatly. The structure of a high-frequency, which transfers power from the generator with external excitement to the active part of complex load by changing its reactive part in the wide range, was analyzed. It is shown that for reliable operation of the UHF apparatus, its tract should have a multichannel structure with subsequent summation of the power and automatic compensation of the reactive component of alternating load. This provides a measuring mode for the power connected to the patient. The tract structure in question may serve the basis for the designing transistor physiotherapy apparatuses of average and high power (Poutput = 50-400 W).

  4. Phase velocity limit of high-frequency photon density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, Richard C.; Svaasand, Lars O.; Madsen, Sten; Rojas, Fabio E.; Feng, T.-C.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    1995-05-01

    In frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM), two factors make high modulation frequencies desirable. First, with frequencies as high as a few GHz, the phase lag versus frequency plot has sufficient curvature to yield both the scattering and absorption coefficients of the tissue under examination. Second, because of increased attenuation, high frequency photon density waves probe smaller volumes, an asset in small volume in vivo or in vitro studies. This trend toward higher modulation frequencies has led us to re-examine the derivation of the standard diffusion equation (SDE) from the Boltzman transport equation. We find that a second-order time-derivative term, ordinarily neglected in the derivation, can be significant above 1 GHz for some biological tissue. The revised diffusion equation, including the second-order time-derivative, is often termed the P1 equation. We compare the dispersion relation of the P1 equation with that of the SDE. The P1 phase velocity is slower than that predicted by the SDE; in fact, the SDE phase velocity is unbounded with increasing modulation frequency, while the P1 phase velocity approaches c/sqrt(3) is attained only at modulation frequencies with periods shorter than the mean time between scatterings of a photon, a frequency regime that probes the medium beyond the applicability of diffusion theory. Finally we caution that values for optical properties deduced from FDPM data at high frequencies using the SDE can be in error by 30% or more.

  5. Advances in high frequency ultrasound separation of particulates from biomass.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Pablo; Augustin, Mary Ann; Xu, Xin-Qing; Mawson, Raymond; Knoerzer, Kai

    2017-03-01

    In recent years the use of high frequency ultrasound standing waves (megasonics) for droplet or cell separation from biomass has emerged beyond the microfluidics scale into the litre to industrial scale applications. The principle for this separation technology relies on the differential positioning of individual droplets or particles across an ultrasonic standing wave field within the reactor and subsequent biomass material predisposition for separation via rapid droplet agglomeration or coalescence into larger entities. Large scale transducers have been characterised with sonochemiluminescence and hydrophones to enable better reactor designs. High frequency enhanced separation technology has been demonstrated at industrial scale for oil recovery in the palm oil industry and at litre scale to assist olive oil, coconut oil and milk fat separation. Other applications include algal cell dewatering and milk fat globule fractionation. Frequency selection depends on the material properties and structure in the biomass mixture. Higher frequencies (1 and 2MHz) have proven preferable for better separation of materials with smaller sized droplets such as milk fat globules. For palm oil and olive oil, separation has been demonstrated within the 400-600kHz region, which has high radical production, without detectable impact on product quality. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. High-frequency BiCMOS transconductance integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beards, R. Douglas

    1990-10-01

    The capabilities of a fine-line bipolar complementary metal oxide semiconductor (BiCMOS) process in the design of wideband transconductance integrators for precision monolithic continuous time filtering are explored. The design considerations of such an integrator are examined in detail, with an emphasis on tunability and phase compensation as a means for realizing a precision wideband design. The concept of open-loop transconductance filtering is described and possible circuit topologies are investigated. Detailed small-signal and large-signal analysis of one proposed circuit which has both tunable bandwidth and tunable phase compensation is presented. Application of such an integrator to open-loop transconductance filtering in the 10-50 MHz frequency range is studied. Simulation results show specific performance expectations of the proposed circuit. The tunable compensation circuit was seen to restrict the amplitude of signals which the integrator can pass without severe distortion or even instability occurring. A potential solution to this problem is deemed to be unsuitable for high frequency applications. The general design philosophy of applying low-frequency techniques to realize a high frequency circuit was seen to result in several fundamental problems.

  7. Advantages of polymer transducers in high frequency inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Samari, S.; Stanton, M.

    1993-12-31

    Since the discovery of piezoelectricity in PVDF in 1969 the polymer transducers have now emerged as a significant tool in many ultrasonic inspections that otherwise would have been very difficult or impossible for conventional ceramic transducers. The major advantage, of Polymer transducers is in their inherent broadband characteristics in immersion applications which leads to their superior resolution and improved signal to noise ration over conventional ceramic transducers. This paper will show empirical results of high frequency polymer transducer in inspection of different materials including engineering materials such as ceramics. Other advantages of the polymer transducers are their low acoustic impedance as well as the compliance of the plastic material during construction. The compliance of the plastic PVDF film allows the manufacture of the high frequency polymer transducers without the use of permanent delays which can interfere with ultrasonic measurements. This paper will also give experimental results that will show how polymer transducers are instrument dependent, and how an operator can achieve optimum results by using an impedance matching network between the instrument and the polymer transducer.

  8. Determination of gas-trapping during high frequency oscillatory ventilation.

    PubMed

    Alexander, J; Milner, A D

    1997-03-01

    To determine the effect of frequency and percent inspiratory time on tidal volume and gas-trapping during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). Nine preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome tested in the first 48 h of life. Tidal volumes and the presence of gas-trapping were measured by respiratory jacket plethysmography at frequencies of 10, 14, and 17.8 Hz and at inspiratory times of 30%, 50% and 70%, using a commercially available high frequency oscillator.74 Mean (SD) tidal volumes were 2.40 (1.06) ml/kg at 10 Hz, 2.52 (1.07) ml/kg at 14 Hz and fell significantly to 1.96 (0.92) at 17.8 Hz (p < 0.05). Tidal volumes at 50% inspiratory time were significantly greater than at 30% inspiratory time [2.81 (1.42) ml/kg and 2.32 (1.18) ml/kg, respectively] but fell to baseline levels at 70% inspiratory time. There was no significant gas-trapping with increases in either frequency or percent inspiratory time. Gas-trapping is not a significant problem during HFOV in premature infants. Changes in tidal volume with increases in frequency and percent inspiratory time are similar to that seen in animal models.

  9. High-frequency ultrasound imaging for breast cancer biopsy guidance

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Thomas; Yoon, Changhan; Choi, Hojong; Eliahoo, Payam; Kim, Hyung Ham; Yamashita, Mary W.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda J.; Lang, Julie E.; Sener, Stephen F.; Vallone, John; Martin, Sue E.; Kirk Shung, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Image-guided core needle biopsy is the current gold standard for breast cancer diagnosis. Microcalcifications, an important radiographic finding on mammography suggestive of early breast cancer such as ductal carcinoma in situ, are usually biopsied under stereotactic guidance. This procedure, however, is uncomfortable for patients and requires the use of ionizing radiation. It would be preferable to biopsy microcalcifications under ultrasound guidance since it is a faster procedure, more comfortable for the patient, and requires no radiation. However, microcalcifications cannot reliably be detected with the current standard ultrasound imaging systems. This study is motivated by the clinical need for real-time high-resolution ultrasound imaging of microcalcifications, so that biopsies can be accurately performed under ultrasound guidance. We have investigated how high-frequency ultrasound imaging can enable visualization of microstructures in ex vivo breast tissue biopsy samples. We generated B-mode images of breast tissue and applied the Nakagami filtering technique to help refine image output so that microcalcifications could be better assessed during ultrasound-guided core biopsies. We describe the preliminary clinical results of high-frequency ultrasound imaging of ex vivo breast biopsy tissue with microcalcifications and without Nakagami filtering and the correlation of these images with the pathology examination by hematoxylin and eosin stain and whole slide digital scanning. PMID:26693167

  10. Saltating Snow Mechanics: High Frequency Particle Response to Mountain Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksamit, N. O.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Blowing snow transport theory is currently limited by its dependency on the coupling of time-averaged measurements of particle saltation and suspension and wind speed. Details of the stochastic process of particle transport and complex bed interactions in the saltation layer, along with the influence of boundary-layer turbulence are unobservable with classic measurement techniques. In contrast, recent advances in two-phase sand transport understanding have been spurred by development of high-frequency wind and particle velocity measurement techniques. To advance the understanding of blowing snow, laser illuminated high-speed videography and ultrasonic anemometry were deployed in a mountain environment to examine saltation of snow over a natural snowpack in detail. A saltating snow measurement site was established at the Fortress Mountain Snow Laboratory, Alberta, Canada and instrumented with two Campbell CSAT3 ultrasonic anemometers, four Campbell SR50 ultrasonic snow depth sounders and a two dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) system. Measurements were collected during nighttime blowing snow events, quantifying snow particle response to high frequency wind gusts. This novel approach permits PTV to step beyond mean statistics of snow transport by identifying sub-species of saltation motion in the first 20 mm above the surface, as well as previously overlooked initiation processes, such as tumbling aggregate snow crystals ejecting smaller grains, then eventually disintegrating and bouncing into entrainment. Spectral characteristics of snow particle ejection and saltation dynamics were also investigated. These unique observations are starting to inform novel conceptualizations of saltating snow transport mechanisms.

  11. Osteogenic Effect of High-frequency Acceleration on Alveolar Bone

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani, M.; Khoo, E.; Alyami, B.; Raptis, M.; Salgueiro, J.M.; Oliveira, S.M.; Boskey, A.; Teixeira, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation contributes to the health of alveolar bone, but no therapy using the osteogenic effects of these stimuli to increase alveolar bone formation has been developed. We propose that the application of high-frequency acceleration to teeth in the absence of significant loading is osteogenic. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided among control, sham, and experimental groups. The experimental group underwent localized accelerations at different frequencies for 5 min/day on the occlusal surface of the maxillary right first molar at a very low magnitude of loading (4 µε). Sham rats received a similar load in the absence of acceleration or frequency. The alveolar bone of the maxilla was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (µCT), histology, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR imaging), and RT-PCR for osteogenic genes. Results demonstrate that application of high-frequency acceleration significantly increased alveolar bone formation. These effects were not restricted to the area of application, and loading could be replaced by frequency and acceleration. These studies propose a simple mechanical therapy that may play a significant role in alveolar bone formation and maintenance. PMID:22337699

  12. Neuropathy in female dental personnel exposed to high frequency vibrations.

    PubMed Central

    Akesson, I; Lundborg, G; Horstmann, V; Skerfving, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate early neuropathy in dental personnel exposed to high frequency vibrations. METHODS--30 dentists and 30 dental hygienists who used low and high speed hand pieces and ultrasonic scalers were studied, and 30 dental assistants and 30 medical nurses not exposed to vibration (all women). Vibrotactile sensibility, strength, motor performance, sensorineural symptoms and signs, and vascular symptoms in the hands, as well as mercury concentrations in biological samples and cervicobrachial symptoms, were studied. RESULTS--The two groups exposed to vibration had significant impairments of vibrotactile sensibility, strength, and motor performance, as well as more frequent sensorineural symptoms. In the dentists there were significant associations between the vibrotactile sensibility and strength, motor performance, superficial sensibility, and sensorineural symptoms. There were no associations between these findings and cervicobrachial symptoms, mercury concentrations, or smoking. There was no increase of vascular symptoms of the hands in the groups exposed to vibration. CONCLUSION--Dental hygienists and dentists had a slight neuropathy, which may be associated with their exposure to high frequency vibrations, and which may be detrimental to their work performance. Thus, development of safer equipment is urgent. PMID:7757164

  13. 10 K high frequency pulse tube cryocooler with precooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sixue; Chen, Liubiao; Wu, Xianlin; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Junjie

    2016-07-01

    A high frequency pulse tube cryocooler with precooling (HPTCP) has been developed and tested to meet the requirement of weak magnetic signals measurement, and the performance characteristics are presented in this article. The HPTCP is a two-stage pulse tube cryocooler with the precooling-stage replaced by liquid nitrogen. Two regenerators completely filled with stainless steel (SS) meshes are used in the cooler. Together with cold inertance tubes and cold gas reservoir, a cold double-inlet configuration is used to control the phase relationship of the HPTCP. The experimental result shows that the cold double-inlet configuration has improved the performance of the cooler obviously. The effects of operation parameters on the performance of the cooler are also studied. With a precooling temperature of 78.5 K, the maximum refrigeration capacity is 0.26 W at 15 K and 0.92 W at 20 K when the input electric power are 174 W and 248 W respectively, and the minimum no-load temperature obtained is 10.3 K, which is a new record on refrigeration temperature for high frequency pulse tube cryocooler reported with SS completely used as regenerative matrix.

  14. High-frequency Pulse-tube Refrigerator for 4 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaeva, I. A.; Klaasse Bos, C. G.; de Waele, A. T. A. M.

    2006-04-01

    At present pulse-tube refrigerators (PTRs), used for the important temperature region of 4 K, are of the Gifford-McMahon (GM)-type. The main sources of losses in GM-type PTRs are the compressor and the rotary valve. The efficiency of the combination of the compressor and the rotary valve is only about 30%. In addition to that GM-type compressors are heavy and need periodic maintenance. The main goal of this research is to develop a Stirling-type 4-K pulse-tube refrigerator. This implies higher operating frequencies, compared to the usual 1-2 Hz. At higher frequencies a number of properties of a pulse-tube system, such as length-to-diameter ratios of the pulse tubes and the regenerator, volume and configuration of a regenerator material, phase-shift control method, etc., change significantly, and, therefore, require detailed study. The interactions between various parameters of the pulse tube and of the linear compressor are very complicated. Therefore, as a first part of this research, we study the pulse tube at high frequencies, independent of the compressor. We generate high-frequency pressure oscillations, using a GM-type compressor and a special type of rotary valve, which enables us to operate at frequencies up to 20 Hz. Results of this work are described in this contribution.

  15. Phone positioning influence in high-frequency audiometry.

    PubMed

    Crepaldi de Almeida, Elizabeth Oliveira; Nishimori, Aparecida Yumi

    2006-01-01

    Research considers high frequency tonal audiometry as a tool for the early diagnosis of auditory alterations derived from etiological agents. to investigate possible differences in high frequency audiometry of individuals with normal hearing, based on the person who places the earphone. clinical and experimental study with 55 undergraduate students from a country side branch of the São Paulo State University, with normal hearing, underwent two tests each; for the first, the evaluator positioned the earphone on the participant; for the second one, the participant did it by him/herself. An AC40 audiometer calibrated to emit pure tone was used in the frequencies of 10, 12.5, and 16 kHz. The kappa(k) coefficient statistical analysis was used to verify the agreement between the two ways of earphone positioning of earphone, bearing a [FORMULA: SEE TEXT]0.70 kappa value as a criterion. Results attained for both ears were below this criterion, with k average of 0.50. results indicate a risk of compromising the exam reliability when the patient him/herself adjusts phone to his/her own ear. when performing audiometric assessment, this variable must be considered in order to attain reliable results.

  16. Corrosion monitoring using high-frequency guided ultrasonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Corrosion develops due to adverse environmental conditions during the life cycle of a range of industrial structures, e.g., offshore oil platforms, ships, and desalination plants. Both pitting corrosion and generalized corrosion leading to wall thickness loss can cause the degradation of the structural integrity. The nondestructive detection and monitoring of corrosion damage in difficult to access areas can be achieved using high frequency guided waves propagating along the structure from accessible areas. Using standard ultrasonic transducers with single sided access to the structure, guided wave modes were generated that penetrate through the complete thickness of the structure. The wave propagation and interference of the different guided wave modes depends on the thickness of the structure. Laboratory experiments were conducted and the wall thickness reduced by consecutive milling of the steel structure. Further measurements were conducted using accelerated corrosion in a salt water bath and the damage severity monitored. From the measured signal change due to the wave mode interference the wall thickness reduction was monitored. The high frequency guided waves have the potential for corrosion damage monitoring at critical and difficult to access locations from a stand-off distance.

  17. High-frequency filtering of strong-motion records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, J.; Boore, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of noise in strong-motion records is most problematic at low and high frequencies where the signal to noise ratio is commonly low compared to that in the mid-spectrum. The impact of low-frequency noise (5 Hz) on computed pseudo-absolute response spectral accelerations (PSAs). In contrast to the case of low-frequency noise our analysis shows that filtering to remove high-frequency noise is only necessary in certain situations and that PSAs can often be used up to 100 Hz even if much lower high-cut corner frequencies are required to remove the noise. This apparent contradiction can be explained by the fact that PSAs are often controlled by ground accelerations associated with much lower frequencies than the natural frequency of the oscillator because path and site attenuation (often modelled by Q and κ, respectively) have removed the highest frequencies. We demonstrate that if high-cut filters are to be used, then their corner frequencies should be selected on an individual basis, as has been done in a few recent studies.

  18. High Frequency PIN-Diode Switches for Radiometer Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montes, Oliver; Dawson, Douglas E.; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Reising, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Internally calibrated radiometers are needed for ocean topography and other missions. Typically internal calibration is achieved with Dicke switching as one of the techniques. We have developed high frequency single-pole double-throw (SPDT) switches in the form of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) that can be easily integrated into Dicke switched radiometers that utilize microstrip technology. In particular, the switches we developed can be used for a radiometer such as the one proposed for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Satellite Mission whose three channels at 92, 130, and 166 GHz would allow for wet-tropospheric path delay correction near coastal zones and over land. This feat is not possible with the current Jason-class radiometers due to their lower frequency signal measurement and thus lower resolution. The MMIC chips were fabricated at NGST using their InP PIN diode process and measured at JPL using high frequency test equipment. Measurement and simulation results will be presented.

  19. A perspective on high-frequency ultrasound for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamou, Jonathan; Aristizába, Orlando; Silverman, Ronald H.; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFU, >15 MHz) is a rapidly developing field. HFU is currently used and investigated for ophthalmologic, dermatologic, intravascular, and small-animal imaging. HFU offers a non-invasive means to investigate tissue at the microscopic level with resolutions often better than 100 μm. However, fine resolution is only obtained over the limited depth-of-field (˜1 mm) of single-element spherically-focused transducers typically used for HFU applications. Another limitation is penetration depth because most biological tissues have large attenuation at high frequencies. In this study, two 5-element annular arrays with center frequencies of 17 and 34 MHz were fabricated and methods were developed to obtain images with increased penetration depth and depth-of-field. These methods were used in ophthalmologic and small-animal imaging studies. Improved blood sensitivity was obtained when a phantom mimicking a vitreous hemorrhage was imaged. Central-nervous systems of 12.5-day-old mouse embryos were imaged in utero and in three dimensions for the first time.

  20. Corrosion monitoring using high-frequency guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, P.

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion can develop due to adverse environmental conditions during the life cycle of a range of industrial structures, e.g., offshore oil platforms, ships, and desalination plants. Generalized corrosion leading to wall thickness loss can cause the reduction of the strength and thus degradation of the structural integrity. The monitoring of corrosion damage in difficult to access areas can be achieved using high frequency guided waves propagating along the structure from accessible areas. Using standard ultrasonic wedge transducers with single sided access to the structure, guided wave modes were selectively generated that penetrate through the complete thickness of the structure. The wave propagation and interference of the different guided wave modes depends on the thickness of the structure. Laboratory experiments were conducted for wall thickness reduction due to milling of the steel structure. From the measured signal changes due to the wave mode interference the reduced wall thickness was monitored. Good agreement with theoretical predictions was achieved. The high frequency guided waves have the potential for corrosion damage monitoring at critical and difficult to access locations from a stand-off distance.

  1. Novel tissue mimicking materials for high frequency breast ultrasound phantoms.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Louise M; Fagan, Andrew J; Browne, Jacinta E

    2011-01-01

    The development and acoustical characterisation of a range of novel agar-based tissue mimicking material (TMMs) for use in clinically relevant, quality assurance (QA) and anthropomorphic breast phantoms are presented. The novel agar-based TMMs described in this study are based on a comprehensive, systematic variation of the ingredients in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) TMM. A novel, solid fat-mimicking material was also developed and acoustically characterised. Acoustical characterisation was carried out using an in-house scanning acoustic macroscope at low (7.5 MHz) and high frequencies (20 MHz), using the pulse-echo insertion technique. The speeds of sound range from 1490 to 1570 m. s(-1), attenuation coefficients range from 0.1 to 0.9 dB. cm(‑1). MHz(-1) and relative backscatter ranges from 0 to -20 dB. It was determined that tissues can be mimicked in terms of independently controllable speeds of sound and attenuation coefficients. These properties make these novel TMMs suitable for use in clinically relevant QA and anthropomorphic phantoms and would potentially be useful for other high frequency applications such as intravascular and small animal imaging. Copyright © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Very High Frequency (Beyond 100 MHz) PZT Kerfless Linear Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Da-Wei; Zhou, Qifa; Geng, Xuecang; Liu, Chang-Geng; Djuth, Frank; Shung, K. Kirk

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and measurements of very high frequency kerfless linear arrays prepared from PZT film and PZT bulk material. A 12-µm PZT thick film fabricated from PZT-5H powder/solution composite and a piece of 15-µm PZT-5H sheet were used to fabricate 32-element kerfless high-frequency linear arrays with photolithography. The PZT thick film was prepared by spin-coating of PZT sol-gel composite solution. The thin PZT-5H sheet sample was prepared by lapping a PZT-5H ceramic with a precision lapping machine. The measured results of the 2 arrays were compared. The PZT film array had a center frequency of 120 MHz, a bandwidth of 60% with a parylene matching layer, and an insertion loss of 41 dB. The PZT ceramic sheet array was found to have a center frequency of 128 MHz with a poorer bandwidth (40% with a parylene matching layer) but a better sensitivity (28 dB insertion loss). PMID:19942516

  3. High-frequency oscillations and the neurobiology of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Singer, Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Neural oscillations at low- and high-frequency ranges are a fundamental feature of large-scale networks. Recent evidence has indicated that schizophrenia is associated with abnormal amplitude and synchrony of oscillatory activity, in particular, at high (beta/gamma) frequencies. These abnormalities are observed during task-related and spontaneous neuronal activity which may be important for understanding the pathophysiology of the syndrome. In this paper, we shall review the current evidence for impaired beta/gamma-band oscillations and their involvement in cognitive functions and certain symptoms of the disorder. In the first part, we will provide an update on neural oscillations during normal brain functions and discuss underlying mechanisms. This will be followed by a review of studies that have examined high-frequency oscillatory activity in schizophrenia and discuss evidence that relates abnormalities of oscillatory activity to disturbed excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance. Finally, we shall identify critical issues for future research in this area. PMID:24174902

  4. Resent developments in high-frequency surface-wave techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, J.; Pan, Y.; Zeng, C.

    2012-12-01

    High-frequency Rayleigh-wave methods, such as Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW), are getting increasingly attention in the near-surface geophysics and geotechnique community in the last 20 years because of their non-invasive, non-destructive, efficient, and low-cost advantages and their success in environmental and engineering applications. They are viewed by near-surface geophysics community as the one of most promise techniques in the future. However, they face unique problems related to extremely irregular velocity variations in near-surface geology or man-made constructions, for example, highway, foundation, dam, levee, jetty, etc., which are not solvable by techniques or algorithms widely used in earthquake seismology or oil/gas seismic exploration. We present solutions to the problems associated with near-surface materials that possess velocity inverse and high Poisson's ratio. Calculation of dispersion curves by existing algorithms may fail for some special velocity models due to velocity inverse (a high-velocity layer on the top of a low-velocity layer). Two velocity models are most common in near-surface applications. One is a low-velocity half space model and the other a high-velocity topmost layer. The former model results in a complex matrix that no roots can be found in the real number domain, which implies that no phase velocities can be calculated in certain frequency ranges based on current exist algorithms. A solution is to use the real part of the root of the complex number. It is well-known that phase velocities approach about 91% of the shear (S)-wave velocity of the topmost layer when wavelengths are much shorter than the thickness of the topmost layer. The later model, however, results in that phase velocities in a high-frequency range calculated using the current algorithms approach a velocity associated with the S-wave velocity of the second layer NOT the topmost layer. A solution to this problem is to use a two-layer model to

  5. Hearing Risk among Young Personal Listening Device Users: Effects at High-Frequency and Extended High-Frequency Audiogram Thresholds.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Ainul Huda; Husain, Ruby; Seluakumaran, Kumar

    2015-08-01

    The usage of personal listening devices (PLDs) is associated with risks of hearing loss. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of music exposure from these devices on high-frequency hearing thresholds of PLD users. A total of 282 young adults were questioned regarding their listening habits and symptoms associated with PLD listening. Their audiogram thresholds were determined at high (3-8 kHz) frequencies and extended high frequencies (EHFs, 9-16 kHz). The preferred listening volumes of PLD users were used to compute their overall 8-h equivalent music exposure levels (LAeq8h). Approximately 80% of the subjects were regular PLD users. Of these, 20.1% had LAeq8h of ≥75 dBA, while 4.4% of them had LAeq8h of ≥85 dBA, which carries a high risk of hearing damage. Compared with those exposed to LAeq8h of <75 dBA, subjects who had LAeq8h of ≥75 dBA reported a significantly higher incidence of tinnitus and difficulty in hearing others immediately after using PLDs. PLD users who were exposed to LAeq8h of ≥75 dBA and had been using their devices for ≥4 years also showed significantly higher mean audiogram thresholds compared with non-users at most EHFs tested. In addition, the thresholds of PLD users at EHFs showed a weak but significant positive correlation with their LAeq8h. The present findings suggest that excessive exposure to music among PLD users may lead to initial effects on their hearing at very high frequencies.

  6. The AT20G view of Swift/BAT selected AGN: high-frequency radio waves meet hard X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlon, D.; Ghirlanda, G.; Murphy, T.; Chhetri, R.; Sadler, E.; Ajello, M.

    2013-05-01

    We cross-matched the 6-year Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with the AT20G radio survey of the southern sky, which is one of the largest high-frequency radio surveys available. With these data we investigated the possible correlation between the radio and the X-ray emission at the highest radio and X-ray frequencies. We found 37 AGN with a high probability of association (>80 per cent), among which 19 are local Seyfert galaxies (with median redshift z = 0.03) and 18 blazars. We found that ≈20 per cent of the AGN detected in hard X-rays are also bright radio sources at 20 GHz, but the apparent correlation between the radio and hard X-ray luminosity is completely driven by the different median redshifts of the two subgroups of AGN. When we consider only the local Seyfert sample we find no evidence of a correlation between their 20 GHz and 15-55 keV power. Therefore it appears that at high frequencies the radio-X connection, which had been previously observed at lower frequencies, disappears. The disappearance of the radio-X correlation at high radio and X-ray frequencies could be tested through Very Long Baseline Interferometry and the use of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) satellite.

  7. High-resolution CFD detects high-frequency velocity fluctuations in bifurcation, but not sidewall, aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Valen-Sendstad, Kristian; Mardal, Kent-André; Steinman, David A

    2013-01-18

    High-frequency flow fluctuations in intracranial aneurysms have previously been reported in vitro and in vivo. On the other hand, the vast majority of image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies of cerebral aneurysms report periodic, laminar flow. We have previously demonstrated that transitional flow, consistent with in vivo reports, can occur in a middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation aneurysm when ultra-high-resolution direct numerical simulation methods are applied. The object of the present study was to investigate if such high-frequency flow fluctuations might be more widespread in adequately-resolved CFD models. A sample of N=12 anatomically realistic MCA aneurysms (five unruptured, seven ruptured), was digitally segmented from CT angiograms. Four were classified as sidewall aneurysms, the other eight as bifurcation aneurysms. Transient CFD simulations were carried out assuming a steady inflow velocity of 0.5m/s, corresponding to typical peak systolic conditions at the MCA. To allow for detection of clinically-reported high-frequency flow fluctuations and resulting flow structures, temporal and spatial resolutions of the CFD simulations were in the order of 0.1 ms and 0.1 mm, respectively. A transient flow response to the stationary inflow conditions was found in five of the 12 aneurysms, with energetic fluctuations up to 100 Hz, and in one case up to 900 Hz. Incidentally, all five were ruptured bifurcation aneurysms, whereas all four sidewall aneurysms, including one ruptured case, quickly reached a stable, steady state solution. Energetic, rapid fluctuations may be overlooked in CFD models of bifurcation aneurysms unless adequate temporal and spatial resolutions are used. Such fluctuations may be relevant to the mechanobiology of aneurysm rupture, and to a recently reported dichotomy between predictors of rupture likelihood for bifurcation vs. sidewall aneurysms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A noninvasive high frequency oscillation ventilator: Achieved by utilizing a blower and a valve.

    PubMed

    Yuan, YueYang; Sun, JianGuo; Wang, Baicun; Feng, Pei; Yang, ChongChang

    2016-02-01

    After the High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (HFOV) has been applied in the invasive ventilator, the new technique of noninvasive High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (nHFOV) which does not require opening the patient's airway has attracted much attention from the field. This paper proposes the design of an experimental positive pressure-controlled nHFOV ventilator which utilizes a blower and a special valve and has three ventilation modes: spontaneous controlled ventilation combining HFOV, time-cycled ventilation combining HFOV (T-HFOV), and continuous positive airway pressure ventilation combining HFOV. Experiments on respiratory model are conducted and demonstrated the feasibility of using nHFOV through the control of fan and valve. The experimental ventilator is able to produce an air flow with small tidal volume (VT) and a large minute ventilation volume (MV) using regular breath tubes and nasal mask (e.g., under T-HFOV mode, with a maximum tidal volume of 100 ml, the minute ventilation volume reached 14,400 ml). In the process of transmission, there is only a minor loss of oscillation pressure. (Under experimental condition and with an oscillation frequency of 2-10 Hz, peak pressure loss was around 0%-50% when it reaches the mask.).

  9. A noninvasive high frequency oscillation ventilator: Achieved by utilizing a blower and a valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, YueYang; Sun, JianGuo; Wang, Baicun; Feng, Pei; Yang, ChongChang

    2016-02-01

    After the High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (HFOV) has been applied in the invasive ventilator, the new technique of noninvasive High Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation (nHFOV) which does not require opening the patient's airway has attracted much attention from the field. This paper proposes the design of an experimental positive pressure-controlled nHFOV ventilator which utilizes a blower and a special valve and has three ventilation modes: spontaneous controlled ventilation combining HFOV, time-cycled ventilation combining HFOV (T-HFOV), and continuous positive airway pressure ventilation combining HFOV. Experiments on respiratory model are conducted and demonstrated the feasibility of using nHFOV through the control of fan and valve. The experimental ventilator is able to produce an air flow with small tidal volume (VT) and a large minute ventilation volume (MV) using regular breath tubes and nasal mask (e.g., under T-HFOV mode, with a maximum tidal volume of 100 ml, the minute ventilation volume reached 14 400 ml). In the process of transmission, there is only a minor loss of oscillation pressure. (Under experimental condition and with an oscillation frequency of 2-10 Hz, peak pressure loss was around 0%-50% when it reaches the mask.)

  10. Towards high frequency heterojunction transistors: Electrical characterization of N-doped amorphous silicon-graphene diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strobel, C.; Chavarin, C. A.; Kitzmann, J.; Lupina, G.; Wenger, Ch.; Albert, M.; Bartha, J. W.

    2017-06-01

    N-type doped amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H) is deposited on top of graphene (Gr) by means of very high frequency (VHF) and radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). In order to preserve the structural integrity of the monolayer graphene, a plasma excitation frequency of 140 MHz was successfully applied during the a-Si:H VHF-deposition. Raman spectroscopy results indicate the absence of a defect peak in the graphene spectrum after the VHF-PECVD of (n)-a-Si:H. The diode junction between (n)-a-Si:H and graphene was characterized using temperature dependent current-voltage (IV) and capacitance-voltage measurements, respectively. We demonstrate that the current at the (n)-a-Si:H-graphene interface is dominated by thermionic emission and recombination in the space charge region. The Schottky barrier height (qΦB), derived by temperature dependent IV-characteristics, is about 0.49 eV. The junction properties strongly depend on the applied deposition method of (n)-a-Si:H with a clear advantage of the VHF(140 MHz)-technology. We have demonstrated that (n)-a-Si:H-graphene junctions are a promising technology approach for high frequency heterojunction transistors.

  11. High-frequency oscillation combined with arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist reduces lung injury.

    PubMed

    Muellenbach, Ralf M; Kredel, Markus; Wilhelm, Jochen; Küstermann, Julian; Fink, Ludger; Siebenlist, Gregor; Siebenliest, Gregor; Klosterhalfen, Bernd; Foerster, Carola Y; Kranke, Peter; Wunder, Christian; Roewer, Norbert; Brederlau, Jörg

    2010-04-01

    In order to optimize the lung-protective potential of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), it is currently recommended to maximize oscillatory frequencies. However, very high frequencies may lead to insufficient CO(2) elimination with severe respiratory acidosis. Arteriovenous extracorporeal lung assist (av-ECLA) allows near total CO(2) removal, thereby allowing for maximization of the lung-protective potential of HFOV. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of HFOV and av-ECLA on lung inflammation and function compared to conventional lung-protective ventilation. In a porcine surfactant depletion model of lung injury, the authors randomly assigned 16 female pigs to conventional lung-protective ventilation and HFOV/ECLA. Both strategies were combined with an "open-lung" approach. Gas exchange and hemodynamic parameters were measured at intervals during the 24-hour study period. Postmortem, lung tissue was analyzed to determine histological damage and lung inflammation. The authors found that the combination of HFOV and av-ECLA (1) allows significant reductions in mean and peak airway pressures; and (2) reduces histological signs of lung inflammation in the basal regions of the lung. HFOV/av-ECLA reduces histological signs of lung inflammation compared to conventional lung-protective ventilation strategies. Thus, combination of HFOV and av-ECLA might be a further lung-protective tool if conventional ventilation strategies are failing.

  12. Comparison of electrostatic and electromagnetic simulations for very high frequency plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yuru; Xu Xiang; Wang Younian; Zhao Shuxia; Bogaerts, A.

    2010-11-15

    A two-dimensional self-consistent fluid model combined with the full set of Maxwell equations is developed to investigate an argon capacitively coupled plasma, focusing on the electromagnetic effects on the discharge characteristics at various discharge conditions. The results indicate that there exist distinct differences in plasma characteristics calculated with the so-called electrostatic model (i.e., without taking into account the electromagnetic effects) and the electromagnetic model (which includes the electromagnetic effects), especially at very high frequencies. Indeed, when the excitation source is in the high frequency regime and the electromagnetic effects are taken into account, the plasma density increases significantly and meanwhile the ionization rate evolves to a very different distribution when the electromagnetic effects are dominant. Furthermore, the dependence of the plasma characteristics on the voltage and pressure is also investigated, at constant frequency. It is observed that when the voltage is low, the difference between these two models becomes more obvious than at higher voltages. As the pressure increases, the plasma density profiles obtained from the electromagnetic model smoothly shift from edge-peaked over uniform to a broad maximum in the center. In addition, the edge effect becomes less pronounced with increasing frequency and pressure, and the skin effect rather than the standing-wave effect becomes dominant when the voltage is high.

  13. [Analysis of Electric Stress in Human Head in High-frequency Low-power Electromagnetic Environment].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongjun; Zhang, Hui; Niu, Zhongqi

    2015-04-01

    Action of electromagnetic radiation exerting on human body has been a concerned issue for people. Because electromagnetic waves could generate an electric stress in a discontinuous medium, we used the finite difference time domain (FDTD) as calculation methods to calculate the electric stress and its distribution in human head caused by high-frequency low-power electromagnetic environment, which was generated by dual-band (900 MHz and 1 800 MHz) PIFA antennas with radiated power 1 W, and we then performed the safety evaluation of cell phone radiation from the angle whether the electric stress further reached the human hearing threshold. The result showed that there existed the electric stress at the interface of different permittivity organization caused by the two kinds of high-frequency low-power electromagnetic environment and the maximum electric stress was located at the interface between skin and air of the phone side, and the electric stress peak at skull did not reach the threshold of auditory caused by bone tissue conduction so that it can not produce auditory effects.

  14. Microscale capillary wave turbulence excited by high frequency vibration.

    PubMed

    Blamey, Jeremy; Yeo, Leslie Y; Friend, James R

    2013-03-19

    Low frequency (O(10 Hz-10 kHz)) vibration excitation of capillary waves has been extensively studied for nearly two centuries. Such waves appear at the excitation frequency or at rational multiples of the excitation frequency through nonlinear coupling as a result of the finite displacement of the wave, most often at one-half the excitation frequency in so-called Faraday waves and twice this frequency in superharmonic waves. Less understood, however, are the dynamics of capillary waves driven by high-frequency vibration (>O(100 kHz)) and small interface length scales, an arrangement ideal for a broad variety of applications, from nebulizers for pulmonary drug delivery to complex nanoparticle synthesis. In the few studies conducted to date, a marked departure from the predictions of classical Faraday wave theory has been shown, with the appearance of broadband capillary wave generation from 100 Hz to the excitation frequency and beyond, without a clear explanation. We show that weak wave turbulence is the dominant mechanism in the behavior of the system, as evident from wave height frequency spectra that closely follow the Rayleigh-Jeans spectral response η ≈ ω(-17/12) as a consequence of a period-halving, weakly turbulent cascade that appears within a 1 mm water drop whether driven by thickness-mode or surface acoustic Rayleigh wave excitation. However, such a cascade is one-way, from low to high frequencies. The mechanism of exciting the cascade with high-frequency acoustic waves is an acoustic streaming-driven turbulent jet in the fluid bulk, driving the fundamental capillary wave resonance through the well-known coupling between bulk flow and surface waves. Unlike capillary waves, turbulent acoustic streaming can exhibit subharmonic cascades from high to low frequencies; here it appears from the excitation frequency all the way to the fundamental modes of the capillary wave at some four orders of magnitude in frequency less than the excitation frequency

  15. Inaudible high-frequency sounds affect brain activity: hypersonic effect.

    PubMed

    Oohashi, T; Nishina, E; Honda, M; Yonekura, Y; Fuwamoto, Y; Kawai, N; Maekawa, T; Nakamura, S; Fukuyama, H; Shibasaki, H

    2000-06-01

    Although it is generally accepted that humans cannot perceive sounds in the frequency range above 20 kHz, the question of whether the existence of such "inaudible" high-frequency components may affect the acoustic perception of audible sounds remains unanswered. In this study, we used noninvasive physiological measurements of brain responses to provide evidence that sounds containing high-frequency components (HFCs) above the audible range significantly affect the brain activity of listeners. We used the gamelan music of Bali, which is extremely rich in HFCs with a nonstationary structure, as a natural sound source, dividing it into two components: an audible low-frequency component (LFC) below 22 kHz and an HFC above 22 kHz. Brain electrical activity and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were measured as markers of neuronal activity while subjects were exposed to sounds with various combinations of LFCs and HFCs. None of the subjects recognized the HFC as sound when it was presented alone. Nevertheless, the power spectra of the alpha frequency range of the spontaneous electroencephalogram (alpha-EEG) recorded from the occipital region increased with statistical significance when the subjects were exposed to sound containing both an HFC and an LFC, compared with an otherwise identical sound from which the HFC was removed (i.e., LFC alone). In contrast, compared with the baseline, no enhancement of alpha-EEG was evident when either an HFC or an LFC was presented separately. Positron emission tomography measurements revealed that, when an HFC and an LFC were presented together, the rCBF in the brain stem and the left thalamus increased significantly compared with a sound lacking the HFC above 22 kHz but that was otherwise identical. Simultaneous EEG measurements showed that the power of occipital alpha-EEGs correlated significantly with the rCBF in the left thalamus. Psychological evaluation indicated that the subjects felt the sound containing an HFC to be more

  16. Discovery of an Extreme MeV Blazar with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambruna, R. M.; Markwardt, C. B.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Tueller, J.; Hartman, R.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D> P.; Falcone, A.; Cucchiara, A.; Aller, M. F.

    2006-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift detected bright emission from 15-195 keV from the source SWIFT J0746.3+2548 (J0746 in the following), identified with the optically-faint (R approx. 19), z=2.979 quasar SDSS J074625.87+244901.2. Here we present Swift and multiwavelength observations of this source. The X-ray emission from J0746 is variable on timescales of hours to weeks in 0.5-8 keV and of a few months in 15-195 keV, but there is no accompanying spectral variability in the 0.5-8 keV band. There is a suggestion that the BAT spectrum, initially very hard (photon index Gamma approx. 0.7), steepened to Gamma approx. 1.3 in a few months, together with a decrease of the 15-195 keV flux by a factor approx. 2. The 0.5-8 keV continuum is well described by a power law with Gamma approx. 1.3, and spectral flattening below 1 keV. The latter can be described with a column density in excess of the Galactic value with intrinsic column density Nz(sub H) approx. 10(exp 22)/sq cm , or with a flatter power law, implying a sharp (Delta(Gamma) less than or approx. 1) break across 16 keV in the quasar's rest-frame. The Spectral Energy Distribution of J0746 is double-humped, with the first component peaking at IR wavelengths and the second component at MeV energies. These properties suggest that J0746 is a a blazar with high gamma-ray luminosity and low peak energy (MeV) stretching the blazar sequence to an extreme.

  17. Constraints on cosmic ray and PeV neutrino production in blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B. Theodore; Li, Zhuo

    2017-03-01

    IceCube has detected a cumulative flux of PeV neutrinos, which origin is unknown. Blazars, active galactic nuclei with relativistic jets pointing to us, are long and widely expected to be one of the strong candidates of high energy neutrino sources. The neutrino production depends strongly on the cosmic ray power of blazar jets, which is largely unknown. The recent null results in stacking searches of neutrinos for several blazar samples by IceCube put upper limits on the neutrino fluxes from these blazars. Here we compute the cosmic ray power and PeV neutrino flux of Fermi-LAT blazars, and find that the upper limits for known blazar sources give stringent constraint on the cosmic ray loading factor of blazar jets (i.e., the ratio of the cosmic ray to bolometric radiation luminosity of blazar jets), ξcr lesssim (2–10)ζ‑1 (with ζ lesssim 1 the remained fraction of cosmic ray energy when propagate into the blazar broad line region) for flat cosmic ray spectrum, and that the cumulative PeV neutrino flux contributed by all-sky blazars is a fraction lesssim (10–50)% of the IceCube detected flux.

  18. Active Control of High-Frequency Combustor Instability Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce the environmental impact of aerospace propulsion systems, extensive research is being done in the development of lean-burning (low fuel-to-air ratio) combustors that can reduce emissions throughout the mission cycle. However, these lean-burning combustors have an increased susceptibility to thermoacoustic instabilities-high-pressure oscillations much like sound waves that can cause severe high-frequency vibrations in the combustor. These pressure waves can fatigue the combustor components and even the downstream turbine blades. This can significantly decrease the combustor and turbine safe operating life. Thus, suppression of the thermoacoustic combustor instabilities is an enabling technology for lean, low-emissions combustors. Under the Propulsion and Power Program, the NASA Glenn Research Center in partnership with Pratt & Whitney, United Technologies Research Center, and Georgia Institute of Technology is developing technologies for the active control of combustion instabilities.

  19. Development of high frequency and wide bandwidth Johnson noise thermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Crossno, Jesse; Liu, Xiaomeng; Kim, Philip; Ohki, Thomas A.; Fong, Kin Chung

    2015-01-12

    We develop a high frequency, wide bandwidth radiometer operating at room temperature, which augments the traditional technique of Johnson noise thermometry for nanoscale thermal transport studies. Employing low noise amplifiers and an analog multiplier operating at 2 GHz, auto- and cross-correlated Johnson noise measurements are performed in the temperature range of 3 to 300 K, achieving a sensitivity of 5.5 mK (110 ppm) in 1 s of integration time. This setup allows us to measure the thermal conductance of a boron nitride encapsulated monolayer graphene device over a wide temperature range. Our data show a high power law (T ∼ 4) deviation from the Wiedemann-Franz law above T ∼ 100 K.

  20. Toward a High-Frequency Pulsed-Detonation Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Drummond, J. Philip

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the continued development of an actuator, energized by pulsed detonations, that provides a pulsed jet suitable for flow control in high-speed applications. A high-speed valve, capable of delivering a pulsed stream of reactants a mixture of H2 and air at rates of up to 1500 pulses per second, has been constructed. The reactants burn in a resonant tube and the products exit the tube as a pulsed jet. High frequency pressure transducers have been used to monitor the pressure fluctuations in the device at various reactant injection frequencies, including both resonant and off-resonant conditions. Pulsed detonations have been demonstrated in the lambda/4 mode of an 8 inch long tube at approx. 600 Hz. The pulsed jet at the exit of the device has been observed using shadowgraph and an infrared camera.