High gain amplifiers: Power oscillations and harmonic generation
Dattoli, G.; Ottaviani, P. L.; Pagnutti, S.
2007-08-01
We discuss the power oscillations in saturated high gain free electron laser amplifiers and show that the relevant period can be written in terms of the gain length. We use simple arguments following from the solution of the pendulum equation in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions. Nontrivial effects due to nonlinear harmonic generation and inhomogeneous broadening are discussed too, as well as the saturated dynamics of short pulses.
High-gain harmonic-generation free-electron laser
Yu; Babzien; Ben-Zvi; DiMauro; Doyuran; Graves; Johnson; Krinsky; Malone; Pogorelsky; Skaritka; Rakowsky; Solomon; Wang; Woodle; Yakimenko; Biedron; Galayda; Gluskin; Jagger; Sajaev; Vasserman
2000-08-11
A high-gain harmonic-generation free-electron laser is demonstrated. Our approach uses a laser-seeded free-electron laser to produce amplified, longitudinally coherent, Fourier transform-limited output at a harmonic of the seed laser. A seed carbon dioxide laser at a wavelength of 10.6 micrometers produced saturated, amplified free-electron laser output at the second-harmonic wavelength, 5.3 micrometers. The experiment verifies the theoretical foundation for the technique and prepares the way for the application of this technique in the vacuum ultraviolet region of the spectrum, with the ultimate goal of extending the approach to provide an intense, highly coherent source of hard x-rays.
STARS A Two Stage High Gain Harmonic Generation FEL Demonstrator
M. Abo-Bakr; W. Anders; J. Bahrdt; P. Budz; K.B. Buerkmann-Gehrlein; O. Dressler; H.A. Duerr; V. Duerr; W. Eberhardt; S. Eisebitt; J. Feikes; R. Follath; A. Gaupp; R. Goergen; K. Goldammer; S.C. Hessler; K. Holldack; E. Jaeschke; Thorsten Kamps; S. Klauke; J. Knobloch; O. Kugeler; B.C. Kuske; P. Kuske; A. Meseck; R. Mitzner; R. Mueller; M. Neeb; A. Neumann; K. Ott; D. Pfluckhahn; T. Quast; M. Scheer; Th. Schroeter; M. Schuster; F. Senf; G. Wuestefeld; D. Kramer; Frank Marhauser
2007-08-01
BESSY is proposing a demonstration facility, called STARS, for a two-stage high-gain harmonic generation free electron laser (HGHG FEL). STARS is planned for lasing in the wavelength range 40 to 70 nm, requiring a beam energy of 325 MeV. The facility consists of a normal conducting gun, three superconducting TESLA-type acceleration modules modified for CW operation, a single stage bunch compressor and finally a two-stage HGHG cascaded FEL. This paper describes the faciliy layout and the rationale behind the operation parameters.
Nonlinear harmonic generation in high-gain free-electron lasers
Dattoli, G.; Ottaviani, P.L.; Pagnutti, S.
2005-06-01
We reconsider the derivation of semianalytical expressions providing the most significant aspects of the high-gain free-electron laser dynamics. We obtain new expressions for the growth of the laser power, of the e-beam-induced energy spread, and of the higher-order nonlinearly generated harmonics. The procedure we employ, based on theoretical ansatz and fitting methods, allows the determination of crucial quantities like the expected harmonic output power and its dependences on the e-beam parameters.
Characterization of a high-gain harmonic-generation free-electron laser at saturation.
Doyuran, A; Babzien, M; Shaftan, T; Yu, L H; DiMauro, L F; Ben-Zvi, I; Biedron, S G; Graves, W; Johnson, E; Krinsky, S; Malone, R; Pogorelsky, I; Skaritka, J; Rakowsky, G; Wang, X J; Woodle, M; Yakimenko, V; Jagger, J; Sajaev, V; Vasserman, I
2001-06-25
We report on an experimental investigation characterizing the output of a high-gain harmonic-generation (HGHG) free-electron laser (FEL) at saturation. A seed CO2 laser at a wavelength of 10.6 microm was used to generate amplified FEL output at 5.3 microm. Measurement of the frequency spectrum, pulse duration, and correlation length of the 5.3 microm output verified that the light is longitudinally coherent. Investigation of the electron energy distribution and output harmonic energies provides evidence for saturated HGHG FEL operation.
High gain harmonic generation free electron lasers enhanced by pseudoenergy bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Takashi; Kinjo, Ryota
2017-08-01
We propose a new scheme for high gain harmonic generation free electron lasers (HGHG FELs), which is seeded by a pair of intersecting laser beams to interact with an electron beam in a modulator undulator located in a dispersive section. The interference of the laser beams gives rise to a two-dimensional modulation in the energy-time phase space because of a strong correlation between the electron energy and the position in the direction of dispersion. This eventually forms pseudoenergy bands in the electron beam, which result in efficient harmonic generation in HGHG FELs in a similar manner to the well-known scheme using the echo effects. The advantage of the proposed scheme is that the beam quality is less deteriorated than in other existing schemes.
Oscillator Seeding of a High Gain Harmonic Generation FEL in a Radiator-First Configuration
Gandhi, P.; Wurtele, J.; Penn, G.; Reinsch, M.
2012-05-20
A longitudinally coherent X-ray pulse from a high repetition rate free electron laser (FEL) is desired for a wide variety of experimental applications. However, generating such a pulse with a repetition rate greater than 1 MHz is a significant challenge. The desired high repetition rate sources, primarily high harmonic generation with intense lasers in gases or plasmas, do not exist now, and, for the multi-MHz bunch trains that superconducting accelerators can potentially produce, are likely not feasible with current technology. In this paper, we propose to place an oscillator downstream of a radiator. The oscillator generates radiation that is used as a seed for a high gain harmonic generation (HGHG) FEL which is upstream of the oscillator. For the first few pulses the oscillator builds up power and, until power is built up, the radiator has no HGHG seed. As power in the oscillator saturates, the HGHG is seeded and power is produced. The dynamics and stability of this radiator-first scheme is explored analytically and numerically. A single-pass map is derived using a semi-analytic model for FEL gain and saturation. Iteration of the map is shown to be in good agreement with simulations. A numerical example is presented for a soft X-ray FEL.
High-gain harmonic generation of soft X-rays with the `fresh bunch` technique
Yu, Li-Hua; Ben-Zvi, I.
1996-10-01
We report numerical simulations (using the TDA code) and analytic verification of the generation of 64 {Angstrom} high power soft X- rays from an exponential regime single pass seeded FEL. The seed is generated in the FEL using the High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) technique combined with the `Fresh bunch` technique. A seed pulse at 2944 {Angstrom} is generated by conventional laser techniques. The seed pulse produces an intense energy modulation of the rear part of a I GeV, 1245 {Angstrom} electron beam in a `modulator` wiggler. In the `radiator` wiggler, (resonant to 64 {Angstrom}), the energy modulation creates beam density modulation followed by radiation of the 46{sup th} harmonic of the seed. We use a magnetic delay to position the 64 A{Angstrom} radiation at the undisturbed front of the bunch to serve as a seed for a single pass, exponential growth FEL. After a 9 m long exponential section followed by a 7 m long tapered section the radiation power reaches 3.3 GW.
SOFT X-RAY FEL BY CASCADING STAGES OF HIGH GAIN HARMONIC GENERATION.
YU,L.H.
2003-04-17
Short wavelength Free-Electron Lasers are perceived as the next generation of synchrotron light sources. In the past decade, significant advances have been made in the theory and technology of high brightness electron beams and single pass FELs. These developments facilitate the construction of practical VUV FELs and make x-ray FELs possible. Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) and High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG)[17-19] are the two leading candidates for x-ray FELs. The first lasing of HGHG proof-of-principle experiment succeeded in August, 1999 in Brookhaven National Laboratory. The experimental results agree with the theory prediction. Compared with SASE FEL, the following advantages of HGHG FEL were confirmed; (1) Better longitudinal coherence, and hence, much narrower bandwidth than SASE. (2) More stable central wavelength, (3) More stable output energy. In this introduction, we will first briefly describe the principle of HGHG in Section A. Then in Section B, we give a general description about how to produce soft x-ray by cascading HGHG scheme. In section 2, we give a detailed description of the system design. Then, in section 3, we give a description of an analytical estimate for the HGHG process, and the calculation of the parameters of different parts of the system. The estimate is found to agree with simulation within about a factor 2 for most cases we studied. The stability issue, the sensitivity to parameter variation, the harmonic contents of the final output, and the noise degradation issue of such HGHG scheme are discussed in Section 4. The results are presented in Section 4. Finally, in Section 5, we will give some discussion of the challenges in development of the system. The conclusion is given in Section 6.
Development of a 3D FEL code for the simulation of a high-gain harmonic generation experiment.
Biedron, S. G.
1999-02-26
Over the last few years, there has been a growing interest in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron lasers (FELs) as a means for achieving a fourth-generation light source. In order to correctly and easily simulate the many configurations that have been suggested, such as multi-segmented wigglers and the method of high-gain harmonic generation, we have developed a robust three-dimensional code. The specifics of the code, the comparison to the linear theory as well as future plans will be presented.
Biedron, S. G.; Freund, H. P.; Yu, L.-H.
1999-09-10
One possible design for a fourth-generation light source is the high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) free-electron laser (FEL). Here, a coherent seed with a wavelength at a subharmonic of the desired output radiation interacts with the electron beam in an energy-modulating section. This energy modulation is then converted into spatial bunching while traversing a dispersive section (a three-dipole chicane). The final step is passage through a radiative section, an undulator tuned to the desired higher harmonic output wavelength. The coherent seed serves to remove noise and can be at a much lower subharmonic of the output radiation, thus eliminating the concerns found in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) and seeded FELs, respectively. Recently, a 3D code that includes multiple frequencies, multiple undulatory (both in quantity and/or type), quadruple magnets, and dipole magnets was developed to easily simulate HGHG. Here, a brief review of the HGHG theory, the code development, the Accelerator Test Facility's (ATF) HGHG FEL experimental parameters, and the parameter analysis from simulations of this specific experiment will be discussed.
Generating Optical Orbital Angular Momentum in a High-Gain Free-Electron Laser at the First Harmonic
Hemsing, E.; Marinelli, A.; Rosenzweig, J. B.
2011-04-22
A scheme to generate intense coherent light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM) at the fundamental wavelength of an x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) is described. The OAM light is emitted as the dominant mode of the system until saturation provided that the helical microbunching imposed on the electron beam is larger than the shot-noise bunching that leads to self-amplified emission. Operating at the fundamental, this scheme is more efficient than alternate schemes that rely on harmonic emission, and can be applied to x-ray FELs without using external optical mode conversion elements.
Wu, J
2004-07-02
We study a new approach to produce x-ray by cascading several stages of a High-Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) Free-Electron Laser (FEL). Besides the merits of a Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) scheme, an HGHG scheme could also provide much better stability of the radiation power, controllable short pulse length, more stable central wavelength, and radiation with better longitudinal coherence. Detailed design and optimization scheme, simulation results and analytical estimate formulae are presented. To lay results on a realistic basis, the electron bunch parameters used in this paper are restricted to be those of DESY TTF and SLAC LCLS projects; however, such sets of parameters are not necessary to be optimized for an HGHG FEL.
Harmonic generation with multiple wiggler schemes
Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo, L.; Pierini, P.
1995-02-01
In this paper the authors give a simple theoretical description of the basic physics of the single pass high gain free electron laser (FEL), describing in some detail the FEL bunching properties and the harmonic generation technique with a multiple-wiggler scheme or a high gain optical klystron configuration.
Summers, M.A.; Eimerl, D.; Boyd, R.D.
1982-06-10
A pair of uniaxial birefringent crystal elements are fixed together to form a serially arranged, integral assembly which, alternatively, provides either a linearly or elliptically polarized second-harmonic output wave or a linearly polarized third-harmonic output wave. The extraordinary or e directions of the crystal elements are oriented in the integral assembly to be in quadrature (90/sup 0/). For a second-harmonic generation in the Type-II-Type-II angle tuned case, the input fundamental wave has equal amplitude o and e components. For a third-harmonic generation, the input fundamental wave has o and e components whose amplitudes are in a ratio of 2:1 (o:e reference first crystal). In the typical case of a linearly polarized input fundamental wave this can be accomplished by simply rotating the crystal assembly about the input beam direction by 10/sup 0/. For both second and third harmonic generation input precise phase-matching is achieved by tilting the crystal assembly about its two sensitive axeses (o).
Summers, Mark A.; Eimerl, David; Boyd, Robert D.
1985-01-01
A pair of uniaxial birefringent crystal elements are fixed together to form a serially arranged, integral assembly which, alternatively, provides either a linearly or elliptically polarized second-harmonic output wave or a linearly polarized third-harmonic output wave. The "extraordinary" or "e" directions of the crystal elements are oriented in the integral assembly to be in quadrature (90.degree.). For a second-harmonic generation in the Type-II-Type-II angle tuned case, the input fundamental wave has equal amplitude "o" and "e" components. For a third-harmonic generation, the input fundamental wave has "o" and "e" components whose amplitudes are in a ratio of 2:1 ("o":"e" reference first crystal). In the typical case of a linearly polarized input fundamental wave this can be accomplished by simply rotating the crystal assembly about the input beam direction by 10.degree.. For both second and third harmonic generation input precise phase-matching is achieved by tilting the crystal assembly about its two sensitive axes ("o").
Nonlinear harmonic generation in distributed optical klystrons
H.P. Freund; George R. Neil
2001-12-01
A distributed optical klystron has the potential for dramatically shortening the total interaction length in high-gain free-electron lasers (INP 77-59, Novosibirsk, 1977; Nucl. Instr. and Meth A 304 (1991) 463) in comparison to a single-wiggler-segment configuration. This shortening can be even more dramatic if a nonlinear harmonic generation mechanism is used to reach the desired wavelength. An example operating at a 4.5{angstrom} fundamental and a 1.5{angstrom} harmonic is discussed.
RESONANT HARMONIC GENERATION AND NONLINEAR OPTICS.
OSCILLATORS, *QUANTUM THEORY, *OPTICS, HARMONIC GENERATORS, OSCILLATORS, HARMONIC GENERATORS, OSCILLATORS, HARMONIC GENERATORS, NONLINEAR SYSTEMS, QUARTZ, TOURMALINE , ZINC COMPOUNDS, OXIDES, HYDRATES, NIOBATES, TENSOR ANALYSIS.
Next generation data harmonization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armstrong, Chandler; Brown, Ryan M.; Chaves, Jillian; Czerniejewski, Adam; Del Vecchio, Justin; Perkins, Timothy K.; Rudnicki, Ron; Tauer, Greg
2015-05-01
Analysts are presented with a never ending stream of data sources. Often, subsets of data sources to solve problems are easily identified but the process to align data sets is time consuming. However, many semantic technologies do allow for fast harmonization of data to overcome these problems. These include ontologies that serve as alignment targets, visual tools and natural language processing that generate semantic graphs in terms of the ontologies, and analytics that leverage these graphs. This research reviews a developed prototype that employs all these approaches to perform analysis across disparate data sources documenting violent, extremist events.
Design of a high-power, high-gain, 2nd harmonic, 22.848 GHz gyroklystron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veale, M.; Purohit, P.; Lawson, W.
2013-08-01
In this paper we consider the design of a four-cavity, high-gain K-band gyroklystron experiment for high gradient structure testing. The frequency doubling gyroklystron utilizes a beam voltage of 500 kV and a beam current of 200 A from a magnetron injection gun (MIG) originally designed for a lower-frequency device. The microwave circuit features input and gain cavities in the circular TE011 mode and penultimate and output cavities that operate at the second harmonic in the TE021 mode. We investigate the MIG performance and study the behavior of the circuit for different values of perpendicular to parallel velocity ratio (α = V⊥ / Vz). This microwave tube is expected to be able to produce at least 20 MW of power in 1μs pulses at a repetition rate of at least 120 Hz. A maximum efficiency of 26% and a large signal gain of 58 dB under zero-drive stable conditions were simulated for a velocity ratio equal to 1.35.
Design of a high-power, high-gain, 2nd harmonic, 22.848 GHz gyroklystron
Veale, M.; Purohit, P.; Lawson, W.
2013-08-15
In this paper we consider the design of a four-cavity, high-gain K-band gyroklystron experiment for high gradient structure testing. The frequency doubling gyroklystron utilizes a beam voltage of 500 kV and a beam current of 200 A from a magnetron injection gun (MIG) originally designed for a lower-frequency device. The microwave circuit features input and gain cavities in the circular TE{sub 011} mode and penultimate and output cavities that operate at the second harmonic in the TE{sub 021} mode. We investigate the MIG performance and study the behavior of the circuit for different values of perpendicular to parallel velocity ratio (α= V{sub ⊥}/ V{sub z}). This microwave tube is expected to be able to produce at least 20 MW of power in 1μs pulses at a repetition rate of at least 120 Hz. A maximum efficiency of 26% and a large signal gain of 58 dB under zero-drive stable conditions were simulated for a velocity ratio equal to 1.35.
Nonlinear harmonic generation in the STARS FEL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abo-Bakr, M.; Goldammer, K.; Kamps, T.; Knobloch, J.; Kuske, B.; Leitner, T.; Meseck, A.
2008-08-01
BESSY proposes to build STARS, an FEL to demonstrate cascaded High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG). In two HGHG stages, a laser source of 700-900 nm is converted down to a wavelength of 40-70 nm. The STARS facility consists of a normal-conducting RF photoinjector, three superconducting TESLA-type acceleration modules, a magnetic bunch compressor and two stages of HGHG, each consisting of a modulator, dispersive chicane and a radiator. At the entrance of the undulator section, the beam energy is 325 MeV and the peak current is about 500 A. With these parameters, the STARS FEL reaches saturation with a peak power of 100-350 MW. A superradiant mode is also foreseen which boosts the radiation power to the GW-level. Due to nonlinear harmonic generation (NHG), free electron lasers also radiate coherently at higher harmonics of the FEL resonant frequency. STARS can hence extend its output range to even shorter wavelengths. This paper presents studies of the STARS harmonic content in the wavelength range of 6-20 nm. Seeding with high harmonic generation pulses at 32 nm is also discussed.
Harmonic generation at high intensities
Schafer, K.J.; Krause, J.L.; Kulander, K.C.
1993-06-01
Atomic electrons subject to intense laser fields can absorb many photons, leading either to multiphoton ionization or the emission of a single, energetic photon which can be a high multiple of the laser frequency. The latter process, high-order harmonic generation, has been observed experimentally using a range of laser wavelengths and intensities over the past several years. Harmonic generation spectra have a generic form: a steep decline for the low order harmonics, followed by a plateau extending to high harmonic order, and finally an abrupt cutoff beyond which no harmonics are discernible. During the plateau the harmonic production is a very weak function of the process order. Harmonic generation is a promising source of coherent, tunable radiation in the XUV to soft X-ray range which could have a variety of scientific and possibly technological applications. Its conversion from an interesting multiphoton phenomenon to a useful laboratory radiation source requires a complete understanding of both its microscopic and macroscopic aspects. We present some recent results on the response of single atoms at intensities relevant to the short pulse experiments. The calculations employ time-dependent methods, which we briefly review in the next section. Following that we discuss the behavior of the harmonics as a function of laser intensity. Two features are notable: the slow scaling of the harmonic intensities with laser intensity, and the rapid variation in the phase of the individual harmonics with respect to harmonic order. We then give a simple empirical formula that predicts the extent of the plateau for a given ionization potential, wavelength and intensity.
Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation
Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC
2012-06-28
A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.
The use of optically triggered, high gain GaAs switches for UWB pulse generation
Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; O`Malley, M.W.; Gallegos, R.R.; Helgeson, W.D.
1994-04-01
A high peak power impulse pulser that is controlled with high gain, optically triggered GaAs Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches (PCSS) has been constructed and tested. The system has a short 50 {Omega} line that is charged to 100 kV and discharged through the switch when the switch is triggered with as little as 90 nJ of laser energy. The laser that is used is a small laser diode array whose output is delivered through a fiber to the switch. The current in the system ranges from 1 kA (with one laser) to 1.3 kA (with two) and the pulse widths are 1.9 and 1.4 ns, respectively. The peak power and the energy delivered to the load are 50 MW to 84 MW and 95 NJ to 120 mJ for one or two lasers. The small trigger energy and switch jitter are due to a high gain switching mechanism in GaAs. This experiment also shows a relationship between the rise time of the voltage across the switch and the required trigger energy and switch jitter.
Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation
Pellin, M.J.; Biwer, B.M.; Schauer, M.W.; Frye, J.M.; Gruen, D.M.
1990-01-01
Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are increasingly being used as in situ surface probes. These techniques are coherent and inherently surface sensitive by the nature of the mediums response to intense laser light. Here we will review these two techniques using aqueous corrosion as an example problem. Aqueous corrosion of technologically important materials such as Fe, Ni and Cr proceeds from a reduced metal surface with layer by layer growth of oxide films mitigated by compositional changes in the chemical makeup of the growing film. Passivation of the metal surface is achieved after growth of only a few tens of atomic layers of metal oxide. Surface Second Harmonic Generation and a related nonlinear laser technique, Sum Frequency Generation have demonstrated an ability to probe the surface composition of growing films even in the presence of aqueous solutions. 96 refs., 4 figs.
Ultrafast adiabatic second harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahan, Asaf; Levanon, Assaf; Katz, Mordechai; Suchowski, Haim
2017-03-01
We introduce a generalization of the adiabatic frequency conversion method for an efficient conversion of ultrashort pulses in the full nonlinear regime. Our analysis takes into account dispersion as well as two-photon processes and Kerr effect, allowing complete analysis of any three waves with arbitrary phase mismatched design and any nonlinear optical process. We use this analysis to design an efficient and robust second harmonic generation, the most widely used nonlinear process for both fundamental and applied research. We experimentally show that such design not only allows for very efficient conversion of various of ultrashort pulses, but is also very robust to variations in the parameters of both the nonlinear crystal and the incoming light. These include variation of more than 100 °C in the crystal temperature, a wide bandwidth of up to 75 nm and a chirp variation of 300 fs to 3.5 ps of the incoming pulse. Also, we show the dependency of the adiabatic second harmonic generation design on the pump intensity and the crystal length. Our study shows that two photon absorption plays a critical role in such high influence nonlinear dynamics, and that it must be considered in order to achieve agreement with experimental results.
Ultrafast adiabatic second harmonic generation.
Dahan, Asaf; Levanon, Assaf; Katz, Mordechai; Suchowski, Haim
2017-03-01
We introduce a generalization of the adiabatic frequency conversion method for an efficient conversion of ultrashort pulses in the full nonlinear regime. Our analysis takes into account dispersion as well as two-photon processes and Kerr effect, allowing complete analysis of any three waves with arbitrary phase mismatched design and any nonlinear optical process. We use this analysis to design an efficient and robust second harmonic generation, the most widely used nonlinear process for both fundamental and applied research. We experimentally show that such design not only allows for very efficient conversion of various of ultrashort pulses, but is also very robust to variations in the parameters of both the nonlinear crystal and the incoming light. These include variation of more than 100 °C in the crystal temperature, a wide bandwidth of up to 75 nm and a chirp variation of 300 fs to 3.5 ps of the incoming pulse. Also, we show the dependency of the adiabatic second harmonic generation design on the pump intensity and the crystal length. Our study shows that two photon absorption plays a critical role in such high influence nonlinear dynamics, and that it must be considered in order to achieve agreement with experimental results.
Design, testing and modeling of a high-gain magnetic flux-compression generator
Sheppard, M.G.; Freeman, B.L.; Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.; Fowler, C.M.; Fritz, J.N.; Greene, A.E.; Marsh, S.P.; Oliphant, T.A.; Tubbs, D.L.
1986-01-01
Using a simultaneously initiated cylindrical explosive, a coaxial magnetic flux-compression generator (FCG) was designed to test high-current-gain limitations. A coaxial design with a lossless gain of approx.100:1 was chosen for its efficiency, relative simplicity, and calculability. Theoretical design included modeling as well as 1-D and 2-D hydrodynamic and MHD calculations. A 69.3-cm cylinder of PBX-9501 high explosive, 20.3 cm in diameter, was used to drive the Al armature into a Cu stator. The initial current supplied by a capacitor bank was approx.3 MA which produced a final current approx.75 MA. Details of the experiment and a comparison with calculations are presented.
Harmonic generation in the generalized Sagdeev pseudopotential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.
2017-09-01
In this paper, we study the nonlinear harmonic generation effect in different oscillator models. For weakly nonlinear systems, we use the generalized forced Korteweg de Vries Burgers (KdVB) and modified KdVB (mKdVB) models in order to classify three fundamentally different harmonic structures in a nonlinear dynamical system. The first is called the internal harmonic structure which exists due to the self oscillation of the system in the absence of dissipation effect and is shown to follow either relations of nf or (2n - 1)f depending on the symmetry of oscillator potential in which n is an integer number and f is the fundamental frequency which is exactly obtained for the Helmholtz oscillator. The second structure is the resonant harmonics which appears in the presence of damping and follows the harmonic structure nf0 in which f0 is the linear resonance frequency. Finally, the last harmonic structure appears in the presence of dissipation and external periodic forcing effects which we call the external harmonic pattern. It is shown that the external harmonic pattern, in which f1 is the driving frequency, always follows the nf1 rule regardless of the potential symmetry. We then extend our analysis to study the harmonic generation in the fully nonlinear generalized Sagdeev potential for real plasmas with isothermal and adiabatic ion fluids and investigate the effects of different plasma parameters such as the fractional ion temperature and normalized ion acoustic speed on all three kinds of harmonic generation.
Second harmonic generation in collagen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiser, Karen M.; Stoller, Patrick; Celliers, Peter; Rubenchik, Alexander; Bratton, Clay; Yankelevich, Diego
2003-11-01
Collagen possesses a strong second order nonlinear susceptibility; when it is irradiated with intense laser light, some of the reflected and transmitted light will have twice the frequency of the incident beam, a phenomenon known as second harmonic generation (SHG). Polarization modulation of an ultra-short pulse laser beam can be used to simultaneously measure collagen fiber orientation, SHG intensity, and a parameter related to the second order non-linear susceptibility. This technique has made it possible to discriminate among patterns of fibrillar orientation in many tissues. In the present study the role that organizational complexity plays in the relationship between nonlinear optical properties and collagen structure is investigated. As a component of tissues and organs, collagen"s structure and function is inextricably intertwined with that of the many other matrix components; to what extent do these noncollagenous components affect its nonlinear properties? To answer this, we investigated SHG in two different collagenous tissues, liver and cartilage; in addition we looked at the effect of progressive pathological changes in these tissues on SHG. At the other end of the spectrum, we studied collagen organized at the minimal level of complexity necessary for SHG detection: fibrils generated from solutions containing only a single type of collagen. Data obtained from these studies suggest that collagen"s strong nonlinear susceptibility, a property no other biologically significant macromolecule shares to the same degree, may serve as more than the basis of a novel imaging device for soft tissue. Collagen"s nonlinear optical properties in conjunction with its vast capacity for self-initiated conformational change--through self-assembly, site recognition, post-translational modification, and the like -make it an attractive candidate molecule for any of several demanding engineering applications, such as nanopatterning.
Harmonic generation in magnetized quantum plasma
Kumar, Punit; Singh, Abhisek Kumar; Singh, Shiv
2016-05-06
A study of second harmonic generation by propagation of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave through homogeneous high density quantum plasma in the presence of transverse magnetic field. The nonlinear current density and dispersion relations for the fundamental and second harmonic frequencies have been obtained using the recently developed quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model. The effect of quantum Bohm potential, Fermi pressure and the electron spin have been taken into account. The second harmonic is found to be less dispersed than the first.
High Orbital Angular Momentum Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vieira, J.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Alves, E. P.; Fonseca, R. A.; Mendonça, J. T.; Bingham, R.; Norreys, P.; Silva, L. O.
2016-12-01
We identify and explore a high orbital angular momentum (OAM) harmonics generation and amplification mechanism that manipulates the OAM independently of any other laser property, by preserving the initial laser wavelength, through stimulated Raman backscattering in a plasma. The high OAM harmonics spectra can extend at least up to the limiting value imposed by the paraxial approximation. We show with theory and particle-in-cell simulations that the orders of the OAM harmonics can be tuned according to a selection rule that depends on the initial OAM of the interacting waves. We illustrate the high OAM harmonics generation in a plasma using several examples including the generation of prime OAM harmonics. The process can also be realized in any nonlinear optical Kerr media supporting three-wave interactions.
High Orbital Angular Momentum Harmonic Generation.
Vieira, J; Trines, R M G M; Alves, E P; Fonseca, R A; Mendonça, J T; Bingham, R; Norreys, P; Silva, L O
2016-12-23
We identify and explore a high orbital angular momentum (OAM) harmonics generation and amplification mechanism that manipulates the OAM independently of any other laser property, by preserving the initial laser wavelength, through stimulated Raman backscattering in a plasma. The high OAM harmonics spectra can extend at least up to the limiting value imposed by the paraxial approximation. We show with theory and particle-in-cell simulations that the orders of the OAM harmonics can be tuned according to a selection rule that depends on the initial OAM of the interacting waves. We illustrate the high OAM harmonics generation in a plasma using several examples including the generation of prime OAM harmonics. The process can also be realized in any nonlinear optical Kerr media supporting three-wave interactions.
Harmonic generation with a dual frequency pulse.
Keravnou, Christina P; Averkiou, Michalakis A
2014-05-01
Nonlinear imaging was implemented in commercial ultrasound systems over the last 15 years offering major advantages in many clinical applications. In this work, pulsing schemes coupled with a dual frequency pulse are presented. The pulsing schemes considered were pulse inversion, power modulation, and power modulated pulse inversion. The pulse contains a fundamental frequency f and a specified amount of its second harmonic 2f. The advantages and limitations of this method were evaluated with both acoustic measurements of harmonic generation and theoretical simulations based on the KZK equation. The use of two frequencies in a pulse results in the generation of the sum and difference frequency components in addition to the other harmonic components. While with single frequency pulses, only power modulation and power modulated pulse inversion contained odd harmonic components, with the dual frequency pulse, pulse inversion now also contains odd harmonic components.
High order harmonic generation in rare gases
Budil, Kimberly Susan
1994-05-01
The process of high order harmonic generation in atomic gases has shown great promise as a method of generating extremely short wavelength radiation, extending far into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The process is conceptually simple. A very intense laser pulse (I ~10^{13}-10^{14} W/cm^{2}) is focused into a dense (~10^{17} particles/cm^{3}) atomic medium, causing the atoms to become polarized. These atomic dipoles are then coherently driven by the laser field and begin to radiate at odd harmonics of the laser field. This dissertation is a study of both the physical mechanism of harmonic generation as well as its development as a source of coherent XUV radiation. Recently, a semiclassical theory has been proposed which provides a simple, intuitive description of harmonic generation. In this picture the process is treated in two steps. The atom ionizes via tunneling after which its classical motion in the laser field is studied. Electron trajectories which return to the vicinity of the nucleus may recombine and emit a harmonic photon, while those which do not return will ionize. An experiment was performed to test the validity of this model wherein the trajectory of the electron as it orbits the nucleus or ion core is perturbed by driving the process with elliptically, rather than linearly, polarized laser radiation. The semiclassical theory predicts a rapid turn-off of harmonic production as the ellipticity of the driving field is increased. This decrease in harmonic production is observed experimentally and a simple quantum mechanical theory is used to model the data. The second major focus of this work was on development of the harmonic "source". A series of experiments were performed examining the spatial profiles of the harmonics. The quality of the spatial profile is crucial if the harmonics are to be used as the source for experiments, particularly if they must be refocused.
Imaging with Second-Harmonic Generation Nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, Chia-Lung
Second-harmonic generation nanoparticles show promise as imaging probes due to their coherent and stable signal with a broad flexibility in the choice of excitation wavelength. In this thesis, we developed and demonstrated barium titanate nanoparticles as second-harmonic radiation imaging probes. We studied the absolute second-harmonic generation efficiency of the nanoparticles on single-particle level. The polarization dependent second-harmonic signal of single nanoparticles was studied in detail. From the measured polar response, we were able to find the orientation of the nanoparticle. We developed a biochemical interface for using the second-harmonic nanoprobes as biomarkers, including in vitro cellular imaging and in vivo live animal imaging. The nanoparticles were surface functionalized with primary amine groups for stable colloidal dispersion. We achieved specific labeling of the second-harmonic nanoprobes via immunostaining where the antibodies were covalently conjugated onto the nanoparticles. We observed no toxicity of the functionalized nanoparticles to biological cells. The coherent second-harmonic signal radiated from the nanoparticles offers opportunities for new imaging techniques. Using interferometric detection, namely harmonic holography, both amplitude and phase of the second-harmonic field can be captured. Through digital beam propagation, three-dimensional field distribution, reflecting three-dimensional distribution of the nanoparticles, can be reconstructed. We achieved a scan-free three-dimensional imaging of nanoparticles in biological cells with sub-micron spatial resolution by using the harmonic holographic microscope. We further exploited the coherent second-harmonic signal for imaging through scattering media by performing optical phase conjugation of the second-harmonic signal. We demonstrated an all-digital optical phase conjugation of the second-harmonic signal originated from a nanoparticle by combining harmonic holography and
Sensitivity of echo enabled harmonic generation to sinusoidal electron beam energy structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemsing, E.; Garcia, B.; Huang, Z.; Raubenheimer, T.; Xiang, D.
2017-06-01
We analytically examine the bunching factor spectrum of a relativistic electron beam with sinusoidal energy structure that then undergoes an echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) transformation to produce high harmonics. The performance is found to be described primarily by a simple scaling parameter. The dependence of the bunching amplitude on fluctuations of critical parameters is derived analytically, and compared with simulations. Where applicable, EEHG is also compared with high gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and we find that EEHG is generally less sensitive to several types of energy structure. In the presence of intermediate frequency modulations like those produced by the microbunching instability, EEHG has a substantially narrower intrinsic bunching pedestal.
Asymmetric Gaussian harmonic steering in second-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olsen, M. K.
2013-11-01
Intracavity second-harmonic generation is one of the simplest of the quantum optical processes and is well within the expertise of most optical laboratories. It is well understood and characterized, both theoretically and experimentally. We show that it can be a source of continuous-variable asymmetric Gaussian harmonic steering with fields which have a coherent excitation, hence combining the important effects of harmonic entanglement and asymmetric steering in one easily controllable device, adjustable by the simple means of tuning the cavity loss rates at the fundamental and harmonic frequencies. We find that whether quantum steering is available via the standard measurements of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations can depend on which quadrature measurements are inferred from output spectral measurements of the fundamental and the harmonic. Altering the ratios of the cavity loss rates can be used to tune the regions where symmetric steering is available, with the results becoming asymmetric over all frequencies as the cavity damping at the fundamental frequency becomes significantly greater than at the harmonic. This asymmetry and its functional dependence on frequency is a potential new tool for experimental quantum information science, with possible utility for quantum key distribution. Although we show the effect here for Gaussian measurements of the quadratures, and cannot rule out a return of the steering symmetry for some class of non-Gaussian measurements, we note here that the system obeys Gaussian statistics in the operating regime investigated and Gaussian inference is at least as accurate as any other method for calculating the necessary correlations. Perhaps most importantly, this system is simpler than any other methods we are aware of which have been used or proposed to create asymmetric steering.
Prediction of Metastasis Using Second Harmonic Generation
2016-07-01
photon focal volume and the thin tissue section), producing a single F and B image for each sample. Then an arbitrary threshold was chosen by a blinded...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0040 TITLE: Prediction of Metastasis Using Second Harmonic Generation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Edward Brown...ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE July 2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 1May2015 - 30Apr2016 Prediction of Metastasis Using Second Harmonic
High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids
You, Yong Sing; Yin, Yanchun; Wu, Yi; ...
2017-09-28
High-harmonic generation in isolated atoms and molecules has been widely utilized in extreme ultraviolet photonics and attosecond pulse metrology. Recently, high-harmonic generation has been observed in solids, which could lead to important applications such as all-optical methods to image valance charge density and reconstruct electronic band structures, as well as compact extreme ultraviolet light sources. So far these studies are confined to crystalline solids; therefore, decoupling the respective roles of long-range periodicity and high density has been challenging. Here we report the observation of high-harmonic generation from amorphous fused silica. We also decouple the role of long-range periodicity by comparingmore » harmonics generated from fused silica and crystalline quartz, which contain the same atomic constituents but differ in long-range periodicity. These results advance current understanding of the strong-field processes leading to high-harmonic generation in solids with implications for the development of robust and compact extreme ultraviolet light sources.« less
A Model for Generative Harmonic Dictation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bales, W. Kenton
This BASIC computer program designed to help music theory students practice harmonic dictation generates examples for students to use in a drill and practice approach in developing aural skills. To facilitate the implementation of effective generative algorithms, the author has used a non-linear analytical technique similar to the chord symbol…
Optical Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Sung-Young; Dadap, Jerry I.; Petrone, Nicholas; Yeh, Po-Chun; Hone, James; Osgood, Richard M., Jr.
2013-04-01
We report strong third-harmonic generation in monolayer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to an amorphous silica (glass) substrate; the photon energy is in three-photon resonance with the exciton-shifted van Hove singularity at the M point of graphene. The polarization selection rules are derived and experimentally verified. In addition, our polarization- and azimuthal-rotation-dependent third-harmonic-generation measurements reveal in-plane isotropy as well as anisotropy between the in-plane and out-of-plane nonlinear optical responses of graphene. Since the third-harmonic signal exceeds that from bulk glass by more than 2 orders of magnitude, the signal contrast permits background-free scanning of graphene and provides insight into the structural properties of graphene.
Optical High Harmonic Generation in C60
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Guoping
2005-03-01
C60 et al. Physical Review Letters Physical Review B High harmonic generation (HHG) requires a strong laser field, but in a relatively weak laser field is sufficient. Numerical results presented here show while its low order harmonics result from the laser field, its high order ones are mainly from the multiple excitations. Since high order harmonics directly correlate electronic transitions, the HHG spectrum accurately measures transition energies. Therefore, is not only a promising material for HHG, but may also present an opportunity to develop HHG into an electronic structure probing tool. References: G. P. Zhang, 91, 176801 (2003); G. P. Zhang and T. F. George, 68, 165410 (2003); P. B. Corkum, 71, 1994 (1993); G. P. Zhang and Thomas F. George, 93, 147401 (2004); H. Niikura ,ature 417, 917 (2002); ibid. 421, 826 (2003); Y. Mairesse ,cience 302, 1540 (2003); A. Baltuska ,ature 421, 611 (2003).
Super/subradiant second harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koganov, Gennady A.; Shuker, Reuben
2017-04-01
A scheme for active second harmonics generation is suggested. The system comprises N three-level atoms in ladder configuration, situated into a resonant cavity. The system generates the field whose frequency is twice the frequency of the pumping laser, and the field phase is locked to the phase of the pumping field. It is found that the system can lase in either superradiant or subradiant regime, depending on the number of atoms N. When N passes some critical value the transition from the super to subradiance occurs in a phase-transition-like manner. Stability study of the steady state supports this conclusion. For experimental realization of the super/subradiant second harmonics generation we propose semiconductor quantum well structures, superconducting quantum circuits, and evanescently coupled waveguides in which equally spaced levels relevant to this study exist.
Ultrafast Plasmonic Control of Second Harmonic Generation
Davidson, Roderick B.; Yanchenko, Anna; Ziegler, Jed I.; ...
2016-06-01
Efficient frequency conversion techniques are crucial to the development of plasmonic metasurfaces for information processing and signal modulation. In principle, nanoscale electric-field confinement in nonlinear materials enables higher harmonic conversion efficiencies per unit volume than those attainable in bulk materials. Here we demonstrate efficient second-harmonic generation (SHG) in a serrated nanogap plasmonic geometry that generates steep electric field gradients on a dielectric metasurface. An ultrafast control pulse is used to control plasmon-induced electric fields in a thin-film material with inversion symmetry that, without plasmonic enhancement, does not exhibit an even-order nonlinear optical response. The temporal evolution of the plasmonic near-fieldmore » is characterized with ~100 as resolution using a novel nonlinear interferometric technique. The serrated nanogap is a unique platform in which to investigate optically controlled, plasmonically enhanced harmonic generation in dielectric materials on an ultrafast time scale. Lastly, this metamaterial geometry can also be readily extended to all-optical control of other nonlinear phenomena, such as four-wave mixing and sum- and difference-frequency generation, in a wide variety of dielectric materials.« less
Ultrafast Plasmonic Control of Second Harmonic Generation
Davidson, Roderick B.; Yanchenko, Anna; Ziegler, Jed I.; Avanesyan, Sergey M.; Lawrie, Benjamin J.; Haglund, Richard F.
2016-06-01
Efficient frequency conversion techniques are crucial to the development of plasmonic metasurfaces for information processing and signal modulation. In principle, nanoscale electric-field confinement in nonlinear materials enables higher harmonic conversion efficiencies per unit volume than those attainable in bulk materials. Here we demonstrate efficient second-harmonic generation (SHG) in a serrated nanogap plasmonic geometry that generates steep electric field gradients on a dielectric metasurface. An ultrafast control pulse is used to control plasmon-induced electric fields in a thin-film material with inversion symmetry that, without plasmonic enhancement, does not exhibit an even-order nonlinear optical response. The temporal evolution of the plasmonic near-field is characterized with ~100 as resolution using a novel nonlinear interferometric technique. The serrated nanogap is a unique platform in which to investigate optically controlled, plasmonically enhanced harmonic generation in dielectric materials on an ultrafast time scale. Lastly, this metamaterial geometry can also be readily extended to all-optical control of other nonlinear phenomena, such as four-wave mixing and sum- and difference-frequency generation, in a wide variety of dielectric materials.
Coulomb time delays in high harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torlina, Lisa; Smirnova, Olga
2017-02-01
Measuring the time it takes to remove an electron from an atom or molecule during photoionization has been the focus of a number of recent experiments using newly developed attosecond spectroscopies. The interpretation of such measurements, however, depends critically on the measurement protocol and the specific observables available in each experiment. One such protocol relies on high harmonic generation. In this paper, we derive rigorous and general expressions for ionisation and recombination times in high harmonic generation experiments. We show that these times are different from, but related to, ionisation times measured in photoelectron spectroscopy: that is, those obtained using the attosecond streak camera, RABBITT and attoclock methods. We then proceed to use the analytical R-matrix theory to calculate these times and compare them with experimental values.
High-order harmonic generation in alkanes
Altucci, C.; Velotta, R.; Heesel, E.; Springate, E.; Marangos, J. P.; Vozzi, C.; Benedetti, E.; Calegari, F.; Sansone, G.; Stagira, S.; Nisoli, M.; Tosa, V.
2006-04-15
We have investigated the process of high-order harmonic generation in light alkanes by using femtosecond laser pulses. We show the experimental results cannot be matched by a model that assumes a single active electron only in a hydrogenic s orbital. Clear evidences are shown of the important role played by the p-like character originating from the covalent C-H bond. By constructing a suitable mixture of s-type and p-type atomic wave functions, an excellent agreement between measurements in methane and simulations is found, thus confirming the validity of the developed method as a general tool for the analysis of high-order harmonic generation in complex molecules.
Fast interferometric second harmonic generation microscopy
Bancelin, Stéphane; Couture, Charles-André; Légaré, Katherine; Pinsard, Maxime; Rivard, Maxime; Brown, Cameron; Légaré, François
2016-01-01
We report the implementation of fast Interferometric Second Harmonic Generation (I-SHG) microscopy to study the polarity of non-centrosymmetric structures in biological tissues. Using a sample quartz plate, we calibrate the spatially varying phase shift introduced by the laser scanning system. Compensating this phase shift allows us to retrieve the correct phase distribution in periodically poled lithium niobate, used as a model sample. Finally, we used fast interferometric second harmonic generation microscopy to acquire phase images in tendon. Our results show that the method exposed here, using a laser scanning system, allows to recover the polarity of collagen fibrils, similarly to standard I-SHG (using a sample scanning system), but with an imaging time about 40 times shorter. PMID:26977349
Correlated energy-spread removal with space charge for high-harmonic generation.
Hemsing, E; Marinelli, A; Marcus, G; Xiang, D
2014-09-26
We study the effect of longitudinal space charge on the correlated energy spread of a relativistic high-brightness electron beam that has been density modulated for the emission of coherent, high-harmonic radiation. We show that, in the case of electron bunching induced by a laser modulator followed by a dispersive chicane, longitudinal space charge forces can act to strongly reduce the induced energy modulation of the beam without a significant reduction in the harmonic bunching content. This effect may be optimized to enhance the output power and overall performance of free-electron lasers that produce coherent light through high-gain harmonic generation. It also increases the harmonic number achievable in these devices, which are otherwise gain-limited by the induced energy modulation from the laser.
Generating Second Harmonics In Nonlinear Resonant Cavities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kozlovsky, William J.; Nabors, C. David; Byer, Robert L.
1990-01-01
Single-axial-mode lasers pump very-low-loss doubling crystals. Important advance in making resonant generation of second harmonics possible for diode-laser-pumped solid-state lasers is recent development of monolithic nonplanar ring geometries in neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers that produce frequency-stable single-mode outputs. Other advance is development of high-quality MgO:LiNbO3 as electro-optically nonlinear material. Series of experiments devised to improve doubling efficiency of low-power lasers, and particularly of diode-laser-pumped continuous-wave Nd:YAG lasers.
Promoting Spontaneous Second Harmonic Generation through Organogelation.
Marco, A Belén; Aparicio, Fátima; Faour, Lara; Iliopoulos, Konstantinos; Morille, Yohann; Allain, Magali; Franco, Santiago; Andreu, Raquel; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Gindre, Denis; Canevet, David; Sallé, Marc
2016-07-27
An organogelator based on the Disperse Red nonlinear optical chromophore was synthesized according to a simple and efficient three-step procedure. The supramolecular gel organization leads to xerogels which display a spontaneous second harmonic generation (SHG) response without any need for preprocessing, and this SHG activity appears to be stable over several months. These findings, based on an intrinsic structural approach, are supported by favorable intermolecular supramolecular interactions, which promote a locally non-centrosymmetric NLO-active organization. This is in sharp contrast with most materials designed for SHG purposes, which generally require the use of expensive or heavy-to-handle external techniques for managing the dipoles' alignment.
Second harmonic generation from tyrosine containing peptides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasir, M. N.; Bergmann, E.; Benichou, E.; Russier-Antoine, I.; Lascoux, N.; Jonin, Ch.; Besson, F.; Brevet, P. F.
2013-10-01
The Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) response from Tyrosine-containing peptides at the air-water interface is presented. First, the quadratic hyperpolarizability of the aromatic amino acid Tyrosine obtained by Hyper Rayleigh Scattering is reported, demonstrating its potentiality as an endogenous molecular probe for SHG studies. Then, the single Tyrosine antimicrobial peptide Mycosubtilin is monitored at the air-water interface and compared to another peptide, Surfactin, lacking a Tyrosine residue. Adsorption kinetics and polarization analysis of the SHG intensity for the peptide monolayers clearly demonstrate that the SHG response from Mycosubtilin arises from Tyrosine. Besides, it confirms that indeed Tyrosine can be targeted as an endogenous molecular probe.
Wiggler magnetic field assisted second harmonic generation in clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aggarwal, Munish; Vij, Shivani; Kant, Niti
2015-06-01
Wiggler magnetic field assisted second harmonic generation in clusters has been investigated theoretically. An intense short-pulse laser propagating through a gas embedded with atomic clusters, converts it into hot plasma balls. For clusters with radius less than one tenth of the laser wavelength, the nonlinear restoration force dominates, which leads to second harmonic generation. The magnetic wiggler provides the uncompensated momentum to second harmonic photon, to make the process of harmonic generation resonant. We explore the impact of laser intensity and cluster size on the efficiency of second harmonic generation. Pulse slippage of second harmonic pulse out of the domain of fundamental laser pulse has been observed on account of group velocity mismatch between the fundamental and second harmonic pulse. Enhancement in the efficiency of the second harmonic is seen for the optimum values of wiggler magnetic field.
Limitations and improvements for harmonic generation measurements
Best, Steven; Croxford, Anthony; Neild, Simon
2014-02-18
A typical acoustic harmonic generation measurement comes with certain limitations. Firstly, the use of the plane wave-based analysis used to extract the nonlinear parameter, β, ignores the effects of diffraction, attenuation and receiver averaging which are common to most experiments, and may therefore limit the accuracy of a measurement. Secondly, the method usually requires data obtained from a through-transmission type setup, which may not be practical in a field measurement scenario where access to the component is limited. Thirdly, the technique lacks a means of pinpointing areas of damage in a component, as the measured nonlinearity represents an average over the length of signal propagation. Here we describe a three-dimensional model of harmonic generation in a sound beam, which is intended to provide a more realistic representation of a typical experiment. The presence of a reflecting boundary is then incorporated into the model to assess the feasibility of performing single-sided measurements. Experimental validation is provided where possible. Finally, a focusing acoustic source is modelled to provide a theoretical indication of the afforded advantages when the nonlinearity is localized.
Modelling harmonic generation measurements in solids.
Best, S R; Croxford, A J; Neild, S A
2014-02-01
Harmonic generation measurements typically make use of the plane wave result when extracting values for the nonlinearity parameter, β, from experimental measurements. This approach, however, ignores the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and receiver integration which are common features in a typical experiment. Our aim is to determine the importance of these effects when making measurements of β over different sample dimensions, or using different input frequencies. We describe a three-dimensional numerical model designed to accurately predict the results of a typical experiment, based on a quasi-linear assumption. An experiment is designed to measure the axial variation of the fundamental and second harmonic amplitude components in an ultrasonic beam, and the results are compared with those predicted by the model. The absolute β values are then extracted from the experimental data using both the simulation and the standard plane wave result. A difference is observed between the values returned by the two methods, which varies with axial range and input frequency.
Enhanced third harmonic generation with graphene metasurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Boyuan; Guo, Tianjing; Argyropoulos, Christos
2017-09-01
The nonlinear responses of different materials provide useful mechanisms for optical switching, low noise amplification, and harmonic frequency generation. However, the nonlinear processes usually have an extremely weak nature and require high input power to be excited. To alleviate this severe limitation, we propose new designs of ultrathin nonlinear metasurfaces composed of patterned graphene micro-ribbons to significantly enhance third harmonic generation (THG) at far-infrared and terahertz (THz) frequencies. The incident wave is tightly confined and significantly boosted along the surface of graphene in these configurations due to the excitation of highly localized plasmons. The bandwidth of the resonant response becomes narrower due to the introduction of a metallic substrate below the graphene micro-ribbons, which leads to zero transmission and standing waves inside the intermediate dielectric spacer layer. The enhancement of the incident field, combined with the large nonlinear conductivity of graphene, can dramatically increase the THG conversion efficiency by several orders of magnitude. In addition, the resonant frequency of the metasurface can be adjusted by dynamically tuning the Fermi energy of graphene via electrical or chemical doping. As a result, the THG wave can be optimized and tuned to be emitted at different frequencies without the need to change the nonlinear metasurface geometry. The proposed nonlinear metasurfaces provide a new way to realize compact and efficient nonlinear sources at the far-infrared and THz frequency ranges, as well as new frequency generation and wave mixing devices which are expected to be useful for nonlinear THz spectroscopy and noninvasive THz imaging applications.
Harmonic generation by circularly polarized laser beams propagating in plasma
Agrawal, Ekta; Hemlata,; Jha, Pallavi
2015-04-15
An analytical theory is developed for studying the phenomenon of generation of harmonics by the propagation of an obliquely incident, circularly polarized laser beam in homogeneous, underdense plasma. The amplitudes of second and third harmonic radiation as well as detuning distance have been obtained and their variation with the angle of incidence is analyzed. The amplitude of harmonic radiation increases with the angle of incidence while the detuning distance decreases, for a given plasma electron density. It is observed that the generated second and third harmonic radiation is linearly and elliptically polarized, respectively. The harmonic radiation vanishes at normal incidence of the circularly polarized laser beam.
Second-harmonic generation imaging of cancer.
Keikhosravi, Adib; Bredfeldt, Jeremy S; Sagar, Abdul Kader; Eliceiri, Kevin W
2014-01-01
The last 30 years has seen great advances in optical microscopy with the introduction of sophisticated fluorescence-based imaging methods such as confocal and multiphoton laser scanning microscopy. There is increasing interest in using these methods to quantitatively examine sources of intrinsic biological contrast including autofluorescent endogenous proteins and light interactions such as second-harmonic generation (SHG) in collagen. In particular, SHG-based microscopy has become a widely used quantitative modality for imaging noncentrosymmetric proteins such as collagen in a diverse range of tissues. Due to the underlying physical origin of the SHG signal, it is highly sensitive to collagen fibril/fiber structure and, importantly, to collagen-associated changes that occur in diseases such as cancer, fibrosis, and connective tissue disorders. An overview of SHG physics background and technologies is presented with a focused review on applications of SHG primarily as applied to cancer. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Multivariable Harmonic Balance for Central Pattern Generators.
Iwasaki, Tetsuya
2008-12-01
The central pattern generator (CPG) is a nonlinear oscillator formed by a group of neurons, providing a fundamental control mechanism underlying rhythmic movements in animal locomotion. We consider a class of CPGs modeled by a set of interconnected identical neurons. Based on the idea of multivariable harmonic balance, we show how the oscillation profile is related to the connectivity matrix that specifies the architecture and strengths of the interconnections. Specifically, the frequency, amplitudes, and phases are essentially encoded in terms of a pair of eigenvalue and eigenvector. This basic principle is used to estimate the oscillation profile of a given CPG model. Moreover, a systematic method is proposed for designing a CPG-based nonlinear oscillator that achieves a prescribed oscillation profile.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhen; Feng, Chao; Zhao, Zhentang
2017-04-01
A feasible method is proposed to generate isolated attosecond terawatt x-ray radiation pulses in high-gain free-electron lasers. In the proposed scheme, a frequency chirped laser pulse is employed to generate a gradually varied spacing current enhancement of the electron beam, and a series of spatiotemporal shifters are applied between the undulator sections to amplify a chosen ultrashort radiation pulse from self-amplified spontaneous emission. Three-dimensional start-to-end simulations have been carried out, and the calculation results demonstrated that 0.15 nm x-ray pulses with a peak power over 1 TW and a duration of several tens of attoseconds could be achieved by using the proposed technique.
Goos-Hänchen shifts in harmonic generation from metals.
Yallapragada, V J; Gopal, Achanta Venu; Agarwal, G S
2013-05-06
We present the first calculation of the Goos-Hänchen shifts in the context of the nonlinear generation of fields. We specifically concentrate on shifts of second harmonic generated at metallic surfaces. At metallic surfaces the second harmonic primarily arises from discontinuities of the field at surfaces which not only result in large harmonic generation but also in significant Goos-Hänchen shifts of the generated second harmonic. Our results can be extended to other shifts like angular shifts and Fedorov-Imbert shifts.
High-order harmonic generation from the dressed autoionizing states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fareed, M. A.; Strelkov, V. V.; Thiré, N.; Mondal, S.; Schmidt, B. E.; Légaré, F.; Ozaki, T.
2017-07-01
In high-order harmonic generation, resonant harmonics (RH) are sources of intense, coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation. However, intensity enhancement of RH only occurs for a single harmonic order, making it challenging to generate short attosecond pulses. Moreover, the mechanism involved behind such RH was circumstantial, because of the lack of direct experimental proofs. Here, we demonstrate the exact quantum paths that electron follows for RH generation using tin, showing that it involves not only the autoionizing state, but also a harmonic generation from dressed-AIS that appears as two coherent satellite harmonics at frequencies +/-2Ω from the RH (Ω represents laser frequency). Our observations of harmonic emission from dressed states open the possibilities of generating intense and broadband attosecond pulses, thus contributing to future applications in attosecond science, as well as the perspective of studying the femtosecond and attosecond dynamics of autoionizing states.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, T. B.; Nunn, E. C.
1979-01-01
High gain control is explored through a design study of the CH-47B helicopter. The plans are designed to obtain the maximum bandwidth possible given the hardware constraints. Controls are designed with modal control theory to specific bandwidths and closed loop mode shapes. Comparisons are made to an earlier complementary filter approach. Bandwidth improvement by removal of limitations is explored in order to establish hardware and mechanization options. Improvements in the pitch axis control system and in the rate gyro sensor noise characteristics in all axes are discussed. The use of rotor state feedback is assessed.
Generation mechanism of power line harmonic radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostrov, Alexander; Gushchin, Mikhail; Korobkov, Sergei
The questions concerning the generation of power line harmonic radiation (PLHR) and magne-tospheric line radiation (MLR) are discussed, including the effective source of high harmonics of 50/60 Hz, and fine dynamic structure of the frequency spectrum of PLHR and MLR. It is shown, that thyristor-based power regulators used by large electrical power consumers produce the periodic sequences of current pulses with duration of about 10 microseconds in a power line. The repetition rate of these pulses is typically 100/120 Hz; the bandwidth is as broad as 100 kHz. For high harmonics of 50/60 Hz, the power line represents an effective traveling-wave (or Beverage) antenna, especially in a frequency range of several kHz corresponding to VLF whistler band in Earth ionosphere and magnetosphere. For the fixed length of the power line, which acts as antenna, radiation directivity diagram in relation to horizon depends of frequency. Hence the spatial separation of whistlers emitted at various frequencies (1-10 kHz in a consid-ered case) is possible, with subsequent propagation of whistlers with different frequencies along different L-shells. Estimations show that the efficiency of power line as travelling-wave antenna can be changed by variations of its load, but not more than twice ("weekend effect"). Since the PLHR can represent the sequence of short electromagnetic bursts, then careful se-lection of frequency-time resolution of the data acquisition equipment is needed. Typically, the time constant of the data recording and processing is too large, and the spectra of PLHR or MLR are characterized by a well-known line structure. At the same time, original bursty structure of PLHR can not be defined. Fine structure of MLR is also discussed. Frequency drift of MLR can be explained by the perturbations of the magnetospheric plasma by intense ULF waves and particle flows affecting the propagation of PLHR. Hence the physical nature of PLHR and MLR is the same, excepting the
Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kondo, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Sagisaka, A.; Nabekawa, Y.; Watanabe, S.
1996-02-01
Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields were studied with a fundamental beam ( omega ) and its harmonics (2 omega ,3 omega ) , which were generated by a 100-fs Ti:sapphire laser. Ion yields of atoms and molecules were successfully controlled by means of a change in the relative phase between omega and 3 omega pulses. Two-color interference was clearly observed in photoelectron spectra and harmonic spectra. In the omega - 2 omega field even-order harmonics were observed in which the intensity was almost equal to that of the odd harmonics because of an asymmetric optical field. These results were compared with the quasi-static model for ionization and with the quantum theory for harmonic generation.
Symmetry-selective third-harmonic generation from plasmonic metacrystals.
Chen, Shumei; Li, Guixin; Zeuner, Franziska; Wong, Wing Han; Pun, Edwin Yue Bun; Zentgraf, Thomas; Cheah, Kok Wai; Zhang, Shuang
2014-07-18
Nonlinear processes are often governed by selection rules imposed by the symmetries of the molecular configurations. The most well-known examples include the role of centrosymmetry breaking for the generation of even harmonics, and the selection rule related to the rotational symmetry in harmonic generation for fundamental beams with circular polarizations. While the role of centrosymmetry breaking in second harmonic generation has been extensively studied in plasmonic systems, the investigation of selection rules pertaining to circular polarization states of harmonic generation is limited to crystals, i.e., symmetries at the atomic level. In this Letter we demonstrate the rotational symmetry dependent third harmonic generation from nonlinear plasmonic metacrystals. We show that the selection rule can be imposed by the rotational symmetry of metacrystals embedded into an isotropic organic nonlinear thin film. The results presented here may open new avenues for designing symmetry-dependent nonlinear optical responses with tailored plasmonic nanostructures.
Second harmonic generation in human ovarian neoplasias
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamonier, L.; Bottcher-Luiz, F.; Pietro, L.; Andrade, L. A. L. A.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Machado, C. L.; Cesar, C. L.
2010-02-01
Metastasis is the main cause of death in cancer patients; it requires a complex process of tumor cell dissemination, extra cellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, cell invasion and tumor-host interactions. Collagen is the major component of ECM; its fiber polymerization or degradation evolves in parallel with the evolution of the cancerous lesions. This study aimed to identify the collagen content, spatial distribution and fiber organization in biopsies of benign and malignant human ovarian tissues. Biopsies were prepared in slides without dyes and were exposed to 800nm Ti:Sapphire laser (Spectra Physics, 100 fs pulse duration, 800mW average power, 80MHz repetition rate). The obtained images were recorded at triplets, corresponding to clear field, multiphoton and second harmonic generation (SHG) mycroscopy. Data showed considerable anisotropy in malignant tissues, with regions of dense collagen arranged as individual fibers or in combination with immature segmental filaments. Radial fiber alignment or regions with minimal signal were observed in the high clinical grade tumors, suggesting degradation of original fibers or altered polymerization state of them. These findings allow us to assume that the collagen signature will be a reliable and a promising marker for diagnosis and prognosis in human ovarian cancers.
Second-harmonic generation in noncentrosymmetric phosphates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhi; Liu, Qiong; Wang, Ying; Iitaka, Toshiaki; Su, Haibin; Tohyama, Takami; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie
2017-07-01
Motivated by the discovery of more and more phosphates with relatively strong nonlinear optic effect, we studied the mechanism of the second-harmonic generation (SHG) effect in several phosphates by band model and first-principles calculations. When the energy of an incident photon is much smaller than the band gap of material, the SHG is almost frequency independent and determined by the combination of Berry connection and a symmetric tensor. The SHG effect in phosphates can be enhanced by the enhancement of orbital hybridization or the reduction of charge-transfer energy, which results in widened bandwidth of occupied state and reduced band gap in the electronic structure, respectively. By the first-principles calculation on the electronic structures of several phosphates—BPO4, LiCs2PO4 , β -Li3VO4 , and β -Li3PO4 —we interpreted the relatively strong SHG effect in LiCs2PO4 and β -Li3VO4 as the consequence of the reduced charge-transfer energy compared to their parent β -Li3PO4 , while the enhanced SHG in BPO4 is resulting from enhanced orbital hybridization.
Second harmonic generation polarization properties of myofilaments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samim, Masood; Prent, Nicole; Dicenzo, Daniel; Stewart, Bryan; Barzda, Virginijus
2014-05-01
Second harmonic generation (SHG) polarization microscopy was used to investigate the organization of myosin nanomotors in myofilaments of muscle cells. The distribution of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility component ratio χzzz(2)/χzxx(2) along anisotropic bands of sarcomeres revealed differences between the headless and head-containing regions of myofilaments. The polarization-in polarization-out SHG measurements of headless myosin mutants of indirect flight muscle in Drosophila melanogaster confirmed a lower susceptibility component ratio compared to the head-containing myocytes with wild-type myosins. The increase in the ratio is assigned to the change in the deflection angle of the myosin S2 domain and possible contribution of myosin heads. The nonlinear susceptibility component ratio is a sensitive indicator of the myosin structure, and therefore, it can be used for conformational studies of myosin nanomotors. The measured ratio values can also be used as the reference for ab initio calculations of nonlinear optical properties of different parts of myosins.
Chaos and nonlinearities in high harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiordilino, Emilio
2016-11-01
Linearity is a fundamental postulate of quantum mechanics which is occasionally the subject of debate. This paper investigates the possibility of checking this assumption by using a laser field. We study the corrections caused by the presence of a small nonlinearity in the Hamiltonian of a quantum system. As a model we use a simplified two-level quantum system whose states are coupled by a small off-diagonal term proportional to the population of the upper level. The nonlinearity causes spontaneous decay of the upper level, shift and broadening of the line and the sensitive dependence of the final state on the initial condition. The presence of a strong laser field, resonant with the atomic transition, enhances the population transfer among the levels and introduces quantitative and qualitative modifications of the spectra of high order harmonic generation (HHG); these are cumulative effects which can be subject to experimental checks. Experiments are needed in order to set an upper limit to the nonlinear term.
Waveguide Harmonic Generator for the SIM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Daniel; Poberezhskiy, Ilya; Mulder, Jerry
2008-01-01
A second-harmonic generator (SHG) serves as the source of the visible laser beam in an onboard calibration scheme for NASA's planned Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), which requires an infrared laser beam and a visible laser beam coherent with the infrared laser beam. The SHG includes quasi-phase-matched waveguides made of MgO-doped, periodically poled lithium niobate, pigtailed with polarization- maintaining optical fibers. Frequency doubling by use of such waveguides affords the required combination of coherence and sufficient conversion efficiency for the intended application. The spatial period of the poling is designed to obtain quasi-phase- matching at a nominal middle excitation wavelength of 1,319.28 nm. The SHG is designed to operate at a warm bias (ambient temperature between 20 and 25 C) that would be maintained in its cooler environment by use of electric heaters; the heater power would be adjusted to regulate the temperature precisely and thereby maintain the required precision of the spatial period. At the state of development at the time of this reporting, the SHG had been packaged and subjected to most of its planned space-qualification tests.
Role of Excited States In High-order Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beaulieu, S.; Camp, S.; Descamps, D.; Comby, A.; Wanie, V.; Petit, S.; Légaré, F.; Schafer, K. J.; Gaarde, M. B.; Catoire, F.; Mairesse, Y.
2016-11-01
We investigate the role of excited states in high-order harmonic generation by studying the spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics of the radiation produced near the ionization threshold of argon by few-cycle laser pulses. We show that the population of excited states can lead either to direct extreme ultraviolet emission through free induction decay or to the generation of high-order harmonics through ionization from these states and recombination to the ground state. By using the attosecond lighthouse technique, we demonstrate that the high-harmonic emission from excited states is temporally delayed by a few femtoseconds compared to the usual harmonics, leading to a strong nonadiabatic spectral redshift.
Nonlinear harmonic generation and proposed experimental verification in SASE FELs.
Biedron, S. G.; Freund, H. P.; Milton, S. V.
1999-08-24
Recently, a 3D, polychromatic, nonlinear simulation code was developed to study the growth of nonlinear harmonics in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron lasers (FELs). The simulation was applied to the parameters for each stage of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) SASE FEL, intended for operation in the visible, UV, and short UV wavelength regimes, respectively, to study the presence of nonlinear harmonic generation. Significant nonlinear harmonic growth is seen. Here, a discussion of the code development, the APS SASE FEL, the simulations and results, and, finally, the proposed experimental procedure for verification of such nonlinear harmonic generation at the APS SASE FEL will be given.
High average power second harmonic generation in air
Beresna, Martynas; Kazansky, Peter G.; Svirko, Yuri; Barkauskas, Martynas; Danielius, Romas
2009-09-21
We demonstrate second harmonic vortex generation in atmospheric pressure air using tightly focused femtosecond laser beam. The circularly polarized ring-shaped beam of the second harmonic is generated in the air by fundamental beam of the same circular polarization, while the linear polarized beam produces two-lobe beam at the second harmonic frequency. The achieved normalized conversion efficiency and average second harmonic power are two orders of magnitude higher compared to those previously reported and can be increased up to 20 times by external gas flow. We demonstrate that the frequency doubling originates from the gradient of photoexcited free electrons created by pondermotive force.
Role of Excited States In High-order Harmonic Generation.
Beaulieu, S; Camp, S; Descamps, D; Comby, A; Wanie, V; Petit, S; Légaré, F; Schafer, K J; Gaarde, M B; Catoire, F; Mairesse, Y
2016-11-11
We investigate the role of excited states in high-order harmonic generation by studying the spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics of the radiation produced near the ionization threshold of argon by few-cycle laser pulses. We show that the population of excited states can lead either to direct extreme ultraviolet emission through free induction decay or to the generation of high-order harmonics through ionization from these states and recombination to the ground state. By using the attosecond lighthouse technique, we demonstrate that the high-harmonic emission from excited states is temporally delayed by a few femtoseconds compared to the usual harmonics, leading to a strong nonadiabatic spectral redshift.
Second-harmonic generation with Bessel beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shatrovoy, Oleg
We present the results of a numerical simulation tool for modeling the second-harmonic generation (SHG) interaction experienced by a diffracting beam. This code is used to study the simultaneous frequency and spatial profile conversion of a truncated Bessel beam that closely resembles a higher-order mode (HOM) of an optical fiber. SHG with Bessel beams has been investigated in the past and was determined have limited value because it is less efficient than SHG with a Gaussian beam in the undepleted pump regime. This thesis considers, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, whether most of the power from a Bessel-like beam could be converted into a second-harmonic beam (full depletion), as is the case with a Gaussian beam. We study this problem because using HOMs for fiber lasers and amplifiers allows reduced optical intensities, which mitigates nonlinearities, and is one possible way to increase the available output powers of fiber laser systems. The chief disadvantage of using HOM fiber amplifiers is the spatial profile of the output, but this can be transformed as part of the SHG interaction, most notably to a quasi-Gaussian profile when the phase mismatch meets the noncollinear criteria. We predict, based on numerical simulation, that noncollinear SHG (NC-SHG) can simultaneously perform highly efficient (90%) wavelength conversion from 1064 nm to 532 nm, as well as concurrent mode transformation from a truncated Bessel beam to a Gaussian-like beam (94% overlap with a Gaussian) at modest input powers (250 W, peak power or continuous-wave operation). These simulated results reveal two attractive features -- the feasibility of efficiently converting HOMs of fibers into Gaussian-like beams, and the ability to simultaneously perform frequency conversion. Combining the high powers that are possible with HOM fiber amplifiers with access to non-traditional wavelengths may offer significant advantages over the state of the art for many important applications
Higher-Order Harmonic Generation from Fullerene by Means of the Plasma Harmonic Method
Ganeev, R. A.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Ozaki, T.; Wong, M. C. H.; Brichta, J. P.; Bhardwaj, V. R.
2009-01-09
We demonstrate, for the first time, high-order harmonic generation from C{sub 60} by an intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. Laser-produced plasmas from C{sub 60}-rich epoxy and C{sub 60} films were used as the nonlinear media. Harmonics up to the 19th order were observed. The harmonic yield from fullerene-rich plasma is about 25 times larger compared with those produced from a bulk carbon target. Structural studies of plasma debris confirm the presence and integrity of fullerenes within the plasma plume, indicating fullerenes as the source of high-order harmonics.
Efficient millimeter wave 1140 GHz/ diode for harmonic power generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1967-01-01
Epitaxial gallium arsenide diode junction formed in a crossed waveguide structure operates as a variable reactance harmonic generator. This varactor diode can generate power efficiently in the low-millimeter wavelength.
SEVENTH HARMONIC 20 GHz CO-GENERATOR
Hirshfield, Jay L
2014-04-08
To satisfy the need for multi-MW rf sources in frequency ranges where commercial sources do not exist, a study was undertaken on a class of devices based on gyro-harmonic frequency multiplication. This mechanism relies upon adding energy in gyrating motion to a linear electron beam that traverses a rotating-mode TE111-mode drive cavity in a dc magnetic field. The beam then drifts along the magnetic field into a second cavity, operating in the TEn11-mode tuned to the nth harmonic of the drive cavity. Studies of this configuration have been carried out for 2 < n < 7. Results are given for multi-MW, efficient operation of a 7th harmonic device operating at 20 GHz, and a 2nd harmonic device operating at 22.4 GHz.
Improved Efficiency Type II Second Harmonic Generation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Reichle, Donald J., Jr.
2009-01-01
Second harmonic efficiency is limited by lateral and temporal separation of the ordinary and extraordinary components of the fundamental. A mode locked dual beam laser demonstrated these effects and a novel method to minimize them.
Second harmonic generation in graphene-coated nanowires.
Gao, Yixiao; Shadrivov, Ilya V
2016-08-01
We study second harmonic generation in a pair of graphene-coated nanowires. We show that the phase matching condition for harmonic generation can be engineered in a wide range of frequencies by tuning the spacing between graphene nanowires. We derive coupled mode equations describing the process of second harmonic generation using an unconjugated Lorentz reciprocity theorem. We show that the highest harmonic generation efficiency can be achieved by phase matching the fundamental mode with the two lowest order symmetric modes at the second harmonic frequency. Despite losses in graphene, we predict that the efficiency can be further enhanced by reducing the radius of nanowires due to larger mode overlap and lower propagation loss.
Spectrum of second-harmonic radiation generated from incoherent light
Stabinis, A.; Pyragaite, V.; Tamosauskas, G.; Piskarskas, A.
2011-10-15
We report on the development of the theory of second-harmonic generation by an incoherent pump with broad angular and frequency spectra. We show that spatial as well as temporal walk-off effects in a nonlinear crystal result in angular dispersion of the second-harmonic radiation. We demonstrate that the acceptance angle in second-harmonic generation by incoherent light is caused by the width of the pump angular spectrum and the resulting angular dispersion of second-harmonic radiation but does not depend on crystal length. In this case the frequency spectrum of second-harmonic radiation is determined by its angular dispersion and the pump angular spectrum. The theory is supported by an experiment in which a LiIO{sub 3} crystal was pumped by a tungsten halogen lamp.
Frequency-resolved optical grating using third-harmonic generation
Tsang, T.; Krumbuegel, M.A.; Delong, K.W.
1995-12-01
We demonstrate the first frequency-resolved optical gating measurement of an laser oscillator without the time ambiguity using third-harmonic generation. The experiment agrees well with the phase-retrieved spectrograms.
Squeezed light from second-harmonic generation: experiment versus theory.
Ralph, T C; Taubman, M S; White, A G; McClelland, D E; Bachor, H A
1995-06-01
We report excellent quantitative agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental observation of squeezing from a singly resonant second-harmonic-generating crystal. Limitations in the noise suppression imposed by the pump laser are explicitly modeled and confirmed by our measurements.
High-harmonic generation: The bright side of downsizing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landsman, Alexandra
2017-07-01
The shorter the antenna, the higher the frequency -- so what happens when nanoantennas hit optical frequencies? One answer may lead to high-harmonic generation without the need for high-powered lasers.
Harmonic measurements from a group connected generator HVdc converter scheme
Macdonald, S.J.; Enright, W.; Arrillaga, J.; O`Brien, M.T.
1995-10-01
A recent CIGRE document published in ELECTRA has described the potential benefits of a direct connection of generators to HVdc converters. While many theoretical contributions have been made, no practical test data has become available so far. This paper reports on harmonic tests carried out at the Benmore end of the New Zealand HVdc link operating as a group connected scheme. It was found that the measured harmonic current levels were well below specified generator ratings. Dynamic simulation accurately predicted the harmonic currents whereas the results of a steady state formulation were less reliable.
Rotational Doppler effect in harmonic generation from spinning molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faucher, O.; Prost, E.; Hertz, E.; Billard, F.; Lavorel, B.; Milner, Alexander A.; Milner, Valery A.; Zyss, Joseph; Averbukh, Ilya Sh.
2016-11-01
We present an observation of the rotational Doppler shift in the frequency of optical harmonic generated in fast rotating molecules. Conservation of energy and angular momentum in the light-molecule interaction suggests four different kinds of shifts depending on the mutual handedness of the circularly polarized fundamental and harmonic fields, as well as the handedness of the molecular rotation. All four types of the frequency shifts were observed in our experiments on third-harmonic generation in a gas of fast spinning O2 molecules.
High order harmonic generation in dual gas multi-jets
Tosa, Valer E-mail: calin.hojbota@itim-cj.ro; Hojbota, Calin E-mail: calin.hojbota@itim-cj.ro
2013-11-13
High order harmonic generation (HHG) in gas media suffers from a low conversion efficiency that has its origins in the interaction of the atom/molecule with the laser field. Phase matching is the main way to enhance the harmonic flux and several solutions have been designed to achieve it. Here we present numerical results modeling HHG in a system of multi-jets in which two gases alternate: the first gas jet (for example Ne) generates harmonics and the second one which ionizes easier, recover the phase matching condition. We obtain configurations which are experimentally feasible with respect to pressures and dimensions of the jets.
Wide-bandgap III-Nitride based Second Harmonic Generation
2014-10-02
Jun-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Wide-bandgap III - Nitride based Second Harmonic Generation The views...Report: Wide-bandgap III - Nitride based Second Harmonic Generation Report Title It was demonstrated that GaN, AlGaN and AlN lateral polar structures can...research have been socialized to the III - Nitride Optoelectronics Center of Excellence (ARL SEDD) and to the 2013 ARO Staff Research Symposium and at
High Harmonic Generation at Long Wavelengths
Sheehy, B.; Martin, J. D. D.; DiMauro, L. F.; Agostini, P.; Schafer, K. J.; Gaarde, M. B.; Kulander, K. C.
1999-12-20
High harmonic radiation spectra up to 19th order in alkali metal vapors excited by an intense, picosecond mid-infrared (3-4 {mu} m ) laser are reported and compared to theory. The strong-field dynamics in the alkali metal atoms exhibit significant differences from all previously studied systems due to the strong coupling between their ground and first excited states. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.
Multi-Orbital contributions in High Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guehr, Markus
2009-05-01
The high harmonic spectrum generated from atoms or molecules in a strong laser field contains information about the electronic structure of the generation medium. In the high harmonic generation (HHG) process, a free electron wave packet tunnel-ionizes from the molecular orbital in a strong laser field. After being accelerated by the laser electric field, the free electron wave packet coherently recombines to the orbital from which is was initially ionized, thereby emitting the harmonic spectrum. Interferences between the free electron wave packet and the molecular orbital will shape the spectrum in a characteristic way. These interferences have been used to tomographically image the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of N2 [1]. Molecular electronic states energetically below the HOMO should contribute to laser-driven high harmonic generation (HHG), but this behavior has not been observed previously. We have observed evidence of HHG from multiple orbitals in aligned N2 [2]. The tunneling ionization (and therefore the harmonic generation) is most efficient if the orbital has a large extension in the direction of the harmonic generation polarization. The HOMO with its σg symmetry therefore dominates the harmonic spectrum if the molecular axis is parallel to the harmonic generation polarization, the lower bound πu HOMO-1 dominates in the perpendicular case. The HOMO contributions appear as a regular plateau with a cutoff in the HHG spectrum. In contrast, the HOMO-1 signal is strongly peaked in the cutoff region. We explain this by semi-classical simulations of the recombination process that show constructive interferences between the HOMO-1 and the recombining wave packet in the cutoff region. The ability to monitor several orbitals opens the route to imaging coherent superpositions of electronic orbitals. [1] J. Itatani et al., Nature 432, 867 (2004)[2] B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum and M. Gühr, Science 322, 1232 (2008)
Thomas, Alexander Roy; Krushelnick, Karl
2016-09-08
We have studied ion motion effects in high harmonic generation, including shifts to the harmonics which result in degradation of the attosecond pulse train, and how to mitigate them. We have examined the scaling with intensity of harmonic emission. We have also switched the geometry of the interaction to measure, for the first time, harmonics from a normal incidence interaction. This was performed by using a special parabolic reflector with an on axis hole and is to allow measurements of the attosecond pulses using standard techniques. Here is a summary of the findings: First high harmonic generation in laser-solid interactions at 10^{21} Wcm^{-2}, demonstration of harmonic focusing, study of ion motion effects in high harmonic generation in laser-solid interactions, and demonstration of harmonic amplification.
Inherently unstable internal gravity waves due to resonant harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Yong; Zareei, Ahmad; Alam, Mohammad-Reza
2017-01-01
Here we show that there exist internal gravity waves that are inherently unstable, that is, they cannot exist in nature for a long time. The instability mechanism is a one-way (irreversible) harmonic-generation resonance that permanently transfers the energy of an internal wave to its higher harmonics. We show that, in fact, there are countably infinite number of such unstable waves. For the harmonic-generation resonance to take place, nonlinear terms in the free surface boundary condition play a pivotal role, and the instability does not obtain for a linearly-stratified fluid if a simplified boundary condition such as rigid lid or linear form is employed. Harmonic-generation resonance presented here also provides a mechanism for the transfer of the energy of the internal waves to the higher-frequency part of the spectrum where internal waves are more prone to breaking, hence losing energy to turbulence and heat and contributing to oceanic mixing.
R-dependent molecular harmonic generation from H2+
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Liqiang; Liu, Hang
2017-03-01
R-dependent high-order harmonic spectra (R is the nuclear distance) from H2+ have been investigated through solving the Non-Bohn-Oppenheimer time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We found that (i) for the case of the few-cycle pulse, the harmonic emission mainly occurs from R = 3.7 to R = 6, caused by the charge-resonance-enhanced-ionization (CREI) process. (ii) For the case of the multi-cycle pulse, the harmonic emission can be separated into two parts, that is the charge-resonance-enhanced-ionization region from R = 3.7 to R = 8; and the dissociative ionization region when R > 10. (iii) Isotopic investigation showed that the R-dependent harmonic emission process can be moved towards the smaller-R region as the masses of the nuclei are increased (D2+ and T2+). (iv) Multi-minima on the harmonic spectra can be obtained, which is attributed to the two-center interference and the electron-nuclear coupling during the generation of the harmonics. The R-dependent ionization probabilities, the time-dependent nuclear motions and the time-frequency analyses of the harmonic spectra have been shown to explain the R-dependent molecular harmonic emission process.
Optical fiber tip for field-enhanced second harmonic generation.
Pal, Sudipta Sarkar; Mondal, Samir K; Bajpai, Phun Phun; Kapur, Pawan
2012-10-01
We propose a simple optical fiber tip for field-enhanced second harmonic generation (SHG). The tip shows nonlinear phenomena of SHG over a wide range of sources, at least from 630 to 830 nm. The optical field corresponding to the second harmonic appears as a nondiffracting bottle beam with voids due to the surface curvature of the tip. The field-enhanced second harmonic can also induce surface plasmons, converting the tip to a plasmonic probe with reduced background signal. The tip can be useful in nanophotonics characterization. As an example, we demonstrate the tip's response as a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy probe.
Control of Laser High-Harmonic Generation with Counterpropagating Light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voronov, S. L.; Kohl, I.; Madsen, J. B.; Simmons, J.; Terry, N.; Titensor, J.; Wang, Q.; Peatross, J.
2001-09-01
Relatively weak counterpropagating light is shown to disrupt the emission of laser high-harmonic generation. Harmonic orders ranging from the teens to the low thirties produced by a 30-femtosecond pulse in a narrow argon jet are ``shut down'' with a contrast as high as 2 orders of magnitude by a chirped 1-picosecond counterpropagating laser pulse (60 times less intense). Alternatively, under poor phase-matching conditions, the counterpropagating light boosts harmonic production by similar contrast through quasiphase matching where out-of-phase emission is suppressed.
Three-dimensional analysis of harmonic generation in self-amplified spontaneous emission.
Huang, Z.; Kim, K.-J.
1999-09-01
In a high-gain free-electron laser, strong bunching at the fundamental wavelength can drive substantial harmonic bunching and sizable power levels at the harmonic frequencies. In this paper, we investigate the three-dimensional evolution of the harmonic fields based on the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations that take into account the nonlinear harmonic interaction. Each harmonic field is the sum of a self-amplified term and a term driven by the nonlinear harmonic interaction. In the exponential gain regime, the growth rate of the dominant nonlinear term is much faster than that of the self-amplified harmonic field. As a result, the gain length and the transverse profile of the first few harmonics are completely determined by those of the fundamental. A percentage of the fundamental power level is found at the third harmonic frequency right before saturation for the current self-amplified spontaneous emission projects.
Third harmonic generation as a probe of ultrafast phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gundrum, Bryan Charles
2007-12-01
This thesis explores the potential for using third harmonic generation of light as a probe of phase transitions in solid materials. Third harmonic generation is a nonlinear optical process, whereby a portion of the fundamental light, of frequency o, interacts with a solid to produce photons at 3o. It is possibly useful for monitoring phase transitions, since the magnitude of the third harmonic light depends on crystal symmetry, an isotropic sample, such as a liquid, for example, does not generate third harmonic when probed with circularly polarized light. The work described here represents the first application of third harmonic generation as a time-resolved probe of the state of a material using single laser pulses. Using 175 fs laser pulses at 800 nm, the melting threshold fluence for (001) Si is measured to be 120 mJ cm-2. It is shown, moreover, that the solid-liquid phase transition for (001) Si takes ˜1 ps when irradiated with 135 mJ cm-2, evidence of homogenously nucleated melting. The potential of third harmonic generation as a thermometer for transient events was also explored. First, the temperature dependence of the third harmonic generation from (001) Si using circularly polarized light is measured between 300 < T < 1200 K under static conditions. The magnitude of the third harmonic signal drops by 70% from its room temperature value at 1200 K. It is then shown that temperatures deduced by time resolved third harmonic generation in dynamic measurements agree well with a one-dimensional heat transfer calculation. This result illustrates that time resolved ultrafast thermometry using third harmonic generation is capable of determining surface temperatures with ˜200 fs time resolution for both small and large temperature excursions. Also presented are initial efforts to measure the solidification rate of metal samples using linear methods, including the design and operation of a deferential photo detector as well as the first quantitative measurements of
Optical second harmonic generation from Pt nanowires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, N.; Aratake, K.; Okushio, R.; Iwai, T.; Sugawara, A.; Sano, H.; Mizutani, G.
2007-09-01
We have measured optical second harmonic intensity from arrays of Pt nanowires of 20 nm and 9 nm average widths, as a function of the incident and output light polarizations, the azimuthal angle, and the excitation photon energy. The nanowires were fabricated through shadow deposition on self-organized NaCl(1 1 0) faceted templates. The anisotropy of the SH intensity from the Pt nanowires was found to be stronger than that from the Au nanowires reported previously. The effective nonlinear susceptibility element χ222(2), with the suffix 2 indicating the direction [1 1¯ 0], was observed for Pt nanowires, although it was not observed for Au nanowires. This difference is suggested to be due to the weaker suppression of the incident fundamental fields by the depolarization field in the Pt nanowires and the larger anisotropy in the nonlinearity of Pt nanowires due to the thinner widths.
Generation of higher odd harmonics in a defective photonic crystal
Ramanujam, N. R.; Wilson, K. S. Joseph
2015-06-24
A photonic crystal (AB){sup 2}(DB)(AB){sup 2} with high refractive index medium as silicon and low refractive medium as air is considered. Using the transfer matrix method, the transmission properties as a function of wavelength with photonic band gaps has been obtained. We are able to demonstrate the generation of third, fifth, seventh and ninth harmonics in the present work. We show that if the air medium is removed in the defect, the defect modes are generated but not harmonics. It can be designed to have a frequency conversion, and have a potential for becoming the basis for the next generation of optical devices.
Plasmon-assisted high-harmonic generation in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Joel D.; Marini, Andrea; de Abajo, F. Javier García
2017-02-01
High-harmonic generation in condensed-matter systems is both a source of fundamental insight into quantum electron motion and a promising candidate to realize compact ultraviolet and ultrafast light sources. While graphene is anticipated to efficiently generate high-order harmonics due to its anharmonic charge-carrier dispersion, experiments performed on extended samples using THz illumination have revealed only a weak effect. The situation is further complicated by the enormous electromagnetic field intensities required by this highly nonperturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon. Here we argue that the large light intensity required for high-harmonic generation to occur can be reached by exploiting localized plasmons in doped graphene nanostructures. We demonstrate through rigorous time-domain simulations that the synergistic combination of strong plasmonic near-field enhancement and a pronounced intrinsic nonlinearity result in efficient broadband high-harmonic generation within a single material. Our results support the strong potential of nanostructured graphene as a robust, electrically tunable platform for high-harmonic generation.
Second harmonic generation from ZnO films and nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larciprete, Maria Cristina; Centini, Marco
2015-09-01
Zinc oxide ZnO is a n-type semiconductor having a wide direct band gap (3.37 eV) as well as a non-centrosymmetric crystal structure resulting from hexagonal wurtzite phase. Its wide transparency range along with its second order nonlinear optical properties make it a promising material for efficient second harmonic generation processes and nonlinear optical applications in general. In this review, we present an extensive analysis of second harmonic generation from ZnO films and nanostructures. The literature survey on ZnO films will include some significant features affecting second harmonic generation efficiency, as crystalline structure, film thickness, surface contributes, and doping. In a different section, the most prominent challenges in harmonic generation from ZnO nanostructures are discussed, including ZnO nanowires, nanorods, and nanocrystals, to name a few. Similarly, the most relevant works regarding third harmonic generation from ZnO films and nanostructures are separately addressed. Finally, the conclusion part summarizes the current standing of published values for the nonlinear optical coefficients and for ZnO films and nanostructures, respectively.
Plasmon-assisted high-harmonic generation in graphene.
Cox, Joel D; Marini, Andrea; de Abajo, F Javier García
2017-02-22
High-harmonic generation in condensed-matter systems is both a source of fundamental insight into quantum electron motion and a promising candidate to realize compact ultraviolet and ultrafast light sources. While graphene is anticipated to efficiently generate high-order harmonics due to its anharmonic charge-carrier dispersion, experiments performed on extended samples using THz illumination have revealed only a weak effect. The situation is further complicated by the enormous electromagnetic field intensities required by this highly nonperturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon. Here we argue that the large light intensity required for high-harmonic generation to occur can be reached by exploiting localized plasmons in doped graphene nanostructures. We demonstrate through rigorous time-domain simulations that the synergistic combination of strong plasmonic near-field enhancement and a pronounced intrinsic nonlinearity result in efficient broadband high-harmonic generation within a single material. Our results support the strong potential of nanostructured graphene as a robust, electrically tunable platform for high-harmonic generation.
Dynamic investigation of Drosophila myocytes with second harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenhalgh, Catherine; Stewart, Bryan; Cisek, Richard; Prent, Nicole; Major, Arkady; Barzda, Virginijus
2006-09-01
The functional dynamics and structure of both larval and adult Drosophila melanogaster muscle were investigated with a nonlinear multimodal microscope. Imaging was carried out using a home built microscope capable of recording the multiphoton excitation fluorescence, second harmonic generation, and third harmonic generation signals simultaneously at a scanning rate of up to ~12 frames/sec. The sample was excited by a home built femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser at 840 nm, or by a Yb-ion doped potassium gadolinium tungstate (Yb:KGW) crystal based oscillator at 1042 nm. There was no observable damage detected in the myocyte after prolonged scanning with either of the lasers. Microscopic second harmonic generation (SHG) appears particularly strong in the myocytes. This allows the fast contraction dynamics of the myocytes to be followed. The larger sarcomere size observed in the larvae myocytes is especially well suited for studying the contraction dynamics. Microscopic imaging of muscle contractions showed different relaxation and contraction rates. The SHG intensities were significantly higher in the relaxed state of the myocyte compared to the contracted state. The imaging also revealed disappearance of SHG signal in highly stretched sarcomeres, indicating that SHG diminishes in the disordered structures. The study illustrates that SHG microscopy, combined with other nonlinear contrast mechanisms, can help to elucidate physiological mechanisms of contraction. This study also provides further insight into the mechanisms of harmonic generation in biological tissue and shows that crystalline arrangement of macromolecules has a determining factor for the high efficiency second harmonic generation from the bulk structures.
Plasmon-assisted high-harmonic generation in graphene
Cox, Joel D.; Marini, Andrea; de Abajo, F. Javier García
2017-01-01
High-harmonic generation in condensed-matter systems is both a source of fundamental insight into quantum electron motion and a promising candidate to realize compact ultraviolet and ultrafast light sources. While graphene is anticipated to efficiently generate high-order harmonics due to its anharmonic charge-carrier dispersion, experiments performed on extended samples using THz illumination have revealed only a weak effect. The situation is further complicated by the enormous electromagnetic field intensities required by this highly nonperturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon. Here we argue that the large light intensity required for high-harmonic generation to occur can be reached by exploiting localized plasmons in doped graphene nanostructures. We demonstrate through rigorous time-domain simulations that the synergistic combination of strong plasmonic near-field enhancement and a pronounced intrinsic nonlinearity result in efficient broadband high-harmonic generation within a single material. Our results support the strong potential of nanostructured graphene as a robust, electrically tunable platform for high-harmonic generation. PMID:28224998
Coherent harmonic generation in storage ring free electron lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longhi, Emily C.
This dissertation presents work on the production of coherent harmonic radiation from the optical klystron (OK-4) installed on the electron storage ring which is part of the Duke University Free Electron Laser (FEL) Laboratory. It has long been known theoretically that free electron lasers (FELs) can produce coherent light at various harmonics of the fundamental lasing wavelength. This presents interesting opportunities for using the Duke OK-4 FEL as a tunable coherent vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray light source. In this disseration, we present the first experimental results of self-seeded coherent harmonic generation in a storage ring FEL. We describe the specialized tools needed for coherent harmonic production and observation, and present data showing the various harmonics and wavelengths achieved. We also present the results of detailed studies into two different experi mental harmonic generation methods, as well as the dependence of harmonic generation on various storage ring and optical klystron parameters. A similar project, at Elettra, Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy, which has an active collaboration with Duke FEL Lab members, has produced similar results, a selection of which we also present. The basic principle of an FEL is that under certain conditions, a beam of relativistic electrons can produce coherent radiation. In the case of the OK-4 FEL, electrons spend part of their orbit in an optical klystron where they interact with ra diation trapped in the optical cavity at the same time that they are passing through a set of magnets which perturb their orbit sinusoidally. The net result of these interactions is that energy is transferred from the electrons into the radiation field. Without harmonics, the OK-4 FEL can lase at fundamental wavelengths between 193.7 and 2,100nm using a variety of mirrors. With a single set of mirrors in the optical klystron, it is possible to have tunability of the lasing wavelength up to 20%. Coherent harmonic generation
Nonlinear harmonic generation in finite amplitude black hole oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papadopoulos, Philippos
2002-04-01
The nonlinear generation of harmonics in gravitational perturbations of black holes is explored using numerical relativity based on an ingoing light-cone framework. Localized, finite, perturbations of an isolated black hole are parametrized by amplitude and angular harmonic form. The response of the black hole spacetime is monitored and its harmonic content analyzed to identify the strength of the nonlinear generation of harmonics as a function of the initial data amplitude. It is found that overwhelmingly the black hole responds at the harmonic mode perturbed, even for spacetimes with 10% of the black hole mass radiated. The coefficients for down and up scattering in harmonic space are computed for a range of couplings. Down scattering, leading to smoothing out of angular structure, is found to be equally as or more efficient than the up scatterings that would lead to increased rippling. The details of this nonlinear balance may form the quantitative mechanism by which black holes avoid fission even for arbitrary strong distortions.
Bernstein wave aided laser third harmonic generation in a plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tyagi, Yachna; Tripathi, Deepak; Kumar, Ashok
2016-09-01
The process of Bernstein wave aided resonant third harmonic generation of laser in a magnetized plasma is investigated. The extra-ordinary mode (X-mode) laser of frequency ω 0 and wave number k → 0 , travelling across the magnetic field in a plasma, exerts a second harmonic ponderomotive force on the electrons imparting them an oscillatory velocity v → 2 ω0 , 2 k → 0 . This velocity beats with the density perturbation due to the Bernstein wave to produce a density perturbation at cyclotron frequency shifted second harmonic. The density perturbation couples with the oscillatory velocity v → ω0 , k → 0 of X-mode of the laser to produce the cyclotron frequency shifted third harmonic current density leading to harmonic radiation. The phase matching condition for the up shifted frequency is satisfied when the Bernstein wave is nearly counter-propagating to the laser. As the transverse wave number of the Bernstein wave is large, it is effective in the phase matched third harmonic generation, when the laser frequency is not too far from the upper hybrid frequency.
Single-shot fluctuations in waveguided high-harmonic generation.
Goh, S J; Tao, Y; van der Slot, P J M; Bastiaens, H J M; Herek, J; Biedron, S G; Danailov, M B; Milton, S V; Boller, K-J
2015-09-21
For exploring the application potential of coherent soft x-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) provided by high-harmonic generation, it is important to characterize the central output parameters. Of specific importance are pulse-to-pulse (shot-to-shot) fluctuations of the high-harmonic output energy, fluctuations of the direction of the emission (pointing instabilities), and fluctuations of the beam divergence and shape that reduce the spatial coherence. We present the first single-shot measurements of waveguided high-harmonic generation in a waveguided (capillary-based) geometry. Using a capillary waveguide filled with Argon gas as the nonlinear medium, we provide the first characterization of shot-to-shot fluctuations of the pulse energy, of the divergence and of the beam pointing. We record the strength of these fluctuations vs. two basic input parameters, which are the drive laser pulse energy and the gas pressure in the capillary waveguide. In correlation measurements between single-shot drive laser beam profiles and single-shot high-harmonic beam profiles we prove the absence of drive laser beam-pointing-induced fluctuations in the high-harmonic output. We attribute the main source of high-harmonic fluctuations to ionization-induced nonlinear mode mixing during propagation of the drive laser pulse inside the capillary waveguide.
Numerical generation of hyperspherical harmonics for tetra-atomic systems.
Lepetit, Bruno; Wang, Desheng; Kuppermann, Aron
2006-10-07
A numerical generation method of hyperspherical harmonics for tetra-atomic systems, in terms of row-orthonormal hyperspherical coordinates-a hyper-radius and eight angles-is presented. The nine-dimensional coordinate space is split into three three-dimensional spaces, the physical rotation, kinematic rotation, and kinematic invariant spaces. The eight-angle principal-axes-of-inertia hyperspherical harmonics are expanded in Wigner rotation matrices for the physical and kinematic rotation angles. The remaining two-angle harmonics defined in kinematic invariant space are expanded in a basis of trigonometric functions, and the diagonalization of the kinetic energy operator in this basis provides highly accurate harmonics. This trigonometric basis is chosen to provide a mathematically exact and finite expansion for the harmonics. Individually, each basis function does not satisfy appropriate boundary conditions at the poles of the kinetic energy operator; however, the numerically generated linear combination of these functions which constitutes the harmonic does. The size of this basis is minimized using the symmetries of the system, in particular, internal symmetries, involving different sets of coordinates in nine-dimensional space corresponding to the same physical configuration.
Plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation from silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vampa, G.; Ghamsari, B. G.; Siadat Mousavi, S.; Hammond, T. J.; Olivieri, A.; Lisicka-Skrek, E.; Naumov, A. Yu; Villeneuve, D. M.; Staudte, A.; Berini, P.; Corkum, P. B.
2017-07-01
Plasmonic antennas can enhance the intensity of a nanojoule laser pulse by localizing the electric field in their proximity. It has been proposed that the field can become strong enough to convert the fundamental laser frequency into high-order harmonics through an extremely nonlinear interaction with gas atoms that occupy the nanoscopic volume surrounding the antennas. However, the small number of gas atoms that can occupy this volume limits the generation of high harmonics. Here we use an array of monopole nano-antennas to demonstrate plasmon-assisted high-harmonic generation directly from the supporting crystalline silicon substrate. The high density of the substrate compared with a gas allows macroscopic buildup of harmonic emission. Despite the sparse coverage of antennas on the surface, harmonic emission is ten times brighter than without antennas. Imaging the high-harmonic radiation will allow nanometre and attosecond measurement of the plasmonic field thereby enabling more sensitive plasmon sensors while opening a new path to extreme-ultraviolet-frequency combs.
Recent progress of below-threshold harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Wei-Hao; Peng, Liang-You; Gong, Qihuang
2017-02-01
The harmonics generated from the interaction of a strong laser field with atoms and molecules in the gas phase can be applied as coherent light sources and detecting techniques for structures and dynamics in matter. In the last three decades, the most prevailing experimental and theoretical studies have been focused on the high-order harmonic generation due to its applications in attosecond science. However, low-order harmonics near the ionization threshold of the target have been less explored, partially because the spectrum in this region is more complicated from both the theoretical and experimental point of view. After several pioneering investigations in the mid 1990s, near threshold harmonics (NTHs) begun to draw a great attention again because of the development of high repetition rate cavity enhanced harmonics about 10 years ago. Very recently, NTHs have attracted a lot of experimental and theoretical studies due to their potential applications as light sources and complicated mechanisms. In this topical review, we will summarize the progress of NTHs, including the early and recent experimental measurements in atoms and molecules, as well as the relevant theoretical explorations of these harmonics.
Hyperbolic metamaterial antenna for second-harmonic generation tomography.
Segovia, Paulina; Marino, Giuseppe; Krasavin, Alexey V; Olivier, Nicolas; Wurtz, Gregory A; Belov, Pavel A; Ginzburg, Pavel; Zayats, Anatoly V
2015-11-30
The detection and processing of information carried by evanescent field components are key elements for subwavelength optical microscopy as well as single molecule sensing applications. Here, we numerically demonstrate the potential of a hyperbolic medium in the design of an efficient metamaterial antenna enabling detection and tracking of a nonlinear object, with an otherwise hidden second-harmonic signature. The presence of the antenna provides 10^{3}-fold intensity enhancement of the second harmonic generation (SHG) from a nanoparticle through a metamaterial-assisted access to evanescent second-harmonic fields. Alternatively, the observation of SHG from the metamaterial itself can be used to detect and track a nanoparticle without a nonlinear response. The antenna allows an optical resolution of several nanometers in tracking the nanoparticle's location via observations of the far-field second-harmonic radiation pattern.
Harmonic Generation in a Traveling-Wave Tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Patrick; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, Geoffrey; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Chernin, David; Simon, David; Hoff, Brad
2016-10-01
Crowding of electron orbits in a traveling-wave tube (TWT) may lead to significant harmonic contents in the beam current, even in the linear regime. Here, we consider a wideband TWT that exhibits gain at the second harmonic. We analytically formulate equations governing the evolution of the generation of second harmonic, including axial variations of the Pierce parameters. The second harmonic output is phase-controlled by the input signal which consists only of a fundamental frequency. Several test cases are performed and compared with simulation using the CHRISTINE code. Reasonable agreement between theory and simulation is found. Work supported by AFOSR FA9550-15-1-0097, ONR N00014-16-1-2353, and L-3 Communications Electron Device Division.
Continuous control of the nonlinearity phase for harmonic generations.
Li, Guixin; Chen, Shumei; Pholchai, Nitipat; Reineke, Bernhard; Wong, Polis Wing Han; Pun, Edwin Yue Bun; Cheah, Kok Wai; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang
2015-06-01
The capability of locally engineering the nonlinear optical properties of media is crucial in nonlinear optics. Although poling is the most widely employed technique for achieving locally controlled nonlinearity, it leads only to a binary nonlinear state, which is equivalent to a discrete phase change of π in the nonlinear polarizability. Here, inspired by the concept of spin-rotation coupling, we experimentally demonstrate nonlinear metasurfaces with homogeneous linear optical properties but spatially varying effective nonlinear polarizability with continuously controllable phase. The continuous phase control over the local nonlinearity is demonstrated for second and third harmonic generation by using nonlinear metasurfaces consisting of nanoantennas of C3 and C4 rotational symmetries, respectively. The continuous phase engineering of the effective nonlinear polarizability enables complete control over the propagation of harmonic generation signals. Therefore, this method seamlessly combines the generation and manipulation of harmonic waves, paving the way for highly compact nonlinear nanophotonic devices.
Confocal Imaging of Biological Tissues Using Second Harmonic Generation
Kim, B-M.; Stoller, P.; Reiser, K.; Eichler, J.; Yan, M.; Rubenchik, A.; Da Silva, L.
2000-03-06
A confocal microscopy imaging system was devised to selectively detect Second harmonic signals generated by biological tissues. Several types of biological tissues were examined using this imaging system, including human teeth, bovine blood vessels, and chicken skin. All these tissues generated strong second harmonic signals. There is considerable evidence that the source of these signals in tissue is collagen. Collagen, the predominant component of most tissues, is known to have second order nonlinear susceptibility. This technique may have diagnostic usefulness in pathophysiological conditions characterized by changes in collagen structure including malignant transformation of nevi, progression of diabetic complications, and abnormalities in wound healing.
Propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic stripes
Rousseau, O.; Yamada, M.; Miura, K.; Ogawa, S.; Otani, Y.
2014-02-07
We report on the experimental study of the propagation of nonlinearly generated harmonic spin waves in microscopic CoFeB stripes. Using an all electrical technique with coplanar waveguides, we find that two kinds of spin waves can be generated by nonlinear frequency multiplication. One has a non-uniform spatial geometry and thus requires appropriate detector geometry to be identified. The other corresponds to the resonant fundamental propagative spin waves and can be efficiently excited by double- or triple-frequency harmonics with any geometry. Nonlinear excited spin waves are particularly efficient in providing an electrical signal arising from spin wave propagation.
Efficient forward second-harmonic generation from planar archimedean nanospirals
Davidson, II, Roderick B.; Ziegler, Jed I.; Vargas, Guillermo; Avanesyan, Sergey M.; Gong, Yu; Hess, Wayne; Haglund, Jr., Richard F.
2015-05-01
Here, the enhanced electric field at plasmonic resonances in nanoscale antennas can lead to efficient harmonic generation, especially when the plasmonic geometry is asymmetric on either inter-particle or intra-particle levels. The planar Archimedean nanospiral offers a unique geometrical asymmetry for second-harmonic generation (SHG) because the SHG results neither from arranging centrosymmetric nanoparticles in asymmetric groupings, nor from non-centrosymmetric nanoparticles that retain a local axis of symmetry. Here, we report forward SHG from planar arrays of Archimedean nanospirals using 15 fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire oscillator tuned to 800 nm wavelength.
Efficient forward second-harmonic generation from planar archimedean nanospirals
Davidson, II, Roderick B.; Ziegler, Jed I.; Vargas, Guillermo; ...
2015-05-01
Here, the enhanced electric field at plasmonic resonances in nanoscale antennas can lead to efficient harmonic generation, especially when the plasmonic geometry is asymmetric on either inter-particle or intra-particle levels. The planar Archimedean nanospiral offers a unique geometrical asymmetry for second-harmonic generation (SHG) because the SHG results neither from arranging centrosymmetric nanoparticles in asymmetric groupings, nor from non-centrosymmetric nanoparticles that retain a local axis of symmetry. Here, we report forward SHG from planar arrays of Archimedean nanospirals using 15 fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire oscillator tuned to 800 nm wavelength.
Cascaded Cerenkov third-harmonic generation in random quadratic media
Ayoub, Mousa; Roedig, Philip; Imbrock, Joerg; Denz, Cornelia
2011-12-12
We investigate experimentally and theoretically the conical emission of Cerenkov-type third-harmonic generation in strontium barium niobate of random 2D-{chi}{sup (2)} distribution. The azimuthal intensity distribution is explained by the polarization properties of the fundamental and Cerenkov second-harmonic waves, depending on the cascaded origin of the generation process. Moreover, we show the role of the individual domain shape in an additional modulation on the conical emission, controlled by the electrical switching of the spontaneous polarization of the ferroelectric medium.
Second harmonic generation in thin optical fibers via cladding modes.
Elzahaby, Eman A; Kandas, Ishac; Aly, Moustafa H
2016-05-30
Since silica goes under the category of amorphous materials, it is difficult to investigate important processes such as second harmonic generation (SHG) in silica-based fibers. In this paper, we proposed a method for SHG relaying on cladding modes as pump modes. Cladding modes are introduced in optical fibers through tilted long period grating (T-LPG), where power of core mode is transferred into cladding modes. By functionalizing T-LPG with nonlinear coating, the interaction occurs between cladding modes and the coating material, consequently second harmonic signal (SHS) is generated with efficiency up to 0.14%.
High frequency SAW devices based on third harmonic generation.
Le Brizoual, L; Elmazria, O; Sarry, F; El Hakiki, M; Talbi, A; Alnot, P
2006-12-01
We demonstrate the third harmonic generation in a ZnO/Si layered structure to obtain high frequency SAW devices. This configuration eliminates the need of high lithography resolution and allows easy integration of such devices and electronics on the same wafer. A theoretical study was carried out for the determination of the phase velocity and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (K(2)) dispersion curves of the surface acoustic waves. These results are also in agreement with those measured on a SAW filter designed for the third harmonic generation and the operating frequency is up to 2468 MHz.
Even harmonic generation in isotropic media of dissociating homonuclear molecules
Silva, R. E. F.; Rivière, P.; Morales, F.; Smirnova, O.; Ivanov, M.; Martín, F.
2016-01-01
Isotropic gases irradiated by long pulses of intense IR light can generate very high harmonics of the incident field. It is generally accepted that, due to the symmetry of the generating medium, be it an atomic or an isotropic molecular gas, only odd harmonics of the driving field can be produced. Here we show how the interplay of electronic and nuclear dynamics can lead to a marked breakdown of this standard picture: a substantial part of the harmonic spectrum can consist of even rather than odd harmonics. We demonstrate the effect using ab-initio solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for and its isotopes in full dimensionality. By means of a simple analytical model, we identify its physical origin, which is the appearance of a permanent dipole moment in dissociating homonuclear molecules, caused by light-induced localization of the electric charge during dissociation. The effect arises for sufficiently long laser pulses and the region of the spectrum where even harmonics are produced is controlled by pulse duration. Our results (i) show how the interplay of femtosecond nuclear and attosecond electronic dynamics, which affects the charge flow inside the dissociating molecule, is reflected in the nonlinear response, and (ii) force one to augment standard selection rules found in nonlinear optics textbooks by considering light-induced modifications of the medium during the generation process. PMID:27596609
Harmonic Generation from Solid Targets - Optmization of Source Parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zepf, Matthew; Watts, I. F.; Dangor, A. E.; Norreys, P. A.; Chambers, D. M.; Machacek, A.; Wark, J. S.; Tsakiris, G. D.
1998-11-01
High harmonics from solid targets have received renewed interest over the last few years. Theoretical predictions using 1 1/2 D codes suggest that very high orders (>100 ) can be generated at conversion efficiencies in excess of 10-6 [1,2] at Iλ^2 > 10^19 W/cm^2. Experiments have since been performed with pulses varying from 100 fs to 2.5 ps in duration [3-6]. The steep density gradient necessary to generate the harmonics can be generated by either ponderomotive steepening or by using ultraclean pulses which preserve the initial solid vacuum boundary. The two regimes are compared in terms of their dependence on the laser parameters and the emitted harmonic radiation. Particular emphasis will be given to measurements of the holeboring velocity, the polarisation of the harmonics and the intensity scaling in the two regimes. This comparison enables us to find the ideal parameter range for the optimization of harmonic source. [1] R. Lichters et al., Physics of Plasmas 3, 3425, (1996). [2] P. Gibbon, IEEE J. of Q. Elec. 33, 1915 (1997). [3] S. Kohlweyer, et al., Optics Comm. 177, 431 (1995). [4] P. Norreys et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 76, 1832 (1995). [5] D. von der Linde et al., Phys. Rev. A, 52, R25 (1995) [6] M. Zepf, et al., submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
Shintake, Tsumoru
2007-01-19
For understanding on basic radiation mechanism of the high-gain FEL based on SASE, the author presents electron-crystal interpretation of FEL radiation. In the electron-crystal, electrons are localized at regularly spaced multi-layers, which represents micro-bunching, whose spacing is equal to the radiation wavelength, and the multi-layers are perpendicular to beam axis, thus, diffracted wave creates Bragg's spots in forward and backward directions. Due to the Doppler's effect, frequency of the back-scattered wave is up-converted, generates forwardly focused X-ray. The Bragg's effect contributes focusing the X-ray beam into a spot, thus peak power becomes extremely higher by factor of typically 107. This is the FEL radiation. As well known, the total numbers of scattered photons in Bragg's spots is equal to the total elastic scattering photons from the atoms contained in the crystal. Therefore, total power in the FEL laser is same as the spontaneous radiation power from the undulator for the same beam parameter. The FEL radiation phenomenon is simple interference effect. In today's presentations, we use the laser pointer, and we frequently experience difficulty in pointing precisely or steadily in one place on the screen, since the laser spot is very small and does not spread. Exactly same to this, X-ray FEL is a highly focused beam, and pointing stability dominates productivity of experiment, thus we need special care on beam stability from linear accelerator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mozdoor Dashtabi, Mahdi; Arabanian, Atoosa Sadat; Massudi, Reza
2017-02-01
Harmonic focal point axial modulation (h-FPAM) in nonlinear optical microscopy is introduced and used to enhance the axial resolution and the signal to background ratio by modulating the focal point of a beam of femtosecond pulses train along the axial direction and phase sensitively filtering the resulting signals using a lock-in amplifier. Axial resolution enhancement factor of 2.05 is acquired in 2f detection mode for the third harmonic generation microscopy of glass-oil interfaces. This technique also resolves the image interpretation problem of the fundamental harmonic FPAM technique. Moreover, the potential of this technique for axial sectioning is demonstrated by acquiring images from a red blood cell.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Kaishang; Feng, Chao; Wang, Dong
2016-10-01
The echo enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme holds the ability for the generation of fully coherent soft x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) pulses directly from external UV seeding sources. In this paper, we study the feasibility of using a single stage EEHG to generate coherent radiation in the "water window" and beyond. Using the high-order operating modes of the EEHG scheme, intensive numerical simulations have been performed considering various three-dimensional effects. The simulation results demonstrated that coherent soft x-ray radiation at 150th harmonic (1.77 nm) of the seed can be produced by a single stage EEHG. The decreasing of the final bunching factor at the desired harmonic caused by intra beam scattering (IBS) effect has also been analyzed.
Observation of Electronic Structure Minima in High-Harmonic Generation
Woerner, Hans Jakob; Villeneuve, D. M.; Niikura, Hiromichi; Bertrand, Julien B.; Corkum, P. B.
2009-03-13
We report detailed measurements of the high-harmonic spectra generated from argon atoms. The spectra exhibit a deep minimum that is shown to be independent of the laser intensity, and is thus a clear measure of the electronic structure of the atom. We show that exact field-free continuum wave functions reproduce the minimum, but plane wave and Coulomb wave functions do not. This remarkable observation suggests that electronic structure can be accurately determined in high-harmonic experiments despite the presence of the strong laser field. Our results clarify the relation between high-harmonic generation and photoelectron spectroscopy. The use of exact continuum functions also resolves the ambiguity associated with the choice of the dispersion relation.
Generation of harmonics and supercontinuum in nematic liquid crystals
Nyushkov, B N; Trashkeev, S I; Klementyev, Vasilii M; Pivtsov, V S; Kobtsev, Sergey M
2013-02-28
Nonlinear optical properties of nematic liquid crystals (NLC) have been investigated. A technique for efficient laser frequency conversion in a microscopic NLC volume deposited on an optical fibre end face is experimentally demonstrated. An efficient design of a compact NLC-based IR frequency converter with a fibre input and achromatic collimator is proposed and implemented. Simultaneous generation of the second and third harmonics is obtained for the first time under pumping NLC by a 1.56-mm femtosecond fibre laser. The second-harmonic generation efficiency is measured to be about 1 %, while the efficiency of third-harmonic generation is several tenths of percent. A strong polarisation dependence of the third-harmonic generation efficiency is revealed. When pumping NLC by a cw laser, generation of spectral supercontinua (covering the visible and near-IR spectral ranges) is observed. The nonlinear effects revealed can be due to the light-induced change in the orientational order in liquid crystals, which breaks the initial symmetry and leads to formation of disclination structures. The NLC optical nonlinearity is believed to be of mixed orientationalelectronic nature as a whole. (laser optics 2012)
Cluster size dependence of high-order harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Y.; Hagmeijer, R.; Bastiaens, H. M. J.; Goh, S. J.; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Boller, K.-J.
2017-08-01
We investigate high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from noble gas clusters in a supersonic gas jet. To identify the contribution of harmonic generation from clusters versus that from gas monomers, we measure the high-order harmonic output over a broad range of the total atomic number density in the jet (from 3×1016 to 3 × 1018 {{cm}}-3) at two different reservoir temperatures (303 and 363 K). For the first time in the evaluation of the harmonic yield in such measurements, the variation of the liquid mass fraction, g, versus pressure and temperature is taken into consideration, which we determine, reliably and consistently, to be below 20% within our range of experimental parameters. By comparing the measured harmonic yield from a thin jet with the calculated corresponding yield from monomers alone, we find an increased emission of the harmonics when the average cluster size is less than 3000. Using g, under the assumption that the emission from monomers and clusters add up coherently, we calculate the ratio of the average single-atom response of an atom within a cluster to that of a monomer and find an enhancement of around 100 for very small average cluster size (∼200). We do not find any dependence of the cut-off frequency on the composition of the cluster jet. This implies that HHG in clusters is based on electrons that return to their parent ions and not to neighboring ions in the cluster. To fully employ the enhanced average single-atom response found for small average cluster sizes (∼200), the nozzle producing the cluster jet must provide a large liquid mass fraction at these small cluster sizes for increasing the harmonic yield. Moreover, cluster jets may allow for quasi-phase matching, as the higher mass of clusters allows for a higher density contrast in spatially structuring the nonlinear medium.
Theory of second harmonic generation in randomly oriented species
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrews, David L.; Allcock, Philip; Demidov, Andrey A.
1995-01-01
It is well known that second harmonic generation (SHG) is a process forbidden within atomic and molecular fluids. Nonetheless recent experimental observations of second harmonic evolution in suspensions of randomly oriented Halobacterium halobium purple membranes have raised new questions about the precise criteria which determine prohibition of the second harmonic. To address the problem a theoretical framework for SHG is developed that specifically deals with molecular systems, and is therefore cast in terms of molecular properties with more regard to the influence of the local structure. This contrasts with the classical approach based on bulk susceptibilities, which has not proved adequate to explain the conflicting experimental results. By properly formulating the detailed procedure for dealing with the necessary orientational averages, the present theory discloses a relationship between the coherent process of second harmonic generation and a directed component of its incoherent counterpart, hyper-Rayleigh scattering. Inter alia, the theory explains the SHG detected in purple membrane suspensions. The polarisation features of the harmonic evolution are also considered more generally, and in particular it is shown that the SHG signal will persist under conditions of circularly polarised pumping. This specific polarisation feature will allow experimental validation of the theory.
A microchip laser with intracavity second-harmonic generation
Derzhavin, S I; Mashkovskii, D A; Timoshkin, V N
2008-12-31
A short-pulse 'green' 532-nm Nd{sup 3+}:YVO{sub 4} and KTiOPO{sub 4} microchip laser with intracavity second-harmonic generation, which is pumped by a 809-nm semiconductor laser diode, is developed. (lasers. amplifiers)
Imaging Collagen Orientation Using Polarization-Modulated Second Harmonic Generation
Stoller, P; Celliers, P M; Reiser, K M; Rubenchik, A M
2002-01-10
We use polarization-modulated second harmonic generation to image fiber orientation in collagen tissues, with an axial resolution of about 10 {micro}m and a transverse resolution of up to 1 {micro}m. A linearly polarized ultra-short pulse (200 fs) Ti:Sapphire laser beam is modulated using an electro-optic modulator and quarter-wave plate combination and focused onto a translation stage mounted sample using a microscope objective. The generated second harmonic light is collected using a photomultiplier tube and demodulated using phase sensitive detection to obtain signal intensity and fiber orientation information. In order to obtain second harmonic generation images of different types of collagen organization, we analyze several different tissues, including rat-tail tendon, mouse aorta, mouse fibrotic liver, and porcine skin. We can use our technique to image fibrotic tissue in histological sections of damaged liver and to identify burned tissue in porcine skin to a depth of a few hundred microns. Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation potentially could be a useful clinical technique for diagnosing collagen related disease or damage, especially in the skin.
Imaging collagen orientation using polarization-modulated second harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoller, Patrick C.; Celliers, Peter M.; Reiser, Karen M.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.
2002-06-01
We use polarization-modulated second harmonic generation to image fiber orientation in collagen tissues, with an axial resolution of about 10 micrometers and a transverse resolution of up to 1 micrometers . A linearly polarized ultra-short pulse (200 fs) Ti:Sapphire laser beam is modulated using an electro-optic modulator and quarter-wave plate combination and focused onto a translation stage mounted sample using a microscope objective. The generated second harmonic light is collected using a photomultiplier tube and demodulated using phase sensitive detection to obtain signal intensity and fiber orientation information. In order to obtain second harmonic generation images of different types of collagen organization, we analyze several different tissues, including rat-tail tendon, mouse aorta, mouse fibrotic liver, and porcine skin. We can use our technique to image fibrotic tissue in histological sections of damaged liver and to identify burned tissue in porcine skin to a depth of a few hundred microns. Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation potentially could be a useful clinical technique for diagnosing collagen related disease or damage, especially in the skin.
Third harmonic generation in phase-matched alkali metal vapors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bloom, D. M.; Young, J. F.; Harris, S. E.; Bekkers, G. W.
1975-01-01
We report improvements in conversion efficiency for third harmonic generation in sodium and rubidium vapor. 30-psec pulses of radiation at 1.064 micron have been converted to 0.3547 micron with an energy conversion efficiency of 10%. Factors limiting conversion efficiency are discussed.
Atomic photoionization experiment by harmonic-generation spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, M. V.; Sarantseva, T. S.; Manakov, N. L.; Fulfer, K. D.; Wilson, B. P.; Troß, J.; Ren, X.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Silaev, A. A.; Vvedenskii, N. V.; Starace, Anthony F.; Trallero-Herrero, C. A.
2016-03-01
Measurements of the high-order-harmonic generation yield of the argon (Ar) atom driven by a strong elliptically polarized laser field are shown to completely determine the field-free differential photoionization cross section of Ar, i.e., the energy dependence of both the angle-integrated photoionization cross section and the angular distribution asymmetry parameter.
Plasma structures for quasiphase matched high harmonic generation
Sheinfux, A. H.; Henis, Z.; Levin, M.; Zigler, A.
2011-04-04
A scheme for creation of periodic plasma structures by ablating a lithographic pattern is demonstrated. A proof of principle experiment was conducted, and plasma parameters were measured as a function of time with spatial resolution <10 and 100 {mu}m periodicity. Several possible applications, in particular, quasiphase matching for high harmonic generation in plasma are considered.
Modulation compression for short wavelength harmonic generation
Qiang, J.
2010-01-11
Laser modulator is used to seed free electron lasers. In this paper, we propose a scheme to compress the initial laser modulation in the longitudinal phase space by using two opposite sign bunch compressors and two opposite sign energy chirpers. This scheme could potentially reduce the initial modulation wavelength by a factor of C and increase the energy modulation amplitude by a factor of C, where C is the compression factor of the first bunch compressor. Such a compressed energy modulation can be directly used to generate short wavelength current modulation with a large bunching factor.
Imaging parameters on third harmonic transmit phasing for tissue harmonic generation.
Shen, Che-Chou; Wang, Yu-Chun; Yeh, Chih-Kuang
2008-06-01
In third harmonic (3f0) transmit phasing, transmit waveforms comprising fundamental (f0) signal and 3f0 signal are used to generate both frequency-sum and frequency-difference components for manipulation of tissue harmonic amplitude. Nevertheless, the acoustic propagation of 3f0 transmit signal suffers from more severe attenuation and phase aberration than the f0 signal and hence degrades the performance of 3f0 transmit phasing. Besides, 3f0 transmit parameters such as aperture size and signal bandwidth are also influential in 3f0 transmit phasing. In this study, extensive simulations were performed to investigate the effects of these imaging parameters. Results indicate that the harmonic enhancement and suppression in 3f0 transmit phasing are compromised when the magnitude of frequency-difference component decreases in the presence of tissue attenuation and phase aberration. To compensate for the reduced frequency-difference component, a higher 3f0 transmit amplitude can be used. When the transmit parameters are concerned, a smaller 3f0 transmit aperture can provide more axially uniform harmonic enhancement and more effective suppression of harmonic amplitude. In addition, the spectral leakage signal also interferes with tissue harmonics and degrades the efficacy of 3f0 transmit phasing. Our results suggest that, in the method of 3f0 transmit phasing, the transmit amplitude, phase and aperture size of 3f0 signal should remain adjustable for optimization of clinical performance. Besides, multipulse sequences such as pulse inversion are also favorable for leakage removal in 3f0 transmit phasing.
High-order harmonic generation in a capillary discharge
Rocca, Jorge J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Mumane, Margaret M.; Gaudiosi, David; Grisham, Michael E.; Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Reagan, Brendan A.
2010-06-01
A pre-ionized medium created by a capillary discharge results in more efficient use of laser energy in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from ions. It extends the cutoff photon energy, and reduces the distortion of the laser pulse as it propagates down the waveguide. The observed enhancements result from a combination of reduced ionization energy loss and reduced ionization-induced defocusing of the driving laser as well as waveguiding of the driving laser pulse. The discharge plasma also provides a means to spectrally tune the harmonics by tailoring the initial level of ionization of the medium.
Effect of structural modification on second harmonic generation in collagen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoller, Patrick C.; Reiser, Karen M.; Celliers, Peter M.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.
2003-07-01
The effects of structural perturbation on second harmonic generation in collagen were investigated. Type I collagen fascicles obtained from rat tails were structurally modified by increasing nonenzymatic cross-linking, by thermal denaturation, by collagenase digestion, or by dehydration. Changes in polarization dependence were observed in the dehydrated samples. Surprisingly, no changes in polarization dependence were observed in highly crosslinked samples, despite significant alterations in packing structure. Complete thermal denaturation and collagenase digestion produced samples with no detectable second harmonic signal. Prior to loss of signal, no change in polarization dependence was observed in partially heated or digested collagen.
Effect of Structural Modification on Second Harmonic Generation in Collagen
Stoller, P C; Reiser, K M; Celliers, P M; Rubenchik, A M
2003-04-04
The effects of structural perturbation on second harmonic generation in collagen were investigated. Type I collagen fascicles obtained from rat tails were structurally modified by increasing nonenzymatic cross-linking, by thermal denaturation, by collagenase digestion, or by dehydration. Changes in polarization dependence were observed in the dehydrated samples. Surprisingly, no changes in polarization dependence were observed in highly crosslinked samples, despite significant alterations in packing structure. Complete thermal denaturation and collagenase digestion produced samples with no detectable second harmonic signal. Prior to loss of signal, no change in polarization dependence was observed in partially heated or digested collagen.
Quantum Path Interferences in High-Order Harmonic Generation
Zaier, A.; Holler, M.; Guandalini, A.; Schapper, F.; Biegert, J.; Gallmann, L.; Keller, U.; Wyatt, A. S.; Monmayrant, A.; Walmsley, I. A.; Cormier, E.; Auguste, T.; Caumes, J. P.; Salieres, P.
2008-04-11
We have investigated the intensity dependence of high-order harmonic generation in argon when the two shortest quantum paths contribute to the harmonic emission. For the first time to our knowledge, experimental conditions were found to clearly observe interference between these two quantum paths that are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. This result is a first step towards the direct experimental characterization of the full single-atom dipole moment and demonstrates an unprecedented accuracy of quantum path control on an attosecond time scale.
Generation and radiation of high power line harmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostrov, A. V.; Gushchin, M. E.; Strikovskii, A. V.
2017-07-01
The problems of frequency spectrum generation, radiation, and reception of signals at high power line (PL) harmonics of 50/60 Hz, and high PL harmonics caused by the use of thyristor power controllers in control circuits of large electricity consumers are discussed. The PL for frequencies of 2-8 kHz is considered a sufficiently effective traveling-wave antenna (the so-called Beverage antenna). The response of the spectrometer to a periodic sequence of PL radiation broadband pulses is discussed. The effects of a slow signal frequency drift at high PL harmonics and the occurrence of pulse components with fast frequency drift on the dynamic spectra, which in the literature is often associated with the magnetospheric trigger radiation, are considered.
High-order Harmonic Generation in Ultra Thin Plasma Foil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shuai, Bin; Shen, Baifei; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan
Via l-D Particle In Cell (PIC) simulations, we investigated the high-order harmonic emission from flim plasma foils irradiated by two circular- polarized, counter-propagating laser pulses with their electrical vectors rotating in different directions. More than 200 harmonics can be generated with a laser intensity of 1021 W/cm2. When the duration of laser gets shorter, the frequencies of harmonics were severely modulated due to the Doppler shift caused by the movement of the plasma boundary when the foil is being compressed. The Doppler shift can be estimated by the simulation results, and this effect can also be reduced or modified by introducing frequency chirping to the pump pulse.
Sensitivity of high-order-harmonic generation to aromaticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alharbi, A. F.; Boguslavskiy, A. E.; Thiré, N.; Schmidt, B. E.; Légaré, F.; Brabec, T.; Spanner, M.; Bhardwaj, V. R.
2015-10-01
The influence of cyclic electron delocalization associated with aromaticity on the high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) process is investigated in organic molecules. We show that the aromatic molecules benzene (C6H6 ) and furan (C4H4O ) produce high-order harmonics more efficiently than nonaromatic systems having the same ring structure. We also demonstrate that the relative strength of plateau harmonics is sensitive to the aromaticity in five-membered-ring molecules using furan, pyrrole (C4H4NH ), and thiophene (C4H4S ). Numerical time-dependent Schrödinger equation simulations of total orientation-averaged strong-field ionization yields show that the HHG from aromatic molecules comes predominantly from the two highest π molecular orbitals, which contribute to the aromatic character of the systems.
Multilevel perspective on high-order harmonic generation in solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Mengxi; Browne, Dana A.; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Gaarde, Mette B.
2016-12-01
We investigate high-order harmonic generation in a solid, modeled as a multilevel system dressed by a strong infrared laser field. We show that the cutoff energies and the relative strengths of the multiple plateaus that emerge in the harmonic spectrum can be understood both qualitatively and quantitatively by considering a combination of adiabatic and diabatic processes driven by the strong field. Such a model was recently used to interpret the multiple plateaus exhibited in harmonic spectra generated by solid argon and krypton [G. Ndabashimiye et al., Nature 534, 520 (2016), 10.1038/nature17660]. We also show that when the multilevel system originates from the Bloch state at the Γ point of the band structure, the laser-dressed states are equivalent to the Houston states [J. B. Krieger and G. J. Iafrate, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5494 (1986), 10.1103/PhysRevB.33.5494] and will therefore map out the band structure away from the Γ point as the laser field increases. This leads to a semiclassical three-step picture in momentum space that describes the high-order harmonic generation process in a solid.
Theory of Harmonic Generation on a Traveling Wave Tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, C. F.; Zhang, P.; Chernin, D.; Lau, Y. Y.; Simon, D. H.; Wong, P.; Greening, G.; Gilgenbach, R. M.
2015-11-01
In a klystron, charge overtaking of electrons leads to an infinity of AC current. The harmonic content therein has been calculated accurately, with or without space charge effects. This paper extends the klystron theory to a traveling wave tube (TWT). We calculate the harmonic content on the beam current on a TWT that results from an input signal of a single frequency. We assume that the electron motion is described by linear theory, which is generally accurate over 85 percent of the tube length. These linear orbits may lead to charge overtaking and therefore harmonic generation, as in a klystron. We calculate the buildup of harmonic content as a function of distance from the input, and compare these analytic results with the CHRISTINE code. Reasonable agreement was found. A dimensionless ``bunching parameter'' for TWT, X = sqrt[(Pi/Pb)/C], is identified, which characterizes the harmonic content in the AC current, where Pi is the input power of the signal, Pb is the DC beam power, and C is Pierce's gain parameter. Supported by AFOSR FA9550-14-1-0309, FA9550-15-1-0097, ONR N00014-13-1-0566, and L-3 Communications.
Xiang, D; Colby, E; Dunning, M; Gilevich, S; Hast, C; Jobe, K; McCormick, D; Nelson, J; Raubenheimer, T O; Soong, K; Stupakov, G; Szalata, Z; Walz, D; Weathersby, S; Woodley, M
2012-01-13
Echo-enabled harmonic generation free electron lasers hold great promise for the generation of fully coherent radiation in x-ray wavelengths. Here we report the first evidence of high harmonics from the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique in the realistic scenario where the laser energy modulation is comparable to the beam slice energy spread. In this experiment, coherent radiation at the seventh harmonic of the second seed laser is generated when the energy modulation amplitude is about 2-3 times the slice energy spread. The experiment confirms the underlying physics of echo-enabled harmonic generation and may have a strong impact on emerging seeded x-ray free electron lasers that are capable of generating laserlike x rays which will advance many areas of science.
Xiang, D.; Colby, E.; Dunning, M.; Gilevich, S.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; McCormick, D.; Nelson, J.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; Soong, K.; Stupakov, G.; Szalata, Z.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woodle, M.; /SLAC
2012-02-15
Echo-enabled harmonic generation free electron lasers hold great promise for the generation of fully coherent radiation in x-ray wavelengths. Here we report the first evidence of high harmonics from the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique in the realistic scenario where the laser energy modulation is comparable to the beam slice energy spread. In this experiment, coherent radiation at the seventh harmonic of the second seed laser is generated when the energy modulation amplitude is about 2-3 times the slice energy spread. The experiment confirms the underlying physics of echo-enabled harmonic generation and may have a strong impact on emerging seeded x-ray free electron lasers that are capable of generating laserlike x rays which will advance many areas of science.
High-order harmonic generation via multicolor beam superposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarikhani, S.; Batebi, S.
2017-09-01
In this article, femtosecond pulses, especially designed by multicolor beam superposition are used for high-order harmonic generation. To achieve this purpose, the spectral difference between the beams, and their width are taken to be small values, i.e., less than 1 nm. Applying a Gaussian distribution to the beam intensities leads to a more distinct pulses. Also, it is seen that these pulses have an intrinsic linear chirp. By changing the width of the Gaussian distributions, we can have several pulses with different bandwidths and hence various pulse duration. Thus, the study of these broadband pulse influences, in contrast with monochromatic pulses, on the atomic or molecular targets was achievable. So, we studied numerically the effect of these femtosecond pulses on behavior of the high-order harmonics generated after interaction between the pulse and the atomic hydrogen. For this study, we adjusted the beam intensities so that the produced pulse intensity be in the over-barrier ionization region. This makes the power spectrum of high-order harmonics more extensive. Cutoff frequency of the power spectrum along with the first harmonic intensity and its shift from the incident pulse are investigated. Additionally, maximum ionization probability with respect to the pulse bandwidth was also studied.
Nonclassical correlations and entanglement in intracavity second harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Oo-Kaw
Quantum information science is a rapidly growing field of research that combines the techniques developed in quantum optics with those of information science. One primary goal of the field is to implement a quantum information network using non-classical light sources such as entangled photon pairs. The process of parametric down conversion has been widely used to generate entangled photons as well as twin beams that have intensity correlations below the shot noise limit. The complementary process - second harmonic generation (SHG) is less well studied in comparison. This dissertation presents the techniques of generating non-classical optical fields using SHG in the continuous variable regime of quantum mechanics. Using a potassium niobate crystal in a resonator, bright blue light was generated through frequency doubling of an infrared beam. We report an observation of 1 dB noise reduction in the amplitude fluctuations of the harmonic output. By double-passing the nonlinear crystal sitting inside a resonator, we set up a singly resonant system which allows two harmonic beams to escape at two different ports. Using a self-consistent propagation model and solutions of the traveling wave SHG, we show that such a dual ported cavity can be used to generate entangled beams with nonclassical intensity correlations in the harmonic outputs. We obtain 0.9 dB of twin-beam intensity correlation from the resonator and demonstrate the inseparability of the two beams with a balanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In addition to the generation of quantum correlated states of light, we also investigate the dynamic of coherent light in SHG such as the generation of optical vortices. We demonstrate generation and frequency doubling of unit charge vortices in a linear astigmatic resonator. Through an appropriate alignment of a near confocal cavity, we couple higher order transverse modes of the fundamental laser beam into a vortex mode. With the presence of a nonlinear crystal, a
Self-Excitation and Harmonics in Wind Power Generation
Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Romanowitz, H.; Yinger, R.
2005-11-01
Traditional wind turbines are commonly equipped with induction generators because they are inexpensive, rugged, and require very little maintenance. Unfortunately, induction generators require reactive power from the grid to operate; capacitor compensation is often used. Because the level of required reactive power varies with the output power, the capacitor compensation must be adjusted as the output power varies. The interactions among the wind turbine, the power network, and the capacitor compensation are important aspects of wind generation that may result in self-excitation and higher harmonic content in the output current. This paper examines the factors that control these phenomena and gives some guidelines on how they can be controlled or eliminated.
Second harmonic generation and enhancement in microfibers and loop resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gouveia, Marcelo A.; Lee, Timothy; Ismaeel, Rand; Ding, Ming; Broderick, Neil G. R.; Cordeiro, Cristiano M. B.; Brambilla, Gilberto
2013-05-01
We model and experimentally investigate second harmonic generation in silica microfibers and loop resonators, in which the second order nonlinearity arises from the glass-air surface dipole and bulk multipole contributions. In the loop resonator, the recirculation of the pump light on resonance is used to increase the conversion. The effect of the loop parameters, such as coupling and loss, is theoretically studied to determine their influence on the resonance enhancement. Experimentally, microfibers were fabricated with diameters around 0.7 μm to generate the intermodally phase matched second harmonic with an efficiency up to 4.2 × 10-8 when pumped with 5 ns 1.55 μm pulses with a peak power of 90 W. After reconfiguring the microfiber into a 1 mm diameter loop, the efficiency was resonantly enhanced by 5.7 times.
Corneal imaging by second and third harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brocas, Arnaud; Jay, Louis; Mottay, Eric; Brunette, Isabelle; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki
2008-02-01
Advanced imaging methods are essential tools for improved outcome of refractive surgery. Second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy are noninvasive high-resolution imaging methods, which can discriminate the different layers of the cornea, thus having strong impact on the outcome of laser surgery. In this work, we use an Ytterbium femtosecond laser as the laser source, the longer wavelength of which reduces scattering, and allows simultaneous SHG and THG imaging. We present SHG and THG images and profiles of pig corneas that clearly show the anterior surface of the cornea, the entry in the stroma and its end, and the posterior surface of the cornea. These observations allow localizing the epithelium, the stroma and the endothelium. Other experiments give information about the structure and cytology of the corneal layers.
Enhanced Harmonic Generation via Breaking of Phase-Matching Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sergan, Ekaterina; Gibson, George
2016-05-01
We discuss experimental results of third harmonic generation (THG) with a focused Gaussian beam in the semi-infinite limit, using two methods. The first method involves placing a metal septum at the waist such that the laser drills a small pinhole, which in turn disrupts the beam after the waist. The second method uses a very thin septum as a separator for two gasses: one with a large third order susceptibility (before the focus), and the other with a small susceptibility (after the focus). Both methods inhibit harmonic generation immediately after the beam waist, leading to increased conversion efficiency and better mode quality. Our work involves studies of conversion efficiency with varying septum thickness and gas pressure, and the results are compared to computer simulations. We would like to acknowledge support from the NSF under Grant No. PHY-1306845.
Efficient Second-Harmonic Generation in Nanocrystalline Silicon Nanoparticles.
Makarov, Sergey V; Petrov, Mihail I; Zywietz, Urs; Milichko, Valentin; Zuev, Dmitry; Lopanitsyna, Natalia; Kuksin, Alexey; Mukhin, Ivan; Zograf, George; Ubyivovk, Evgeniy; Smirnova, Daria A; Starikov, Sergey; Chichkov, Boris N; Kivshar, Yuri S
2017-05-10
Recent trends to employ high-index dielectric particles in nanophotonics are motivated by their reduced dissipative losses and large resonant enhancement of nonlinear effects at the nanoscale. Because silicon is a centrosymmetric material, the studies of nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanoparticles have been targeting primarily the third-harmonic generation effects. Here we demonstrate, both experimentally and theoretically, that resonantly excited nanocrystalline silicon nanoparticles fabricated by an optimized laser printing technique can exhibit strong second-harmonic generation (SHG) effects. We attribute an unexpectedly high yield of the nonlinear conversion to a nanocrystalline structure of nanoparticles supporting the Mie resonances. The demonstrated efficient SHG at green light from a single silicon nanoparticle is 2 orders of magnitude higher than that from unstructured silicon films. This efficiency is significantly higher than that of many plasmonic nanostructures and small silicon nanoparticles in the visible range, and it can be useful for a design of nonlinear nanoantennas and silicon-based integrated light sources.
Monitoring microstructural evolution in irradiated steel with second harmonic generation
Matlack, Kathryn H.; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Wall, James J.; Qu, Jianmin
2015-03-31
Material damage in structural components is driven by microstructural evolution that occurs at low length scales and begins early in component life. In metals, these microstructural features are known to cause measurable changes in the acoustic nonlinearity parameter. Physically, the interaction of a monochromatic ultrasonic wave with microstructural features such as dislocations, precipitates, and vacancies, generates a second harmonic wave that is proportional to the acoustic nonlinearity parameter. These nonlinear ultrasonic techniques thus have the capability to evaluate initial material damage, particularly before crack initiation and propagation occur. This paper discusses how the nonlinear ultrasonic technique of second harmonic generation can be used as a nondestructive evaluation tool to monitor microstructural changes in steel, focusing on characterizing neutron radiation embrittlement in nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels. Current experimental evidence and analytical models linking microstructural evolution with changes in the acoustic nonlinearity parameter are summarized.
Continuous third harmonic generation in a terahertz driven modulated nanowire
Hamilton, Kathleen E. De, Amrit; Pryadko, Leonid P.; Kovalev, Alexey A.
2015-06-07
We consider the possibility of observing continuous third-harmonic generation using a strongly driven, single-band one-dimensional metal. In the absence of scattering, the quantum efficiency of frequency tripling for such a system can be as high as 93%. Combining the Floquet quasi-energy spectrum with the Keldysh Green's function technique, we derive a semiclassical master equation for a one-dimensional band of strongly and rapidly driven electrons in the presence of weak scattering by phonons. The power absorbed from the driving field is continuously dissipated by phonon modes, leading to a quasi-equilibrium in the electron distribution. We use the Kronig-Penney model with varying effective mass to establish the growth parameters of an InAs/InP nanowire near optimal for third harmonic generation at terahertz frequency range.
Second and Third Harmonic Generation in Metal-Based Nanostructures
2010-01-01
electrons. It has been shown that contributions to second harmonic ( SH ) generation from bound charges can be significant [10]. Free and bound...complex dielectric function defined at the fundamental and the SH frequencies [7, 11]. Bound electrons contribute to the linear dielectric constant of...fundamental (800nm) and SH (400nm) fields was modeled using free electrons only. That kind of approach forces the use of two distinct, free-electron plasma
Third-harmonic generation in phase-matched Rb vapor.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, J. F.; Bjorklund, G. C.; Kung, A. H.; Miles, R. B.; Harris, S. E.
1971-01-01
The generation of 0.3547-micron radiation was performed by tripling 1.064-micron radiation in a phase-matched mixture of rubidium vapor and xenon. A third-harmonic nonlinear susceptibility in Rb vapor is confirmed. It is about 100,000 times greater than that of He. This large susceptibility is due to the large oscillator strengths and resonant enhancements resulting from Rb transitions in the near infrared, visible, and UV.
An Atomic Photoionization Experiment by Harmonic Generation Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trallero, Carlos; Frolov, Mikhail; Sarantseva, Tatiana S.; Manakov, Nikolay; Fulfer, Kristen D.; Wilson, Benjamin; Troß, Jan; Ren, Xiaoming; Poliakoff, Erwin; Silaev, Alexander A.; Vvedenskii, Nikolay; Starace, Anthony
2016-05-01
Measurements of the high-order harmonic generation yield of the argon (Ar) atom driven by a strong elliptically polarized laser field are shown to completely determine the field-free differential photoionization cross section of Ar, i.e., the energy dependence of both the angle-integrated photoionization cross section and the angular distribution asymmetry parameter. NSF EPSCoR Track II Nebraska-Kansas Awards No. 1430519 and No. 1430493.
An extreme ultraviolet interferometer using high order harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laban, D. E.; Palmer, A. J.; Wallace, W. C.; Gaffney, N. S.; Notermans, R. P. M. J. W.; Clevis, T. T. J.; Pullen, M. G.; Jiang, D.; Quiney, H. M.; Litvinyuk, I. V.; Kielpinski, D.; Sang, R. T.
2014-04-01
We present a new interferometer technique based on the interference of high-order harmonic generation radiation from translatable successive gas jets. The phase shifts in the apparatus are shown to originate from the Gouy phase shift of the driving laser. The technique can be used to deliver time delays between light pulses and we demonstrate the unprecedented capability of delivering pulses of extreme ultraviolet light delayed in time by as small as 100 zeptoseconds.
UV x-ray free electron lasers through high-gain single pass amplifier: Basic principles and issues
Kim, K.J.
1994-09-01
The author reviews the basic principles of high gain free electron laser amplifier in single pass configuration for generation of intense, tunable radiation for wavelength shorter than 1,000 {angstrom}. Two schemes are discussed: for wavelength region between 1,000--100 {angstrom}, the high gain harmonic generation of a coherent input radiation can be used. For x-ray wavelength as short as a few {angstrom}, the self-amplified spontaneous emission is currently the only known free electron laser scheme. The author also presents a brief introduction of various key issues in realizing these schemes, which will be discussed in detail in other papers in these proceedings.
High gain preamplifier based on optical parametric amplification
Jovanovic, Igor; Bonner, Randal A.
2004-08-10
A high-gain preamplifier based on optical parametric amplification. A first nonlinear crystal is operatively connected to a second nonlinear crystal. A first beam relay telescope is operatively connected to a second beam relay telescope, to the first nonlinear crystal, and to the second nonlinear crystal. A first harmonic beamsplitter is operatively connected to a second harmonic beamsplitter, to the first nonlinear crystal, to the second nonlinear crystal, to the first beam relay telescope, and to the second beam relay telescope.
Characteristics of pulse width for an enhanced second harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yun; Hyodo, Masaharu; Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko; Zhu, Yun; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zhu, Yong; Wang, Guiling; Chen, Chuangtian; Watanabe, Shuntaro; Watanabe, Masayoshi
2017-03-01
Temporal characteristics of a cavity enhancement second harmonic (SH) generation for picosecond laser pulse are investigated. We experimentally measured pulse width changes that were indued by group velocity mismatching (GVM), SH process, and enhancement cavity. It indicates that the generated pulse width is a combined effect of the GVM and SH process. Meanwhile, the effect of the enhancement cavity can be avoided by controlling its free spectrum range. A interferometric autocorrelator with a KBBF-PCD as nonlinear crystal is also composed and this extends the measurement light wavelength below 410 nm.
Quantitative second-harmonic generation microscopy in collagen
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoller, Patrick; Celliers, Peter M.; Reiser, Karen M.; Rubenchik, Alexander M.
2003-09-01
The second-harmonic signal in collagen, even in highly organized samples such as rat tail tendon fascicles, varies significantly with position. Previous studies suggest that this variability may be due to the parallel and antiparallel orientation of neighboring collagen fibrils. We applied high-resolution second-harmonic generation microscopy to confirm this hypothesis. Studies in which the focal spot diameter was varied from ~1 to ~6 μm strongly suggest that regions in which collagen fibrils have the same orientation in rat tail tendon are likely to be less than ~1 μm in diameter. These measurements required accurate determination of the focal spot size achieved by use of different microscope objectives; we developed a technique that uses second-harmonic generation in a quartz reference to measure the focal spot diameter directly. We also used the quartz reference to determine a lower limit (dXXX > 0.4 pm/V) for the magnitude of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility in collagen.
High harmonic generation from impulsively aligned SO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devin, Julien; Wang, Song; Kaldun, Andreas; Bucksbaum, Phil
2016-05-01
Previous work in high harmonics generation (HHG) in aligned molecular gases has mainly focused on rotational dynamics in order to determine the contributions of different orbitals to the ionization step. In our experiment, we focus on the shorter timescale of vibrational dynamics. We generate high harmonics from impulsively aligned SO2 molecules in a gas jet and record the emitted attosecond pulse trains in a home-built high resolution vacuum ultra violet (VUV) spectrometer. Using the high temporal resolution of our setup, we are able to map out the effects of vibrational wavepackets with a sub-femtosecond resolution. The target molecule, SO2 gas, is impulsively aligned by a near-infrared laser pulse and has accessible vibrations on the timescale of the short laser pulse used. We present first experimental results for the response to this excitation in high-harmonics. We observe both fast oscillations in the time domain as well as shifts of the VUV photon energy outside of the pulse overlaps. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division and by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship.
Anisotropic high-harmonic generation in bulk crystals
You, Yong Sing; Reis, David A.; Ghimire, Shambhu
2016-11-21
The microscopic valence electron density determines the optical, electronic, structural and thermal properties of materials. However, current techniques for measuring this electron charge density are limited: for example, scanning tunnelling microscopy is confined to investigations at the surface, and electron diffraction requires very thin samples to avoid multiple scattering. Therefore, an optical method is desirable for measuring the valence charge density of bulk materials. Since the discovery of high-harmonic generation (HHG) in solids, there has been growing interest in using HHG to probe the electronic structure of solids. Here, using single-crystal MgO, we demonstrate that high-harmonic generation in solids ismore » sensitive to interatomic bonding. We find that harmonic efficiency is enhanced (diminished) for semi-classical electron trajectories that connect (avoid) neighbouring atomic sites in the crystal. Finally, these results indicate the possibility of using materials’ own electrons for retrieving the interatomic potential and thus the valence electron density, and perhaps even wavefunctions, in an all-optical setting.« less
Anisotropic high-harmonic generation in bulk crystals
You, Yong Sing; Reis, David A.; Ghimire, Shambhu
2016-11-21
The microscopic valence electron density determines the optical, electronic, structural and thermal properties of materials. However, current techniques for measuring this electron charge density are limited: for example, scanning tunnelling microscopy is confined to investigations at the surface, and electron diffraction requires very thin samples to avoid multiple scattering. Therefore, an optical method is desirable for measuring the valence charge density of bulk materials. Since the discovery of high-harmonic generation (HHG) in solids, there has been growing interest in using HHG to probe the electronic structure of solids. Here, using single-crystal MgO, we demonstrate that high-harmonic generation in solids is sensitive to interatomic bonding. We find that harmonic efficiency is enhanced (diminished) for semi-classical electron trajectories that connect (avoid) neighbouring atomic sites in the crystal. Finally, these results indicate the possibility of using materials’ own electrons for retrieving the interatomic potential and thus the valence electron density, and perhaps even wavefunctions, in an all-optical setting.
Emission times in high-order harmonic generation
Chirila, C. C.; Dreissigacker, I.; Lein, M.; Zwan, E. V. van der
2010-03-15
We calculate the emission times of the radiation in high-order harmonic generation using the Gabor transform of numerical data obtained from solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in one, two, and three dimensions. Both atomic and molecular systems, including nuclear motion, are investigated. Lewenstein model calculations are used to gauge the performance of the Gabor method. The resulting emission times are compared against the classical simple man's model as well as against the more accurate quantum orbit model based on complex trajectories. The influence of the range of the binding potential (long or short) on the level of agreement is assessed. Our analysis reveals that the short-trajectory harmonics are emitted slightly earlier than predicted by the quantum orbit model. This partially explains recent experimental observations for atoms and molecules. Furthermore, we observe a distinct signature of two-center interference in the emission times for H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}.
Generating function formula of heat transfer in harmonic networks.
Saito, Keiji; Dhar, Abhishek
2011-04-01
We consider heat transfer across an arbitrary classical harmonic network connected to two heat baths at different temperatures. The network has N positional degrees of freedom, of which N(L) are connected to a bath at temperature T(L) and N(R) are connected to a bath at temperature T(R). We derive an exact formula for the cumulant generating function for heat transfer between the two baths. The formula is valid even for N(L)≠N(R) and satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry. Since harmonic crystals in three dimensions are known to exhibit different regimes of transport such as ballistic, anomalous, and diffusive, our result implies validity of the fluctuation theorem in all regimes. Our exact formula provides a powerful tool to study other properties of nonequilibrium current fluctuations.
Generating function formula of heat transfer in harmonic networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Keiji; Dhar, Abhishek
2011-04-01
We consider heat transfer across an arbitrary classical harmonic network connected to two heat baths at different temperatures. The network has N positional degrees of freedom, of which NL are connected to a bath at temperature TL and NR are connected to a bath at temperature TR. We derive an exact formula for the cumulant generating function for heat transfer between the two baths. The formula is valid even for NL≠NR and satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation symmetry. Since harmonic crystals in three dimensions are known to exhibit different regimes of transport such as ballistic, anomalous, and diffusive, our result implies validity of the fluctuation theorem in all regimes. Our exact formula provides a powerful tool to study other properties of nonequilibrium current fluctuations.
Higher harmonics generation in relativistic electron beam with virtual cathode
Kurkin, S. A. Badarin, A. A.; Koronovskii, A. A.; Hramov, A. E.
2014-09-15
The study of the microwave generation regimes with intense higher harmonics taking place in a high-power vircator consisting of a relativistic electron beam with a virtual cathode has been made. The characteristics of these regimes, in particular, the typical spectra and their variations with the change of the system parameters (beam current, the induction of external magnetic field) as well as physical processes occurring in the system have been analyzed by means of 3D electromagnetic simulation. It has been shown that the system under study demonstrates the tendency to the sufficient growth of the amplitudes of higher harmonics in the spectrum of current oscillations in the VC region with the increase of beam current. The obtained results allow us to consider virtual cathode oscillators as promising high power mmw-to-THz sources.
Quasi-phase-matched high-order harmonic generation using tunable pulse trains.
O'Keeffe, Kevin; Lloyd, David T; Hooker, Simon M
2014-04-07
A simple technique for generating trains of ultrafast pulses is demonstrated in which the linear separation between pulses can be varied continuously over a wide range. These pulse trains are used to achieve tunable quasi-phase-matching of high harmonic generation over a range of harmonic orders up to the harmonic cut-off, resulting in enhancements of the harmonic intensity in excess of an order of magnitude. The peak enhancement of the harmonics is clearly shown to depend on the separation between pulses, as well as the number of pulses in the train, representing an easily tunable source of quasi-phase-matched high harmonic generation.
1997-07-06
Areas of rocky Martian terrain are seen in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 2. Portions of a lander petal and deflated airbag are at lower left. The dark disk at center is the high-gain antenna, and the silver cylindrical objects at upper right are part of the antenna's mechanism. An area of relatively smooth terrain is seen at upper right, which may offer clues to how this area was formed, and may be a future target for Sojourner's studies. The black area at lower right and small strip at top center is missing data. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00625
Vacuum high-harmonic generation and electromagnetic shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Böhl, P.; King, B.; Ruhl, H.
2016-04-01
> When one takes into account the presence of virtual charged states in the quantum vacuum, a nonlinear self-interaction can arise in the propagation of electromagnetic fields. This self-interaction is often referred to as `real photon-photon scattering'. When the centre-of-mass energy of colliding photons is much lower than the rest energy of an electron-positron pair, this quantum effect can be included in the classical field equations of motion as a vacuum current and charge density using the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian. Using analytical and numerical methods for subcritical fields, the intrinsic solution to Maxwell's equations has been found for counterpropagating probe and pump plane waves in the presence of vacuum four- and six-wave mixing. In the corresponding all-order solution for the scattered probe, a route to vacuum high-harmonic generation is identified in which a long phase length can compensate for the weakness of interacting fields. The resulting shocks in the probe carrier wave and envelope are studied for different parameter regimes and polarisation set-ups. In this special issue, we study two additional set-ups: that of a slowly varying single-cycle background to highlight the effect of an oscillating background on the probe harmonic spectrum, and that of a few-cycle probe to highlight the smoothing of the harmonic peaks produced by a wider spectrum of probe photons. We also correct sign errors in an earlier publication.
Harmonic development of tide-generating potential of terrestrial planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudryavtsev, Sergey M.
2008-08-01
The aim of this study is to obtain high-accurate harmonic developments of the tide-generating potential (TGP) of Mercury, Venus and Mars. The planets’ TGP values have been first calculated on the base of DE/LE-406 numerical planetary/lunar ephemerides over a long period of time and then processed by a new spectral analysis method. According to this method the development is directly made to Poisson series where both amplitudes and arguments of the series’ terms are high-degree polynomials of time. A new harmonic development of Mars TGP is made over the time period 1900 AD 2100 AD and includes 767 second-order Poisson series’ terms of minimum amplitude equal to 10-7 m2 s-2. Analogous series composing both Mercury and Venus TGP harmonic models are built over the time period 1000 AD 3000 AD and include 1,061 and 693 terms, respectively. A modification of the standard HW95 format for representation of the terrestrial planets’ TGP is proposed. The number of terms in the planets’ TGP models transformed to the modified HW95 format is 650 for Mercury, 422 for Venus, and 480 for Mars. The quality of the new developments of the terrestrial planets’ TGP is better than that of the similar developments obtained earlier.
Ohmae, Noriaki; Moriwaki, Shigenori; Mio, Norikatsu
2010-07-01
Second-generation gravitational wave detectors require a highly stable laser with an output power greater than 100 W to attain their target sensitivity. We have developed a frequency stabilization system for a 100-W injection-locked Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser. By placing an external wideband electro-optic modulator used as a fast-frequency actuator in the optical path of the slave output, we can circumvent a phase delay in the frequency control loop originating from the pole of an injection-locked slave cavity. Thus, we have developed an electro-optic modulator made of a MgO-doped stoichiometric LiNbO(3) crystal. Using this modulator, we achieve a frequency control bandwidth of 800 kHz and a control gain of 180 dB at 1 kHz. These values satisfy the requirement for a laser frequency control loop in second-generation gravitational wave detectors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohmae, Noriaki; Moriwaki, Shigenori; Mio, Norikatsu
2010-07-01
Second-generation gravitational wave detectors require a highly stable laser with an output power greater than 100 W to attain their target sensitivity. We have developed a frequency stabilization system for a 100-W injection-locked Nd:YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) laser. By placing an external wideband electro-optic modulator used as a fast-frequency actuator in the optical path of the slave output, we can circumvent a phase delay in the frequency control loop originating from the pole of an injection-locked slave cavity. Thus, we have developed an electro-optic modulator made of a MgO-doped stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal. Using this modulator, we achieve a frequency control bandwidth of 800 kHz and a control gain of 180 dB at 1 kHz. These values satisfy the requirement for a laser frequency control loop in second-generation gravitational wave detectors.
Reconstruction of complementary images in second harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Liang; Jin, Lei; Xue, Ping; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yi; Ma, Hui; Chen, Dieyan
2006-05-01
Second harmonic generation microscopy(SHGM) has become widely used to image biological samples. Due to the complexity of biological samples, more and more effort has been put on polarization imaging in SHGM technology to uncover their structures. In this work, we put forward a novel stitching method based on careful mathematical calculation, and accomplish it by rotating laser polarization. We first show its validity in imaging a perfectly synthesized bio-origin polymer poly (3-hyroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx). Then, we test its power by getting a true image of fibrillar collagen structure of rat-tail tendon.
Optical second harmonic generation from Langmuir-type molecular monolayers
Berkovic, G.; Rasing, Th.; Shen, Y.R.
1987-01-01
A single molecular layer is generally sufficient to produce observable optical second harmonic generation (SHG). Furthermore, the selection rules governing this process make the SHG from a single monolayer often stronger than that from the medium supporting the monolayer. We have studied SHG from various Langmuir-type monolayers (i.e., monolayers spread on a water surface) in the following contexts: Study of chemical reactions (e.g., polymerization) and two-dimensional phase transitions in molecular monolayers on water. Development of a new technique to evaluate optical nonlinear coefficients of organic molecules, and their relationship to the molecular structure.
High Harmonic Generation from Multiple Orbitals in N2
McFarland, B.; Farrell, Joseph P.; Bucksbaum, Philip H.; Guehr, Markus; /SLAC, Pulse /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2009-03-05
Molecular electronic states energetically below the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) should contribute to laser-driven high harmonic generation (HHG), but this behavior has not been observed previously. Our measurements of the HHG spectrum of N{sub 2} molecules aligned perpendicular to the laser polarization showed a maximum at the rotational half-revival. This feature indicates the influence of electrons occupying the orbital just below the N{sub 2} HOMO, referred to as the HOMO-1. Such observations of lower-lying orbitals are essential to understanding subfemtosecond/subangstrom electronic motion in laser-excited molecules.
Second-harmonic generation in a polymer Langmuir - Blodgett film
Ivanova, V N; Kudryavtsev, V V; Lebedeva, G K; Maslyanitsyn, I A; Shigorin, V D; Chudinova, G K
1998-09-30
Second-harmonic generation was used to investigate nonlinear optical properties and the structure of multilayer Langmuir - Blodgett films of a copolymer of fluoroalkylmethacrylate with methacrylates containing an azo dye and a cinnamoyl group inside a chain. Quantum-chemical calculations were made of the components of the molecular hyperpolarisability tensor in which the intermolecular interactions were taken into account. The orientation of nonlinear optical fragments of a polymer chain relative to the substrate and components of the quadratic optical susceptibility tensor of the film were determined. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Stokes vector formalism based second harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Jianjun; Mazumder, Nirmal; Tsai, Han-Ruei; Hu, Chih-Wei; Kao, Fu-Jen
2012-02-01
In this study, we have developed a four-channel Stokes vector formalism based second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to map and analyze SHG signal. A four-channel Stokesmeter setup is calibrated and integrated into a laser scanning microscope to measure and characterize the SH's corresponding Stokes parameters. We are demonstrating the use of SH and its Stokes parameters to visualize the birefringence and crystalline orientation of KDP and collagen. We believe the developed method can reveal unprecedented information for biomedical and biomaterial studies.
Nonresonant Recirculating Type II Second-Harmonic Generator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, T. Sean; Moore, Gerald T.
2004-04-01
We show an experimental proof of concept for a nonresonant recirculation method to increase the conversion efficiency of second-harmonic generation (SHG) with type II phase matching. As much as a factor-of-4 efficiency increase compared with that of single-pass SHG is possible, provided that the recirculation length is within the coherence length of the pump laser. Nonresonant recirculating SHG may be valuable in systems in which intracavity doubling is not practicable, such as high-power cw bulk solid-state or fiber lasers.
High-order harmonic generation from plasma plume pumped by 400 nm wavelength laser
Ganeev, Rashid A.; Elouga Bom, Luc B.; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki
2007-09-24
The authors present their study on high-order harmonic generation pumped by 400 nm wavelength laser from plasma plumes produced on the surfaces of various solid-state targets. The maximum harmonic cutoff was observed for Be plasma (31st harmonic, {lambda}=12.9 nm). They compared these results with harmonic generation pumped by 800 nm wavelength laser. The authors demonstrated single harmonic enhancement for Cr, Sn, Sb, and Mn plasmas. They also studied the use of varying the chirp of the pump laser to control the enhancement of single harmonics within the plateau.
Singly resonant second-harmonic-generation frequency combs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansson, T.; Leo, F.; Erkintalo, M.; Coen, S.; Ricciardi, I.; De Rosa, M.; Wabnitz, S.
2017-01-01
We consider frequency comb generation in dispersive singly resonant second-harmonic-generation cavity systems. Using a single temporal mean-field equation for the fundamental field that features a noninstantaneous nonlinear response function, we model the temporal and spectral dynamics and analyze comb generation, continuous wave bistability, and modulational instability. It is found that, owing to the significant temporal walk-off between the fundamental and second-harmonic fields, modulational instability can occur even in the complete absence of group-velocity dispersion. We further consider the relation of our model to a previously proposed modal expansion approach, and present a derivation of a general system of coupled mode equations. We show that the two models provide very similar predictions and become exactly equivalent in the limit that absorption losses and group-velocity dispersion at the fundamental frequency are neglected. Finally, we perform numerical simulations that show examples of the variety of comb states that are possible in phase-matched quadratic resonators, and discuss the dynamics of the comb formation process.
Ozawa, Akira; Zhao, Zhigang; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto; Kobayashi, Yohei
2015-06-15
Intracavity high harmonic generation was utilized to generate high average-power coherent radiation at vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) wavelengths. A ytterbium-doped fiber-laser based master-oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) system with a 10 MHz repetition frequency was developed and used as a driving laser for an external cavity. A series of odd-order harmonic radiations was generated extending down to ∼ 30 nm (41 eV in photon energy). The 7th harmonic radiation generated was centered at 149 nm and had an average output power of up to 0.5 mW. In this way, we developed a sub-mW coherent vuv-laser with a 10 MHz repetition frequency, which, if used as an excitation laser source for photo-electron spectroscopy, could improve the signal count-rate without deterioration of the spectral-resolution caused by space-charge effects.
Polarization gating of high harmonic generation in the water window
Li, Jie; Ren, Xiaoming; Yin, Yanchun; Cheng, Yan; Cunningham, Eric; Wu, Yi; Chang, Zenghu
2016-06-06
We implement the polarization gating (PG) technique with a two-cycle, 1.7 μm driving field to generate an attosecond supercontinuum extending to the water window spectral region. The ellipticity dependence of the high harmonic yield over a photon energy range much broader than previous work is measured and compared with a semi-classical model. When PG is applied, the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) is swept to study its influence on the continuum generation. PG with one-cycle (5.7 fs) and two-cycle (11.3 fs) delay are tested, and both give continuous spectra spanning from 50 to 450 eV under certain CEP values, strongly indicating the generation of isolated attosecond pulses in the water window region.
Pencil lead plasma for generating multimicrojoule high-order harmonics with a broad spectrum
Pertot, Y.; Elouga Bom, L. B.; Ozaki, T.; Bhardwaj, V. R.
2011-03-07
Using the plasma harmonic method, we show the generation of efficient and intense high-order harmonics from plasma of pencil lead. We demonstrate multimicrojoule energy in each harmonic order for the 11th to the 17th order of a Ti:sapphire laser. By analyzing the target morphology and the plasma composition, we conclude that these intense harmonics are generated from nanoparticles of graphitic carbon.
Designs and numerical calculations for echo-enabled harmonic generation at very high harmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penn, G.; Reinsch, M.
2011-09-01
The echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme for driving an FEL using two seeded energy modulations at much longer wavelengths than the output wavelength is a promising concept for future seeded FELs. There are many competing requirements in the design of an EEHG beamline which need careful optimization. Furthermore, revised simulation tools and methods are necessary because of both the high harmonic numbers simulated and the complicated nature of the phase space manipulations which are intrinsic to the scheme. This paper explores the constraints on performance and the required tolerances for reaching wavelengths well below 1/100th of that of the seed lasers, and describes some of the methodology for designing such a beamline. Numerical tools, developed both for the GENESIS and GINGER FEL codes, are presented and used here for more accurate study of the scheme beyond a time-averaged model. In particular, the impact of the local structure in peak current and bunching, which is an inherent part of the EEHG scheme, is evaluated.
Diode end pumped laser and harmonic generator using same
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Byer, Robert L. (Inventor); Dixon, George J. (Inventor); Kane, Thomas J. (Inventor)
1988-01-01
A second harmonic, optical generator is disclosed in which a laser diode produces an output pumping beam which is focused by means of a graded, refractive index rod lens into a rod of lasant material, such as Nd:YAG, disposed within an optical resonator to pump the lasant material and to excite the optical resonator at a fundamental wavelength. A non-linear electro-optic material such as MgO:LiNbO.sub.3 is coupled to the excited, fundamental mode of the optical resonator to produce a non-linear interaction with the fundamental wavelength producing a harmonic. In one embodiment, the gain medium and the non-linear material are disposed within an optical resonator defined by a pair of reflectors, one of which is formed on a face of the gain medium and the second of which is formed on a face of the non-linear medium. In another embodiment, the non-linear, electro-optic material is doped with the lasant ion such that the gain medium and the non-linear doubling material are co-extensive in volume. In another embodiment, a non-linear, doubling material is disposed in an optical resonator external of the laser gai medium for improved stability of the second harmonic generation process. In another embodiment, the laser gain medium andthe non-linear material are bonded together by means of an optically transparent cement to form a mechanically stable, monolithic structure. In another embodiment, the non-linear material has reflective faces formed thereon to define a ring resonator to decouple reflections from the non-linear medium back to the gain medium for improved stability.
Analysis of Even Harmonics Generation in an Isolated Electric Power System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanao, Norikazu; Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya
Harmonics bred from loads are mainly odd order because the current waveform has half-wave symmetry. Since the even harmonics are negligibly small, those are not generally measured in electric power systems. However, even harmonics were measured at a 500/275/154kV substation in Hokuriku Electric Power Company after removal of a transmission line fault. The even harmonics caused malfunctions of protective digital relays because the relays used 4th harmonics at the input filter as automatic supervisory signal. This paper describes the mechanism of generation of the even harmonics by comparing measured waveforms with ATP-EMTP simulation results. As a result of analysis, it is cleared that even harmonics are generated by three causes. The first cause is a magnetizing current of transformers due to flux deviation by DC component of a fault current. The second one is due to harmonic conversion of a synchronous machine which generates even harmonics when direct current component or even harmonic current flow into the machine. The third one is that increase of harmonic impedance due to an isolated power system produces harmonic voltages. The design of the input filter of protective digital relays should consider even harmonics generation in an isolated power system.
Third harmonic generation microscopy of cells and tissue organization.
Weigelin, Bettina; Bakker, Gert-Jan; Friedl, Peter
2016-01-15
The interaction of cells within their microenvironmental niche is fundamental to cell migration, positioning, growth and differentiation in order to form and maintain complex tissue organization and function. Third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy is a label-free scatter process that is elicited by water-lipid and water-protein interfaces, including intra- and extracellular membranes, and extracellular matrix structures. In applied life sciences, THG delivers a versatile contrast modality to complement multi-parameter fluorescence, second harmonic generation and fluorescence lifetime microscopy, which allows detection of cellular and molecular cell functions in three-dimensional tissue culture and small animals. In this Commentary, we review the physical and technical basis of THG, and provide considerations for optimal excitation, detection and interpretation of THG signals. We further provide an overview on how THG has versatile applications in cell and tissue research, with a particular focus on analyzing tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis, immune cell function and cancer research, as well as the emerging applicability of THG in clinical practice. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Second-harmonic generation investigation of collagen thermal denaturation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Wei-Liang; Sun, Yen; Lin, Sung-Jan; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Chen, Yang-Fang; Lin, Ling-Chih; So, Peter T. C.; Dong, Chen-Yuan
2007-02-01
Using the technique of second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy we obtained large area image of type I collagen from rat tail tendon as it is heated from 40°C to 70°C for 0 to 180 minutes. The high resolution images allowed us to investigate the collagen structural change. We observed that heating the tendon below the temperature of 54°C does not produce any change in the averaged SHG intensity. At the heating temperature of 54°C and above, we find that increasing the heating temperature and time leads to decreasing SHG intensity. As the tendon is heated above 54°C, a decrease in the SHG signal occurs uniformly throughout the tendon, but the regions where the SHG signal vanishes form a tiger-tail like pattern. By comparing the relative SHG intensities in small and large areas, we found that the denaturation process responsible for forming the tiger-tail like pattern occurs at a higher rate than the global denaturation process occurring throughout the tendon. Our results show that second-harmonic generation microscopy is effective in monitoring the thermal damage to collagen and has potential applications in biomedicine.
Electron acceleration and high harmonic generation by relativistic surface plasmons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cantono, Giada; Luca Fedeli Team; Andrea Sgattoni Team; Andrea Macchi Team; Tiberio Ceccotti Team
2016-10-01
Intense, short laser pulses with ultra-high contrast allow resonant surface plasmons (SPs) excitation on solid wavelength-scale grating targets, opening the way to the extension of Plasmonics in the relativistic regime and the manipulation of intense electromagnetic fields to develop new short, energetic, laser-synchronized radiation sources. Recent theoretical and experimental studies have explored the role of SP excitation in increasing the laser-target coupling and enhancing ion acceleration, high-order harmonic generation and surface electron acceleration. Here we present our results on SP driven electron acceleration from grating targets at ultra-high laser intensities (I = 5 ×1019 W/cm2, τ = 25 fs). When the resonant condition for SP excitation is fulfilled, electrons are emitted in a narrow cone along the target surface, with a total charge of about 100 pC and energy spectra peaked around 5 MeV. Distinguishing features of the resonant process were investigated by varying the incidence angle, grating type and with the support of 3D PIC simulations, which closely reproduced the experimental data. Open challenges and further measurements on high-order harmonic generation in presence of a relativistic SP will also be discussed.
Second Harmonic Generation Mediated by Aligned Water in Starch Granules.
Cisek, Richard; Tokarz, Danielle; Krouglov, Serguei; Steup, Martin; Emes, Michael J; Tetlow, Ian J; Barzda, Virginijus
2014-12-26
The origin of second harmonic generation (SHG) in starch granules was investigated using ab initio quantum mechanical modeling and experimentally examined using polarization-in, polarization-out (PIPO) second harmonic generation microscopy. Ab initio calculations revealed that the largest contribution to the SHG signal from A- and B-type allomorphs of starch originates from the anisotropic organization of hydroxide and hydrogen bonds mediated by aligned water found in the polymers. The hypothesis was experimentally tested by imaging maize starch granules under various hydration and heat treatment conditions that alter the hydrogen bond network. The highest SHG intensity was found in fully hydrated starch granules, and heat treatment diminished the SHG intensity. The PIPO SHG imaging showed that dried starch granules have a much higher nonlinear optical susceptibility component ratio than fully hydrated granules. In contrast, deuterated starch granules showed a smaller susceptibility component ratio demonstrating that SHG is highly sensitive to the organization of the hydroxyl and hydrogen bond network. The polarization SHG imaging results of potato starch granules, representing starch allomorph B, were compared to those of maize starch granules representing allomorph A. The results showed that the amount of aligned water was higher in the maize granules. Nonlinear microscopy of starch granules provides evidence that varying hydration conditions leads to significant changes in the nonlinear susceptibility ratio as well as the SHG intensity, supporting the hypothesis from ab initio calculations that the dominant contribution to SHG is due to the ordered hydroxide and hydrogen bond network.
Automated cardiac sarcomere analysis from second harmonic generation images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-Canadilla, Patricia; Gonzalez-Tendero, Anna; Iruretagoyena, Igor; Crispi, Fatima; Torre, Iratxe; Amat-Roldan, Ivan; Bijnens, Bart H.; Gratacos, Eduard
2014-05-01
Automatic quantification of cardiac muscle properties in tissue sections might provide important information related to different types of diseases. Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging provides a stain-free microscopy approach to image cardiac fibers that, combined with our methodology of the automated measurement of the ultrastructure of muscle fibers, computes a reliable set of quantitative image features (sarcomere length, A-band length, thick-thin interaction length, and fiber orientation). We evaluated the performance of our methodology in computer-generated muscle fibers modeling some artifacts that are present during the image acquisition. Then, we also evaluated it by comparing it to manual measurements in SHG images from cardiac tissue of fetal and adult rabbits. The results showed a good performance of our methodology at high signal-to-noise ratio of 20 dB. We conclude that our automated measurements enable reliable characterization of cardiac fiber tissues to systematically study cardiac tissue in a wide range of conditions.
Beam Conditioning and Harmonic Generation in Free ElectronLasers
Charman, A.E.; Penn, G.; Wolski, A.; Wurtele, J.S.
2004-07-05
The next generation of large-scale free-electron lasers (FELs) such as Euro-XFEL and LCLS are to be devices which produce coherent X-rays using Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE). The performance of these devices is limited by the spread in longitudinal velocities of the beam. In the case where this spread arises primarily from large transverse oscillation amplitudes, beam conditioning can significantly enhance FEL performance. Future X-ray sources may also exploit harmonic generation starting from laser-seeded modulation. Preliminary analysis of such devices is discussed, based on a novel trial-function/variational-principle approach, which shows good agreement with more lengthy numerical simulations.
Controlling third harmonic generation with gammadion-shaped chiral metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chi; Li, Zhi-Qin; Yang, Xin; Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Zhenlin
2016-12-01
We theoretically investigated third harmonic generation (THG) from planar chiral metamaterials consisting of a square array of gammadion-shaped metal-insulator-metal multilayered nanostructures. We show that there exists strong circular dichroism (CD) for THG on the proposed chiral metamaterials. We also demonstrate that geometrically mirroring the gammadion -shaped meta-atoms can result in reversal of the THG-CD effect. Based on these CD effects in the optical nonlinear regime, we propose a design of a Fresnel zone plate (FZP) for intense focusing of the THG signals, in which adjacent zones of the FZP consist of gammadions with mirror symmetry and generate circularly polarized THG with opposite handedness. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the relative phase of the THG can be continuously changed by rotating the gammadion around its rotational axis, which could be used in the FZP to control the polarization of the output THG signals.
Time-resolved phase-sensitive second harmonic generation spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nowakowski, Paweł J.; Woods, David A.; Bain, Colin D.; Verlet, Jan R. R.
2015-02-01
A methodology based on time-resolved, phase-sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) for probing the excited state dynamics of species at interfaces is presented. It is based on an interference measurement between the SHG from the sample and a local oscillator generated at a reference together with a lock-in measurement to remove the large constant offset from the interference. The technique is characterized by measuring the phase and excited state dynamics of the dye malachite green at the water/air interface. The key attributes of the technique are that the observed signal is directly proportional to sample concentration, in contrast to the quadratic dependence from non-phase sensitive SHG, and that the real and imaginary parts of the 2nd order non-linear susceptibility can be determined independently. We show that the method is highly sensitive and can provide high quality excited state dynamics in short data acquisition times.
Spectral and spatial characteristics of third-harmonic generation in conical light beams
Peet, V.E.; Shchemeljov, S.V.
2003-01-01
Generation of resonance-enhanced third harmonic in Bessel and other conical beams is analyzed from a simple picture, where the fundamental light field is decomposed into elementary configurations of crossed plain-wave sub-beams. We show that the overall harmonic output can be derived as a superposition of all partial harmonic components driven by elementary configurations of the fundamental field. Good agreement with experimental observations has been obtained in simulation of spectral and spatial characteristics of the generated third harmonic. Some peculiarities of harmonic generation in conical light fields are discussed.
Enhanced Harmonic Up-Conversion Using a Hybrid HGHG-EEHG Scheme
Marksteiner, Quinn R.; Bishofberger, Kip A.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Freund, Henry P.; Yampolsky, Nikolai A.
2012-04-30
We introduce a novel harmonic generation scheme which can be used, for a given desired harmonic, to achieve higher bunching factors, weaker chicanes, and/or less final energy spread than can be achieved using Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation. This scheme only requires a single laser with relatively low power, and is a hybrid of High-Gain Harmonic Generation and EEHG. We present a design of this scheme applied to the Next Generation Light Source (NGLS).
Second harmonic generation of chiral-modified silver nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Yue
Chiral molecules, which exist under enantiomers with non-mirror-symmetrical structures, have been the subject of intense research for their linear and nonlinear optical activities. Cysteine is such a chiral amino acid found as a building block of proteins throughout human bodies. Second harmonic generation (SHG) has been considered to investigate chiral molecules. SHG from metallic nanoparticles is promising for nanoplasmonics and photonic nanodevice applications. Therefore, it's desirable to combine and study nonlinear properties due to both chirality and metallic nanoparticles, and help developing an alternatively optical diagnostic of chiral molecules. Our experiments are carried out with the FemtoFiber Scientific FFS laser system. SHG of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) modified by either L-Cysteine (L-C) or D-Cysteine (D-C) is observed, where L-Cysteine and D-Cysteine are a pair of enantiomers. Ag NPs are deposited through Vacuum Thermal Evaporation, controlled under different deposition thicknesses. UV-Vis/IR spectra and AFM are used to characterize Ag NPs under different conditions. Transmitted SHG measurements dependent on incidence are recorded with standard lock-in techniques. Deposition thickness of vacuum thermal evaporation plays an important role in forming diverse Ag NPs, which strongly imparts the intensity of SHG. Second harmonic intensity as a function of the incident angle presents similar results for Ag NPs with or without L-Cysteine or D-Cysteine modification, in the output of p- and s-polarization. However, we monitor reversed rotation difference in second harmonic intensities at linearly +45° and -45° polarization for L-C/Ag NPs and D-C/Ag NPs, while there's no difference at linearly +45° and -45° polarization for Ag NPs alone. This optical rotation difference in SHG is termed as SHG-ORD. Also, for second harmonic light fixed at p-polarization, L-C/Ag NPs and D-C/Ag NPs exhibit a reversely net difference for SHG excited by right and left
Harmonic Generation in InAs Nanowire Double Quantum Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schroer, M. D.; Jung, M.; Petersson, K. D.; Petta, J. R.
2012-02-01
InAs nanowires provide a useful platform for investigating the physics of confined electrons subjected to strong spin-orbit coupling. Using tunable, bottom-gated double quantum dots, we demonstrate electrical driving of single spin resonance.ootnotetextS. Nadj-Perge et al., Nature 468, 1084 (2010)^,ootnotetextM.D. Schroer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 176811 (2011) We observe a standard spin response when the applied microwave frequency equals the Larmour frequency f0. However, we also observe an anomalous signal at frequencies fn= f0/ n for integer n up to n ˜5. This is equivalent to generation of harmonics of the spin resonance field. While a f0/2 signal has observed,ootnotetextE.A. Laird et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 246601 (2007) we believe this is the first observation of higher harmonics in spin resonance. Possible mechanisms will be discussed.ootnotetextE.I. Rashba, arXiv:1110.6569 (2011) Acknowledgements: Research supported by the Sloan and Packard Foundations, the NSF, and Army Research Office.
Harmonic Generation in the Multifrequency Recirculating Planar Magnetron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Exelby, S. C.; Greening, G. B.; Jordan, N. M.; Simon, D.; Zhang, P.; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, R. M.
2015-11-01
The Multifrequency Recirculating Planar Magnetron (MFRPM) is a high power microwave source adapted from the Recirculating Planar Magnetrona, currently under investigation at the University of Michigan. The device features 2 dissimilar periodic structures allowing for the generation of (L-band) 1- and (S-band) 2-GHz high power microwave pulses simultaneously. These distinct frequencies offer the potential for variable coupling for defense applications, such as counter-IED. Experiments have been performed on the RPM, driven by the Michigan Electron Long Beam Accelerator with a Ceramic insulator (MELBA-C) using a -300kV, 1-10 kA, 0.3-1.0 us pulse applied to the cathode. Using the Mode Control Cathodeb and a coax-to-waveguide extraction system, the MFRPM has demonstrated simultaneous production of 20 MW at 1 GHz and 10 MW at 2 GHz. The L-band oscillator also produced both 2- and 4-GHz oscillations when the S-band oscillator turns on. These harmonics persist after the S-band oscillator turns off. Ongoing work will attempt to isolate these harmonics to measure the power accurately and confirm these observations. Supported by the Office of Naval Research grant no. N00014-13-1-0566 and L-3 Communications.
High order harmonic generation from SF6: Deconvolution of macroscopic effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, B. P.; Fulfer, K. D.; Mondal, S.; Ren, X.; Tross, J.; Poliakoff, E. D.; Jose, J.; Le, Anh-Thu; Lucchese, R. R.; Trallero-Herrero, C.
2016-12-01
We measure high order harmonics from the molecule SF6 over a large range of phase matching conditions and observe several features in the harmonics that are largely independent of such macroscopic conditions. The experimental data are then compared to the quantitative rescattering theory for the generation of harmonics from three orbitals. With this comparison, we are able to assign spectroscopic features in the harmonics to contributions from 1t1g (HOMO) and 5t1u (HOMO-1) orbitals.
Nonlinear harmonic generation in free-electron lasers with helical wigglers.
Freund, H P; O'Shea, P G; Biedron, S G
2005-02-25
It is widely believed that harmonics are suppressed in helical wigglers. However, linear harmonic generation (LHG) occurs by an azimuthal resonance that excites circularly polarized, off-axis waves, where the hth harmonic varies as exp((ihtheta). Nonlinear harmonic generation (NHG) is driven by bunching at the fundamental and has different properites from LHG. While NHG has been studied in planar wigglers, there has been no analysis of NHG in helical wigglers. The 3D simulation code medusa has been modified for this purpose, and it is shown that NHG is substantial in helical wigglers and that the even and odd harmonics have comparable intensities.
Thermal optimization of second harmonic generation at high pump powers.
Sahm, Alexander; Uebernickel, Mirko; Paschke, Katrin; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther
2011-11-07
We measure the temperature distribution of a 3 cm long periodically poled LiNbO₃ crystal in a single-pass second harmonic generation (SHG) setup at 488 nm. By means of three resistance heaters and directly mounted Pt100 sensors the crystal is subdivided in three sections. 9.4 W infrared pump light and 1.3 W of SHG light cause a de-homogenized temperature distribution of 0.2 K between the middle and back section. A sectional offset heating is used to homogenize the temperature in those two sections and thus increasing the conversion efficiency. A 15% higher SHG output power matching the prediction of our theoretical model is achieved.
Imaging Cytometry of Human Leukocytes with Third Harmonic Generation Microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Cheng-Ham; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Huang, Shih-Hung; Lin, Jong-Wei; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Wu, Hau-Tieng; Wu, Yao-Ming; Liu, Tzu-Ming
2016-11-01
Based on third-harmonic-generation (THG) microscopy and a k-means clustering algorithm, we developed a label-free imaging cytometry method to differentiate and determine the types of human leukocytes. According to the size and average intensity of cells in THG images, in a two-dimensional scatter plot, the neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in peripheral blood samples from healthy volunteers were clustered into three differentiable groups. Using these features in THG images, we could count the number of each of the three leukocyte types both in vitro and in vivo. The THG imaging-based counting results agreed well with conventional blood count results. In the future, we believe that the combination of this THG microscopy-based imaging cytometry approach with advanced texture analysis of sub-cellular features can differentiate and count more types of blood cells with smaller quantities of blood.
Third-harmonic generation imaging of breast tissue biopsies.
Lee, Woowon; Kabir, Mohammad M; Emmadi, Rajyasree; Toussaint, Kimani C
2016-11-01
We demonstrate for the first time the imaging of unstained breast tissue biopsies using third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy. As a label-free imaging technique, THG microscopy is compared to phase contrast and polarized light microscopy which are standard imaging methods for breast tissues. A simple feature detection algorithm is applied to detect tumour-associated lymphocyte rich regions in unstained breast biopsy tissue and compared with corresponding regions identified by a pathologist from bright-field images of hematoxylin and eosin stained breast tissue. Our results suggest that THG imaging holds potential as a complementary technique for analysing breast tissue biopsies. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.
On probing conformation of microtubules by second-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharoukhov, Denis; Lim, Hyungsik
2016-01-01
Microtubule (MT) is a component of cytoskeleton playing an important role in a variety of cellular processes. Altering the structure of MT is a crucial mechanism of modulating the function, but it is difficult to measure the in vivo conformation. We present here the use of second-harmonic generation (SHG) for acquiring information about the architecture of MTs in living tissue. Axonal MTs were imaged by polarization-resolved SHG and anisotropy in the molecular structure was determined by means of the second-order tensor analysis. The feasibility of the second-order tensor analysis was tested for measuring the conformational changes induced by MT-stabilizing drug. It demonstrates that the new optical contrast may be useful for investigating the dynamics of MT cytoskeleton in vivo.
High-Harmonic Generation Enhanced by Dynamical Electron Correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tikhomirov, Iliya; Sato, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Kenichi L.
2017-05-01
We theoretically study multielectron effects in high-harmonic generation (HHG), using all-electron first-principles simulations for a one-dimensional model atom. In addition to the usual plateau and cutoff (from a cation in the present case, since the neutral is immediately ionized), we find a prominent resonance peak far above the plateau and a second plateau extended beyond the first cutoff. These features originate from the dication response enhanced by orders of magnitude due to the action of the Coulomb force from the rescattering electron, and, hence, are a clear manifestation of electron correlation. Although the present simulations are done in 1D, the physical mechanism underlying the dramatic enhancement is expected to hold also for three-dimensional real systems. This will provide new possibilities to explore dynamical electron correlation in intense laser fields using HHG, which is usually considered to be of single-electron nature in most cases.
Second harmonic generation in microcrystallite films of ultrasmall Si nanoparticles
Nayfeh, M. H.; Akcakir, O.; Belomoin, G.; Barry, N.; Therrien, J.; Gratton, E.
2000-12-18
We dispersed crystalline Si into a colloid of ultrasmall nano particles ({approx}1 nm), and reconstituted it into microcrystallites films on device-quality Si. The film is excited by near-infrared femtosecond two-photon process in the range 765--835 nm, with incident average power in the range 15--70 mW, focused to {approx}1 {mu}m. We have observed strong radiation at half the wavelength of the incident beam. The results are analyzed in terms of second-harmonic generation, a process that is not allowed in silicon due to the centrosymmetry. Ionic vibration of or/and excitonic self-trapping on novel radiative Si--Si dimer phase, found only in ultrasmall nanoparticles, are suggested as a basic mechanism for inducing anharmonicity that breaks the centrosymmetry.
Second Harmonic Generation of Nanoscale Phonon Wave Packets.
Bojahr, A; Gohlke, M; Leitenberger, W; Pudell, J; Reinhardt, M; von Reppert, A; Roessle, M; Sander, M; Gaal, P; Bargheer, M
2015-11-06
Phonons are often regarded as delocalized quasiparticles with certain energy and momentum. The anharmonic interaction of phonons determines macroscopic properties of the solid, such as thermal expansion or thermal conductivity, and a detailed understanding becomes increasingly important for functional nanostructures. Although phonon-phonon scattering processes depicted in simple wave-vector diagrams are the basis of theories describing these macroscopic phenomena, experiments directly accessing these coupling channels are scarce. We synthesize monochromatic acoustic phonon wave packets with only a few cycles to introduce nonlinear phononics as the acoustic counterpart to nonlinear optics. Control of the wave vector, bandwidth, and consequently spatial extent of the phonon wave packets allows us to observe nonlinear phonon interaction, in particular, second harmonic generation, in real time by wave-vector-sensitive Brillouin scattering with x-rays and optical photons.
High-order harmonic generation enhanced by XUV light
Buth, Christian; Kohler, Markus C.; Ullrich, Joachim; Keitel, Christoph H.
2012-03-19
The combination of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) with resonant XUV excitation of a core electron into the transient valence vacancy that is created in the course of the HHG process is investigated theoretically. In this setup, the first electron performs a HHG three-step process, whereas the second electron Rabi flops between the core and the valence vacancy. The modified HHG spectrum due to recombination with the valence and the core is determined and analyzed for krypton on the 3d {yields} 4p resonance in the ion. We assume an 800 nm laser with an intensity of about 10{sup 14} Wcm{sup 2} and XUV radiation from the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) with an intensity in the range 10{sup 13}-10{sup 16} Wcm{sup 2}. Our prediction opens perspectives for nonlinear XUV physics, attosecond x rays, and HHG-based spectroscopy involving core orbitals.
Exciton-Polariton Fano Resonance Driven by Second Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yafeng; Liao, Liming; Hu, Tao; Luo, Song; Wu, Lin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhe; Xie, Wei; Sun, Liaoxin; Kavokin, A. V.; Shen, Xuechu; Chen, Zhanghai
2017-02-01
Angle-resolved second harmonic generation (SHG) spectra of ZnO microwires show characteristic Fano resonances in the spectral vicinity of exciton-polariton modes. We observe a resonant peak followed by a strong dip in SHG originating from the constructive and destructive interference of the nonresonant SHG and the resonant contribution of the polariton mode. It is demonstrated that the Fano line shape, and thus the Fano asymmetry parameter q , can be tuned by the phase shift of the two channels. We develop a model to calculate the phase-dependent q as a function of the radial angle in the microwire and achieve a good agreement with the experimental results. The deduced phase-to-q relation unveils the crucial information about the dynamics of the system and offers a tool for control on the line shape of the SHG spectra in the vicinity of exciton-polariton modes.
Imaging Cytometry of Human Leukocytes with Third Harmonic Generation Microscopy
Wu, Cheng-Ham; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Huang, Shih-Hung; Lin, Jong-Wei; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Wu, Hau-Tieng; Wu, Yao-Ming; Liu, Tzu-Ming
2016-01-01
Based on third-harmonic-generation (THG) microscopy and a k-means clustering algorithm, we developed a label-free imaging cytometry method to differentiate and determine the types of human leukocytes. According to the size and average intensity of cells in THG images, in a two-dimensional scatter plot, the neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in peripheral blood samples from healthy volunteers were clustered into three differentiable groups. Using these features in THG images, we could count the number of each of the three leukocyte types both in vitro and in vivo. The THG imaging-based counting results agreed well with conventional blood count results. In the future, we believe that the combination of this THG microscopy-based imaging cytometry approach with advanced texture analysis of sub-cellular features can differentiate and count more types of blood cells with smaller quantities of blood. PMID:27845443
Polarization-modulated second harmonic generation in collagen.
Stoller, Patrick; Reiser, Karen M; Celliers, Peter M; Rubenchik, Alexander M
2002-01-01
Collagen possesses a strong second-order nonlinear susceptibility, a nonlinear optical property characterized by second harmonic generation in the presence of intense laser beams. We present a new technique involving polarization modulation of an ultra-short pulse laser beam that can simultaneously determine collagen fiber orientation and a parameter related to the second-order nonlinear susceptibility. We demonstrate the ability to discriminate among different patterns of fibrillar orientation, as exemplified by tendon, fascia, cornea, and successive lamellar rings in an intervertebral disc. Fiber orientation can be measured as a function of depth with an axial resolution of approximately 10 microm. The parameter related to the second-order nonlinear susceptibility is sensitive to fiber disorganization, oblique incidence of the beam on the sample, and birefringence of the tissue. This parameter represents an aggregate measure of tissue optical properties that could potentially be used for optical imaging in vivo. PMID:12023255
Exciton-Polariton Fano Resonance Driven by Second Harmonic Generation.
Wang, Yafeng; Liao, Liming; Hu, Tao; Luo, Song; Wu, Lin; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Zhe; Xie, Wei; Sun, Liaoxin; Kavokin, A V; Shen, Xuechu; Chen, Zhanghai
2017-02-10
Angle-resolved second harmonic generation (SHG) spectra of ZnO microwires show characteristic Fano resonances in the spectral vicinity of exciton-polariton modes. We observe a resonant peak followed by a strong dip in SHG originating from the constructive and destructive interference of the nonresonant SHG and the resonant contribution of the polariton mode. It is demonstrated that the Fano line shape, and thus the Fano asymmetry parameter q, can be tuned by the phase shift of the two channels. We develop a model to calculate the phase-dependent q as a function of the radial angle in the microwire and achieve a good agreement with the experimental results. The deduced phase-to-q relation unveils the crucial information about the dynamics of the system and offers a tool for control on the line shape of the SHG spectra in the vicinity of exciton-polariton modes.
Inverse Bremsstrahlung and High Harmonic Generation in Clusters and Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greene, Chris
2006-05-01
Clusters exposed to radiation from an intense VUV free-electron laser have been observed to absorb copious amounts of energy, which has been somewhat of a surprise. Different models by competing theory groups have proposed more than one mechanism for the energy absorption. We have studied the effect of incorporating a realistic atomic screening potential on the free-free or inverse bremsstrahlung absorption rate, and found important differences that emerge, compared to simpler hydrogenic models that are frequently adopted. In a separate project to be discussed at the meeting, some of the physical issues involved in high-harmonic generation from diatomic and polyatomic molecules will be assessed. These include the importance of treating the electron scattering from the molecular ion at a nonperturbative level of approximation, as well as the possible role of Jahn-Teller physics when the molecule possesses a high degree of symmetry. This theoretical project involves collaborative contributions from Zachary Walters, Stefano Tonzani, and Robin Santra.
Two-Color Laser High-Harmonic Generation in Cavitated Plasma Wakefields
Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim
2016-10-03
A method is proposed for producing coherent x-rays via high-harmonic generation using a laser interacting with highly-stripped ions in cavitated plasma wakefields. Two laser pulses of different colors are employed: a long-wavelength pulse for cavitation and a short-wavelength pulse for harmonic generation. This method enables efficient laser harmonic generation in the sub-nm wavelength regime.
Electromagnetic study of second harmonic generation by a corrugated waveguide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neviere, Michel; Popov, E.; Reinisch, Raymond
1995-09-01
When an incident plane wave with circular frequency (omega) falls on a grating coated by a layer of nonlinear material, it generates a nonlinear polarization PNL(2(omega) ) which acts as a source term and produces a second harmonic (SH) field called signal. The excitation of an electromagnetic resonance like surface plasmon or a guided wave increases the local field and thus the signal. The problem is to be able to compute and optimize the latter. We have developed a new theory which uses a coordinate transformation mapping the grating profile onto a plane. This simplifies the boundary conditions but complicates the propagation equation. Taking advantage of the psuedoperiodicity of the problem, the Fourier harmonics of the field are solution of a set of first order differential equations with constant coefficients. The resolution of this system via eigenvalue and eigenvector technique avoid numerical instabilities and lead to accurate results which agree perfectly with those found via the Rayleigh method or by the Differential method, when they work. A phenomenological approach is then developed to explain the unusual shape of the resonance lines at 2(omega) , which is based on the poles and zeros of the scattering operator S at (omega) and 2(omega) . It is shown that S(2(omega) ) presents 3 complex poles with 3 associated complex zeros. Their knowledge, plus the nonlinear reflectivity of the plane device allows predicting all the possible shapes of the 2(omega) signal as a function of angle of incidence. The phenomenological study explains an experimental result, found a few years ago, that if 2(omega) lies inside the absorption band of the guiding material instead of the transparent region, the enhanced second harmonic generation (SHG) is changed into a reduced one. It means that in the case phase matching can lead to a minimum instead of maximum. An algorithm is then proposed to maximize the signal intensity; with polyurethane as a guiding material a conversion
Polarization-Modulated Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy in Collagen
Stoller, P C
2002-09-30
Collagen is a key structural protein in the body; several pathological conditions lead to changes in collagen. Among imaging modalities that can be used in vivo, second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has a key advantage: it provides {approx}1 {micro}m resolution information about collagen structure as a function of depth. A new technique--polarization-modulated SHG--is presented: it permits simultaneous measurement of collagen orientation, of a lower bound on the magnitude of the second order nonlinear susceptibility tensor, and of the ratio of the two independent elements in this tensor. It is applied to characterizing SHG in collagen and to determining effects of biologically relevant changes in collagen structure. The magnitude of the second harmonic signal in two dimensional images varies with position even in structurally homogeneous tissue; this phenomenon is due to interference between second harmonic light generated by neighboring fibrils, which are randomly oriented parallel or anti-parallel to each other. Studies in which focal spot size was varied indicated that regions where fibrils are co-oriented are less than {approx}1.5 {micro}m in diameter. A quartz reference was used to determine the spot size as well as a lower limit (d{sub xxx} > 0.3 pm/V) for the magnitude of the second order nonlinear susceptibility. The ratio of the two independent tensor elements ranged between d{sub XYY}/d{sub XXX} = 0.60 and 0.75. SHG magnitude alone was not useful for identifying structural anomalies in collagenous tissue. Instead, changes in the polarization dependence of SHG were used to analyze biologically relevant perturbations in collagen structure. Changes in polarization dependence were observed in dehydrated samples, but not in highly crosslinked samples, despite significant alterations in packing structure. Complete thermal denaturation and collagenase digestion produced samples with no detectable SHG signal. Collagen orientation was measured in thin
Giant Optical Second Harmonic Generation in Two-Dimensional Multiferroics.
Wang, Hua; Qian, Xiaofeng
2017-08-09
Nonlinear optical properties of materials such as second and higher order harmonic generation and electro-optic effect play pivotal roles in lasers, frequency conversion, electro-optic modulators, switches, and so forth. The strength of nonlinear optical responses highly depends on intrinsic crystal symmetry, transition dipole moments, specific optical excitation, and local environment. Using first-principles electronic structure theory, here we predict giant second harmonic generation (SHG) in recently discovered two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectric-ferroelastic multiferroics-group IV monochalcogenides (i.e., GeSe, GeS, SnSe, and SnS). Remarkably, the strength of SHG susceptibility in GeSe and SnSe monolayers is more than 1 order of magnitude higher than that in monolayer MoS2, and 2 orders of magnitude higher than that in monolayer hexagonal BN. Their extraordinary SHG is dominated by the large residual of two opposite intraband contributions in the SHG susceptibility. More importantly, the SHG polarization anisotropy is strongly correlated with the intrinsic ferroelastic and ferroelectric orders in group IV monochalcogenide monolayers. Our present findings provide a microscopic understanding of the large SHG susceptibility in 2D group IV monochalcogenide multiferroics from first-principles theory and open up a variety of new avenues for 2D ferroelectrics, multiferroics, and nonlinear optoelectronics, for example, realizing active electrical/optical/mechanical switching of ferroic orders in 2D multiferroics and in situ ultrafast optical characterization of local atomistic and electronic structures using noncontact noninvasive optical SHG techniques.
The Sensitivity of Nonlinear Harmonic Generation to Electron Beam Quality in Free-Electron Lasers
Nuhn, Heinz-Dieter
2002-08-20
The generation of harmonics through a nonlinear mechanism driven by bunching at the fundamental has sparked interest as a path toward enhancing and extending the usefulness of an x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) facility. The sensitivity of the nonlinear harmonic generation to undulator imperfections, electron beam energy spread, peak current, and emittance is important in an evaluation of the process. Typically, linear instabilities in FELs are characterized by increased sensitivity to both electron beam and undulator quality with increasing harmonic number. However, since the nonlinear harmonic generation mechanism is driven by the growth of the fundamental, the sensitivity of the nonlinear harmonic mechanism is not expected to be significantly greater than that of the fundamental. In this paper, we study the effects of electron beam quality, more specifically, emittance, energy spread, and peak current, on the nonlinear harmonics in a 1.5-{angstrom} FEL, and show that the decline in the harmonic emission roughly follows that of the fundamental.
Sensitivity of nonlinear harmonic generation to electron beam quality in free-electron lasers
Biedron, Sandra G.; Huang, Zhirong; Kim, Kwange-Je; Milton, Stephen; Dattoli, Giuseppe; Ottavani, Pier Luigi; Renieri, Alberto; Fawley, William M.; Freund, Henry P.; Huhn, Heinz-Dieter
2002-03-01
The generation of harmonics through a nonlinear mechanism driven by bunching at the fundamental has sparked interest as a path toward enhancing and extending the usefulness of an x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) facility. The sensitivity of the nonlinear harmonic generation to undulator imperfections, electron beam energy spread, peak current, and emittance is important in an evaluation of the process. Typically, linear instabilities in FELs are characterized by increased sensitivity to both electron beam and undulator quality with increasing harmonic number. However, since the nonlinear harmonic generation mechanism is driven by the growth of the fundamental, the sensitivity of the nonlinear harmonic mechanism is not expected to be significantly greater than that of the fundamental. In this paper, they study the effects of electron beam quality, more specifically, emittance, energy spread, and peak current, on the nonlinear harmonics in a 1.5-{angstrom} FEL, and show that the decline in the harmonic emission roughly follows that of the fundamental.
Static third-harmonic lines in widely variable fiber continuum generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tu, Haohua; Zhao, Youbo; Liu, Yuan; Boppart, Stephen A.
2014-01-01
An intriguing phenomenon of third-harmonic generation under fiber continuum generation is the emission of an anharmonic signal. One popular interpretation of this effect has developed into a general theory of fiber third-harmonic generation. Here we produce "static" third-harmonic lines dictated fully by fiber properties independent of pump parameters, in contrast to the signals of all known phase-matched nonlinear optical processes that vary dynamically with these parameters. We argue that the anharmonic signal is an illusion of the continuum generation, that it is in fact harmonic, and that this theory should be reevaluated.
Optical Cherenkov radiation in ultrafast cascaded second-harmonic generation
Bache, M.; Bang, O.; Zhou, B. B.; Moses, J.; Wise, F. W.
2010-12-15
We show through theory and numerics that when few-cycle femtosecond solitons are generated through cascaded (phase-mismatched) second-harmonic generation, these broadband solitons can emit optical Cherenkov radiation in the form of linear dispersive waves located in the red part of the spectrum. The beating between the dispersive wave and the soliton generates trailing temporal oscillations on the compressed soliton. Insertion of a simple short-wave pass filter after the crystal can restore a clean soliton. On the other hand, bandpass filtering around the dispersive wave peak results in near-transform-limited ultrashort mid-IR pulses with pulse durations much shorter than the input near-IR pulse. The Cherenkov radiation for the crystal considered ({beta}-barium borate) is found for pump wavelengths in the range {lambda}=0.95-1.45 {mu}m, and is located in the regime {lambda}=1.5-3.5 {mu}m. For shorter pump wavelengths, the phase-matching point is located in the absorption region of the crystal, effectively absorbing the generated dispersive wave. By calculating the phase-matching curves for typically used frequency conversion crystals, we point out that the mid-IR absorption in the crystal in many cases automatically will filter away the dispersive wave. Finally, an investigation of recent experimental results uncovers a four-wave-mixing phenomenon related to Cherenkov radiation that is an additional generation mechanism of long-wavelength radiation that can occur during soliton compression. We discuss the conditions that lead to this alternative dynamics rather than generation of Cherenkov radiation.
Second harmonic generation using nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves in stone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Margaret; Kim, Gun; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Kurtis, Kimberly; Jacobs, Laurence
2015-03-01
This research tests the potential application of the Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) method using nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves to nondestructively quantify surface microstructural changes in thin stone. The acoustic nonlinearity parameter (β) has been assessed as a meaningful indicator for characterizing the nonlinearity of civil engineering materials; additionally, Rayleigh waves offer the opportunity to isolate a material's near surface microstructural status. Sandstone was selected for testing due to its relative uniformity and small grain size compared to other stone types; the sample thickness was 2 inches to reflect the minimum panel thickness recommended by the Indiana Limestone Institute. For this research, initially fully non-contact generation and detection techniques are evaluated before a 100kHz wedge transmitter and a 200kHz air-coupled receiver are employed for generation and detection of nonlinear Rayleigh waves. Non-contact transmitters and receivers have advantages such as removing the irregularities associated with coupling as well as not leaving residues, which in stone applications can be considered aesthetically damaging. The experimental results show that the nonlinear parameter, β, can be effectively isolated using the wedge transmitter and non-contact set up and that too much of the signal strength is lost in the fully non-contact method to extract meaningful results for this stone and stones with slow wave speeds. This indicates that the proposed SHG technique is effective for evaluating the nonlinearity parameter, β, and can next be applied to characterize near surface microstructural changes in thin applications of dimensioned stone.
Laser second harmonic generation in a magnetoplasma assisted by an electrostatic wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tyagi, Yachna; Tripathi, Deepak; Walia, Keshav
2017-04-01
A laser produced plasma, and an electrostatic wave, helps to generate a strong harmonic radiation. The electrostatic wave assists k matching and contributes to non-linear coupling. In the case of the Bernstein wave assisted second harmonic, the frequency of the second harmonic is shifted from the laser second harmonic by electron cyclotron frequency. The lower hybrid wave (LHW) assisted second harmonic has frequency slightly shifted from the laser second harmonic. The upper hybrid wave (UHW) assisted second harmonic has frequency shifted by an amount ω that lies between max( ω c , ω p ) and ω U H . At a 0 = 0.1 and n ω , k → / n0 0 = 0.1, the normalized amplitude value the of electrostatic wave assisted second harmonic is quite high near the upper hybrid resonance. The effect of increasing ω c / ω p increases the max value of normalized amplitude.
Third-harmonic generation in optical breakdown of a monatomic gas by an intense laser field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghorbanalilu, M.
2017-06-01
The theory of third-harmonic generation in optical gas breakdown by a high power laser field is developed. The theory treats third-harmonic generation in the presence of a self-generated quasi-static magnetic field. The distribution function of originated electrons and nonlinear third-harmonic current density are evaluated based on the kinetic theory. We have shown that the third-harmonic is generated by beating of electron's longitudinal velocity component vz and laser magnetic field B(r, t). The influences of the laser field polarization and magnetic field strength on the third-harmonic efficiency are discussed, separately. The results show that the third-harmonic exists even in the absence of the self-generated magnetic field; however, the magnetic field smoothly enhances the third-harmonic power with polarization near to the circular polarization. Furthermore, calculations revealed that the third-harmonic is never generated by a circularly polarized laser field, while it is more effectively generated in optical gas breakdown by a linearly polarized laser field. The results are in good agreement with previous theoretical investigations and also experimental observations of third-harmonic generation in optical breakdown of air.
Optical Harmonic Generation from Interfaces with Group IV Semiconductors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bottomley, David John
Nonlinear optical techniques have been used to investigate the symmetry properties of interfaces between media comprising at least one Group IV semiconductor. Second harmonic generation (SHG) and third harmonic generation (THG) have been performed for s and p polarization states of the fundamental and harmonic beams as a function of sample azimuthal angle at a fixed fundamental wavelength of 775 nm. In addition to these experimental measurements, the thesis contains theoretical calculations of the optical harmonic response from such media with vicinal surfaces, that is surfaces miscut from a low-index face by {<}{~}10^ circ. The phenomenological theory of Sipe, Moss and van Driel (Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129 (1987)) for SHG and THG in reflection from the low-index faces of cubic centrosymmetric media has been extended to all faces of both cubic centrosymmetric and cubic noncentrosymmetric media. This theory is applied in many parts of the thesis to interpreting the symmetry information present in nonlinear optical data. Experimentally, measurements of SHG and THG from vicinal semiconductor wafers have been performed, and using the above theory the wafer orientations have been obtained to within +/-0.1^circ . In addition, the above theory has been applied to achieve an approximate separation of bulk and surface contributions to SHG measurements from vincinal Si(001) and Si(111) surfaces which Sipe et al. showed is not possible on the low-index faces. The SiO_2/Si interface on vicinal Si(001) has been studied with SHG, and evidence has been obtained for the presence of noncentrosymmetric phases of c-SiO_2 at this interface whose relative concentrations are influenced by the oxidation conditions. For oxidation temperatures below 600 ^circC, the SHG data is shown to be consistent with the presence of tridymite at the buried interface, whereas for oxidation at 900^ circC the SHG data is consistent with the presence of cristobalite. Finally, SHG has been measured from odd
Second harmonic generation from an individual amorphous selenium nanosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, C. R.; Yan, J. H.; Wei, Y. M.; Yang, G. W.
2016-10-01
Among the numerous nonlinear optics effects, second harmonic generation (SHG) is always a hotspot and it is extensively used for optical frequency conversion, biomedical imaging, etc. However, SHG is forbidden in a medium with inversion symmetry under the electric-dipole approximation. Here, we demonstrated SHG from a single amorphous selenium (a-Se) nanosphere under near-infrared femtosecond pulse excitation. It was found that SH spectra are tunable with the size of a-Se nanospheres and the SHG efficiency of a single a-Se sphere with a diameter over 300 nm is estimated at 10-8. We also established two physical mechanisms of SHG from the amorphous nanospheres. There is an electric-dipole contribution to the second-order nonlinearity in view of the inevitable structural discontinuity at the surface. The discontinuity of the normal component of the electric field strength leads to the quadrupole-type contributions arising from the large electric field gradient. The SHG process can be enhanced by resonance near the fundamental wavelength, giving rise to the detectable second harmonic (SH) spectra of a single a-Se nanosphere (d > 300 nm) or two small a-Se nanospheres (d = 200 nm) aggregated into a dimer, while the single nanosphere with smaller size (d > 300 nm) is undetectable. As an essential trace element for animals, a-Se features unique biological compatibility and has specific properties of optical nonlinearity within the optical window in biological tissue. This discovery makes a-Se nanospheres promising both in nonlinear optics and biomedicine.
Ultrafast nanoscale imaging using high order harmonic generation (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merdji, Hamed
2017-05-01
Ultrafast coherent diffraction using soft and hard X-rays is actually revolutionizing imaging science thanks to new sources recently available. This powerful technique extends standard X-ray diffraction towards imaging of non-crystalline objects and leads actually to a strong impact in physics, chemistry and biology. New ultrashort pulses recently available hold the promise of watching matter evolving with unprecedented space and time resolution. Femtosecond coherent and intense radiation in the soft X-ray (λ = 10-40 nm) is currently produced in our laboratory, from highly non linear frequency conversion (high harmonic generation). A high intensity UV-X coherent beam is obtained using a loose focusing geometry, which allows coupling a very high amount of Ti:Sapphire laser system energy in the HHG process. Using a long gas cell and a long focal length lens, the emitting volume can be increased by orders of magnitude compared to standard HHG set-ups. This approach, allows reaching up to 1x1011 photons per shot for the 25th harmonic (λ=32nm). We have already demonstrated nanoscale imaging in a single shot mode reaching 70 nm spatial resolution and 20 femtoseconds snapshot [1]. We then implemented a recently proposed holographic technique using extended references. This technique, easy to implement, allows a direct non iterative image reconstruction. In the single shot regime, we demonstrated a spatial resolution of 110nm [2].This opens fascinating perspectives in imaging dynamical phenomena to be spread over a large scientific community. I will present recent results in the investigation of femtosecond phase spin-reversals of magnetic nano-domains [3]. Finally, I will report on recent development on noise sensitivity of the technique and perspectives in attosecond coherent imaging [4]. [1] A. Ravasio et al., Physical Review Letters 103, 028104 (2009). [2] D. Gauthier et al., Physical Review Letters 105, 093901 (2010). [3] Vodungbo et al., Nature Communications 3
High harmonic generation with fully tunable polarization by train of linearly polarized pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neufeld, Ofer; Bordo, Eliyahu; Fleischer, Avner; Cohen, Oren
2017-02-01
We propose and demonstrate, analytically and numerically, a scheme for generation of high-order harmonics with fully tunable polarization, from circular through elliptic to linear, while barely changing the other properties of the high harmonic radiation and where the ellipticity values of all the harmonic orders essentially coincide. The high harmonics are driven by a train of quasi-monochromatic linearly polarized pulses that are identical except for their polarization angles, which is the tuning knob. This system gives rise to full control over the polarization of the harmonics while largely preserving the single-cycle, single-atom and macroscopic physics of ‘ordinary’ high harmonic generation, where both the driver and high harmonics are linearly polarized.
A femtosecond Raman generator for long wavelength two-photon and third harmonic generation imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trägârdh, J.; Schniete, J.; Parsons, M.; McConnell, G.
2016-12-01
We demonstrate a femtosecond single pass Raman generator based on an YVO4 crystal pumped by a high energy fiber laser at a wavelength of 1064 nm and a repetition rate of 1 MHz. The Raman generator shifts the pump wavelength to 1175 nm, in a broadband spectrum, making it suitable for multi-photon microscopy. We use the Raman generator for third harmonic generation imaging of live plant specimens as well as for two-photon fluorescence imaging of red fluorescent protein expressing HeLa cells. We demonstrate that the photo-damage to a live specimen is low.
Zhuo, G-Y; Lee, H; Hsu, K-J; Huttunen, M J; Kauranen, M; Lin, Y-Y; Chu, S-W
2014-03-01
Chirality is one of the most fundamental and essential structural properties of biological molecules. Many important biological molecules including amino acids and polysaccharides are intrinsically chiral. Conventionally, chiral species can be distinguished by interaction with circularly polarized light, and circular dichroism is one of the best-known approaches for chirality detection. As a linear optical process, circular dichroism suffers from very low signal contrast and lack of spatial resolution in the axial direction. It has been demonstrated that by incorporating nonlinear interaction with circularly polarized excitation, second-harmonic generation circular dichroism can provide much higher signal contrast. However, previous circular dichroism and second-harmonic generation circular dichroism studies are mostly limited to probe chiralities at surfaces and interfaces. It is known that second-harmonic generation, as a second-order nonlinear optical effect, provides excellent optical sectioning capability when combined with a laser-scanning microscope. In this work, we combine the axial resolving power of second-harmonic generation and chiral sensitivity of second-harmonic generation circular dichroism to realize three-dimensional chiral detection in biological tissues. Within the point spread function of a tight focus, second-harmonic generation circular dichroism could arise from the macroscopic supramolecular packing as well as the microscopic intramolecular chirality, so our aim is to clarify the origins of second-harmonic generation circular dichroism response in complicated three-dimensional biological systems. The sample we use is starch granules whose second-harmonic generation-active molecules are amylopectin with both microscopic chirality due to its helical structure and macroscopic chirality due to its crystallized packing. We found that in a starch granule, the second-harmonic generation for right-handed circularly polarized excitation is
The role of current loop in harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials in two polarizations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sajedian, Iman; Kim, Inki; Zakery, Abdolnasser; Rho, Junsuk
2017-10-01
In this paper, we investigate the role of current loop in the generation of second and third harmonic signals from magnetic metamaterials and we are clarifying why two polarized harmonics are generated from magnetic metamaterials. We show that the current loop formed in the magnetic resonant frequency acts as a source for nonlinear effects. The current loop that has a circular shape can be divided into two orthogonal parts, where each of these parts acts as a source for generating a harmonic signal parallel to itself. The type of harmonic signal is determined by the metamaterial's inversion symmetry in that direction. This claim is also supported by the experimental results of another group.
Harmonic generation and parametric decay in the ion cyclotron frequency range
Skiff, F.N.; Wong, K.L.; Ono, M.
1984-06-01
Harmonic generation and parametric decay are examined in a toroidal ACT-I plasma using electrostatic plate antennas. The harmonic generation, which is consistent with sheath rectification, is sufficiently strong that the nonlinearly generated harmonic modes themselves decay parametrically. Resonant and nonresonant parametric decay of the second harmonic are observed and compared with uniform pump theory. Resonant decay of lower hybrid waves into lower hybrid waves and slow ion cyclotron waves is seen for the first time. Surprisingly, the decay processes are nonlinearly saturated, indicating absolute instability.
Defects and strain enhancements of second-harmonic generation in Si/Ge superlattices.
Bertocchi, Matteo; Luppi, Eleonora; Degoli, Elena; Véniard, Valérie; Ossicini, Stefano
2014-06-07
Starting from experimental findings and interface growth problems in Si/Ge superlattices, we have investigated through ab initio methods the concurrent and competitive behavior of strain and defects in the second-harmonic generation process. Interpreting the second-harmonic intensities as a function of the different nature and percentage of defects together with the strain induced at the interface between Si and Ge, we found a way to tune and enhance the second-harmonic generation response of these systems.
Imaging leukocytes in vivo with third harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Chien-Kuo; Chen, Yu-Shing; Wu, Pei-Chun; Hsieh, Tsung-Yuan; Liu, Han-Wen; Yeh, Chiou-Yueh; Lin, Win-Li; Chia, Jean-San; Liu, Tzu-Ming
2013-02-01
Without a labeling, we demonstrated that lipid granules in leukocytes have distinctive third harmonic generation (THG) contrast. Excited by a 1230nm femtosecond laser, THG signals were generated at a significantly higher level in neutrophils than other mononuclear cells, whereas signals in agranular lymphocytes were one order smaller. These characteristic THG features can also be observed in vivo to trace the newly recruited leukocytes following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Furthermore, using video-rate THG microscopy, we also captured images of blood cells in human capillaries. Quite different from red-blood-cells, every now and then, round and granule rich blood cells with strong THG contrast appeared in circulation. The corresponding volume densities in blood, evaluated from their frequencies of appearance and the velocity of circulation, fall within the physiological range of human white blood cell counts. These results suggested that labeling-free THG imaging may provide timely tracing of leukocyte movement and hematology inspection without disturbing the normal cellular or physiological status.
Application of organic compounds for high-order harmonic generation of ultrashort pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganeev, R. A.
2016-02-01
The studies of the high-order nonlinear optical properties of a few organic compounds (polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene, sugar, coffee, and leaf) are reported. Harmonic generation in the laser-produced plasmas containing the molecules and large particles of above materials is demonstrated. These studies showed that the harmonic distributions and harmonic cutoffs from organic compound plasmas were similar to those from the graphite ablation. The characteristic feature of observed harmonic spectra was the presence of bluesided lobes near the lower-order harmonics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alejo-Molina, Adalberto; Hingerl, Kurt; Hardhienata, Hendradi
2015-04-01
We report for the first time a comprehensive study of the fourth rank tensor describing third harmonic generation (THG) and electric field induced second harmonic (EFISH) in centrosymmetric material from two different viewpoints: Group Theory (GT) and the Simplified Bond Hyperpolarizability Model (SBHM). We show that the fourth rank tensor related to THG and direct current (DC) EFISH can be reduced to two independent elements whereas SBHM always gives only one, reproducing perfectly well EFISH experimental results in Metal Oxyde Semiconductor (MOS). We argue that it is possible to reduce the fourth rank tensor describing EFISH to a third rank tensor and further deliver a classical explanation of EFISH regarding symmetry breaking where the term containing $r^3$ in the potential immediately leads to second harmonic generation (SHG).
High-order harmonic generation from C{sub 60}-rich plasma
Ganeev, R. A.; Elouga Bom, L. B.; Ozaki, T.; Wong, M. C. H.; Brichta, J.-P.; Bhardwaj, V. R.; Redkin, P. V.
2009-10-15
We performed systematic investigation of high-order harmonic generation from fullerene-rich laser-produced plasmas. We studied harmonic generation by varying several experimental parameters, such as the delay between the ablation and driving pulses, and divergence and polarization of the pump laser. Enhancement of harmonic yield is observed near 20 eV, which is attributed to the influence of a broadband plasmon resonance of C{sub 60} on the nonlinear optical response of fullerene-rich plasma. This increase in the harmonic intensity occurs despite the increased absorption by C{sub 60} at these wavelengths. Using simulations based on time-dependent density-functional theory, we confirm that this effect is due to the influence of collective excitations. We compare harmonic generation from fullerenes using lasers with 793 nm and 396 nm wavelengths, which show the influence of plasmon resonance on the conversion efficiency of high-order harmonics for different laser wavelengths.
Organized Aggregation of Porphyrins in Lipid Bilayers for Third Harmonic Generation Microscopy.
Cui, Liyang; Tokarz, Danielle; Cisek, Richard; Ng, Kenneth K; Wang, Fan; Chen, Juan; Barzda, Virginijus; Zheng, Gang
2015-11-16
Nonlinear optical microscopy has become a powerful tool for high-resolution imaging of cellular and subcellular composition, morphology, and interactions because of its high spatial resolution, deep penetration, and low photo-damage to tissue. Developing specific harmonic probes is essential for exploiting nonlinear microscopic imaging for biomedical applications. We report an organized aggregate of porphyrins (OAP) that formed within lipidic nanoparticles showing fingerprint spectroscopic properties, structure-associated second harmonic generation, and superradiant third harmonic generation. The OAP facilitated harmonic microscopic imaging of living cells with significantly enhanced contrast. The structure-dependent switch between harmonic (OAP-intact) and fluorescence (OAP-disrupted) generation enabled real-time multi-modality imaging of the cellular fate of nanoparticles. Robustly produced under various conditions and easily incorporated into pre-formed lipid nanovesicles, OAP provides a biocompatible nanoplatform for harmonic imaging. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baranov, A. I.; Konyashkin, A. V.; Ryabushkin, O. A.
2015-09-01
Model of second harmonic generation with thermal self-action was developed. Second harmonic generation temperature phase matching curves were measured and calculated for periodically polled lithium niobate crystal. Both experimental and calculated data show asymmetrical shift of temperature tuning curves with pump power.
Predicting bulk damage in NIF triple harmonic generators
De Yoreo, J; Runkel, M; Williams, W
1998-09-18
Recently reported experiments have investigated the statistics of laser damage in KDP and KD*P. Automated damage tests have allowed cumulative failure and damage probability distributions to be constructed. Large area tests have investigated the feasibility of on-line laser conditioning and damage evolution for tripler harmonic generation (THG) crystals on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These tests have shown that there is a nonzero probability of damage at NIF redline fluence (14.3 J/cm2, 351 nm, 3 ns) and that the damage pinpoint density evolves exponentially with fluence. In this paper, the results of these tests are used in conjunction with model spatial profiles of the NIP beam to predict the level of damage created in the THG crystal. A probabilistic calculation based on the overlap of the beam fluence and damage probabiity distribution shows that the overall damage probability is less than 3% for well-conditioned, high quality KDP/KD*P crystals of conventional or rapid growth. The number density of generated pinpoints has been calculated by mapping the damage evolution curves onto the NlF model profile. This shows that the number of damage pinpoints generated in high fluence portions of the NIF beam will be low for well-conditioned THG crystals. In contrast, unconditioned triplers of the same material will exhibit an increase in pinpoint density of greater than 20x. To test the validity of these calculations a 37 cm, conventionally grown KD*P tripler from the Beamlet laser was scatter mapped for bulk damage. The tripler had been exposed to NE-like fluences during its operational lifetime on Beamlet and exhibited very low levels of bulk pinpoint damage, essentially supporting the predictions based on tests and modeling.
Recent Progress in High-Gain FEL Theory
Huang, Z.; /SLAC
2005-09-30
High-gain free electron lasers (FEL) are being developed as extremely bright x-ray sources of a next-generation radiation facility. In this paper, we review the basic theory and the recent progress in understanding the startup, the exponential growth and the saturation of the high-gain process, emphasizing the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). We will also discuss how the FEL performance may be affected by various errors and wakefield effects in the undulator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hemsing, E.; Dunning, M.; Hast, C.; Raubenheimer, T. O.; Weathersby, S.; Xiang, D.
2014-07-01
X-ray free-electron lasers are enabling access to new science by producing ultrafast and intense x rays that give researchers unparalleled power and precision in examining the fundamental nature of matter. In the quest for fully coherent x rays, the echo-enabled harmonic generation technique is one of the most promising methods. In this technique, coherent radiation at the high harmonic frequencies of two seed lasers is generated from the recoherence of electron beam phase space memory. Here we report on the generation of highly coherent and stable vacuum ultraviolet radiation at the 15th harmonic of an infrared seed laser with this technique. The experiment demonstrates two distinct advantages that are intrinsic to the highly nonlinear phase space gymnastics of echo-enabled harmonic generation in a new regime, i.e., high frequency up-conversion efficiency and insensitivity to electron beam phase space imperfections. Our results allow comparison and confirmation of predictive models and scaling laws, and mark a significant step towards fully coherent x-ray free-electron lasers that will open new scientific research.
Liu, Hanzhe; Li, Yilei; You, Yongsing; Ghimire, Shambhu; Heinz, Tony; Reis, David A.
2016-01-01
We report the observation of nonperturbative high-harmonic generation from monolayer MoS_{2}. Here, the yield is higher in monolayer compared to a single layer of the bulk, an effect attributed to strong electron-hole interactions in the monolayer.
High efficiency second and third harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials by using a grating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sajedian, Iman; Zakery, Abdolnasser; Rho, Junsuk
2017-08-01
Metamaterials can be used to generate harmonic signals in small thicknesses, but they suffer from low efficiency. Here, we introduce a new method for amplifying second and third harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials. We show numerically that by using a grating structure under the metamaterial, the grating and the metamaterial form a resonator which leads to a higher absorption in the metamaterial. By this method we could increase the absorption of the structure in the magnetic resonance up to 25% of the initial value. This leads to the generation of second and third harmonic signals with a higher efficiency from this metamaterial-based nonlinear media. We confirmed this idea in the nanostrip metamaterials and saw the amplitude of the second harmonic generation was doubled and the amplitude of the third harmonic generation increased by a factor of 4 in comparison to the same structure without grating.
High harmonic generation in ZnO with a high-power mid-IR OPA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gholam-Mirzaei, Shima; Beetar, John; Chini, Michael
2017-02-01
We generate high-order harmonics in a-cut (11-20) ZnO at a high repetition rate of 50 kHz, using the tunable mid-infrared pulses (3-4 μm wavelength) from a high-power optical parametric amplifier. For driving laser pulses with 3.8 μm central wavelength, we observe nonperturbative harmonic spectra that well exceed the material band gap. The harmonic spectra depend strongly on the orientation of the crystal with respect to the laser polarization, with odd harmonics exhibiting periodicities of π/2 for a polarization within the (11-20) crystal plane. Energy conversion efficiencies of ˜10-6 per harmonic are measured for the 9th-13th harmonics, yielding an average power of more than 0.2 μW for the 13th harmonic.
Laser-plasma mirrors: from electron acceleration to harmonics generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thévenet, Maxence; Bocoum, Maïmouna; Faure, Jérôme; Leblanc, Adrien; Vincenti, Henri; Quéré, Fabien
2016-10-01
Accelerating electrons in the > 10 TV/m fields inside an ultrashort ultraintense laser pulse has been a long-standing goal in experimental physics, motivated by promising theoretical predictions. The biggest hurdle was to have electrons injected in the center of the laser pulse. Recent experimental and numerical results showed that this problem could be solved using a plasma mirror, i.e. an overdense plasma with a sharp (
Functional imaging of muscle cells by second harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nucciotti, Valentina; Sacconi, Leonardo; Linari, Marco; Lombardi, Vincenzo; Piazzesi, Gabriella; Piroddi, Nicoletta; Poggesi, Corrado; Tesi, Chiara; Vanzi, Francesco; Pavone, Francesco S.
2006-02-01
The intrinsically ordered arrays of proteins (mainly actin and myosin) constituting the myofibrils within muscle cells are at the basis of a strong Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) from muscle fibers and isolated myofibrils. We have characterized the SHG signal with regard to its polarization and potential source within the muscle cell. The lateral resolution that can be achieved through SHG imaging of muscle strongly depends on sample depth. In fact, a comparison between intact muscle fibers and single myofibrils demonstrates that, whereas in both cases the alternation of dark I bands and bright A bands is visible, the contours of these bands are much better resolved in myofibrils than in fibers. Further, imaging of myofibrils revealed the presence of a darker zone in the centre of the A band. These effects of scattering by tissue on the image resolution were also studied with regard to the polarization of the SHG signal. The polarization-dependence of SHG intensity represents a powerful tool for the investigation of the structural dynamics occurring in the emitting proteins during the active cycle of muscle contraction. The prospective to perform functional studies requires a complete characterization of the effects of scattering and possibly multiple emitting populations on the measured SHG signal. Also, SHG is extremely sensitive to the degree of order present in the filament array, offering an interesting potential in the development of non-invasive tools for the diagnosis of degenerative diseases affecting skeletal muscles.
Metrology of Multiphoton Microscopes Using Second Harmonic Generation Nanoprobes.
Mahou, Pierre; Malkinson, Guy; Chaudan, Élodie; Gacoin, Thierry; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Supatto, Willy
2017-09-19
In multiphoton microscopy, the ongoing trend toward the use of excitation wavelengths spanning the entire near-infrared range calls for new standards in order to quantify and compare the performances of microscopes. This article describes a new method for characterizing the imaging properties of multiphoton microscopes over a broad range of excitation wavelengths in a straightforward and efficient manner. It demonstrates how second harmonic generation (SHG) nanoprobes can be used to map the spatial resolution, field curvature, and chromatic aberrations across the microscope field of view with a precision below the diffraction limit and with unique advantages over methods based on fluorescence. KTiOPO4 nanocrystals are used as SHG nanoprobes to measure and compare the performances over the 850-1100 nm wavelength range of several microscope objectives designed for multiphoton microscopy. Finally, this approach is extended to the post-acquisition correction of chromatic aberrations in multicolor multiphoton imaging. Overall, the use of SHG nanoprobes appears as a uniquely suited method to standardize the metrology of multiphoton microscopes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Third-harmonic generation susceptibility spectroscopy in free fatty acids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yu-Cheng; Hsu, Hsun-Chia; Lee, Chien-Ming; Sun, Chi-Kuang
2015-09-01
Lipid-correlated disease such as atherosclerosis has been an important medical research topic for decades. Many new microscopic imaging techniques such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and third-harmonic generation (THG) microscopy were verified to have the capability to target lipids in vivo. In the case of THG microscopy, biological cell membranes and lipid bodies in cells and tissues have been shown as good sources of contrast with a laser excitation wavelength around 1200 nm. We report the THG excitation spectroscopy study of two pure free fatty acids including oleic acid and linoleic acid from 1090 to 1330 nm. Different pure fatty acids presented slightly-different THG χ(3) spectra. The measured peak values of THG third-order susceptibility χ(3) in both fatty acids were surprisingly found not to match completely with the resonant absorption wavelengths around 1190 to 1210 nm, suggesting possible wavelengths selection for enhanced THG imaging of lipids while avoiding laser light absorption. Along with the recent advancement in THG imaging, this new window between 1240 to 1290 nm may offer tremendous new opportunities for sensitive label-free lipid imaging in biological tissues.
Planar light bullets under conditions of second-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sazonov, Sergey V.; Mamaikin, Mikhail S.; Komissarova, Maria V.; Zakharova, Irina G.
2017-08-01
We study solutions to second-harmonic-generation equations in two-dimensional media with anomalous dispersion. The analytical solution is obtained in an approximate form of the planar spatiotemporal two-component soliton by means of the averaged Lagrangian method. It is shown that a decrease in the amplitudes of both soliton components and an increase in the value of the transverse coordinate are accompanied by an increase in their temporal duration. Within this variational approach, we have managed to find a stability criterion for the light bullet and a period of oscillations of soliton parameters. Then, we use the obtained form as an initial configuration to carry out the direct numerical simulation of soliton dynamics. We demonstrate stable propagation of spatiotemporal solitons undergoing small oscillations predicted analytically for a long distance. The formation of a two-component light bullet is shown when we launch a pulse only at the fundamental frequency. In addition, we investigate the phase and group-velocity mismatch effects on the propagation of pulses.
Two-Photon Resonant Second Harmonic Generation in Atomic Xeon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Y. J.; Al-Basheer, W.; Thompson, R. I.
2009-06-01
Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation at 124.8 nm (9.93 eV) was produced from two-photon resonant second harmonic generation (SHG) in a Xeon gaseous medium and used to probe molecular samples of acetone, furan, thiophene, ammonia, and methane. The mass spectra recorded from the species with ionization energies below 9.93 eV were dominated by the parent ions. The parent ions were only observed when the incident UV radiation was tuned to resonate with the two-photon transition 5p^5(^2P_{3/2}^0)6p[1/2]_0 - 5p^6 ^1S_0 of Xe at 80119.474 cm^{-1}. The pressure dependence and the resonant nature of the parent ions observed support the mechanism for SHG as the ionization-initiated electric field induced SHG via the third-order nonlinear susceptibility, χ^{(3)}, which is enhanced by the coupling between the 5p^5(^2P_{3/2}^0)6p[1/2]_0 and the nearby 5p^5(^2P_{3/2}^0)5d[1/2]_1 states of Xe atoms.
Two-photon resonant second harmonic generation in atomic xeon.
Shi, Y J; Al-Basheer, W; Thompson, R I
2009-03-07
Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation at 124.8 nm (9.93 eV) was produced from two-photon resonant second harmonic generation (SHG) in a xeon gaseous medium and used to probe molecular samples of acetone, furan, thiophene, ammonia, and methane. The mass spectra recorded from the species with ionization energies below 9.93 eV were dominated by the parent ions. The parent ions were only observed when the incident UV radiation was tuned to resonate with the two-photon transition 5p(5)((2)P(3/2) (0))6p[1/2](0)<--5p(6) (1)S(0) of Xe at 80 119.474 cm(-1). The pressure dependence and the resonant nature of the parent ions observed support the mechanism for SHG as the ionization-initiated electric field induced SHG via the third-order nonlinear susceptibility chi((3)), which is enhanced by the coupling between the 5p(5)((2)P(3/2) (0))6p[1/2](0) and the nearby 5p(5)((2)P(3/2) (0))5d[1/2](1) states of Xe atoms.
Two-photon resonant second harmonic generation in atomic xeon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Y. J.; Al-Basheer, W.; Thompson, R. I.
2009-03-01
Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation at 124.8 nm (9.93 eV) was produced from two-photon resonant second harmonic generation (SHG) in a xeon gaseous medium and used to probe molecular samples of acetone, furan, thiophene, ammonia, and methane. The mass spectra recorded from the species with ionization energies below 9.93 eV were dominated by the parent ions. The parent ions were only observed when the incident UV radiation was tuned to resonate with the two-photon transition 5p5(P23/20)6p[1/2]0←5p6S10 of Xe at 80 119.474 cm-1. The pressure dependence and the resonant nature of the parent ions observed support the mechanism for SHG as the ionization-initiated electric field induced SHG via the third-order nonlinear susceptibility χ(3), which is enhanced by the coupling between the 5p5(P23/20)6p[1/2]0 and the nearby 5p5(P23/20)5d[1/2]1 states of Xe atoms.
Valence shell photoionization of SF6 and high harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jobin, Jobin; Fulfer, K.; Wilson, B.; Poliakoff, E.; Trallero, C.; Mondal, S.; Le, A.-T.; Lin, C.-D.; Lucchese, Robert
2013-05-01
When an atom or molecule is exposed to highly intense laser fields, the target can emit coherent radiation at photon energies which are multiples of incident laser energy. This process is known as High-order harmonic generation (HHG). There has been experimental and theoretical investigation of HHG for atoms and simple linear molecules. However, there have been few such studies for non-linear polyatomic molecules. In the current work, we investigate HHG for SF6 experimentally and theoretically. We employ quantitative rescattering theory (QRS) which makes use of the magnitude and phase of the dipole transition matrix elements for photoionization. For calculating dipole transition matrix elements we employ the ePolyscat static-exchange method. The features seen in the computed results will be compared to corresponding features in the measured HHG spectrum. The calculation is repeated for different polarization of incident laser and different intensities. The analysis allows us to reproduce then understand experimentally measured HHG spectra from SF6. Additionally, the valence shell photoionization parameters are also compared with several other theoretical and experimental results.
Second harmonic generation from the ‘centrosymmetric’ crystals
Nalla, Venkatram; Medishetty, Raghavender; Wang, Yue; Bai, Zhaozhi; Sun, Handong; Wei, Ji.; Vittal, Jagadese J.
2015-01-01
Second harmonic generation (SHG) is a well known non-linear optical phenomena which can be observed only in non-centrosymmetric crystals due to non-zero hyperpolarizability. In the current work we observed SHG from a Zn(II) complex which was originally thought to have crystallized in the centrosymmetric space group C2/c. This has been attributed to the unequal antiparallel packing of the metal complexes in the non-symmetric space group Cc or residual non-centrosymmetry in C2/c giving rise to polarizability leading to strong SHG. The enhancement of SHG by UV light has been attributed to the increase in non-centrosymmetry and hence polarity of packing due to strain induced in the crystals. The SHG signals measured from these crystals were as large as potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals, KH2PO4 (KDP), and showed temperature dependence. The highest SHG efficiency was observed at 50 K. The SHG phenomenon was observed at broad wavelengths ranging from visible to below-red in these crystals. PMID:25995840
Extraordinary Second Harmonic Generation in tungsten disulfide monolayers.
Janisch, Corey; Wang, Yuanxi; Ma, Ding; Mehta, Nikhil; Elías, Ana Laura; Perea-López, Néstor; Terrones, Mauricio; Crespi, Vincent; Liu, Zhiwen
2014-07-02
We investigate Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) in monolayer WS₂ both deposited on a SiO₂/Si substrate or suspended using transmission electron microscopy grids. We find unusually large second order nonlinear susceptibility, with an estimated value of d(eff) ~ 4.5 nm/V nearly three orders of magnitude larger than other common nonlinear crystals. In order to quantitatively characterize the nonlinear susceptibility of two-dimensional (2D) materials, we have developed a formalism to model SHG based on the Green's function with a 2D nonlinear sheet source. In addition, polarized SHG is demonstrated as a useful method to probe the structural symmetry and crystal orientation of 2D materials. To understand the large second order nonlinear susceptibility of monolayer WS₂, density functional theory based calculation is performed. Our analysis suggests the origin of the large nonlinear susceptibility in resonance enhancement and a large joint density of states, and yields an estimate of the nonlinear susceptibility value d(eff) = 0.77 nm/V for monolayer WS₂, which shows good order-of-magnitude agreement with the experimental result.
Effective one-electron approaches to calculate high harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rohringer, Nina; Santra, Robin
2006-05-01
The single-active electron approach (SAE) is frequently applied to calculate high harmonic generation in atoms and consists in solving a one-particle Schr"odinger equation in an appropriate model potential. As an ad hoc approach it is difficult to be systematically improved. Starting with the time-dependent configuration interaction singles (TDCIS) technique we derive a new class of effective one-electron approaches. The resulting one-electron equations are in general non-local and non-unitary. A local approximation to TDCIS can be derived by restricting the total many-body Hamiltonian to a local mean-field Hamiltonian (those usually used in SAE calculations). The resulting equations are similar to traditional SAE approaches but include an additional term which destroys the unitarity of the time-evolution. We show that this correction term is essential and improves on traditional SAE approaches. Numerical tests show that this improved SAE method gives dipole-moments in better agreement with exact results than time-dependent Hartree Fock. The test system is a one-dimensional model of helium which allows for a straightforward numerical solution and therefore provides a benchmark to assess the quality of the different approximations.
Imaging articular cartilage using second harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mansfield, Jessica C.; Winlove, C. Peter; Knapp, Karen; Matcher, Stephen J.
2006-02-01
Sub cellular resolution images of equine articular cartilage have been obtained using both second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM) and two-photon fluorescence microscopy (TPFM). The SHGM images clearly map the distribution of the collagen II fibers within the extracellular matrix while the TPFM images show the distribution of endogenous two-photon fluorophores in both the cells and the extracellular matrix, highlighting especially the pericellular matrix and bright 2-3μm diameter features within the cells. To investigate the source of TPF in the extracellular matrix experiments have been carried out to see if it may originate from the proteoglycans. Pure solutions of the following proteoglycans hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate and aggrecan have been imaged, only the aggrecan produced any TPF and here the intensity was not great enough to account for the TPF in the extracellular matrix. Also cartilage samples were subjected to a process to remove proteoglycans and cellular components. After this process the TPF from the samples had decreased by a factor of two, with respect to the SHG intensity.
Research of second harmonic generation images based on texture analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yao; Li, Yan; Gong, Haiming; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan
2014-09-01
Texture analysis plays a crucial role in identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. It has been applied to a variety of medical image processing, ranging from the detection of disease and the segmentation of specific anatomical structures, to differentiation between healthy and pathological tissues. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy as a potential noninvasive tool for imaging biological tissues has been widely used in medicine, with reduced phototoxicity and photobleaching. In this paper, we clarified the principles of texture analysis including statistical, transform, structural and model-based methods and gave examples of its applications, reviewing studies of the technique. Moreover, we tried to apply texture analysis to the SHG images for the differentiation of human skin scar tissues. Texture analysis method based on local binary pattern (LBP) and wavelet transform was used to extract texture features of SHG images from collagen in normal and abnormal scars, and then the scar SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal ones. Compared with other texture analysis methods with respect to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, LBP combined with wavelet transform was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy. It can provide a new way for clinical diagnosis of scar types. At last, future development of texture analysis in SHG images were discussed.
Second harmonic generation imaging in tissue engineering and cartilage pathologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lilledahl, Magnus; Olderøy, Magnus; Finnøy, Andreas; Olstad, Kristin; Brinchman, Jan E.
2015-03-01
The second harmonic generation from collagen is highly sensitive to what extent collagen molecules are ordered into fibrils as the SHG signal is approximately proportional to the square of the fibril thickness. This can be problematic when interpreting SHG images as thick fibers are much brighter than thinner fibers such that quantification of the amount of collagen present is difficult. On the other hand SHG is therefore also a very sensitive probe to determine whether collagen have assembled into fibrils or are still dissolved as individual collagen molecules. This information is not available from standard histology or immunohistochemical techniques. The degree for fibrillation is an essential component for proper tissue function. We will present the usefulness of SHG imaging in tissue engineering of cartilage as well as cartilage related pathologies. When engineering cartilage it is essential to have the appropriate culturing conditions which cause the collagen molecules to assemble into fibrils. By employing SHG imaging we have studied how cell seeding densities affect the fibrillation of collagen molecules. Furthermore we have used SHG to study pathologies in developing cartilage in a porcine model. In both cases SHG reveals information which is not visible in conventional histology or immunohistochemistry
Third-harmonic-generation of a diode laser for quantum control of beryllium ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carollo, Ryan A.; Lane, David A.; Kleiner, Edward K.; Kyaw, Phyo Aung; Teng, Chu C.; Ou, Celia Y.; Qiao, Shenglan; Hanneke, David
2017-04-01
We generate coherent ultraviolet radiation at 313 nm as the third harmonic of an external-cavity diode laser. We use this radiation for laser cooling of trapped beryllium atomic ions and sympathetic cooling of co-trapped beryllium-hydride molecular ions. An LBO crystal in an enhancement cavity generates the second harmonic, and a BBO crystal in a doubly resonant enhancement cavity mixes this second harmonic with the fundamental to produce the third harmonic. Each enhancement cavity is preceded by a tapered amplifier to increase the fundamental light. The 36-mW output power of this all-semiconductor-gain system will enable quantum control of the beryllium ions' motion.
Maximizing the yield and cutoff of high-order harmonic generation from plasma plume
Ganeev, Rashid A.; Elouga Bom, Luc B.; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Redkin, Pavel V.
2007-11-15
We study high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from various lowly ionized laser plasmas. We study harmonic generation from targets of Al (Z=13) to Bi (Z=83). Varying the wavelength, chirp, and pulse duration of the femtosecond pump laser resulted in the change in the harmonic distribution, cutoff, and conversion efficiency of HHG. We also study the use of doubly charged ions, and resonances for some materials. We were able to obtain high HHG conversion efficiency and harmonic cutoff by implementing the above approaches and by observing the time-resolved spectra of the laser plasma.
Third-harmonic-generation of a diode laser for quantum control of beryllium ions.
Carollo, Ryan A; Lane, David A; Kleiner, Edward K; Kyaw, Phyo Aung; Teng, Chu C; Ou, Celia Y; Qiao, Shenglan; Hanneke, David
2017-04-03
We generate coherent ultraviolet radiation at 313 nm as the third harmonic of an external-cavity diode laser. We use this radiation for laser cooling of trapped beryllium atomic ions and sympathetic cooling of co-trapped beryllium-hydride molecular ions. An LBO crystal in an enhancement cavity generates the second harmonic, and a BBO crystal in a doubly resonant enhancement cavity mixes this second harmonic with the fundamental to produce the third harmonic. Each enhancement cavity is preceded by a tapered amplifier to increase the fundamental light. The 36-mW output power of this all-semiconductor-gain system will enable quantum control of the beryllium ions' motion.
Enhanced third-harmonic generation in silicon nanoparticles driven by magnetic response.
Shcherbakov, Maxim R; Neshev, Dragomir N; Hopkins, Ben; Shorokhov, Alexander S; Staude, Isabelle; Melik-Gaykazyan, Elizaveta V; Decker, Manuel; Ezhov, Alexander A; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E; Brener, Igal; Fedyanin, Andrey A; Kivshar, Yuri S
2014-11-12
We observe enhanced third-harmonic generation from silicon nanodisks exhibiting both electric and magnetic dipolar resonances. Experimental characterization of the nonlinear optical response through third-harmonic microscopy and spectroscopy reveals that the third-harmonic generation is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of the magnetic dipole resonances. The field localization at the magnetic resonance results in two orders of magnitude enhancement of the harmonic intensity with respect to unstructured bulk silicon with the conversion efficiency limited only by the two-photon absorption in the substrate.
Third harmonic generation with ultra-high intensity laser pulses
Rax, J.M.; Fisch, N.J.
1992-04-01
When an intense, plane-polarized, laser pulse interacts with a plasma, the relativistic nonlinearities induce a third harmonic polarization. A phase-locked growth of a third harmonic wave can take place, but the differences between the nonlinear dispersion of the pump and driven waves leads to a rapid unlocking, resulting in a saturation. What becomes third harmonic amplitude oscillations are identified here, and the nonlinear phase velocity and the renormalized electron mass due to plasmon screening are calculated. A simple phase-matching scheme, based on a resonant density modulation, is then proposed and analyzed.
Third harmonic generation with ultra-high intensity laser pulses
Rax, J.M.; Fisch, N.J.
1992-04-01
When an intense, plane-polarized, laser pulse interacts with a plasma, the relativistic nonlinearities induce a third harmonic polarization. A phase-locked growth of a third harmonic wave can take place, but the differences between the nonlinear dispersion of the pump and driven waves leads to a rapid unlocking, resulting in a saturation. What becomes third harmonic amplitude oscillations are identified here, and the nonlinear phase velocity and the renormalized electron mass due to plasmon screening are calculated. A simple phase-matching scheme, based on a resonant density modulation, is then proposed and analyzed.
Studies of surfaces using optical second-harmonic generation
Tom, H.W.K.
1984-04-01
The experiments reported in this thesis demonstrate the use of second-harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) in reflection from surfaces to study various surface properties. The experiments firmly establish SHG as a viable new surface probe that complements existing surface probes in ultrahigh vacuum environments and is in many ways unique for studying interfaces between dense media. Surface structural symmetry can be revealed through the anisotropy in the SH signal from the surface as the sample is rotated about its normal. The form of this anisotropy is derived in theory and verified with an experiment on the Si(100) and (111) surfaces. The SHG and SFG signals from molecules adsorbed on noninteracting substrates have a direct relationship to the number, average orientation, and spectroscopic properties of the molecules. The SH intensity was used to measure the isotherm for adsorption of p-nitrobenzoic acid from ethanolic solution to fused silica. Experiments performed on a strongly-interacting well-characterized Rh(111) surface in ultrahigh vacuum establish the sensitivity of the SH probe in corroboration with other surface probes. For the first time, the SH coverage-dependence was fit by theory in a quantitative way for the case of O-atom adsorption. The sensitivity of SH to adsorption at different sites was established for CO on top- and bridge-sites. SHG was shown to be surface specific in that the SHG from alkali metal surfaces originates from the first two monolayers. SH sensitivity to the adsorption of catalytically-important hydrocarbons and to chemical processes such as benzene dehydrogenation was also demonstrated. 122 references, 27 figures, 2 tables.
All-fiber fourth and fifth harmonic generation from a single source.
Khudus, Muhammad I M Abdul; Lee, Timothy; De Lucia, Francesco; Corbari, Costantino; Sazio, Pier; Horak, Peter; Brambilla, Gilberto
2016-09-19
All-fiber fourth and fifth harmonic generation from a single source is demonstrated experimentally and analyzed theoretically. Light from a fully fiberized high power master oscillator power amplifier is launched into a periodically poled silica fiber generating the second harmonic. The output is then sent through two optical microfibers that generate the third and fourth harmonic, respectively, via four wave mixing (FWM). For a large range of pump wavelengths in the silica optical transmission window, phase matched FWM can be achieved in the microfibers at two different diameters with relatively wide fabrication tolerances of up to +/-5 nm. Our simulations indicate that by optimizing the second harmonic generation efficiency and the diameters and lengths of the two microfibers, conversion efficiencies to the fourth harmonic in excess of 25% are theoretically achievable.
Singh, Mamta; Gupta, D. N.; Suk, H.
2015-06-15
We propose an idea to enhance the efficiency of second- and third-harmonic generation by considering the amplitude-modulation of the fundamental laser pulse. A short-pulse laser of finite spot size is modeled as amplitude modulated in time. Amplitude-modulation of fundamental laser contributes in quiver velocity of the plasma electrons and produces the strong plasma-density perturbations, thereby increase in current density at second- and third-harmonic frequency. In a result, the conversion efficiency of harmonic generation increases significantly. Power conversion efficiency of harmonic generation process is the increasing function of the amplitude-modulation parameter of the fundamental laser beam. Harmonic power generated by an amplitude modulated laser is many folds higher than the power obtained in an ordinary case.
Extreme Harmonic Generation in Electrically Driven Spin Resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stehlik, Jiri
2015-03-01
InAs nanowire double quantum dots offer a rich platform for studying single spin physics in a material with large spin-orbit (SO) coupling. The large SO coupling allows all electrical control of the electron spin through electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR). Here an oscillating electric field of frequency f displaces the electron wave function, while a magnetic field with strength B is applied. Spin rotations occur when the resonance condition hf = gμB B is met. Here g is the electron g-factor, h is Planck's constant, and μB is the Bohr magneton. We find that near zero interdot detuning efficient spin rotations also occur when hf = ngμB B , with n being an integer as large as 8 in our system. The harmonics feature a striking odd/even dependence. While the odd harmonics show an enhancement of the leakage current, the even harmonics show a reduction. In contrast, we do not observe any measurable harmonics at large detuning. We link the presence of harmonics with additional anti-crossings present in the level diagram. This implies that harmonics are the result of Landau-Zener transitions occurring at multiple anti-crossings. Recent theoretical work supports this conclusion. Research performed in collaboration with M. D. Schroer, M. Z. Maialle, M. H. Degani, and J. R. Petta. Research was supported by the Sloan and Packard Foundations, Army Research Office, DARPA QuEST and the NSF.
Generation of Electron Cyclotron Harmonic waves around the Moon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katayama, Y.; Kojima, H.; Saito, Y.; Kasahara, Y.; Omura, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Yokota, S.; Nishino, M. N.; Hashimoto, K.; Ono, T.; Tsunakawa, H.
2012-12-01
The study of the electron cyclotron harmonic(ECH) waves has been extensively made in the view point of the magnetospheric physics as well as the microscopic wave-particle interaction. The Japanese lunar satellite Kaguya provides another observation of the ECH waves around the moon. The interaction between the moon and space plasmas results in the generation of the ECH waves. We performed the detailed data analyses using the plasma wave data observed by the Kaguya as well as the linear dispersion analyses. First of all we found the close relation of the ECH wave observation and the magnetic anomaly of the night side of the moon. In order to examine the generation condition of the ECH waves, we consult the Kaguya electron data. The data show that the importance of the coexistence of of electron loss cone velocity distribution and low energy electron beams. The loss cone velocity distribution can be formed by the mirror force at the magnetic anomaly on the surface of the moon. The low energy electron beam can be realized by the acceleration due to the negative potential of the moon surface on the night side. We then assume these two kinds of electron distribution are essential to excite ECH waves. However the loss cone distribution and low energy beam are observed not only in the magnetosphere but also in the wake region, where ECH waves are not observed. This means some parametric dependence of the ECH wave generation even under the coexistence of the electron loss cone distribution and low energy electron beam. In order to make clear the parametric condition of the ECH waves around the moon, we calculate the linear growth rate by solving the kinetic plasma dispersion relation using the realistic plasma parameters of the lobe, plasma sheet and wake regions based on the KAGUYA observation. In the linear dispersion analysis, we assumed hot electrons and cold electrons, and the former have loss cone distribution and the latter has drift velocity which equivalent
Anisotropic Second Harmonic Generation at Single Crystal Metal Surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kexiang, He.
The work in this thesis comprises a set of experiments designed to study the anisotropic spatial dependence of second harmonic generation (SHG) from the surface of single crystal metals. The anisotropic dependence of reflected SHG from Al_2O_3 Al(111) interface was studied. The isotropic dependence of the SHG signal is used to probe the structural symmetry of the Al_2O_3Al(111) interface. For P- and S-polarized laser light incident at a fixed angle of 45^circ, the intensities of S- and P-polarized components of SHG signal were measured as a function of rotation angle during rotation of the surface about its normal. Anisotropic SHG studies were also performed on high Miller index surface of Al(331) and on a Al surface cut at 22.5^ circ with respect to the Al(111) surface. For the Al(331) surface, the anisotropic dependence of the SHG signal was measured for both the S- and P-polarized signals under both S- and P-polarized laser excitation. The anisotropy of the SHG from Al(331) were fit with theory using the assumption that symmetry is retained for this surface at the metal oxide-metal interface. Existing theory is used to derive the theoretical expressions predicting the anisotropic dependence of SHG from Al(331). The SHG probe was also used to follow pulsed laser annealing (PLA) of the Al_2O_3/Al(111) interface from on a chemically polished Al(111) surface. Using P-polarized pump laser light, the P-polarized SHG signal exhibits three equally spaced, equal intensity maxima during a single complete rotation of Al_2O _3/Al(111) interface about the interface normal. Annealing of the interface is found to occur when the P-polarized 1064nm pump laser light has an incident peak power of 11 times 10 ^6W/cm^2 per pulse. The intensity of the P-polarized 532nm SHG signal generated in reflection from this annealed interface exhibits a reduced anisotropic component in the SHG signal. Measurements of the anisotropic SHG signal from ionized beam deposited Al thin-films on Si(111
Characterization of muscle contraction with second harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prent, Nicole
Muscle cells have the ability to change length and generate force due to orchestrated action of myosin nanomotors that cause sliding of actin filaments along myosin filaments in the sarcomeres, the fundamental contractile units, of myocytes. The correlated action of hundreds of sarcomeres is needed to produce the myocyte contractions. This study probes the molecular structure of the myofilaments and investigates the movement correlations between sarcomeres during contraction. In this study, second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy is employed for imaging striated myocytes. Myosin filaments in striated myocytes inherently have a nonzero second-order susceptibility, [special characters omitted] and therefore generate efficient SHG. Employing polarization-in polarization-out (PIPO) SHG microscopy allows for the accurate determination of the characteristic ratio, [special characters omitted] in birefringent myocytes, which describes the structure of the myosin filament. Analysis shows that the b value at the centre of the myosin filament, where the nonlinear dipoles are better aligned, is slightly lower than the value at the edges of the filament, where there is more disorder in orientation of the nonlinear dipoles from the myosin heads. Forced stretching of myocytes resulted in an SHG intensity increase with the elongation of the sarcomere. SHG microscopy captured individual sarcomeres during contraction, allowing for the measurement of sarcomere length (SL) and SHG intensity (SI) fluctuations. The fluctuations also revealed higher SHG intensity in elongated sarcomeres. The sarcomere synchronization model (SSM) for contracting and quiescent myocytes was developed, and experimentally verified for three cases (isolated cardiomyocyte, embryonic chicken cardiomyocyte, and larva myocyte). During contraction, the action of SLs and SIs between neighbouring sarcomeres partially correlated, whereas in quiescent myocytes the SLs show an anti-correlation and the SIs have no
Second harmonic generation study of liquid surface and amphilphile monolayer
Zhao, X.
1992-12-31
This thesis contains the following topics. In Chapter 2, we use temperature dependent SHC to study the surface structure of some neat liquids. It was found all the hydrogen bonding liquids have a stronger SHG dependence of temperature while for the non-hydrogen bonding liquids SH response is insensitive to temperature change. In Chapter 3, we discussed the general feature of the electric field induced second harmonic generation (EFISHG). We experimentally established the importance of the {chi}{sup (3)} mechanism at the air/water charged interface. In Chapter 4, we used SHG to study the p-nitrophenol (PNP) penetration into the insoluble monolayer of hexadecyl and pentadecyl acid. It was found that PNP preferentially adsorbs at the fatty acid monolayer. The population and orientation of PNP is strongly dependent on the fatty acid monolayer packing. In Chapter 5, SH signal fluctuation spectroscopy was used to study the surface self-diffusion within the monolayer gas-liquid co-existence region. Assuming the uniform distribution of the liquid phase cluster size, a diffusion model was developed to fit the experimental measured autocorrelation function. In Chapter 6, SH fluctuation spectroscopy was used to study the monolayer orientation spontaneous fluctuation. It was found that only the electron rich aromatic head groups exhibit the orientational fluctuation while the electron poor aromatic molecules do not have a fluctuation anomalies. Fluctuation time scale is strongly influenced by the hydrophobic chain length. A quantitative theory was presented based on Landau-Ginzburg theory to fit the time dependent orientation fluctuation. In Chapter 7, we focused on the acid-base equilibrium constant measurement at the air/water interface using both {chi}{sup (2)} and {chi}{sup (2)} method. We have measured pKa of aniline, phenol, amine, and acid at the interface. It turned out that for all these species, the neutral form is more stable at the interface.
High-order-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suárez, Noslen; Chacón, Alexis; Pérez-Hernández, Jose A.; Biegert, Jens; Lewenstein, Maciej; Ciappina, Marcelo F.
2017-03-01
High-order-harmonic generation (HHG) results from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with matter. It configures an invaluable tool to produce attosecond pulses, moreover, to extract electron structural and dynamical information of the target, i.e., atoms, molecules, and solids. In this contribution, we introduce an analytical description of atomic and molecular HHG, that extends the well-established theoretical strong-field approximation (SFA). Our approach involves two innovative aspects: (i) First, the bound-continuum and rescattering matrix elements can be analytically computed for both atomic and multicenter molecular systems, using a nonlocal short range model, but separable, potential. When compared with the standard models, these analytical derivations make possible to directly examine how the HHG spectra depend on the driven media and laser-pulse features. Furthermore, we can turn on and off contributions having distinct physical origins or corresponding to different mechanisms. This allows us to quantify their importance in the various regions of the HHG spectra. (ii) Second, as reported recently [N. Suárez et al., Phys. Rev. A 94, 043423 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.043423], the multicenter matrix elements in our theory are free from nonphysical gauge- and coordinate-system-dependent terms; this is accomplished by adapting the coordinate system to the center from which the corresponding time-dependent wave function originates. Our SFA results are contrasted, when possible, with the direct numerical integration of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in reduced and full dimensionality. Very good agreement is found for single and multielectronic atomic systems, modeled under the single active electron approximation, and for simple diatomic molecular systems. Interference features, ubiquitously present in every strong-field phenomenon involving a multicenter target, are also captured by our model.
Crystallographic Mapping of Guided Nanowires by Second Harmonic Generation Polarimetry
2017-01-01
The growth of horizontal nanowires (NWs) guided by epitaxial and graphoepitaxial relations with the substrate is becoming increasingly attractive owing to the possibility of controlling their position, direction, and crystallographic orientation. In guided NWs, as opposed to the extensively characterized vertically grown NWs, there is an increasing need for understanding the relation between structure and properties, specifically the role of the epitaxial relation with the substrate. Furthermore, the uniformity of crystallographic orientation along guided NWs and over the substrate has yet to be checked. Here we perform highly sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) polarimetry of polar and nonpolar guided ZnO NWs grown on R-plane and M-plane sapphire. We optically map large areas on the substrate in a nondestructive way and find that the crystallographic orientations of the guided NWs are highly selective and specific for each growth direction with respect to the substrate lattice. In addition, we perform SHG polarimetry along individual NWs and find that the crystallographic orientation is preserved along the NW in both polar and nonpolar NWs. While polar NWs show highly uniform SHG along their axis, nonpolar NWs show a significant change in the local nonlinear susceptibility along a few micrometers, reflected in a reduction of 40% in the ratio of the SHG along different crystal axes. We suggest that these differences may be related to strain accumulation along the nonpolar wires. We find SHG polarimetry to be a powerful tool to study both selectivity and uniformity of crystallographic orientations of guided NWs with different epitaxial relations. PMID:28094977
Crystallographic Mapping of Guided Nanowires by Second Harmonic Generation Polarimetry.
Neeman, Lior; Ben-Zvi, Regev; Rechav, Katya; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Oron, Dan; Joselevich, Ernesto
2017-02-08
The growth of horizontal nanowires (NWs) guided by epitaxial and graphoepitaxial relations with the substrate is becoming increasingly attractive owing to the possibility of controlling their position, direction, and crystallographic orientation. In guided NWs, as opposed to the extensively characterized vertically grown NWs, there is an increasing need for understanding the relation between structure and properties, specifically the role of the epitaxial relation with the substrate. Furthermore, the uniformity of crystallographic orientation along guided NWs and over the substrate has yet to be checked. Here we perform highly sensitive second harmonic generation (SHG) polarimetry of polar and nonpolar guided ZnO NWs grown on R-plane and M-plane sapphire. We optically map large areas on the substrate in a nondestructive way and find that the crystallographic orientations of the guided NWs are highly selective and specific for each growth direction with respect to the substrate lattice. In addition, we perform SHG polarimetry along individual NWs and find that the crystallographic orientation is preserved along the NW in both polar and nonpolar NWs. While polar NWs show highly uniform SHG along their axis, nonpolar NWs show a significant change in the local nonlinear susceptibility along a few micrometers, reflected in a reduction of 40% in the ratio of the SHG along different crystal axes. We suggest that these differences may be related to strain accumulation along the nonpolar wires. We find SHG polarimetry to be a powerful tool to study both selectivity and uniformity of crystallographic orientations of guided NWs with different epitaxial relations.
Studies of interfaces and vapors with Optical Second Harmonic Generation
Mullin, Christopher Shane
1993-12-01
Optical Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) has been applied to the study of soap-like molecules adsorbed to the water-air interface. By calibrating the signal from a soluble monolayer with that of an insoluble homolog, absolute measurements of the surface density could be obtained and related to the bulk concentration and surface tension. We could then demonstrate that the soluble surfactant forms a single monolayer at the interface. Furthermore, it deviates significantly from the ideal case in that its activity coefficients are far from 1, yet those coefficients remain constant over a broad range of surface pressures. We present evidence of a first-order phase transition taking place during the adsorption of this soluble monolayer. We consider the effects of the non-ideal behavior and the phase transition on the microscopic model of adsorption, and formulate an alternative to the Langmuir picture of adsorption which is just as simple, yet it can more easily allow for non-ideal behavior. The second half of this thesis considers the problem of SHG in bulk metal vapors. The symmetry of the vapor forbids SHG, yet it has been observed. We consider several models whereby the symmetry of the vapor is broken by the presence of the laser and compare their predictions to new observations we have made using a few-picosecond laser pulse. The two-lobed output beam profile shows that it is the vapor-plus-beam combination whose symmetry is important. The dependence on vapor pressure demonstrates the coherent nature of the radiation, while the dependence on buffer gas pressure hints at a change of the symmetry in time. The time-dependence is measured directly with a preliminary pump-probe measurement. The magnitude and intensity dependence of the signal are also measured. All but one of the models are eliminated by this comparison.
Second harmonic generation imaging of skeletal muscle tissue and myofibrils
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campagnola, Paul J.; Mohler, William H.; Plotnikov, Sergey; Millard, Andrew C.
2006-02-01
Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) imaging microscopy is used to examine the morphology and structural properties of intact muscle tissue. Using biochemical and optical analysis, we characterize the molecular structure underlying SHG from the complex muscle sarcomere. We find that SHG from isolated myofibrils is abolished by extraction of myosin, but is unaffected by removal or addition of actin filaments. We thus determined that the SHG emission arises from domains of the sarcomere containing thick filaments. By fitting the SHG polarization anisotropy to theoretical response curves, we find an orientation for the harmonophore that corresponds well to the pitch angle of the myosin rod α-helix with respect to the thick filament axis. Taken together, these data indicate that myosin rod domains are the key structures giving rise to SHG from striated muscle. Using SHG imaging microscopy, we have also examined the effect of optical clearing with glycerol to achieve greater penetration into specimens of skeletal muscle tissue. We find that treatment with 50% glycerol results in a 2.5 fold increase in achievable SHG imaging depth. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis shows quantitatively that the periodicity of the sarcomere structure is unaltered by the clearing process. Also, comparison of the SHG angular polarization dependence shows no change in the supramolecular organization of acto-myosin complexes. We suggest that the primary mechanism of optical clearing in muscle with glycerol treatment results from the reduction of cytoplasmic protein concentration and concomitant decrease in the secondary inner filter effect on the SHG signal. The pronounced lack of dependence of glycerol concentration on the imaging depth indicates that refractive index matching plays only a minor role in the optical clearing of muscle.
Multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy for imaging keratoconus
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yen; Lo, Wen; Lin, Sung-Jan; Lin, Wei-Chou; Jee, Shiou-Hwa; Tan, Hsin-Yuan; Dong, Chen-Yuan
2006-02-01
The purpose of this study is to assess the possible application of multiphoton fluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy for imaging the structural features of keratoconus cornea and to evaluate its potential as being a clinical in vivo monitoring technique. Using the near-infrared excitation source from a titanium-sapphire laser pumped by a diode-pumped, solid state (DPSS) laser system, we can induce and simultaneously acquire multiphoton autofluorescence and SHG signals from the cornea specimens with keratoconus. A home-modified commercial microscope system with specified optical components is used for optimal signal detection. Keratoconus cornea button from patient with typical clinical presentation of keratoconus was obtained at the time of penetrating keratoplasty. The specimen was also sent for the histological examination as comparison. In all samples of keratoconus, destruction of lamellar structure with altered collagen fiber orientation was observed within whole layer of the diseased stromal area. In addition, the orientation of the altered collagen fibers within the cone area shows a trend directing toward the apex of the cone, which might implicate the biomechanical response of the keratoconus stroma to the intraocular pressure. Moreover, increased autofluorescent cells were also found in the cone area, with increased density as one approaches the apical area. In conclusion, multiphoton autofluorescence and SHG microscopy non-invasively demonstrated the morphological features of keratoconus cornea, especially the structural alternations of the stromal lamellae. We believe that in the future the multiphoton microscopy can be applied in vivo as an effective, non-invasive diagnostic and monitoring technique for keratoconus.
Second harmonic generation imaging microscopy of cellular structure and function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millard, Andrew C.; Jin, Lei; Loew, Leslie M.
2005-03-01
Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging microscopy is an important emerging technique for biological research, with many advantages over existing one- or two-photon fluorescence techniques. A non-linear phenomenon employing mode-locked Ti:sapphire or fiber-based lasers, SHG results in intrinsic optical sectioning without the need for a confocal aperture. Furthermore, as a second-order process SHG is confined to loci lacking a center of symmetry. Many important structural proteins such as collagen and cellulose show intrinsic SHG, thus providing access to sub-resolution information on symmetry. However, we are particularly interested here in "resonance-enhanced" SHG from styryl dyes. In general SHG is a combination of a true second-order process and a third-order process dependent on a static electric field, such that SHG from membrane-bound dyes depends on a cell's trans-membrane potential. With simultaneous patch-clamping and non-linear imaging of cells, we have found that SHG is a sensitive probe of trans-membrane potential with sensitivities that are up to four times better than those obtained under optimal conditions using one-photon fluorescence imaging. With the sensitivity of SHG to local electric fields from other sources such as the membrane dipole potential as well as the quadratic dependence of SHG on concentration, we have found that SHG imaging of styryl dyes is also a powerful technique for the investigation of lipid phases and rafts and for the visualization of the dynamics of membrane-vesicle fusion following fertilization of an ovum.
Electron dynamics from low-order harmonics generated by short laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Wei-Hao; Gong, Qihuang; Peng, Liang-You
2017-08-01
Recently, low-order harmonics have gained much attention due to their applications as coherent light sources with a high repetition rate. In addition, the generation process is highly related to the bound electrons and can thus be applied to detect the dynamics of these electrons. In this work, we theoretically investigate the low-order harmonics below the first excited state, produced by a single-cycle optical pulse. We numerically solve the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) to calculate the harmonic spectrum. With the help of a perturbation model, we can transparently understand the generation process of the spectrum. The results indicate that the harmonic spectrum can be sensitively influenced by the frequency component of the driving field. We find that the carrier envelope phase (CEP) dependence of low-order-harmonic generation originates from the interference of different harmonic orders. For these harmonics, the CEP effects can only be observed when the spectrum of the driving laser is extremely wide, which corresponds to the very short driving pulse. From the CEP-dependent interference structure, the phase relation of the third and the fifth harmonic can be extracted. The extracted information indicates that the atomic response induces a positive chirp for the emitted low-order harmonics. In addition, we investigated the harmonic phase calculated from the TDSE results. The harmonic phase is different from the phase predicted by the adiabatic model, and this phase difference can be related to the time delay of the electronic response. We extract the time delay from the harmonic phase and explore the CEP and intensity dependence of this time delay.
Resonant second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride two-dimensional photonic crystal on silicon
Zeng, Y.; Roland, I.; Checoury, X.; Han, Z.; El Kurdi, M.; Sauvage, S.; Boucaud, P.; Gayral, B.; Brimont, C.; Guillet, T.; Mexis, M.; Semond, F.
2015-02-23
We demonstrate second harmonic generation in a gallium nitride photonic crystal cavity embedded in a two-dimensional free-standing photonic crystal platform on silicon. The photonic crystal nanocavity is optically pumped with a continuous-wave laser at telecom wavelengths in the transparency window of the nitride material. The harmonic generation is evidenced by the spectral range of the emitted signal, the quadratic power dependence vs. input power, and the spectral dependence of second harmonic signal. The harmonic emission pattern is correlated to the harmonic polarization generated by the second-order nonlinear susceptibilities χ{sub zxx}{sup (2)}, χ{sub zyy}{sup (2)} and the electric fields of the fundamental cavity mode.
Efficient second harmonic generation using nonlinear substrates patterned by nano-antenna arrays.
Bar-Lev, Doron; Scheuer, Jacob
2013-12-02
We study theoretically various design considerations for efficient generation of second harmonic using a nonlinear substrate patterned with nano-antennas. The analysis is focused on a gap Bowtie nano-antenna array recessed in LiNbO₃ which is shown to be preferable over on surface structures due to field enhancement, field profile and linear and non-linear polarization considerations. In addition, we develop the nano-antenna counterpart of the Boyd-Klienmann model in order to analyze the impact of a Gaussian shaped fundamental beam on the generated second harmonic. Finally, we show that the dielectric properties of the substrate lead to preferable directions for the incident fundamental harmonic and the emission of the second harmonic. Our analyses lead to several design rules which can enhance second and high harmonic generation from nano-antennas arrays by several orders of magnitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavrov, S. D.; Kudryavtsev, A. V.; Shestakova, A. P.; Kulyuk, L.; Mishina, E. D.
2016-05-01
Second harmonic generation is studied in structures containing nanoscale layers of transition metal chalcogenides that are two-dimensional semiconductors and deposited on a SiO2/Si substrate. The second harmonic generation intensity is calculated with allowance for multibeam interference in layers of dichalcogenide and silicon oxide. The coefficient of reflection from the SiO2-layer-based Fabry-Perot cavity is subsequently calculated for pump wave fields initiating nonlinear polarization at every point of dichalcogenide, which is followed by integration of all second harmonic waves generated by this polarization. Calculated second harmonic intensities are presented as functions of dichalcogenide and silicon oxide layer thicknesses. The dependence of the second harmonic intensity on the MoS2 layer thickness is studied experimentally in the layer of 2-140 nm. A good coincidence of the experimental data and numerical simulation results has been obtained.
Virtual biopsy of rat tympanic membrane using higher harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Wen-Jeng; Lee, Chia-Fone; Chen, Szu-Yu; Chen, Yuh-Shyang; Sun, Chi-Kuang
2010-07-01
Multiharmonic optical microscopy has been widely applied in biomedical research due to its unique capability to perform noninvasive studies of biomaterials. In this study, virtual biopsy based on back-propagating multiple optical harmonics, combining second and third harmonics, is applied in unfixed rat tympanic membrane. We show that third harmonic generation can provide morphologic information on the epithelial layers of rat tympanic membrane as well as radial collagen fibers in middle fibrous layers, and that second harmonic generation can provide information on both radial and circular collagen fibers in middle fibrous layers. Through third harmonic generation, the capillary and red blood cells in the middle fibrous layer are also noted. Additionally, the 3-D relationship to adjacent bony structures and spatial variations in thickness and curvature are obtained. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using a noninvasive optical imaging system for comprehensive evaluation of the tympanic membrane.
Nonlinear Raman-Nath second harmonic generation of hybrid structured fundamental wave.
Zhou, Huaqing; Liu, Haigang; Sang, Minghuang; Li, Jun; Chen, Xianfeng
2017-02-20
We numerically and experimentally investigated the nonlinear Raman-Nath second harmonic generation of hybrid structured fundamental wave whose phase modulation combined periodic and random structure. The second harmonic generation of both one- and two-dimensional hybrid structured fundamental wave were investigated in this paper. The results show that more diffraction spots can be obtained in these hybrid structures than the pure periodic modulation cases. Besides, the total intensity of the second harmonic not only can be dramatically enhanced without altering the diffraction angles, but also is increasing with the degree of randomness of the structure. This study enriches the family of second harmonic generation of structured fundamental wave and has potential application in dynamically controlling second harmonic wave in arbitrary directions.
Third harmonic generation in air ambient and laser ablated carbon plasma
Singh, Ravi Pratap Gupta, Shyam L.; Thareja, Raj K.
2015-12-15
We report the third harmonic generation of a nanosecond laser pulse (1.06 μm) in air ambient and in the presence of nanoparticles from laser ablated carbon plasma. Significant decrease in the threshold of third harmonic generation and multi-fold increment in the intensity of generated third harmonic is observed in presence of carbon plasma. The third harmonic in air is due to the quasi-resonant four photon process involving vibrationally excited states of molecular ion of nitrogen due to electron impact ionization and laser pulse. Following optical emission spectroscopic observations we conclude that the presence of C{sub 2} and CN in the ablated plume play a vital role in the observed third harmonic signals.
Effect of nuclear motion on spectral broadening of high-order harmonic generation.
Yuan, Xiaolong; Wei, Pengfei; Liu, Candong; Ge, Xiaochun; Zheng, Yinghui; Zeng, Zhinan; Li, Ruxin
2016-04-18
High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in molecular targets is experimentally investigated in order to reveal the role of the nuclear motion played in the harmonic generation process. An obvious broadening in the harmonic spectrum from the H_{2} molecule is observed in comparison with the harmonic spectrum generated from other molecules with relatively heavy nuclei. We also find that the harmonic yield from the H_{2} molecule is much weaker than the yield from those gas targets with the similar ionization potentials, such as Ar atom and N_{2} molecule. The yield suppression and the spectrum broadening of HHG can be attributed to the vibrational motion of nuclear induced by the driving laser pulse. Moreover, the one-dimensional (1D) time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) with the non-Born-Oppenheimer (NBO) treatment is numerically solved to provide a theoretical support to our explanation.
Enhanced third harmonic generation in air by two-colour ultrashort laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nath, Arpita; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Mathur, D.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.
2016-09-01
We report on third harmonic generation in air in a non-filamentation regime using tightly focused, ultrashort laser pulses (1-2 µm wavelength). Enhancement in the third harmonic efficiency is observed from co-propagating laser pulses of two different wavelengths which emanate from the same source—an optical parametric amplifier—and are spatially and temporally overlapped. The third harmonic efficiency for signal wavelength (1.35 µm) is measured to be 4 × 10-3 %; in the presence of idler wavelength (2.09 µm), the corresponding value becomes 1.6 × 10-2 %—a fourfold enhancement in efficiency. The pulse duration of the generated third harmonic is measured to be 37 fs. We examine the possible role of plasma to account for the observed enhancement in third harmonic generation.
Enhancing High-Order Harmonic Generation in Light Molecules by Using Chirped Pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lara-Astiaso, M.; Silva, R. E. F.; Gubaydullin, A.; Rivière, P.; Meier, C.; Martín, F.
2016-08-01
One of the current challenges in high-harmonic generation is to extend the harmonic cutoff to increasingly high energies while maintaining or even increasing the efficiency of the high-harmonic emission. Here we show that the combined effect of down-chirped pulses and nuclear dynamics in light molecules allows one to achieve this goal, provided that long enough IR pulses are used to allow the nuclei to move well outside the Franck-Condon region. We also show that, by varying the duration of the chirped pulse or by performing isotopic substitution while keeping the pulse duration constant, one can control the extension of the harmonic plateau.
Interference of high-order harmonics generated from molecules at different alignment angles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Meiyan; Zhu, Xiaosong; Li, Yang; Zhang, Qingbin; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang
2014-01-01
We theoretically investigate the interference effect of high-order harmonics generated from molecules at different alignment angles. It is shown that the interference of the harmonic emissions from molecules aligned at different angles can significantly modulate the spectra and result in the anomalous harmonic cutoffs observed in a recent experiment Nat. Phys. 7, 822 (2011), 10.1038/nphys2029]. The shift of the spectral minimum position with decreasing the degree of alignment is also explained by the interference effect of the harmonic emissions.
Effects of Energy Chirp on Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation Free-Electron Lasers
Huang, Z.; Ratner, D.; Stupakov, G.; Xiang, D.; /SLAC
2009-02-23
We study effects of energy chirp on echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG). Analytical expressions are compared with numerical simulations for both harmonic and bunching factors. We also discuss the EEHG free-electron laser bandwidth increase due to an energy-modulated beam and its pulse length dependence on the electron energy chirp.
Zhang, Zhenggang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Mingxi; Ta, Dean; Wang, Weiqi
2014-07-01
The experimental observation of cumulative second-harmonic generation of fundamental Lamb waves in long bones is reported. Based on the modal expansion approach to waveguide excitation and the dispersion characteristics of Lamb waves in long bones, the mechanism underlying the generation and accumulation of second harmonics by propagation of the fundamental Lamb waves was investigated. An experimental setup was established to detect the second-harmonic signals of Lamb wave propagation in long bones in vitro. Through analysis of the group velocities of the received signals, the appropriate fundamental Lamb wave modes and the duration of the second-harmonic signals could be identified. The integrated amplitude of the time-domain second-harmonic signal was introduced and used to characterize the efficiency of second-harmonic generation by fundamental Lamb wave propagation. The results indicate that the second-harmonic signal generated by fundamental Lamb waves propagating in long bones can be observed clearly, and the effect was cumulative with propagation distance when the fundamental Lamb wave mode and the double-frequency Lamb wave mode had the same phase velocities. The present results may be important in the development of a new method to evaluate the status of long bones using the cumulative second harmonic of ultrasonic Lamb waves.
Mosely, Trinesha; Belyanin, Alexey; Gmachl, Claire; Sivco, Deborah; Peabody, Milton; Cho, Alfred
2004-06-28
We present third harmonic generation from an InGaAs/AlInAs Quantum Cascade laser based on a three-well diagonal transition active region with an integrated third-order nonlinear oscillator. The device displays pump radiation at lambda ~ 11.1 mum and third order nonlinear light generation at lambda ~ 3.7 mum as well as second harmonic generation at lambda ~ 5.4 mum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yang; Song, Hai-Ying; Liu, H. Y.; Liu, Shi-Bing; Meng, Jian-Qiao; Duan, Yu-Xia
2017-08-01
High harmonic generation (HHG) by ultrashort intense laser pulse obliquely irradiating a laminar grating-structured target is studied by PIC (particle-in-cell) simulation. For different incident angles of laser pulse, the intense near-surface harmonics is observed due to the strong dependence of harmonic components on the incident angle. Unlike the case of a normal incidence, the spatial distribution of harmonics is mainly dominated by the oscillation of equivalent electric-dipole (OEED) and spatial modulation factor rather than by the current grating equation. The intensities of harmonic emission are stronger than that in the case of a normal incidence, which is associated with the orientation of equivalent electric-dipole. Furthermore, when the incident angle becomes larger (such as 45°-60° ), the near-surface harmonics are all observably restrained.
Localized and propagating surface plasmon resonances in aperture-based third harmonic generation.
Nezami, Mohammadreza S; Gordon, Reuven
2015-12-14
We investigate the influence of localized and propagating surface plasmons on third harmonic generation from rectangular apertures in metal films. We designed optimal aperture array structures by using finite-difference time-domain simulations with nonlinear scattering theory. From this design space, we fabricated and measured the third harmonic in the region of maximal performance. We find the highest third harmonic conversion efficiency when the localized resonance is tuned to the fundamental wavelength and the propagating (Bragg) resonance is tuned to the third harmonic; this is 2.5 times larger than the case where the both localized and propagating are tuned to the fundamental wavelength. The two remaining configurations where also investigated with much lower conversion efficiency. When the Bragg resonance is tuned to the third harmonic, directivity improves the collection of third harmonic emission. On the other hand, due to the inherent absorption of gold at the third harmonic, tuning the localized surface plasmon resonance to the third harmonic is less beneficial. All cases showed quantitative agreement with the original theoretical analysis. This work points towards an optimal design criterion for harmonic generation from thin plasmonic metasurfaces.
Spatial properties of odd and even low order harmonics generated in gas
Lambert, G.; Andreev, A.; Gautier, J.; Giannessi, L.; Malka, V.; Petralia, A.; Sebban, S.; Stremoukhov, S.; Tissandier, F.; Vodungbo, B.; Zeitoun, Ph.
2015-01-01
High harmonic generation in gases is developing rapidly as a soft X-ray femtosecond light-source for applications. This requires control over all the harmonics characteristics and in particular, spatial properties have to be kept very good. In previous literature, measurements have always included several harmonics contrary to applications, especially spectroscopic applications, which usually require a single harmonic. To fill this gap, we present here for the first time a detailed study of completely isolated harmonics. The contribution of the surrounding harmonics has been totally suppressed using interferential filtering which is available for low harmonic orders. In addition, this allows to clearly identify behaviors of standard odd orders from even orders obtained by frequency-mixing of a fundamental laser and of its second harmonic. Comparisons of the spatial intensity profiles, of the spatial coherence and of the wavefront aberration level of 5ω at 160 nm and 6ω at 135 nm have then been performed. We have established that the fundamental laser beam aberrations can cause the appearance of a non-homogenous donut-shape in the 6ω spatial intensity distribution. This undesirable effect can be easily controlled. We finally conclude that the spatial quality of an even harmonic can be as excellent as in standard generation. PMID:25585715
Theoretical study on second-harmonic generation in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals.
Wang, Xiangnan; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng
2017-01-20
We theoretically study second-harmonic generation in two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals and obtain a unified expression that combines nonlinear Raman-Nath diffraction, Čerenkov-type second-harmonic generation, and nonlinear Bragg diffraction. The analytical solution is deduced, and the theoretical result coincides well with the nonlinear Raman-Nath, nonlinear Čerenkov, and nonlinear Bragg diffraction phase-matching conditions. This method has potential applications in second-harmonic generation of more complicated two-dimensional and even three-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals.
Effect of the shape of quantum dots on the third-harmonic generations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Keyin; Guo, Kangxian; Liang, Litao
2017-02-01
The effect of the shape of quantum dots on the third-harmonic generations is theoretically investigated. Using the effective-mass approximation, calculations are performed employing methods of both the compact-density-matrix and the matrix diagonalization. We discuss the properties of the third-harmonic generations (THG) coefficients as a function of the incident photon frequency in elliptic and triangular shaped quantum dots. The results reveal that the shape of quantum dots has a great influence on the third-harmonic generations.
Effect of loss on slow-light-enhanced second-harmonic generation in periodic nanostructures.
Saravi, Sina; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Setzpfandt, Frank; Asger Mortensen, N; Pertsch, Thomas
2016-07-01
We theoretically analyze the dependence of second-harmonic generation efficiency on the group index in periodic optical waveguides with loss. We investigate different possible scenarios of using slow light to enhance the efficiency of this process and show that in some cases there exists a maximally achievable efficiency reached for finite values of the group index at the point of phase-matching. Furthermore, we identify situations for which slow light, surprisingly, does not enhance the second-harmonic generation efficiency. Our results are corroborated by rigorous nonlinear simulations of second-harmonic generation in periodic nanobeam waveguides with loss.
Group velocity matching in high-order harmonic generation driven by mid-infrared lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernández-García, C.; Popmintchev, T.; Murnane, M. M.; Kapteyn, H. C.; Plaja, L.; Becker, A.; Jaron-Becker, A.
2016-07-01
We analyze the role of group-velocity matching (GVM) in the macroscopic build up of the high-harmonic signal generated in gas targets at high pressures. A definition of the walk-off length, associated with GVM, in the non-perturbative intensity regime of high-harmonic generation is given. Semiclassical predictions based on this definition are in excellent agreement with full quantum simulations. We demonstrate that group velocity matching is a relevant factor in high harmonic generation and the isolation of attosecond pulses driven by long wavelength lasers and preferentially selects contributions from the short quantum trajectories.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taguchi, Toshihiro; Inoue, Masahiko; Antonsen, Thomas
2014-10-01
We have investigated a generation of low frequency radiation by an interaction between a strong laser field and nano particles, such as clusters or carbon nanotubes (CNTs), using PIC simulations. As known well, a single mode laser irradiation is not enough to generate the lower harmonics and the second harmonic laser must be added. The main reason of this problem is that the single mode laser can only induce odd harmonic oscillations on electrons. The odd harmonic generation is due to the symmetric shape of the targets, spherically for clusters and cylindrically for CNTs. The symmetric ion structure produces a symmetric electrostatic potential in a target and the potential exerts an antisymmetric forces on electrons. This is why only the odd harmonics are generated by the monochromatic laser. This indicates that the possibility of the even harmonic excitation exists when the potential structure is not symmetric. Since carbon nanotubes are synthesized on metal catalysts, the shape of the bundled CNTs can be changed by the shape of the catalysts. We performed PIC simulations of laser plasma interaction with a carbon nanotube of a shape like an egg. As a result, we found that even modes are generated as well as odd modes and lower harmonic oscillation is also excited. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), 24540543.
Generation of high-order harmonics in a high-intensity laser radiation field
Platonenko, Viktor T; Strelkov, V V
1998-07-31
An analysis is made of the generation of high-order harmonics by atoms and ions in high-intensity laser beams. A brief description is given of the main experimental relationships governing such generation, of methods for numerical solution of the Schrodinger equation for an atom in a strong field, and of some approximate models which make it possible to understand the mechanism of the effect (in particular, the 'semiclassical' model). A detailed discussion is made of an analytic quantum-mechanical theory of high-order harmonic generation in a one-electron system with the Coulomb, delta-like, and other potentials. Expressions are provided for the complex amplitudes of harmonics generated by monochromatic and bichromatic excitation. The results of simulation of high-order harmonic generation in an extended medium are given. This simulation takes into account the phases of the harmonics and their dependences on the amplitude of the fundamental-frequency field. The phase-matching problem and ways of solving it, the problem of the spectrum and duration of a pulse of a single harmonic and of the feasibility of controlling them, the problem of the total harmonic field, and other topics are considered. (review)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butet, Jérémy; Dutta-Gupta, Shourya; Martin, Olivier J. F.
2014-06-01
The surface second-harmonic generation from interacting spherical plasmonic nanoparticles building different clusters (symmetric and asymmetric dimers, trimers) is theoretically investigated. The plasmonic eigenmodes of the nanoparticle clusters are first determined using an ab initio approach based on the Green's functions method. This method provides the properties, such as the resonant wavelengths, of the modes sustained by a given cluster. The fundamental and second-harmonic responses of the corresponding clusters are then calculated using a surface integral method. The symmetry of both the linear and nonlinear responses is investigated, as well as their relationship. It is shown that the second-harmonic generation can be significantly enhanced when the fundamental field is such that its second harmonic matches modes with suitable symmetry. The role played by the nanogaps in second-harmonic generation is also underlined. The results presented in this article demonstrate that the properties of the second-harmonic generation from coupled metallic nanoparticles cannot be fully predicted from their linear response only, while, on the other hand, a detailed knowledge of the underlying modal structure can be used to optimize the generation of the second harmonic.
Wong, M. C. H.; Brichta, J.-P.; Bhardwaj, V. R.
2010-06-15
We report detailed measurements of high-order harmonic generation in chloromethane molecules (CCl{sub 4}, CHCl{sub 3}, and CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) to show that fingerprints of symmetry and electronic structure can be decoded from high-order harmonic generation even in complex randomly oriented molecules. In our measurements, orbital symmetries of these molecules are manifested as both extended harmonic cutoffs and a local minimum in the ellipticity dependence of the cut-off harmonics, suggesting the occurrence of quantum interferences during ionization. The harmonic spectra exhibit distinct interference minima at {approx}42 and {approx}60 eV. We attribute the former to the Cooper minimum in the photoionization cross section and the latter to intramolecular interference during the recombination process.
Role of antenna modes and field enhancement in second harmonic generation from dipole nanoantennas.
de Ceglia, Domenico; Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; De Angelis, Costantino; Locatelli, Andrea; Haus, Joseph W; Scalora, Michael
2015-01-26
We study optical second harmonic generation from metallic dipole antennas with narrow gaps. Enhancement of the fundamental-frequency field in the gap region plays a marginal role on conversion efficiency. In the symmetric configuration, i.e., with the gap located at the center of the antenna axis, reducing gap size induces a significant red-shift of the maximum conversion efficiency peak. Either enhancement or inhibition of second-harmonic emission may be observed as gap size is decreased, depending on the antenna mode excited at the harmonic frequency. The second-harmonic signal is extremely sensitive to the asymmetry introduced by gap's displacements with respect to the antenna center. In this situation, second-harmonic light can couple to all the available antenna modes. We perform a multipolar analysis that allows engineering the far-field SH emission and find that the interaction with quasi-odd-symmetry modes generates radiation patterns with a strong dipolar component.
Macroscopic effect of plasmon-driven high-order-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Feng; Liu, Weiwei; He, Lixin; Li, Liang; Wang, Baoning; Zhu, Xiaosong; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang
2017-09-01
We present a numerical method to calculate the macroscopic harmonic spectrum generated from the gas-exposed nanostructure. This method includes the propagation of plasmonic and harmonic fields in the macroscopic medium as well as the response of the single atom exposed to plasmonic field. Based on the simulation, we demonstrate that the macroscopic harmonic yields drop dramatically in the high-energy region. This result well interprets the disagreement in the cutoff between the single-atom prediction and the experimental detection. Moreover, we also show that the harmonic cutoff difference induced by a π shift in carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of laser pulses depends sensitively on the spatial position. However, when the collective effect of plasmon-driven high-order-harmonic generation is considered, this cutoff difference is eliminated.
Low-power continuous-wave generation of visible harmonics in silicon photonic crystal nanocavities.
Galli, Matteo; Gerace, Dario; Welna, Karl; Krauss, Thomas F; O'Faolain, Liam; Guizzetti, Giorgio; Andreani, Lucio Claudio
2010-12-06
We present the first demonstration of frequency conversion by simultaneous second- and third-harmonic generation in a silicon photonic crystal nanocavity using continuous-wave optical excitation. We observe a bright dual wavelength emission in the blue/green (450-525 nm) and red (675-790 nm) visible windows with pump powers as low as few microwatts in the telecom bands, with conversion efficiencies of ∼ 10 (-5) /W and ∼ 10/ W(2) for the second- and third-harmonic, respectively. Scaling behaviors as a function of pump power and cavity quality-factor are demonstrated for both second- and third order processes. Successful comparison of measured and calculated emission patterns indicates that third-harmonic is a bulk effect while second-harmonic is a surface-related effect at the sidewall holes boundaries. Our results are promising for obtaining practical low-power, continuous-wave and widely tunable multiple harmonic generation on a silicon chip.
Low-order harmonic generation in metal ablation plasmas in nanosecond and picosecond laser regimes
Lopez-Arias, M.; Oujja, M.; Sanz, M.; Castillejo, M.; Ganeev, R. A.; Boltaev, G. S.; Satlikov, N. Kh.; Tugushev, R. I.; Usmanov, T.
2012-02-15
Low-order harmonics, third and fifth, of IR (1064 nm) laser emission have been produced in laser ablation plasmas of the metals manganese, copper and silver. The harmonics were generated in a process triggered by laser ablation followed by frequency up-conversion of a fundamental laser beam that propagates parallel to the target surface. These studies were carried out in two temporal regimes by creating the ablation plasma using either nanosecond or picosecond pulses and then probing the plasma plume with pulses of the same duration. The spatiotemporal behavior of the generated harmonics was characterized and reveals the distinct composition and dynamics of the plasma species that act as nonlinear media, allowing the comparison of different processes that control the generation efficiency. These results serve to guide the choice of laser ablation plasmas to be used for efficient high harmonic generation of laser radiation.
Frequency-resolved optical grating using surface third-harmonic generation
Tsang, T.; Krumbuegel, M.A.; Delong, K.W.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Trebino, R.
1995-11-01
We demonstrate the frequency-resolved optical grating technique using third-harmonic generation on the surface of a cover glass with ultra-short optical pulses and compare that with the phase-retrieved spectrogram.
Heath, G.
2012-06-01
This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.
Effects of higher-order nonlinear processes on harmonic-generation phase matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grynko, Rostislav I.; Weerawarne, Darshana L.; Shim, Bonggu
2017-07-01
We experimentally and theoretically reinvestigate the significant third-harmonic enhancement via plasma generation using time-resolved methods with two-color, copropagating femtosecond laser pulses. By measuring plasma densities with digital in-line holography and using carrier-resolved unidirectional pulse propagation equations to model the experiment, we show that a fifth-order nonlinearity contributes to third-harmonic generation mainly via phase matching. In particular, our study confirms that self- and cross-phase modulation including higher-order nonlinear processes can play a crucial role in harmonic-generation phase matching, which has recently been proposed by Weerawarne e t a l . [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 093901 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.093901] and should be potentially applicable to high-order harmonic generation.
An Ning; Ren Huaijin; Zheng Yuanlin; Deng Xuewei; Chen Xianfeng
2012-05-28
We propose a scheme for efficient Cherenkov high-order harmonic generation. Second to fifth order harmonic wave are observed in a single periodically poled ferroelectric crystal in our experiment. The noncollinear high-order harmonic generation is produced via enhanced Cherenkov second harmonic cascaded with successive multistep sum-frequency generation with simultaneously longitudinal phase-matching. The emission angle and power dependencies are analyzed in detail experimentally, which coincide with theoretical predictions.
Double-pulse induced harmonic generation in laser-produced plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganeev, Rashid A.; Suzuki, Masayuki; Yoneya, Shin; Kuroda, Hiroto
2015-12-01
We report the studies of the metals, non-metals, powders, and nanoparticles as the targets for laser ablation induced high-order harmonic generation of ultrashort pulses using the double-pulse technique. The proposed technique demonstrates the attractiveness as the method for the studies of the high-order nonlinear optical properties of various materials. The comparative analysis of the harmonic generation using different targets showed that the species allowing easier ablation (powders, nanoparticles) produce stronger harmonic yield in the extreme ultraviolet range.
Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roland, I.; Gromovyi, M.; Zeng, Y.; El Kurdi, M.; Sauvage, S.; Brimont, C.; Guillet, T.; Gayral, B.; Semond, F.; Duboz, J. Y.; de Micheli, M.; Checoury, X.; Boucaud, P.
2016-09-01
We demonstrate phase-matched second harmonic generation in gallium nitride on silicon microdisks. The microdisks are integrated with side-coupling bus waveguides in a two-dimensional photonic circuit. The second harmonic generation is excited with a continuous wave laser in the telecom band. By fabricating a series of microdisks with diameters varying by steps of 8 nm, we obtain a tuning of the whispering gallery mode resonances for the fundamental and harmonic waves. Phase matching is obtained when both resonances are matched with modes satisfying the conservation of orbital momentum, which leads to a pronounced enhancement of frequency conversion.
Optimum plasma conditions for the efficient high-order harmonic generation in platinum plasma
Ganeev, Rashid A.; Elouga Bom, Luc B.; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki
2007-06-15
We studied the optimum plasma conditions that are required for efficient high-order harmonic generation in platinum plume. Harmonics up to the 49th order ({lambda}=16.32 nm) are analyzed under various conditions of laser-plasma interaction. Time-resolved ultraviolet spectra of platinum plasma at both optimum and nonoptimum conditions of harmonic generation are presented. We calculated the ionization states of the plasma, free electron density, and singly charged ion density at different prepulse intensities and compared them with experimental results.
Zhu, Ding; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Yi-qiang; Zhu, Yong-yuan
2012-08-01
A general theory for multiple quasi-phase-matched third-harmonic generation is investigated systematically. We find that there are up to 24 configurations for third-harmonic generation by cascaded two-parametric processes. All these configurations can be divided into three categories based on the coupling types of the harmonic fields. Each category has a set of coupled wave equations that describe its characteristics. The analytical solutions reveal some features, such as the polarization tuning and quasi-phase-matched gap effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Shuai; Zhan, Ru-Juan; Chen, Ji
2001-07-01
In this Letter, we developed the “relativistic surface currents” model to investigate the harmonic generation under the conditions of p-polarized obliquely incident ultrashort-pulse ultraintense laser. As a result of this Letter, up to 70 harmonics are generated with conversion efficiencies exceeding 10 -6, which is very close to the result from Norreys' experiment and Gibbon's PIC simulations. For highly relativistic regime and nonrelativistic regime of laser power, the harmonic conversion efficiencies as a function of laser strength parameter q are discussed.
Phase-matched second harmonic generation with on-chip GaN-on-Si microdisks
Roland, I.; Gromovyi, M.; Zeng, Y.; El Kurdi, M.; Sauvage, S.; Brimont, C.; Guillet, T.; Gayral, B.; Semond, F.; Duboz, J. Y.; de Micheli, M.; Checoury, X.; Boucaud, P.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate phase-matched second harmonic generation in gallium nitride on silicon microdisks. The microdisks are integrated with side-coupling bus waveguides in a two-dimensional photonic circuit. The second harmonic generation is excited with a continuous wave laser in the telecom band. By fabricating a series of microdisks with diameters varying by steps of 8 nm, we obtain a tuning of the whispering gallery mode resonances for the fundamental and harmonic waves. Phase matching is obtained when both resonances are matched with modes satisfying the conservation of orbital momentum, which leads to a pronounced enhancement of frequency conversion. PMID:27687007
Deep UV generation and direct DNA photo-interaction by harmonic nanoparticles in labelled samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staedler, Davide; Magouroux, Thibaud; Passemard, Solène; Schwung, Sebastian; Dubled, Marc; Schneiter, Guillaume Stéphane; Rytz, Daniel; Gerber-Lemaire, Sandrine; Bonacina, Luigi; Wolf, Jean-Pierre
2014-02-01
A biophotonics approach based on the nonlinear optical process of second harmonic generation is presented and demonstrated on malignant human cell lines labelled by harmonic nanoparticles. The method enables independent imaging and therapeutic action, selecting each modality by simply tuning the excitation laser wavelength from infrared to visible. In particular, the generation of deep ultraviolet radiation at 270 nm allows direct interaction with nuclear DNA in the absence of photosensitizing molecules.
Shorokhov, Alexander S; Melik-Gaykazyan, Elizaveta V; Smirnova, Daria A; Hopkins, Ben; Chong, Katie E; Choi, Duk-Yong; Shcherbakov, Maxim R; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E; Neshev, Dragomir N; Fedyanin, Andrey A; Kivshar, Yuri S
2016-08-10
Strong Mie-type magnetic dipole resonances in all-dielectric nanostructures provide novel opportunities for enhancing nonlinear effects at the nanoscale due to the intense electric and magnetic fields trapped within the individual nanoparticles. Here we study third-harmonic generation from quadrumers of silicon nanodisks supporting high-quality collective modes associated with the magnetic Fano resonance. We observe nontrivial wavelength and angular dependencies of the generated harmonic signal featuring a multifold enhancement of the nonlinear response in oligomeric systems.
Third-harmonic generation via nonlinear Raman--Nath diffraction in nonlinear photonic crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheng, Yan; Wang, Wenjie; Shiloh, Roy; Roppo, Vito; Arie, Ady; Krolikowski, Wieslaw
2011-08-01
We report on the observation of multiple third-harmonic conical waves generated in an annular periodically poled nonlinear photonic crystal. We show that the conical beams are formed as a result of the cascading effect involving two parametric processes that satisfy either the transverse and/or longitudinal phase-patching conditions. This is the first experimental observation of third-harmonic generation based on nonlinear Raman--Nath diffraction.
Impedance matching in photonic crystal microcavities for second-harmonic generation.
Di Falco, Andrea; Conti, Claudio; Assanto, Gaetano
2006-01-15
By numerically integrating the three-dimensional Maxwell equations in the time domain with reference to a dispersive quadratically nonlinear material, we study second-harmonic generation in planar photonic crystal microresonators. The proposed scheme allows efficient coupling of the pump radiation to the defect resonant mode. The outcoupled generated second harmonic is maximized by impedance matching the photonic crystal cavity to the output waveguide.
Second-harmonic generation in single-mode integrated waveguides based on mode-shape modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Ashutosh; Chiles, Jeff; Khan, Saeed; Toroghi, Seyfollah; Malinowski, Marcin; Camacho-González, Guillermo Fernando; Fathpour, Sasan
2017-03-01
Second-harmonic generation is demonstrated using grating-assisted quasi-phase matching, based on waveguide-width modulation or mode-shape modulation. Applicable to any thin-film integrated second-order nonlinear waveguide, the technique is demonstrated in compact lithium niobate ridge waveguides. Fabricated devices are characterized with pulsed-pumping in the near-infrared, showing second-harmonic generation at a signal wavelength of 784 nm and propagation loss of 1 dB/cm.
Demonstration of the 101st harmonic generated from a laser-produced manganese plasma
Ganeev, R. A.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Kieffer, J.-C.; Ozaki, T.; Suzuki, M.; Kuroda, H.
2007-08-15
We demonstrate the generation of the 101st harmonic (wavelength {lambda}=7.9 nm) from manganese plasma, which is generated using the plasma high-order harmonic technique. We also investigate the variation of the high-order harmonic distribution from the manganese plasma plume as a function of the prepulse and main pulse intensities. The harmonic cutoff was at the 31st order, for pump intensities below the barrier suppression intensity for singly charged Mn ions. However, by using higher prepulse and main pulse intensities, the harmonic cutoff was extended to the 101st order, with an appearance of second plateau for harmonics higher than the 31st order. In this case, the low-order harmonics decreased in intensity, or completely disappeared, and the spectrum for wavelengths longer than 27.6 nm was dominated by plasma line emission. The origin of the harmonics appearing at this short wavelength plateau is attributed to the interaction of the intense main pump laser field with doubly charged manganese ions.
Liu, Hanzhe; Li, Yilei; You, Yong Sing; ...
2016-11-14
High-harmonic generation (HHG) in bulk solids permits the exploration of materials in a new regime of strong fields and attosecond timescales. The generation process has been discussed in the context of strongly driven electron dynamics in single-particle bands. Two-dimensional materials exhibit distinctive electronic properties compared to the bulk that could significantly modify the HHG process, including different symmetries, access to individual valleys and enhanced many-body interactions. Here we demonstrate non-perturbative HHG from a monolayer MoS2 crystal, with even and odd harmonics extending to the 13th order. The even orders are predominantly polarized perpendicular to the pump and are compatible withmore » the anomalous transverse intraband current arising from the material’s Berry curvature, while the weak parallel component suggests the importance of interband transitions. The odd harmonics exhibit a significant enhancement in efficiency per layer compared to the bulk, which is attributed to correlation effects. In conclusion, the combination of strong many-body Coulomb interactions and widely tunable electronic properties in two-dimensional materials offers a new platform for attosecond physics.« less
Liu, Hanzhe; Li, Yilei; You, Yong Sing; Ghimire, Shambhu; Heinz, Tony F.; Reis, David A.
2016-11-14
High-harmonic generation (HHG) in bulk solids permits the exploration of materials in a new regime of strong fields and attosecond timescales. The generation process has been discussed in the context of strongly driven electron dynamics in single-particle bands. Two-dimensional materials exhibit distinctive electronic properties compared to the bulk that could significantly modify the HHG process, including different symmetries, access to individual valleys and enhanced many-body interactions. Here we demonstrate non-perturbative HHG from a monolayer MoS_{2} crystal, with even and odd harmonics extending to the 13th order. The even orders are predominantly polarized perpendicular to the pump and are compatible with the anomalous transverse intraband current arising from the material’s Berry curvature, while the weak parallel component suggests the importance of interband transitions. The odd harmonics exhibit a significant enhancement in efficiency per layer compared to the bulk, which is attributed to correlation effects. In conclusion, the combination of strong many-body Coulomb interactions and widely tunable electronic properties in two-dimensional materials offers a new platform for attosecond physics.
Classical chaos and harmonic generation in laser driven nanorings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castiglia, Giuseppe; Corso, Pietro Paolo; Cricchio, Dario; De Giovannini, Umberto; Frusteri, Biagio; Fiordilino, Emilio
2016-12-01
A quantum ring driven by an intense laser field emits light in the form of high-harmonic radiation resulting from the strong acceleration experienced by the active electrons forced to move on a curved trajectory. The spectrum of the emitted light is rich and strongly dependent on the parameters of the problem. In order to investigate the physical origin of such variability, we focus on the seemingly simple problem of a laser-driven charge constrained to a ring from a classical standpoint. As it turns out, the dynamics of such a classical electron is governed by a nonlinear equation which results into a chaotic motion—by nature depending on the initial conditions in an unpredictable way. Our results indicate that the quantum harmonic spectra are reminiscent of the classical counterpart and suggest the existence of a line connecting the quantum and classical realms.
Second-Harmonic Generation in Optical Fibers and Glass.
1992-09-30
fully born out, and that it is possible to use its polarization properties to map out the spatial profile of the induced electric field. In all of...fibers themselves. 2) The induced second-order nonlinearity arises from a DC electric field which is induced inside the glass by light beams containing...a ____ • fundamental frequency (W) and its second harmonic (2wo). 3) The light beams induce the S_ DC electric field through a multiple-photon
Efficient Third Harmonic Generation from Metal-Dielectric Hybrid Nanoantennas.
Shibanuma, Toshihiko; Grinblat, Gustavo; Albella, Pablo; Maier, Stefan A
2017-04-12
High refractive index dielectric nanoantennas are expected to become key elements for nonlinear nano-optics applications due to their large nonlinearities, low energy losses, and ability to produce high electric field enhancements in relatively large nanoscale volumes. In this work, we show that the nonlinear response from a high-index dielectric nanoantenna can be significantly improved by adding a metallic component to build a metal-dielectric hybrid nanostructure. We demonstrate that the plasmonic resonance of a Au nanoring can boost the anapole mode supported by a Si nanodisk, strongly enhancing the electric field inside the large third-order susceptibility dielectric. As a result, a high third harmonic conversion efficiency, which reaches 0.007% at a third harmonic wavelength of 440 nm, is obtained. In addition, by suitably modifying geometrical parameters of the hybrid nanoantenna, we tune the enhanced third harmonic emission throughout the optical regime. Coupling metallic and dielectric nanoantennas to expand the potential of subwavelength structures opens new paths for efficient nonlinear optical effects in the visible range on the nanoscale.
Design study of an echo-enabled harmonic generation free electron laser for the 24th harmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Eun-San
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present an echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme to generate a free electron laser (FEL). The EEHG FEL utilizes two modulators and two chicanes that can generate a high harmonic density modulation with a low initial beam energy modulation. Using the beam parameters of a 150-MeV electron accelerator, we show that the EEHG scheme enhances FEL performance and generates coherent radiation with a wavelength of 100 nm. In this scheme, the 150-MeV electron beam is energy-modulated by using two lasers with wavelengths of 800 and 2400 nm. The modulated electron beam is sent to two chicanes whose dispersive strengths are 8.2 and 1.0 mm to convert energy modulation to density modulation. Finally, the density-modulated electron beam is sent to a radiator that is tuned to a wavelength of 100 nm and generates radiation with a peak power of 0.3 GW. We performed simulations of the laser-beam interaction by using the GENESIS code and showed that intense coherent radiation with a wavelength of 100 nm could be achieved from the two seeding lasers under the designed EEHG scheme.
Application of nanoparticle-containing laser plasmas for optical harmonic generation
Ganeev, R. A.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Ozaki, T.
2009-07-15
Nanoparticle-containing media can be used for efficient high-order harmonic generation of laser radiation. We present the results of studies of the harmonics generated in the laser-produced plasmas containing Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ag, Cu, and Au nanoparticles. These results are compared with the harmonics generated in the plasma produced on the surface of bulk targets at different delays between the subnanosecond heating prepulse and femtosecond pulse and different intensities of prepulse on the target surface. We discuss the harmonic enhancement, which was observed in the case of nanoparticle-containing plumes with regard to the monoparticle-containing plasmas. Morphological studies of plasma debris confirmed the presence and integrity of nanoparticles in the plumes.
Quantitative Measurement of Phase Matching Conditions in Higher Order Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondal, Sudipta; Condin, Frederic; Klaus, Philipp; Trallero, Carlos; Wilson, Benjamin; Gould, Kristen; Poliakoff, Erwin
2012-06-01
HHG has proven to be a very sensitive probe for the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. Since the generation of the harmonics is a macroscopic process, it depends on phase matching conditions. Macroscopic features of phase matching in high harmonics generation are poorly understood and also very difficult to maintain. In this paper we study phase matching in high harmonic generation quantitatively, so that harmonics can be used as an atomic and molecular probe. We measured HHG spectrum with varying laser intensity and focusing conditions. We also change the phase of the input beam by clipping it with an iris, changing it Gaussian to Bessel beam, and observe two regions of phase matching for Gaussian beam becomes one in case of Bessel beams.
A novel method for detecting second harmonic ultrasonic components generated from fastened bolts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuda, Makoto; Imano, Kazuhiko
2012-09-01
This study examines the use of ultrasonic second harmonic components in the quality control of bolt-fastened structures. An improved method for detecting the second harmonic components, from a bolt fastened with a nut, using the transmission method is constructed. A hexagon head iron bolt (12-mm diameter and 25-mm long) was used in the experiments. The bolt was fastened using a digital torque wrench. The second harmonic component increased by approximately 20 dB before and after the bolt was fastened. The sources of second harmonic components were contact acoustic nonlinearity in the screw thread interfaces of the bolt-nut and were the plastic deformation in the bolt with fastening bolt. This result was improved by approximately 10 dB compared with previous our method. Consequently, usefulness of the novel method for detecting second harmonic ultrasonic components generated from fastened bolt was confirmed.
On the third harmonic generation in a medium with negative pump wave refraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elyutin, S. O.; Maimistov, A. I.; Gabitov, I. R.
2010-07-01
The propagation of the pump and its third harmonic pulses in a cubically nonlinear medium is considered theoretically, provided that the linear properties of the medium are characterized by a negative refractive index at the pump frequency and a positive refractive index at the harmonic frequency. For low-intensity interacting waves, the pump and third harmonic pulses propagate in opposite directions, but sufficiently intense pulses can produce a simulton—a solitary two-frequency wave that propagates in a certain direction as a single whole. The system of equations is investigated numerically for a model that, apart from the harmonic generation, includes the second-order group velocity dispersion and the nonlinear self- and cross-phase modulations of the interacting waves. The separation of the pump and harmonic pulses due to the difference in the directions of their group velocities and peculiarities of the Manley-Rowe relation for parametric processes in metamedia are discussed.
Sepehri Javan, N.
2015-08-21
This work is a theoretical study on third harmonic generation in the nonlinear propagation of an intense laser pulse through a periodic three-dimensional lattice of nanoparticles. Using a perturbative method, the nonlinear equations that describe the laser–nanoparticle interaction in the weakly relativistic regime are derived. Additionally, the nonlinear dispersion relation and the amplitude of the third harmonic are obtained. Finally, the effects of the nanoparticle radius and separation length, the distribution of the nanoparticle electron density, and the laser frequency upon the third harmonic efficiency are investigated. In addition to the expected resonance that occurs when the third harmonic resonates with the plasmon wave, another resonance appears when the nonlinear interaction of the fundamental mode with the third harmonic excites a longitudinal collective plasmon wave via the parametric Raman mechanism.
Higher and sub-harmonic Lamb wave mode generation due to debond-induced contact nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guha, Anurup; Bijudas, C. R.
2016-04-01
Non-cumulative higher and sub-harmonic Lamb wave mode generation as a result of partial-debond of piezoelectric wafer transducers (PWT) bonded onto an Aluminium plate, is numerically investigated and experimentally validated. The influence of excitation frequency on the extent of nonlinearity due to clapping mechanism of the partially-debonded PWTs is discussed. A set of specific frequency range is arrived at based on the Eigen-value and Harmonic analyses of PWTs used in the model. It is found that, at these frequencies, which are integral multiple of the first width-direction mode of a PWT, significantly higher amplitudes of higher-harmonics are observed. It is also seen that at specific debond-positions and lengths, sharp sub-harmonics in addition to higher-harmonics are present. Signal processing is carried out using Fast Fourier transform, which is normalized for comparisons.
Zhou, Shiwei; Reynolds, Paul; Hossack, John
2004-11-01
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) electrostatic-based transducers inherently produce harmonics as the electrostatic force generated in the transmit mode is approximately proportional to the square of the applied voltage signal. This characteristic precludes them from being effectively used for harmonic imaging (either with or without the addition of microbubble-based contrast agents). The harmonic signal that is nonlinearly generated by tissue (or contrast agent) cannot be distinguished from the inherent transmitted harmonic signal. We investigated two precompensation methods to cancel this inherent harmonic generation in electrostatic transducers. A combination of finite element analysis (FEA) and experimental results are presented. The first approach relies on a calculation, or measurement, of the transducer's linear transfer function, which is valid for small signal levels. Using this transfer function and a measurement of the undesired harmonic signal, a predistorted transmit signal was calculated to cancel the harmonic inherently generated by the transducer. Due to the lack of perfect linearity, the approach does hot work completely in a single iteration. However, with subsequent iterations, the problem becomes more linear and converges toward a very satisfactory result (a 18.6 dB harmonic reduction was achieved in FEA simulations and a 20.7 dB reduction was measured in a prototype experiment). The second approach tested involves defining a desired function [including a direct current (DC) offset], then taking the square root of this function to determine the shape of the required input function. A 5.5 dB reduction of transmitted harmonic was obtained in both FEA simulation and experimental prototypes test.
Ultrahigh harmonics generation in a FEL with a seed laser
Goloviznin, V.V.; Amersfoort, P.W. van
1995-12-31
One of the most challenging problems in modern FEL technology is to operate in the X-ray region, especially in the {open_quotes}water window{close_quotes}. Because of the absence of optical resonators in this range of wavelengths, only a single-pass device may be suitable for this task. The Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) mechanism is now under active discussion as a realistic way to provide high-power coherent emission in the X-ray range. Both the undulator parameters and the electron beam parameters required for the lasing are achieveable at today`s technological level. On the other hand, the SASE approach implies a very long and expensive periodic magnetic structure, typically several tens of meters long. This is mainly because of the rather long build-up time necessary to establish a coherent mode from incoherent noise. A mechanism of shortening this time would be therefore highly desirable. In the present paper we consider a scheme using two undulators and a seed-laser to produce coherent X-ray emission. The first undulator and the seed-laser provide a pre-modulation of the beam while the second undulator serves as a source of coherent spontaneous radiation at a very high harmonic of the seed-laser frequency; the whole scheme may then be considered to be an FEL-based frequency upconvertor. The total length of the periodic magnetic structure is shown to be of the order of several meters, nearly an order of magnitude shorter than in the SASE case. For the same beam quality as in the SASE scheme and with realistic seed-laser parameters, the efficiency of the beam pre-modulation at the 50-th (!) harmonic is shown to be as high as 15%. The output radiation is tunable between discrete harmonics of the seed-frequency.
Efficient Third Harmonic Generation for Wind Lidar Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mordaunt, David W.; Cheung, Eric C.; Ho, James G.; Palese, Stephen P.
1998-01-01
The characterization of atmospheric winds on a global basis is a key parameter required for accurate weather prediction. The use of a space based lidar system for remote measurement of wind speed would provide detailed and highly accurate data for future weather prediction models. This paper reports the demonstration of efficient third harmonic conversion of a 1 micrometer laser to provide an ultraviolet (UV) source suitable for a wind lidar system based on atmospheric molecular scattering. Although infrared based lidars using aerosol scattering have been demonstrated to provide accurate wind measurement, a UV based system using molecular or Rayleigh scattering will provide accurate global wind measurements, even in those areas of the atmosphere where the aerosol density is too low to yield good infrared backscatter signals. The overall objective of this work is to demonstrate the maturity of the laser technology and its suitability for a near term flight aboard the space shuttle. The laser source is based on diode-pumped solid-state laser technology which has been extensively demonstrated at TRW in a variety of programs and internal development efforts. The pump laser used for the third harmonic demonstration is a breadboard system, designated the Laser for Risk Reduction Experiments (LARRE), which has been operating regularly for over 5 years. The laser technology has been further refined in an engineering model designated as the Compact Advanced Pulsed Solid-State Laser (CAPSSL), in which the laser head was packaged into an 8 x 8 x 18 inch volume with a weight of approximately 61 pounds. The CAPSSL system is a ruggedized configuration suitable for typical military applications. The LARRE and CAPSSL systems are based on Nd:YAG with an output wavelength of 1064 nm. The current work proves the viability of converting the Nd:YAG fundamental to the third harmonic wavelength at 355 nm for use in a direct detection wind lidar based on atmospheric Rayleigh scattering.
Efficient Third Harmonic Generation for Wind Lidar Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mordaunt, David W.; Cheung, Eric C.; Ho, James G.; Palese, Stephen P.
1998-01-01
The characterization of atmospheric winds on a global basis is a key parameter required for accurate weather prediction. The use of a space based lidar system for remote measurement of wind speed would provide detailed and highly accurate data for future weather prediction models. This paper reports the demonstration of efficient third harmonic conversion of a 1 micrometer laser to provide an ultraviolet (UV) source suitable for a wind lidar system based on atmospheric molecular scattering. Although infrared based lidars using aerosol scattering have been demonstrated to provide accurate wind measurement, a UV based system using molecular or Rayleigh scattering will provide accurate global wind measurements, even in those areas of the atmosphere where the aerosol density is too low to yield good infrared backscatter signals. The overall objective of this work is to demonstrate the maturity of the laser technology and its suitability for a near term flight aboard the space shuttle. The laser source is based on diode-pumped solid-state laser technology which has been extensively demonstrated at TRW in a variety of programs and internal development efforts. The pump laser used for the third harmonic demonstration is a breadboard system, designated the Laser for Risk Reduction Experiments (LARRE), which has been operating regularly for over 5 years. The laser technology has been further refined in an engineering model designated as the Compact Advanced Pulsed Solid-State Laser (CAPSSL), in which the laser head was packaged into an 8 x 8 x 18 inch volume with a weight of approximately 61 pounds. The CAPSSL system is a ruggedized configuration suitable for typical military applications. The LARRE and CAPSSL systems are based on Nd:YAG with an output wavelength of 1064 nm. The current work proves the viability of converting the Nd:YAG fundamental to the third harmonic wavelength at 355 nm for use in a direct detection wind lidar based on atmospheric Rayleigh scattering.
Efficient second harmonic generation of picosecond laser pulses.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rabson, T. A.; Ruiz, H. J.; Shah, P. L.; Tittel, F. K.
1972-01-01
Efficient conversion to the second harmonic (SH) using KD2PO4 and CsH2AsO4 crystals inside a folded cavity of a high-power-dye mode-locked neodymium-glass laser is reported. For the first time, frequency-doubled picosecond light pulses have been obtained in CsH2AsO4 with peak powers of the order of 1 GW/sq cm at 0.531 micron for an effective pump power density of 4 GW/sq cm.
Generation of higher-order harmonics from solid targets irradiated with fs-laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsakiris, G. D.
1998-11-01
The prospect of laser intensities exceeding the 10^19 W/cm^2 level becoming available from table-top, 10 Hz lasers, has given new impetus to the subject of solid harmonics [1]. After the initial experiments demonstrating the feasibility of harmonic generation with fs-laser pulses [2], the current effort is directed towards finding out the link between relevant plasma parameters and harmonic generation. The questions that arise are what are the limitations inherent to the generation mechanism and how one can optimize the harmonic yield. For example, in experiments using the Ti:sapphire laser ATLAS at Max-Planck Institut für Quantenoptik [3], it was found that the lower the contrast of the laser pulse the weaker the Iλ^2 scaling of the harmonic conversion efficiency. Some of these results are presented and their implications to solid harmonic generation at higher intensities will be discussed. [1] P. Gibbon, IEEE J. of Q. Elec. 33, 1915 (1997). [2] S. Kohlweyer, et al., Optics Comm. 177, 431 (1995). [3] M. Zepf, et al., submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.
Resonant third-harmonic generation of a short-pulse laser from electron-hole plasmas
Kant, Niti; Nandan Gupta, Devki; Suk, Hyyong
2012-01-15
In semiconductors, free carriers are created in pairs in inter-band transitions and consist of an electron and its corresponding hole. At very high carrier densities, carrier-carrier collisions dominate over carrier-lattice collisions and carriers begin to behave collectively to form plasma. Here, we apply a short-pulse laser to generate third-harmonic radiation from a semiconductor plasma (electron-hole plasma) in the presence of a transverse wiggler magnetic-field. The process of third-harmonic generation of an intense short-pulse laser is resonantly enhanced by the magnetic wiggler, i.e., wiggler magnetic field provides the necessary momentum to third-harmonic photons. In addition, a high-power laser radiation, propagating through a semiconductor imparts an oscillatory velocity to the electrons and exerts a ponderomotive force on electrons at the third-harmonic frequency of the laser. This oscillatory velocity produces a third-harmonic longitudinal current. And due to the beating of the longitudinal electron velocity and the wiggler magnetic field, a transverse third-harmonic current is produced that drives third-harmonic electromagnetic radiation. It is finally observed that for a specific wiggler wave number value, the phase-matching conditions for the process are satisfied, leading to resonant enhancement in the energy conversion efficiency.
Extreme Harmonic Generation in an InAs Spin-Orbit Qubit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stehlik, J.; Schroer, M. D.; Maialle, M. Z.; Degani, M. H.; Petta, J. R.
2014-03-01
Strong spin-orbit materials have shown great promise in the field of quantum computation. Unlike conventional semiconductor materials, fast all-electrical control is achieved through electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR). In this work we explore EDSR in an InAs nanowire spin-orbit qubit. We observe signs of harmonic generation where spin flips occur at the resonance condition nhf = gμB B , where f is the applied frequency, B is the magnetic field, g is the g-factor and n is an integer. Near the interdot charge transition we observe harmonics up to n = 8, indicating extreme harmonic generation. At far detuning we only observe the n = 1 resonance. Further, we find odd/even structure in the harmonic response: odd harmonics result in an increase in the leakage current while even harmonics result in its suppression. Finally we observe oscillations in the resonant current as a function of detuning. The striking detuning dependence suggests that the harmonics may be caused by Landau-Zener transitions occurring due to the anti-crossing between the differing charge states. Numerical simulations of the system are qualitatively consistent with this picture. Funded by the Sloan and Packard Foundations, the NSF, and the Army Research Office. M.Z.M. and M.H.D. were funded by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de São Paulo (Fapesp) and INCT-DISSE/CNPq, Brazil.
High-Intensity High-order Harmonics Generated from Low-Density Plasma
Ozaki, T.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Ganeev, R. A.; Haessler, S.; Salieres, P.
2009-07-25
We study the generation of high-order harmonics from lowly ionized plasma, using the 10 TW, 10 Hz laser of the Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS). We perform detailed studies on the enhancement of a single order of the high-order harmonic spectrum generated in plasma using the fundamental and second harmonic of the ALLS beam line. We observe quasi-monochromatic harmonics for various targets, including Mn, Cr, Sn, and In. We identify most of the ionic/neutral transitions responsible for the enhancement, which all have strong oscillator strengths. We demonstrate intensity enhancements of the 13th, 17th, 29th, and 33rd harmonics from these targets using the 800 nm pump laser and varying its chirp. We also characterized the attosecond nature of such plasma harmonics, measuring attosecond pulse trains with 360 as duration for chromium plasma, using the technique of 'Reconstruction of Attosecond Beating by Interference of Two-photon Transitions'(RABBIT). These results show that plasma harmonics are intense source of ultrashort coherent soft x-rays.
Two-color probe of high harmonic generation from argon atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Zengxiu; Yuan, Jianmin; Meng, Chao; Chen, Wenbo
2014-05-01
Two-color control of high harmonic generation has been proven a powerful in situ tool to characterize the intrinsic chirp of attosecond bursts. The weak second harmonic pulse introduces a phase modulation of the strong field quantum processes, leading to the generation of even-order harmonic. We measure the yields of even-order harmonics from argon gases as a function of the phase delay between the fundamental and its second harmonic pulse. We found that the modulation of even-order harmonics exhibits a phase jump around the 28th harmonic (48eV), closely resembling the result from. However, we show by varying laser intensity that the phase jump is unlikely to be attributed to the switching from short to long trajectories of HHG near the cut-off. In addition, we demonstrate that the phase of jump depends on the driving laser wavelength. Single-active-electron simulation fails to reproduce the experimental observation. We therefore suspect that multielectron response comes into play for the two-color control of HHG from Argon. Preliminary analysis suggests that there exists competing pathways of HHG from inner orbitals, even for argon atoms whose interaction with strong laser fields is usually assumed well described by SAE approximation.
N2 HOMO-1 orbital cross section revealed through high-order-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troß, Jan; Ren, Xiaoming; Makhija, Varun; Mondal, Sudipta; Kumarappan, Vinod; Trallero-Herrero, Carlos A.
2017-03-01
We measure multi-orbital contributions to high harmonic generation from aligned nitrogen. We show that the change in revival structure in the cutoff harmonics has a counterpart in the angular distribution when a lower-lying orbital contributes to the harmonic yield. This angular distribution is directly observed in the laboratory without any further deconvolution. Because of the high degree of alignment we are able to distinguish angular contributions of the highest occupied molecular orbital 1 (HOMO-1) orbital from angle-dependent spectroscopic features of the HOMO. In particular, we are able to make a direct comparison with the cross section of the HOMO-1 orbital in the extreme ultraviolet region.
Nonlinear Raman-Nath second harmonic generation with structured fundamental wave.
Liu, Haigang; Li, Jun; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng
2016-07-11
We proposed and experimentally demonstrated that nonlinear Raman-Nath second harmonic can be achieved in real time when a fundamental wave with the phase periodically modulated, termed as structured fundamental wave, incident in a homogeneous nonlinear medium. The diffraction of second harmonic originates from the structured fundamental wave, rather than the grating of a nonlinear photonic crystal. Nonlinear second harmonic generation, in forms of both one- and two-dimensional, was investigated in our experiment. This method circumvents the limitation of nonlinear photonic crystals in some extend and has potential applications in nonlinear frequency conversion, optical signal processing and beam shaping, etc.
Role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from gold nanorods
Hubert, C.; Billot, L.; Adam, P.-M.; Bachelot, R.; Royer, P.; Grand, J.; Gindre, D.; Dorkenoo, K. D.; Fort, A.
2007-04-30
The role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from arrays of gold nanorod particles excited by femtosecond laser pulses is investigated as a function of incident light polarization and irradiation wavelength. In addition to photoluminescence, a peak of second harmonic is observed and is found to depend on the polarization and wavelength of the fundamental frequency laser beam. In particular, the authors found similarities between extinction spectra of the nanoparticles and spectra of emmitted second harmonic. This behavior can be explained by resonant excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances.
Scaling solid density high-harmonic generation into the mid-infrared range
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Tam; Dollar, Franklin
2016-10-01
High-order harmonic generation (HOHG) has been observed to be a bright source of coherent x-rays in laser-solid interactions using high intensity, femtosecond laser pulses. The majority of high-intensity experiments investigating HOHG have been with the use of 800 nm wavelength lasers. It is known that the density profile of the solid affects absorption of the initial pulse and the intensity of the re-radiated harmonics. We investigate how conversion efficiency and maximum harmonic order scale into the mid-infrared range. Results and particle-in-cell simulations over the pre-plasma scale length will be shown.
Surface plasma wave assisted second harmonic generation of laser over a metal film
Chauhan, Santosh; Parashar, J.
2015-01-15
Second harmonic generation of laser mode converted surface plasma wave (SPW) over a corrugated metal film is studied. The laser, impinged on the metal film, under attenuated total reflection configuration, excites SPW over the metal–vacuum interface. The excited SPW extends over a much wider surface area than the laser spot cross-section. It exerts a second harmonic ponderomotive force on metal electrons, imparting them velocity that beats with the surface ripple to produce a nonlinear current, driving resonant second harmonic surface plasma wave.
Use of extended laser plasma for generation of high-order harmonics of picosecond duration
Ganeev, R A; Boltaev, G S; Reyimbaev, Sh; Sherniyozov, Kh; Usmanov, T
2015-07-31
We report the results of experimental investigations on the generation of picosecond radiation harmonics in extended laser plasma produced on the surface of different metal targets. The effect of plasma length, heating pulse duration and delay between the heating and transformable pulses on the efficiency of conversion to higher harmonics is studied. The λ = 1064 nm radiation conversion to a short-wavelength (down to 50 nm, 21st harmonic) range in extended plasma of several metals is demonstrated. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)
Performance optimization of an external enhancement resonator for optical second-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurdik, E.; Hohlfeld, J.; van Etteger, A. F.; Toonen, A. J.; Meerts, W. L.; van Kempen, H.; Rasing, Th.
2002-07-01
We study the factors that ultimately limit the performance of an external enhancement resonator for optical second-harmonic generation (SHG). To describe the resonant SHG process we introduce a theoretical model that accounts for the intensity-dependent cavity loss that is due to harmonic generation and that also includes a realistic assumption about the shape and the frequency width of the laser mode. With the help of this model we optimized the performance of a doubling cavity based on a lithium triborate (LBO) crystal. This cavity was used for frequency doubling the output of a single-frequency titanium-doped sapphire laser at 850 nm. We were able to push the total second-harmonic conversion efficiency to 53% (a 1.54-W pump resulted in 820 mW of second-harmonic light), which to our knowledge is the best result ever reported for a LBO-based doubling cavity. , Laser-focused atomic deposition.
Second harmonic generation in carbon nanotubes induced by transversal electrostatic field.
Trolle, Mads Lund; Pedersen, Thomas Garm
2013-08-14
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of armchair and zigzag type contain an inversion centre, and are thus intrinsically unable to generate dipole even-order nonlinearities, such as second harmonic generation (SHG). Breaking the inversion symmetry by application of an external voltage transversal to the CNT axis will, however, induce a second harmonic response. Similarly, additional non-vanishing second harmonic tensor elements will be induced in chiral tubes already displaying an intrinsic response. Many geometries realizing such a setup can be envisaged, e.g., an experimental gate setup or deposition of CNTs on, or integration in, strongly polarized host media, perhaps facilitating a tunable second harmonic response. In this work, we calculate the SHG signal from CNTs under transversally applied electric fields based on a tight-binding model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afinogenov, B. I.; Popkova, A. A.; Bessonov, V. O.; Fedyanin, A. A.
2016-03-01
We have studied an influence of Tamm plasmon-polaritons (TPPs) excitation on the nonlinear-optical response of one-dimensional photonic crystal/metal structures. It was shown that in case when the fundamental radiation is in resonance with the TPP, second-harmonic generation in the sample is enhanced over two times of magnitude in comparison with a bare metal film. Using methods of nonlinear transfer matrices it was demonstrated that the third-order nonlinear response of a metal/dielectric heterostructure, when both fundamental and third-harmonic radiation are in resonance with the first- and third-order TPPs respectively, can be enhanced via two mechanisms: fundamental field localization and optical harmonic resonant tunneling. The overall enhancement of the third harmonic generation in that case can exceed three orders of magnitude in comparison with the non-resonant case.
High harmonic generation in underdense plasmas by intense laser pulses with orbital angular momentum
Mendonça, J. T.; Vieira, J.
2015-12-15
We study high harmonic generation produced by twisted laser pulses, with orbital angular momentum in the relativistic regime, for pulse propagation in underdense plasma. We consider fast time scale processes associated with an ultra-short pulse, where the ion motion can be neglected. We use both analytical models and numerical simulations using a relativistic particle-in-cell code. The present description is valid for relativistic laser intensities, when the normalized field amplitude is much larger than one, a ≫ 1. We also discuss two distinct processes associated with linear and circular polarization. Using both analytical solutions and particle-in-cell simulations, we are able to show that, for laser pulses in a well defined Laguerre-Gauss mode, angular momentum conservation is observed during the process of harmonic generation. Intensity modulation of the harmonic spectrum is also verified, as imposed by the nonlinear time-scale for energy transfer between different harmonics.
High-order harmonic generation using a high-repetition-rate turnkey laser
Lorek, E. Larsen, E. W.; Heyl, C. M.; Carlström, S.; Mauritsson, J.; Paleček, D.; Zigmantas, D.
2014-12-15
We generate high-order harmonics at high pulse repetition rates using a turnkey laser. High-order harmonics at 400 kHz are observed when argon is used as target gas. In neon, we achieve generation of photons with energies exceeding 90 eV (∼13 nm) at 20 kHz. We measure a photon flux of up to 4.4 × 10{sup 10} photons per second per harmonic in argon at 100 kHz. Many experiments employing high-order harmonics would benefit from higher repetition rates, and the user-friendly operation opens up for applications of coherent extreme ultra-violet pulses in new research areas.
Relativistic second-harmonic generation of a laser from underdense plasmas
Singh, K.P.; Gupta, D.N.; Yadav, Sushila; Tripathi, V.K.
2005-01-01
A high intensity laser obliquely incident on a vacuum-plasma interface produces second-harmonic radiation in the reflected component. The efficiency of second-harmonic generation increases with the angle of incidence, up to critical angle of incidence (our model is not valid beyond critical angle of incidence). The efficiency also depends on electron density, showing a maximum at {omega}{sub p}{sup 2}/{omega}{sup 2} congruent with 0.7, where {omega}{sub p} and {omega} are relativistic plasma frequency and laser frequency, respectively. The efficiency of second-harmonic generation increases sharply with laser intensity in the nonrelativistic regime and saturates at higher intensities. The intensity of the second harmonic is proportional to square of the laser intensity at low pump laser intensities and tends to proportional to laser intensity in the strong relativistic regime.
High-order-harmonic generation using gas-phase H{sub 2}O molecules
Zhao Songfeng; Jin, Cheng; Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C. D.; Lucchese, R. R.
2011-03-15
We investigate high-order-harmonic generation of isotropically distributed gas-phase H{sub 2}O molecules exposed to an intense laser field. The induced dipole of each individual molecule by the laser field is first calculated using the recently developed quantitative rescattering theory. In a thin medium, harmonic spectra generated coherently from all the molecules are then calculated by solving Maxwell's equation of propagation. By using accurate transition dipoles of H{sub 2}O, we show that the harmonics in the lower plateau region are quite different from models that employ the simpler strong-field approximation. We also examine the magnitude and phase of the harmonics and their dependence on laser focusing conditions.
Butet, Jérémy; Duboisset, Julien; Bachelier, Guillaume; Russier-Antoine, Isabelle; Benichou, Emmanuel; Jonin, Christian; Brevet, Pierre-François
2010-05-12
We report the optical second harmonic generation from individual 150 nm diameter gold nanoparticles dispersed in gelatin. The quadratic hyperpolarizability of the particles is determined and the input polarization dependence of the second harmonic intensity obtained. These results are found in excellent agreement with ensemble measurements and finite element simulations. These results open up new perspectives for the investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of noble metal nanoparticles.
Extracavity and external cavity second-harmonic generation in a periodically poled silica fibre
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dontsova, E. I.; Kablukov, S. I.; Lobach, I. A.; Dostovalov, A. V.; Babin, S. A.; Gladyshev, A. V.; Dianov, E. M.; Corbary, C.; Ibsen, M.; Kazansky, P. G.
2016-11-01
We have studied second-harmonic generation (SHG) of a cw single-frequency ytterbium-doped fibre laser, using a periodically poled silica fibre as a nonlinear medium for frequency conversion. All-fibre external cavity SHG has been investigated for the first time. A twofold increase in second-harmonic power in a fibre ring cavity has been demonstrated and possibilities of further optimising the fibre scheme have been analysed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimitrovski, Darko; Madsen, Lars Bojer; Pedersen, Thomas Garm
2017-01-01
We consider the interaction of gapped graphene in the two-band approximation using an explicit time-dependent approach. In addition to the full high-order harmonic generation (HHG) spectrum, we also obtain the perturbative harmonic response using the time-dependent method at photon energies covering all the significant features in the responses. The transition from the perturbative to the fully nonperturbative regime of HHG at these photon energies is studied in detail.
Self Excitation and Harmonics in Wind Power Generation: Preprint
Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Romanowitz, H.; Yinger, R.
2004-11-01
Traditional wind turbines are equipped with induction generators. Induction generators are preferred because they are inexpensive, rugged, and require very little maintenance. Unfortunately, induction generators require reactive power from the grid to operate. Because reactive power varies with the output power, the terminal voltage at the generator may become too low to compensate the induction generator. The interactions among the wind turbine, the power network, and the capacitor compensation, are important aspects of wind generation. In this paper, we will show the interactions among the induction generator, capacitor compensation, power system network, and magnetic saturations and examine the cause of resonance conditions and self-excitation.
Cumulative Second Harmonic Generation in Lamb Waves for the Detection of Material Nonlinearities
Bermes, Christian; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin
2007-03-21
An understanding of the generation of higher harmonics in Lamb waves is of critical importance for applications such as remaining life prediction of plate-like structural components. The objective of this work is to use nonlinear Lamb waves to experimentally investigate inherent material nonlinearities in aluminum plates. These nonlinearities, e.g. lattice anharmonicities, precipitates or vacancies, cause higher harmonics to form in propagating Lamb waves. The amplitudes of the higher harmonics increase with increasing propagation distance due to the accumulation of nonlinearity while the Lamb wave travels along its path. Special focus is laid on the second harmonic, and a relative nonlinearity parameter is defined as a function of the fundamental and second harmonic amplitude. The experimental setup uses an ultrasonic transducer and a wedge for the Lamb wave generation, and laser interferometry for detection. The experimentally measured Lamb wave signals are processed with a short-time Fourier transformation (STFT), which yields the amplitudes at different frequencies as functions of time, allowing the observation of the nonlinear behavior of the material. The increase of the relative nonlinearity parameter with propagation distance as an indicator of cumulative second harmonic generation is shown in the results for the alloy aluminum 1100-H14.
Ultra-intense high orbital angular momentum harmonic generation in plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vieira, Jorge; Trines, R.; Alves, E. P.; Mendonca, J. T.; Fonseca, R. A.; Norreys, P.; Bigham, R.; Silva, L. O.
2016-10-01
As an independent degree of freedom, it is in principle possible to manipulate the orbital angular momentum (OAM) independently of any other laser property. The OAM therefore stands in equal foot to any other fundamental property of light, such as its frequency. There are, however, many open questions regarding the ability to control the OAM as an independent degree of freedom. A striking example is high harmonic generation, for which there is no OAM counterpart. Here we investigate a high OAM harmonics technique to generate and amplify high OAM harmonics while preserving the laser frequency. The scheme, based on simulated Raman backscattering, employs a linearly polarised long pump containing more than one OAM level, and a counter-propagating linearly polarised signal beam. The high OAM harmonics result from angular momentum cascading from modes with lower OAM to the modes with higher OAM. The OAM harmonics spectrum can be tailored according to the OAM contents of the pump. We illustrate the scheme with the generation of prime OAM harmonics, an all-optical realisation of the Green-Tao theorem. We support our theoretical findings with 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations using Osiris.
Surface area-dependent second harmonic generation from silver nanorods.
Ngo, Hoang Minh; Luong, Thanh Tuyen; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle
2016-08-17
The nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of metallic nanoparticles strongly depend on their size and shape. Metallic gold nanorods have already been widely investigated, but other noble metals could also be used for nanorod fabrication towards applications in photonics. Here we report on the synthesis and NLO characterization of silver nanorods (AgNRs) with controllable localized surface plasmon resonance. We have implemented an original, one-step and seedless synthesis method, based on a spontaneous particle growth technique in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent. Colloidal solutions of AgNRs with various aspect ratios (5.0; 6.3; 7.5; 8.2 and 9.7) have been obtained and characterized using Harmonic light scattering (HLS) at 1064 nm, in order to investigate their quadratic NLO properties. From HLS experiments, we demonstrate that hyperpolarizability (β) values of AgNRs display a strong dependence on their surface area.
Second harmonic generation in media with inhomogeneous magnetization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolmychek, I. A.; Dolgikh, I. A.; Zhou, X.; Adeyeye, A. O.; Murzina, T. V.
2017-09-01
Anisotropy of the nonlinear magnetooptical (MO) response in regular arrays of Py antidots and «C»-, «U»- and «O»- shaped Py nanoelements is studied by means of the MO Kerr effect at the second harmonic (SH) wavelength. We demonstrate that the values of the MO effect and coercivity depend substantially on the azimuthal orientation of the antidots array relatively to the external magnetic field. In the arrays of «C»-, «U»- and «O»- shaped Py nanoelements the circular dichroism (CD) of the SH response was observed due to the extrinsic chirality of the samples. We demonstrate that the averaged over the azimuthal angle value of the CD depends on the applied to the structure magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tangtrongbenchasil, C.; Nonaka, K.
2008-11-01
Nano-focus beam applications of short wavelength approximately 220 nm now play important roles in engineering and industrial sections. At present, light sources at approximately 220 nm are commercially available but large size, difficult to maintain, and expensive. Compact wavelength tunable and cost effective light sources at approximately 220 nm are required. Laser diode with sum-frequency generation methods are employed to generated the shorter wavelength approximately 220 nm. This paper presents comparison of second harmonic generation schemes using a nonlinear optic crystal and two types of laser diode, which are a 440 nm single mode blue laser diode and a 450 nm multimode Fabry-Perot blue laser diode, has potential to generate wide tunable coherent deep ultraviolet-c at approximately 220 nm. Using the blue laser diode with the sum-frequency technique, a high second harmonic power is hardly observed due to low conversion efficiency. The best performance of second harmonic generation using blue laser diode, nonlinear optic crystal, and an high-Q external cavity laser diode was observed as 1.1 μW second harmonic ultraviolet-c power at 224.45 nm ultraviolet-c wavelength and 5.75 nm ultraviolet wavelength tunability. In addition, the improvement of increasing second harmonic power approximately 220 nm and the limitation of wavelength tuning of short wavelength are also theoretically discussed in this paper.
Mashiko, Hiroki; Gilbertson, Steve; Li, Chengquan; Khan, Sabih D.; Shakya, Mahendra M.; Moon, Eric; Chang Zenghu
2008-03-14
We demonstrated a novel optical switch to control the high-order harmonic generation process so that single attosecond pulses can be generated with multiple-cycle pulses. The technique combines two powerful optical gating methods: polarization gating and two-color gating. An extreme ultraviolet supercontinuum supporting 130 as was generated with neon gas using 9 fs laser pulses. We discovered a unique dependence of the harmonic spectra on the carrier-envelope phase of the laser fields, which repeats every 2{pi} radians.
Rivard, Maxime; Couture, Charles-André; Miri, Amir K; Laliberté, Mathieu; Bertrand-Grenier, Antony; Mongeau, Luc; Légaré, François
2013-01-01
We report that combining interferometry with Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy provides valuable information about the relative orientation of noncentrosymmetric structures composing tissues. This is confirmed through the imaging of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle. The inteferometric Second Harmonic Generation (ISHG) images reveal that each side of the myosin filaments composing the A band of the sarcomere generates π phase shifted SHG signal which implies that the myosin proteins at each end of the filaments are oriented in opposite directions. This highlights the bipolar structural organization of the myosin filaments and shows that muscles can be considered as a periodically poled biological structure.
Wei, Dan; Guo, Jiale; Fang, Xinyuan; Wei, Dunzhao; Ni, Rui; Chen, Peng; Hu, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Wei; Lu, Y Q; Zhu, S N; Xiao, Min
2017-05-15
We experimentally demonstrate multiple generations of high-order orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes through third-harmonic generation in a 2D nonlinear photonic crystal. Such third-harmonic generation process is achieved by cascading second-harmonic generation and sum-frequency generation using the non-collinear quasi-phase-matching technique. This technique allows multiple OAM modes with different colors to be simultaneously generated. Moreover, the OAM conservation law guarantees that the topological charge is tripled in the cascaded third-harmonic generation process. Our method is effective for obtaining multiple high-order OAM modes for optical imaging, manipulation, and communications.
Strelkov, V V; Gonoskov, A A; Gonoskov, I A; Ryabikin, M Yu
2011-07-22
We investigate numerically and analytically the polarization properties of high-order harmonics generated by an atom in intense elliptically polarized laser field. The offset angle of the harmonic polarization ellipse can be well described with the semiclassic "simple-man" high-harmonic generation model. The harmonic ellipticity itself, however, can be hardly understood within this model. We show that this ellipticity originates from quantum-mechanical uncertainty of the electron motion. We develop a theoretical approach describing this ellipticity and, more generally, the time evolution of the high-harmonic polarization state within the laser cycle. The analytical results are verified with the exact numerical solution; to make the comparison accurately, we develop a specific technique for separating the contributions of quantum paths in the numerical calculation.
Elouga Bom, L. B.; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Vidal, F.; Ozaki, T.; Ganeev, R. A.
2009-03-16
We studied high-order harmonic generation from plasma that contains an abundance of indium oxide nanoparticles. We found that harmonics from nanoparticle-containing plasma are considerably more intense than from plasma produced on the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} bulk target, with high-order harmonic energy ranging from 6 {mu}J (for the ninth harmonic) to 1 {mu}J (for the 17th harmonic) in the former case. The harmonic cutoff from nanoparticles was at the 21st order, which is lower than that observed using indium oxide solid target. By comparing the harmonic spectra obtained from solid and nanoparticle indium oxide targets, we concluded that intense harmonics in the latter case are dominantly generated from neutral atoms of the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grychtol, Patrick; Turgut, Emrah; Zusin, Dmitriy; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Popmintchev, Tenio; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret; Knut, Ronny; Nembach, Hans; Shaw, Justin; Kfir, Ofer; Fleischer, Avner; Cohen, Oren
2014-03-01
Ultrafast short wavelength sources based on high harmonic upconversion of femtosecond lasers are unique in their ability to simultaneously probe the magnetically-sensitive M absorption edges of the 3d ferromagnets Fe, Co and Ni. This novel capability to capture the fastest spin dynamics in materials has uncovered a wealth of new fundamental understanding about spin scattering and transport on few-femtosecond timescales. However, to date these investigations have used linearly polarized higher harmonics, since it has not been possible to generate circularly polarized harmonics with sufficient flux for scientific applications. In this contribution, we present a simple setup that enables the efficient generation of circularly polarized harmonics, and demonstrates that they are bright enough for studies of magnetic materials. The fundamental and second harmonic of a Ti:sapphire laser are focused into a gas filled waveguide under good phase matching conditions, with opposite chirality circular polarizations. Thus, circularly-polarized harmonics are produced that are then used to perform magnetic circular dichroism studies in the extreme ultraviolet photon energy range.
Temporal model for quasi-phase matching in high-order harmonic generation.
Tao, Y; Goh, S J; Bastiaens, H M J; van der Slot, P J M; Biedron, S G; Milton, S V; Boller, K-J
2017-02-20
We present a model for quasi-phase matching (QPM) in high-order harmonic generation (HHG). Using a one-dimensional description, we analyze the time-dependent, ultrafast wave-vector balance to calculate the on-axis harmonic output versus time, from which we obtain the output pulse energy. Considering, as an example, periodically patterned argon gas, as may be provided with a grid in a cluster jet, we calculate the harmonic output during different time intervals within the drive laser pulse duration. We find that identifying a suitable single spatial period is not straightforward due to the complex and ultrafast plasma dynamics that underlies HHG at increased intensities. The maximum on-axis harmonic pulse energy is obtained when choosing the QPM period to phase match HHG at the leading edge of the drive laser pulse.
Ferré, A.; Boguslavskiy, A. E.; Dagan, M.; Blanchet, V.; Bruner, B. D.; Burgy, F.; Camper, A.; Descamps, D.; Fabre, B.; Fedorov, N.; Gaudin, J.; Geoffroy, G.; Mikosch, J.; Patchkovskii, S.; Petit, S.; Ruchon, T.; Soifer, H.; Staedter, D.; Wilkinson, I.; Stolow, A.; Dudovich, N.; Mairesse, Y.
2015-01-01
High-order harmonic generation in polyatomic molecules generally involves multiple channels of ionization. Their relative contribution can be strongly influenced by the presence of resonances, whose assignment remains a major challenge for high-harmonic spectroscopy. Here we present a multi-modal approach for the investigation of unaligned polyatomic molecules, using SF6 as an example. We combine methods from extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy, above-threshold ionization and attosecond metrology. Fragment-resolved above-threshold ionization measurements reveal that strong-field ionization opens at least three channels. A shape resonance in one of them is found to dominate the signal in the 20–26 eV range. This resonance induces a phase jump in the harmonic emission, a switch in the polarization state and different dynamical responses to molecular vibrations. This study demonstrates a method for extending high-harmonic spectroscopy to polyatomic molecules, where complex attosecond dynamics are expected. PMID:25608712
Bancelin, Stéphane; Aimé, Carole; Gusachenko, Ivan; Kowalczuk, Laura; Latour, Gaël; Coradin, Thibaud; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire
2014-09-16
The quantification of collagen fibril size is a major issue for the investigation of pathological disorders associated with structural defects of the extracellular matrix. Second-harmonic generation microscopy is a powerful technique to characterize the macromolecular organization of collagen in unstained biological tissues. Nevertheless, due to the complex coherent building of this nonlinear optical signal, it has never been used to measure fibril diameter so far. Here we report absolute measurements of second-harmonic signals from isolated fibrils down to 30 nm diameter, via implementation of correlative second-harmonic-electron microscopy. Moreover, using analytical and numerical calculations, we demonstrate that the high sensitivity of this technique originates from the parallel alignment of collagen triple helices within fibrils and the subsequent constructive interferences of second-harmonic radiations. Finally, we use these absolute measurements as a calibration for ex vivo quantification of fibril diameter in the Descemet's membrane of a diabetic rat cornea.
Platonenko, Viktor T
2001-01-31
The amplitudes of harmonics of the atomic response are determined as functions of the intensity of the pump light wave within the range of intensities of 4.9x10{sup 13} - 2.1x10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2} through the numerical solution of the Schrodinger equation for a hydrogen atom in an oscillating electric field. For the amplitudes of harmonics starting from the 5th up to at least the 55th order, these dependences display a deep modulation. Generation of high-order harmonics is analysed within the framework of semiclassical theory including several factors that were ignored in earlier studies. Relatively simple formulas for the amplitudes of high-order harmonics are derived. These formulas agree well with the results of numerical simulations in the range of tunnelling ionisation and provide a satisfactory agreement with numerical simulations in the range of barrier-suppression ionisation. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferré, A.; Boguslavskiy, A. E.; Dagan, M.; Blanchet, V.; Bruner, B. D.; Burgy, F.; Camper, A.; Descamps, D.; Fabre, B.; Fedorov, N.; Gaudin, J.; Geoffroy, G.; Mikosch, J.; Patchkovskii, S.; Petit, S.; Ruchon, T.; Soifer, H.; Staedter, D.; Wilkinson, I.; Stolow, A.; Dudovich, N.; Mairesse, Y.
2015-01-01
High-order harmonic generation in polyatomic molecules generally involves multiple channels of ionization. Their relative contribution can be strongly influenced by the presence of resonances, whose assignment remains a major challenge for high-harmonic spectroscopy. Here we present a multi-modal approach for the investigation of unaligned polyatomic molecules, using SF6 as an example. We combine methods from extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy, above-threshold ionization and attosecond metrology. Fragment-resolved above-threshold ionization measurements reveal that strong-field ionization opens at least three channels. A shape resonance in one of them is found to dominate the signal in the 20-26 eV range. This resonance induces a phase jump in the harmonic emission, a switch in the polarization state and different dynamical responses to molecular vibrations. This study demonstrates a method for extending high-harmonic spectroscopy to polyatomic molecules, where complex attosecond dynamics are expected.
Selection rules of high-order-harmonic generation: Symmetries of molecules and laser fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xi; Zhu, Xiaosong; Li, Liang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Qingbin; Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang
2016-09-01
The selection rules of high harmonic generation (HHG) are investigated using three-dimensional time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). From the harmonic spectra obtained with various real molecules and different forms of laser fields, several factors that contribute to selection rules are revealed. Extending the targets to stereoscopic molecules, it is shown that the allowed harmonics are dependent on the symmetries of the projections of molecules. For laser fields, the symmetries contributing to the selection rules are discussed according to Lissajous figures and their dynamical directivities. All the phenomena are explained by the symmetry of the full time-dependent Hamiltonian under a combined transformation. We present a systematic study on the selection rules and propose an intuitive method for the judgment of allowed harmonic orders, which can be extended to more complex molecules and various forms of laser pulses.
X-ray harmonics rejection on third-generation synchrotron sources using compound refractive lenses.
Polikarpov, Maxim; Snigireva, Irina; Snigirev, Anatoly
2014-05-01
A new method of harmonics rejection based on X-ray refractive optics has been proposed. Taking into account the fact that the focal distance of the refractive lens is energy-dependent, the use of an off-axis illumination of the lens immediately leads to spatial separation of the energy spectrum by focusing the fundamental harmonic at the focal point and suppressing the unfocused high-energy radiation with a screen absorber or slit. The experiment was performed at the ESRF ID06 beamline in the in-line geometry using an X-ray transfocator with compound refractive lenses. Using this technique the presence of the third harmonic has been reduced to 10(-3). In total, our method enabled suppression of all higher-order harmonics to five orders of magnitude using monochromator detuning. The method is well suited to third-generation synchrotron radiation sources and is very promising for the future ultimate storage rings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bancelin, Stéphane; Aimé, Carole; Gusachenko, Ivan; Kowalczuk, Laura; Latour, Gaël; Coradin, Thibaud; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire
2014-09-01
The quantification of collagen fibril size is a major issue for the investigation of pathological disorders associated with structural defects of the extracellular matrix. Second-harmonic generation microscopy is a powerful technique to characterize the macromolecular organization of collagen in unstained biological tissues. Nevertheless, due to the complex coherent building of this nonlinear optical signal, it has never been used to measure fibril diameter so far. Here we report absolute measurements of second-harmonic signals from isolated fibrils down to 30 nm diameter, via implementation of correlative second-harmonic-electron microscopy. Moreover, using analytical and numerical calculations, we demonstrate that the high sensitivity of this technique originates from the parallel alignment of collagen triple helices within fibrils and the subsequent constructive interferences of second-harmonic radiations. Finally, we use these absolute measurements as a calibration for ex vivo quantification of fibril diameter in the Descemet’s membrane of a diabetic rat cornea.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Li-Qiang; Li, Wen-Liang; Liu, Hang
2017-01-01
Molecular harmonic spectra of {{{H}}}2+ driven by the linearly polarized laser pulses with different polarized angles have been theoretically investigated through solving the two-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation. (i) Below-threshold harmonic spectra show a visible enhanced peak around the 7th harmonic (H7), which produces a red-shift phenomenon as the internuclear distance increased. Theoretical analyses show the red-shift enhanced peak is caused by the laser-induced electron transfer between the ground state and the 1st excited state of {{{H}}}2+. (ii) Due to the two-centre interference phenomenon, the above-threshold harmonic spectra exhibit many maxima and minima. (iii) With the introduction of the polarized angle, the anomalous elliptically polarized harmonics can be found. But, with the introduction of the spatial inhomogeneous effect, not only the ellipticities of the harmonics are equal to a stable value of \\varepsilon ˜ 0.1-0.3, but also the harmonic cutoffs are extended. As a result, four super-bandwidths of 407 eV, 310 eV, 389 eV, and 581 eV can be obtained. Time profiles of the harmonic generations have been shown to explain the harmonic characteristics. Finally, a series of elliptically polarized (\\varepsilon ˜ 0.1-0.3) attosecond X-ray pulses with durations from 18as to 25as can be directly produced through Fourier transformation of the spectral continuum. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11504151, Doctoral Scientific Research Foundation of Liaoning Province under Grant No. 201501123 and Scientific Research Fund of Liaoning Provincial Education Department under Grant No. L2014242
Optimization of multi-color laser waveform for high-order harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Cheng; Lin, C. D.
2016-09-01
With the development of laser technologies, multi-color light-field synthesis with complete amplitude and phase control would make it possible to generate arbitrary optical waveforms. A practical optimization algorithm is needed to generate such a waveform in order to control strong-field processes. We review some recent theoretical works of the optimization of amplitudes and phases of multi-color lasers to modify the single-atom high-order harmonic generation based on genetic algorithm. By choosing different fitness criteria, we demonstrate that: (i) harmonic yields can be enhanced by 10 to 100 times, (ii) harmonic cutoff energy can be substantially extended, (iii) specific harmonic orders can be selectively enhanced, and (iv) single attosecond pulses can be efficiently generated. The possibility of optimizing macroscopic conditions for the improved phase matching and low divergence of high harmonics is also discussed. The waveform control and optimization are expected to be new drivers for the next wave of breakthrough in the strong-field physics in the coming years. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. 30916011207), Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U. S. Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13491), and Air Force Office of Scientific Research, USA (Grant No. FA9550-14-1-0255).
Spin angular momentum and tunable polarization in high-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleischer, Avner; Kfir, Ofer; Diskin, Tzvi; Sidorenko, Pavel; Cohen, Oren
2014-07-01
The roles of energy, momentum and orbital angular momentum conservation in high-harmonic generation were studied in the past. Here, we explore the role of spin angular momentum in high-harmonic generation by experimentally generating high harmonics of bichromatic elliptically polarized pump beams that interact with isotropic media. We explain qualitatively many observed intricate selection rules with a model that includes spin conservation in the conversion of many pump photons into a single photon. However, we also observe unequivocal deviations from this model, indicating that emission of an elliptically polarized high-energy photon is accompanied by an additional excitation (radiative or electronic). The presented results are also important for applications, because our system exhibits full control over the polarization of the harmonics, from circular through elliptical to linear polarization, without compromising the efficiency of the process. This work paves the way for a broad range of applications with high-harmonic generation, including ultrafast circular dichroism of molecules and magnetic materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Mo, Hua; Chen, Ni; Zhang, Zhihai
2015-12-01
The second-harmonic generation susceptibility in semiparabolic quantum wells with applied electric field is investigated theoretically. For the same topic studied by Zhang and Xie [Phys. Rev. B 68 (2003) 235315] [1], some new and reliable results are obtained by us. It is easily observed that the second harmonic generation susceptibility decreases and the blue shift of the resonance is induced with increasing of the frequencies of the confined potential. Moreover, a transition from a two-photon resonance to two single-photon resonances will appear adjusted by the frequencies of the confined potential. Similar results can also be obtained by controlling the applied electric field. Surprisingly, the second harmonic generation susceptibility is weakened in the presence of the electric field, which is in contrast to the conventional case. Finally, the resonant peak and its corresponding resonant energy are also taken into account.
Enhanced second-harmonic-generation detection of collagen by means of optical wavefront shaping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Jonathan V.; Throckmorton, Graham A.; Hokr, Brett H.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.
2016-03-01
Second-harmonic generation (SHG) has proven to be an effective method to both image and detect structural variations in fibrillar collagen. The ability to detect these differences is especially useful in studying diseases like cancer and fibrosis.1 SHG techniques have historically been limited by their ability to penetrate and image through strongly scattering tissues. Recently, optical wavefront shaping has enabled light to be focused through highly scattering media such as biological tissue.2-4 This technology also enables us to examine the dependence of second harmonic generation on the spatial phase of the pump laser. Here, we demonstrate that wavefront shaping can be used to enhance the generation of second harmonic light from collagen fibrils even when scattering is low or non-existent.
Extreme Ultraviolet Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Beams from High Harmonic Generation.
Turpin, Alex; Rego, Laura; Picón, Antonio; San Román, Julio; Hernández-García, Carlos
2017-03-10
We investigate theoretically the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum. To this end, we drive high-order harmonic generation with infrared conical refraction (CR) beams. We show that the high-order harmonic beams emitted in the EUV/soft x-ray regime preserve the characteristic signatures of the driving beam, namely ringlike transverse intensity profile and CR-like polarization distribution. As a result, through orbital and spin angular momentum conservation, harmonic beams are emitted with fractional orbital angular momentum, and they can be synthesized into structured attosecond helical beams -or "structured attosecond light springs"- with rotating linear polarization along the azimuth. Our proposal overcomes the state of the art limitations for the generation of light beams far from the visible domain carrying non-integer orbital angular momentum and could be applied in fields such as diffraction imaging, EUV lithography, particle trapping, and super-resolution imaging.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barzda, Virginijus; Greenhalgh, Catherine; Aus der Au, Juerg; Squier, Jeffrey A.; Elmore, Steven; van Beek, Johannes H.
2004-06-01
Simultaneous detection of second harmonic generation (SHG), third harmonic generation (THG) and multiphoton excitation fluorescence with ultrafast laser pulses from a Nd:Glass laser was used to image isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes. The simultaneous detection enabled visualization of different organelles of cardiomyocytes, based on the different contrast mechanisms. It was found that SHG signal depicted characteristic patterns of sarcomeres in a myofilament lattice. The regular pattern of the THG signal, which was anticorrelated with the SHG signal, suggested that the third harmonic is generated within mitochondria. By labeling the cardiomyocytes with the mitochondrial dye tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM), comparisons could be made between the TMRM fluorescence, THG, and SHG images. The TMRM fluorescence had significant correlation with THG signal confirming that part of the THG signal originates from mitochondria.
Madsen, C. B.; Abu-samha, M.; Madsen, L. B.
2010-04-15
We present a generic approach for treating the effect of nuclear motion in high-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules. Our procedure relies on a separation of nuclear and electron dynamics where we account for the electronic part using the Lewenstein model and nuclear motion enters as a nuclear correlation function. We express the nuclear correlation function in terms of Franck-Condon factors, which allows us to decompose nuclear motion into modes and identify the modes that are dominant in the high-order harmonic generation process. We show results for the isotopes CH{sub 4} and CD{sub 4} and thereby provide direct theoretical support for a recent experiment [S. Baker et al., Science 312, 424 (2006)] that uses high-order harmonic generation to probe the ultrafast structural nuclear rearrangement of ionized methane.
Three-dimensional tooth imaging using multiphoton and second harmonic generation microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Min-Huey; Chen, Wei-Liang; Sun, Yen; Fwu, Peter Tramyeon; Lin, Ming-Gu; Dong, Chen-Yuan
2007-02-01
Detailed morphological and cellular information relating to the human tooth have traditionally been obtained through histological studies that required decalcification, staining, and fixation. With the recent invention of multiphoton microscopy, it has become possible to acquire high resolution images without histological procedures. Using an epiilluminated multiphoton microscope, we obtained two-photon excited autofluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) images of ex vivo human tooth. By combining these two imaging modalities we obtained submicron resolution images of the enamel, dentin, and the periodontal ligaments. The enamel emits endogenous two-photon autofluorescence. The structure of the dentin is visible from both the autofluorescence and second harmonic generation signals. The periodontal ligament composed mostly of collagen can be visualized by SHG imaging. We also constructed three dimensional images of the enamel, dentin, and periodontal ligament. The effectiveness of using multiphoton and second harmonic generation microscopy to obtain structural information of teeth suggest its potential use in dental diagnostics.
Nonadiabatic molecular high-order harmonic generation from polar molecules: Spectral redshift
Bian Xuebin; Bandrauk, Andre D.
2011-04-15
Molecular high-order harmonic generation (MHOHG) from the polar diatomic molecule HeH{sup 2+} in short intense laser fields is studied numerically. Due to the nonadiabatic response of the molecular dipole to the rapid change of laser intensity, a spectral redshift is predicted in high-intensity and ultrashort laser pulses, contrary to the blueshift observed in the harmonics generated from atoms in long laser pulses. The MHOHG temporal structures are investigated by a wavelet time-frequency analysis, which shows that the enhanced excitation of localized long lifetime excited states shifts the harmonic generation spectrum in the falling part of short laser pulses, due to the presence of a permanent dipole moment, and thus is unique to polar molecules.
Extreme Ultraviolet Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum Beams from High Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turpin, Alex; Rego, Laura; Picón, Antonio; San Román, Julio; Hernández-García, Carlos
2017-03-01
We investigate theoretically the generation of extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) beams carrying fractional orbital angular momentum. To this end, we drive high-order harmonic generation with infrared conical refraction (CR) beams. We show that the high-order harmonic beams emitted in the EUV/soft x-ray regime preserve the characteristic signatures of the driving beam, namely ringlike transverse intensity profile and CR-like polarization distribution. As a result, through orbital and spin angular momentum conservation, harmonic beams are emitted with fractional orbital angular momentum, and they can be synthesized into structured attosecond helical beams –or “structured attosecond light springs”– with rotating linear polarization along the azimuth. Our proposal overcomes the state of the art limitations for the generation of light beams far from the visible domain carrying non-integer orbital angular momentum and could be applied in fields such as diffraction imaging, EUV lithography, particle trapping, and super-resolution imaging.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Seung-Woo
2010-03-01
Seung-Woo Kim has been researching femtosecond ultrafast optics for ultraprecision manufacturing technologies including EUV and X-ray generation. Recently, he and his colleagues achieved a novel method of high-harmonic generation by exploiting the local field enhancement in the nanogap induced by resonant plasmons within a metallic nanostructure consisting of bow-tie shaped gold elements on a sapphire substrate. Plasmonic gold elements enhance the pulse intensity enough to induce high harmonic generation with no extra cavities at all. By injection of argon and xenon gas jets onto bow-tie nanostructures, high harmonics up to 21st (38 nm) order were produced while the incident laser intensity remained only 10^11 Wcm-2. Other nanostructures such as tapered cones are now being investigated to construct laptop-sized coherent EUV sources for advanced lithography and high resolution imaging applications.
Experimental demonstration of a technique for generation of arbitrary harmonic oscillator states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben-Kish, A.; Demarco, B.; Rowe, M.; Meyer, V.; Britton, J.; Itano, W. M.; Jelenković, B. M.; Langer, C.; Leibfried, D.; Rosenband, T.; Wineland, D. J.
2002-05-01
Synthesizing arbitrary quantum states is at the heart of such diverse fields as quantum computation and reaction control in chemistry. For harmonic oscillator states, particular interactions (in general, non-linear) can be used to generate special states such as squeezed states. However, it is usually intractable to realize the interactions required to create arbitrary states. Law and Eberly [1] have devised a technique for arbitrary harmonic oscillator state generation that couples the oscillator to a two-level atomic or spin system and applies a sequence of operations that use simple interactions. We demonstrate the general features of this technique on the harmonic motion of a single trapped ^9Be^+ ion and extend it to the generation of arbitrary spin-oscillator states [2]. [1] C. K. Law and J. H. Eberly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1055 (1996). [2] B. Kneer and C. K. Law, Phys. Rev. A 57, 2096 (1998).
Cascaded third-harmonic generation in a single short-range-ordered nonlinear photonic crystal.
Sheng, Yan; Saltiel, Solomon M; Koynov, Kaloian
2009-03-01
Collinear third-harmonic generation at 526.7 nm was realized by the simultaneous phase matching of two second-order processes in a single quadratic crystal: second-harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency mixing (SFM). The measured conversion efficiency was 12%. As a nonlinear medium a LiNbO(3) nonlinear photonic crystal with short-range order was used that allowed simultaneous phase matching by use of discrete reciprocal vector (for the SHG process) and continuous reciprocal vectors (for the SFM process). It was demonstrated that the third harmonic could be generated efficiently in such a crystal even if the intermediate process of SHG was not perfectly phase matched.
Quadrupole second harmonic generation and sum-frequency generation in ZnO quantum dots
Maikhuri, Deepti; Purohit, S. P. Mathur, K. C.
2015-04-15
The second harmonic generation (SHG) and the sum frequency generation (SFG) processes are investigated in the conduction band states of the singly charged ZnO quantum dot (QD) embedded in the HfO{sub 2}, and the AlN matrices. With two optical fields of frequency ω{sub p} and ω{sub q} incident on the dot, we study the variation with frequency of the second order nonlinear polarization resulting in SHG and SFG, through the electric dipole and the electric quadrupole interactions of the pump fields with the electron in the dot. We obtain enhanced value of the second order nonlinear susceptibility in the dot compared to the bulk. The effective mass approximation with the finite confining barrier is used for obtaining the energy and wavefunctions of the quantized confined states of the electron in the conduction band of the dot. Our results show that both the SHG and SFG processes depend on the dot size, the surrounding matrix and the polarization states of the pump beams.
Multielectron Correlation in High-Harmonic Generation: A 2D Model Analysis
Sukiasyan, Suren; McDonald, Chris; Destefani, Carlos; Brabec, Thomas; Ivanov, Misha Yu.
2009-06-05
We analyze the role of multielectron dynamics in high-harmonic generation spectroscopy, using an example of a two-electron system. We identify and systematically quantify the importance of correlation and exchange effects. One of the main sources for correlation is identified to be the polarization of the ion by the recombining continuum electron. This effect, which plays an important qualitative and quantitative role, seriously undermines the validity of the standard approaches to high-harmonic generation, which ignore the contribution of excited ionic states to the radiative recombination of the continuum electron.
Terahertz-field-induced second harmonic generation through Pockels effect in zinc telluride crystal.
Cornet, Marion; Degert, Jérôme; Abraham, Emmanuel; Freysz, Eric
2014-10-15
We report on the second harmonic generation (SHG) of a near-infrared pulse in a zinc telluride crystal through the Pockels effect induced by an intense terahertz pulse. The temporal and angular behaviors of the SHG have been measured and agree well with theoretical predictions. This phenomenon, so far overlooked, makes it possible to generate second harmonic through cascading of two second-order nonlinear phenomena in the near-infrared and terahertz ranges. We also show how this cascading process can be used to sample terahertz pulses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Jian-Hui; Chen, Ni; Mo, Hua; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Hai
2015-12-01
A detailed investigation of the second harmonic generation in symmetrical and asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum wells under the influence of applied electric field by using the compact-density-matrix approach and the finite difference method. The results show that the second-harmonic generation susceptibility obtained in two cases can reach the magnitude of 10-4 m/V, which depend dramatically on the applied electric field and the structural parameters. Finally, the resonant peak and its corresponding to the resonant energy are also taken into account.
Quan, Li; Liu, Xiaozhou; Gong, Xiufen
2012-10-01
High efficiency of the second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation can be obtained in optical superlattice by using the conventional quasi-phase-matched (QPM) method. Although this trick can be played on the acoustic wave, the media with negative nonlinear parameters are not common in acoustics. Furthermore, the QPM method used in acoustic metamaterials has been less studied. In this work, a protocol is provided to realize the QPM method by using nonlinear complementary media in acoustic metamaterials in order to obtain large backward second-harmonic generation. Compared with the conventional method, the method gains a broader bandwidth and can be used in both acoustic and electromagnetic waves.
Enhanced third-harmonic generation in photonic crystals at band-gap pumping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yurchenko, Stanislav O.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Gorbunov, Evgeny A.; Yakovlev, Egor V.; Zotov, Arsen K.; Masalov, Vladimir M.; Emelchenko, Gennadi A.; Gorelik, Vladimir S.
2017-02-01
More than one order enhancement of third-harmonic generation is observed experimentally at band-gap pumping of globular photonic crystals. Due to a lateral modulation of the dielectric permittivity in two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, sharp peaks of light intensity (light localization) arise in the media at the band-gap pumping. The light localization enhances significantly the nonlinear light conversion, in particular, third-harmonic generation, in the near-surface volume of photonic crystal. The observed way to enhance the nonlinear conversion can be useful for creation of novel compact elements of nonlinear and laser optics.
Semi-classical electron dynamics and the generation of below threshold harmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hostetter, James
2009-05-01
We study the generation of below threshold harmonics in a model atom. We extend the three-step semi-classical model of high harmonic generation (HHG) to include effects of the atomic potential which necessarily plays an important role. We explore the generalization of semi-classical trajectories in the presence of the potential. We show that the long trajectory readily generalizes to below threshold HG. We also discuss that this is in good agreement with fully quantum mechanical calculations as well as with recent experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hui; Zhu, Ning; Mei, Ting; He, Miao; Li, Hao; Chen, Zhenshi
2017-01-01
A novel scheme for near-field optical lithography utilizing a metallic tip illuminated by femtosecond laser pulses with proper polarization has been presented. The strongly enhanced near field at the metallic tip offers a localized excitation source for the third harmonic generation in the nonlinear material. The generated third harmonic via excitation of nonlinear photoresist provides good exposure contrast due to the cubic intensity dependence. The spatial resolution of this novel lithography scheme is shown to be better than that of the conventional lithography technique.
Heath, G.; O'Donoughue, P.; Whitaker, M.
2012-12-01
This research provides a systematic review and harmonization of the life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of electricity generated from conventionally produced natural gas. We focus on estimates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in the life cycle of electricity generation from conventionally produced natural gas in combustion turbines (NGCT) and combined-cycle (NGCC) systems. A process we term "harmonization" was employed to align several common system performance parameters and assumptions to better allow for cross-study comparisons, with the goal of clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. This presentation summarizes preliminary results.
Role of tunnel ionization in high harmonic generation from substituted benzenes.
Austin, Dane R; McGrath, Felicity; Miseikis, Lukas; Wood, David; Hawkins, Peter; Johnson, Allan S; Vacher, Morgane; Mašín, Zdeněk; Harvey, Alex; Ivanov, Misha; Smirnova, Olga; Marangos, Jon P
2016-12-16
We theoretically study high-harmonic generation in toluene, ortho-xylene and fluorobenzene driven by a 1.8 μm ultrashort pulse. We find that the chemical substitutions have a strong influence on the amplitude and phase of the emission from the highest occupied molecular orbital, despite having a small influence on the orbital itself. We show that this influence is due to the tunnel ionization step, which depends critically on the sign and amplitude of the asymptotic part of the wave function. We discuss how these effects would manifest in phase-sensitive high-harmonic generation spectroscopy experiments.
Second-harmonic generation of light at 245 nm in a lithium tetraborate whispering gallery resonator.
Fürst, Josef U; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo; Becker, Petra; Liebertz, Josef; Bohatý, Ladislav
2015-05-01
A millimeter-sized, monolithic whispering gallery resonator made of a lithium tetraborate, Li2B4O7, crystal was employed for doubly resonant second-harmonic generation with a continuous-wave laser source at 490 nm. An intrinsic quality factor of 2×10(8) was observed at the pump wavelength. A conversion efficiency of 2.2% was attained with 5.9 mW of mode-matched pump power. In the lithium tetraborate resonator, it is feasible to achieve phase-matching of second-harmonic generation for pump wavelengths between 486 and 506 nm.
Non-collinear interaction model of the second harmonic generation of a copper vapor laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omatsu, T.; Kuroda, K.; Shimura, T.; Chihara, M.; Itoh, M.; Ogura, I.
1990-10-01
We estimated theoretically the conversion efficiency of the second harmonic generation of a copper vapor laser (CVL) beam. Since the CVL beam is only partially coherent, the theory for the coherent beam is useless for the second harmonic generation of the CVL beam. The focused CVL beam was considered as a set of bundles of rays with propagated in different directions through a crystal and non-collinear interaction between these bundles of rays was investigated. On the basis of this model, we found that the conversion efficiency depends on the product of the beam divergence and the beam diameter, and the length of a nonlinear crystal.
High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz
Lindner, F.; Stremme, W.; Schaetzel, M. G.; Grasbon, F.; Paulus, G. G.; Walther, H.; Hartmann, R.; Strueder, L.
2003-07-01
We report high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in rare gases using a femtosecond laser system with a very high repetition rate (100 kHz) and low pulse energy (7 {mu}J). To our knowledge, this is the highest repetition rate reported to date for HHG. The tight focusing geometry required to reach sufficiently high intensities implies low efficiency of the process. Harmonics up to the 45th order are nevertheless generated and detected. We show evidence of clear separation and selection of quantum trajectories by moving the gas jet with respect to the focus, in agreement with the theoretical predictions of the semiclassical model of HHG.
Harmonic generation by atomic and nanoparticle precursors in a ZnS laser ablation plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oujja, M.; Lopez-Quintas, I.; Benítez-Cañete, A.; de Nalda, R.; Castillejo, M.
2017-01-01
Harmonic generation of a driving laser propagating across a laser ablation plasma serves for the diagnosis of multicomponent plumes. Here we study the contribution of atomic and nanoparticle precursors to the generation of coherent ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet light as low-order harmonics of the fundamental emission (1064 nm) of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser in a nanosecond infrared ZnS laser ablation plasma. Odd harmonics from the 3rd up to the 9th order (118.2 nm) have been observed with distinct temporal and spatial characteristics which were determined by varying the delay between the ablation and driving nanosecond pulses and by spatially scanning the plasma with the focused driving beam propagating parallel to the target. At short distances from the target surface (≤1 mm), the harmonic intensity displays two temporal components peaked at around 250 ns and 10 μs. While the early component dies off quickly with increasing harmonic order and vanishes for the 9th order, the late component is notably intense for the 7th harmonic and is still clearly visible for the 9th. Spectral analysis of spontaneous plume emissions help to assign the origin of the two components. While the early plasma component is mainly constituted by neutral Zn atoms, the late component is mostly due to nanoparticles, which upon interaction with the driving laser are subject to breakup and ionization. With the aid of calculations of the phase matching integrals within the perturbative model of optical harmonic generation, these results illustrate how atom and nanoparticle populations, with differing temporal and spatial distributions within the ablation plasma, contribute to the nonlinear medium.
Spatial position scaling on harmonic generation from He atom in bowtie-shaped nanostructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hang; Feng, Liqiang; Li, Wenliang; Li, Yi
2017-09-01
Spatial position scaling on the harmonic generation from He in the bowtie-shaped nanostructure has been theoretically investigated. It shows that (i) due to the surface plasmon polaritons in the nanostructure, the laser intensity can be enhanced and presents the nonhomogeneous effect in space. As a result, the extension of the harmonic cutoff can be achieved when He is away from the gap center of the nanostructure. However, due to the limit of the gap size, there is a maximum harmonic cutoff extension for a given nanostructure. (ii) Due to the asymmetric enhancement of the laser intensity in space, the extended harmonics are mainly from E(t) >0 a.u. and E(t) <0 a.u. when He is injected into the positive and the negative positions, respectively. Moreover, the intensities and the cutoffs of the extended harmonics can be controlled by changing the pulse duration or by adding the second controlling pulse. Finally, by properly superposing the harmonics from the two-color field, four single attosecond pulses with the durations of 30 as can be produced.
2003-06-06
c.m. bowden3 Continuum generation of the third-harmonic pulse generated by an intense femtosecond IR laser pulse in air 1 Time Domain Corporation...picosecond high-peak-power laser pulses are propagated in air. The supercontinuum generated during the filamentation process has been used for time ...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aubanel, E. E.; Zuo, T.; Bandrauk, A. D.
1994-05-01
We present results of a complete treatment of electronic, vibrational, and rotational motion in numerical calculation of harmonic generation (HG) of 1064-nm laser radiation by the H+2 molecular ion for intensities 1013<=I<=1014 W/cm2. We show that efficient HG can be enhanced by suppression of photodissociation, a phenomenon which results from vibrational trapping in laser-field-induced potential wells. The HG spectra exhibit peaks clustered around even and odd harmonic orders. All peaks can be assigned to Raman-like transitions between dressed eigenstates of the field-molecule system. Rotational excitation is shown to compete with HG. Thus harmonic generation and photon scattering in molecules holds the promise of a potential diagnostic for molecular stabilization by intense laser fields.
Multipass relativistic high-order-harmonic generation for intense attosecond pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edwards, Matthew R.; Mikhailova, Julia M.
2016-02-01
We demonstrate that the total reflected field produced by the interaction of a moderately relativistic laser with dense plasma is itself an efficient driver of high-order-harmonic generation. A system of two or more successive interactions of an incident laser beam on solid targets may therefore be an experimentally realizable method of optimizing conversion of laser energy to high-order harmonics. Particle-in-cell simulations suggest that attosecond pulse intensity may be increased by up to four orders of magnitude in a multipass system, with decreased duration of the attosecond pulse train. We discuss high-order-harmonic wave-form engineering for enhanced attosecond pulse generation with an electron trajectory model, present the behavior of multipass systems over a range of parameters, and offer possible routes towards experimental implementation of a two-pass system.
Silencing and enhancement of second-harmonic generation in optical gap antennas.
Berthelot, Johann; Bachelier, Guillaume; Song, Mingxia; Rai, Padmnabh; Colas des Francs, Gérard; Dereux, Alain; Bouhelier, Alexandre
2012-05-07
Amplifying local electromagnetic fields by engineering optical interactions between individual constituents of an optical antenna is considered fundamental for efficient nonlinear wavelength conversion in nanometer-scale devices. In contrast to this general statement we show that high field enhancement does not necessarily lead to an optimized nonlinear activity. In particular, we demonstrate that second-harmonic responses generated at strongly interacting optical gap antennas can be significantly suppressed. Numerical simulations are confirming silencing of second-harmonic in these coupled systems despite the existence of local field amplification. We then propose a simple approach to restore and amplify the second-harmonic signal by changing the manner in which electrically-connected optical antennas are interacting in the charge-transfer plasmon regime. Our observations provide critical design rules for realizing optimal structures that are essential for a broad variety of nonlinear surface-enhanced characterizations and for realizing the next generation of electrically-driven optical antennas.
Second-harmonic generation in mixed stilbazium salt/arachidic acid Langmuir-Blodgett films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Liying; Zheng, Jiabiao; Wang, Wencheng; Zhang, Zhiming; Tao, Fenggang; Xu, Linxiao; Hu, Jiacong
1992-10-01
A stilbazium salt was synthesized and its second-order molecular polarizability was deduced to be 1.2×10 -27 esu. Measurements of second-harmonic generation and small-angle X-ray diffraction on Langmuir-Blodgett films of the stilbazium salt/arachide acid mixtures showed that the mixed compounds with molar ratios of 1:2 and 1:5 could form multilayers with large second- order optical nonlinearity. Second harmonic generation study on the alternate multilayers of stilbazium salt/arachide acid and arachidic acid showed that the second-harmonic signals were increasing monotonously up to 80 bilayers, but the increment was lower than the value predicted theoretically by the quadratic law. Possible reasons are discussed.
Nonlinear absorption and harmonic generation of laser in a gas with anharmonic clusters
Kumar, Manoj; Tripathi, V. K.
2013-02-15
The nonlinear absorption and harmonic generation of intense short pulse laser in a gas embedded with anharmonic clusters are investigated theoretically. When the laser induced excursion of cluster electrons becomes comparable to cluster radius, the restoration force on electrons no longer remains linearly proportional to the excursion. As a consequence, the plasmon resonance is broadened, leading to broadband laser absorption. It also leads to second and third harmonic generations, at much higher level than the one due to ponderomotive nonlinearity. The harmonic yield is resonantly enhanced at the plasmon resonance {omega}={omega}{sub pe}/{radical}(3), where {omega} is the frequency of the laser and {omega}{sub pe} is the plasma frequency of cluster electrons.
Effect of localized microstructural evolution on higher harmonic generation of guided wave modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Gloria; Liu, Yang; Yao, Xiaochu; Lissenden, Cliff J.
2015-03-01
Higher harmonic generation of ultrasonic waves has the potential to be used to detect precursors to macroscale damage of phenomenon like fatigue due to microstructural evolution contributing to nonlinear material behavior. Aluminum plates having various plastic zone sizes were plastically deformed to different levels. The fundamental shear horizontal mode was then generated in the plate samples via a magnetostrictive transducer. After propagating through the plastic zone the primary wave mode (SH0) and its third harmonic (sh0) were received by a second transducer. Results of a parallel numerical study using the S1-s2 Lamb mode pair, where sensitivity to changes in third order elastic constants were investigated, are described within the context of the experimental results. Specimens used within both studies are geometrically similar and have double edge notches for dog bone samples that introduce localized plastic deformation. Through both studies, the size of the plastic zone with respect to the propagation distance and damage intensity influence the higher harmonics.
Fano-resonance-based mode-matching hybrid metasurface for enhanced second-harmonic generation.
Li, Zhi; Liu, Wenwei; Li, Zhancheng; Cheng, Hua; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo
2017-08-15
Plasmonic nanostructures have been considered as potential candidates for enhancing the nonlinear upconversion rate at nanoscale levels due to their strong near-field enhancement. Here, we propose a Fano-resonance-based mode-matching hybrid metasurface that combines the advantages of Fano resonances and mode-matching for boosting second-harmonic conversion. A confined and strong near-field intensity is generated by gold nanoantennas within the volume of polycrystalline zinc sulfide nanoparticles, thus resulting in a larger effective second-harmonic coefficient. The combination of the abovementioned features allows for the realization of a second-harmonic generation (SHG) conversion efficiency of 5.55×10(-8), and the SHG signal is twice that obtained with dipole hybrid metasurfaces. Our designed metasurface may pave the way for optimizing nonlinear light-matter interactions at the nanoscale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Navpreet; Gupta, Naveen; Singh, Arvinder
2016-12-01
This paper investigates second harmonic generation (SHG) of an intense Cosh-Gaussian (ChG) laser beam propagating through a preformed underdense collisional plasma with nonlinear absorption. Nonuniform heating of plasma electrons takes place due to the nonuniform irradiance of intensity along the wavefront of laser beam. This nonuniform heating of plasma leads to the self-focusing of the laser beam and thus produces strong density gradients in the transverse direction. The density gradients so generated excite an electron plasma wave (EPW) at pump frequency that interacts with the pump beam to produce its second harmonics. To envision the propagation dynamics of the ChG laser beam, moment theory in Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (W.K.B) approximation has been invoked. The effects of nonlinear absorption on self-focusing of the laser beam as well as on the conversion efficiency of its second harmonics have been theoretically investigated.
Characteristics of second harmonic generation of Lamb waves in nonlinear elastic plates.
Müller, Martin F; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J
2010-04-01
This paper investigates the characteristics of the second harmonic generation of Lamb waves in a plate with quadratic nonlinearity. Analytical asymptotic solutions to Lamb waves are first obtained through the use of a perturbation method. Then, based on a careful analysis of these asymptotic solutions, it is shown that the cross-modal generation of a symmetric second harmonic mode by an antisymmetric primary mode is possible. These solutions also demonstrate that modes showing internal resonance-nonzero power flux to the second harmonic mode, plus phase velocity matching-are most useful for measurements. In addition, when using finite wave packets, which is the case in most experimental measurements, group velocity matching is required for a cumulative increase in the second harmonic amplitude with propagation distance. Finally, five mode types (which are independent of material properties) that satisfy all three requirements for this cumulative increase in second harmonic amplitude-nonzero power flux, plus phase and group velocity matching-are identified. These results are important for the development of an experimental procedure to measure material nonlinearity with Lamb waves.
Scaling of the generation of high-order harmonics in large gas media with focal length
Boutu, W.; Auguste, T.; Caumes, J. P.; Carre, B.; Merdji, H.
2011-11-15
We present theoretical and experimental results on high-order harmonic generation in a low-density few-centimeter-long gas medium (L{sub med}{<=} 10 cm). We study the dependence with focal length of harmonic efficiency. Theoretically, we consider in detail the generation of the 25th harmonic of a short pulse Ti:sapphire laser in argon. Within the strong-field approximation for the atomic dipole, and a complete account of the macroscopic propagation, we compute the number of photons produced as a function of the medium parameters and the focusing conditions. The simulations show that, at constant intensity, the emission of the 25th harmonic scales with the focal length as {approx}f{sup 4} at low pressure (P=2 Torr) and as {approx}f{sup 6} at higher pressure (P=5 Torr). At constant laser energy, we find that the harmonic signal scales approximately as f{sup 2} at low pressure and as f{sup 4} at higher pressure. Those numerical results are compared with experimental data.
Elouga Bom, L. B.; Kieffer, J.-C.; Ozaki, T.; Ganeev, R. A.; Suzuki, M.; Kuroda, H.
2007-03-15
We present experimental studies of high-order harmonic generation in silver plasma ablation performed with the Ti:sapphire laser beams of the Advanced Laser Light Source (800 nm wavelength, 360 mJ total energy). We have independently varied the intensity of the prepulse (which creates the plasma ablation) and the intensity of the main pulse (which generates the harmonics), and studied their influence on the harmonic spectrum. We show here that the presence of doubly ionized atoms in the ablation, created either by a strong prepulse intensity or with the irradiation of the main pulse, is ineffective for the generation of harmonics.
Three-dimensional second-harmonic generation imaging of fibrillar collagen in biological tissues.
Xie, Jiansong; Ferbas, John; Juan, Gloria
2012-07-01
Multiphoton-induced second-harmonic generation (SHG) has developed into a very powerful approach for in depth visualization of some biological structures with high specificity. In this unit, we describe the basic principles of three-dimensional SHG microscopy. In addition, we illustrate how SHG imaging can be utilized to assess collagen fibrils in biological tissues. Some technical considerations are also addressed.
Investigation of second harmonic generation in glutamic acid-metal complexes
Cooper, T.M.; Cline, S.M.; Zelmon, D.E.; Vuppuladhadium, R.; Gupta, S.D.; Ramabadran, U.B.
1996-12-31
To design new second order nonlinear crystals, the authors have characterized a series of dipeptide complexes and copper glutamate. They tested 16 materials using powder second harmonic generation. The best of these materials was copper glutamate. Results of initial nonlinear optical characterization of the copper glutamate powder determined by the Kurtz powder test are presented.
Evidence of multipolar response of Bacteriorhodopsin by noncollinear second harmonic generation.
Bovino, F A; Larciprete, M C; Sibilia, C; Váró, G; Gergely, C
2012-06-18
Noncollinear second harmonic generation from a Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) oriented multilayer film was systematically investigated by varying the polarization state of both fundamental beams. Both experimental results and theoretical simulations, show that the resulting polarization mapping is an useful tool to put in evidence the optical chirality of the investigated film as well as the corresponding multipolar contributions to the nonlinear.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Yeou-Yen
1987-01-01
A new method to generate a circular harmonic filter with both rotation and translation invariance is described, which is based on a phase-shifted double-exposure (PSDE) technique. An expression for the peak correlation intensity at the origin for the correlation plane as a function of target orientation for the PSDE filter is derived. Experimental results confirming the theoretical predictions are provided.
Homoclinic orbits and chaos in a second-harmonic generating optical cavity
Holm, D.; Kovacic, G., Timofeyev, I.
1997-04-01
We present two large families of Silnikov-type homoclinic orbits in a two mode-model that describes second-harmonic generation in a passive optical cavity. These families of homoclinic orbits give rise to chaotic dynamics in the model. 4 refs., 1 fig.
Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation.
Hohenleutner, M; Langer, F; Schubert, O; Knorr, M; Huttner, U; Koch, S W; Kira, M; Huber, R
2015-07-30
Acceleration and collision of particles has been a key strategy for exploring the texture of matter. Strong light waves can control and recollide electronic wavepackets, generating high-harmonic radiation that encodes the structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules and lays the foundations of attosecond science. The recent discovery of high-harmonic generation in bulk solids combines the idea of ultrafast acceleration with complex condensed matter systems, and provides hope for compact solid-state attosecond sources and electronics at optical frequencies. Yet the underlying quantum motion has not so far been observable in real time. Here we study high-harmonic generation in a bulk solid directly in the time domain, and reveal a new kind of strong-field excitation in the crystal. Unlike established atomic sources, our solid emits high-harmonic radiation as a sequence of subcycle bursts that coincide temporally with the field crests of one polarity of the driving terahertz waveform. We show that these features are characteristic of a non-perturbative quantum interference process that involves electrons from multiple valence bands. These results identify key mechanisms for future solid-state attosecond sources and next-generation light-wave electronics. The new quantum interference process justifies the hope for all-optical band-structure reconstruction and lays the foundation for possible quantum logic operations at optical clock rates.
Wearable Second Harmonic Generation Imaging: The Sarcomeric Bridge to the Clinic.
Williams, Justin C; Campagnola, Paul J
2015-12-16
Imaging of sarcomere dynamics in vivo in patients has significant clinical importance, as the structure and function is altered in numerous pathologies. In this issue of Neuron, Schnitzer and coworkers (Sanchez et al., 2015) demonstrate this capability through a miniature, wearable Second Harmonic Generation microscope. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Walsh, Gary F; Dal Negro, Luca
2013-07-10
In this communication, we systematically investigate the effects of Fano-type coupling between long-range photonic resonances and localized surface plasmons on the second harmonic generation from periodic arrays of Au nanoparticles arranged in monomer and dimer geometries. Specifically, by scanning the wavelength of an ultrafast tunable pump laser over a large range, we measure the second harmonic excitation spectra of these arrays and demonstrate their tunability with particle size and separation. Moreover, through a comparison with linear optical transmission spectra, which feature asymmetric Fano-type lineshapes, we demonstrate that the second harmonic generation is enhanced when coupled photonic-plasmonic resonances of the arrays are excited at the fundamental pump wavelength, thus boosting the intensity of the electromagnetic near-fields. Our experimental results, which are supported by numerical simulations of linear optical transmission and near-field enhancement spectra based on the Finite Difference Time Domain method, demonstrate a direct correlation between the onset of Fano-type coupling and the enhancement of second harmonic generation in arrays of Au nanoparticles. Our findings enable the engineering of the nonlinear optical response of Fano-type coupled nanoparticle arrays that are relevant to a number of device applications in nonlinear nano-optics and plasmonics, such as on-chip frequency generators, modulators, switchers, and sensors.
Probing Ferroelectric Domain Engineering in BiFeO3 Thin Films by Second Harmonic Generation.
Trassin, Morgan; Luca, Gabriele De; Manz, Sebastian; Fiebig, Manfred
2015-09-02
An optical probe of the ferroelectric domain distribution and manipulation in BiFeO3 thin films is reported using optical second harmonic generation. A unique relation between the domain distribution and its integral symmetry is established. The ferroelectric signature is even resolved when the film is covered by a top electrode. The effect of voltage-induced ferroelectric switching is imaged.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Xuan; Jiang, Jian; Lu, Yun-qing; Zhang, Jian-dong; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Zu-xing
2017-06-01
Dual-wavelength second harmonic generation with transverse gradient nested optical superlattice is investigated. The ratio of SHG of two fundamental wavelengths can be controlled by adjusting the position of incident light. This study shows that the efficiency of SHG is related to the temperature and coherent length of the nested structure.
Two-pass-internal second-harmonic generation using a prism coupler.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gonzalez, D. G.; Nieh, S. T. K.; Steier, W. H.
1973-01-01
A dispersive quartz prism is used to couple the total second harmonic generated in both directions by an internal cavity frequency doubler. The study shows that the dispersion of air and mirror reflection phase shifts can be compensated for by a slight nonphase match condition in the doubler.
Continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox with traveling-wave second-harmonic generation
Olsen, M.K.
2004-09-01
The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and quantum entanglement are at the heart of quantum mechanics. Here we show that single-pass traveling-wave second-harmonic generation can be used to demonstrate both entanglement and the paradox with continuous variables that are analogous to the position and momentum of the original proposal.
Vidal, Sébastien; Luce, Jacques; Penninckx, Denis
2011-01-01
We report on what we believe is the first experimental demonstration of the linear precompensation of a nonlinear transfer function due to frequency conversion. As a proof of principle, we show the effective precompensation with an interferometric filter of FM-to-AM conversion due to second-harmonic generation in a potassium titanyl phosphate crystal.
Purohit, Gunjan Rawat, Priyanka; Gauniyal, Rakhi
2016-01-15
The effect of self focused hollow Gaussian laser beam (HGLB) (carrying null intensity in center) on the excitation of electron plasma wave (EPW) and second harmonic generation (SHG) has been investigated in collisionless plasma, where relativistic-ponderomotive and only relativistic nonlinearities are operative. The relativistic change of electron mass and the modification of the background electron density due to ponderomotive nonlinearity lead to self-focusing of HGLB in plasma. Paraxial ray theory has been used to derive coupled equations for the self focusing of HGLB in plasma, generation of EPW, and second harmonic. These coupled equations are solved analytically and numerically to study the laser intensity in the plasma, electric field associated with the excited EPW, and the power of SHG. Second harmonic emission is generated due to nonlinear coupling between incident HGLB and EPW satisfying the proper phase matching conditions. The results show that the effect of including the ponderomotive nonlinearity is significant on the generation of EPW and second harmonic. The electric field associated with EPW and the power of SHG are found to be highly sensitive to the order of the hollow Gaussian beam.
Second-harmonic generation excited by a rotating Laguerre-Gaussian beam
Petrov, Dmitri
2010-09-15
Experimental data demonstrate that unlike linear optical processes, an optical Laguerre-Gaussian beam of frequency {omega}, with topological charge m, rotating with angular frequency {Omega}<<{omega}, may not be considered as a monochromatic beam with the shifted frequency {omega}+m{Omega} (Doppler angular shift) for the second-harmonic generation nonlinear process.
Effect of hydrogenic impurity on the third-harmonic generation in a quantum well
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhongmin; Guo, Kangxian; Mou, Sen; Xiao, Bo; Liao, Lei
2014-12-01
The third-harmonic generation (THG) coefficients in a quantum well with hydrogenic impurity are theoretically investigated with the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. The wave functions and the energy levels can be obtained by using variational method and numerical method. Numerical results show that the THG coefficients are strongly affected by the hydrogenic impurity.
Didenko, N V; Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Kostryukov, P V; Losev, Leonid L; Tenyakov, S Yu
2011-09-30
A 300-fs radiation pulse of an ytterbium laser with a wavelength of 1030 nm and energy of 150 {mu}J were converted to a 15-fs pulse with a wavelength of 515 nm by broadening the emission spectrum in a capillary filled with xenon and by generating the second harmonic in a KDP crystal. The energy efficiency of the conversion was 30 %.
Ultrasonic-wave generation by harmonic heating in composite structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wetsel, Grover C., Jr.
1982-09-01
A one-dimensional theory of the generation of ultrasonic waves by photoacoustic absorption in a composite structure is described. The model consists of a backing material, an absorbing bulk or surface film, and a sample. Variations of ultrasonic amplitude and intensity with structure dimensions, optical absorption coefficient, frequency, and material parameters are discussed and compared with reported experimental data. It was found that the important material group—for both backing and film or sample—is α(D)1/2, where α is effectively a thermal-expansion coefficient and D is the thermal diffusivity. The relevance of the parameters in the heated volume to imaging is discussed.
Planar second-harmonic generation with noncollinear pumps in disordered media.
Roppo, Vito; Dumay, David; Trull, Jose; Cojocaru, Crina; Saltiel, Solomon M; Staliunas, Kestutis; Vilaseca, Ramon; Neshev, Dragomir N; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Kivshar, Yuri S
2008-09-01
We study experimentally the process of the second harmonic generation by two noncollinear beams in quadratic nonlinear crystals with a disordered structure of ferroelectric domains. We show that the second-harmonic radiation is emitted in the form of two cones as well as in a plane representing the cross-correlation of the two fundamental pulses. We demonstrate the implementation of this parametric process for characterisation of femtosecond pulses, enabling the estimation of pulse width, chirp, and front tilt. This is achieved through monitoring the evolution of the autocorrelation trace inside the nonlinear crystal.
Interferences induced by spatially nonhomogeneous fields in high-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebadi, H.
2014-05-01
The high-harmonic spectrum simulated in a few-cycle laser pulse with spatially nonhomogeneous field presents two types of interferences, which characterize different plateaus in the spectrum. One of these plateaus is discernible with the nonequidistant peaks due to the interference of short and long trajectories, while another one is distinguished by a periodicity much larger than the laser frequency arising from trajectories modified by the nonhomogeneous field. Beside, the continuum-continuum harmonic generation appears in the spectrogram in the tunneling regime of the laser parameters. These features bear the tracking of classical trajectories and the complete characterization of emission spectrum, when using nanostructures in attoscience.
Pulse-shape control of two-color interference in high-order-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamilton, K. R.; van der Hart, H. W.; Brown, A. C.
2017-01-01
We report on calculations of harmonic generation by neon in a mixed (800-nm + time-delayed 400-nm) laser pulse scheme. In contrast with previous studies we employ a short (few-cycle) 400-nm pulse, finding that this affords control of the interference between electron trajectories contributing to the cutoff harmonics. The inclusion of the 400-nm pulse enhances the yield and cutoff energy, both of which exhibit a strong dependence on the time delay between the two pulses. Using a combination of time-dependent R -matrix theory and a classical trajectory model, we assess the mechanisms leading to these effects.
Gkortsas, Vasileios-Marios; Bhardwaj, Siddharth; Lai, Chien-Jen; Hong, Kyung-Han; Falcao-Filho, Edilson L.; Kaertner, Franz X.
2011-07-15
High-order harmonic generation efficiency is theoretically modeled and compared with experiments using 400 and 800 nm driver pulses. It is shown that, for a short drive wavelength and a Keldysh parameter larger than 1, the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov (ADK) ionization model does not give a good agreement between theory and experiment. Since the ADK ionization model only accounts for tunnel ionization, it underestimates the yield of low-order harmonics from the wings of the driver pulse. In contrast, the Yudin-Ivanov ionization model [Phys. Rev. A 64, 013409 (2001)], which accounts for both tunnel and multiphoton ionization, gives much better agreement with the experimental results.
Enhanced second harmonic generation in coupled semiconductor whispering gallery mode microresonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumeige, Yannick
2009-02-01
It has been shown that doubly resonant microcavities can be used to obtain miniaturized parametric devices leading for example to efficient second-harmonic generation (SHG). First we will briefly recall the basic properties of SHG in III-V semiconductor whispering gallery mode microdisks or microrings. Then we will show theoretically that by coupling such microresonators and by using the artificial dispersion of a side-coupled integrated spaced sequence of resonators (SCISSOR) it is possible to adapt the Fresnel phase-matching technique to the case of highly confining waveguides or to enhance the second order nonlinear properties of a semiconductor waveguide by slowing fundamental and second-harmonic waves.
Deng, Mingxi; Xiang, Yanxun
2015-08-01
The effect of second-harmonic generation (SHG) by primary ultrasonic guided wave propagation is analyzed, where the nonlinear elastic, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties of the piezoelectric plate material are considered simultaneously. The formal solution of the corresponding second-harmonic displacement field is presented. Theoretical and numerical investigations clearly show that the SHG effect of primary guided wave propagation is highly sensitive to the electrical boundary conditions of the piezoelectric plate. The results obtained may provide a means through which the SHG efficiency of ultrasonic guided wave propagation can effectively be regulated by changing the electrical boundary conditions of the piezoelectric plate.
Performance study of a soft X-ray harmonic generation FEL seededwith an EUV laser pulse
Gullans, M.; Wurtele, J.S.; Penn, G.; Zholents, A.A.
2007-02-01
The performance of a free electron laser (FEL) using alow-power extreme ultraviolet (EUV) pulse as an input seed isinvestigated. The parameters are appropriate for 30 nm seeds producedfrom high-power Ti:Sa pulses using high harmonic generation schemes. Itis found that, for reasonable beam parameters, robust FEL performance canbe obtained. Both time-independent and time-dependent simulations areperformed for varying system parameters using the GENESIS simulationcode. A comparison is made with a two-stage harmonic FEL that is seededby a high-power Ti:Sa pulse.
Trull, J.; Wang, B.; Parra, A.; Vilaseca, R.; Cojocaru, C.; Sola, I.; Sheng, Y.
2015-06-01
Pulse compression in dispersive strontium barium niobate crystal with a random size and distribution of the anti-parallel orientated nonlinear domains is observed via transverse second harmonic generation. The dependence of the transverse width of the second harmonic trace along the propagation direction allows for the determination of the initial chirp and duration of pulses in the femtosecond regime. This technique permits a real-time analysis of the pulse evolution and facilitates fast in-situ correction of pulse chirp acquired in the propagation through an optical system.
Enhancement of harmonics generation in hysteretic elastic media induced by conditioning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mechri, C.; Scalerandi, M.; Bentahar, M.
2017-04-01
The physical origin of harmonics generation in non classical (hysteretic) elastic media and the mechanisms of energy transfer among harmonics are still not completely understood. Furthermore the well known conditioning effect observed in such materials is known to have a significant influence on the elastic response of consolidated granular media and damaged composites and metals. Here, we show that the elastic non linearity of samples belonging to these two categories increases after having been excited with a relatively low amplitude stress. The observed behaviours could be described by activation features intrinsically present in phenomenological multistate models proposed in the literature.
Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules
Ramakrishna, S.; Sherratt, Paul A. J.; Dutoi, Anthony D.; Seideman, Tamar
2010-02-15
We address theoretically and numerically the possibility of observing ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from aligned molecules driven by linearly polarized fields--a subject of controversy in the recent literature with significant implications. To that end we develop a numerical method for solution of the electronic dynamics and extend a recently developed theory of HHG from aligned molecules. Our numerical results are in good agreement with recent experimental data. The theory explains analytically several observations of polarization experiments. We note the conditions under which ellipticity can be observed and the information content of elliptically polarized harmonics regarding the molecular system.
Conversion of the optical orbital angular momentum in a plasmon-assisted second-harmonic generation
Wang, Yongmei; Wei, Dunzhao; Zhu, Yunzhi; Huang, Xiaoyang; Fang, Xinyuan; Zhong, Weihao; Wang, Qianjin; Zhang, Yong; Xiao, Min
2016-08-22
We experimentally demonstrate the plasmon-assisted second-harmonic generation of an optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) beam. Because of the shape resonance, the plasmons in a periodic array of rectangular metal holes greatly enhance the nonlinear optical conversion of an OAM state. The OAM conservation (i.e., 2l{sub 1} = l{sub 2} with l{sub 1} and l{sub 2} being the OAM numbers of the fundamental and second-harmonic waves, respectively) holds well under our experimental configuration. Our results provide a potential way to realize nonlinear optical manipulation of an OAM mode in a nano-photonic device.
Purvinis, Georgeanne; Priambodo, Purnomo S; Pomerantz, Martin; Zhou, Ming; Maldonado, Theresa A; Magnusson, Robert
2004-05-15
Experimental results on resonantly excited second-harmonic generation (SHG) in a periodic ionically self-assembled monolayer (ISAM) film are reported. A double-layer guided-mode resonance filter (GMRF) structure is coated with 40 bilayers of pyrlium-based chi(2) ISAM thin film and excited with the fundamental of a Nd:YAG laser. Enhanced second-harmonic conversion in the ISAM film is achieved because of the local field enhancement associated with the fundamental resonating leaky mode. This method of SHG is particularly promising, as the ISAM films under investigation exhibit anomalous dispersion that may be applied for phase matching to improve nonlinear conversion efficiency.
Retrieving squeezing from classically noisy light in second-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ralph, T. C.; White, A. G.
1995-05-01
We report the results of a study of the quantum noise properties of a squeezing system involving a three-level laser pumping two similar second-harmonic-generating crystals. We show that squeezing that has been obscured by intensity and phase noise from the pump laser may be retrieved by difference detection of both second-harmonic outputs. Similarly, the squeezed vacuum formed by combining the two outputs on a 50/50 beam splitter will be squeezed at frequencies that are classically noisy in the individual beams.
Harmonic superposition for tailored optical frequency comb generation by a Mach-Zehnder modulator.
Yokota, Nobuhide; Abe, Koichiro; Mieda, Shigeru; Yasaka, Hiroshi
2016-03-01
This Letter demonstrates tailored optical frequency comb (OFC) generation using a LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator driven by a combination of first- and second-order harmonics of the RF signal. A quasi-rectangular-shaped OFC with less than 1 dB flatness among 11 lines was experimentally obtained when a slight second-order harmonic of the RF signal (0.1 times the half-wavelength voltage) was introduced. Good agreement was obtained between the measured and calculation results for OFCs. We discuss conditions to obtain flat OFCs using this method along with details concerning OFC conversion efficiency and bandwidth.
Intense and tunable second-harmonic generation in biased bilayer graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brun, Søren J.; Pedersen, Thomas G.
2015-05-01
The centrosymmetric two-dimensional material bilayer graphene (BLG) does not show dipole-allowed second-harmonic generation (SHG) in its pristine form. However, the symmetry can be broken by applying an electric field perpendicular to the layer. Here, we present a theoretical study of SHG from biased BLG. We show that the sheet second-harmonic susceptibility reaches very large values of several hundred nm2/V in the midinfrared region. The SHG is tunable depending on the strength of the electric field. Furthermore, a strong, tunable double resonance appears in the spectrum. We believe that this study could spark interest in the nonlinear optical properties of biased BLG.
Efficient second harmonic generation in χ(2) profile reconfigured lithium niobate thin film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Lutong; Wang, Yiwen; Hu, Hui
2017-03-01
Second harmonic wave was efficiently generated in proton exchanged lithium niobate thin film channel waveguides. Modal dispersion phase matching was achieved between two guided modes at pump and second-harmonic wavelengths with the same polarization, enabling using the largest second-order nonlinear component d33. The χ(2) profile in the lithium niobate thin film was reconfigured by proton exchange, leading to significantly enhanced modal overlap integral between the interacting modes. Normalized conversion efficiency up to 48% W-1 cm-2 was achieved in experiments.
High-Gain High-Field Fusion Plasma.
Li, Ge
2015-10-28
A Faraday wheel (FW)-an electric generator of constant electrical polarity that produces huge currents-could be implemented in an existing tokamak to study high-gain high-field (HGHF) fusion plasma, such as the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). HGHF plasma can be realized in EAST by updating its pulsed-power system to compress plasma in two steps by induction fields; high gains of the Lawson trinity parameter and fusion power are both predicted by formulating the HGHF plasma. Both gain rates are faster than the decrease rate of the plasma volume. The formulation is checked by earlier ATC tests. Good agreement between theory and tests indicates that scaling to over 10 T at EAST may be possible by two-step compressions with a compression ratio of the minor radius of up to 3. These results point to a quick new path of fusion plasma study, i.e., simulating the Sun by EAST.
Internuclear distance R-distribution of high-order harmonic generation from H2+ and its isotopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hang; Castle, Rich-Samuel; Feng, Liqiang
2017-03-01
Internuclear distance (R) distribution of high-order harmonic generation from H2+ and its isotopes have been theoretically investigated. We found that in the presence of the few-cycle pulse, the harmonics mainly produce from R = 2.0 a.u. to R = 4.5 a.u. and the odd harmonics can be found in the harmonic spectra. With the increase of the pulse duration, the harmonics can be generated from R = 2.0 a.u. to the larger internuclear distance (e.g. R = 15.0 a.u.) and the even/odd harmonics can be obtained in the below/above-threshold harmonic regions. Moreover, the intensities of the harmonics can be enhanced in the presence of the multi-cycle pulse, but the intensities of the below-threshold harmonics can be reduced with the increase of the nuclear mass (e.g. D or T). The time-dependent nuclear motions, the ionization probabilities, the time-frequency analyses of the harmonic spectra and the R-dependent time-dependent wave functions have been shown to explain the R-distribution of the harmonic spectra from H2+ and its isotopes.
Tunable orbital angular momentum in high-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gauthier, D.; Ribič, P. Rebernik; Adhikary, G.; Camper, A.; Chappuis, C.; Cucini, R.; Dimauro, L. F.; Dovillaire, G.; Frassetto, F.; Géneaux, R.; Miotti, P.; Poletto, L.; Ressel, B.; Spezzani, C.; Stupar, M.; Ruchon, T.; de Ninno, G.
2017-04-01
Optical vortices are currently one of the most intensively studied topics in optics. These light beams, which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), have been successfully utilized in the visible and infrared in a wide variety of applications. Moving to shorter wavelengths may open up completely new research directions in the areas of optical physics and material characterization. Here, we report on the generation of extreme-ultraviolet optical vortices with femtosecond duration carrying a controllable amount of OAM. From a basic physics viewpoint, our results help to resolve key questions such as the conservation of angular momentum in highly nonlinear light-matter interactions, and the disentanglement and independent control of the intrinsic and extrinsic components of the photon's angular momentum at short-wavelengths. The methods developed here will allow testing some of the recently proposed concepts such as OAM-induced dichroism, magnetic switching in organic molecules and violation of dipolar selection rules in atoms.
Tunable orbital angular momentum in high-harmonic generation.
Gauthier, D; Ribič, P Rebernik; Adhikary, G; Camper, A; Chappuis, C; Cucini, R; DiMauro, L F; Dovillaire, G; Frassetto, F; Géneaux, R; Miotti, P; Poletto, L; Ressel, B; Spezzani, C; Stupar, M; Ruchon, T; De Ninno, G
2017-04-05
Optical vortices are currently one of the most intensively studied topics in optics. These light beams, which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), have been successfully utilized in the visible and infrared in a wide variety of applications. Moving to shorter wavelengths may open up completely new research directions in the areas of optical physics and material characterization. Here, we report on the generation of extreme-ultraviolet optical vortices with femtosecond duration carrying a controllable amount of OAM. From a basic physics viewpoint, our results help to resolve key questions such as the conservation of angular momentum in highly nonlinear light-matter interactions, and the disentanglement and independent control of the intrinsic and extrinsic components of the photon's angular momentum at short-wavelengths. The methods developed here will allow testing some of the recently proposed concepts such as OAM-induced dichroism, magnetic switching in organic molecules and violation of dipolar selection rules in atoms.
Tunable orbital angular momentum in high-harmonic generation
Gauthier, D.; Ribič, P. Rebernik; Adhikary, G.; Camper, A.; Chappuis, C.; Cucini, R.; DiMauro, L. F.; Dovillaire, G.; Frassetto, F.; Géneaux, R.; Miotti, P.; Poletto, L.; Ressel, B.; Spezzani, C.; Stupar, M.; Ruchon, T.; De Ninno, G.
2017-01-01
Optical vortices are currently one of the most intensively studied topics in optics. These light beams, which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), have been successfully utilized in the visible and infrared in a wide variety of applications. Moving to shorter wavelengths may open up completely new research directions in the areas of optical physics and material characterization. Here, we report on the generation of extreme-ultraviolet optical vortices with femtosecond duration carrying a controllable amount of OAM. From a basic physics viewpoint, our results help to resolve key questions such as the conservation of angular momentum in highly nonlinear light–matter interactions, and the disentanglement and independent control of the intrinsic and extrinsic components of the photon's angular momentum at short-wavelengths. The methods developed here will allow testing some of the recently proposed concepts such as OAM-induced dichroism, magnetic switching in organic molecules and violation of dipolar selection rules in atoms. PMID:28378741
Ying, Z.C.; Plummer, E.W. |
1995-12-31
The technique of optical second harmonic generation is used to study phase transformations at two-dimensional surfaces and interfaces. Examples are given to illustrate that changes in surface symmetry, adsorption configuration, and electronic structure can be detected by this nonlinear optical technique. An oscillatory phase transformation of potassium adsorbed atoms on Al(111) probed by second harmonic generation is analyzed in detail.
Probe of Multielectron Dynamics in Xenon by Caustics in High-Order Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faccialà, D.; Pabst, S.; Bruner, B. D.; Ciriolo, A. G.; De Silvestri, S.; Devetta, M.; Negro, M.; Soifer, H.; Stagira, S.; Dudovich, N.; Vozzi, C.
2016-08-01
We investigated the giant resonance in xenon by high-order harmonic generation spectroscopy driven by a two-color field. The addition of a nonperturbative second harmonic component parallel to the driving field breaks the symmetry between neighboring subcycles resulting in the appearance of spectral caustics at two distinct cutoff energies. By controlling the phase delay between the two color components it is possible to tailor the harmonic emission in order to amplify and isolate the spectral feature of interest. In this Letter we demonstrate how this control scheme can be used to investigate the role of electron correlations that give birth to the giant resonance in xenon. The collective excitations of the giant dipole resonance in xenon combined with the spectral manipulation associated with the two-color driving field allow us to see features that are normally not accessible and to obtain a good agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions.
Model of resonant high harmonic generation in multi-electron systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redkin, P. V.; Ganeev, R. A.
2017-09-01
We extend the 4-step analytical model of resonant enhancement of high harmonic generation to the systems possessing resonant transitions of inner-shell electrons. Resonant enhancement is explained by lasing without inversion in a three-level system of ground, excited and shifted resonant states, which are coupled to the fundamental field and its high harmonics. The role of inelastic scattering is studied by simulation of an excited state’s population dynamics. It is shown that maximal gain is achieved when the energy shift between the excited state and resonant state is close to the energy of the fundamental photon. To prove the concept we demonstrate the enhancement of harmonics in the In plasma using different pumps.
Enhancement of high harmonic generation by confining electron motion in plasmonic nanostrutures.
Ciappina, M F; Aćimović, Srdjan S; Shaaran, T; Biegert, J; Quidant, R; Lewenstein, M
2012-11-19
We study high-order harmonic generation (HHG) resulting from the illumination of plasmonic nanostructures with a short laser pulse of long wavelength. We demonstrate that both the confinement of the electron motion and the inhomogeneous character of the laser electric field play an important role in the HHG process and lead to a significant increase of the harmonic cutoff. In particular, in bow-tie nanostructures with small gaps, electron trajectories with large excursion amplitudes experience significant confinement and their contribution is essentially suppressed. In order to understand and characterize this feature, we combine the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) with the electric fields obtained from 3D finite element simulations. We employ time-frequency analysis to extract more detailed information from the TDSE results and classical tools to explain the extended harmonic spectra. The spatial inhomogeneity of the laser electric field modifies substantially the electron trajectories and contributes also to cutoff increase.
Two-Dimensional Frequency Resolved Optomolecular Gating of High-Order Harmonic Generation.
Ferré, A; Soifer, H; Pedatzur, O; Bourassin-Bouchet, C; Bruner, B D; Canonge, R; Catoire, F; Descamps, D; Fabre, B; Mével, E; Petit, S; Dudovich, N; Mairesse, Y
2016-02-05
Probing electronic wave functions of polyatomic molecules is one of the major challenges in high-harmonic spectroscopy. The extremely nonlinear nature of the laser-molecule interaction couples the multiple degrees of freedom of the probed system. We combine two-dimensional control of the electron trajectories and vibrational control of the molecules to disentangle the two main steps in high-harmonic generation-ionization and recombination. We introduce a new measurement scheme, frequency-resolved optomolecular gating, which resolves the temporal amplitude and phase of the harmonic emission from excited molecules. Focusing on the study of vibrational motion in N_{2}O_{4}, we show that such advanced schemes provide a unique insight into the structural and dynamical properties of the underlying mechanism.
High-harmonic generation in graphene enhanced by elliptically polarized light excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshikawa, Naotaka; Tamaya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Koichiro
2017-05-01
The electronic properties of graphene can give rise to a range of nonlinear optical responses. One of the most desirable nonlinear optical processes is high-harmonic generation (HHG) originating from coherent electron motion induced by an intense light field. Here, we report on the observation of up to ninth-order harmonics in graphene excited by mid-infrared laser pulses at room temperature. The HHG in graphene is enhanced by an elliptically polarized laser excitation, and the resultant harmonic radiation has a particular polarization. The observed ellipticity dependence is reproduced by a fully quantum mechanical treatment of HHG in solids. The zero-gap nature causes the unique properties of HHG in graphene, and our findings open up the possibility of investigating strong-field and ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear behavior of massless Dirac fermions.
Influence of gas pressure on high-order-harmonic generation of Ar and Ne
Wang Guoli; Jin Cheng; Le, Anh-Thu; Lin, C. D.
2011-11-15
We study the effect of gas pressure on the generation of high-order harmonics where harmonics due to individual atoms are calculated using the recently developed quantitative rescattering theory, and the propagation of the laser and harmonics in the medium is calculated by solving the Maxwell's wave equation. We illustrate that the simulated spectra are very sensitive to the laser focusing conditions at high laser intensity and high pressure since the fundamental laser field is severely reshaped during the propagation. By comparing the simulated results with several experiments we show that the pressure dependence can be qualitatively explained. The lack of quantitative agreement is tentatively attributed to the failure of the complete knowledge of the experimental conditions.
High-order harmonic generation in polyatomic molecules induced by a bicircular laser field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odžak, S.; Hasović, E.; Milošević, D. B.
2016-09-01
High-order harmonic generation by a bicircular field, which consists of two coplanar counter-rotating circularly polarized fields of frequency r ω and s ω (r and s are integers), is investigated for a polyatomic molecule. This field possesses dynamical symmetry, which can be adjusted to the symmetry of the molecular Hamiltonian and used to investigate the molecular symmetry. For polyatomic molecules having the Cr +s symmetry, only the harmonics n =q (r +s )±r ,q =1 ,2 ,..., are emitted having the ellipticity ɛn=±1 . We illustrate this using the example of the planar molecules BH3 and BF3, which obey the C3 symmetry. We show that for the BF3 molecule, similarly to atoms with a p ground state, there is a strong asymmetry in the emission of high harmonics with opposite helicities. This asymmetry depends on the molecular orientation.
Probe of Multielectron Dynamics in Xenon by Caustics in High-Order Harmonic Generation.
Faccialà, D; Pabst, S; Bruner, B D; Ciriolo, A G; De Silvestri, S; Devetta, M; Negro, M; Soifer, H; Stagira, S; Dudovich, N; Vozzi, C
2016-08-26
We investigated the giant resonance in xenon by high-order harmonic generation spectroscopy driven by a two-color field. The addition of a nonperturbative second harmonic component parallel to the driving field breaks the symmetry between neighboring subcycles resulting in the appearance of spectral caustics at two distinct cutoff energies. By controlling the phase delay between the two color components it is possible to tailor the harmonic emission in order to amplify and isolate the spectral feature of interest. In this Letter we demonstrate how this control scheme can be used to investigate the role of electron correlations that give birth to the giant resonance in xenon. The collective excitations of the giant dipole resonance in xenon combined with the spectral manipulation associated with the two-color driving field allow us to see features that are normally not accessible and to obtain a good agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions.
Multiphoton ionization and third-harmonic generation in atoms and molecules
Miller, J.C.; Compton, R.N.
1982-01-01
We will discuss recent experiments on multiphoton ionization and third-harmonic generation in rare gases and small molecules using focused laser power densities of 10/sup 9/ to 10/sup 11/ W/cm/sup 2/. Also, some elementary experiments using vacuum ultraviolet light generated by frequency tripling in xenon and krypton will be described. These experiments include absorption and ionization studies using vacuum ultraviolet radiation as well as two-photon ionization using one vacuum ultraviolet photon and one laser photon.
Suppression of driving laser in high harmonic generation with a microchannel plate.
Zhang, Qi; Zhao, Kun; Li, Jie; Chini, Michael; Cheng, Yan; Wu, Yi; Cunningham, Eric; Chang, Zenghu
2014-06-15
Separating the infrared driving laser from the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses after high-order harmonic generation has been a long-standing difficulty. In this Letter, we propose and demonstrate that the driving laser can be blocked by simply installing a microchannel plate (MCP) into the beam line. In addition to its high damage threshold, the MCP filter also transmits photons over the entire XUV region. This paves the way for attosecond pulse generation with unprecedented bandwidth.
Generation Of 369.4-Nanometers Second Harmonic From A Diode Laser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Angelyn P.; Maleki, Lutfollah
1995-01-01
Experimental laser system features polarization feedback scheme maintaining frequency lock. Generates light at wavelength of 369.4 nanometers by second-harmonic generation from 738.8-nanometers laser diode. System prototype of source of 369.4-nanometers radiation used to optically pump 2S1/2 ' 2P1/2 transition in 171Yb+ ions in lightweight, low-power trapped-ion frequency-standard apparatus.
X-ray FEL based on harmonics generation and electron beam outcoupling
Litvinenko, V.N.; Burnham, B.
1995-12-31
Electron beam outcoupling was suggested by N. A. Vinokurov as a method of optics independent outcoupling for high power FELs. The bunching of the electron beam is provided in a master oscillator. The prebunched electron beam then radiates coherently into an additional wiggler called the radiator. The electron beam is turned by an achromatic bend into this wiggler and its radiation propagates with a small angle with respect to the OK-4 optical axis. Thus, the radiation will pass around the mirror of the master oscillator optical cavity and can then be utilized. This scheme is perfectly suited for harmonic generation if the radiator wiggler is tuned on one of the master oscillator wavelength harmonics. This system is reminiscent of a klystron operating on a harmonic of the reference frequency. In this paper we present the theory of this device, its spectral and spatial characteristics of radiation, the optimization of the master oscillator, the achromatic bend and bunching for harmonic generation, and influence of beam parameters (energy spread, emittance, etc.) on generated power. Examples of possible storage ring and linac driven systems are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vengelis, Julius; Jarutis, Vygandas; Sirutkaitis, Valdas
2016-09-01
We report results of supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using the first or second harmonics of a subnanosecond passively Q-switched Nd:YAG microlaser. The Nd:YAG microlaser generated 50 μJ energy 300 ps duration pulses at 1064 nm with a kilohertz repetition rate. We demonstrated that we can expand the supercontinuum spectrum to cover the whole visible range and beyond using either first or second harmonics of our pump laser in the case of such pump pulse durations. In the case of a first-harmonic pump (λp=1064 nm), the supercontinuum extended from 400 to 1300 nm and in the case of a second-harmonic pump (λp=532 nm), it extended from 400 to 900 nm. In addition, we compared the supercontinuum evolution and dependence on pump pulse energy in both cases. We also performed numerical simulations of supercontinuum generation in PCF using an improved approach. The generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation was modified so that numerical simulations would yield greater accuracy in the case of longer (300 ps) pulses. The simulated supercontinuum spectra display the same qualitative features as that measured in the experiment.
Harmonic Generation at Lower Electron Energies for a Hard X-ray FEL
Marksteiner, Quinn R.
2011-01-01
There are several schemes currently being investigated to pre-bunch the electron beam and step the coherent bunching up to higher harmonics, all which require modulator sections which introduce additional energy modulation. X-ray FELs operate in a regime where the FEL parameter, {rho} is equal to or less than the effective energy spread introduced from the emittance in the electron beam. Because of this large effective energy spread, the energy modulation introduced from harmonic generation schemes would seriously degrade FEL performance. This problem can be mitigated by incorporating the harmonic generation scheme at a lower electron kinetic energy than the energy at the final undulator. This will help because the effective energy spread from emittance is reduced at lower energies, and can be further reduced by making the beam transversely large. Then the beam can be squeezed down slowly enough in the subsequent accelerator sections so that geometric debunching is mitigated. The beam size inside the dispersive chicanes and in the accelerator sections must be carefully optimized to avoid debunching, and each subharmonic modulator section must generate enough energy modulation to overcome the SASE noise without significantly increasing the gain length in the final undulator. Here we show analytical results that demonstrate the feasibility of this harmonic pre-bunching scheme.
Extreme-ultraviolet polarimeter utilizing laser-generated high-order harmonics.
Brimhall, Nicole; Turner, Matthew; Herrick, Nicholas; Allred, David D; Turley, R Steven; Ware, Michael; Peatross, Justin
2008-10-01
We describe an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) polarimeter that employs laser-generated high-order harmonics as the light source. The polarimeter is designed to characterize materials and thin films for use with EUV light. Laser high harmonics are highly directional with easily rotatable linear polarization, not typically available with other EUV sources. The harmonics have good wavelength coverage, potentially spanning the entire EUV from a few to a hundred nanometers. Our instrument is configured to measure reflectances from 14 to 30 nm and has approximately 180 spectral resolution (lambda/Delta lambda). The reflection from a sample surface can be measured over a continuous range of incident angles (5 degrees-75 degrees). A secondary 14 cm gas cell attenuates the harmonics in a controlled way to keep signals within the linear dynamic range of the detector, comprised of a microchannel plate coupled to a phosphorous screen and charge coupled device camera. The harmonics are produced using approximately 10 mJ, approximately 35 fs, and approximately 800 nm laser pulses with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. Per-shot energy monitoring of the laser discriminates against fluctuations. The polarimeter reflectance data agree well with data obtained at the Advanced Light Source Synchrotron (Beamline 6.3.2).
Doubly resonant metallic nanostructure for high conversion efficiency of second harmonic generation.
Park, Sinjeung; Hahn, Jae W; Lee, Jae Yong
2012-02-27
The recent discovery of strong nonlinear emission in metallic nanostructures has offered possibilities for realization of functional nano photonic devices. Here, we demonstrate a novel design of a plasmonic nano device for high conversion efficiency of second harmonic generation. A 4 × 4 bowtie aperture array is fabricated to have both plasmonic resonance for local field enhancement of the fundamental wave and Fabry-Pérot resonance for high transmission of second harmonic wave. Combining nano structures for exciting surface plasmon polariton and suppressing higher order diffraction and anti-reflection layer, we achieve a second harmonic conversion efficiency of 1.4 × 10(-8) that is nearly an order of magnitude larger than the results published in recent literatures. We also theoretically analyze evidences of the role of double resonances tuned to the fundamental wave and the second harmonic wave, resulting in the augmentation of second harmonic response approximately an order of magnitude greater than that without the help of the resonance.
Ganeev, R. A.; Baba, M.; Suzuki, M.; Yoneya, S.; Kuroda, H.
2014-12-28
The systematic studies of the harmonic generation of ultrashort laser pulses in the 5-mm-long Zn and Mn plasmas (i.e., application of nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond pulses for ablation, comparison of harmonic generation from atomic, ionic, and cluster-contained species of plasma, variation of plasma length, two-color pump of plasmas, etc.) are presented. The conversion efficiency of the 11th–19th harmonics generated in the Zn plasma was ∼5 × 10{sup −5}. The role of the ionic resonances of Zn near the 9th and 10th harmonics on the enhancement of harmonics is discussed. The enhancement of harmonics was also analyzed using the two-color pump of extended plasmas, which showed similar intensities of the odd and even harmonics along the whole range of generation. The harmonics up to the 107th order were demonstrated in the case of manganese plasma. The comparison of harmonic generation in the 5-mm-long and commonly used short (≤0.5 mm) plasma plumes showed the advanced properties of extended media.
Theory of THz harmonic generation in semiconductor superlattices (Conference Presentation)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira, Mauro F.; Winge, David O.; Wacker, Andreas
2016-10-01
Superlattices are artificial structures with a wide range of applications and open possibilities for controlling and study transport and optical [M.F. Pereira Jr., Phys. Rev. B 52, (1995)] properties of semiconductors. In this work, we start from the full Nonequilibrium Greens Functions approach [A. Wacker et a, IEEE Journal of Sel. Top. in Quantum Electron.,19 1200611, (2013),T. Schmielau and M.F. Pereira, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 231111, (2009)] to obtain Voltage-Current curves and compare them with experiments. By adjusting the numerical solutions of the corresponding Dyson equations to a simple model, analytical solutions are given for the nonlinear response of a biased superlattice under sub-THz radiation. The frequency multiplication process leading to multiple harmonicgeneration is described. This hybrid approach leads to predictive simulations and may have important application for a new generation of devices where the superlattices are used as both sources and detectors and may be particular useful for high resolution transient spectroscopy [A.A. Yablokov et at, IEEE Transactions on THz Science and Technology 5, 845 (2015)].
Tunable orbital angular momentum in high-harmonic generation
Gauthier, David; Ribič, P. Rebernik; Adhikary, G.; ...
2017-04-05
Optical vortices are currently one of the most intensively studied topics in optics. These light beams, which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), have been successfully utilized in the visible and infrared in a wide variety of applications. Moving to shorter wavelengths may open up completely new research directions in the areas of optical physics and material characterization. Here, we report on the generation of extreme-ultraviolet optical vortices with femtosecond duration carrying a controllable amount of OAM. From a basic physics viewpoint, our results help to resolve key questions such as the conservation of angular momentum in highly nonlinear light–matter interactions,more » and the disentanglement and independent control of the intrinsic and extrinsic components of the photon’s angular momentum at short-wavelengths. Finally, the methods developed here will allow testing some of the recently proposed concepts such as OAM-induced dichroism, magnetic switching in organic molecules and violation of dipolar selection rules in atoms.« less
Second-harmonic generation in shear wave beams with different polarizations
Spratt, Kyle S. Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F.
2015-10-28
A coupled pair of nonlinear parabolic equations was derived by Zabolotskaya [1] that model the transverse components of the particle motion in a collimated shear wave beam propagating in an isotropic elastic solid. Like the KZK equation, the parabolic equation for shear wave beams accounts consistently for the leading order effects of diffraction, viscosity and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity includes a cubic nonlinear term that is equivalent to that present in plane shear waves, as well as a quadratic nonlinear term that is unique to diffracting beams. The work by Wochner et al. [2] considered shear wave beams with translational polarizations (linear, circular and elliptical), wherein second-order nonlinear effects vanish and the leading order nonlinear effect is third-harmonic generation by the cubic nonlinearity. The purpose of the current work is to investigate the quadratic nonlinear term present in the parabolic equation for shear wave beams by considering second-harmonic generation in Gaussian beams as a second-order nonlinear effect using standard perturbation theory. In order for second-order nonlinear effects to be present, a broader class of source polarizations must be considered that includes not only the familiar translational polarizations, but also polarizations accounting for stretching, shearing and rotation of the source plane. It is found that the polarization of the second harmonic generated by the quadratic nonlinearity is not necessarily the same as the polarization of the source-frequency beam, and we are able to derive a general analytic solution for second-harmonic generation from a Gaussian source condition that gives explicitly the relationship between the polarization of the source-frequency beam and the polarization of the second harmonic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Wangjian
2014-12-01
Electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation in asymmetrical Gaussian potential quantum wells is investigated using the effective mass approximation employing the compact density matrix method and the iterative approach. Our results show that the absolute value, the real part and the imaginary part of second-harmonic generation are greatly affected by the height of the Gaussian potential quantum wells, the range of the Gaussian confinement potential and the applied electric field. The relationship between the absolute value and the imaginary part of second-harmonic generation together with the relationship between the absolute value and the real part of second-harmonic generation is studied. It is found that no matter how the height of the Gaussian potential quantum wells, the range of the Gaussian confinement potential and the applied electric field vary, the resonant peaks of the absolute value of second-harmonic generation do not originate from the imaginary part but from the real part.
Ganeev, Rashid A.; Elouga Bom, Luc B.; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki
2007-10-01
We present systematic time-resolved investigations of plasma conditions for achieving the maximum cutoff and maximum conversion efficiency of high-order harmonic generation from gold plasma within the plateau. We analyzed harmonic generation under different laser-plasma conditions. We also performed simulations to calculate the ionization state of the gold plasma, the free electron density, and singly charged ion density at different prepulse intensities. By optimizing the plasma conditions, we observed a harmonic cutoff at the 53rd order ({lambda}=15.09 nm). We estimate the conversion efficiency of the harmonics within the plateau region to be 2x10{sup -6}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun; Wang, Bing-Bing; Guo, Fu-Ming; Li, Su-Yu; Ding, Da-Jun; Chen, Ji-Gen; Zeng, Si-Liang; Yang, Yu-Jun
2014-05-01
Using Bohmian trajectory (BT) method, we investigate the dynamic interference in high-order harmonic generation from diatomic molecular ions. It is demonstrated that the main characteristics of the molecular harmonic spectrum can be well reproduced by only two BTs which are located at the two ions. This happens because these two localized trajectories can receive and store the whole collision information coming from all of the other re-collision trajectories. Therefore, the amplitudes and frequencies of these two trajectories represent the intensity and frequency distribution of the harmonic generation. Moreover, the interference between these two trajectories shows a dip in the harmonic spectrum, which reveals the molecular structure information.
Modeling third-harmonic generation from layered materials using nonlinear optical matrices.
Rodríguez, Cristina; Rudolph, Wolfgang
2014-10-20
A matrix approach is formulated to describe third-harmonic (TH) generation in stacked materials in the small signal limit, in both transmission and reflection geometries. The model takes into account the contribution from the substrate to the total generated TH, interference of fundamental and nonlinear fields inside the stack, the nonlinear signal generation in forward and backward direction, the beam profile of the focused incident beam in the substrate, and the finite spectrum associated with short laser pulses. The model is applied to design stacks of thin films for efficient TH generation.