High Harmonic Fast Wave Heating and Current Drive for NSTX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, J. A.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Phillips, C. K.; Wilson, J. R.; Batchelor, D. B.; Carter, M. D.; Jaeger, E. F.; Smithe, D.
1996-11-01
Heating and noninductive current drive in NSTX will initially be accomplished with 6 MW of radio-frequency (rf) power applied in the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) regime. HHFW heating and current drive differs from conventional fast wave current drive in that, although the frequency of operation (30-40 MHz) is in the range of conventional tokamak experiments, ω_rf ~ 10-20 Ω_ci due to the low magnetic field (0.35 T). Strong absorption (100% per pass) is ensured by the high plasma beta. Here we present numerical modelling of HHFW heating and current drive in NSTX using the PICES, FISIC, and METS95 codes. Preliminary designs for the NSTX HHFW antenna and matching system are also presented, along with analysis of the launched antenna wavenumber spectrum using the RANT3D code.
High Harmonic Fast Wave heating and current drive for NSTX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, J. A.; Majeski, R.; Hosea, J.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Phillips, C. K.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, J.; Batchelor, D. B.; Carter, M. D.; Jaeger, E. F.; Ryan, P.; Swain, D.; Mau, T. K.; Chiu, S. C.; Smithe, D.
1997-11-01
Heating and noninductive current drive in NSTX will initially use 6 MW of rf power in the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) regime. We present numerical modelling of HHFW heating and current drive in NSTX using the PICES, CURRAY, FISIC, and METS95 codes. High electron β during the discharge flattop in NSTX is predicted to result in off-axis power deposition and current drive. However, reductions in the trapped electron fraction (due also to high β effects) are predicted to result in adequate current drive efficiency, with ~ 400 - 500 kA of noninductive current driven. Sufficient per-pass absorption (>10%) to ensure effective electron heating is also expected for the startup plasma. Present plans call for a single twelve strap antenna driven by six FMIT transmitters operating at 30 MHz. The design for the antenna and matching system will also be discussed.
Current drive with combined electron cyclotron wave and high harmonic fast wave in tokamak plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, J. C.; Gong, X. Y.; Dong, J. Q.; Wang, J.; Zhang, N.; Zheng, P. W.; Yin, C. Y.
2016-12-01
The current driven by combined electron cyclotron wave (ECW) and high harmonic fast wave is investigated using the GENRAY/CQL3D package. It is shown that no significant synergetic current is found in a range of cases with a combined ECW and fast wave (FW). This result is consistent with a previous study [Harvey et al., in Proceedings of IAEA TCM on Fast Wave Current Drive in Reactor Scale Tokamaks (Synergy and Complimentarily with LHCD and ECRH), Arles, France, IAEA, Vienna, 1991]. However, a positive synergy effect does appear with the FW in the lower hybrid range of frequencies. This positive synergy effect can be explained using a picture of the electron distribution function induced by the ECW and a very high harmonic fast wave (helicon). The dependence of the synergy effect on the radial position of the power deposition, the wave power, the wave frequency, and the parallel refractive index is also analyzed, both numerically and physically.
High Harmonic Fast Wave Heating Experiments on NSTX
J.R. Wilson; R. Bell; M. Bitter; P. Bonoli; et al
2000-11-16
A radio frequency (rf) system has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) with the aim of heating the plasma and driving plasma current. The system consists of six rf transmitters, a twelve element antenna and associated transmission line components to distribute and couple the power from the transmitters to the antenna elements in a fashion to allow control of the antenna toroidal wavenumber spectrum. To date, power levels up to 3.85 MW have been applied to the NSTX plasmas. The frequency and spectrum of the rf waves has been selected to heat electrons via Landau damping and transit time magnetic pumping. The electron temperature has been observed to increase from 400 to 900 eV with little change in plasma density resulting in a plasma stored energy of 59 kJ and a toroidal beta, bT , =10% and bn = 2.7.
High Harmonic Fast Wave Heating Experiments on NSTX
Wilson, J. R.; Bell, R. E.; Bitter, M.; Bonoli, P.; Carter, Mark Dwain; Gates, D.; Hosea, Joel; LeBlanc, B; Majeski, R.; Mau, T. K.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Paul, S.; Phillips, Cynthia; Pinsker, R.; Rosenberg, A.; Ryan, Philip Michael; Sabbagh, S. A.; Stutman, D.; Swain, David W; Takase, Y.; Wilgen, John B
2001-01-01
A radio frequency (rf) system has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) with the aim of heating the plasma and driving plasma current. The system consists of six rf transmitters, a twelve element antenna and associated transmission line components to distribute and couple the power from the transmitters to the antenna elements in a fashion to allow control of the antenna toroidal wavenumber spectrum. To date, power levels up to 3.85 MW have been applied to the NSTX plasmas. The frequency and spectrum of the rf waves has been selected to heat electrons via Landau damping and transit time magnetic pumping. The electron temperature has been observed to increase from 400 to 900 eV with little change in plasma density resulting in a plasma stored energy of 59 kJ , a toroidal beta, βT , =10% and a normalized beta, βn = 2.7.
High-Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) Heating Results on NSTX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, G.; Hosea, J. C.; Leblanc, B. P.; Phillips, C. K.; Podesta, M.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.; Bonoli, P. T.; Harvey, R. W.; Jaeger, E. F.; Ryan, P. M.
2010-11-01
This talk will present recent experimental and modeling results from NSTX HHFW research. HHFW heating of low current (200 - 400 kA) plasmas has resulted in a transition to a high bootstrap current fraction, H-mode regime needed for solenoid-free ramp-up. Coupling of HHFW power to NBI H-mode plasmas has been improved with lithium wall conditioning [1], although significant rf power is measured to flow to the divertor, particularly at longer launch wavelengths. Modeling results for H-mode discharges that use a combination of HHFW and NBI heating predict a strong competition between direct electron heating and fast-ion acceleration. A double-feed upgrade of the HHFW antenna in 2009 did not improve the stand off voltage by as much as predicted and appears to be limited by RF currents induced on the antenna surface. However, the stand off voltage limit can be increased with sufficient antenna conditioning. [1] G. Taylor, et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056114 (2010).
Fast ion absorption of the high harmonic fast wave in the National Spherical Torus Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenberg, A. L.; Menard, J. E.; Wilson, J. R.; Medley, S. S.; Andre, R.; Phillips, C. K.; Darrow, D. S.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Redi, M. H.; Fisch, N. J.; NSTX Team, Harvey, R. W.; Mau, T. K.; Jaeger, E. F.; Ryan, P. M.; Swain, D. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Egedal, J.
2004-05-01
Ion absorption of the high harmonic fast wave in a spherical torus [Y.-K. M. Peng et al., Nucl. Fusion 26, 769 (1986)] is of critical importance to assessing the viability of the wave as a means of heating and driving current. Analysis of recent National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] shots has revealed that under some conditions when neutral beam and rf power are injected into the plasma simultaneously, a fast ion population with energy above the beam injection energy is sustained by the wave. In agreement with modeling, these experiments find the rf-induced fast ion tail strength and neutron rate at lower B-fields to be less enhanced, likely due to a larger β profile, which promotes greater off-axis absorption where the fast ion population is small. Ion loss codes find the increased loss fraction with decreased B insufficient to account for the changes in tail strength, providing further evidence that this is a rf interaction effect. Though greater ion absorption is predicted with lower k∥, surprisingly little variation in the tail was observed, along with a neutron rate enhancement with higher k∥. Data from the neutral particle analyzer, neutron detectors, x-ray crystal spectrometer, and Thomson scattering are presented, along with results from the TRANSP [R. J. Hawryluk, Physics of Plasmas Close to Thermonuclear Conditions 1, 19 (1981); J. P. H. E. Ongena et al., Fusion Technol. 33, 181 (1998)] transport analysis code, ray-tracing codes HPRT [J. Menard et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2002 (1999)], and CURRAY [T. K. Mau et al., RF Power in Plasmas: 13th Topical Conference (1999), p. 148], full-wave code AORSA [E. F. Jaeger et al., RF Power in Plasmas: 14th Topical Conference, 2001, p. 369], quasilinear code CQL3D [R. W. Harvey et al., in Proceedings of the IAEA TCM on Advances in Simulation and Modeling of Thermonuclear Plasmas, 1992], and ion loss codes EIGOL [D. S. Darrow et al., in Proceedings of the 6th IAEA TCM on
Modeling of high harmonic fast wave current drive on EAST tokamak
Li, J. C.; Gong, X. Y. Li, F. Y.; Dong, J. Q.; Gao, Q. D.; Zhang, N.
2015-10-15
High harmonic fast waves (HHFW) are among the candidates for non-inductive current drive (CD), which is essential for long-pulse or steady-state operation of tokamaks. Current driven with HHFW in EAST tokamak plasmas is numerically studied. The HHFW CD efficiency is found to increase non-monotonically with the wave frequency, and this phenomenon is attributed to the multi-pass absorption of HHFW. The sensitivity of CD efficiency to the value of the parallel refraction index of the launched wave is confirmed. The quasilinear effects, assessed as significant in HHFW current drive with the GENRAY/CQL3D package, cause a significant increase in CD efficiency as RF power is increased, which is very different from helicon current drive. Simulations for a range of toroidal dc electric fields, in combination with a range of fast wave powers, are also presented and indicate that the presence of the DC field can also enhance the CD efficiency.
Advances in high-harmonic fast wave physics in the National Spherical Torus Experiment
Taylor, G.; Bell, R. E.; Hosea, J. C.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Phillips, C. K.; Podesta, M.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.; Ahn, J-W.; Chen, G.; Green, D. L.; Jaeger, E. F.; Maingi, R.; Ryan, P. M.; Wilgen, J. B.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Liu, D.; Bonoli, P. T.; Brecht, T.; Choi, M.
2010-05-15
Improved core high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating at longer wavelengths and during start-up and plasma current ramp-up has now been obtained by lowering the edge density with lithium wall conditioning, thereby moving the critical density for perpendicular fast-wave propagation away from the vessel wall. Lithium conditioning allowed significant HHFW core electron heating of deuterium neutral beam injection (NBI) fuelled H-mode plasmas to be observed for the first time. Large edge localized modes were observed immediately after the termination of rf power. Visible and infrared camera images show that fast wave interactions can deposit considerable rf energy on the outboard divertor. HHFW-generated parametric decay instabilities were observed to heat ions in the plasma edge and may be the cause for a measured drag on edge toroidal rotation during HHFW heating. A significant enhancement in neutron rate and fast-ion profile was measured in NBI-fuelled plasmas when HHFW heating was applied.
Advances in High-harmonic Fast Wave Physics in the National Spherical Torus Experiment
Taylor, G; Hosea, J C; LeBlanc, B P; Phillips, C K; Podesta, M; Valeo, E J; Wilson, J R; Ahn, J -W; Chen, G; Green, D L; Jaeger, E F; Maingi, R; Ryan, P M; Wilgen, J B; Heidbrink, W W; Liu, D; Bonoli, P T; Brecht, T; Choi, M
2009-12-01
Improved core high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating at longer wavelengths and during start-up and plasma current ramp-up, has now been obtained by lowering the edge density with lithium wall conditioning, thereby moving the critical density for perpendicular fast-wave propagation away from the vessel wall. Lithium conditioning allowed significant HHFW core electron heating of deuterium neutral beam injection (NBI) fuelled H-mode plasmas to be observed for the first time. Large edge localized modes were observed immediately after the termination of rf power. Visible and infrared camera images show that fast wave interactions can deposit considerable rf energy on the outboard divertor. HHFW-generated parametric decay instabilities were observed to heat ions in the plasma edge and may be the cause for a measured drag on edge toroidal rotation during HHFW heating. A significant enhancement in neutron rate and fast-ion profile were measured in NBI-fuelled plasmas when HHFW heating was applied. __________________________________________________
Recent Developments in High-Harmonic Fast Wave Physics in NSTX
B.P. LeBlanc, R.E. Bell, P. Bonoli, R. Harvey, W.W. Heidbrink, J.C. Hosea, S.M. Kaye, D. Liu, R. Maingi, S.S. Medley, M. Ono, M. Podestà, C.K. Phillips, P.M. Ryan, A.L. Roquemore, G. Taylor, J.R. Wilson and the NSTX Team
2010-10-06
Understanding the interaction between ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) fast waves and the fast-ions created by neutral beam injection (NBI) is critical for future devices such as ITER, which rely on a combination ICRF and NBI. Experiments in NSTX which use 30 MHz High-Harmonic Fast-Wave (HHFW) ICRF and NBI heating show a competition between electron heating via Landau damping and transit-time magnetic pumping, and radio-frequency wave acceleration of NBI generated fast ions. Understanding and mitigating some of the power loss mechanisms outside the last closed flux surface (LCFS) has resulted in improved HHFW heating inside the LCFS. Nevertheless a significant fraction of the HHFW power is diverted away from the enclosed plasma. Part of this power is observed locally on the divertor. Experimental observations point toward the radio-frequency (RF) excitation of surface waves, which disperse wave power outside the LCFS, as a leading loss mechanism. Lithium coatings lower the density at the antenna, thereby moving the critical density for perpendicular fast-wave propagation away from the antenna and surrounding material surfaces. Visible and infrared imaging reveal flows of RF power along open field lines into the divertor region. In L-mode -- low average NBI power -- conditions, the fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic measures a near doubling and broadening of the density profile of the upper energetic level of the fast ions concurrent with the presence of HHFW power launched with k// =-8m-1. We are able to heat NBI-induced H-mode plasmas with HHFW. The captured power is expected to be split between absorption by the electrons and absorption by the fast ions, based on TORIC calculation. In the case discussed here the Te increases over the whole profile when ~2MW of HHFW power with antenna k// =13m-1 is applied after the H-mode transition.. But somewhat unexpectedly fast-ion diagnostics do not observe a change between the HHFW heated NBI discharge and the
Advances in High-Harmonic Fast Wave Physics in the National Spherical Torus Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Gary
2009-11-01
Improved core high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating, particularly at longer wavelengths and during low-density start-up and current ramp-up, has now been obtained by lowering the edge density with lithium conditioning, thereby moving the propagation onset away from the vessel wall. Significant core electron heating of deuterium neutral beam injection (NBI) fuelled H-modes has been observed for the first time over a range of launched wavelengths. The observed broadening of the electron heating profile in H-mode relative to L-mode plasmas is consistent with simulations obtained with ray tracing and full wave models. Newly taken camera images indicate that fast wave interactions can deposit considerable RF energy on the outboard divertor plate, especially at longer wavelengths that begin to propagate closer to the vessel walls. Edge power loss can also arise from HHFW-generated parametric decay instabilities that drive ions in the edge onto direct loss orbits that intersect the wall, and may be the cause for an observed drag on edge toroidal rotation in combined HHFW and NBI discharges. Fast-Ion D-alpha emission clearly shows fast-ion profile broadening in the plasma core that is much greater than predicted by Fokker-Planck modeling when HHFW power is applied to NBI-fuelled plasmas, pointing to the need for a full-orbit treatment in the simulation. Large ELMs have been observed immediately following the termination of RF power, whether the power turn off is programmed or due to antenna arcing. RF power has been successfully applied during large ELMs by setting the source reflection coefficient trip levels to relatively high values -- an approach potentially important for ITER ICRF heating. Plans for an HHFW ELM-resilience upgrade will be presented.
High Harmonic Fast Wave Damping on an Ion Beam: NSTX and DIII-D Regimes Compared
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pinsker, R. I.; Choi, C. C.; Petty, C. C.; Porkolab, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Murakami, M.; Harvey, R. W.
2004-11-01
Both NSTX and DIII-D use the combination of fast Alfven waves (FW) and neutral beam injection (NBI) for central electron heating and current drive. Damping of the fast wave on the beam ions at moderate to high harmonics (4th--20th) of the beam ion cyclotron frequency represents a loss process. In DIII-D current drive experiments at low density in which 4th and 8th harmonics were compared, damping at the 8th harmonic damping was much weaker than at the 4th [1]. However, recent simulations have predicted that in higher density and higher beam power regimes (of interest to the Advanced Tokamak program) the beam ion absorption will transition to the unmagnetized ion regime, where the damping is significant and essentially independent of harmonic number. In the present work, the transition from magnetized to unmagnetized ion regimes for the NSTX and DIII-D HHFW experiments is studied theoretically, with a combination of simple semi-analytic models and numerical models. \\vspace0.25 em [1] C.C. Petty, et al., Plasma Phys. and Contr. Fusion 43, 1747 (2001).
Interaction between high harmonic fast waves and fast ions in NSTX/NSTX-U plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertelli, N.; Valeo, E. J.; Gorelenkova, M.; Green, D. L.; RF SciDAC Team
2016-10-01
Fast wave (FW) heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) has been successfully used to sustain and control the fusion plasma performance, and it will likely play an important role in the ITER experiment. As demonstrated in the NSTX and DIII-D experiments the interactions between fast waves and fast ions can be so strong to significantly modify the fast ion population from neutral beam injection. In fact, it has been recently found in NSTX that FWs can modify and, under certain conditions, even suppress the energetic particle driven instabilities, such as toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes and global Alfvén eigenmodes and fishbones. This paper examines such interactions in NSTX/NSTX-U plasmas by using the recent extension of the RF full-wave code TORIC to include non-Maxwellian ions distribution functions. Particular attention is given to the evolution of the fast ions distribution function w/ and w/o RF. Tests on the RF kick-operator implemented in the Monte-Carlo particle code NUBEAM is also discussed in order to move towards a self consistent evaluation of the RF wave-field and the ion distribution functions in the TRANSP code. Work supported by US DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Advances in High Harmonic Fast Wave Heating of NSTX H-mode Plasmas
Ryan, Philip Michael; Ahn, Joonwook; Bell, R. E.; Bonoli, P.; Chen, Guangye; Green, David L; Harvey, R. W.; Hosea, J.; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B; Maingi, Rajesh; Phillips, Cynthia; Podesta, M.; Taylor, G.; Wilgen, John B; Wilson, J. R.
2010-01-01
High-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating and current drive is being developed in NSTX to provide bulk electron heating and q(0) control during non-inductively sustained Hmode plasmas fuelled by deuterium neutral-beam injection (NBI). In addition, it is used to assist the plasma current ramp-up. A major modification to increase the RF power limit was made in 2009; the original end-grounded, single end-powered current straps of the 12- element array were replaced with center-grounded, double end-powered straps. Greater than 3 MW have been coupled into NBI-driven, ELMy H-mode plasmas with this upgraded antenna. Improved core HHFW heating, particularly at longer wavelengths and during low-density start-up and plasma current ramp-up, has been obtained by lowering the edge density with lithium wall conditioning, thereby moving the critical density for fast-wave propagation away from the vessel wall [1]. Significant core electron heating of NBI-fuelled H-modes has been observed for the first time over a range of launched wavelengths and H-modes can be accessed by HHFW alone. Visible and IR camera images of the antenna and divertor indicate that fast wave interactions can deposit considerable RF energy on the outboard divertor plate, especially at longer wavelengths that begin to propagate closer to the vessel walls. Edge power loss can also arise from HHFWgenerated parametric decay instabilities; edge ion heating is observed that is wavelength dependent. During plasmas where HHFW is combined with NBI, there is a significant enhancement in neutron rate, and fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) emission measurements clearly show broadening of the fast-ion profile in the plasma core. Large edge localized modes (ELMs) have been observed immediately following the termination of RF power, whether the power turn off is programmed or due to antenna arcing. Causality has not been established but new experiments are planned and will be reported. Fast digitization of the reflected power signal
Edge Ion Heating by Launched High Harmonic Fast Waves in NSTX
T.M. Biewer; R.E. Bell; S.J. Diem; C.K. Phillips; J.R. Wilson; P.M. Ryan
2004-12-01
A new spectroscopic diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) measures the velocity distribution of ions in the plasma edge simultaneously along both poloidal and toroidal views. An anisotropic ion temperature is measured during high-power high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) radio-frequency (rf) heating in helium plasmas, with the poloidal ion temperature roughly twice the toroidal ion temperature. Moreover, the measured spectral distribution suggests that two populations of ions are present and have temperatures of typically 500 eV and 50 eV with rotation velocities of -50 km/s and -10 km/s, respectively (predominantly perpendicular to the local magnetic field). This bi-modal distribution is observed in both the toroidal and poloidal views (for both He{sup +} and C{sup 2+} ions), and is well correlated with the period of rf power application to the plasma. The temperature of the hot component is observed to increase with the applied rf power, which was scanned between 0 and 4.3 MW . The 30 MHz HHFW launched by the NSTX antenna is expected and observed to heat core electrons, but plasma ions do not resonate with the launched wave, which is typically at >10th harmonic of the ion cyclotron frequency in the region of observation. A likely ion heating mechanism is parametric decay of the launched HHFW into an Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW). The presence of the IBW in NSTX plasmas during HHFW application has been directly confirmed with probe measurements. IBW heating occurs in the perpendicular ion distribution, consistent with the toroidal and poloidal observations. Calculations of IBW propagation indicate that multiple waves could be created in the parametric decay process, and that most of the IBW power would be absorbed in the outer 10 to 20 cm of the plasma, predominantly on fully stripped ions. These predictions are in qualitative agreement with the observations, and must be accounted for when calculating the energy budget of the plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Podesta, M.; Medley, S. S.; Harvey, R. W.; Choi, M.; Green, D.
2009-11-01
Combined neutral beam injection (NBI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating at cyclotron harmonics accelerate deuterium fast ions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Acceleration of fast ions above the beam injection energy is evident in the data from neutron, E||B type Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA), Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) array and Fast-Ion D-Alpha (FIDA) diagnostics. The fast-ion spatial profiles measured by the FIDA diagnostic show that the acceleration is at four harmonics (7-10) simultaneously and it is much broader than in DIII-D. This is because of the multiple resonance layers and large orbits in NSTX. The measured spatial profile of accelerated fast ions is farther from the magnetic axis and broader than predicted by the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code, for which we conjecture that finite Larmor radius and banana-width can have significant effects on the fast ions in NSTX. To test this hypothesis, simulations with ORBIT-RF code coupled with full wave code AORSA are in progress.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Deyong
2009-12-01
An extensive set of fast-ion diagnostics, including neutron detectors, a E∣∣B type neutral particle analyzer (NPA) and the newly built four-chord solid state neutral particle analyzer array (SSNPA) and a 16-channel Fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic, provides a good test-bed to study fast ion physics in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). During combined neutral beam injection (NBI) and High-Harmonic Fast-Wave (HHFW) heating, the acceleration of fast ions is evident in all fast ion diagnostics. The neutron rate is about three times larger during the HHFW heating. A fast-ion tail above the beam injection is observed in the NPA, SSNPA and FIDA diagnostics. It is also shown that the accelerated fast ions observed by the NPA and SSNPA diagnostics mainly come from passive charge exchange reactions at the edge due to the NPA/SSNPA localization in phase space. The spatial profile of accelerated fast ions that is measured by the FIDA diagnostic is much broader than in conventional tokamaks because of the multiple resonance layers and large orbits in NSTX. The fast-ion distribution function calculated by the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code differs from the measured spatial profile, presumably because the current version of CQL3D uses a zero-banana-width model. In addition, the effects of bursting instabilities on the fast ion distribution in neutral beam heated plasmas are examined. Fishbone events generally have a minor effect on the fast ion distribution and no clear correlation is observed in the NPA and SSNPA diagnostics. However, sawteeth or the combinations of fishbones and CAEs always cause neutron rate drops up to 25% and bursts at outer chords of the SSNPA, which indicate fast ion loss. It is also observed that high energy fast ions respond earlier than low energy fast ions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Podestà, M.; Bell, R. E.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Medley, S. S.; Harvey, R. W.; Ruskov, E.
2010-02-01
Combined neutral beam injection and high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) heating accelerate deuterium fast ions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). With 1.1 MW of HHFW power, the neutron emission rate is about three times larger than in the comparison discharge without HHFW heating. Acceleration of fast ions above the beam injection energy is evident on an E||B type neutral particle analyzer (NPA), a 4-chord solid state neutral particle analyzer (SSNPA) array and a 16-channel fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic. The accelerated fast ions observed by the NPA and SSNPA diagnostics mainly come from passive charge exchange reactions at the edge due to the NPA/SSNPA localization in phase space. The spatial profile of accelerated fast ions that is measured by the FIDA diagnostic is much broader than in conventional tokamaks because of the multiple resonance layers and large orbits in NSTX. The fast-ion distribution function calculated by the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code differs from the measured spatial profile, presumably because the current version of CQL3D uses a zero-banana-width model. In addition, compressional Alfven eigenmode activity is stronger during the HHFW heating and it may affect the fast-ion spatial profile.
High-harmonic fast-wave power flow along magnetic field lines in the scrape-off layer of NSTX.
Perkins, R J; Hosea, J C; Kramer, G J; Ahn, J-W; Bell, R E; Diallo, A; Gerhardt, S; Gray, T K; Green, D L; Jaeger, E F; Jaworski, M A; LeBlanc, B P; McLean, A; Maingi, R; Phillips, C K; Roquemore, L; Ryan, P M; Sabbagh, S; Taylor, G; Wilson, J R
2012-07-27
A significant fraction of high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) power applied to NSTX can be lost to the scrape-off layer (SOL) and deposited in bright and hot spirals on the divertor rather than in the core plasma. We show that the HHFW power flows to these spirals along magnetic field lines passing through the SOL in front of the antenna, implying that the HHFW power couples across the entire width of the SOL rather than mostly at the antenna face. This result will help guide future efforts to understand and minimize these edge losses in order to maximize fast-wave heating and current drive.
Heating and current drive in NSTX with electron berstein waves and high harmonic fast waves
Ram, Abhay K.
2010-03-14
A suitable theoretical and computational framework for studying heating and current drive by electron Bernstein waves in the National Spherical Torus Experiment has been developed. This framework can also be used to study heating and current drive by electron Bernstein waves in spherical tori and other magnetic confinement devices. It is also useful in studying the propagation and damping of electron cyclotron waves in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor
Simulation of High-Harmonic Fast-Wave Heating on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment
Green, David L; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick; Chen, Guangye; Berry, Lee A; Pugmire, Dave; Canik, John; Ryan, Philip Michael
2011-01-01
Images associated with radio-frequency heating of low-confinement mode plasmas in the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment, as calculated by computer simulation, are presented. The AORSA code has been extended to simulate the whole antenna-to-plasma heating system by including both the kinetic physics of the well-confined core plasma and a poorly confined scrape-off plasma and vacuum vessel structure. The images presented show the 3-D electric wave field amplitude for various antenna phasings. Visualization of the simulation results in 3-D makes clear that -30 degrees phasing excites kilo-volt per meter coaxial standing modes in the scrape-off plasma and shows magnetic-field-aligned whispering-gallery type modes localized to the plasma edge.
Bertelli, N. Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; LeBlanc, B.; Perkins, R. J.; Phillips, C. K.; Taylor, G.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.; Jaeger, E. F.; Lau, C.; Blazevski, D.; Green, D. L.; Berry, L.; Ryan, P. M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Wright, J. C.; Pinsker, R. I.; Prater, R.; Qin, C. M.; and others
2015-12-10
Several experiments on different machines and in different fast wave (FW) heating regimes, such as hydrogen minority heating and high harmonic fast waves, have found strong interactions between radio-frequency (RF) waves and the scrape-off layer (SOL) region. This paper examines the propagation and the power loss in the SOL by using the full wave code AORSA, in which the edge plasma beyond the last closed flux surface (LCFS) is included in the solution domain and a collisional damping parameter is used as a proxy to represent the real, and most likely nonlinear, damping processes. 3D AORSA results for the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX), where a full antenna spectrum is reconstructed, are shown, confirming the same behavior found for a single toroidal mode results in Bertelli et al, Nucl. Fusion, 54 083004, 2014, namely, a strong transition to higher SOL power losses (driven by the RF field) when the FW cut-off is moved away from in front of the antenna by increasing the edge density. Additionally, full wave simulations have been extended to “conventional” tokamaks with higher aspect ratios, such as the DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod, and EAST devices. DIII-D results show similar behavior found in NSTX and NSTX-U, consistent with previous DIII-D experimental observations. In contrast, a different behavior has been found for Alcator C-Mod and EAST, which operate in the minority heating regime unlike NSTX/NSTX-U and DIII-D, which operate in the mid/high harmonic regime. A substantial discussion of some of the main aspects, such as (i) the pitch angle of the magnetic field; (ii) minority heating vs. mid/high harmonic regimes is presented showing the different behavior of the RF field in the SOL region for NSTX-U scenarios with different plasma current. Finally, the preliminary results of the impact of the SOL region on the evaluation of the helicon current drive efficiency in DIII-D is presented for the first time and briefly compared with the different regimes
Bertelli, Nicola; Jaeger, E. F.; Lau, Cornwall H; Blazevski, Dan; Green, David L; Berry, Lee Alan; Bonoli, P. T.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J. C.; LeBlanc, B.; Perkins, R. J.; Phillips, Cynthia; Pinsker, R. I.; Prater, R.; Qin, C M; Ryan, P. M.; Taylor, G.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, Randy; Wright, J.; Zhang, X J
2015-01-01
Several experiments on different machines and in different fast wave (FW) heating regimes, such as hydrogen minority heating and high harmonic fast waves, have found strong interactions between radio-frequency (RF) waves and the scrape-off layer (SOL) region. This paper examines the propagation and the power loss in the SOL by using the full wave code AORSA, in which the edge plasma beyond the last closed flux surface (LCFS) is included in the solution domain and a collisional damping parameter is used as a proxy to represent the real, and most likely nonlinear, damping processes. 3D AORSA results for the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX), where a full antenna spectrum is reconstructed, are shown, confirming the same behavior found for a single toroidal mode results in Bertelli et al, Nucl. Fusion, 54 083004, 2014, namely, a strong transition to higher SOL power losses (driven by the RF field) when the FW cut-off is moved away from in front of the antenna by increasing the edge density. Additionally, full wave simulations have been extended to "conventional" tokamaks with higher aspect ratios, such as the DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod, and EAST devices. DIII-D results show similar behavior found in NSTX and NSTX-U, consistent with previous DIII-D experimental observations. In contrast, a different behavior has been found for Alcator C-Mod and EAST, which operate in the minority heating regime unlike NSTX/NSTX-U and DIII-D, which operate in the mid/high harmonic regime. A substantial discussion of some of the main aspects, such as (i) the pitch angle of the magnetic field; (ii) minority heating vs. mid/high harmonic regimes is presented showing the different behavior of the RF field in the SOL region for NSTX-U scenarios with different plasma current. Finally, the preliminary results of the impact of the SOL region on the evaluation of the helicon current drive efficiency in DIII-D is presented for the first time and briefly compared with the different regimes
Bertelli, N.; Jaeger, E. F.; Hosea, J. C.; ...
2015-12-17
Here, several experiments on different machines and in different fast wave (FW) heating regimes, such as hydrogen minority heating and high harmonic fast waves (HHFW), have found strong interaction between radio-frequency (RF) waves and the scrape-off layer (SOL) region. This paper examines the propagation and the power loss in the SOL by using the full wave code AORSA, in which the edge plasma beyond the last closed flux surface (LCFS) is included in the solution domain and a collisional damping parameter is used as a proxy to represent the real, and most likely nonlinear, damping processes. 2D and 3D AORSAmore » results for the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown a strong transition to higher SOL power losses (driven by the RF field) when the FW cut-off is removed from in front of the antenna by increasing the edge density. Here, full wave simulations have been extended for 'conventional' tokamaks with higher aspect ratios, such as the DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod, and EAST devices. DIII-D results in HHFW regime show similar behavior found in NSTX and NSTX-U, consistent with previous DIII-D experimental observations. In contrast, a different behavior has been found for C-Mod and EAST, which operate in the minority heating regime.« less
Bertelli, N.; Jaeger, E. F.; Hosea, J. C.; Phillips, C. K.; Berry, L.; Bonoli, P. T.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Green, D.; LeBlanc, B.; Perkins, R. J.; Qin, C. M.; Pinsker, R. I.; Prater, R.; Ryan, P. M.; Taylor, G.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, J. C.; Zhang, X. J.
2015-12-17
Here, several experiments on different machines and in different fast wave (FW) heating regimes, such as hydrogen minority heating and high harmonic fast waves (HHFW), have found strong interaction between radio-frequency (RF) waves and the scrape-off layer (SOL) region. This paper examines the propagation and the power loss in the SOL by using the full wave code AORSA, in which the edge plasma beyond the last closed flux surface (LCFS) is included in the solution domain and a collisional damping parameter is used as a proxy to represent the real, and most likely nonlinear, damping processes. 2D and 3D AORSA results for the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown a strong transition to higher SOL power losses (driven by the RF field) when the FW cut-off is removed from in front of the antenna by increasing the edge density. Here, full wave simulations have been extended for 'conventional' tokamaks with higher aspect ratios, such as the DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod, and EAST devices. DIII-D results in HHFW regime show similar behavior found in NSTX and NSTX-U, consistent with previous DIII-D experimental observations. In contrast, a different behavior has been found for C-Mod and EAST, which operate in the minority heating regime.
Carlsson, J. A.; Wilson, J. R.; Hosea, J. C.; Greenough, N. L.; Perkins, R. J.
2016-06-15
Third-order spectral analysis, in particular, the auto bicoherence, was applied to probe signals from high-harmonic fast-wave heating experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Strong evidence was found for parametric decay of the 30 MHz radio-frequency (RF) pump wave, with a low-frequency daughter wave at 2.7 MHz, the local majority-ion cyclotron frequency. The primary decay modes have auto bicoherence values around 0.85, very close to the theoretical value of one, which corresponds to total phase coherence with the pump wave. The threshold RF pump power for onset of parametric decay was found to be between 200 kW and 400 kW.
Perturbative High Harmonic Wave Front Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhengyan; Brown, Graham; Ko, Dong Hyuk; Kong, Fanqi; Arissian, Ladan; Corkum, P. B.
2017-01-01
We pattern the wave front of a high harmonic beam by intersecting the intense driving laser pulse that generates the high harmonic with a weak control pulse. To illustrate the potential of wave-front control, we imprint a Fresnel zone plate pattern on a harmonic beam, causing the harmonics to focus and defocus. The quality of the focus that we achieve is measured using the spectral wave-front optical reconstruction by diffraction method. We will show that it is possible to enhance the peak intensity by orders of magnitude without a physical optical element in the path of the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) beam. Through perturbative wave-front control, XUV beams can be created with a flexibility approaching what technology allows for visible and infrared light.
Taylor, G.; Hosea, J.; Kessel, C. E.; LeBlanc, B; Mueller, D.; Phillips, C. K.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.; Ryan, Philip Michael; Bonoli, P.; Harvey, R. W.
2012-01-01
A deuterium H-mode discharge with a plasma current of 300 kA, an axial toroidal magnetic field of 0.55 T, and a calculated non-inductive plasma current fraction of 0.7 1 has been generated in the National Spherical Torus Experiment by 1.4MW of 30MHz high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating and current drive. Seventy-five percent of the non-inductive current was generated inside an internal transport barrier that formed at a normalized minor radius 0.4. Three quarters of the non-inductive current was bootstrap current, and the remaining non-inductive current was generated directly by HHFW power inside a normalized minor radius 0.2. VC 2012 American Institute of Physics.
Perkins, R. J.; Ahn, J.W.; Bortolon, A.; Brunkhorst, C.; Ellis, R.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, Nevell; Hosea, J.; Kung, C. C.; Miller, D.
2015-01-01
The twelve-strap high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) antenna on NSTX has exhibited a high-voltage standoff around 25 kV during previous experimental campaigns; this standoff needs to be improved for increased power coupling. During the recent NSTX-U upgrade period, a test-stand was set up with two antenna straps along with Faraday screens for testing purposes. Using a diagnostic suite consisting of a fast camera, a residual gas analyzer, a pressure gage, high-voltage probes, and an infrared camera, several interesting discoveries were made, leading to possible improvements of the antenna RF voltage operation level. First, arcing was observed outside the Faraday shields towards the low-voltage ("grounded") end of the straps (faraday shield box ends); this arcing was successfully eliminated by installing an additional grounding point between the Faraday shield box and the vessel wall. Second, considerable outgassing was observed during the RF pulse and the amount of outgassing was found to decrease with increasing RF power, possibly indicative of multipacting. Finally, infrared camera measurements of heating on the Faraday shield assembly suggest that the return currents on the Faraday shield box are highly localized at the box sides and possibly account for the pressure increase observed. Computations of these RF currents using Microwave Studio show qualitative agreement with the heated regions. New grounding points between the antenna box and the vessel have been implemented in NSTX-U, where future tests will be done to determine if the high-voltage standoff has improved. Further antenna improvements will be sought through future experiments on the test stand.
Prater, Ronald; Moeller, Charles P.; Pinsker, Robert I.; ...
2014-06-26
Fast waves at frequencies far above the ion cyclotron frequency and approaching the lower hybrid frequency (also called “helicons” or “whistlers”) have application to off-axis current drive in tokamaks with high electron beta. The high frequency causes the whistler-like behavior of the wave power nearly following field lines, but with a small radial component, so the waves spiral slowly toward the plasma center. The high frequency also contributes to strong damping. Modeling predicts robust off-axis current drive with good efficiency compared to alternatives in high performance discharges in DIII-D and Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) when the electron beta ismore » above about 1.8%. Detailed analysis of ray behavior shows that ray trajectories and damping are deterministic (that is, not strongly affected by plasma profiles or initial ray conditions), unlike the chaotic ray behavior in lower frequency fast wave experiments. Current drive was found to not be sensitive to the launched value of the parallel index of refraction n||, so wave accessibility issues can be reduced. Finally, use of a traveling wave antenna provides a very narrow n|| spectrum, which also helps avoid accessibility problems.« less
Prater, Ronald; Moeller, Charles P.; Pinsker, Robert I.; Porkolab, Miklos; Meneghini, Orso; Vdovin, V. L.
2014-06-26
Fast waves at frequencies far above the ion cyclotron frequency and approaching the lower hybrid frequency (also called “helicons” or “whistlers”) have application to off-axis current drive in tokamaks with high electron beta. The high frequency causes the whistler-like behavior of the wave power nearly following field lines, but with a small radial component, so the waves spiral slowly toward the plasma center. The high frequency also contributes to strong damping. Modeling predicts robust off-axis current drive with good efficiency compared to alternatives in high performance discharges in DIII-D and Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) when the electron beta is above about 1.8%. Detailed analysis of ray behavior shows that ray trajectories and damping are deterministic (that is, not strongly affected by plasma profiles or initial ray conditions), unlike the chaotic ray behavior in lower frequency fast wave experiments. Current drive was found to not be sensitive to the launched value of the parallel index of refraction n||, so wave accessibility issues can be reduced. Finally, use of a traveling wave antenna provides a very narrow n|| spectrum, which also helps avoid accessibility problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefan, V. Alexander
2014-10-01
A novel method for alpha particle diagnostics is proposed. The theory of stimulated Raman scattering, SRS, of the fast wave and ion Bernstein mode, IBM, turbulence in multi-ion species plasmas, (Stefan University Press, La Jolla, CA, 2008). is utilized for the diagnostics of fast ions, (4)He (+2), in ITER plasmas. Nonlinear Landau damping of the IBM on fast ions near the plasma edge leads to the space-time changes in the turbulence level, (inverse alpha particle channeling). The space-time monitoring of the IBM turbulence via the SRS techniques may prove efficient for the real time study of the fast ion velocity distribution function, spatial distribution, and transport. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., La Jolla, CA 92037.
Density waves driven by a high harmonic cavity
Kats, J.M.
1990-01-01
A high harmonic cavity (HHC) with a certain phase modulation frequency can increase the longitudinal emittance and smooth the density distribution within a particle bunch. Such a cavity helps to prevent particle losses during passage through the transition energy. The speed of dilution and the quality of density redistribution depend on the phase modulation program. In this report, we show how to choose such a program which will create traveling waves which push the front of high density from the center of the bunch to its boundary. Supporting results from machine and computer experiments are presented. 4 refs., 3 figs.
Perkins, R. J. Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; Diallo, A.; Bell, R. E.; Bertelli, N.; Gerhardt, S.; Kramer, G. J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Phillips, C. K.; Podestà, M.; Roquemore, L.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K.; McLean, A.; Sabbagh, S.
2015-04-15
The National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) can exhibit a major loss of high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power along scrape-off layer (SOL) field lines passing in front of the antenna, resulting in bright and hot spirals on both the upper and lower divertor regions. One possible mechanism for this loss is RF sheaths forming at the divertors. Here, we demonstrate that swept-voltage Langmuir probe characteristics for probes under the spiral are shifted relative to those not under the spiral in a manner consistent with RF rectification. We estimate both the magnitude of the RF voltage across the sheath and the sheath heat flux transmission coefficient in the presence of the RF field. Although precise comparison between the computed heat flux and infrared (IR) thermography cannot yet be made, the computed heat deposition compares favorably with the projections from IR camera measurements. The RF sheath losses are significant and contribute substantially to the total SOL losses of HHFW power to the divertor for the cases studied. This work will guide future experimentation on NSTX-U, where a wide-angle IR camera and a dedicated set of coaxial Langmuir probes for measuring the RF sheath voltage directly will quantify the contribution of RF sheath rectification to the heat deposition from the SOL to the divertor.
Two-wave regime of operation of the high-harmonic gyrotron
Savilov, A. V.; Denisov, G. G.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Osharin, I. V.
2015-04-15
The use of the two-wave co-generation is proposed as a way to decrease the effective Q-factor of the operating near-cutoff wave of the gyrotron. In this two-wave regime, the operating wave represents a “hot” wave mode formed by two partial “cold” modes (near-cutoff and far-from-cutoff ones) coupled on the electron beam. It is shown that the use of this regime can provide a significant decrease of the Ohmic losses in low-relativistic high-harmonic gyrotrons operating in the THz frequency range.
High-harmonic and terahertz wave spectroscopy (HATS) for aligned molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yindong; Meng, Chao; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Xiaowei; Lü, Zhihui; Zhang, Dongwen; Yuan, Jianmin; Zhao, Zengxiu
2016-12-01
We present the experimental and theoretical details of our recent published letter Huang et al (2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 123002) on synchronized high-harmonic and terahertz-wave spectroscopy (HATS) from nonadiabatically aligned nitrogen molecules in dual-color laser fields. By associating alignment-angle dependent terahertz wave generation (TWG) with high harmonic generation (HHG), the angular differential photoionization cross section (PICS) for molecules can be reconstructed. The angles at which the PICS’s minima are located show great convergence between the theoretical predictions and the experimentally deduced results when choosing a suitable internuclear distance. We also show the optimal relative phase between the dual-color laser fields for TWG does not change with the alignment angle at a precision of about 50 attoseconds. This all-optical method provides an alternative for investigating molecular structures and dynamics.
Taylor, G; Kessel, C E; LeBlanc, B P; Mueller, D; Phillips, D K; Valeo, E J; Wilson, J R; Ryan, P M; Bonoli, P T; Wright, J C
2012-02-13
1.4 MW of 30 MHz high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating, with current drive antenna phasing, has generated a Ip = 300kA, BT (0) = 0.55T deuterium H-mode plasma in the National Spherical Torus Experiment that has a non-inductive plasma current fraction, fNI = 0.7-1. Seventy-five percent of the non-inductive current was generated inside an internal transport barrier that formed at a normalized minor radius, r/a {approx} 0.4 . Three quarters of the non-inductive current was bootstrap current and the remaining non-inductive current was generated directly by HHFW power inside r/a {approx} 0.2.
Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.
1985-07-01
Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.
1985-07-01
Experiments on the fast wave in the range of high ion cyclotron harmonics in the ACT-1 device show that current drive is possible with the fast wave just as it is for the lower hybrid wave, except that it is suitable for higher plasma densities. A 140° loop antenna launched the high ion cyclotron harmonic fast wave [ω/Ω=O(10)] into a He+ plasma with ne≂4×1012 cm-3 and B=4.5 kG. Probe and magnetic loop diagnostics and FIR laser scattering confirmed the presence of the fast wave, and the Rogowski loop indicated that the circulating plasma current increased by up to 40A with 1 kW of coupled power, which is comparable to lower hybrid current drive in the same device with the same unidirectional fast electron beam used as the target for the rf. A phased antenna array would be used for FWCD in a tokamak without the E-beam.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yindong; Meng, Chao; Wang, Xiaowei; Lü, Zhihui; Zhang, Dongwen; Chen, Wenbo; Zhao, Jing; Yuan, Jianmin; Zhao, Zengxiu
2015-09-01
We report the synchronized measurements of terahertz wave generation and high-harmonic generation from aligned nitrogen molecules in dual-color laser fields. Both yields are found to be alignment dependent, showing the importance of molecular structures in the generation processes. By calibrating the angular ionization rates with the terahertz yields, we present a new way of retrieving the angular differential photoionization cross section (PICS) from the harmonic signals which avoids specific model calculations or separate measurements of the alignment-dependent ionization rates. The measured PICS is found to be consistent with theoretical predications, although some discrepancies exist. This all-optical method provides a new alternative for investigating molecular structures.
Spectral Effects on Fast Wave Core Heating and Current Drive
C.K. Phillips, R.E. Bell, L.A. Berry, P.T. Bonoli, R.W. Harvey, J.C. Hosea, E.F. Jaeger, B.P. LeBlanc, P.M. Ryan, G. Taylor, E.J. Valeo, J.R. Wilson, J.C. Wright, H. Yuh, and the NSTX Team
2009-05-11
Recent results obtained with high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating and current drive (CD) on NSTX strongly support the hypothesis that the onset of perpendicular fast wave propagation right at or very near the launcher is a primary cause for a reduction in core heating efficiency at long wavelengths that is also observed in ICRF heating experiments in numerous tokamaks. A dramatic increase in core heating efficiency was first achieved in NSTX L-mode helium majority plasmas when the onset for perpendicular wave propagation was moved away from the antenna and nearby vessel structures. Efficient core heating in deuterium majority L mode and H mode discharges, in which the edge density is typically higher than in comparable helium majority plasmas, was then accomplished by reducing the edge density in front of the launcher with lithium conditioning and avoiding operational points prone to instabilities. These results indicate that careful tailoring of the edge density profiles in ITER should be considered to limit rf power losses to the antenna and plasma facing materials. Finally, in plasmas with reduced rf power losses in the edge regions, the first direct measurements of high harmonic fast wave current drive were obtained with the motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic. The location and radial dependence of HHFW CD measured by MSE are in reasonable agreement with predictions from both full wave and ray tracing simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zürch, Michael; Foertsch, Stefan; Matzas, Mark; Pachmann, Katharina; Kuth, Rainer; Spielmann, Christian
2014-03-01
In cancer treatment it is highly desirable to identify and /or classify individual cancer cells in real time. Nowadays, the standard method is PCR which is costly and time-consuming. Here we present a different approach to rapidly classify cell types: we measure the pattern of coherently diffracted extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV radiation at 38nm wavelength), allowing to distinguish different single breast cancer cell types. The output of our laser driven XUV light source is focused onto a single unstained and unlabeled cancer cell, and the resulting diffraction pattern is measured in reflection geometry. As we will further show, the outer shape of the object can be retrieved from the diffraction pattern with sub-micron resolution. For classification it is often not necessary to retrieve the image, it is only necessary to compare the diffraction patterns which can be regarded as a spatial fingerprint of the specimen. For a proof-of-principle experiment MCF7 and SKBR3 breast cancer cells were pipetted on gold-coated silica slides. From illuminating each single cell and measuring a diffraction pattern we could distinguish between them. Owing to the short bursts of coherent soft x-ray light, one could also image temporal changes of the specimen, i.e. studying changes upon drug application once the desired specimen is found by the classification method. Using a more powerful laser, even classifying circulating tumor cells (CTC) at a high throughput seems possible. This lab-sized equipment will allow fast classification of any kind of cells, bacteria or even viruses in the near future.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.
2015-12-01
Ion Cyclotron (IC) antennas are routinely adopted in most of the existing nuclear fusion experiments, even though their main goal, i.e. to couple high power to the plasma (MW), is often limited by rather severe drawbacks due to high fields on the antenna itself and on the unmatched part of the feeding lines. In addition to the well exploited auxiliary ion heating during the start-up phase, some non-ohmic current drive (CD) at the IC range of frequencies may be explored in view of the DEMO reactor. In this work, we suggest and describe a compact high frequency DEMO relevant antenna, based on the high impedance surfaces concept. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) usually displaced on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts embedded inside the dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. These structures present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. After a general introduction on the properties of high impedance surfaces, we analyze, by means of numerical codes, a dielectric based and a full metal solution optimized to be tested and benchmarked on the FTU experiment fed with generators at 433MHz.
Milanesio, D. Maggiora, R.
2015-12-10
Ion Cyclotron (IC) antennas are routinely adopted in most of the existing nuclear fusion experiments, even though their main goal, i.e. to couple high power to the plasma (MW), is often limited by rather severe drawbacks due to high fields on the antenna itself and on the unmatched part of the feeding lines. In addition to the well exploited auxiliary ion heating during the start-up phase, some non-ohmic current drive (CD) at the IC range of frequencies may be explored in view of the DEMO reactor. In this work, we suggest and describe a compact high frequency DEMO relevant antenna, based on the high impedance surfaces concept. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) usually displaced on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts embedded inside the dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. These structures present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. After a general introduction on the properties of high impedance surfaces, we analyze, by means of numerical codes, a dielectric based and a full metal solution optimized to be tested and benchmarked on the FTU experiment fed with generators at 433MHz.
Ge, Xin-Lei; Du, Hui; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xue-Shen
2015-04-06
By solving a two-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation we investigate high harmonic generation (HHG) and isolated attosecond pulse generation for the H2+ molecular ion in a circularly polarized laser pulse combined with a Terahertz (THz) field. The harmonic intensity can be greatly enhanced and a continuum spectrum can be obtained when a THz field is added. The HHG process is studied by the semi-classical three-step model and the time-frequency analysis. Our studies show that only short trajectories contribute to HHG. Furthermore, we present the temporal evolution of the probability density of electron wave packet, which perfectly shows a clear picture of the electron's two-time recombination when a THz field is added, and it is the main mechanism of HHG. By superposing the harmonics in the range of 216-249 eV, an isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of about 69 attoseconds can be generated.
Tailored semiconductors for high-harmonic optoelectronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sivis, Murat; Taucer, Marco; Vampa, Giulio; Johnston, Kyle; Staudte, André; Naumov, Andrei Yu.; Villeneuve, D. M.; Ropers, Claus; Corkum, P. B.
2017-07-01
The advent of high-harmonic generation in gases 30 years ago set the foundation for attosecond science and facilitated ultrafast spectroscopy in atoms, molecules, and solids. We explore high-harmonic generation in the solid state by means of nanostructured and ion-implanted semiconductors. We use wavelength-selective microscopic imaging to map enhanced harmonic emission and show that the generation medium and the driving field can be locally tailored in solids by modifying the chemical composition and morphology. This enables the control of high-harmonic technology within precisely engineered solid targets. We demonstrate customized high-harmonic wave fields with wavelengths down to 225 nanometers (ninth-harmonic order of 2-micrometer laser pulses) and present an integrated Fresnel zone plate target in silicon, which leads to diffraction-limited self-focusing of the generated harmonics down to 1-micrometer spot sizes.
1980-07-01
Fendell (1970) to finite Mach numbers, and uncovered the existence of very slow deflagration waves. JI.. -2- 2. The governing equations The governing...FlapmSI,$ Cambridge University Press. 2. Buckmaster, J. 1976. The quenching of deflagration vaves. Combust. Flme. 26, 151-162. 3. Bush, W.B. & Fendell , F.E
Fast wave power flow along SOL field lines in NSTX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perkins, R. J.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; Leblanc, B. P.; Kramer, G. J.; Phillips, C. K.; Roquemore, L.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K.; Green, D. L.; McLean, A.; Maingi, R.; Ryan, P. M.; Jaeger, E. F.; Sabbagh, S.
2012-10-01
On NSTX, a major loss of high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power can occur along open field lines passing in front of the antenna over the width of the scrape-off layer (SOL). Up to 60% of the RF power can be lost and at least partially deposited in bright spirals on the divertor floor and ceiling [1,2]. The flow of HHFW power from the antenna region to the divertor is mostly aligned along the SOL magnetic field [3], which explains the pattern of heat deposition as measured with infrared (IR) cameras. By tracing field lines from the divertor back to the midplane, the IR data can be used to estimate the profile of HHFW power coupled to SOL field lines. We hypothesize that surface waves are being excited in the SOL, and these results should benchmark advanced simulations of the RF power deposition in the SOL (e.g., [4]). Minimizing this loss is critical optimal high-power long-pulse ICRF heating on ITER while guarding against excessive divertor erosion.[4pt] [1] J.C. Hosea et al., AIP Conf Proceedings 1187 (2009) 105. [0pt] [2] G. Taylor et al., Phys. Plasmas 17 (2010) 056114. [0pt] [3] R.J. Perkins et al., to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett. [0pt] [4] D.L. Green et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 (2011) 145001.
Observation of Electronic Structure Minima in High-Harmonic Generation
Woerner, Hans Jakob; Villeneuve, D. M.; Niikura, Hiromichi; Bertrand, Julien B.; Corkum, P. B.
2009-03-13
We report detailed measurements of the high-harmonic spectra generated from argon atoms. The spectra exhibit a deep minimum that is shown to be independent of the laser intensity, and is thus a clear measure of the electronic structure of the atom. We show that exact field-free continuum wave functions reproduce the minimum, but plane wave and Coulomb wave functions do not. This remarkable observation suggests that electronic structure can be accurately determined in high-harmonic experiments despite the presence of the strong laser field. Our results clarify the relation between high-harmonic generation and photoelectron spectroscopy. The use of exact continuum functions also resolves the ambiguity associated with the choice of the dispersion relation.
Fast wave current drive in neutral beam heated plasmas on DIII-D
Petty, C.C.; Forest, C.B.; Pinsker, R.I.
1997-04-01
The physics of non-inductive current drive and current profile control using the fast magnetosonic wave has been demonstrated on the DIII-D tokamak. In non-sawtoothing discharges formed by neutral beam injection (NBI), the radial profile of the fast wave current drive (FWCD) was determined by the response of the loop voltage profile to co, counter, and symmetric antenna phasings, and was found to be in good agreement with theoretical models. The application of counter FWCD increased the magnetic shear reversal of the plasma and delayed the onset of sawteeth, compared to co FWCD. The partial absorption of fast waves by energetic beam ions at high harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency was also evident from a build up of fast particle pressure near the magnetic axis and a correlated increase in the neutron rate. The anomalous fast particle pressure and neutron rate increased with increasing NBI power and peaked when a harmonic of the deuterium cyclotron frequency passed through the center of the plasma. The experimental FWCD efficiency was highest at 2 T where the interaction between the fast waves and the beam ions was weakest; as the magnetic field strength was lowered, the FWCD efficiency decreased to approximately half of the maximum theoretical value.
Fast Waves in Smooth Coronal Slab
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopin, I.; Nagorny, I.
2015-03-01
This work investigates the effect of transverse density structuring in coronal slab-like waveguides on the properties of fast waves. We generalized previous results obtained for the exponential and Epstein profiles to the case of an arbitrary transverse density distribution. The criteria are given to determine the possible (trapped or leaky) wave regime, depending on the type of density profile function. In particular, there are plasma slabs with transverse density structuring that support pure trapped fast waves for all wavelengths. Their phase speed is nearly equal to the external Alfvén speed for the typical parameters of coronal loops. Our findings are obtained on the basis of Kneser’s oscillation theorem. To confirm the results, we analytically solved the wave equation evaluated at the cutoff point and the original wave equation for particular cases of transverse density distribution. We also used the WKB method and obtained approximate solutions of the wave equation at the cutoff point for an arbitrary transverse density profile. The analytic results were supplemented by numerical solutions of the obtained dispersion relations. The observed high-quality quasi-periodic pulsations of flaring loops are interpreted in terms of the trapped fundamental fast-sausage mode in a slab-like coronal waveguide.
Fast wave evanescence in filamentary boundary plasmas
Myra, J. R.
2014-02-15
Radio frequency waves for heating and current drive of plasmas in tokamaks and other magnetic confinement devices must first traverse the scrape-off-layer (SOL) before they can be put to their intended use. The SOL plasma is strongly turbulent and intermittent in space and time. These turbulent properties of the SOL, which are not routinely taken into account in wave propagation codes, can have an important effect on the coupling of waves through an evanescent SOL or edge plasma region. The effective scale length for fast wave (FW) evanescence in the presence of short-scale field-aligned filamentary plasma turbulence is addressed in this paper. It is shown that although the FW wavelength or evanescent scale length is long compared with the dimensions of the turbulence, the FW does not simply average over the turbulent density; rather, the average is over the exponentiation rate. Implications for practical situations are discussed.
Fast wave heating and edge power losses in NSTX and NSTX-U
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertelli, Nicola
2013-10-01
Experimental studies of high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have demonstrated that substantial HHFW power loss can occur along the open field lines in the scrape-off layer (SOL), but the mechanism behind the loss is not yet understood. Extended ray tracing and full wave codes are being applied to specific NSTX discharges in order to predict the causes of this power loss. Previous full wave simulations predict that cavity-like modes may form outside of the LCFS. We find that inserting a collisional loss in the SOL of AORSA to represent a damping process indicates an effective collisional term of ν / ω ~ [ 0 . 05 - 0 . 1 ] which is considerably larger than the ν / ω ~ 0 . 005 obtained with Spitzer resistivity, suggesting the damping scale of the loss mechanism. The magnitude of the edge collisional losses are being used to evaluate possible potential damping mechanisms in the SOL. Initial numerical analyses show that the presence of the SOL has a significant impact on the launched antenna spectrum. The upgrade of NSTX, NSTX-U, will operate with toroidal magnetic fields (BT) up to 1 T, nearly twice the values used on NSTX. The doubling of BT while retaining the 30 MHz RF frequency moves the heating regime for NSTX-U to the mid harmonic fast wave (MHFW) regime, which will be analyzed and contrasted with the HHFW regime on NSTX. These studies indicate that direct ion damping might be more significant in NSTX-U under TRANSP predicted full performance conditions. Modifications of fast ion distributions due to the interaction of fast waves with NBI will be presented in both MHFW and HHFW regimes. Work supported by the SciDAC Center for Wave-Plasma Interactions under DE-FC02-01ER54648 and the US DOE under DE-AC02-CH0911466.
High-harmonic spectroscopy of aligned molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yun, Hyeok; Yun, Sang Jae; Lee, Gae Hwang; Nam, Chang Hee
2017-01-01
High harmonics emitted from aligned molecules driven by intense femtosecond laser pulses provide the opportunity to explore the structural information of molecules. The field-free molecular alignment technique is an expedient tool for investigating the structural characteristics of linear molecules. The underlying physics of field-free alignment, showing the characteristic revival structure specific to molecular species, is clearly explained from the quantum-phase analysis of molecular rotational states. The anisotropic nature of molecules is shown from the harmonic polarization measurement performed with spatial interferometry. The multi-orbital characteristics of molecules are investigated using high-harmonic spectroscopy, applied to molecules of N2 and CO2. In the latter case the two-dimensional high-harmonic spectroscopy, implemented using a two-color laser field, is applied to distinguish harmonics from different orbitals. Molecular high-harmonic spectroscopy will open a new route to investigate ultrafast dynamics of molecules.
Bertelli, N; Jaeger, E F; Hosea, J C; Phillips, C K; Berry, L; Bonoli, P T; Gerhardt, S P; Green, D; LeBlanc, B; Perkins, R J; Ryan, P M; Taylor, G; Valeo, E J; Wilso, J R; Wright, J C
2014-07-01
Fast waves at harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency, which have been used successfully on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), will also play an important role in ITER and are a promising candidate for the Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) designs based on spherical torus (ST). Experimental studies of high harmonic fast waves (HHFW) heating on the NSTX have demonstrated that substantial HHFW power loss occurs along the open field lines in the scrape-off layer (SOL), but the mechanism behind the loss is not yet understood. The full wave RF code AORSA, in which the edge plasma beyond the last closed flux surface (LCFS) is included in the solution domain, is applied to specific NSTX discharges in order to predict the effects and possible causes of this power loss. In the studies discussed here, a collisional damping parameter has been implemented in AORSA as a proxy to represent the real, and most likely nonlinear, damping processes. A prediction for the NSTX Upgrade (NSTX-U) experiment, that will begin operation next year, is also presented, indicating a favorable condition for the experiment due to a wider evanescent region in edge density.*Research supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 with Princeton University.
The Effects of Wave Escape on Fast Magnetosonic Wave Turbulence in Solar Flares
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C. Richard
2012-01-01
One of the leading models for electron acceleration in solar flares is stochastic acceleration by weakly turbulent fast magnetosonic waves ("fast waves"). In this model, large-scale flows triggered by magnetic reconnection excite large-wavelength fast waves, and fast-wave energy then cascades from large wavelengths to small wavelengths. Electron acceleration by large-wavelength fast-waves is weak, and so the model relies on the small-wavelength waves produced by the turbulent cascade. In order for the model to work, the energy cascade time for large-wavelength fast waves must be shorter than the time required for the waves to propagate out of the solar-flare acceleration region. To investigate the effects of wave escape, we solve the wave kinetic equation for fast waves in weak turbulence theory, supplemented with a homogeneous wave-loss term.We find that the amplitude of large-wavelength fast waves must exceed a minimum threshold in order for a significant fraction of the wave energy to cascade to small wavelengths before the waves leave the acceleration region.We evaluate this threshold as a function of the dominant wavelength of the fast waves that are initially excited by reconnection outflows.
High harmonic generation from impulsively aligned SO2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devin, Julien; Wang, Song; Kaldun, Andreas; Bucksbaum, Phil
2016-05-01
Previous work in high harmonics generation (HHG) in aligned molecular gases has mainly focused on rotational dynamics in order to determine the contributions of different orbitals to the ionization step. In our experiment, we focus on the shorter timescale of vibrational dynamics. We generate high harmonics from impulsively aligned SO2 molecules in a gas jet and record the emitted attosecond pulse trains in a home-built high resolution vacuum ultra violet (VUV) spectrometer. Using the high temporal resolution of our setup, we are able to map out the effects of vibrational wavepackets with a sub-femtosecond resolution. The target molecule, SO2 gas, is impulsively aligned by a near-infrared laser pulse and has accessible vibrations on the timescale of the short laser pulse used. We present first experimental results for the response to this excitation in high-harmonics. We observe both fast oscillations in the time domain as well as shifts of the VUV photon energy outside of the pulse overlaps. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division and by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship.
Multi-Orbital contributions in High Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guehr, Markus
2009-05-01
The high harmonic spectrum generated from atoms or molecules in a strong laser field contains information about the electronic structure of the generation medium. In the high harmonic generation (HHG) process, a free electron wave packet tunnel-ionizes from the molecular orbital in a strong laser field. After being accelerated by the laser electric field, the free electron wave packet coherently recombines to the orbital from which is was initially ionized, thereby emitting the harmonic spectrum. Interferences between the free electron wave packet and the molecular orbital will shape the spectrum in a characteristic way. These interferences have been used to tomographically image the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of N2 [1]. Molecular electronic states energetically below the HOMO should contribute to laser-driven high harmonic generation (HHG), but this behavior has not been observed previously. We have observed evidence of HHG from multiple orbitals in aligned N2 [2]. The tunneling ionization (and therefore the harmonic generation) is most efficient if the orbital has a large extension in the direction of the harmonic generation polarization. The HOMO with its σg symmetry therefore dominates the harmonic spectrum if the molecular axis is parallel to the harmonic generation polarization, the lower bound πu HOMO-1 dominates in the perpendicular case. The HOMO contributions appear as a regular plateau with a cutoff in the HHG spectrum. In contrast, the HOMO-1 signal is strongly peaked in the cutoff region. We explain this by semi-classical simulations of the recombination process that show constructive interferences between the HOMO-1 and the recombining wave packet in the cutoff region. The ability to monitor several orbitals opens the route to imaging coherent superpositions of electronic orbitals. [1] J. Itatani et al., Nature 432, 867 (2004)[2] B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum and M. Gühr, Science 322, 1232 (2008)
High efficiency off-axis current drive by high frequency fast waves
Prater, R.; Pinsker, R. I.; Moeller, C. P.; Porkolab, M.; Vdovin, V.
2014-02-12
Modeling work shows that current drive can be done off-axis with high efficiency, as required for FNSF and DEMO, by using very high harmonic fast waves (“helicons” or “whistlers”). The modeling indicates that plasmas with high electron beta are needed in order for the current drive to take place off-axis, making DIII-D a highly suitable test vehicle for this process. The calculations show that the driven current is not very sensitive to the launched value of n{sub ∥}, a result that can be understood from examination of the evolution of n{sub ∥} as the waves propagate in the plasma. Because of this insensitivity, relatively large values (∼3) of n{sub ∥} can be launched, thereby avoiding some of the problems with mode conversion in the boundary found in some previous experiments. Use of a traveling wave antenna provides a very narrow n{sub ∥} spectrum, which also helps avoid mode conversion.
Fast Waves and Electron Current Drive in the Irvine Torus.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Platt, Robert Croft
This work reports the results of experimental studies of the fast wave with frequencies near the mean gyro-frequency (omega ~ ~ (omega _{rm ci}omega_{ rm ce})^{1/2}) in magnetized, toroidal plasmas with comparison to theory. Experiments investigating fast wave dispersion and damping, and the use of unidirectional fast waves to drive steady-state electron currents were performed on the Irvine Torus. The wave was excited in the plasmas by a phased array antenna which allowed launching of uni - or bi-directional fast waves around the torus. Probe measurements of the angle of propagation of wave energy, radial wavelengths, and the direction and magnitude of radial wave phase velocities were found to be in good agreement with predictions from cold plasma theory. Measurements of fast wave damping showed the observed damping lengths to be anomalously short when compared to predictions for electron Landau damping, transit-time magnetic pumping, and collisional damping, but may be explained by effects due to fast wave scattering from drift wave density fluctuations. Steady-state electron currents were driven by uni-directional fast waves. Low power experiments (< 25W) generated up to 1.3 A of electron current with a peak efficiency of eta = INR _{rm o}/P ~eq 6 times 10^{-2}A/W (10 ^{13}cm^{-3 }) m. Up to 14% of the wave energy was converted to poloidal magnetic field energy. The maximum current observed was found to be in rough agreement with a prediction from quasi-linear theory. Electron currents generated by application of radio-frequency power applied to a loop coupler antenna designed to excite the fast wave were observed in the Princeton Large Torus.
High-harmonic generation in amorphous solids
You, Yong Sing; Yin, Yanchun; Wu, Yi; ...
2017-09-28
High-harmonic generation in isolated atoms and molecules has been widely utilized in extreme ultraviolet photonics and attosecond pulse metrology. Recently, high-harmonic generation has been observed in solids, which could lead to important applications such as all-optical methods to image valance charge density and reconstruct electronic band structures, as well as compact extreme ultraviolet light sources. So far these studies are confined to crystalline solids; therefore, decoupling the respective roles of long-range periodicity and high density has been challenging. Here we report the observation of high-harmonic generation from amorphous fused silica. We also decouple the role of long-range periodicity by comparingmore » harmonics generated from fused silica and crystalline quartz, which contain the same atomic constituents but differ in long-range periodicity. These results advance current understanding of the strong-field processes leading to high-harmonic generation in solids with implications for the development of robust and compact extreme ultraviolet light sources.« less
Fast Wave Current Drive on TFTR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rogers, J. H.; Majeski, R.; Hosea, J. C.; Phillips, C. K.; Schilling, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Budny, R.; Zarnstorff, M. C.
1996-02-01
For recent Fast Wave Current Drive (FWCD) experiments on TFTR two strap ICRF antennas with ±90 degree phasing between the straps have been used. In one set of experiments an RF frequency of 63.6 MHz and toroidal magnetic field of 2.7 T were selected, which placed the H fundamental resonance on the high field side of the plasma the second harmonic H resonance out of the plasma on the low field side. H-minority heating (43 MHz) was used simultaneously to raise Te. The difference in loop voltage observed is consistent with ˜70 kA of driven current with 2 MW of RF power. In a second experiment an RF frequency of 43 MHz and toroidal magnetic field of 4.3 T was selected, which placed the deuterium fundamental resonance on the high field side of the plasma and the hydrogen fundamental resonance out of the plasma on the low field side (TPX scenario). With 1.4 MW of RF power, the signal to noise ratio in the loop voltage measurement was too low to clearly resolve the effect from current drive.
Fast wave current drive: Experimental status and reactor prospects
Ehst, D.A.
1988-03-01
The fast wave is one of the two possible wave polarizations which propagate according to the basic theory of cold plasmas. It is distinguished from the other (slow wave) branch by having an electric field vector which is mainly orthogonal to the confining magnetic field of the plasma. The plasma and fast wave qualitatively assume different behavior depending on the frequency range of the launched wave. The high frequency fast wave (HFFW), with a frequency (..omega..2..pi.. )approximately) GHz) much higher than the ion cyclotron frequency (..cap omega../sub i/), suffers electron Landau damping and drives current by supplying parallel momentum to superthermal electrons in a fashion similar to lower hybrid (slow wave) current drive. In the simple theory the HFFW should be superior to the slow wave and can propagate to very high density and temperature without impediment. Experiments, however, have not conclusively shown that HFFW current drive can be achieved at densities above the slow wave current drive limit, possibly due to conversion of the launched fast waves into slow waves by density fluctuations. Alternatively, the low frequency fast wave (LFFW), with frequencies ()approxreverse arrowlt) 100 MHz) only a few times the ion cyclotron frequency, is damped by electron Landau damping and, in a hot plasma ()approxreverse arrowgt) 10 keV), by electron transit time magnetic pumping; current drive is achieved by pushing superthermal electrons, and efficiency is prediocted to be slightly better than for lower hybrid current drive. Most significantly, the slow wave does not propagate in high density plasma when ..omega.. )approximately) ..cap omega../sub i/, so parasitic coupling to the slow wave can be avoided, and no density and temperture limitations are foreseen. Experiments with fast wve current drive invariably find current drive efficiency as good as obtained in lower hybrid experiments at comparable, low temperatures. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
Coulomb time delays in high harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torlina, Lisa; Smirnova, Olga
2017-02-01
Measuring the time it takes to remove an electron from an atom or molecule during photoionization has been the focus of a number of recent experiments using newly developed attosecond spectroscopies. The interpretation of such measurements, however, depends critically on the measurement protocol and the specific observables available in each experiment. One such protocol relies on high harmonic generation. In this paper, we derive rigorous and general expressions for ionisation and recombination times in high harmonic generation experiments. We show that these times are different from, but related to, ionisation times measured in photoelectron spectroscopy: that is, those obtained using the attosecond streak camera, RABBITT and attoclock methods. We then proceed to use the analytical R-matrix theory to calculate these times and compare them with experimental values.
High harmonic phase in molecular nitrogen
McFarland, Brian K.
2009-10-17
Electronic structure in atoms and molecules modulates the amplitude and phase of high harmonic generation (HHG). We report measurements of the high harmonic spectral amplitude and phase in N{sub 2}. The phase is measured interferometrically by beating the N{sub 2} harmonics with those of an Ar reference oscillator in a gas mixture. A rapid phase shift of 0.2{pi} is observed in the vicinity of the HHG spectral minimum, where a shift of {pi} had been presumed [J. Itatani et al., Nature 432, 867 (2004)]. We compare the phase measurements to a simulation of the HHG recombination step in N{sub 2} that is based on a simple interference model. The results of the simulation suggest that modifications beyond the simple interference model are needed to explain HHG spectra in molecules.
High Harmonic Generation at Long Wavelengths
Sheehy, B.; Martin, J. D. D.; DiMauro, L. F.; Agostini, P.; Schafer, K. J.; Gaarde, M. B.; Kulander, K. C.
1999-12-20
High harmonic radiation spectra up to 19th order in alkali metal vapors excited by an intense, picosecond mid-infrared (3-4 {mu} m ) laser are reported and compared to theory. The strong-field dynamics in the alkali metal atoms exhibit significant differences from all previously studied systems due to the strong coupling between their ground and first excited states. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.
Linking high harmonics from gases and solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vampa, G.; Hammond, T. J.; Thiré, N.; Schmidt, B. E.; Légaré, F.; McDonald, C. R.; Brabec, T.; Corkum, P. B.
2015-06-01
When intense light interacts with an atomic gas, recollision between an ionizing electron and its parent ion creates high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser frequency. This sub-cycle effect generates coherent soft X-rays and attosecond pulses, and provides a means to image molecular orbitals. Recently, high harmonics have been generated from bulk crystals, but what mechanism dominates the emission remains uncertain. To resolve this issue, we adapt measurement methods from gas-phase research to solid zinc oxide driven by mid-infrared laser fields of 0.25 volts per ångström. We find that when we alter the generation process with a second-harmonic beam, the modified harmonic spectrum bears the signature of a generalized recollision between an electron and its associated hole. In addition, we find that solid-state high harmonics are perturbed by fields so weak that they are present in conventional electronic circuits, thus opening a route to integrate electronics with attosecond and high-harmonic technology. Future experiments will permit the band structure of a solid to be tomographically reconstructed.
Extremely Fast Numerical Integration of Ocean Surface Wave Dynamics
2007-09-30
1) is a natural two-space-dimension extension of the KdV equation . The periodic KP solutions include directional spreading in the wave field: y η...of the nonlinear preprocessor in the new approach for obtaining numerical solutions to nonlinear wave equations . I will now do so, but without many...analytical study and extremely fast numerical integration of the extended nonlinear Schroedinger equation for fully three dimensional wave motion
Recent Fast Wave Coupling and Heating Studies on NSTX, with Possible Implications for ITER
J.C. Hosea, R.E. Bell, E. Feibush, R.W. Harvey, E.F. Jaeger, B.P LeBlanc, R. Maingi, C.K. Phillips, L. Roquemore, P.M. Ryan, G. Taylor, K. Tritz, E.J. Valeo, J. Wilgen, J.R. Wilson, and the NSTX Team
2009-07-21
The goal of the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) research on NSTX is to maximize the coupling of RF power to the core of the plasma by minimizing the coupling of RF power to edge loss processes. HHFW core plasma heating efficiency in helium and deuterium L-mode discharges is found to improve markedly on NSTX when the density 2 cm in front of the antenna is reduced below that for the onset of perpendicular wave propagation (nonset ∝ B*k|| 2/ω). In NSTX, the observed RF power losses in the plasma edge are driven in the vicinity of the antenna as opposed to resulting from multi-pass edge damping. PDI surface losses through ion-electron collisions are estimated to be significant. Recent spectroscopic measurements suggest that additional PDI losses could be caused by the loss of energetic edge ions on direct loss orbits and perhaps result in the observed clamping of the edge rotation. Initial deuterium H-mode heating studies reveal that core heating is degraded at lower kφ (- 8 m-1 relative to 13 m-1) as for the Lmode case at elevated edge density. Fast visible camera images clearly indicate that a major edge loss process is occurring from the plasma scrape off layer (SOL) in the vicinity of the antenna and along the magnetic field lines to the lower outer divertor plate. Large type I ELMs, which are observed at both kφ values, appear after antenna arcs caused by precursor blobs, low level ELMs, or dust. For large ELMs without arcs, the source reflection coefficients rise on a 0.1 ms time scale, which indicates that the time derivative of the reflection coefficient can be used to discriminate between arcs and ELMs.
Experimental studies of fast wave propagation in DIII-D
Ikezi, H.; Pinsker, R.I.; Chiu, S.C.; deGrassie, J.S.
1995-06-01
Fast Alfven waves radiated from the phased array antenna in the DIII-D tokamak and used for heating and current drive are studied by employing a B-loop array mounted on the vacuum vessel wall. The wave propagation direction controlled by the antenna phasing is clearly observed. A small divergence of the rays arising from the anisotropic nature of the fast wave is found. Comparison with a ray tracing code confirms that the ray position calculated by the code is accurate up to at least one toroidal turn of the rays. Conservation of Rk{sub t} which is a basic assumption in computer codes is tested. Although the upshift of toroidal wavenumber k{sub t} at small major radius R is confirmed, Rk{sub t} is not well conserved. A mass density interferometer is demonstrated by employing the extraordinary fast wave.
Parasitic excitation of ion Bernstein waves from a Faraday shielded fast wave loop antenna
Skiff, F.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Wong, K.L.
1984-12-01
Parasitic excitation of ion Bernstein waves is observed from a Faraday shielded fast wave loop antenna in the ion cyclotron frequency range. Local analysis of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations demonstrates the role of plasma density gradient in the coupling process. The effects of plasma density and of parallel wave number on the excitation process are investigated.
Perkins, Roy
2013-06-21
Fast-wave heating and current drive efficiencies can be reduced by a number of processes in the vicinity of the antenna and in the scrape off layer (SOL). On NSTX from around 25% to more than 60% of the high-harmonic fast-wave power can be lost to the SOL regions, and a large part of this lost power flows along SOL magnetic field lines and is deposited in bright spirals on the divertor floor and ceiling. We show that field-line mapping matches the location of heat deposition on the lower divertor, albeit with a portion of the heat outside of the predictions. The field-line mapping can then be used to partially reconstruct the profile of lost fast-wave power at the midplane in front of the antenna, and the losses peak close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS) as well as the antenna. This profile suggests a radial standing-wave pattern formed by fast-wave propagation in the SOL, and this hypothesis will be tested on NSTX-U. Advanced RF codes must reproduce these results so that such codes can be used to understand this edge loss and to minimize RF heat deposition and erosion in the divertor region on ITER.
Fast wave current drive on DIII-D
deGrassie, J.S.; Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.I.
1995-07-01
The physics of electron heating and current drive with the fast magnetosonic wave has been demonstrated on DIII-D, in reasonable agreement with theoretical modeling. A recently completed upgrade to the fast wave capability should allow full noninductive current drive in steady state advanced confinement discharges and provide some current density profile control for the Advanced Tokamak Program. DIII-D now has three four-strap fast wave antennas and three transmitters, each with nominally 2 MW of generator power. Extensive experiments have been conducted with the first system, at 60 MHz, while the two newer systems have come into operation within the past year. The newer systems are configured for 60 to 120 MHz. The measured FWCD efficiency is found to increase linearly with electron temperature as {gamma} = 0.4 {times} 10{sup 18} T{sub eo} (keV) [A/m{sup 2}W], measured up to central electron temperature over 5 keV. A newly developed technique for determining the internal noninductive current density profile gives efficiencies in agreement with this scaling and profiles consistent with theoretical predictions. Full noninductive current drive at 170 kA was achieved in a discharge prepared by rampdown of the Ohmic current. Modulation of microwave reflectometry signals at the fast wave frequency is being used to investigate fast wave propagation and damping. Additionally, rf pick-up probes on the internal boundary of the vessel provide a comparison with ray tracing codes, with dear evidence for a toroidally directed wave with antenna phasing set for current drive. There is some experimental evidence for fast wave absorption by energetic beam ions at high cyclotron harmonic resonances.
Controlling the orbital angular momentum of high harmonic vortices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Fanqi; Zhang, Chunmei; Bouchard, Frédéric; Li, Zhengyan; Brown, Graham G.; Ko, Dong Hyuk; Hammond, T. J.; Arissian, Ladan; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim; Corkum, P. B.
2017-04-01
Optical vortices, which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), can be flexibly produced and measured with infrared and visible light. Their application is an important research topic for super-resolution imaging, optical communications and quantum optics. However, only a few methods can produce OAM beams in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) or X-ray, and controlling the OAM on these beams remains challenging. Here we apply wave mixing to a tabletop high-harmonic source, as proposed in our previous work, and control the topological charge (OAM value) of XUV beams. Our technique enables us to produce first-order OAM beams with the smallest possible central intensity null at XUV wavelengths. This work opens a route for carrier-injected laser machining and lithography, which may reach nanometre or even angstrom resolution. Such a light source is also ideal for space communications, both in the classical and quantum regimes.
Controlling the orbital angular momentum of high harmonic vortices.
Kong, Fanqi; Zhang, Chunmei; Bouchard, Frédéric; Li, Zhengyan; Brown, Graham G; Ko, Dong Hyuk; Hammond, T J; Arissian, Ladan; Boyd, Robert W; Karimi, Ebrahim; Corkum, P B
2017-04-05
Optical vortices, which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), can be flexibly produced and measured with infrared and visible light. Their application is an important research topic for super-resolution imaging, optical communications and quantum optics. However, only a few methods can produce OAM beams in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) or X-ray, and controlling the OAM on these beams remains challenging. Here we apply wave mixing to a tabletop high-harmonic source, as proposed in our previous work, and control the topological charge (OAM value) of XUV beams. Our technique enables us to produce first-order OAM beams with the smallest possible central intensity null at XUV wavelengths. This work opens a route for carrier-injected laser machining and lithography, which may reach nanometre or even angstrom resolution. Such a light source is also ideal for space communications, both in the classical and quantum regimes.
Controlling the orbital angular momentum of high harmonic vortices
Kong, Fanqi; Zhang, Chunmei; Bouchard, Frédéric; Li, Zhengyan; Brown, Graham G.; Ko, Dong Hyuk; Hammond, T. J.; Arissian, Ladan; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim; Corkum, P. B.
2017-01-01
Optical vortices, which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), can be flexibly produced and measured with infrared and visible light. Their application is an important research topic for super-resolution imaging, optical communications and quantum optics. However, only a few methods can produce OAM beams in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) or X-ray, and controlling the OAM on these beams remains challenging. Here we apply wave mixing to a tabletop high-harmonic source, as proposed in our previous work, and control the topological charge (OAM value) of XUV beams. Our technique enables us to produce first-order OAM beams with the smallest possible central intensity null at XUV wavelengths. This work opens a route for carrier-injected laser machining and lithography, which may reach nanometre or even angstrom resolution. Such a light source is also ideal for space communications, both in the classical and quantum regimes. PMID:28378823
Optical High Harmonic Generation in C60
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Guoping
2005-03-01
C60 et al. Physical Review Letters Physical Review B High harmonic generation (HHG) requires a strong laser field, but in a relatively weak laser field is sufficient. Numerical results presented here show while its low order harmonics result from the laser field, its high order ones are mainly from the multiple excitations. Since high order harmonics directly correlate electronic transitions, the HHG spectrum accurately measures transition energies. Therefore, is not only a promising material for HHG, but may also present an opportunity to develop HHG into an electronic structure probing tool. References: G. P. Zhang, 91, 176801 (2003); G. P. Zhang and T. F. George, 68, 165410 (2003); P. B. Corkum, 71, 1994 (1993); G. P. Zhang and Thomas F. George, 93, 147401 (2004); H. Niikura ,ature 417, 917 (2002); ibid. 421, 826 (2003); Y. Mairesse ,cience 302, 1540 (2003); A. Baltuska ,ature 421, 611 (2003).
Role of tunnel ionization in high harmonic generation from substituted benzenes.
Austin, Dane R; McGrath, Felicity; Miseikis, Lukas; Wood, David; Hawkins, Peter; Johnson, Allan S; Vacher, Morgane; Mašín, Zdeněk; Harvey, Alex; Ivanov, Misha; Smirnova, Olga; Marangos, Jon P
2016-12-16
We theoretically study high-harmonic generation in toluene, ortho-xylene and fluorobenzene driven by a 1.8 μm ultrashort pulse. We find that the chemical substitutions have a strong influence on the amplitude and phase of the emission from the highest occupied molecular orbital, despite having a small influence on the orbital itself. We show that this influence is due to the tunnel ionization step, which depends critically on the sign and amplitude of the asymptotic part of the wave function. We discuss how these effects would manifest in phase-sensitive high-harmonic generation spectroscopy experiments.
Ultra-fast wave-optical computing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haist, Tobias
2008-08-01
I present a method for optical computing based on white-light interferometry. The problem to be solved is coded by optical path lengths and the superposition of all possible paths that a photon can travel is used for computing the solution. The solution itself is chosen by interference with the reference light. Several gedankenexperiments demonstrate how this method can be used for solving computational hard problems. Especially, I will introduce the basic principle with two maze-type puzzles and then concentrate on how the method can be employed for performing ultra-fast (sub-ps) digital-optical arithmetic with arbitrary precision.
Fast wave current drive technology development at ORNL
Baity, F.W.; Batchelor, D.B.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Jaeger, E.F.; Ryan, P.M.; deGrassie, J.S.; Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.I.; Prater, R.
1993-12-01
The technology required for fast wave current drive (FWCD) systems is discussed. Experiments are underway on DIII-D, JET, and elsewhere. Antennas for FWCD draw heavily upon the experience gained in the design of ICRF heating systems with the additional requirement of launching a directional wave spectrum. Through collaborations with DIII-D, JET, and Tore Supra rapid progress is being made in the demonstration of the physics and technology of FWCD needed for TPX and ITER.
Fast and Efficient Approach in Surface Wave Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanli, A. I.
2010-12-01
Fast and Efficient Approach in Surface Wave Analysis Ali Ismet KANLI Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geophysical Engineering, 34320, Avcilar Campus, Istanbul-Turkey, E-mail: kanli@istanbul.edu.tr Abstract: A two-step surface wave analysis method is proposed including both the MASW (Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves) and Micro-tremor based techniques. This is an integrated approach and the MASW survey data are gathered to obtain the shear wave velocity-depth information up to at least 30 meters by using a special type active seismic source called as SR-II or Kangaroo. In the second step, the microtremor data which are based on surface waves from seismic noise at each site are used to determine the shear-wave velocity-depth profiles. In the second step of the process, the multichannel analysis of surface waves data are given as constraints in the microtremor inversion process. This proposed algorithm allows us to calculate shear wave velocity-depth information with all geotechnical parameters from near surface to bedrock depths very fast and efficiently.
Fast wave direct electron heating in TFTR
Murakami, M.; Jaeger, E.F.; Rimini, F.G.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Stevens, J.E.; Wilson, J.R.; Batchelor, D.B.; Bell, M.; Budny, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Goldfinger, R.C.; Hammett, G.; Hoffman, D.J.; Hosea, J.C.; Janos, A.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.; Phillips, C.K.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.; Taylor, G.; Zarnstorff, M.C.
1993-05-01
Direct electron heating experiments were carried out in two regimes: B{sub T} = 4.6 T with D{sup +} supershots; and B{sub T} = 2.3 T with {sup 3}He majority. The electron power deposition profiles measured with modulation of RF power are found to be strongly peaked in the core with the total volume-integrated power of up to 80% of the modulated power. The magnitude and profile shape agree well with those predicted by a full-wave code.
Fast wave current drive in DEMO
Lerche, E.; Van Eestera, D.; Messiaen, A.; Collaboration: EFDA-PPPT Contributors
2014-02-12
The ability to non-inductively drive a large fraction of the toroidal plasma current in magnetically confined plasmas is an essential requirement for steady state fusion reactors such as DEMO. Besides neutral beam injection (NBI), electron-cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) and lower hybrid wave heating (LH), ion-cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) is a promising candidate to drive current, in particular at the high temperatures expected in fusion plasmas. In this paper, the current drive (CD) efficiencies calculated with coupled ICRF wave / CD numerical codes for the DEMO-1 design case (R{sub 0}=9m, B{sub 0}=6.8T, a{sub p}=2.25m) [1] are presented. It will be shown that although promising CD efficiencies can be obtained in the usual ICRF frequency domain (20-100MHz) by shifting the dominant ion-cyclotron absorption layers to the high-field side, operation at higher frequencies (100-300MHz) has a stronger CD potential, provided the parasitic RF power absorption of the alpha particles can be minimized.
Generation of Non-Inductive H-Mode Plasmas with 30 MHz Fast Wave Heating in NSTX-U
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, G.; Bertelli, N.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Hosea, J. C.; Mueller, D.; Perkins, R. J.; Poli, F. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Raman, R.
2016-10-01
A Fusion Nuclear Science Facility based on a spherical tokamak must generate the plasma current (Ip) with little or no central solenoid field. The NSTX-U non-inductive (NI) plasma research program is addressing this goal by developing NI start-up, ramp-up and sustainment scenarios separately. 4 MW of 30 MHz fast wave power is predicted to ramp Ip to 400 kA, a level sufficient to avoid significant shine-through of 90 keV ions from neutral beam injection. In 2010, experiments in NSTX demonstrated that 1.4 MW of 30 MHz high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power could generate an Ip = 300 kA H-mode discharge with a NI Ip fraction, fNI, around 0.7 at the maximum axial toroidal field (BT(0)) in NSTX of 0.55 T. NSTX-U is a major upgrade of NSTX that will eventually allow the generation of plasmas with BT(0) up to 1 T. Full wave simulations of 30 MHz HHFW heating in NSTX-U predict reduced FW power loss in the plasma edge as BT(0) is increased. HHFW experiments this year aim to couple 3 - 4 MW of 30 MHz HHFW power into an Ip = 250 - 350 kA plasma with BT(0) up to 0.75 T to generate a fNI = 1 H-mode plasma. These experiments should benefit from the improved fast wave coupling predicted at higher BT(0) in NSTX-U. Work supported by USDOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Fast wave current drive on DIII-D
deGrassie, J.S.; Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.I.; Forest, C.B.; Ikezi, H.; Prater, R.; Baity, F.W.; Callis, R.W.; Cary, W.P.; Chiu, S.C.; Doyle, E.J.; Ferguson, S.W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Jaeger, E.F.; Kim, K.W.; Lee, J.H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Murakami, M.; ONeill, R.C.; Porkolab, M.; Rhodes, T.L.; Swain, D.W.
1996-02-01
The physics of electron heating and current drive with the fast magnetosonic wave has been demonstrated on DIII-D, in reasonable agreement with theoretical modeling. A recently completed upgrade to the fast wave capability should allow full noninductive current drive in steady state advanced confinement discharges and provide some current density profile control for the Advanced Tokamak Program. DIII-D now has three four-strap fast wave antennas and three transmitters, each with nominally 2 MW of generator power. Extensive experiments have been conducted with the first system, at 60 MHz, while the two newer systems have come into operation within the past year. The newer systems are configured for 60 to 120 MHz. The measured FWCD efficiency is found to increase linearly with electron temperature as {gamma}=0.4{times}10{sup 18}{ital T}{sub {ital e}0} (keV) [A/m{sup 2}W], measured up to central electron temperature over 5 keV. A newly developed technique for determining the internal noninductive current density profile gives efficiencies in agreement with this scaling and profiles consistent with theoretical predictions. Full noninductive current drive at 170 kA was achieved in a discharge prepared by rampdown of the Ohmic current. Modulation of microwave reflectometry signals at the fast wave frequency is being used to investigate fast wave propagation and damping. Additionally, rf pick-up probes on the internal boundary of the vessel provide a comparison with ray tracing codes, with clear evidence for a toroidally directed wave with antenna phasing set for current drive. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Calcium waves with fast buffers and mechanical effects.
Kaźmierczak, Bogdan; Peradzyński, Zbigniew
2011-01-01
In the paper we consider the existence of calcium travelling waves for systems with fast buffers. We prove the convergence of the travelling waves to an asymptotic limit as the kinetic coefficients characterizing the interaction between calcium and buffers tend to infinity. To be more precise, we prove the convergence of the speeds as well as the calcium component concentration profile to the profile of the travelling wave of the reduced equation. Additionally, we take into account the effect of coupling between the mechanical and chemical processes and show the existence as well the monotonicity of the profiles of concentrations. This property guarantees their positivity.
Vacuum high-harmonic generation and electromagnetic shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Böhl, P.; King, B.; Ruhl, H.
2016-04-01
> When one takes into account the presence of virtual charged states in the quantum vacuum, a nonlinear self-interaction can arise in the propagation of electromagnetic fields. This self-interaction is often referred to as `real photon-photon scattering'. When the centre-of-mass energy of colliding photons is much lower than the rest energy of an electron-positron pair, this quantum effect can be included in the classical field equations of motion as a vacuum current and charge density using the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian. Using analytical and numerical methods for subcritical fields, the intrinsic solution to Maxwell's equations has been found for counterpropagating probe and pump plane waves in the presence of vacuum four- and six-wave mixing. In the corresponding all-order solution for the scattered probe, a route to vacuum high-harmonic generation is identified in which a long phase length can compensate for the weakness of interacting fields. The resulting shocks in the probe carrier wave and envelope are studied for different parameter regimes and polarisation set-ups. In this special issue, we study two additional set-ups: that of a slowly varying single-cycle background to highlight the effect of an oscillating background on the probe harmonic spectrum, and that of a few-cycle probe to highlight the smoothing of the harmonic peaks produced by a wider spectrum of probe photons. We also correct sign errors in an earlier publication.
Slow Magnetosonic Waves and Fast Flows in Active Region Loops
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ofman, L.; Wang, T. J.; Davila, J. M.
2012-01-01
Recent extreme ultraviolet spectroscopic observations indicate that slow magnetosonic waves are present in active region (AR) loops. Some of the spectral data were also interpreted as evidence of fast (approx 100-300 km/s) quasiperiodic flows. We have performed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) modeling of a bipolar AR that contains impulsively generated waves and flows in coronal loops. The model AR is initiated with a dipole magnetic field and gravitationally stratified density, with an upflow-driven steadily or periodically in localized regions at the footpoints of magnetic loops. The resulting flows along the magnetic field lines of the AR produce higher density loops compared to the surrounding plasma by injection of material into the flux tubes and the establishment of siphon flow.We find that the impulsive onset of flows with subsonic speeds result in the excitation of damped slow magnetosonic waves that propagate along the loops and coupled nonlinearly driven fast-mode waves. The phase speed of the slow magnetosonic waves is close to the coronal sound speed. When the amplitude of the driving pulses is increased we find that slow shock-like wave trains are produced. When the upflows are driven periodically, undamped oscillations are produced with periods determined by the periodicity of the upflows. Based on the results of the 3D MHD model we suggest that the observed slow magnetosonic waves and persistent upflows may be produced by the same impulsive events at the bases of ARs.
Fast wave current drive in DIII-D
Petty, C.C.; Callis, R.W.; Chiu, S.C.; deGrassie, J.S.; Forest, C.B.; Freeman, R.L.; Gohil, P.; Harvey, R.W.; Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.-R.
1995-02-01
The non-inductive current drive from fast Alfven waves launched by a directional four-element antenna was measured in the DIII-D tokamak. The fast wave frequency (60 MHz) was eight times the deuterium cyclotron frequency at the plasma center. An array of rf pickup loops at several locations around the torus was used to verify the directivity of the four-element antenna. Complete non-inductive current drive was achieved using a combination of fast wave current drive (FWCD) and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) in discharges for which the total plasma current was inductively ramped down from 400 to 170 kA. For discharges with steady plasma current, up to 110 kA of FWCD was inferred from an analysis of the loop voltage, with a maximum non-inductive current (FWCD, ECCD, and bootstrap) of 195 out of 310 kA. The FWCD efficiency increased linearly with central electron temperature. For low current discharges, the FWCD efficiency was degraded due to incomplete fast wave damping. The experimental FWCD was found to agree with predictions from the CURRAY ray-tracing code only when a parasitic loss of 4% per pass was included in the modeling along with multiple pass damping.
High-harmonic spectroscopy of molecular isomers
Wong, M. C. H.; Brichta, J.-P.; Bhardwaj, V. R.; Spanner, M.; Patchkovskii, S.
2011-11-15
We demonstrate that high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) spectroscopy can be used to probe stereoisomers of randomly oriented 1,2-dichloroethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) and 2-butene (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}). The high-harmonic spectra of these isomers are distinguishable over a range of laser intensities and wavelengths. Time-dependent numerical calculations of angle-dependent ionization yields for 1,2-dichloroethylene suggest that the harmonic spectra of molecular isomers reflect differences in their strong-field ionization. The subcycle ionization yields for the cis isomer are an order of magnitude higher than those for the trans isomer. The sensitivity in discrimination of the harmonic spectra of cis- and trans- isomers is greater than 8 and 5 for 1,2-dichloroethylene and 2-butene, respectively. We show that HHG spectroscopy cannot differentiate the harmonic spectra of the two enantiomers of the chiral molecule propylene oxide (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O).
Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation.
Hohenleutner, M; Langer, F; Schubert, O; Knorr, M; Huttner, U; Koch, S W; Kira, M; Huber, R
2015-07-30
Acceleration and collision of particles has been a key strategy for exploring the texture of matter. Strong light waves can control and recollide electronic wavepackets, generating high-harmonic radiation that encodes the structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules and lays the foundations of attosecond science. The recent discovery of high-harmonic generation in bulk solids combines the idea of ultrafast acceleration with complex condensed matter systems, and provides hope for compact solid-state attosecond sources and electronics at optical frequencies. Yet the underlying quantum motion has not so far been observable in real time. Here we study high-harmonic generation in a bulk solid directly in the time domain, and reveal a new kind of strong-field excitation in the crystal. Unlike established atomic sources, our solid emits high-harmonic radiation as a sequence of subcycle bursts that coincide temporally with the field crests of one polarity of the driving terahertz waveform. We show that these features are characteristic of a non-perturbative quantum interference process that involves electrons from multiple valence bands. These results identify key mechanisms for future solid-state attosecond sources and next-generation light-wave electronics. The new quantum interference process justifies the hope for all-optical band-structure reconstruction and lays the foundation for possible quantum logic operations at optical clock rates.
Experimental studies of fast wave propagation in DIII-D
Ikezi, H.; Pinsker, R.I.; Chiu, S.C.; deGrassie, J.S.
1996-02-01
Fast Alfv{acute e}n waves radiated from the phased array antenna in the DIII-D tokamak and used for heating and current drive are studied by employing a {dot {ital B}}-loop array mounted on the vacuum vessel wall. The wave propagation direction controlled by the antenna phasing is clearly observed. A small divergence of the rays arising from the anisotropic nature of the fast wave is found. Comparison with a ray tracing code confirms that the ray position calculated by the code is accurate up to at least one toroidal turn of the rays. Conservation of {ital Rk}{sub t} which is a basic assumption in computer codes is tested. Although the upshift of toroidal wavenumber {ital k}{sub t} at small major radius {ital R} is confirmed, {ital Rk}{sub {ital t}} is not well conserved. A mass density interferometer is demonstrated by employing the extraordinary fast wave. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Vorticity equation for MHD fast waves in geospace environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R.; Lui, A. T. Y.
1993-01-01
The MHD vorticity equation is modified in order to apply it to nonlinear MHD fast waves or shocks when their extent along the magnetic field is limited. Field-aligned current (FAC) generation is also discussed on the basis of this modified vorticity equation. When the wave normal is not aligned to the finite velocity convection and the source region is spatially limited, a longitudinal polarization causes a pair of plus and minus charges inside the compressional plane waves or shocks, generating a pair of FACs. This polarization is not related to the separation between the electrons and ions caused by their difference in mass, a separation which is inherent to compressional waves. The resultant double field-aligned current structure exists both with and without the contributions from curvature drift, which is questionable in terms of its contribution to vorticity change from the viewpoint of single-particle motion.
Vorticity equation for MHD fast waves in geospace environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R.; Lui, A. T. Y.
1993-01-01
The MHD vorticity equation is modified in order to apply it to nonlinear MHD fast waves or shocks when their extent along the magnetic field is limited. Field-aligned current (FAC) generation is also discussed on the basis of this modified vorticity equation. When the wave normal is not aligned to the finite velocity convection and the source region is spatially limited, a longitudinal polarization causes a pair of plus and minus charges inside the compressional plane waves or shocks, generating a pair of FACs. This polarization is not related to the separation between the electrons and ions caused by their difference in mass, a separation which is inherent to compressional waves. The resultant double field-aligned current structure exists both with and without the contributions from curvature drift, which is questionable in terms of its contribution to vorticity change from the viewpoint of single-particle motion.
Nonlinear fast sausage waves in homogeneous magnetic flux tubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mikhalyaev, Badma B.; Ruderman, Michael S.
2015-12-01
> We consider fast sausage waves in straight homogeneous magnetic tubes. The plasma motion is described by the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations in the cold plasma approximation. We derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation describing the nonlinear evolution of an envelope of a carrier wave. The coefficients of this equation are expressed in terms Bessel and modified Bessel functions. They are calculated numerically for various values of parameters. In particular, we show that the criterion for the onset of the modulational or Benjamin-Fair instability is satisfied. The implication of the obtained results for solar physics is discussed.
Simulations of ICRF-fast wave current drive on DIIID
Ehst, D.A.
1990-06-01
Self-consistent calculations of MHD equilibria, generated by fast wave current drive and including the bootstrap effect, were done to guide and anticipate the results of upcoming experiments on the DIIID tokamak. The simulations predict that 2 MW of ICRF power is more than adequate to create several hundred kiloamperes in steady state; the total current increases with the temperature and density of the target plasma. 12 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.
Predicting high harmonic ion cyclotron heating efficiency in Tokamak plasmas
Green, David L; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, Lee A; Chen, Guangye; Ryan, Philip Michael; Canik, John
2011-01-01
Observations of improved radio frequency (RF) heating efficiency in high-confinement (H-) mode plasmas on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) are investigated by whole-device linear simulation. We present the first full-wave simulation to couple kinetic physics of the well confined core plasma to the poorly confined scrape-off plasma. The new simulation is used to scan the launched fast-wave spectrum and examine the steady-state electric wave field structure for experimental scenarios corresponding to both reduced, and improved RF heating efficiency. We find that launching toroidal wave-numbers that required for fast-wave propagation excites large amplitude (kVm 1 ) coaxial standing modes in the wave electric field between the confined plasma density pedestal and conducting vessel wall. Qualitative comparison with measurements of the stored plasma energy suggest these modes are a probable cause of degraded heating efficiency. Also, the H-mode density pedestal and fast-wave cutoff within the confined plasma allow for the excitation of whispering gallery type eigenmodes localised to the plasma edge.
Fast thermal waves spreading over the cerebral cortex.
Shevelev, I A; Tsicalov, E N
1997-01-01
Fast thermal waves spreading over the cerebral cortex were found in the white rat by infrared neuroimaging (thermoencephaloscopy) in the range of 3-5 microm. Thermal waves appeared under visual stimulation (the probability of their appearance = 0.92), and under background conditions (probability of appearance = 0.42). Typically, they moved during the period from 15 s before to 25 s after each light flash that was presented rhythmically (1.5-3 per min). The waves spread over the cerebral cortex along the limited number of typical trajectories, which are specific for the hemisphere of their origin (ipsilateral or contralateral with the side of stimulation). The waves were never recorded in a dead animal or in a thermal standard. The amplitude of the thermal waves was in the range of 0.005-0.1 degrees C, with the extent of the pathway of 2-56 mm, length of 10-15 mm, duration of 1.2-11.4 s, and velocity of 1-33 mm/s. In about half of the cases the waves appeared in the contralateral visual cortex (areas 17 and 18a), spread to the midline and crossed to the ipsilateral hemisphere (areas 17, 18a and 7). Local waves moving along a circular trajectory and rotating around the central part of the contralateral area 17 were also revealed, as well as wave rotation around the dorsal (mainly parietal) cortical fields. Possible biophysical and neurophysiological mechanisms and the functional significance of the revealed effects are discussed.
Dispersive Evolution of Nonlinear Fast Magnetoacoustic Wave Trains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pascoe, D. J.; Goddard, C. R.; Nakariakov, V. M.
2017-10-01
Quasi-periodic rapidly propagating wave trains are frequently observed in extreme ultraviolet observations of the solar corona, or are inferred by the quasi-periodic modulation of radio emission. The dispersive nature of fast magnetohydrodynamic waves in coronal structures provides a robust mechanism to explain the detected quasi-periodic patterns. We perform 2D numerical simulations of impulsively generated wave trains in coronal plasma slabs and investigate how the behavior of the trapped and leaky components depend on the properties of the initial perturbation. For large amplitude compressive perturbations, the geometrical dispersion associated with the waveguide suppresses the nonlinear steepening for the trapped wave train. The wave train formed by the leaky components does not experience dispersion once it leaves the waveguide and so can steepen and form shocks. The mechanism we consider can lead to the formation of multiple shock fronts by a single, large amplitude, impulsive event and so can account for quasi-periodic features observed in radio spectra.
Strongly Dispersive Transient Bragg Grating for High Harmonics
Farrell, J.; Spector, L.S.; Gaarde, M.B.; McFarland, B.K.; Bucksbaum, P.H.; Guhr, Markus; /SLAC, PULSE /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.
2010-06-04
We create a transient Bragg grating in a high harmonic generation medium using two counterpropagating pulses. The Bragg grating disperses the harmonics in angle and can diffract a large bandwidth with temporal resolution limited only by the source size.
High-harmonic generation: The bright side of downsizing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landsman, Alexandra
2017-07-01
The shorter the antenna, the higher the frequency -- so what happens when nanoantennas hit optical frequencies? One answer may lead to high-harmonic generation without the need for high-powered lasers.
Fokker-Planck/Ray Tracing for Electron Bernstein and Fast Wave Modeling in Support of NSTX
Harvey, R. W.
2009-11-12
This DOE grant supported fusion energy research, a potential long-term solution to the world's energy needs. Magnetic fusion, exemplified by confinement of very hot ionized gases, i.e., plasmas, in donut-shaped tokamak vessels is a leading approach for this energy source. Thus far, a mixture of hydrogen isotopes has produced 10's of megawatts of fusion power for seconds in a tokamak reactor at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in New Jersey. The research grant under consideration, ER54684, uses computer models to aid in understanding and projecting efficacy of heating and current drive sources in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, a tokamak variant, at PPPL. The NSTX experiment explores the physics of very tight aspect ratio, almost spherical tokamaks, aiming at producing steady-state fusion plasmas. The current drive is an integral part of the steady-state concept, maintaining the magnetic geometry in the steady-state tokamak. CompX further developed and applied models for radiofrequency (rf) heating and current drive for applications to NSTX. These models build on a 30 year development of rf ray tracing (the all-frequencies GENRAY code) and higher dimensional Fokker-Planck rf-collisional modeling (the 3D collisional-quasilinear CQL3D code) at CompX. Two mainline current-drive rf modes are proposed for injection into NSTX: (1) electron Bernstein wave (EBW), and (2) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) modes. Both these current drive systems provide a means for the rf to access the especially high density plasma--termed high beta plasma--compared to the strength of the required magnetic fields. The CompX studies entailed detailed modeling of the EBW to calculate the efficiency of the current drive system, and to determine its range of flexibility for driving current at spatial locations in the plasma cross-section. The ray tracing showed penetration into NSTX bulk plasma, relatively efficient current drive, but a limited ability to produce current over the whole
Fast Waves at the Base of the Cochlea.
Recio-Spinoso, Alberto; Rhode, William S
2015-01-01
Georg von Békésy observed that the onset times of responses to brief-duration stimuli vary as a function of distance from the stapes, with basal regions starting to move earlier than apical ones. He noticed that the speed of signal propagation along the cochlea is slow when compared with the speed of sound in water. Fast traveling waves have been recorded in the cochlea, but their existence is interpreted as the result of an experiment artifact. Accounts of the timing of vibration onsets at the base of the cochlea generally agree with Békésy's results. Some authors, however, have argued that the measured delays are too short for consistency with Békésy's theory. To investigate the speed of the traveling wave at the base of the cochlea, we analyzed basilar membrane (BM) responses to clicks recorded at several locations in the base of the chinchilla cochlea. The initial component of the BM response matches remarkably well the initial component of the stapes response, after a 4-μs delay of the latter. A similar conclusion is reached by analyzing onset times of time-domain gain functions, which correspond to BM click responses normalized by middle-ear input. Our results suggest that BM responses to clicks arise from a combination of fast and slow traveling waves.
Fast Waves at the Base of the Cochlea
Recio-Spinoso, Alberto; Rhode, William S.
2015-01-01
Georg von Békésy observed that the onset times of responses to brief-duration stimuli vary as a function of distance from the stapes, with basal regions starting to move earlier than apical ones. He noticed that the speed of signal propagation along the cochlea is slow when compared with the speed of sound in water. Fast traveling waves have been recorded in the cochlea, but their existence is interpreted as the result of an experiment artifact. Accounts of the timing of vibration onsets at the base of the cochlea generally agree with Békésy’s results. Some authors, however, have argued that the measured delays are too short for consistency with Békésy’s theory. To investigate the speed of the traveling wave at the base of the cochlea, we analyzed basilar membrane (BM) responses to clicks recorded at several locations in the base of the chinchilla cochlea. The initial component of the BM response matches remarkably well the initial component of the stapes response, after a 4-μs delay of the latter. A similar conclusion is reached by analyzing onset times of time-domain gain functions, which correspond to BM click responses normalized by middle-ear input. Our results suggest that BM responses to clicks arise from a combination of fast and slow traveling waves. PMID:26062000
Global Model of a Fast Ionization Wave in Helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yee, Benjamin; Barnat, Edward; Foster, John
2014-10-01
Technical challenges inhibit a complete examination of fast ionization waves via empirical means. The high-voltage pulses used to excite these waves can be on the order of nanoseconds or less. Such short timescales require instruments with exceptional sensitivity and bandwidth, but these may not be available or may not exist. In order to more completely understand the energetics of the fast ionization wave, a global model of a helium discharge was developed. We present the results of the model predictions and a comparison to experimental measurements when possible. The model follows 19 neutral helium states, helium ions, and electrons. Among the reactions included in the model are: electron impact ionization, electron (de)excitation, atomic excitation transfer, radiative decay, and radiation trapping. Comparisons demonstrate that the model can accurately predict 23S metastable densities, but discrepancies in the measured and predicted emissions indicate a greater than expected number of higher excited states. This suggests the presence of a persistent source of excitation which is believed to be the result of space charge buildup within the system. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy Science Contract DE-SC0001939.
Single-shot fluctuations in waveguided high-harmonic generation.
Goh, S J; Tao, Y; van der Slot, P J M; Bastiaens, H J M; Herek, J; Biedron, S G; Danailov, M B; Milton, S V; Boller, K-J
2015-09-21
For exploring the application potential of coherent soft x-ray (SXR) and extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) provided by high-harmonic generation, it is important to characterize the central output parameters. Of specific importance are pulse-to-pulse (shot-to-shot) fluctuations of the high-harmonic output energy, fluctuations of the direction of the emission (pointing instabilities), and fluctuations of the beam divergence and shape that reduce the spatial coherence. We present the first single-shot measurements of waveguided high-harmonic generation in a waveguided (capillary-based) geometry. Using a capillary waveguide filled with Argon gas as the nonlinear medium, we provide the first characterization of shot-to-shot fluctuations of the pulse energy, of the divergence and of the beam pointing. We record the strength of these fluctuations vs. two basic input parameters, which are the drive laser pulse energy and the gas pressure in the capillary waveguide. In correlation measurements between single-shot drive laser beam profiles and single-shot high-harmonic beam profiles we prove the absence of drive laser beam-pointing-induced fluctuations in the high-harmonic output. We attribute the main source of high-harmonic fluctuations to ionization-induced nonlinear mode mixing during propagation of the drive laser pulse inside the capillary waveguide.
Resonance absorption of propagating fast waves in a cold plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hollweg, Joseph V.
1990-01-01
Absorption of propagating waves impinging on a surface in which the plasma and magnetic field may change is investigated by examining in depth the problem of a combination of cold plasma, uniform magnetic field and a surface density which varies linearly from zero at the left end to some finite value at the right end, beyond which the density is constant. Two cases are considered: one in which the plasma is a vacuum everywhere to the left of the surface (which may correspond to coronal conditions) and one in which the plasma density jumps to a very large value to the left of the surface (which may mimic the magnetosphere with the dense region at the left corresponding to the plasmasphere). A complete discussion of the resonance absorption of propagating fast waves for the case considered by Kiveloson and Southwood (1986) is presented, emphasizing approximate analytical results whenever possible; these results are then compared with exact numerical solutions.
Fast wave current drive antenna performance on DIII-D
Mayberry, M.J.; Pinsker, R.I.; Petty, C.C.; Chiu, S.C.; Jackson, G.L.; Lippmann, S.I.; Prater, R. ); Porkolab, M. . Plasma Fusion Center); Baity, F.W.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J. )
1991-10-01
Fast wave current drive (FWCD) experiments at 60 MHz are being performed on the DIII-D tokamak for the first time in high electron temperature, high {beta} target plasmas. A four-element phased-array antenna is used to launch a directional wave spectrum with the peak n{sub {parallel}} value ({approx equal} 7) optimized for strong single-pass electron absorption due to electron Landau damping. For this experiment, high power FW injection (2 MW) must be accomplished without voltage breakdown in the transmission lines or antenna, and without significant impurity influx. In addition, there is the technological challenge of impedance matching a four-element antenna while maintaining equal currents and the correct phasing (90{degree}) in each of the straps for a directional spectrum. In this paper we describe the performance of the DIII-D FWCD antenna during initial FW electron heating and current drive experiments in terms of these requirements.
Fast wave current drive antenna performance on DIII-D
Mayberry, M.J.; Pinsker, R.I.; Petty, C.C.; Chiu, S.C.; Jackson, G.L.; Lippmann, S.I.; Prater, R.; Porkolab, M.; Baity, F.W.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.
1991-10-01
Fast wave current drive (FWCD) experiments at 60 MHz are being performed on the DIII-D tokamak for the first time in high electron temperature, high {beta} target plasmas. A four-element phased-array antenna is used to launch a directional wave spectrum with the peak n{sub {parallel}} value ({approx_equal} 7) optimized for strong single-pass electron absorption due to electron Landau damping. For this experiment, high power FW injection (2 MW) must be accomplished without voltage breakdown in the transmission lines or antenna, and without significant impurity influx. In addition, there is the technological challenge of impedance matching a four-element antenna while maintaining equal currents and the correct phasing (90{degree}) in each of the straps for a directional spectrum. In this paper we describe the performance of the DIII-D FWCD antenna during initial FW electron heating and current drive experiments in terms of these requirements.
Fast Wave Current Drive Antenna Performance on DIII-D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayberry, M. J.; Pinsker, R. I.; Petty, C. C.; Chiu, S. C.; Jackson, G. L.; Lippmann, S. I.; Porkolab, M.; Prater, R.; Baity, F. W.; Goulding, R. H.; Hoffman, D. J.
1992-01-01
Fast wave current drive (FWCD) experiments at 60 MHz are being performed on the DIII-D tokamak for the first time in high electron temperature, high β target plasmas. A four-element phased-array antenna is used to launch a directional wave spectrum with the peak n∥ value (≂7) optimized for strong single-pass electron absorption due to electron Landau damping. For this experiment, high power FW injection (2 MW) must be accomplished without voltage breakdown in the transmission lines or antenna, and without significant impurity influx. In addition, there is the technological challenge of impedance matching a four-element antenna while maintaining equal currents and the correct phasing (90°) in each of the straps for a directional spectrum. In this paper we describe the performance of the DIII-D FWCD antenna during initial FW electron heating and current drive experiments in terms of these requirements.
Fast wave current drive antenna performance on D3-D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayberry, M. J.; Pinsker, R. I.; Petty, C. C.; Chiu, S. C.; Jackson, G. L.; Lippmann, S. I.; Prater, R.; Porkolab, M.
1991-10-01
Fast wave current drive (FWCD) experiments at 60 MHz are being performed on the D3-D tokamak for the first time in high electron temperature, high (beta) target plasmas. A four-element phased-array antenna is used to launch a directional wave spectrum with the peak n(sub parallel) value (approximately = 7) optimized for strong single-pass electron absorption due to electron Landau damping. For this experiment, high power FW injection (2 MW) must be accomplished without voltage breakdown in the transmission lines or antenna, and without significant impurity influx. In addition, there is the technological challenge of impedance matching a four-element antenna while maintaining equal currents and the correct phasing (90 degrees) in each of the straps for a directional spectrum. We describe the performance of the D3-D FWCD antenna during initial FW electron heating and current drive experiments in terms of these requirements.
Modulational instability of fast magnetosonic waves in a solar plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakai, J.-I.
1983-04-01
A set of coupled equations describing the modulational instability, including gravity, is derived from the MHD. It is noted that the results obtained here may figure prominently in processes of magnetic field line reconnection caused by nonlinear MHD waves (Sakai et al., 1982), as well as in explanations of the slow motions recently observed in the X-ray pictures during Skylab (Rust and Svestka, 1979). The modulational instability is discussed, and an estimate is made of the growth rate. Attention is also given to the applications of the modulational instability of fast modes to a solar plasma.
Fast-wave ICRF heating for EBT-P
Baity, F.W.
1982-01-01
Supplementary ion heating will play a major role in advancing the physics understanding of bumpy tori in EBT-P. Fast-wave ICRF heating is the method selected for EBT-P because of the successful ICRF heating experiments on tokamaks and on EBT-S. Given neoclassical electron behavior, then 2 MW of ICRF heating in the range of 60 to 90 MHz should be sufficient for the achievement of all the goals for ion heating, including 5% core plasma beta at the rings.
Vorticity equation for MHD fast waves in geospace environment
Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R.; Lui, A.T.Y.
1993-08-01
The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) vorticity equation is modified in order to apply it to nonlinear MHD fast waves or shocks when their extent along the magnetic field is limited. Field-aligned current (FAC) generation is also discussed on the basis of this modified vorticity equation. When the wave normal is not aligned to the finite velocity convection and the source region is spatially limited, a longitudinal polarization (u{sub {perpendicular}}{center_dot}J{sub {perpendicular}}) causes a pair of plus and minus charges inside the compressional plane waves or shocks, generating a pair of FACs. This polarization is not related to the separation between the electrons and ions caused by their difference in mass (i.e., Langmuir mode), a separation which is inherent to compressional waves. The resultant double field-aligned current structure exists both with and without the contributions from curvature drift, which is questionable in terms of its contribution to vorticity change from the viewpoint of single-particle motion. 14 refs., 3 figs.
Elastic wave from fast heavy ion irradiation on solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kambara, T.; Kageyama, K.; Kanai, Y.; Kojima, T. M.; Nanai, Y.; Yoneda, A.; Yamazaki, Y.
2002-06-01
To study the time-dependent mechanical effects of fast heavy ion irradiations, we have irradiated various solids by a short-bunch beam of 95 MeV/u Ar ions and observed elastic waves generated in the bulk. The irradiated targets were square-shaped plates of poly-crystals of metals (Al and Cu), invar alloy, ceramic (Al 2O 3), fused silica (SiO 2) and single crystals of KC1 and LiF with a thickness of 10 mm. The beam was incident perpendicular to the surface and all ions were stopped in the target. Two piezo-electric ultrasonic sensors were attached to the surface of the target and detected the elastic waves. The elastic waveforms as well as the time structure and intensity of the beam bunch were recorded for each shot of a beam bunch. The sensor placed opposite to the beam spot recorded a clear waveform of the longitudinal wave across the material, except for the invar and fused silica targets. From its propagation time along with the sound velocity and the thickness of the target, the depth of the wave source was estimated. The result was compared with ion ranges calculated for these materials by TRIM code.
Observation of mode conversion of m = minus 1 fast waves on the Alfven resonance layer
Amagishi, Y. )
1990-03-12
Fast waves or MHD surface waves of {ital m}={minus}1 (poloidal mode number of left-hand rotation) have been observed to be mode converted on the Alfven resonance layer. The converted waves are a quasielectrostatic form of the shear Alfven waves, i.e., kinetic Alfven wave and/or the resistive mode.
Review of tokamak experiments on direct electron heating and current drive with fast waves
Pinsker, R.I.
1993-12-01
Results from tokamak experiments on direct electron interaction with the compressional Alfven wave ({open_quote}fast wave{close_quote}) are reviewed. Experiments aimed at electron heating as well as those in which fast wave electron current drive was investigated are discussed. A distinction is drawn between experiments employing the lower hybrid range of frequencies, where both the lower hybrid wave ({open_quote}slow wave{close_quote}) and the fast wave can propagate in much of the plasma, and those experiments using the fast wave in the range of moderate to high ion cyclotron harmonics, where only the fast wave can penetrate to the plasma core. Most of the early tokamak experiments were in the lower hybrid frequency regime, and the observed electron interaction appeared to be very similar to that obtained with the slow wave at the same frequency. In particular, electron interaction with the fast wave was observed only below a density limit nearly the same as the well known slow wave density limit. In the more recent lower frequency fast wave experiments, electron interaction (heating and current drive) is observed at the center of the discharge, where slow waves are not present.
Fast electronic resistance switching involving hidden charge density wave states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaskivskyi, I.; Mihailovic, I. A.; Brazovskii, S.; Gospodaric, J.; Mertelj, T.; Svetin, D.; Sutar, P.; Mihailovic, D.
2016-05-01
The functionality of computer memory elements is currently based on multi-stability, driven either by locally manipulating the density of electrons in transistors or by switching magnetic or ferroelectric order. Another possibility is switching between metallic and insulating phases by the motion of ions, but their speed is limited by slow nucleation and inhomogeneous percolative growth. Here we demonstrate fast resistance switching in a charge density wave system caused by pulsed current injection. As a charge pulse travels through the material, it converts a commensurately ordered polaronic Mott insulating state in 1T-TaS2 to a metastable electronic state with textured domain walls, accompanied with a conversion of polarons to band states, and concurrent rapid switching from an insulator to a metal. The large resistance change, high switching speed (30 ps) and ultralow energy per bit opens the way to new concepts in non-volatile memory devices manipulating all-electronic states.
Fast electronic resistance switching involving hidden charge density wave states.
Vaskivskyi, I; Mihailovic, I A; Brazovskii, S; Gospodaric, J; Mertelj, T; Svetin, D; Sutar, P; Mihailovic, D
2016-05-16
The functionality of computer memory elements is currently based on multi-stability, driven either by locally manipulating the density of electrons in transistors or by switching magnetic or ferroelectric order. Another possibility is switching between metallic and insulating phases by the motion of ions, but their speed is limited by slow nucleation and inhomogeneous percolative growth. Here we demonstrate fast resistance switching in a charge density wave system caused by pulsed current injection. As a charge pulse travels through the material, it converts a commensurately ordered polaronic Mott insulating state in 1T-TaS2 to a metastable electronic state with textured domain walls, accompanied with a conversion of polarons to band states, and concurrent rapid switching from an insulator to a metal. The large resistance change, high switching speed (30 ps) and ultralow energy per bit opens the way to new concepts in non-volatile memory devices manipulating all-electronic states.
Estimates of the Electric Field in Fast Ionization Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yee, Benjamin; Weatherford, Brandon; Barnat, Edward; Foster, John
2012-10-01
The non-equilibrium nature of fast ionization waves (FIWs) makes an assessment of energy transport difficult. Their high fields and short-lived nature complicate even the most simple diagnostics and tends to preclude the application of any physical probe. On the other hand, optical probes generally require the excitation, equilibration, and decay of atomic or molecular states, each of which takes a finite amount of time. In the case of an FIW, measurement of optical transitions will necessarily take place in the afterglow of the plasma. Fortunately, the electron and excited state densities produced by the wavefront are essentially fixed for a few hundred nanoseconds after the pulse. We propose a technique which uses measurements of the absolute metastable and electron densities to determine an effective electric field in the wavefront. The approach is evaluated for self-consistency and is in compared with other estimates of the electric field in similar discharges.
Gravitational wave asteroseismology with fast rotating neutron stars
Gaertig, Erich; Kokkotas, Kostas D.
2011-03-15
We investigate damping and growth times of the quadrupolar f mode for rapidly rotating stars and a variety of different polytropic equations of state in the Cowling approximation. This is the first study of the damping/growth time of these types of oscillations for fast-rotating neutron stars in a relativistic treatment where the spacetime degrees of freedom of the perturbations are neglected. We use these frequencies and damping/growth times to create robust empirical formulae which can be used for gravitational-wave asteroseismology. The estimation of the damping/growth time is based on the quadrupole formula and our results agree very well with Newtonian ones in the appropriate limit.
Fast electronic resistance switching involving hidden charge density wave states
Vaskivskyi, I.; Mihailovic, I. A.; Brazovskii, S.; Gospodaric, J.; Mertelj, T.; Svetin, D.; Sutar, P.; Mihailovic, D.
2016-01-01
The functionality of computer memory elements is currently based on multi-stability, driven either by locally manipulating the density of electrons in transistors or by switching magnetic or ferroelectric order. Another possibility is switching between metallic and insulating phases by the motion of ions, but their speed is limited by slow nucleation and inhomogeneous percolative growth. Here we demonstrate fast resistance switching in a charge density wave system caused by pulsed current injection. As a charge pulse travels through the material, it converts a commensurately ordered polaronic Mott insulating state in 1T–TaS2 to a metastable electronic state with textured domain walls, accompanied with a conversion of polarons to band states, and concurrent rapid switching from an insulator to a metal. The large resistance change, high switching speed (30 ps) and ultralow energy per bit opens the way to new concepts in non-volatile memory devices manipulating all-electronic states. PMID:27181483
High frequency fast wave current drive for DEMO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koch, R.; Lerche, E.; Van Eester, D.; Nightingale, M.
2011-12-01
A steady-state tokamak reactor (SSTR) requires a high efficiency current drive system, from plug to driven mega-amps. RF systems working in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) have high efficiency from plug to antenna but a limited current drive (CD) efficiency and centrally peaked CD profiles. The latter feature is not adequate for a SSTR where the current should be sufficiently broad to keep the central safety factor (possibly significantly) above 1. In addition, the fact that the fast wave (FW) is evanescent at the edge limits coupling, requiring high voltage operation, which makes the system dependent on plasma edge properties and prone to arcing, reducing its reliability. A possible way to overcome these weaknesses is to operate at higher frequency (10 times or more the cyclotron frequency). The advantages are: (1) The coupling can be much better (waves propagate in vacuum) if the parallel refractive index n∥ is kept below one, (2) The FW group velocity tends to align to the magnetic field, so the power circumnavigates the magnetic axis and can drive off-axis current, (3) Due to the latter property, n∥ can be upshifted along the wave propagation path, allowing low n∥ launch (hence good coupling, large CD efficiency) with ultimately good electron absorption (which requires higher n∥). Note however that the n∥ upshift is a self-organized feature, that electron absorption is in competition with α-particle absorption and that uncoupling of the FW from the lower hybrid resonance at the edge requires n∥ slightly above one. The latter possibly counterproductive features might complicate the picture. The different aspects of this potentially attractive off-axis FWCD scheme are discussed.
Plasmon-assisted high-harmonic generation in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cox, Joel D.; Marini, Andrea; de Abajo, F. Javier García
2017-02-01
High-harmonic generation in condensed-matter systems is both a source of fundamental insight into quantum electron motion and a promising candidate to realize compact ultraviolet and ultrafast light sources. While graphene is anticipated to efficiently generate high-order harmonics due to its anharmonic charge-carrier dispersion, experiments performed on extended samples using THz illumination have revealed only a weak effect. The situation is further complicated by the enormous electromagnetic field intensities required by this highly nonperturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon. Here we argue that the large light intensity required for high-harmonic generation to occur can be reached by exploiting localized plasmons in doped graphene nanostructures. We demonstrate through rigorous time-domain simulations that the synergistic combination of strong plasmonic near-field enhancement and a pronounced intrinsic nonlinearity result in efficient broadband high-harmonic generation within a single material. Our results support the strong potential of nanostructured graphene as a robust, electrically tunable platform for high-harmonic generation.
Plasmon-assisted high-harmonic generation in graphene.
Cox, Joel D; Marini, Andrea; de Abajo, F Javier García
2017-02-22
High-harmonic generation in condensed-matter systems is both a source of fundamental insight into quantum electron motion and a promising candidate to realize compact ultraviolet and ultrafast light sources. While graphene is anticipated to efficiently generate high-order harmonics due to its anharmonic charge-carrier dispersion, experiments performed on extended samples using THz illumination have revealed only a weak effect. The situation is further complicated by the enormous electromagnetic field intensities required by this highly nonperturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon. Here we argue that the large light intensity required for high-harmonic generation to occur can be reached by exploiting localized plasmons in doped graphene nanostructures. We demonstrate through rigorous time-domain simulations that the synergistic combination of strong plasmonic near-field enhancement and a pronounced intrinsic nonlinearity result in efficient broadband high-harmonic generation within a single material. Our results support the strong potential of nanostructured graphene as a robust, electrically tunable platform for high-harmonic generation.
Plasmon-assisted high-harmonic generation in graphene
Cox, Joel D.; Marini, Andrea; de Abajo, F. Javier García
2017-01-01
High-harmonic generation in condensed-matter systems is both a source of fundamental insight into quantum electron motion and a promising candidate to realize compact ultraviolet and ultrafast light sources. While graphene is anticipated to efficiently generate high-order harmonics due to its anharmonic charge-carrier dispersion, experiments performed on extended samples using THz illumination have revealed only a weak effect. The situation is further complicated by the enormous electromagnetic field intensities required by this highly nonperturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon. Here we argue that the large light intensity required for high-harmonic generation to occur can be reached by exploiting localized plasmons in doped graphene nanostructures. We demonstrate through rigorous time-domain simulations that the synergistic combination of strong plasmonic near-field enhancement and a pronounced intrinsic nonlinearity result in efficient broadband high-harmonic generation within a single material. Our results support the strong potential of nanostructured graphene as a robust, electrically tunable platform for high-harmonic generation. PMID:28224998
Plasma structures for quasiphase matched high harmonic generation
Sheinfux, A. H.; Henis, Z.; Levin, M.; Zigler, A.
2011-04-04
A scheme for creation of periodic plasma structures by ablating a lithographic pattern is demonstrated. A proof of principle experiment was conducted, and plasma parameters were measured as a function of time with spatial resolution <10 and 100 {mu}m periodicity. Several possible applications, in particular, quasiphase matching for high harmonic generation in plasma are considered.
Fast T Wave Detection Calibrated by Clinical Knowledge with Annotation of P and T Waves
Elgendi, Mohamed; Eskofier, Bjoern; Abbott, Derek
2015-01-01
Background There are limited studies on the automatic detection of T waves in arrhythmic electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. This is perhaps because there is no available arrhythmia dataset with annotated T waves. There is a growing need to develop numerically-efficient algorithms that can accommodate the new trend of battery-driven ECG devices. Moreover, there is also a need to analyze long-term recorded signals in a reliable and time-efficient manner, therefore improving the diagnostic ability of mobile devices and point-of-care technologies. Methods Here, the T wave annotation of the well-known MIT-BIH arrhythmia database is discussed and provided. Moreover, a simple fast method for detecting T waves is introduced. A typical T wave detection method has been reduced to a basic approach consisting of two moving averages and dynamic thresholds. The dynamic thresholds were calibrated using four clinically known types of sinus node response to atrial premature depolarization (compensation, reset, interpolation, and reentry). Results The determination of T wave peaks is performed and the proposed algorithm is evaluated on two well-known databases, the QT and MIT-BIH Arrhythmia databases. The detector obtained a sensitivity of 97.14% and a positive predictivity of 99.29% over the first lead of the validation databases (total of 221,186 beats). Conclusions We present a simple yet very reliable T wave detection algorithm that can be potentially implemented on mobile battery-driven devices. In contrast to complex methods, it can be easily implemented in a digital filter design. PMID:26197321
Fast T Wave Detection Calibrated by Clinical Knowledge with Annotation of P and T Waves.
Elgendi, Mohamed; Eskofier, Bjoern; Abbott, Derek
2015-07-21
There are limited studies on the automatic detection of T waves in arrhythmic electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. This is perhaps because there is no available arrhythmia dataset with annotated T waves. There is a growing need to develop numerically-efficient algorithms that can accommodate the new trend of battery-driven ECG devices. Moreover, there is also a need to analyze long-term recorded signals in a reliable and time-efficient manner, therefore improving the diagnostic ability of mobile devices and point-of-care technologies. Here, the T wave annotation of the well-known MIT-BIH arrhythmia database is discussed and provided. Moreover, a simple fast method for detecting T waves is introduced. A typical T wave detection method has been reduced to a basic approach consisting of two moving averages and dynamic thresholds. The dynamic thresholds were calibrated using four clinically known types of sinus node response to atrial premature depolarization (compensation, reset, interpolation, and reentry). The determination of T wave peaks is performed and the proposed algorithm is evaluated on two well-known databases, the QT and MIT-BIH Arrhythmia databases. The detector obtained a sensitivity of 97.14% and a positive predictivity of 99.29% over the first lead of the validation databases (total of 221,186 beats). We present a simple yet very reliable T wave detection algorithm that can be potentially implemented on mobile battery-driven devices. In contrast to complex methods, it can be easily implemented in a digital filter design.
Can a Fast-Mode EUV Wave Generate a Stationary Front?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, P. F.; Fang, C.; Chandra, R.; Srivastava, A. K.
2016-11-01
The discovery of stationary "EIT waves" about 16 years ago posed a big challenge to the then favorite fast-mode wave model for coronal "EIT waves". It encouraged various non-wave models and played an important role in convergence of the opposing viewpoints toward the recent consensus that there are two types of EUV waves. However, it was recently discovered that a stationary wave front can also be generated when a fast-mode wave passes through a magnetic quasi-separatrix layer (QSL). In this article, we perform a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation of the interaction between a fast-mode wave and a magnetic QSL, and a stationary wave front is reproduced. The analysis of the numerical results indicates that near the plasma beta {˜} 1 layer in front of the magnetic QSL, part of the fast-mode wave is converted to a slow-mode MHD wave, which is then trapped inside the magnetic loops, forming a stationary wave front. Our results imply that we have to be cautious in identifying the nature of a wave, since there may be mode conversion during the propagation of the waves driven by solar eruptions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perkins, Rory; Hosea, Joel; Bertelli, Nicola; Taylor, Gary; Wilson, James
2016-10-01
Efficient high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) heating on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) would enable new experiments in turbulence, energetic particles, and impurity transport. However, scrape-off layer (SOL) losses of HHFW power can severely limit the heating efficiency down to 40%. The power is lost along scrape-off layer field lines, creating bright spirals of heat deposition on the divertor. A cylindrical cold-plasma model finds modes, named ``annulus resonances,'' that conduct a large fraction of the wave power in the outer low-density region, making such modes a potential candidate to explain the SOL losses on NSTX. Here, we present result for full three-dimensional reconstructions of the wave fields. There is typically one such mode for each azimuthal mode number and a near linear relationship between azimuthal and axial wavenumbers, suggesting the existence of helices of constant phase. The potential role of these helices in relation to the field-aligned SOL losses will be discussed. This work was supported in part by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Liu, Hanzhe; Li, Yilei; You, Yongsing; Ghimire, Shambhu; Heinz, Tony; Reis, David A.
2016-01-01
We report the observation of nonperturbative high-harmonic generation from monolayer MoS_{2}. Here, the yield is higher in monolayer compared to a single layer of the bulk, an effect attributed to strong electron-hole interactions in the monolayer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Ryun-Young; Ofman, Leon; Olmedo, Oscar; Kramar, Maxim; Davila, Joseph M.; Thompson, Barbara J.; Cho, Kyung-Suk
2013-03-01
We report white-light observations of a fast magnetosonic wave associated with a coronal mass ejection observed by STEREO/SECCHI/COR1 inner coronagraphs on 2011 August 4. The wave front is observed in the form of density compression passing through various coronal regions such as quiet/active corona, coronal holes, and streamers. Together with measured electron densities determined with STEREO COR1 and Extreme UltraViolet Imager (EUVI) data, we use our kinematic measurements of the wave front to calculate coronal magnetic fields and find that the measured speeds are consistent with characteristic fast magnetosonic speeds in the corona. In addition, the wave front turns out to be the upper coronal counterpart of the EIT wave observed by STEREO EUVI traveling against the solar coronal disk; moreover, stationary fronts of the EIT wave are found to be located at the footpoints of deflected streamers and boundaries of coronal holes, after the wave front in the upper solar corona passes through open magnetic field lines in the streamers. Our findings suggest that the observed EIT wave should be in fact a fast magnetosonic shock/wave traveling in the inhomogeneous solar corona, as part of the fast magnetosonic wave propagating in the extended solar corona.
Kwon, Ryun-Young; Ofman, Leon; Kramar, Maxim; Olmedo, Oscar; Davila, Joseph M.; Thompson, Barbara J.; Cho, Kyung-Suk
2013-03-20
We report white-light observations of a fast magnetosonic wave associated with a coronal mass ejection observed by STEREO/SECCHI/COR1 inner coronagraphs on 2011 August 4. The wave front is observed in the form of density compression passing through various coronal regions such as quiet/active corona, coronal holes, and streamers. Together with measured electron densities determined with STEREO COR1 and Extreme UltraViolet Imager (EUVI) data, we use our kinematic measurements of the wave front to calculate coronal magnetic fields and find that the measured speeds are consistent with characteristic fast magnetosonic speeds in the corona. In addition, the wave front turns out to be the upper coronal counterpart of the EIT wave observed by STEREO EUVI traveling against the solar coronal disk; moreover, stationary fronts of the EIT wave are found to be located at the footpoints of deflected streamers and boundaries of coronal holes, after the wave front in the upper solar corona passes through open magnetic field lines in the streamers. Our findings suggest that the observed EIT wave should be in fact a fast magnetosonic shock/wave traveling in the inhomogeneous solar corona, as part of the fast magnetosonic wave propagating in the extended solar corona.
Effect of Alfvén resonance on low-frequency fast wave current drive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, C. Y.; Batchelor, D. B.; Carter, M. D.; Jaeger, E. F.; Stallings, D. C.
1995-08-01
The Alfvén resonances may occur on the low- and high-field sides for a low-frequency fast wave current drive scenario proposed for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [Nucl. Fusion 31, 1135 (1991)]. At the resonance on the low-field side, the fast wave may be mode converted into a short-wavelength slow wave, which can be absorbed by electrons at the plasma edge, before the fast wave propagates into the core area of the plasma. Such absorption may cause a significant parasitic power loss.
Energy and energy flux in axisymmetric slow and fast waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moreels, M. G.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Grant, S. D. T.; Jess, D. B.; Goossens, M.
2015-06-01
Aims: We aim to calculate the kinetic, magnetic, thermal, and total energy densities and the flux of energy in axisymmetric sausage modes. The resulting equations should contain as few parameters as possible to facilitate applicability for different observations. Methods: The background equilibrium is a one-dimensional cylindrical flux tube model with a piecewise constant radial density profile. This enables us to use linearised magnetohydrodynamic equations to calculate the energy densities and the flux of energy for axisymmetric sausage modes. Results: The equations used to calculate the energy densities and the flux of energy in axisymmetric sausage modes depend on the radius of the flux tube, the equilibrium sound and Alfvén speeds, the density of the plasma, the period and phase speed of the wave, and the radial or longitudinal components of the Lagrangian displacement at the flux tube boundary. Approximate relations for limiting cases of propagating slow and fast sausage modes are also obtained. We also obtained the dispersive first-order correction term to the phase speed for both the fundamental slow body mode under coronal conditions and the slow surface mode under photospheric conditions. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Gus’kov, S. Yu.; Nicolai, Ph.; Ribeyre, X.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.
2015-09-15
An exact analytic solution is found for the steady-state distribution function of fast electrons with an arbitrary initial spectrum irradiating a planar low-Z plasma with an arbitrary density distribution. The solution is applied to study the heating of a material by fast electrons of different spectra such as a monoenergetic spectrum, a step-like distribution in a given energy range, and a Maxwellian spectrum, which is inherent in laser-produced fast electrons. The heating of shock- and fast-ignited precompressed inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets as well as the heating of a target designed to generate a Gbar shock wave for equation of state (EOS) experiments by laser-produced fast electrons with a Maxwellian spectrum is investigated. A relation is established between the energies of two groups of Maxwellian fast electrons, which are responsible for generation of a shock wave and heating the upstream material (preheating). The minimum energy of the fast and shock igniting beams as well as of the beam for a Gbar shock wave generation increases with the spectral width of the electron distribution.
Predicting high harmonic ion cyclotron heating efficiency in Tokamak plasmas.
Green, D L; Berry, L A; Chen, G; Ryan, P M; Canik, J M; Jaeger, E F
2011-09-30
Observations of improved radio frequency (rf) heating efficiency in ITER relevant high-confinement (H-)mode plasmas on the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment are investigated by whole-device linear simulation. The steady-state rf electric field is calculated for various antenna spectra and the results examined for characteristics that correlate with observations of improved or reduced rf heating efficiency. We find that launching toroidal wave numbers that give fast-wave propagation in the scrape-off plasma excites large amplitude (∼kV m(-1)) coaxial standing modes between the confined plasma density pedestal and conducting vessel wall. Qualitative comparison with measurements of the stored plasma energy suggests that these modes are a probable cause of degraded heating efficiency.
Plasmon-enhanced high-harmonic generation from silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vampa, G.; Ghamsari, B. G.; Siadat Mousavi, S.; Hammond, T. J.; Olivieri, A.; Lisicka-Skrek, E.; Naumov, A. Yu; Villeneuve, D. M.; Staudte, A.; Berini, P.; Corkum, P. B.
2017-07-01
Plasmonic antennas can enhance the intensity of a nanojoule laser pulse by localizing the electric field in their proximity. It has been proposed that the field can become strong enough to convert the fundamental laser frequency into high-order harmonics through an extremely nonlinear interaction with gas atoms that occupy the nanoscopic volume surrounding the antennas. However, the small number of gas atoms that can occupy this volume limits the generation of high harmonics. Here we use an array of monopole nano-antennas to demonstrate plasmon-assisted high-harmonic generation directly from the supporting crystalline silicon substrate. The high density of the substrate compared with a gas allows macroscopic buildup of harmonic emission. Despite the sparse coverage of antennas on the surface, harmonic emission is ten times brighter than without antennas. Imaging the high-harmonic radiation will allow nanometre and attosecond measurement of the plasmonic field thereby enabling more sensitive plasmon sensors while opening a new path to extreme-ultraviolet-frequency combs.
The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas
Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Perez-Hernandez, Jose A.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.; Gaffney, Jim A.; Foord, Mark; Libby, Stephen B.; Jaron-Becker, Agnieskzka; Becker, Andreas; Plaja, Luis; Muranane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Popmintchev, Tenio
2015-12-04
High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching—the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms—favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidth–limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds.
Ultraviolet surprise: Efficient soft x-ray high-harmonic generation in multiply ionized plasmas.
Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernández-García, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Pérez-Hernández, Jose A; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L; Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A; Levis, Robert J; Gaffney, Jim A; Foord, Mark; Libby, Stephen B; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Becker, Andreas; Plaja, Luis; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Popmintchev, Tenio
2015-12-04
High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Because of reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function, the emission from each species is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. However, phase matching--the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms--favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidth-limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas
Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; ...
2015-12-04
High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching—the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms—favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams inmore » the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidth–limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goree, John Arlin
1985-12-01
The first observations of several radio frequency wave phenomena in a magnetized plasma are presented. The backward branch of the electrostatic ion-cyclotron wave, which was previously described in reports of theoretical but not experimental work, was observed. This hot magnetized plasma mode propagates for frequencies above each harmonic of the ion-cyclotron frequency. A phased antenna structure, inserted into a neon plasma, excited the wave. An experimental dispersion relation produced from probe measurements of the mode agrees with the dispersion relation predicted using linear theory. Fast wave current drive in a toroidal plasma was observed for the first time. A loop antenna launched the fast Alfven wave in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, (omega)/(OMEGA) = O(10). Signals from magnetic loop probes, Langmuir probes, and FIR laser scattering revealed the identity of the mode. Using a single antenna to launch the wave into a plasma containing a unidirectional electron beam, the circulating current increased according to the rf power applied. This increase in current occurs when the plasma is sufficiently dense to support fast wave propagation. Fast wave current drive may be a desirable method of sustaining the toroidal current in a fusion reactor. A fast wave antenna also excites slow wave resonance cones, i.e., lower-hybrid waves, as shown here for the first time. This process occurs in the same frequency range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics as fast wave current drive, and may represent an undesirable loss mechanism. A far-infrared laser scattering diagnostic was developed for detecting coherent radio frequency waves. In this system, an unusual detection method employing two lock-in amplifiers reduced noise from rf pickup and broadband noise. A criterion is presented for its use. A new type of cathode for producing plasmas, used in the fast wave experiment, consists of a lanthanum-hexaboride emissive element heated by a graphite resistor. Inserted
Using dynamic interferometric synthetic aperature radar (InSAR) to image fast-moving surface waves
Vincent, Paul
2005-06-28
A new differential technique and system for imaging dynamic (fast moving) surface waves using Dynamic Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is introduced. This differential technique and system can sample the fast-moving surface displacement waves from a plurality of moving platform positions in either a repeat-pass single-antenna or a single-pass mode having a single-antenna dual-phase receiver or having dual physically separate antennas, and reconstruct a plurality of phase differentials from a plurality of platform positions to produce a series of desired interferometric images of the fast moving waves.
Fast Magnetoacoustic Wave Trains of Sausage Symmetry in Cylindrical Waveguides of the Solar Corona
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shestov, S.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Kuzin, S.
2015-12-01
Fast magnetoacoustic waves guided along the magnetic field by plasma non-uniformities, in particular coronal loops, fibrils, and plumes, are known to be highly dispersive, which lead to the formation of quasi-periodic wave trains excited by a broadband impulsive driver, e.g., a solar flare. We investigated the effects of cylindrical geometry on the fast sausage wave train formation. We performed magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of fast magnetoacoustic perturbations of a sausage symmetry, propagating from a localized impulsive source along a field-aligned plasma cylinder with a smooth radial profile of the fast speed. The wave trains are found to have pronounced period modulation, with the longer instant period seen in the beginning of the wave train. The wave trains also have a pronounced amplitude modulation. Wavelet spectra of the wave trains have characteristic tadpole features, with the broadband large-amplitude heads preceding low-amplitude quasi-monochromatic tails. The mean period of the wave train is about the transverse fast magnetoacoustic transit time across the cylinder. The mean parallel wavelength is about the diameter of the wave-guiding plasma cylinder. Instant periods are longer than the sausage wave cutoff period. The wave train characteristics depend on the fast magnetoacoustic speed in both the internal and external media, the smoothness of the transverse profile of the equilibrium quantities, and also the spatial size of the initial perturbation. If the initial perturbation is localized at the axis of the cylinder, the wave trains contain higher radial harmonics that have shorter periods.
FAST MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVE TRAINS OF SAUSAGE SYMMETRY IN CYLINDRICAL WAVEGUIDES OF THE SOLAR CORONA
Shestov, S.; Kuzin, S.; Nakariakov, V. M.
2015-12-01
Fast magnetoacoustic waves guided along the magnetic field by plasma non-uniformities, in particular coronal loops, fibrils, and plumes, are known to be highly dispersive, which lead to the formation of quasi-periodic wave trains excited by a broadband impulsive driver, e.g., a solar flare. We investigated the effects of cylindrical geometry on the fast sausage wave train formation. We performed magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations of fast magnetoacoustic perturbations of a sausage symmetry, propagating from a localized impulsive source along a field-aligned plasma cylinder with a smooth radial profile of the fast speed. The wave trains are found to have pronounced period modulation, with the longer instant period seen in the beginning of the wave train. The wave trains also have a pronounced amplitude modulation. Wavelet spectra of the wave trains have characteristic tadpole features, with the broadband large-amplitude heads preceding low-amplitude quasi-monochromatic tails. The mean period of the wave train is about the transverse fast magnetoacoustic transit time across the cylinder. The mean parallel wavelength is about the diameter of the wave-guiding plasma cylinder. Instant periods are longer than the sausage wave cutoff period. The wave train characteristics depend on the fast magnetoacoustic speed in both the internal and external media, the smoothness of the transverse profile of the equilibrium quantities, and also the spatial size of the initial perturbation. If the initial perturbation is localized at the axis of the cylinder, the wave trains contain higher radial harmonics that have shorter periods.
Status and comparison of codes used for fast wave current drive
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonoli, Paul T.
1994-10-01
The status of computer models for fast wave current drive in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies is reviewed in this paper. The treatments of wave propagation, wave absorption, and current drive efficiency in the various models are discussed and the important physics issues in each of these areas are emphasized. The predictions for electron heating and current drive among these models is reviewed, especially as related to the recent DIII-D fast wave experiments and to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Finally, areas requiring further research in these models will be identified.
Groopman, Amber M.; Katz, Jonathan I.; Holland, Mark R.; Fujita, Fuminori; Matsukawa, Mami; Mizuno, Katsunori; Wear, Keith A.; Miller, James G.
2015-01-01
Conventional, Bayesian, and the modified least-squares Prony's plus curve-fitting (MLSP + CF) methods were applied to data acquired using 1 MHz center frequency, broadband transducers on a single equine cancellous bone specimen that was systematically shortened from 11.8 mm down to 0.5 mm for a total of 24 sample thicknesses. Due to overlapping fast and slow waves, conventional analysis methods were restricted to data from sample thicknesses ranging from 11.8 mm to 6.0 mm. In contrast, Bayesian and MLSP + CF methods successfully separated fast and slow waves and provided reliable estimates of the ultrasonic properties of fast and slow waves for sample thicknesses ranging from 11.8 mm down to 3.5 mm. Comparisons of the three methods were carried out for phase velocity at the center frequency and the slope of the attenuation coefficient for the fast and slow waves. Good agreement among the three methods was also observed for average signal loss at the center frequency. The Bayesian and MLSP + CF approaches were able to separate the fast and slow waves and provide good estimates of the fast and slow wave properties even when the two wave modes overlapped in both time and frequency domains making conventional analysis methods unreliable. PMID:26328678
Groopman, Amber M; Katz, Jonathan I; Holland, Mark R; Fujita, Fuminori; Matsukawa, Mami; Mizuno, Katsunori; Wear, Keith A; Miller, James G
2015-08-01
Conventional, Bayesian, and the modified least-squares Prony's plus curve-fitting (MLSP + CF) methods were applied to data acquired using 1 MHz center frequency, broadband transducers on a single equine cancellous bone specimen that was systematically shortened from 11.8 mm down to 0.5 mm for a total of 24 sample thicknesses. Due to overlapping fast and slow waves, conventional analysis methods were restricted to data from sample thicknesses ranging from 11.8 mm to 6.0 mm. In contrast, Bayesian and MLSP + CF methods successfully separated fast and slow waves and provided reliable estimates of the ultrasonic properties of fast and slow waves for sample thicknesses ranging from 11.8 mm down to 3.5 mm. Comparisons of the three methods were carried out for phase velocity at the center frequency and the slope of the attenuation coefficient for the fast and slow waves. Good agreement among the three methods was also observed for average signal loss at the center frequency. The Bayesian and MLSP + CF approaches were able to separate the fast and slow waves and provide good estimates of the fast and slow wave properties even when the two wave modes overlapped in both time and frequency domains making conventional analysis methods unreliable.
Determining attenuation properties of interfering fast and slow ultrasonic waves in cancellous bone
Nelson, Amber M.; Hoffman, Joseph J.; Anderson, Christian C.; Holland, Mark R.; Nagatani, Yoshiki; Mizuno, Katsunori; Matsukawa, Mami; Miller, James G.
2011-01-01
Previous studies have shown that interference between fast waves and slow waves can lead to observed negative dispersion in cancellous bone. In this study, the effects of overlapping fast and slow waves on measurements of the apparent attenuation as a function of propagation distance are investigated along with methods of analysis used to determine the attenuation properties. Two methods are applied to simulated data that were generated based on experimentally acquired signals taken from a bovine specimen. The first method uses a time-domain approach that was dictated by constraints imposed by the partial overlap of fast and slow waves. The second method uses a frequency-domain log-spectral subtraction technique on the separated fast and slow waves. Applying the time-domain analysis to the broadband data yields apparent attenuation behavior that is larger in the early stages of propagation and decreases as the wave travels deeper. In contrast, performing frequency-domain analysis on the separated fast waves and slow waves results in attenuation coefficients that are independent of propagation distance. Results suggest that features arising from the analysis of overlapping two-mode data may represent an alternate explanation for the previously reported apparent dependence on propagation distance of the attenuation coefficient of cancellous bone. PMID:21973378
Determining attenuation properties of interfering fast and slow ultrasonic waves in cancellous bone.
Nelson, Amber M; Hoffman, Joseph J; Anderson, Christian C; Holland, Mark R; Nagatani, Yoshiki; Mizuno, Katsunori; Matsukawa, Mami; Miller, James G
2011-10-01
Previous studies have shown that interference between fast waves and slow waves can lead to observed negative dispersion in cancellous bone. In this study, the effects of overlapping fast and slow waves on measurements of the apparent attenuation as a function of propagation distance are investigated along with methods of analysis used to determine the attenuation properties. Two methods are applied to simulated data that were generated based on experimentally acquired signals taken from a bovine specimen. The first method uses a time-domain approach that was dictated by constraints imposed by the partial overlap of fast and slow waves. The second method uses a frequency-domain log-spectral subtraction technique on the separated fast and slow waves. Applying the time-domain analysis to the broadband data yields apparent attenuation behavior that is larger in the early stages of propagation and decreases as the wave travels deeper. In contrast, performing frequency-domain analysis on the separated fast waves and slow waves results in attenuation coefficients that are independent of propagation distance. Results suggest that features arising from the analysis of overlapping two-mode data may represent an alternate explanation for the previously reported apparent dependence on propagation distance of the attenuation coefficient of cancellous bone.
Role of fast waves in the central deposition of lower hybrid power
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heikkinen, J. A.; Tala, T. J. J.; Pättikangas, T. J. H.; Piliya, A. D.; Saveliev, A. N.; Karttunen, S. J.
1999-10-01
In tokamaks, lower hybrid (LH) waves are routinely used for current drive and heating of plasmas. The LH waves have two modes of propagation that are called the slow and the fast wave. Usually, the lower hybrid waves are launched as slow waves into a tokamak, but during the propagation part of the wave power can be transformed to fast waves. General characteristics of the mode transformation of slow waves to fast waves are first investigated with a simple quasitoroidal ray-tracing model. Next, the effect of mode transformed LH power on the deposition profiles in a JET-like tokamak is analysed by using the fast ray-tracing code FRTC. When the launched spectrum is at small values of the toroidal refractive index (1.6 icons/Journals/Common/lesssim" ALT="lesssim" ALIGN="TOP"/> nicons/Journals/Common/phi" ALT="phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0 icons/Journals/Common/lesssim" ALT="lesssim" ALIGN="TOP"/> 2.0), the contribution of the fast wave to the deposited power is found to be significant and responsible for most of the absorption at the centre. When nicons/Journals/Common/phi" ALT="phi" ALIGN="TOP"/>0 is large
Fast wave current drive modeling using the combined RANT3D and PICES Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaeger, E. F.; Murakami, M.; Stallings, D. C.; Carter, M. D.; Wang, C. Y.; Galambos, J. D.; Batchelor, D. B.; Baity, F. W.; Bell, G. L.; Wilgen, J. B.; Chiu, S. C.; DeGrassie, J. S.; Forest, C. B.; Kupfer, K.; Petty, C. C.; Pinsker, R. T.; Prater, R.; Lohr, J.; Lee, K. M.
1996-02-01
Two numerical codes are combined to give a theoretical estimate of the current drive and direct electron heating by fast waves launched from phased antenna arrays on the DIII-D tokamak. Results are compared with experiment.
Control of Laser High-Harmonic Generation with Counterpropagating Light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voronov, S. L.; Kohl, I.; Madsen, J. B.; Simmons, J.; Terry, N.; Titensor, J.; Wang, Q.; Peatross, J.
2001-09-01
Relatively weak counterpropagating light is shown to disrupt the emission of laser high-harmonic generation. Harmonic orders ranging from the teens to the low thirties produced by a 30-femtosecond pulse in a narrow argon jet are ``shut down'' with a contrast as high as 2 orders of magnitude by a chirped 1-picosecond counterpropagating laser pulse (60 times less intense). Alternatively, under poor phase-matching conditions, the counterpropagating light boosts harmonic production by similar contrast through quasiphase matching where out-of-phase emission is suppressed.
High Harmonic Generation from Multiple Orbitals in N2
McFarland, B.; Farrell, Joseph P.; Bucksbaum, Philip H.; Guehr, Markus; /SLAC, Pulse /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2009-03-05
Molecular electronic states energetically below the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) should contribute to laser-driven high harmonic generation (HHG), but this behavior has not been observed previously. Our measurements of the HHG spectrum of N{sub 2} molecules aligned perpendicular to the laser polarization showed a maximum at the rotational half-revival. This feature indicates the influence of electrons occupying the orbital just below the N{sub 2} HOMO, referred to as the HOMO-1. Such observations of lower-lying orbitals are essential to understanding subfemtosecond/subangstrom electronic motion in laser-excited molecules.
High harmonic terahertz confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam
Fu, Wenjie; Guan, Xiaotong; Yan, Yang
2016-01-15
The harmonic confocal gyrotron with nonuniform electron beam is proposed in this paper in order to develop compact and high power terahertz radiation source. A 0.56 THz third harmonic confocal gyrotron with a dual arc section nonuniform electron beam has been designed and investigated. The studies show that confocal cavity has extremely low mode density, and has great advantage to operate at high harmonic. Nonuniform electron beam is an approach to improve output power and interaction efficiency of confocal gyrotron. A dual arc beam magnetron injection gun for designed confocal gyrotron has been developed and presented in this paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnes, A.
1983-01-01
An exact nonlinear solution is found to the relativistic kinetic and electrodynamic equations (in their hydromagnetic limit) that describes the large-amplitude fast-mode magnetoacoustic wave propagating normal to the magnetic field in a collisionless, previously uniform plasma. It is pointed out that a wave of this kind will be generated by transverse compression of any collisionless plasma. The solution is in essence independent of the detailed form of the particle momentum distribution functions. The solution is obtained, in part, through the method of characteristics; the wave exhibits the familiar properties of steepening and shock formation. A detailed analysis is given of the ultrarelativistic limit of this wave.
Observation of fast-ion Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance with shear Alfven waves
Zhang Yang; Heidbrink, W. W.; Boehmer, H.; McWilliams, R.; Vincena, S.; Carter, T. A.; Gekelman, W.; Leneman, D.; Pribyl, P.
2008-10-15
The Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance ({omega}-k{sub z}v{sub z}={omega}{sub f}) between fast ions and shear Alfven waves is experimentally investigated ({omega}, wave frequency; k{sub z}, axial wavenumber; v{sub z}, fast-ion axial speed; {omega}{sub f}, fast-ion cyclotron frequency). A test particle beam of fast ions is launched by a Li{sup +} source in the helium plasma of the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) [W. Gekelman, H. Pfister, Z. Lucky, J. Bamber, D. Leneman, and J. Maggs, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)], with shear Alfven waves (SAW) (amplitude {delta} B/B up to 1%) launched by a loop antenna. A collimated fast-ion energy analyzer measures the nonclassical spreading of the beam, which is proportional to the resonance with the wave. A resonance spectrum is observed by launching SAWs at 0.3-0.8{omega}{sub ci}. Both the magnitude and frequency dependence of the beam-spreading are in agreement with the theoretical prediction using a Monte Carlo Lorentz code that launches fast ions with an initial spread in real/velocity space and random phases relative to the wave. Measured wave magnetic field data are used in the simulation.
Modulational instability of fast magnetosonic waves emitted from a pinching current sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fushiki, Toshiaki; Sakai, Jun-Ichi
1994-03-01
We investigate how fast magnetosonic waves can be produced from a pinching current sheet, by using 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code. We show that after magnetic pinch of the current sheet due to pressure imbalance, the current sheet begins to expand by an excess of plasma pressure at the center of the current sheet. During the expansion phase, strong fast magnetosonic waves can be created at the steep region of the density gradient and propagate away from the current sheet. It is shown that the fast magnetosonic waves become unstable against modulational instability, as found by Sakai (1983). After the emission of the fast magnetosonic waves, the current sheet will relax to a new equilibrium state, where the current sheet can be heated by adiabatic compression. The emission processes of the fast magnetosonic waves from the current sheet, as well as the modulational instability of these waves that can lead to effective plasma heating through the Landau damping of the slow waves, are important for an understanding of coronal heating and coronal transient brightening.
Jaffe, Lionel F
2007-03-01
For nearly 30 years, fast calcium waves have been attributed to a regenerative process propagated by CICR (calcium-induced calcium release) from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, I propose a model containing a new subclass of fast calcium waves which is propagated by CICI (calcium-induced calcium influx) through the plasma membrane. They are called fast CICI waves. These move at the order of 100 to 1000 microm/s (at 20 degrees C), rather than the order of 3 to 30 microm/s found for CICR. Moreover, in this proposed subclass, the calcium influx which drives calcium waves is relayed by stretch-activated calcium channels. This model is based upon reports from approx. 60 various systems. In seven of these reports, calcium waves were imaged, and, in five of these, evidence was presented that these waves were regenerated by CICI. Much of this model involves waves that move along functioning flagella and cilia. In these systems, waves of local calcium influx are thought to cause waves of local contraction by inducing the sliding of dynein or of kinesin past tubulin microtubules. Other cells which are reported to exhibit waves, which move at speeds in the fast CICI range, include ones from a dozen protozoa, three polychaete worms, three molluscs, a bryozoan, two sea urchins, one arthropod, four insects, Amphioxus, frogs, two fish and a vascular plant (Equisetum), together with numerous healthy, as well as cancerous, mammalian cells, including ones from human. In two of these systems, very gentle local mechanical stimulation is reported to initiate waves. In these non-flagellar systems, the calcium influxes are thought to speed the sliding of actinomyosin filaments past each other. Finally, I propose that this mechanochemical model could be tested by seeing if gentle mechanical stimulation induces waves in more of these systems and, more importantly, by imaging the predicted calcium waves in more of them.
Anisotropic high-harmonic generation in bulk crystals
You, Yong Sing; Reis, David A.; Ghimire, Shambhu
2016-11-21
The microscopic valence electron density determines the optical, electronic, structural and thermal properties of materials. However, current techniques for measuring this electron charge density are limited: for example, scanning tunnelling microscopy is confined to investigations at the surface, and electron diffraction requires very thin samples to avoid multiple scattering. Therefore, an optical method is desirable for measuring the valence charge density of bulk materials. Since the discovery of high-harmonic generation (HHG) in solids, there has been growing interest in using HHG to probe the electronic structure of solids. Here, using single-crystal MgO, we demonstrate that high-harmonic generation in solids ismore » sensitive to interatomic bonding. We find that harmonic efficiency is enhanced (diminished) for semi-classical electron trajectories that connect (avoid) neighbouring atomic sites in the crystal. Finally, these results indicate the possibility of using materials’ own electrons for retrieving the interatomic potential and thus the valence electron density, and perhaps even wavefunctions, in an all-optical setting.« less
Anisotropic high-harmonic generation in bulk crystals
You, Yong Sing; Reis, David A.; Ghimire, Shambhu
2016-11-21
The microscopic valence electron density determines the optical, electronic, structural and thermal properties of materials. However, current techniques for measuring this electron charge density are limited: for example, scanning tunnelling microscopy is confined to investigations at the surface, and electron diffraction requires very thin samples to avoid multiple scattering. Therefore, an optical method is desirable for measuring the valence charge density of bulk materials. Since the discovery of high-harmonic generation (HHG) in solids, there has been growing interest in using HHG to probe the electronic structure of solids. Here, using single-crystal MgO, we demonstrate that high-harmonic generation in solids is sensitive to interatomic bonding. We find that harmonic efficiency is enhanced (diminished) for semi-classical electron trajectories that connect (avoid) neighbouring atomic sites in the crystal. Finally, these results indicate the possibility of using materials’ own electrons for retrieving the interatomic potential and thus the valence electron density, and perhaps even wavefunctions, in an all-optical setting.
MODELING SUPER-FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVES OBSERVED BY SDO IN ACTIVE REGION FUNNELS
Ofman, L.; Liu, W.; Title, A.; Aschwanden, M.
2011-10-20
Recently, quasi-periodic, rapidly propagating waves have been observed in extreme ultraviolet by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument in about 10 flare/coronal mass ejection (CME) events thus far. A typical example is the 2010 August 1 C3.2 flare/CME event that exhibited arc-shaped wave trains propagating in an active region (AR) magnetic funnel with {approx}5% intensity variations at speeds in the range of 1000-2000 km s{sup -1}. The fast temporal cadence and high sensitivity of AIA enabled the detection of these waves. We identify them as fast magnetosonic waves driven quasi-periodically at the base of the flaring region and develop a three-dimensional MHD model of the event. For the initial state we utilize the dipole magnetic field to model the AR and include gravitationally stratified density at coronal temperature. At the coronal base of the AR, we excite the fast magnetosonic wave by periodic velocity pulsations in the photospheric plane confined to a funnel of magnetic field lines. The excited fast magnetosonic waves have similar amplitude, wavelength, and propagation speeds as the observed wave trains. Based on the simulation results, we discuss the possible excitation mechanism of the waves, their dynamical properties, and the use of the observations for coronal MHD seismology.
Mode conversion of fast Alfvén waves at the ion-ion hybrid resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ram, A. K.; Bers, A.; Schultz, S. D.; Fuchs, V.
1996-05-01
Substantial radio-frequency power in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies can be effectively coupled to a tokamak plasma from poloidal current strap antennas at the plasma edge. If there exists an ion-ion hybrid resonance inside the plasma, then some of the power from the antenna, delivered into the plasma by fast Alfvén waves, can be mode converted to ion-Bernstein waves. In tokamak confinement fields the mode-converted ion-Bernstein waves can damp effectively and locally on electrons [A. K. Ram and A. Bers, Phys. Fluids B 3, 1059 (1991)]. The usual mode-conversion analysis that studies the propagation of fast Alfvén waves in the immediate vicinity of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is extended to include the propagation and reflection of the fast Alfvén waves on the high magnetic-field side of the ion-ion hybrid resonance. It is shown that there exist plasma conditions for which the entire fast Alfvén wave power incident on the ion-ion hybrid resonance can be converted to ion-Bernstein waves. In this extended analysis of the mode conversion process, the fast Alfvén waves can be envisioned as being coupled to an internal plasma resonator. This resonator extends from the low magnetic-field cutoff near the ion-ion hybrid resonance to the high magnetic-field cutoff. The condition for 100% mode conversion corresponds to a critical coupling of the fast Alfvén waves to this internal resonator. As an example, the appropriate plasma conditions for 100% mode conversion are determined for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [R. Majeski et al., Proceedings of the 11th Topical Conference on RF Power in Plasmas, Palm Springs (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1995), Vol. 355, p. 63] experimental parameters.
Effect of synergistic alpha current on the fast wave current drive
Chang, C.S. |; Van Eester, D.
1996-02-01
The traveling fast wave used to drive electron current can interact with the energetic alpha particles through ICRH and generate alpha current. The efficiency of the alpha current can be comparable to that of the electron FWCD, but the radial dependence can be quite different. The synergism can be constructive or destructive. Desirable wave frequency and parallel wave number are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Parasitic effects of ion absorption on fast wave current drive in TPX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moroz, P. E.; Batchelor, D. B.; Jaeger, E. F.; Mau, T. K.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Porkolab, M.
1994-10-01
Parasitic effects of ion absorption on fast wave current drive (FWCD) in TPX have been studied analytically and numerically. Main emphasis has been given to FWCD at frequencies, f=40-110 MHz, in deuterium plasma. The general ion cyclotron harmonic resonances of all plasma species (including neutral injected fast ions) were considered. Fast wave power deposition, power partition between various plasma components, and the resulting current drive efficiency were calculated. The results presented show that the current drive efficiency can be adversely affected by parasitic ion absorption. Favorable current drive scenarios were identified.
Research on fast rise time EMP radiating-wave simulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Lisi; Liu, Haitao; Wang, Yun
2013-03-01
This paper presents an antenna of High altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) radiating-wave simulator which expands the testing zone larger than the traditional transmission line simulator. The numerical results show that traverse electramagnetic (TEM) antenna can be used to radiate HEMP simulation radiating wave, but in low frequency band the emissive capability is poor. The experiment proves the numerical model is valid. The results of this paper show that TEM antenna can be used to HEMP radiating-wave simulator, and can prove the low frequency radiation capability through resistance loaded method.
Lashkari, Bahman; Manbachi, Amir; Mandelis, Andreas; Cobbold, Richard S C
2012-09-01
The identification of fast and slow waves propagating through trabecular bone is a challenging task due to temporal wave overlap combined with the high attenuation of the fast wave in the presence of noise. However, it can provide valuable information about bone integrity and become a means for monitoring osteoporosis. The objective of this work is to apply different coded excitation methods for this purpose. The results for single-sine cycle pulse, Golay code, and chirp excitations are compared. It is shown that Golay code is superior to the other techniques due to its signal enhancement while exhibiting excellent resolution without the ambiguity of sidelobes.
3D WKB solution for fast magnetoacoustic wave behaviour around an X-line
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McLaughlin, J. A.; Botha, G. J. J.; Régnier, S.; Spoors, D. L.
2016-06-01
Context. We study the propagation of a fast magnetoacoustic wave in a 3D magnetic field created from two magnetic dipoles. The magnetic topology contains an X-line. Aims: We aim to contribute to the overall understanding of MHD wave propagation within inhomogeneous media, specifically around X-lines. Methods: We investigate the linearised, 3D MHD equations under the assumptions of ideal and cold plasma. We utilise the WKB approximation and Charpit's method during our investigation. Results: It is found that the behaviour of the fast magnetoacoustic wave is entirely dictated by the local, inhomogeneous, equilibrium Alfvén speed profile. All parts of the wave experience refraction during propagation, where the magnitude of the refraction effect depends on the location of an individual wave element within the inhomogeneous magnetic field. The X-line, along which the Alfvén speed is identically zero, acts as a focus for the refraction effect. There are two main types of wave behaviour: part of the wave is either trapped by the X-line or escapes the system, and there exists a critical starting region around the X-line that divides these two types of behaviour. For the set-up investigated, it is found that 15.5% of the fast wave energy is trapped by the X-line. Conclusions: We conclude that linear, β = 0 fast magnetoacoustic waves can accumulate along X-lines and thus these will be specific locations of fast wave energy deposition and thus preferential heating. The work here highlights the importance of understanding the magnetic topology of a system. We also demonstrate how the 3D WKB technique described in this paper can be applied to other magnetic configurations.
High harmonic generation in underdense plasmas by intense laser pulses with orbital angular momentum
Mendonça, J. T.; Vieira, J.
2015-12-15
We study high harmonic generation produced by twisted laser pulses, with orbital angular momentum in the relativistic regime, for pulse propagation in underdense plasma. We consider fast time scale processes associated with an ultra-short pulse, where the ion motion can be neglected. We use both analytical models and numerical simulations using a relativistic particle-in-cell code. The present description is valid for relativistic laser intensities, when the normalized field amplitude is much larger than one, a ≫ 1. We also discuss two distinct processes associated with linear and circular polarization. Using both analytical solutions and particle-in-cell simulations, we are able to show that, for laser pulses in a well defined Laguerre-Gauss mode, angular momentum conservation is observed during the process of harmonic generation. Intensity modulation of the harmonic spectrum is also verified, as imposed by the nonlinear time-scale for energy transfer between different harmonics.
Wear, Keith A
2013-04-01
The presence of two longitudinal waves in poroelastic media is predicted by Biot's theory and has been confirmed experimentally in through-transmission measurements in cancellous bone. Estimation of attenuation coefficients and velocities of the two waves is challenging when the two waves overlap in time. The modified least squares Prony's (MLSP) method in conjuction with curve-fitting (MLSP + CF) is tested using simulations based on published values for fast and slow wave attenuation coefficients and velocities in cancellous bone from several studies in bovine femur, human femur, and human calcaneus. The search algorithm is accelerated by exploiting correlations among search parameters. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). For a typical experimental SNR (40 dB), the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) for one example (human femur) with fast and slow waves separated by approximately half of a pulse duration were 1 m/s (slow wave velocity), 4 m/s (fast wave velocity), 0.4 dB/cm MHz (slow wave attenuation slope), and 1.7 dB/cm MHz (fast wave attenuation slope). The MLSP + CF method is fast (requiring less than 2 s at SNR = 40 dB on a consumer-grade notebook computer) and is flexible with respect to the functional form of the parametric model for the transmission coefficient. The MLSP + CF method provides sufficient accuracy and precision for many applications such that experimental error is a greater limiting factor than estimation error.
Polarization gating of high harmonic generation in the water window
Li, Jie; Ren, Xiaoming; Yin, Yanchun; Cheng, Yan; Cunningham, Eric; Wu, Yi; Chang, Zenghu
2016-06-06
We implement the polarization gating (PG) technique with a two-cycle, 1.7 μm driving field to generate an attosecond supercontinuum extending to the water window spectral region. The ellipticity dependence of the high harmonic yield over a photon energy range much broader than previous work is measured and compared with a semi-classical model. When PG is applied, the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) is swept to study its influence on the continuum generation. PG with one-cycle (5.7 fs) and two-cycle (11.3 fs) delay are tested, and both give continuous spectra spanning from 50 to 450 eV under certain CEP values, strongly indicating the generation of isolated attosecond pulses in the water window region.
Creating High-Harmonic Beams with Controlled Orbital Angular Momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyd, Robert W.
A beam of light with an angle-dependent phase Φ = lϕ , where ϕ is the azimuthal coordinate, about the beam axis carries an orbital angular momentum (OAM) of lℏ per photon. Such beams have been exploited to provide superresolution in visible-light microscopy. The ability to create extreme ultraviolet or soft-x-ray beams with controllable OAM would be a critical step towards extending superresolution methods to extremely small feature size. Here we show that OAM is conserved during the process of high-harmonic generation (HHG). Experimentally, we use a fundamental beam with l = 1 and interferometrically determine that the q-th harmonic has an OAM quantum number l equal to its harmonic order q. We also show theoretically how to couple an arbitrary low value of the OAM quantum number l to any harmonic order q in a controlled manner. Our results open a route to microscopy on the molecular, or even submolecular, scale.
High-Harmonic Generation Enhanced by Dynamical Electron Correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tikhomirov, Iliya; Sato, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Kenichi L.
2017-05-01
We theoretically study multielectron effects in high-harmonic generation (HHG), using all-electron first-principles simulations for a one-dimensional model atom. In addition to the usual plateau and cutoff (from a cation in the present case, since the neutral is immediately ionized), we find a prominent resonance peak far above the plateau and a second plateau extended beyond the first cutoff. These features originate from the dication response enhanced by orders of magnitude due to the action of the Coulomb force from the rescattering electron, and, hence, are a clear manifestation of electron correlation. Although the present simulations are done in 1D, the physical mechanism underlying the dramatic enhancement is expected to hold also for three-dimensional real systems. This will provide new possibilities to explore dynamical electron correlation in intense laser fields using HHG, which is usually considered to be of single-electron nature in most cases.
Creating high-harmonic beams with controlled orbital angular momentum.
Gariepy, Genevieve; Leach, Jonathan; Kim, Kyung Taec; Hammond, T J; Frumker, E; Boyd, Robert W; Corkum, P B
2014-10-10
A beam with an angular-dependant phase Φ = ℓϕ about the beam axis carries an orbital angular momentum of ℓℏ per photon. Such beams are exploited to provide superresolution in microscopy. Creating extreme ultraviolet or soft-x-ray beams with controllable orbital angular momentum is a critical step towards extending superresolution to much higher spatial resolution. We show that orbital angular momentum is conserved during high-harmonic generation. Experimentally, we use a fundamental beam with |ℓ| = 1 and interferometrically determine that the harmonics each have orbital angular momentum equal to their harmonic number. Theoretically, we show how any small value of orbital angular momentum can be coupled to any harmonic in a controlled manner. Our results open a route to microscopy on the molecular, or even submolecular, scale.
Creating High-Harmonic Beams with Controlled Orbital Angular Momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gariepy, Genevieve; Leach, Jonathan; Kim, Kyung Taec; Hammond, T. J.; Frumker, E.; Boyd, Robert W.; Corkum, P. B.
2014-10-01
A beam with an angular-dependant phase Φ =ℓϕ about the beam axis carries an orbital angular momentum of ℓℏ per photon. Such beams are exploited to provide superresolution in microscopy. Creating extreme ultraviolet or soft-x-ray beams with controllable orbital angular momentum is a critical step towards extending superresolution to much higher spatial resolution. We show that orbital angular momentum is conserved during high-harmonic generation. Experimentally, we use a fundamental beam with |ℓ|=1 and interferometrically determine that the harmonics each have orbital angular momentum equal to their harmonic number. Theoretically, we show how any small value of orbital angular momentum can be coupled to any harmonic in a controlled manner. Our results open a route to microscopy on the molecular, or even submolecular, scale.
Exchange-correlation asymptotics and high harmonic spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mack, Michael R.; Whitenack, Daniel; Wasserman, Adam
2013-02-01
High harmonic spectra of N2 are calculated using time-dependent density functional theory. The adiabatic local density approximation (A-LDA) and the adiabatic van Leeuwen-Baerends (A-LB94) approximations are used to study effects of differing spatial asymptotics. The LB94 potential corrects the LDA potential to the exact -1/r decay, but does not satisfy the zero-force condition. The A-LB94 makes a significant change in ionization probabilities but not in the relevant orbital contributions to ionization. This leads to qualitatively similar spectra, the exception being harmonic intensities. We also discuss why spurious dipoles induced by the A-LB94 do not affect significantly the structure of the N2 harmonic spectrum.
Inverse Bremsstrahlung and High Harmonic Generation in Clusters and Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greene, Chris
2006-05-01
Clusters exposed to radiation from an intense VUV free-electron laser have been observed to absorb copious amounts of energy, which has been somewhat of a surprise. Different models by competing theory groups have proposed more than one mechanism for the energy absorption. We have studied the effect of incorporating a realistic atomic screening potential on the free-free or inverse bremsstrahlung absorption rate, and found important differences that emerge, compared to simpler hydrogenic models that are frequently adopted. In a separate project to be discussed at the meeting, some of the physical issues involved in high-harmonic generation from diatomic and polyatomic molecules will be assessed. These include the importance of treating the electron scattering from the molecular ion at a nonperturbative level of approximation, as well as the possible role of Jahn-Teller physics when the molecule possesses a high degree of symmetry. This theoretical project involves collaborative contributions from Zachary Walters, Stefano Tonzani, and Robin Santra.
A fast algorithm for the simulation of arterial pulse waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Tao; Hu, Dan; Cai, David
2016-06-01
One-dimensional models have been widely used in studies of the propagation of blood pulse waves in large arterial trees. Under a periodic driving of the heartbeat, traditional numerical methods, such as the Lax-Wendroff method, are employed to obtain asymptotic periodic solutions at large times. However, these methods are severely constrained by the CFL condition due to large pulse wave speed. In this work, we develop a new numerical algorithm to overcome this constraint. First, we reformulate the model system of pulse wave propagation using a set of Riemann variables and derive a new form of boundary conditions at the inlet, the outlets, and the bifurcation points of the arterial tree. The new form of the boundary conditions enables us to design a convergent iterative method to enforce the boundary conditions. Then, after exchanging the spatial and temporal coordinates of the model system, we apply the Lax-Wendroff method in the exchanged coordinate system, which turns the large pulse wave speed from a liability to a benefit, to solve the wave equation in each artery of the model arterial system. Our numerical studies show that our new algorithm is stable and can perform ∼15 times faster than the traditional implementation of the Lax-Wendroff method under the requirement that the relative numerical error of blood pressure be smaller than one percent, which is much smaller than the modeling error.
Fast wave dispersion, damping, and electron current drive in the Irvine torus
Platt, R.C.; McWilliams, R.
1987-09-01
Fast waves with frequencies near the mean gyrofrequency were excited in a toroidal magnetized plasma. Experimental measurements of wave dispersion were found to be in good agreement with predictions from cold plasma theory. Experimental measurements of wave damping lengths have been made. Measured damping lengths were found to be anomalously short when compared to predictions for electron Landau-damping, transit-time magnetic pumping and collisional damping. Unidirectional fast waves drove steady-state electron currents. Peak efficiencies up to eta = InR/P = 6 x 10/sup -2/ A/W(10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/)m were observed with up to 14% of the wave energy converted to poloidal magnetic field energy.
Resonant Alfven wave instabilities driven by streaming fast particles
Zachary, A.
1987-05-08
A plasma simulation code is used to study the resonant interactions between streaming ions and Alfven waves. The medium which supports the Alfven waves is treated as a single, one-dimensional, ideal MHD fluid, while the ions are treated as kinetic particles. The code is used to study three ion distributions: a cold beam; a monoenergetic shell; and a drifting distribution with a power-law dependence on momentum. These distributions represent: the field-aligned beams upstream of the earth's bow shock; the diffuse ions upstream of the bow shock; and the cosmic ray distribution function near a supernova remnant shock. 92 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.
Coronal quasi-periodic fast-propagating magnetosonic waves observed by SDO/AIA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yuandeng
Coronal quasi-periodic fast-propagating (QFP) magnetosonic waves are scare in previous studies due to the relative low temporal and spatial resolution of past telescopes. Recently, they are detected by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Here, two cases of QFP waves are presented. The analysis results indicate that QFP waves are tightly associated with the associated flares. It is indicate that QFP waves and the associated flares are possibly driven by the same physic process such as quasi-periodic magnetic reconnection process in producing flares.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, S.
2015-12-01
There are many energetic electrons in the radiation belt of Earth. When the geomagnetic activity becomes stronger, the energy flux of energetic electrons will increase to more than ten times in the outer radiation belt, therefore it is very important to study how the energetic electrons generate and the lifetime of energetic electrons for space weather research. The acceleration of electrons in radiation belt is mainly depending on wave-particle interaction: the whistler mode chorus is the main driver for local acceleration mechanism, which could accelerate and loss energetic electrons; the geomagnetic pulsation ULF wave will cause energetic electron inward radial diffusion which will charge the electrons; recently observation results show us that the fast magnetosonic waves may also accelerate energetic electrons. For the reason that we try to study the wave-particle interaction between fast Magnetosonic and energetic electrons based on numerical simulation, in which the most important past is at the storm time the combination of highly warped Earth magnetic field and fast magnetosonic wave field will be applied for the electromagnetic environment of moving test particles. The energy, pitch angle and cross diffusion coefficients will be calculated respectively in this simulation to study how the electrons receive energy from fast magnetosonic wave. The diffusion coefficients within different dipole Earth magnetic field and non-dipole storm magnetic field are compared, while dynamics of electrons at selected initial energys are shown in our study.
Acceleration of the Fast Solar Wind by Solitary Waves in Coronal Holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ofman, Leon
2001-01-01
The purpose of this investigation is to develop a new model for the acceleration of the fast solar wind by nonlinear. time-dependent multidimensional MHD simulations of waves in solar coronal holes. Preliminary computational studies indicate that nonlinear waves are generated in coronal holes by torsional Alfv\\'{e}n waves. These waves in addition to thermal conduction may contribute considerably to the accelerate the solar wind. Specific goals of this proposal are to investigate the generation of nonlinear solitary-like waves and their effect on solar wind acceleration by numerical 2.5D MHD simulation of coronal holes with a broad range of plasma and wave parameters; to study the effect of random disturbances at the base of a solar coronal hole on the fast solar wind acceleration with a more advanced 2.5D MHD model and to compare the results with the available observations; to extend the study to a full 3D MHD simulation of fast solar wind acceleration with a more realistic model of a coronal hole and solar boundary conditions. The ultimate goal of the three year study is to model the, fast solar wind in a coronal hole, based on realistic boundary conditions in a coronal hole near the Sun, and the coronal hole structure (i.e., density, temperature. and magnetic field geometry,) that will become available from the recently launched SOHO spacecraft.
Acceleration of the Fast Solar Wind by Solitary Waves in Coronal Holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ofman, Leon
2000-01-01
The purpose of this investigation is to develop a new model for the acceleration of the fast solar wind by nonlinear, time-dependent multidimensional MHD simulations of waves in solar coronal holes. Preliminary computational studies indicate that solitary-like waves are generated in coronal holes nonlinearly by torsional Alfven waves. These waves in addition to thermal conduction may contribute considerably to the accelerate the solar wind. Specific goals of this proposal are to investigate the generation of nonlinear solitary-like waves and their effect on solar wind acceleration by numerical 2.5D MHD simulation of coronal holes with a broad range of plasma and wave parameters; to study the effect of random disturbances at the base of a solar coronal hole on the fast solar wind acceleration with a more advanced 2.5D MHD model and to compare the results with the available observations; to extend the study to a full 3D MHD simulation of fast solar wind acceleration with a more realistic model of a coronal hole and solar boundary conditions. The ultimate goal of the three year study is to model the fast solar wind in a coronal hole, based on realistic boundary conditions in a coronal hole near the Sun, and the coronal hole structure (i.e., density, temperature, and magnetic field geometry) that will become available from the recently launched SOHO spacecraft.
Taki, Hirofumi; Nagatani, Yoshiki; Matsukawa, Mami; Mizuno, Katsunori; Sato, Toru
2015-04-01
The received signal in through-transmission ultrasound measurements of cancellous bone consists of two longitudinal waves, called the fast and slow waves. Analysis of these fast and slow waves may reveal characteristics of the cancellous bone that would be good indicators of osteoporosis. Because the two waves often overlap, decomposition of the received signal is an important problem in the characterization of bone quality. This study proposes a fast and accurate decomposition method based on the frequency domain interferometry imaging method with a modified wave transfer function that uses a phase rotation parameter. The proposed method accurately characterized the fast and slow waves in the experimental study, and the residual intensity, which was normalized with respect to the received signal intensity, was less than -20 dB over the bone specimen thickness range from 6 to 15 mm. In the simulation study, the residual intensity was less than -20 dB over the specimen thickness range from 3 to 8 mm. Decomposition of a single received signal takes only 5 s using a laptop personal computer with a single central processing unit. The proposed method has great potential to provide accurate and rapid measurements of indicators of osteoporosis in cancellous bone.
Hoffman, Joseph J; Nelson, Amber M; Holland, Mark R; Miller, James G
2012-09-01
A Bayesian probability theory approach for separating overlapping ultrasonic fast and slow waves in cancellous bone has been previously introduced. The goals of this study were to investigate whether the fast and slow waves obtained from Bayesian separation of an apparently single mode signal individually correlate with porosity and to isolate the fast and slow waves from medial-lateral insonification of the calcaneus. The Bayesian technique was applied to trabecular bone data from eight human calcanei insonified in the medial-lateral direction. The phase velocity, slope of attenuation (nBUA), and amplitude were determined for both the fast and slow waves. The porosity was assessed by micro-computed tomography (microCT) and ranged from 78.7% to 94.1%. The method successfully separated the fast and slow waves from medial-lateral insonification of the calcaneus. The phase velocity for both the fast and slow wave modes showed an inverse correlation with porosity (R(2) = 0.73 and R(2) = 0.86, respectively). The slope of attenuation for both wave modes also had a negative correlation with porosity (fast wave: R(2) = 0.73, slow wave: R(2) = 0.53). The fast wave amplitude decreased with increasing porosity (R(2) = 0.66). Conversely, the slow wave amplitude modestly increased with increasing porosity (R(2) = 0.39).
Hoffman, Joseph J.; Nelson, Amber M.; Holland, Mark R.; Miller, James G.
2012-01-01
A Bayesian probability theory approach for separating overlapping ultrasonic fast and slow waves in cancellous bone has been previously introduced. The goals of this study were to investigate whether the fast and slow waves obtained from Bayesian separation of an apparently single mode signal individually correlate with porosity and to isolate the fast and slow waves from medial-lateral insonification of the calcaneus. The Bayesian technique was applied to trabecular bone data from eight human calcanei insonified in the medial-lateral direction. The phase velocity, slope of attenuation (nBUA), and amplitude were determined for both the fast and slow waves. The porosity was assessed by micro-computed tomography (microCT) and ranged from 78.7% to 94.1%. The method successfully separated the fast and slow waves from medial-lateral insonification of the calcaneus. The phase velocity for both the fast and slow wave modes showed an inverse correlation with porosity (R2 = 0.73 and R2 = 0.86, respectively). The slope of attenuation for both wave modes also had a negative correlation with porosity (fast wave: R2 = 0.73, slow wave: R2 = 0.53). The fast wave amplitude decreased with increasing porosity (R2 = 0.66). Conversely, the slow wave amplitude modestly increased with increasing porosity (R2 = 0.39). PMID:22978910
A Fast and Reliable Method for Surface Wave Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barmin, M. P.; Ritzwoller, M. H.; Levshin, A. L.
- We describe a method to invert regional or global scale surface-wave group or phase-velocity measurements to estimate 2-D models of the distribution and strength of isotropic and azimuthally anisotropic velocity variations. Such maps have at least two purposes in monitoring the nuclear Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT): (1) They can be used as data to estimate the shear velocity of the crust and uppermost mantle and topography on internal interfaces which are important in event location, and (2) they can be used to estimate surface-wave travel-time correction surfaces to be used in phase-matched filters designed to extract low signal-to-noise surface-wave packets.The purpose of this paper is to describe one useful path through the large number of options available in an inversion of surface-wave data. Our method appears to provide robust and reliable dispersion maps on both global and regional scales. The technique we describe has a number of features that have motivated its development and commend its use: (1) It is developed in a spherical geometry; (2) the region of inference is defined by an arbitrary simple closed curve so that the method works equally well on local, regional, or global scales; (3) spatial smoothness and model amplitude constraints can be applied simultaneously; (4) the selection of model regularization and the smoothing parameters is highly flexible which allows for the assessment of the effect of variations in these parameters; (5) the method allows for the simultaneous estimation of spatial resolution and amplitude bias of the images; and (6) the method optionally allows for the estimation of azimuthal anisotropy.We present examples of the application of this technique to observed surface-wave group and phase velocities globally and regionally across Eurasia and Antarctica.
Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Ruizhu; Hartlep, Thomas; Kosovichev, Alexander G.
2015-08-10
Helioseismic and magnetohydrodynamic waves are abundant in and above sunspots. Through cross-correlating oscillation signals in the photosphere observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, we reconstruct how waves propagate away from virtual wave sources located inside a sunspot. In addition to the usual helioseismic wave, a fast-moving wave is detected traveling along the sunspot’s radial direction from the umbra to about 15 Mm beyond the sunspot boundary. The wave has a frequency range of 2.5–4.0 mHz with a phase velocity of 45.3 km s{sup −1}, substantially faster than the typical speeds of Alfvén and magnetoacoustic waves in the photosphere. The observed phenomenon is consistent with a scenario of that a magnetoacoustic wave is excited at approximately 5 Mm beneath the sunspot. Its wavefront travels to and sweeps across the photosphere with a speed higher than the local magnetoacoustic speed. The fast-moving wave, if truly excited beneath the sunspot’s surface, will help open a new window for studying the internal structure and dynamics of sunspots.
Fast Multiscale Algorithms for Wave Propagation in Heterogeneous Environments
2016-01-07
SIAM J Scientific Computing (08 2013) Xi Chen, Daniel Appelo, Thomas Hagstrom. A Hybrid Hermite - Discontinuous Galerkin Method forHyperbolic Systems...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The objective of this research project was to further develop and integrate numerical methods for the fast and accurate...seek methods which are not only efficient, but which are reliable in that both their stability and the accuracy of the results are essentially
Baykusheva, Denitsa; Kraus, Peter M; Zhang, Song Bin; Rohringer, Nina; Wörner, Hans Jakob
2014-01-01
The sensitivities of high-harmonic generation (HHG) and strong-field ionization (SFI) to coupled electronic and nuclear dynamics are studied, using the nitric oxide (NO) molecule as an example. A coherent superposition of electronic and rotational states of NO is prepared by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering and probed by simultaneous detection of HHG and SFI yields. We observe a fourfold higher sensitivity of high-harmonic generation to electronic dynamics and attribute it to the presence of inelastic quantum paths connecting coherently related electronic states [Kraus et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.111, 243005 (2013)]. Whereas different harmonic orders display very different sensitivities to rotational or electronic dynamics, strong-field ionization is found to be most sensitive to electronic motion. We introduce a general theoretical formalism for high-harmonic generation from coupled nuclear-electronic wave packets. We show that the unequal sensitivities of different harmonic orders to electronic or rotational dynamics result from the angle dependence of the photorecombination matrix elements which encode several autoionizing and shape resonances in the photoionization continuum of NO. We further study the dependence of rotational and electronic coherences on the intensity of the excitation pulse and support the observations with calculations.
Resolving Multiple Molecular Orbitals Using Two-Dimensional High-Harmonic Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yun, Hyeok; Lee, Kyung-Min; Sung, Jae Hee; Kim, Kyung Taec; Kim, Hyung Taek; Nam, Chang Hee
2015-04-01
High-harmonic radiation emitted from molecules in a strong laser field contains information on molecular structure and dynamics. When multiple molecular orbitals participate in high-harmonic generation, resolving the contribution of each orbital is crucial for understanding molecular dynamics and for extending high-harmonic spectroscopy to more complicated molecules. We show that two-dimensional high-harmonic spectroscopy can resolve high-harmonic radiation emitted from the two highest-occupied molecular orbitals, HOMO and HOMO-1, of aligned molecules. By the application of an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field that consists of the fundamental and its second-harmonic fields to aligned CO2 molecules, the characteristics attributed to the two orbitals are found to be separately imprinted in odd and even harmonics. Two-dimensional high-harmonic spectroscopy may open a new route to investigate ultrafast molecular dynamics during chemical processes.
Resolving multiple molecular orbitals using two-dimensional high-harmonic spectroscopy.
Yun, Hyeok; Lee, Kyung-Min; Sung, Jae Hee; Kim, Kyung Taec; Kim, Hyung Taek; Nam, Chang Hee
2015-04-17
High-harmonic radiation emitted from molecules in a strong laser field contains information on molecular structure and dynamics. When multiple molecular orbitals participate in high-harmonic generation, resolving the contribution of each orbital is crucial for understanding molecular dynamics and for extending high-harmonic spectroscopy to more complicated molecules. We show that two-dimensional high-harmonic spectroscopy can resolve high-harmonic radiation emitted from the two highest-occupied molecular orbitals, HOMO and HOMO-1, of aligned molecules. By the application of an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field that consists of the fundamental and its second-harmonic fields to aligned CO2 molecules, the characteristics attributed to the two orbitals are found to be separately imprinted in odd and even harmonics. Two-dimensional high-harmonic spectroscopy may open a new route to investigate ultrafast molecular dynamics during chemical processes.
Population of vibrational levels of carbon dioxide by cylindrical fast ionization wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levko, Dmitry; Pachuilo, Michael; Raja, Laxminarayan L.
2017-09-01
The population of vibrational levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) by a cylindrical fast ionization wave is analyzed using a one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo collisions model. The model takes into account the inelastic electron-neutral collisions as well as the super-elastic collisions between electrons and excited species. We observe an efficient population of only the first two levels of the symmetric and asymmetric vibrational modes of CO2 by means of a fast ionization wave. The excitation of other higher vibrational modes by the fast ionization wave is inefficient. Additionally, we observe a strong influence of the secondary electron emission on the population of vibrational states of CO2. This effect is associated with the kinetics of high energy electrons generated in the cathode sheath.
Fast neural solution of a nonlinear wave equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Toomarian, Nikzad; Barhen, Jacob
1992-01-01
A neural algorithm for rapidly simulating a certain class of nonlinear wave phenomena using analog VLSI neural hardware is presented and applied to the Korteweg-de Vries partial differential equation. The corresponding neural architecture is obtained from a pseudospectral representation of the spatial dependence, along with a leap-frog scheme for the temporal evolution. Numerical simulations demonstrated the robustness of the proposed approach.
Fast neural solution of a nonlinear wave equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Toomarian, Nikzad; Barhen, Jacob
1992-01-01
A neural algorithm for rapidly simulating a certain class of nonlinear wave phenomena using analog VLSI neural hardware is presented and applied to the Korteweg-de Vries partial differential equation. The corresponding neural architecture is obtained from a pseudospectral representation of the spatial dependence, along with a leap-frog scheme for the temporal evolution. Numerical simulations demonstrated the robustness of the proposed approach.
Fast algorithm for calculation of the moving tsunami wave height
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krivorotko, Olga; Kabanikhin, Sergey
2014-05-01
One of the most urgent problems of mathematical tsunami modeling is estimation of a tsunami wave height while a wave approaches to the coastal zone. There are two methods for solving this problem, namely, Airy-Green formula in one-dimensional case ° --- S(x) = S(0) 4 H(0)/H (x), and numerical solution of an initial-boundary value problem for linear shallow water equations ( { ηtt = div (gH (x,y)gradη), (x,y,t) ∈ ΩT := Ω ×(0,T); ( η|t=0 = q(x,y), ηt|t=0 = 0, (x,y ) ∈ Ω := (0,Lx)× (0,Ly ); (1) η|δΩT = 0. Here η(x,y,t) is the free water surface vertical displacement, H(x,y) is the depth at point (x,y), q(x,y) is the initial amplitude of a tsunami wave, S(x) is a moving tsunami wave height at point x. The main difficulty problem of tsunami modeling is a very big size of the computational domain ΩT. The calculation of the function η(x,y,t) of three variables in ΩT requires large computing resources. We construct a new algorithm to solve numerically the problem of determining the moving tsunami wave height which is based on kinematic-type approach and analytical representation of fundamental solution (2). The wave is supposed to be generated by the seismic fault of the bottom η(x,y,0) = g(y) ·θ(x), where θ(x) is a Heaviside theta-function. Let τ(x,y) be a solution of the eikonal equation 1 τ2x +τ2y = --, gH (x,y) satisfying initial conditions τ(0,y) = 0 and τx(0,y) = (gH (0,y))-1/2. Introducing new variables and new functions: ° -- z = τ(x,y), u(z,y,t) = ηt(x,y,t), b(z,y) = gH(x,y). We obtain an initial-boundary value problem in new variables from (1) ( 2 2 (2 bz- ) { utt = uzz + b uyy + 2b τyuzy + b(τxx + τyy) + 2b + 2bbyτy uz+ ( +2b(bzτy + by)uy, z,y- >2 0,t > 0,2 -1/2 u|t 0,t > 0. Then after some mathematical transformation we get the structure of the function u(x,y,t) in the form u(z,y,t) = S(z,y)·θ(t - z) + ˜u(z,y,t). (2) Here Å©(z,y,t) is a smooth function, S(z,y) is the solution of the problem: { S + b2τ S + (1b2(τ +
Potential of ion cyclotron resonance frequency current drive via fast waves in DEMO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazakov, Ye O.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.; Lerche, E.; Ongena, J.
2015-02-01
For the continuous operation of future tokamak-reactors like DEMO, non-inductively driven toroidal plasma current is needed. Bootstrap current, due to the pressure gradient, and current driven by auxiliary heating systems are currently considered as the two main options. This paper addresses the current drive (CD) potential of the ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating system in DEMO-like plasmas. Fast wave CD scenarios are evaluated for both the standard midplane launch and an alternative case of exciting the waves from the top of the machine. Optimal ICRF frequencies and parallel wave numbers are identified to maximize the CD efficiency. Limitations of the high frequency ICRF CD operation are discussed. A simplified analytical method to estimate the fast wave CD efficiency is presented, complemented with the discussion of its dependencies on plasma parameters. The calculated CD efficiency for the ICRF system is shown to be similar to those for the negative neutral beam injection and electron cyclotron resonance heating.
A new equation in two dimensional fast magnetoacoustic shock waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas
Masood, W.; Jehan, Nusrat; Mirza, Arshad M.
2010-03-15
Nonlinear properties of the two dimensional fast magnetoacoustic waves are studied in a three-component plasma comprising of electrons, positrons, and ions. In this regard, Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burger (KPB) equation is derived using the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. Under the condition that the electron and positron inertia are ignored, Burger-Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (Burger-KP) for a fast magnetoacoustic wave is derived for the first time, to the best of author's knowledge. The solutions of both KPB and Burger-KP equations are obtained using the tangent hyperbolic method. The effects of positron concentration, kinematic viscosity, and plasma beta are explored both for the KPB and the Burger-KP shock waves and the differences between the two are highlighted. The present investigation may have relevance in the study of nonlinear electromagnetic shock waves both in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabai, Haniel; Eyal, Avishay
2014-05-01
A highly sensitive OFDR system capable of detecting and tracking fast acoustic wave propagation is described. The system was tested by dropping a screw (50gr) and a paperclip (<5gr) at one end of an 18m PVC pipe. The sensing fiber detected the wave propagation (v ≍ 1750m/s) along the entire pipe. Fast phase variations due to the impact of the screw led to a transient shift in the frequency of the interrogating light which corrupted the observed response. By tracking the beat frequencies of predefined reflectors and extracting their amplitudes significant improvement in the system's output was obtained.
Gamma, fast, and ultrafast waves of the brain: their relationships with epilepsy and behavior.
Hughes, John R
2008-07-01
Gamma waves, defined as rhythms from 25 to 100 Hz, are reviewed along with fast (100-400 Hz) and ultrafast (400-800 Hz) activity. Investigations on animals, especially those involving interneurons from the hippocampus, are reviewed. Gamma waves and fast rhythms likely play a role in neural communication, reflecting information from the external world to the brain. These rhythms become evident when the GABA-A system shifts from excitation to inhibition; are seen mainly in the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus, and CA(1)-CA(3) system; and are likely involved in long-term memory and cognitive task performance. These waves are also involved in spreading depression, but especially with epileptiform activity, progressively increasing in frequency from the pre-ictal to the ictal state. After status epilepticus, their presence predicts the development of spontaneous seizures. Gamma waves and fast activity have been studied in all sensory modalities, especially visual systems, providing a mechanism for awareness and processing of visual objects. In humans, gamma waves develop in the young, peak at 4-5 years of age, and are observed especially during alertness and after sensory stimulation. These fast rhythms are seen in the majority of seizures, especially in infantile spasms and during ictal activity in extratemporal and regional onsets, and, if low in amplitude, seem to be a good prognostic sign after seizure surgery. They have been studied in all sensory systems and are associated with selective attention, transient binding of cognitive features, and conscious perception of the external world.
Circularly polarized Magnetic Field of Whistler Wave during Fast Magnetic Reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Xiang; Wongwaitayakornkul, Pakorn; Bellan, Paul; Bellan Group Team
2014-10-01
Obliquely propagating whistler waves are expected to have circularly polarized magnetic components and to be associated with fast magnetic reconnection. In the Caltech plasma jet experiment, a current-carrying collimated jet is created from the merging of eight plasma-filled flux ropes. Fast magnetic reconnection occurs during the merging process. When the current- carrying jet undergoes fast kink instability, a lateral Rayleigh-Taylor instability occurs on the jet surface and induces another fast magnetic reconnection event. A capacitive coupling probe placed near the jet has measured fast electric field fluctuations at 15MHz which is in the whistler regime for this plasma. A 3D fast Bdot probe with good electrostatic rejection has been specifically designed to measure the 3D magnetic components of the whistler wave. Preliminary results have revealed a 3D 15 MHz magnetic fluctuation. Work is underway to increase the sensitivity of the induction probe and also to reduce electrostatic pickup. With the improved probe, the polarization property of the magnetic component of the whistler wave is expected to be resolved if it exists.
Landau Damping of Transverse Waves in the Exosphere by Fast Particle Fluxes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tidman, D. A.; Jaggi, R. K.
1962-01-01
We have investigated the Landau damping of transverse waves propagating in the thermal exospheric plasma, by fast particle fluxes which also exist in these regions. The most intense non-thermal fluxes so far detected are those of the auroral producing electrons and protons measured by McIlwain. We find that these fluxes may considerably damp the propagation of whistler modes through some regions. The damping of hydromagnetic waves in the exosphere by this mechanism is negligible.
The preplasma effect on the properties of the shock wave driven by a fast electron beam
Llor Aisa, E.; Ribeyre, X.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Gus'kov, S. Yu.
2016-08-15
Strong shock wave generation by a mono-energetic fast electron beam in a plasma with an increasing density profile is studied theoretically. The proposed analytical model describes the shock wave characteristics for a homogeneous plasma preceded by a low density precursor. The shock pressure and the time of shock formation depend on the ratio of the electron stopping length to the preplasma areal density and on the initial energy of injected electrons. The conclusions of theoretical model are confirmed in numerical simulations.
Landau Damping of Transverse Waves in the Exosphere by Fast Particle Fluxes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tidman, D. A.; Jaggi, R. K.
1962-01-01
We have investigated the Landau damping of transverse waves propagating in the thermal exospheric plasma, by fast particle fluxes which also exist in these regions. The most intense non-thermal fluxes so far detected are those of the auroral producing electrons and protons measured by McIlwain. We find that these fluxes may considerably damp the propagation of whistler modes through some regions. The damping of hydromagnetic waves in the exosphere by this mechanism is negligible.
Preliminary study of slow and fast ultrasonic waves using MR images of trabecular bone phantom
Solis-Najera, S. E. E-mail: angel.perez@ciencias.unam.mx Neria-Pérez, J. A. E-mail: angel.perez@ciencias.unam.mx Medina, L. E-mail: angel.perez@ciencias.unam.mx; Garipov, R.; Rodríguez, A. O.
2014-11-07
Cancellous bone is a complex tissue that performs physiological and biomechanical functions in all vertebrates. It is made up of trabeculae that, from a simplified structural viewpoint, can be considered as plates and beams in a hyperstatic structure that change with time leading to osteoporosis. Several methods has been developed to study the trabecular bone microstructure among them is the Biot’s model which predicts the existence of two longitudinal waves in porous media; the slow and the fast waves, that can be related to porosity of the media. This paper is focused on the experimental detection of the two Biot’s waves of a trabecular bone phantom, consisting of a trabecular network of inorganic hydroxyapatite. Experimental measurements of both waves were performed using through transmission ultrasound. Results had shown clearly that the propagation of two waves propagation is transversal to the trabecular alignment. Otherwise the waves are overlapped and a single wave seems to be propagated. To validate these results, magnetic resonance images were acquired to assess the trabecular direction, and to assure that the pulses correspond to the slow and fast waves. This approach offers a methodology for non-invasive studies of trabecular bones.
Preliminary study of slow and fast ultrasonic waves using MR images of trabecular bone phantom
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solis-Najera, S. E.; Neria-Pérez, J. A.; Medina, L.; Garipov, R.; Rodríguez, A. O.
2014-11-01
Cancellous bone is a complex tissue that performs physiological and biomechanical functions in all vertebrates. It is made up of trabeculae that, from a simplified structural viewpoint, can be considered as plates and beams in a hyperstatic structure that change with time leading to osteoporosis. Several methods has been developed to study the trabecular bone microstructure among them is the Biot's model which predicts the existence of two longitudinal waves in porous media; the slow and the fast waves, that can be related to porosity of the media. This paper is focused on the experimental detection of the two Biot's waves of a trabecular bone phantom, consisting of a trabecular network of inorganic hydroxyapatite. Experimental measurements of both waves were performed using through transmission ultrasound. Results had shown clearly that the propagation of two waves propagation is transversal to the trabecular alignment. Otherwise the waves are overlapped and a single wave seems to be propagated. To validate these results, magnetic resonance images were acquired to assess the trabecular direction, and to assure that the pulses correspond to the slow and fast waves. This approach offers a methodology for non-invasive studies of trabecular bones.
Double-resonant fast particle-wave interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schneller, M.; Lauber, Ph.; Brüdgam, M.; Pinches, S. D.; Günter, S.
2012-10-01
In future fusion devices fast particles must be well confined in order to transfer their energy to the background plasma. Magnetohydrodynamic instabilities like toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes or core-localized modes such as beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes and reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes, both driven by fast particles, can lead to significant losses. This is observed in many ASDEX Upgrade discharges. This study applies the drift-kinetic HAGIS code with the aim of understanding the underlying resonance mechanisms, especially in the presence of multiple modes with different frequencies. Of particular interest is the resonant interaction of particles simultaneously with two different modes, referred to as ‘double-resonance’. Various mode overlapping scenarios with different q profiles are considered. It is found that, depending on the radial mode distance, double-resonance is able to enhance growth rates as well as mode amplitudes significantly. Surprisingly, no radial mode overlap is necessary for this effect. Quite the contrary is found: small radial mode distances can lead to strong nonlinear mode stabilization of a linearly dominant mode.
Inspection of Samples using a fast Millimetre Wave Scanner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hommes, A.; Nüssler, D.; Warok, P.; Krebs, C.; Heinen, S.; Essen, H.
2011-08-01
Millimeterwaves and terahertz sensors can cover a broad field of applications ranging from production control to security scanners. The outstanding features are the transparency of many materials like textiles, paper and plastics in this frequency region, the good contrast of any humid or dense dielectric material and the capability to employ miniaturized RF systems and small antenna apertures or dielectric probes. A stand-alone-millimetre-wave-imager, SAMMY, was developed and built, to demonstrate the outstanding features of this part of the electromagnetic spectrum for material inspection.
Response of the thermosphere and ionosphere to an ultra fast Kelvin wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Loren C.; Palo, Scott E.; Liu, Han-Li; Fang, Tzu-Wei; Lin, Chin S.
2010-08-01
Ultra Fast Kelvin (UFK) waves are eastward propagating planetary waves with periods between 3 and 5 days, which are capable of penetrating into the thermosphere and ionosphere where they may modulate phenomena occurring in this region. A sensitivity study has been conducted to examine the effect of an Ultra Fast Kelvin wave on the thermosphere and ionosphere using the NCAR Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM) under June solstice solar minimum conditions. It is found that realistic ultra fast Kelvin waves with amplitudes in the MLT region of approximately 20-40 m s-1 in zonal wind fields and 10-20 K in temperature fields, can result in approximately 8-12% perturbations in hourly neutral density at 350 km, as well as hourly total electron content (TEC) perturbations of 25-50% in regions corresponding to the equatorial ionization anomalies (EIAs), with the largest relative changes resolved during the nighttime due to the lower electron densities. The electrodynamical calculations in the model were then disabled to identify the relative importance of ionospheric electrodynamics and direct wave propagation in generating the aforementioned changes. The subsequent results show that changes in thermospheric neutral density are relatively insensitive to the presence of the dynamo electric field, while UFK wave modulation of the dynamo accounts for most of the TEC perturbations due to changes of ionospheric vertical plasma drift.
Computational Study of Orientation-dependent Molecular High Harmonic Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutoi, Anthony; Seideman, Tamar
2007-03-01
Recently, there has been much interest in high harmonic generation (HHG) by aligned molecules [Phys. Rev. A 67 023819, Nature 432 867, Nature 435 470]. During HHG, an electron is ionized and driven back to the cation by a strong, low-frequency field, and radiation is emitted at harmonics of this driving pulse. Because this process is sensitive to the orientation of a molecule, rotational dynamics can be probed on very short time scales. We are working to predict the time-dependent HHG spectra for aligned rotational wavepackets. In conjunction with experiment, these simulations should be valuable for studying the loss of rotational coherence in media such as dense gases. Within the presented formalism, Born-Oppenheimer rotational dynamics are handled exactly, while HHG at any given orientation is estimated by numerical time integration of a one-electron Schr"odinger equation. Propagation outside of the integration grid can be handled using an analytical Volkov propagator at the expense of ignoring the cation field at this distance.
Effective one-electron approaches to calculate high harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rohringer, Nina; Santra, Robin
2006-05-01
The single-active electron approach (SAE) is frequently applied to calculate high harmonic generation in atoms and consists in solving a one-particle Schr"odinger equation in an appropriate model potential. As an ad hoc approach it is difficult to be systematically improved. Starting with the time-dependent configuration interaction singles (TDCIS) technique we derive a new class of effective one-electron approaches. The resulting one-electron equations are in general non-local and non-unitary. A local approximation to TDCIS can be derived by restricting the total many-body Hamiltonian to a local mean-field Hamiltonian (those usually used in SAE calculations). The resulting equations are similar to traditional SAE approaches but include an additional term which destroys the unitarity of the time-evolution. We show that this correction term is essential and improves on traditional SAE approaches. Numerical tests show that this improved SAE method gives dipole-moments in better agreement with exact results than time-dependent Hartree Fock. The test system is a one-dimensional model of helium which allows for a straightforward numerical solution and therefore provides a benchmark to assess the quality of the different approximations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Lele; Yin, Yuqing
2016-10-01
Stepped frequency continuous wave ground penetrating radar (SFCW-GPR) systems are becoming increasingly popular in the GPR community due to the wider dynamic range and higher immunity to radio interference. The traditional back-projection (BP) algorithm is preferable for SFCW-GPR imaging in layered mediums scenarios for its convenience and robustness. However, the existing BP imaging algorithms are usually very computationally intensive, which limits their practical applications to SFCW-GPR imaging. To solve the above problem, a fast SFCW-GPR BP imaging algorithm based on nonuniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) technique is proposed in this paper. By reformulating the traditional BP imaging algorithm into the evaluations of NUFFT, the computational efficiency of NUFFT is exploited to reduce the computational complexity of the imaging reconstruction. Both simulation and experimental results have verified the effectiveness and improvement of computational efficiency of the proposed imaging method.
Simultaneous realization of negative group velocity, fast and slow acoustic waves in a metamaterial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiao-juan; Xue, Cheng; Fan, Li; Zhang, Shu-yi; Chen, Zhe; Ding, Jin; Zhang, Hui
2016-06-01
An acoustic metamaterial is designed based on a simple and compact structure of one string of side pipes arranged along a waveguide, in which diverse group velocities are achieved. Owing to Fabry-Perot resonance of the side pipes, a negative phase time is achieved, and thus, acoustic waves transmitting with negative group velocities are produced near the resonant frequency. In addition, both fast and slow acoustic waves are also observed in the vicinity of the resonance frequency. The extraordinary group velocities can be explained based on spectral rephasing induced by anomalous dispersion on the analogy of Lorentz dispersion in electromagnetic waves.
Realistic Modeling of Fast MHD Wave Trains in Coronal Active Regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ofman, Leon; Sun, Xudong
2017-08-01
Motivated by recent SDO/AIA observations we have developed realistic modeling of quasi-periodic, fast-mode propagating MHD wave trains (QFPs) using 3D MHD model initiated with potential magnetic field extrapolated from the solar coronal boundary. Localized quasi-periodic pulsations associated with C-class flares that drive the waves (as deduced from observations) are modeled with transverse periodic displacement of magnetic field at the lower coronal boundary. The modeled propagating speed and the form of the wave expansions matches the observed fast MHD waves speed >1000 km/s and topology. We study the parametric dependence of the amplitude, propagation, and damping of the waves for a range of key model parameters, such as the background temperature, density, and the location of the flaring site within the active region. We investigate the interaction of multiple QFP wave trains excited by adjacent flaring sources. We use the model results to synthesize EUV intensities in multiple AIA channels and obtain the model parameters that best reproduce the properties of observed QFPs, such as the recent DEM analysis. We discuss the implications of our modeling results for the seismological application of QFPs for the diagnostic of the active region field, flare pulsations, end estimate the energy flux carried by the waves.
PARTIAL REFLECTION AND TRAPPING OF A FAST-MODE WAVE IN SOLAR CORONAL ARCADE LOOPS
Kumar, Pankaj; Innes, D. E.
2015-04-20
We report on the first direct observation of a fast-mode wave propagating along and perpendicular to cool (171 Å) arcade loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). The wave was associated with an impulsive/compact flare near the edge of a sunspot. The EUV wavefront expanded radially outward from the flare center and decelerated in the corona from 1060 to 760 km s{sup −1} within ∼3–4 minutes. Part of the EUV wave propagated along a large-scale arcade of cool loops and was partially reflected back to the flare site. The phase speed of the wave was about 1450 km s{sup −1}, which is interpreted as a fast-mode wave. A second overlying loop arcade, orientated perpendicular to the cool arcade, is heated and becomes visible in the AIA hot channels. These hot loops sway in time with the EUV wave, as it propagated to and fro along the lower loop arcade. We suggest that an impulsive energy release at one of the footpoints of the arcade loops causes the onset of an EUV shock wave that propagates along and perpendicular to the magnetic field.
Structured mass density slab as a waveguide of fast magnetoacoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jelínek, P.; Karlický, M.
Coronal loops are waveguides for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. These loops are expected to be structured. Therefore, in the present paper, we numerically studied the propagation of the fast MHD waves in the structured density slab (composed from a broad density slab with one axisymmetric narrow sub-slab superposed), and analysed the wave signals. Then, this structured slab was divided into its components, i.e., to simple broad and narrow slabs and the same analysis was made. We compared results of both these cases. For the calculations we adopted a two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, in which we solved a full set of ideal time-dependent MHD equations using the FLASH code, applying the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) method. To initiate the fast sausage magnetoacoustic waves, we used axisymmetric Gaussian velocity perturbation. Wave signals were detected in different locations along the slab and as a diagnostic tool of these waves, the wavelet analysis method has been used. We found that for the structured density slab with sufficiently sharp boundaries, i.e., for good quality waveguides (without an energy leakage), the guided waves in the structured slab behave similarly as in its separated (simple slab) components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garnett Marques Brum, C.; Abdu, M. A.; Batista, P. P.; Gurubaran, S.; Pancheva, D.; Bageston, J. V.; Batista, I. S.; Takahashi, H.
2014-12-01
In this paper we investigate the role of eastward and upward propagating Fast (FK) and Ultrafast Kelvin (UFK) waves in the day-to-day variability of equatorial evening prereversal vertical drift and post sunset generation of spread F/plasma bubbles irregularities. Meteor wind data from Cariri and Cachoeira Paulista (Brazil) and medium Frequency (MF) radar wind data from Tirunelveli (India) are analyzed together with TIMED/SABER temperature in the 40 km - 100 km region to characterize the zonal and vertical propagations of these waves. Also analyzed are the F region evening vertical drift and spread F (ESF) development features as diagnosed by Digisondes operated at Fortaleza and Sao Luis in Brazil. The SABER temperature data permitted determination of the upward propagation characteristics of the FK (E1) waves with propagation speed in the range of 4 km/day. The radar Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) winds in the widely separated longitude sectors have yielded the eastward phase velocity of the both the FK and UFK waves. The vertical propagation of these waves cause strong oscillation in the F region evening prereversal vertical drift, observed for the first time at both FK and UFK periodicities. A delay of a few (~10) days is observed in the F region vertical drift perturbation with respect to the corresponding FK/UFK zonal wind oscillations, or temperature oscillations in the MLT region, which has permitted a direct identification of the sunset electro dynamic coupling process as responsible for the generation of the FK/UFK induced vertical drift oscillation. The vertical drift oscillations are found to cause significant modulation in the spread F/ plasma bubble irregularity development. The overall results highlight the role of FK/UFK waves in the day-to-day variability of the ESF in its occurrence season.
Fast wave stabilization/destabilization of drift waves in a plasma
Kumar, Pawan; Tripathi, V. K.
2013-03-15
Four wave-nonlinear coupling of a large amplitude whistler with low frequency drift wave and whistler wave sidebands is examined. The pump and whistler sidebands exert a low frequency ponderomotive force on electrons introducing a frequency shift in the drift wave. For whistler pump propagating along the ambient magnetic field B{sub s}z-caret with wave number k(vector sign){sub 0}, drift waves of wave number k(vector sign)=k(vector sign){sub Up-Tack }+k{sub ||}z-caret see an upward frequency shift when k{sub Up-Tack }{sup 2}/k{sub 0}{sup 2}>4k{sub ||}/k{sub 0} and are stabilized once the whistler power exceeds a threshold value. The drift waves of low transverse wavelength tend to be destabilized by the nonlinear coupling. Oblique propagating whistler pump with transverse wave vector parallel to k(vector sign){sub Up-Tack} is also effective but with reduced effectiveness.
Commissioning of the long-pulse fast wave current drive antennas for DIII{endash}D
Baity, F.W.; Barber, G.C.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; DeGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Petty, C.C.; Cary, W.
1996-02-01
Two new four-element fast wave current drive antennas have been installed on DIII-D tokamak. The full power operation regime will be possible after the development and conditioning of the transmitters which are on the way. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Fast convolution quadrature for the wave equation in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banjai, L.; Kachanovska, M.
2014-12-01
This work addresses the numerical solution of time-domain boundary integral equations arising from acoustic and electromagnetic scattering in three dimensions. The semidiscretization of the time-domain boundary integral equations by Runge-Kutta convolution quadrature leads to a lower triangular Toeplitz system of size N. This system can be solved recursively in an almost linear time (O(Nlog2N)), but requires the construction of O(N) dense spatial discretizations of the single layer boundary operator for the Helmholtz equation. This work introduces an improvement of this algorithm that allows to solve the scattering problem in an almost linear time. The new approach is based on two main ingredients: the near-field reuse and the application of data-sparse techniques. Exponential decay of Runge-Kutta convolution weights wnh(d) outside of a neighborhood of d≈nh (where h is a time step) allows to avoid constructing the near-field (i.e. singular and near-singular integrals) for most of the discretizations of the single layer boundary operators (near-field reuse). The far-field of these matrices is compressed with the help of data-sparse techniques, namely, H-matrices and the high-frequency fast multipole method. Numerical experiments indicate the efficiency of the proposed approach compared to the conventional Runge-Kutta convolution quadrature algorithm.
Liu, Hanzhe; Li, Yilei; You, Yong Sing; ...
2016-11-14
High-harmonic generation (HHG) in bulk solids permits the exploration of materials in a new regime of strong fields and attosecond timescales. The generation process has been discussed in the context of strongly driven electron dynamics in single-particle bands. Two-dimensional materials exhibit distinctive electronic properties compared to the bulk that could significantly modify the HHG process, including different symmetries, access to individual valleys and enhanced many-body interactions. Here we demonstrate non-perturbative HHG from a monolayer MoS2 crystal, with even and odd harmonics extending to the 13th order. The even orders are predominantly polarized perpendicular to the pump and are compatible withmore » the anomalous transverse intraband current arising from the material’s Berry curvature, while the weak parallel component suggests the importance of interband transitions. The odd harmonics exhibit a significant enhancement in efficiency per layer compared to the bulk, which is attributed to correlation effects. In conclusion, the combination of strong many-body Coulomb interactions and widely tunable electronic properties in two-dimensional materials offers a new platform for attosecond physics.« less
Liu, Hanzhe; Li, Yilei; You, Yong Sing; Ghimire, Shambhu; Heinz, Tony F.; Reis, David A.
2016-11-14
High-harmonic generation (HHG) in bulk solids permits the exploration of materials in a new regime of strong fields and attosecond timescales. The generation process has been discussed in the context of strongly driven electron dynamics in single-particle bands. Two-dimensional materials exhibit distinctive electronic properties compared to the bulk that could significantly modify the HHG process, including different symmetries, access to individual valleys and enhanced many-body interactions. Here we demonstrate non-perturbative HHG from a monolayer MoS_{2} crystal, with even and odd harmonics extending to the 13th order. The even orders are predominantly polarized perpendicular to the pump and are compatible with the anomalous transverse intraband current arising from the material’s Berry curvature, while the weak parallel component suggests the importance of interband transitions. The odd harmonics exhibit a significant enhancement in efficiency per layer compared to the bulk, which is attributed to correlation effects. In conclusion, the combination of strong many-body Coulomb interactions and widely tunable electronic properties in two-dimensional materials offers a new platform for attosecond physics.
Fast and accurate analytical model to solve inverse problem in SHM using Lamb wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poddar, Banibrata; Giurgiutiu, Victor
2016-04-01
Lamb wave propagation is at the center of attention of researchers for structural health monitoring of thin walled structures. This is due to the fact that Lamb wave modes are natural modes of wave propagation in these structures with long travel distances and without much attenuation. This brings the prospect of monitoring large structure with few sensors/actuators. However the problem of damage detection and identification is an "inverse problem" where we do not have the luxury to know the exact mathematical model of the system. On top of that the problem is more challenging due to the confounding factors of statistical variation of the material and geometric properties. Typically this problem may also be ill posed. Due to all these complexities the direct solution of the problem of damage detection and identification in SHM is impossible. Therefore an indirect method using the solution of the "forward problem" is popular for solving the "inverse problem". This requires a fast forward problem solver. Due to the complexities involved with the forward problem of scattering of Lamb waves from damages researchers rely primarily on numerical techniques such as FEM, BEM, etc. But these methods are slow and practically impossible to be used in structural health monitoring. We have developed a fast and accurate analytical forward problem solver for this purpose. This solver, CMEP (complex modes expansion and vector projection), can simulate scattering of Lamb waves from all types of damages in thin walled structures fast and accurately to assist the inverse problem solver.
ICRF fast wave current drive and mode conversion current drive in EAST tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, L.; Yang, C.; Gong, X. Y.; Lu, X. Q.; Du, D.; Chen, Y.
2017-10-01
Fast wave in the ion-cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) range is a promising candidate for non-inductive current drive (CD), which is essential for long pulse and high performance operation of tokamaks. A numerical study on the ICRF fast wave current drive (FWCD) and mode-conversion current drive (MCCD) in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) is carried out by means of the coupled full wave and Ehst-Karney parameterization methods. The results show that FWCD efficiency is notable in two frequency regimes, i.e., f ≥ 85 MHz and f = 50-65 MHz, where ion cyclotron absorption is effectively avoided, and the maximum on-axis driven current per unit power can reach 120 kA/MW. The sensitivity of the CD efficiency to the minority ion concentration is confirmed, owing to fast wave mode conversion, and the peak MCCD efficiency is reached for 22% minority-ion concentration. The effects of the wave-launch position and the toroidal wavenumber on the efficiency of current drive are also investigated.
Nonlinear interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in toroidal plasmas
Candy, J.; Borba, D.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Kerner, W.; Berk, H.L.
1996-12-17
A numerical algorithm to study the nonlinear, resonant interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in tokamak geometry has been developed. The scope of the formalism is wide enough to describe the nonlinear evolution of fishbone modes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes and ellipticity-induced Alfven eigenmodes, driven by both passing and trapped fast ions. When the instability is sufficiently weak, it is known that the wave-particle trapping nonlinearity will lead to mode saturation before wave-wave nonlinearities are appreciable. The spectrum of linear modes can thus be calculated using a magnetohydrodynamic normal-mode code, then nonlinearly evolved in time in an efficient way according to a two-time-scale Lagrangian dynamical wave model. The fast particle kinetic equation, including the effect of orbit nonlinearity arising from the mode perturbation, is simultaneously solved of the deviation, {delta}f = f {minus} f{sub 0}, from an initial analytic distribution f{sub 0}. High statistical resolution allows linear growth rates, frequency shifts, resonance broadening effects, and nonlinear saturation to be calculated quickly and precisely. The results have been applied to an ITER instability scenario. Results show that weakly-damped core-localized modes alone cause negligible alpha transport in ITER-like plasmas--even with growth rates one order of magnitude higher than expected values. However, the possibility of significant transport in reactor-type plasmas due to weakly unstable global modes remains an open question.
Fast-mode Coronal EUV Wave Trains Associated with Solar Flares and CMEs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wei; Ofman, Leon; Downs, Cooper; Karlicky, Marian; Chen, Bin
2017-08-01
As a new observational phenomenon, Quasi-periodic, Fast Propagating EUV wave trains (QFPs) are fast-mode magnetosonic waves closely related to quasi-periodic pulsations commonly detected in solar flares (traditionally with non-imaging observations). They can provide critical clues to flare energy release and serve as new tools for coronal seismology. We report recent advances in observing and modeling QFPs, including evidence of heating and cooling cycles revealed with differential emission measure (DEM) analysis that are consistent with alternating compression and rarefaction expected for magnetosonic waves. Through a statistical survey, we found a preferential association of QFPs with eruptive flares (with CMEs) rather than confined flares (without CMEs). We also identified some correlation with quasi-periodic radio bursts observed at JVLA and Ondrejov observatories. We will discuss the implications of these results and the potential roles of QFPs in coronal heating and energy transport.
Fast multiscale Gaussian beam methods for wave equations in bounded convex domains
Bao, Gang; Lai, Jun; Qian, Jianliang
2014-03-15
Motivated by fast multiscale Gaussian wavepacket transforms and multiscale Gaussian beam methods which were originally designed for pure initial-value problems of wave equations, we develop fast multiscale Gaussian beam methods for initial boundary value problems of wave equations in bounded convex domains in the high frequency regime. To compute the wave propagation in bounded convex domains, we have to take into account reflecting multiscale Gaussian beams, which are accomplished by enforcing reflecting boundary conditions during beam propagation and carrying out suitable reflecting beam summation. To propagate multiscale beams efficiently, we prove that the ratio of the squared magnitude of beam amplitude and the beam width is roughly conserved, and accordingly we propose an effective indicator to identify significant beams. We also prove that the resulting multiscale Gaussian beam methods converge asymptotically. Numerical examples demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method.
Full wave simulations of fast wave heating losses in the scrape-off layer of NSTX and NSTX-U
Bertelli, Nicola; Jaeger, E. F.; Hosea, J.; Phillips, C. K.; Berry, Lee Alan; Gerhardt, S.; Green, David L; LeBlanc, B; Perkins, R. J.; Ryan, Philip Michael; Taylor, G.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.
2014-01-01
Full wave simulations of fusion plasmas show a direct correlation between the location of the fast-wave cut-off, radiofrequency (RF) field amplitude in the scrape-off layer (SOL) and the RF power losses in the SOL observed in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX). In particular, the RF power losses in the SOL increase significantly when the launched waves transition from evanescent to propagating in that region. Subsequently, a large amplitude electric field occurs in the SOL, driving RF power losses when a proxy collisional loss term is added. A 3D reconstruction of absorbed power in the SOL is presented showing agreement with the RF experiments in NSTX. Loss predictions for the future experiment NSTX-Upgrade (NSTX-U) are also obtained and discussed.
Propagation and dispersion of whistler waves generated by fast reconnection onset
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Nagendra
2013-02-01
The role of whistler mode during the onset of magnetic reconnection (MR) has been widely suggested, but the manifestations of its highly dispersive and anisotropic propagation properties in reconnection events remain largely unclear. Comparing results from a recently developed theoretical model for reconnection in terms of whistler's dispersive behavior with those reported from laboratory experiments on fast spontaneous magnetic reconnection, we demonstrate that the onset of fast reconnection in electron current layers (ECLs) emits whistler wave packets. The time scale of the explosively fast reconnection events are inversely related to the whistler mode frequencies at the lower end of the whistler frequency band. The wave packets in this frequency band have a characteristic angular dispersion, which marks the initial opening of the reconnection exhaust angle. The multidimensional propagation of the whistler for the reconnection with a strong guide magnetic field is investigated, showing that the measured propagation velocities of the reconnection electric field along the guide field in the Versatile Toroidal Facility at MIT quantitatively compare with the group velocities of the whistler wave packets. The whistler mode dispersive properties measured in laboratory experiments without a guide magnetic field in the magnetic reconnection experiments at Princeton also compare well with the theoretically predicted dispersion of the wave packets depending on the ECL width. Fast normalized reconnection rates extending to ˜0.35 at the MR onset in thin ECLs imply whistler wave propagation away from the onset location. We also present evidences for the whistler wave packets being emitted from reconnection diffusion region as seen in simulations and satellite observations.
Tweten, Dennis J.; Okamoto, Ruth J.; Schmidt, John L.; Garbow, Joel R.; Bayly, Philip V.
2015-01-01
This paper describes a method to estimate mechanical properties of soft, anisotropic materials from measurements of shear waves with specific polarization and propagation directions. This method is applicable to data from magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), which is a method for measuring shear waves in live subjects or in vitro samples. Here, we simulate MRE data using finite element analysis. A nearly-incompressible, transversely isotropic (ITI) material model with three parameters (shear modulus, shear anisotropy, and tensile anisotropy) is used, which is appropriate for many fibrous, biological tissues. Both slow and fast shear waves travel concurrently through such a material with speeds that depend on the propagation direction relative to fiber orientation. A three-parameter estimation approach based on directional filtering and isolation of slow and fast shear wave components (directional filter inversion, or DFI) is introduced. Wave speeds of each isolated shear wave component are estimated using local frequency estimation (LFE), and material properties are calculated using weighted least squares. Data from multiple finite element simulations are used to assess the accuracy and reliability of DFI for estimation of anisotropic material parameters. PMID:26476762
Tweten, Dennis J; Okamoto, Ruth J; Schmidt, John L; Garbow, Joel R; Bayly, Philip V
2015-11-26
This paper describes a method to estimate mechanical properties of soft, anisotropic materials from measurements of shear waves with specific polarization and propagation directions. This method is applicable to data from magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), which is a method for measuring shear waves in live subjects or in vitro samples. Here, we simulate MRE data using finite element analysis. A nearly incompressible, transversely isotropic (ITI) material model with three parameters (shear modulus, shear anisotropy, and tensile anisotropy) is used, which is appropriate for many fibrous, biological tissues. Both slow and fast shear waves travel concurrently through such a material with speeds that depend on the propagation direction relative to fiber orientation. A three-parameter estimation approach based on directional filtering and isolation of slow and fast shear wave components (directional filter inversion, or DFI) is introduced. Wave speeds of each isolated shear wave component are estimated using local frequency estimation (LFE), and material properties are calculated using weighted least squares. Data from multiple finite element simulations are used to assess the accuracy and reliability of DFI for estimation of anisotropic material parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wear, Keith; Nagatani, Yoshiki; Mizuno, Katsunori; Matsukawa, Mami
2014-10-01
Fast and slow waves were detected in a bovine cancellous bone sample for thicknesses ranging from 7 to 12 mm using bandlimited deconvolution and the modified least-squares Prony's method with curve fitting (MLSP + CF). Bandlimited deconvolution consistently isolated two waves with linear-with-frequency attenuation coefficients as evidenced by high correlation coefficients between attenuation coefficient and frequency: 0.997 ± 0.002 (fast wave) and 0.986 ± 0.013 (slow wave) (mean ± standard deviation). Average root-mean-squared (RMS) differences between the two algorithms for phase velocities were 5 m/s (fast wave, 350 kHz) and 13 m/s (slow wave, 750 kHz). Average RMS differences for signal loss were 1.6 dB (fast wave, 350 kHz) and 0.4 dB (slow wave, 750 kHz). Phase velocities for thickness = 10 mm were 1726 m/s (fast wave, 350 kHz) and 1455 m/s (slow wave, 750 kHz). Results show support for the model of two waves with linear-with frequency attenuation, successful isolation of fast and slow waves, good agreement between bandlimited deconvolution and MLSP + CF as well as with a Bayesian algorithm, and potential variations of fast and/or slow wave properties with bone sample thickness.
Anderson, Christian C; Bauer, Adam Q; Holland, Mark R; Pakula, Michal; Laugier, Pascal; Bretthorst, G Larry; Miller, James G
2010-11-01
Quantitative ultrasonic characterization of cancellous bone can be complicated by artifacts introduced by analyzing acquired data consisting of two propagating waves (a fast wave and a slow wave) as if only one wave were present. Recovering the ultrasonic properties of overlapping fast and slow waves could therefore lead to enhancement of bone quality assessment. The current study uses Bayesian probability theory to estimate phase velocity and normalized broadband ultrasonic attenuation (nBUA) parameters in a model of fast and slow wave propagation. Calculations are carried out using Markov chain Monte Carlo with simulated annealing to approximate the marginal posterior probability densities for parameters in the model. The technique is applied to simulated data, to data acquired on two phantoms capable of generating two waves in acquired signals, and to data acquired on a human femur condyle specimen. The models are in good agreement with both the simulated and experimental data, and the values of the estimated ultrasonic parameters fall within expected ranges.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wenqiao; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Tianchi
2017-01-01
For the randomness and complexity of ocean wave, and the simulation of large-scale ocean requires a great amount of computation, but the computational efficiency is low, the real-time ability is poor, a fast method of wave simulation is proposed based on the observation and research results of oceanography, it takes advantage of the grid which combined with the technique of LOD and projection, and use the height map of ocean which is formd by retrieval of ocean wave spectrum and directional spectrum to compute with FFT, and it uses the height map to cyclic mapping for the grid on GPU which combined with the technique of LOD and projection to get the dynamic height data and simulation of ocean. The experimental results show that the method is vivid and it conforms with randomness and complexity of ocean wave, it effectively improves the simulation speed of the wave and satisfied with the real-time ability and fidelity in simulation system of ocean.
Crustal origin of trench-parallel shear-wave fast polarizations in the Central Andes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wölbern, I.; Löbl, U.; Rümpker, G.
2014-04-01
In this study, SKS and local S phases are analyzed to investigate variations of shear-wave splitting parameters along two dense seismic profiles across the central Andean Altiplano and Puna plateaus. In contrast to previous observations, the vast majority of the measurements reveal fast polarizations sub-parallel to the subduction direction of the Nazca plate with delay times between 0.3 and 1.2 s. Local phases show larger variations of fast polarizations and exhibit delay times ranging between 0.1 and 1.1 s. Two 70 km and 100 km wide sections along the Altiplano profile exhibit larger delay times and are characterized by fast polarizations oriented sub-parallel to major fault zones. Based on finite-difference wavefield calculations for anisotropic subduction zone models we demonstrate that the observations are best explained by fossil slab anisotropy with fast symmetry axes oriented sub-parallel to the slab movement in combination with a significant component of crustal anisotropy of nearly trench-parallel fast-axis orientation. From the modeling we exclude a sub-lithospheric origin of the observed strong anomalies due to the short-scale variations of the fast polarizations. Instead, our results indicate that anisotropy in the Central Andes generally reflects the direction of plate motion while the observed trench-parallel fast polarizations likely originate in the continental crust above the subducting slab.
Three-Wave Interactions between Fast-Ion Modes in the National Spherical Torus Experiment
Crocker, N. A.; Peebles, W. A.; Kubota, S.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Menard, J. E.
2006-07-28
Simultaneous bursts of energetic particle mode (EPM) and toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmode (TAE) activity that correlate with significant fast-ion loss are observed in beam heated plasmas. Three-wave interactions between these modes are conclusively identified, indicating fixed phase relationships. This nonlinear coupling concentrates the energy of the TAEs into a toroidally localized perturbation frozen in the frame of a rigid, toroidally rotating structure formed by the EPMs. This redistribution of energy is significant because it will modify the effect of the TAEs on fast-ion loss.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tiwary, PremPyari; Sharma, Swati; Sharma, Prachi; Singh, Ram Kishor; Uma, R.; Sharma, R. P.
2016-12-01
This paper presents the spatio-temporal evolution of magnetic field due to the nonlinear coupling between fast magnetosonic wave (FMSW) and low frequency slow Alfvén wave (SAW). The dynamical equations of finite frequency FMSW and SAW in the presence of ponderomotive force of FMSW (pump wave) has been presented. Numerical simulation has been carried out for the nonlinear coupled equations of finite frequency FMSW and SAW. A systematic scan of the nonlinear behavior/evolution of the pump FMSW has been done for one of the set of parameters chosen in this paper, using the coupled dynamical equations. Filamentation of fast magnetosonic wave has been considered to be responsible for the magnetic turbulence during the laser plasma interaction. The results show that the formation and growth of localized structures depend on the background magnetic field but the order of amplification does not get affected by the magnitude of the background magnetic field. In this paper, we have shown the relevance of our model for two different parameters used in laboratory and astrophysical phenomenon. We have used one set of parameters pertaining to experimental observations in the study of fast ignition of laser fusion and hence studied the turbulent structures in stellar environment. The other set corresponds to the study of magnetic field amplification in the clumpy medium surrounding the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. The results indicate considerable randomness in the spatial structure of the magnetic field profile in both the cases and gives a sufficient indication of turbulence. The turbulent spectra have been studied and the break point has been found around k which is consistent with the observations in both the cases. The nonlinear wave-wave interaction presented in this paper may be important in understanding the turbulence in the laboratory as well as the astrophysical phenomenon.
Fast transport in phase space due to nonlinear wave-particle interaction in the radiation belts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artemyev, Anton; Vasiliev, Alexii; Mourenas, Didier; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir; Boscher, Daniel; Rolland, Guy
2014-05-01
We present an analytical, simplified formulation accounting for the fast transport of particles in phase space, in the presence of nonlinear wave-particle resonant interactions in an inhomogeneous magnetic field representative of the radiation belts. We show that the general approach for the description of the evolution of the particle velocity distribution based on the Fokker-Plank equation can be modified to consider the process of nonlinear wave-particle interaction, including particle trapping. Such a modification consists in one additional operator describing fast particle jumps in phase space. The proposed approach is illustrated by considering the acceleration of relativistic electrons by strongly oblique whistler waves. We determine the typical variation of electron phase-density due to nonlinear wave-particle interaction and compare this variation with pitch-angle/energy diffusion due to quasi-linear electron scattering. We show that relation between nonlinear and quasi-linear effects is controlled by the distribution of wave-amplitudes. When this distribution has a heavy tail, nonlinear effects can become dominant in the formation of the electron energy distribution.
Anomalous negative dispersion in bone can result from the interference of fast and slow waves.
Marutyan, Karen R; Holland, Mark R; Miller, James G
2006-11-01
The goal of this work was to show that the apparent negative dispersion of ultrasonic waves propagating in bone can arise from interference between fast and slow longitudinal modes, each exhibiting positive dispersion. Simulations were carried out using two approaches: one based on the Biot-Johnson model and one independent of that model. Results of the simulations are mutually consistent and appear to account for measurements from many laboratories that report that the phase velocity of ultrasonic waves propagating in cancellous bone decreases with increasing frequency (negative dispersion) in about 90% of specimens but increases with frequency in about 10%.
Effect of surface modes on coupling to fast waves in the LHRF
Pinsker, R.I.; Colestock, P.L.
1990-09-16
The effect of surface modes of propagation on coupling to fast waves in the LHRF is studied theoretically and experimentally. The previously reported up-down' poloidal phasing asymmetry for coupling to a uniform plasma is shown to be due to the properties of a mode which carries energy along the plasma-conducting wall interface. Comparison of the theory with coupling experiments performed on the PLT tokamak with a phased array of twelve dielectric-loaded waveguides at 800 MHz shows that the observed dependence of the net reflection coefficient on toroidal phase angle can be explained only if the surface wave is taken into account. 43 refs., 10 figs.
Kichigin, G. N.
2016-01-15
Solutions describing solitary fast magnetosonic (FMS) waves (FMS solitons) in cold magnetized plasma are obtained by numerically solving two-fluid hydrodynamic equations. The parameter domain within which steady-state solitary waves can propagate is determined. It is established that the Mach number for rarefaction FMS solitons is always less than unity. The restriction on the propagation velocity leads to the limitation on the amplitudes of the magnetic field components of rarefaction solitons. It is shown that, as the soliton propagates in plasma, the transverse component of its magnetic field rotates and makes a complete turn around the axis along which the soliton propagates.
Mass transport induced by internal Kelvin waves beneath shore-fast ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
StøYlen, Eivind; Weber, Jan Erik H.
2010-03-01
A one-layer reduced-gravity model is used to investigate the wave-induced mass flux in internal Kelvin waves along a straight coast beneath shore-fast ice. The waves are generated by barotropic tidal pumping at narrow sounds, and the ice lid introduces a no-slip condition for the horizontal wave motion. The mean Lagrangian fluxes to second order in wave steepness are obtained by integrating the equations of momentum and mass between the material interface and the surface. The mean flow is forced by the conventional radiation stress for internal wave motion, the mean pressure gradient due to the sloping surface, and the frictional drag at the boundaries. The equations that govern the mean fluxes are expressed in terms of mean Eulerian variables, while the wave forcing terms are given by the horizontal divergence of the Stokes flux. Analytical results show that the effect of friction induces a mean Eulerian flux along the coast that is comparable to the Stokes flux. In addition, the horizontal divergence of the total mean flux along the coast induces a small mass flux in the cross-shore direction. This flux changes the mean thickness of the upper layer outside the trapping region and may facilitate geostrophically balanced boundary currents in enclosed basins. This is indeed demonstrated by numerical solutions of the flux equations for confined areas larger than the trapping region. Application of the theory to Arctic waters is discussed, with emphasis on the transport of biological material and pollutants in nearshore regions.
ITER equilibrium with bootstrap currents, lower hybrid current drive and fast wave current drive
Ehst, D.A.
1989-03-01
A current drive system is proposed for the technology phase of ITER which relies on rf power and bootstrap currents. The rf/bootstrap system permits operation at high safety factor, and we consider the axial value to be q/sub a/ approx. = 1.9, which minimizes the need for seed current near the magnetic axis. Lower hybrid power (/approximately/30 MW) provides current density near the surface, ICRF (/approximately/65 MHz, /approximately/30 MW) fast waves generate current near the axis, and high frequency fast waves (/approximately/250 MHz, /approximately/74 MW) supply the remaining current density. The system is not yet optimized but appears to offer great flexibility (ion heating for ignition, current rampup, etc.) with relatively inexpensive and well developed technology. 29 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.
High harmonic generation by halogen anions and noble gas atoms in a laser field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostrovsky, V. N.; Greenwood, J. B.
2005-06-01
A comparative study of high harmonic generation (HHG) by atoms and ions with active p-electrons is carried out in the theoretical framework of the rescattering mechanism. The substate with mell = 0, i.e. zero orbital momentum projection along the electric vector of a linearly polarized laser wave, is found to give the major contribution to the HHG rate. Our calculations for HHG by an H atom in an excited 2p-state demonstrate that the rate for recombination into a final state with a different value of mell (=±1), is higher for lower harmonic orders N, while for higher N (beyond the plateau domain) the difference vanishes. For species with closed electron shells, the mell-changing transitions are forbidden by the Pauli exclusion principle. We report absolute HHG rates for halogen ions and noble gas atoms at various intensities. These results demonstrate that the Coulomb binding potential of the atoms considerably enhances both the ionization and recombination steps in the rescattering process. However, the weak binding energy of the anions allows lower orders of HHG to be efficiently produced at relatively low intensities, from which we conclude that observation of HHG by an anion is experimentally feasible.
Symmetry-controlled temporal structure of high-harmonic carrier fields from a bulk crystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langer, F.; Hohenleutner, M.; Huttner, U.; Koch, S. W.; Kira, M.; Huber, R.
2017-03-01
High-harmonic (HH) generation in crystalline solids marks an exciting development, with potential applications in high-efficiency attosecond sources, all-optical bandstructure reconstruction and quasiparticle collisions. Although the spectral and temporal shape of the HH intensity has been described microscopically, the properties of the underlying HH carrier wave have remained elusive. Here, we analyse the train of HH waveforms generated in a crystalline solid by consecutive half cycles of the same driving pulse. Extending the concept of frequency combs to optical clock rates, we show how the polarization and carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of HH pulses can be controlled by the crystal symmetry. For certain crystal directions, we can separate two orthogonally polarized HH combs mutually offset by the driving frequency to form a comb of even and odd harmonic orders. The corresponding CEP of successive pulses is constant or offset by π, depending on the polarization. In the context of a quantum description of solids, we identify novel capabilities for polarization- and phase-shaping of HH waveforms that cannot be accessed with gaseous sources.
Observation of quasi-periodic solar radio bursts associated with propagating fast-mode waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goddard, C. R.; Nisticò, G.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Zimovets, I. V.; White, S. M.
2016-10-01
Aims: Radio emission observations from the Learmonth and Bruny Island radio spectrographs are analysed to determine the nature of a train of discrete, periodic radio "sparks" (finite-bandwidth, short-duration isolated radio features) which precede a type II burst. We analyse extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging from SDO/AIA at multiple wavelengths and identify a series of quasi-periodic rapidly-propagating enhancements, which we interpret as a fast wave train, and link these to the detected radio features. Methods: The speeds and positions of the periodic rapidly propagating fast waves and the coronal mass ejection (CME) were recorded using running-difference images and time-distance analysis. From the frequency of the radio sparks the local electron density at the emission location was estimated for each. Using an empirical model for the scaling of density in the corona, the calculated electron density was used to obtain the height above the surface at which the emission occurs, and the propagation velocity of the emission location. Results: The period of the radio sparks, δtr = 1.78 ± 0.04 min, matches the period of the fast wave train observed at 171 Å, δtEUV = 1.7 ± 0.2 min. The inferred speed of the emission location of the radio sparks, 630 km s-1, is comparable to the measured speed of the CME leading edge, 500 km s-1, and the speeds derived from the drifting of the type II lanes. The calculated height of the radio emission (obtained from the density) matches the observed location of the CME leading edge. From the above evidence we propose that the radio sparks are caused by the quasi-periodic fast waves, and the emission is generated as they catch up and interact with the leading edge of the CME. The movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org
Hybrid Metameterials Enable Fast Electrical Modulation Of Freely Propagating Terahertz Waves
Chen, Hou-tong; O' Hara, John F; Taylor, Antoinette J
2008-01-01
We demonstrate fast electrical modulation of freely propagating THz waves at room temperature using hybrid metamaterial devices. the devices are planar metamaterials fabricated on doped semiconducor epitaxial layers, which form hybrid metamaterial - Schottky diode structures. With an applied ac voltage bias, we show modulation of THz radiation at inferred frequencies over 2 MHz. The modulation speed is limited by the device depletion capacitance which may be reduced for even faster operation.
Variational full wave calculation of fast wave current drive in DIII-D using the ALCYON code
Becoulet, A.; Moreau, D.
1992-04-01
Initial fast wave current drive simulations performed with the ALCYON code for the 60 MHz DIII-D experiment are presented. Two typical shots of the 1991 summer campaign were selected with magnetic field intensities of 1 and 2 teslas respectively. The results for the wave electromagnetic field in the plasma chamber are displayed. They exhibit a strong enrichment of the poloidal mode number m-spectrum which leads to the upshift of the parallel wavenumber, {kappa}{perpendicular}, and to the wave absorption. The m-spectrum is bounded when the local poloidal wavenumber reaches the Alfven wavenumber and the {kappa}{perpendicular} upshifts do not destroy the wave directionality. Linear estimations of the driven current are made. The current density profiles are found to be peaked and we find that about 88 kA can be driven in the 1 tesla/1.7 keV phase with 1.7 MW coupled to the electrons. In the 2 tesla/3.4 keV case, 47 kA are driven with a total power of 1.5 MW, 44% of which are absorbed on the hydrogen minority, through the second harmonic ion cyclotron resonance. The global efficiency is then 0.18 {times} 10{sup 19} A m{sup {minus}2}W{sup {minus}1} if one considers only the effective power going to the electrons.
Fundamental and second harmonic hydrogen fast-wave heating on DIII-D
Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.I.; Mayberry, M.J.; Prater, R. ); Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P.T. . Plasma Fusion Center); Baity, F.W.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J. )
1991-10-01
Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) with fast waves has been investigated on D3-D in both the fundamental hydrogen minority (32 MHz, 2.14 T) and second harmonic hydrogen majority (60 MHz, 1.97 T) regimes. The main purpose of these experiments was to characterize the fast wave coupling and propagation in preparation for upcoming fast wave current drive (FWCD) experiments. For the fundamental minority regime, the electron and ion heating, global confinement, and radiated power fraction are compared for ICRH and NBI discharges with P{sub aux} {approx} 1 MW. The ICRH experiments were conducted using a four strap antenna which was designed for current drive experiments. The antenna is fed by a single 2 MW 30--60 MHz transmitter. For ICRH experiments, either (0,0,0,0) or (0,{pi},0,{pi}) phasing was used. The launched parallel index of refraction for (0,{pi},0,{pi}) phasing is {vert bar}n{parallel}{vert bar} {approx} 21 at 32 MHz, and {vert bar}n{parallel}{vert bar} {approx} 11 at 60 MHz. 7 refs., 8 figs.
Quasi-periodic Radio Bursts Associated with Fast-mode Waves near a Magnetic Null Point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Pankaj; Nakariakov, Valery M.; Cho, Kyung-Suk
2017-08-01
This paper presents an observation of quasi-periodic rapidly propagating waves observed in the Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA) 171/193 Å channels during the impulsive phase of an M1.9 flare that occurred on 2012 May 7. The instant period was found to decrease from 240 to 120 s, and the speed of the wavefronts was in the range of ˜664-1416 km s-1. Almost simultaneously, quasi-periodic bursts with similar instant periods, ˜70 and ˜140 s, occur in the microwave emission and in decimetric type IV and type III radio bursts, and in the soft X-ray emission. The magnetic field configuration of the flare site was consistent with a breakout topology, i.e., a quadrupolar field along with a magnetic null point. The quasi-periodic rapidly propagating wavefronts of the EUV emission are interpreted as a fast magnetoacoustic wave train. The observations suggest that the fast-mode waves are generated during the quasi-periodic magnetic reconnection in the cusp region above the flare arcade loops. For the first time, we provide evidence of a tadpole wavelet signature at about 70-140 s in decimetric (245/610 MHz) radio bursts, along with the direct observation of a coronal fast-mode wave train in EUV. In addition, at AIA 131/193 Å we observed quasi-periodic EUV disturbances with periods of 95 and 240 s propagating downward at apparent speeds of 172-273 km s-1. The nature of these downward propagating disturbances is not revealed, but they could be connected to magnetoacoustic waves or periodically shrinking loops.
Strain in shore fast ice due to incoming ocean waves and swell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fox, Colin; Squire, Vernon A.
1991-03-01
Using a development from the theoretical model presented by Fox and Squire (1990), this paper investigates the strain field generated in shore fast ice by normally incident ocean waves and swell. After a brief description of the model and its convergence, normalized absolute strain (relative to a 1-m incident wave) is found as a function of distance from the ice edge for various wave periods, ice thicknesses, and water depths. The squared transfer function, giving the relative ability of incident waves of different periods to generate strain in the ice, is calculated, and its consequences are discussed. The ice is then forced with a Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum, and the consequent strain spectra are plotted as a function of penetration into the ice sheet. Finally, rms strain, computed as the incoherent sum of the strains resulting from energy in the open water spectrum, is found. The results have implications to the breakup of shore fast ice and hence to the floe size distribution of the marginal ice zone.
High harmonic generation with fully tunable polarization by train of linearly polarized pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neufeld, Ofer; Bordo, Eliyahu; Fleischer, Avner; Cohen, Oren
2017-02-01
We propose and demonstrate, analytically and numerically, a scheme for generation of high-order harmonics with fully tunable polarization, from circular through elliptic to linear, while barely changing the other properties of the high harmonic radiation and where the ellipticity values of all the harmonic orders essentially coincide. The high harmonics are driven by a train of quasi-monochromatic linearly polarized pulses that are identical except for their polarization angles, which is the tuning knob. This system gives rise to full control over the polarization of the harmonics while largely preserving the single-cycle, single-atom and macroscopic physics of ‘ordinary’ high harmonic generation, where both the driver and high harmonics are linearly polarized.
Wavelength dependence of high-harmonic yield in stretched molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Shengjun; Du, Hongchuan; Wu, Hongmei; Li, Jinbin; Hu, Bitao
2017-09-01
We study the wavelength dependence of harmonic yield in stretched molecules. It is found that when the laser field is perpendicular to the molecular axis, the harmonic yield has a slow scaling λ-4.27 as the increase of the laser wavelength for the stretched molecule H2+ with the internuclear distance of 7 a.u. compared with λ-5.11 for H2+ at the equilibrium position. Further analysis shows that the narrower width of the initial wave-function in the momentum space is in charge of the slow wavelength scaling of the stretched molecule since it can make the wave-function spreading less during propagation. Moreover, a higher enhancement and a better wavelength scaling of harmonic yield both can be achieved at the optimal internuclear distance of 7 a.u.
Fast and Slow Mode Solitary Waves in a Five-Component Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sebastian, Sijo; Michael, Manesh; Sreekala, G.; Varghese, Anu; Venugopal, Chandu
2017-02-01
We have investigated fast- and slow-mode solitary profiles in a five-component plasma consisting of positively and negatively charged pair ions, hydrogen ions, and hotter and colder electrons. Of these, the heavier ions and colder photoelectrons are of cometary origin while the other components are of solar origin; the electrons are described by kappa distributions. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation is derived, and solutions for fast- and slow-mode solitary structures are plotted for parameters relevant to comet Halley. We found that the presence of hydrogen ions determines the polarity of the fast- and slow-mode solitary structures. Also, variations of equilibrium number density of hydrogen ions and charge numbers on the heavier pair ions act differently on the fast- and slow-mode solitary structures. The addition of hydrogen ions significantly affects the amplitude of the solitary structures for the fast mode. Further, the cyclotron frequency of the lighter and heavier ions has a noticeable effect on the width of the solitary waves.
Fast electron flux driven by lower hybrid wave in the scrape-off layer
Li, Y. L.; Xu, G. S.; Wang, H. Q.; Wan, B. N.; Chen, R.; Wang, L.; Gan, K. F.; Yang, J. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Liu, S. C.; Li, M. H.; Ding, S.; Yan, N.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Liu, Y. L.; Shao, L. M.; Li, J.; Chen, L.; Zhao, N.; and others
2015-02-15
The fast electron flux driven by Lower Hybrid Wave (LHW) in the scrape-off layer (SOL) in EAST is analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. The five bright belts flowing along the magnetic field lines in the SOL and hot spots at LHW guard limiters observed by charge coupled device and infrared cameras are attributed to the fast electron flux, which is directly measured by retarding field analyzers (RFA). The current carried by the fast electron flux, ranging from 400 to 6000 A/m{sup 2} and in the direction opposite to the plasma current, is scanned along the radial direction from the limiter surface to the position about 25 mm beyond the limiter. The measured fast electron flux is attributed to the high parallel wave refractive index n{sub ||} components of LHW. According to the antenna structure and the LHW power absorbed by plasma, a broad parallel electric field spectrum of incident wave from the antennas is estimated. The radial distribution of LHW-driven current density is analyzed in SOL based on Landau damping of the LHW. The analytical results support the RFA measurements, showing a certain level of consistency. In addition, the deposition profile of the LHW power density in SOL is also calculated utilizing this simple model. This study provides some fundamental insight into the heating and current drive effects induced by LHW in SOL, and should also help to interpret the observations and related numerical analyses of the behaviors of bright belts and hot spots induced by LHW.
Fast and accurate inference on gravitational waves from precessing compact binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Rory; Field, Scott E.; Blackburn, Kent; Haster, Carl-Johan; Pürrer, Michael; Raymond, Vivien; Schmidt, Patricia
2016-08-01
Inferring astrophysical information from gravitational waves emitted by compact binaries is one of the key science goals of gravitational-wave astronomy. In order to reach the full scientific potential of gravitational-wave experiments, we require techniques to mitigate the cost of Bayesian inference, especially as gravitational-wave signal models and analyses become increasingly sophisticated and detailed. Reduced-order models (ROMs) of gravitational waveforms can significantly reduce the computational cost of inference by removing redundant computations. In this paper, we construct the first reduced-order models of gravitational-wave signals that include the effects of spin precession, inspiral, merger, and ringdown in compact object binaries and that are valid for component masses describing binary neutron star, binary black hole, and mixed binary systems. This work utilizes the waveform model known as "IMRPhenomPv2." Our ROM enables the use of a fast reduced-order quadrature (ROQ) integration rule which allows us to approximate Bayesian probability density functions at a greatly reduced computational cost. We find that the ROQ rule can be used to speed-up inference by factors as high as 300 without introducing systematic bias. This corresponds to a reduction in computational time from around half a year to half a day for the longest duration and lowest mass signals. The ROM and ROQ rules are available with the main inference library of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, LALInference.
Joint European Torus results with both fast and lower-hybrid wave consequences for future devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacquinot, J.; Bures, M.
1992-07-01
Heating and current drive studies were performed during the JET [Phys Fluids B 3, 2209 (1991)] 1990/91 operation using two large systems capable of generating either fast waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) or slow waves at a frequency above the lower-hybrid resonance (LH). The maximum wave power coupled to the torus reached 22 MW for ICRH and 2.4 MW for LH. The results obtained in plasma heating experiments qualify ICRH as a prime candidate for heating reactor grade plasmas. A centrally localized deposition profile in the cyclotron damping regime was demonstrated in a wide range of plasma density resulting in (i) record value nd τE Ti0 ≂ 7.8 × 1020 m-3 sec keV in ``thermal'' conditions Ti = Te ≂ 11 keV at high central densities generated by pellet injection; (ii) large normalized confinement 2.5 ≤ τE/τGoldston≤4. The large values of τE/τGoldston are reached in H-mode discharges (I≤1.5 MA) with large bootstrap current fraction IBS/I ≤ 0.7 ± 0.2; (iii) the highest to date D-3He fusion power (140 kW) generated with 10-14 MW of ICRH in the L-mode regime at the 3He cyclotron frequency. All specific impurity generations have been reduced to negligible levels by proper antenna design and the generic difficulty of wave-plasma coupling has been greatly reduced using feedback loops controlling in real time the antenna circuits and the plasma position. Current drive efficiencies γ=ICD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamovich, Igor
2011-10-01
Over the last two decades, nanosecond pulse discharges and Fast Ionization Wave (FIW) discharges have been studied extensively, both theoretically and experimentally. Current interest in characterization of these discharges is driven mainly by their potential for applications such as plasma chemical fuel reforming, plasma-assisted combustion, high-speed flow control, pumping of electric discharge excited lasers, and generation of high-energy electrons. A unique capability of FIW discharges to generate significant ionization and high concentrations of excited species at high pressures and over large distances, before ionization instabilities have time to develop, is very attractive for these applications. Recent advances in laser optical diagnostics offer an opportunity of making non-intrusive, spatially and time-resolved measurements of electron density and electric field distributions in high-speed ionization wave discharges, on nanosecond time scale. Insight into FIW formation and propagation dynamics also requires development of predictive kinetic models, and their experimental validation. Although numerical kinetic models may incorporate detailed kinetics of charged and neutral species in the propagating ionization wave front (including non-local electron kinetics), analytic models are also attractive due to their capability of elucidating fundamental trends of discharge development. The talk gives an overview of recent progress in experimental characterization and kinetic modeling of nanosecond pulse and fast ionization wave discharges in nitrogen and air over a wide range of pulse repetition rates, 0.1-40 kHz. FIW discharge plasmas sustained at high pulse repetition rates are diffuse and volume filling, with most of the power coupled to the plasma behind the wave, at E/N = 200-300 Td and energy loading of 1-2 meV/molecule/pulse. The results demonstrate significant potential of large volume, diffuse, high pulse repetition rate FIW discharges for novel plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Chang-Jun; Chen, Hai-Bo; Chen, Lei-Lei
2013-04-01
This paper presents a novel wideband fast multipole boundary element approach to 3D half-space/plane-symmetric acoustic wave problems. The half-space fundamental solution is employed in the boundary integral equations so that the tree structure required in the fast multipole algorithm is constructed for the boundary elements in the real domain only. Moreover, a set of symmetric relations between the multipole expansion coefficients of the real and image domains are derived, and the half-space fundamental solution is modified for the purpose of applying such relations to avoid calculating, translating and saving the multipole/local expansion coefficients of the image domain. The wideband adaptive multilevel fast multipole algorithm associated with the iterative solver GMRES is employed so that the present method is accurate and efficient for both lowand high-frequency acoustic wave problems. As for exterior acoustic problems, the Burton-Miller method is adopted to tackle the fictitious eigenfrequency problem involved in the conventional boundary integral equation method. Details on the implementation of the present method are described, and numerical examples are given to demonstrate its accuracy and efficiency.
Fast solution of elliptic partial differential equations using linear combinations of plane waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pérez-Jordá, José M.
2016-02-01
Given an arbitrary elliptic partial differential equation (PDE), a procedure for obtaining its solution is proposed based on the method of Ritz: the solution is written as a linear combination of plane waves and the coefficients are obtained by variational minimization. The PDE to be solved is cast as a system of linear equations A x =b , where the matrix A is not sparse, which prevents the straightforward application of standard iterative methods in order to solve it. This sparseness problem can be circumvented by means of a recursive bisection approach based on the fast Fourier transform, which makes it possible to implement fast versions of some stationary iterative methods (such as Gauss-Seidel) consuming O (N logN ) memory and executing an iteration in O (N log2N ) time, N being the number of plane waves used. In a similar way, fast versions of Krylov subspace methods and multigrid methods can also be implemented. These procedures are tested on Poisson's equation expressed in adaptive coordinates. It is found that the best results are obtained with the GMRES method using a multigrid preconditioner with Gauss-Seidel relaxation steps.
Fast solution of elliptic partial differential equations using linear combinations of plane waves.
Pérez-Jordá, José M
2016-02-01
Given an arbitrary elliptic partial differential equation (PDE), a procedure for obtaining its solution is proposed based on the method of Ritz: the solution is written as a linear combination of plane waves and the coefficients are obtained by variational minimization. The PDE to be solved is cast as a system of linear equations Ax=b, where the matrix A is not sparse, which prevents the straightforward application of standard iterative methods in order to solve it. This sparseness problem can be circumvented by means of a recursive bisection approach based on the fast Fourier transform, which makes it possible to implement fast versions of some stationary iterative methods (such as Gauss-Seidel) consuming O(NlogN) memory and executing an iteration in O(Nlog(2)N) time, N being the number of plane waves used. In a similar way, fast versions of Krylov subspace methods and multigrid methods can also be implemented. These procedures are tested on Poisson's equation expressed in adaptive coordinates. It is found that the best results are obtained with the GMRES method using a multigrid preconditioner with Gauss-Seidel relaxation steps.
Fast-mode Coronal Wave Trains Detected by SDO/AIA: Recent Observational Progress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wei; Downs, Cooper; Ofman, Leon
2016-05-01
Quasi-periodic Fast Propagating wave trains (QFPs) are a new observational phenomenon discovered by SDO/AIA in extreme ultraviolet (EUV). They are fast-mode magnetosonic waves, closely related to quasi-periodic pulsations in solar flare emission ranging from radio to X-ray wavelengths. The significance of QFPs lies in their diagnostic potential, because they can provide critical clues to flare energy release and serve as new tools for coronal seismology. In this presentation, we report recent advances in observing QFPs. In particular, using differential emission measure (DEM) inversion, we found clear evidence of heating and cooling cycles that are consistent with alternating compression and rarefaction expected for magnetosonic wave pulses. We also found that different local magnetic and plasma environments can lead to two distinct types of QFPs located in different spatial domains with respect to their accompanying coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Moreover, recent IRIS observations of QFP source regions revealed sawtooth-like flare ribbon motions, indicative of pulsed magnetic reconnection, that are correlated with QFP excitation. More interestingly, from a statistical survey of over 100 QFP events, we found a preferential association with eruptive flares rather than confined flares. We will discuss the implications of these results and the potential roles of QFPs in coronal heating, energy transport, and solar eruptions.
Love-wave sensors combined with microfluidics for fast detection of biological warfare agents.
Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen
2014-07-15
The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved.
Love-Wave Sensors Combined with Microfluidics for Fast Detection of Biological Warfare Agents
Matatagui, Daniel; Fontecha, José Luis; Fernández, María Jesús; Gràcia, Isabel; Cané, Carles; Santos, José Pedro; Horrillo, María Carmen
2014-01-01
The following paper examines a time-efficient method for detecting biological warfare agents (BWAs). The method is based on a system of a Love-wave immunosensor combined with a microfluidic chip which detects BWA samples in a dynamic mode. In this way a continuous flow-through of the sample is created, promoting the reaction between antigen and antibody and allowing a fast detection of the BWAs. In order to prove this method, static and dynamic modes have been simulated and different concentrations of BWA simulants have been tested with two immunoreactions: phage M13 has been detected using the mouse monoclonal antibody anti-M13 (AM13), and the rabbit immunoglobulin (Rabbit IgG) has been detected using the polyclonal antibody goat anti-rabbit (GAR). Finally, different concentrations of each BWA simulants have been detected with a fast response time and a desirable level of discrimination among them has been achieved. PMID:25029282
Development of a fast traveling-wave beam chopper for the SNS project
Kurennoy, S.S.; Power, J.F.
1998-12-31
High current and stringent restrictions on beam losses, below 1 nA/m, in the designed linac for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) require clean and fast--with the rise time from 2% to 98% less than 2.5 ns--beam chopping in its front end, at the beam energy 2.5 MeV. The development of new traveling-wave deflecting current structures based on meander lines is discussed. Three-dimensional time-domain computer simulations with MAFIA are used to study transient effects in the chopper and to optimize current structure design. Two options for the fast pulsed voltage generator--based on FETs and vacuum tubes--are considered, and their advantages and shortcomings for the SNS chopper are discussed.
Gravitational-wave Constraints on the Progenitors of Fast Radio Bursts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Callister, Thomas; Kanner, Jonah; Weinstein, Alan
2016-07-01
The nature of fast radio bursts (FRBs) remains enigmatic. Highly energetic radio pulses of millisecond duration, FRBs are observed with dispersion measures consistent with an extragalactic source. A variety of models have been proposed to explain their origin. One popular class of theorized FRB progenitor is the coalescence of compact binaries composed of neutron stars and/or black holes. Such coalescence events are strong gravitational-wave emitters. We demonstrate that measurements made by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave observatories can be leveraged to severely constrain the validity of FRB binary coalescence models. Existing measurements constrain the binary black hole rate to approximately 5% of the FRB rate, and results from Advanced LIGO’s O1 and O2 observing runs may place similarly strong constraints on the fraction of FRBs due to binary neutron star and neutron star-black hole progenitors.
Possible influence of ultra-fast Kelvin wave on the equatorial ionosphere evening uplifting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, H.; Abdu, M. A.; Wrasse, C. M.; Fechine, J.; Batista, I. S.; Pancheva, D.; Lima, L. M.; Batista, P. P.; Clemesha, B. R.; Shiokawa, K.; Gobbi, D.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Russell, J. M.
2009-04-01
Equatorial 3.5-day ultra-fast Kelvin wave was observed in the MLT zonal wind measured by meteor radar at Cariri (7.4°S, 36.5°W, geomag. 8°S) and in the stratosphere-mesosphere temperature structures from the TIMED/SABER data. The ionospheric F-layer bottom-side virtual height hT'F and the critical frequency f o F 2 observed at Fortaleza (3.9°S, 38.4°W, geomag. 5°S) also showed similar oscillation structures, indicating an influence of the Kelvin wave in the F region height and modulation of E × B uplifting during the evening period. Consequently the ionospheric spread F onset time was also modulated in the same period, around 4 days.
d-3 He reaction measurements during fast wave minority heating in the PLT tokamak experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chrien, R. E.; Strachan, J. D.
1983-07-01
Time- and energy-resolved d-3He fusion reactions have been measured to infer the energy of the d+ or He++ minority ions heated near their cyclotron frequency by the magnetosonic fast wave. The average energy of the reacting 3He ions during 3He minority heating is in the range of 100-400 keV, as deduced from the magnitude of the reaction rate, its decay time, and the energy spread of the proton reaction products. The observed reaction rate and its scaling with wave power and electron density and temperature are in qualitative agreement with a radial reaction rate model using the minority distribution predicted from quasilinear velocity space diffusion. Oscillations in the reaction rate are observed concurrent with sawtooth and m=2 magnetohydrodynamic activity in the plasma.
Analysis of a Stabilized CNLF Method with Fast Slow Wave Splittings for Flow Problems
Jiang, Nan; Tran, Hoang A.
2015-04-01
In this work, we study Crank-Nicolson leap-frog (CNLF) methods with fast-slow wave splittings for Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) with a rotation/Coriolis force term, which is a simplification of geophysical flows. We propose a new stabilized CNLF method where the added stabilization completely removes the method's CFL time step condition. A comprehensive stability and error analysis is given. We also prove that for Oseen equations with the rotation term, the unstable mode (for which u(n+1) + u(n-1) equivalent to 0) of CNLF is asymptotically stable. Numerical results are provided to verify the stability and the convergence of the methods.
Fast Reactor Based on the Self-Sustained Regime of Nuclear Burning Wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fomin, S. P.; Mel'nik, Yu. P.; Pilipenko, V. V.; Shul'ga, N. F.
An approach for description of the space-time evolution of self-organizing nuclear burning wave regime in a critical fast neutron reactor has been developed in the effective multigroup approximation. It is based on solving the non-stationary neutron diffusion equation together with the fuel burn-up equations and the equations of nuclear kinetics for delayed neutron precursor nuclei. The calculations have been carried out in the plane one-dimensional model for a two-zone homogeneous reactor with the metal U-Pu fuel, the Na coolant and constructional material Fe.
Analysis of a Stabilized CNLF Method with Fast Slow Wave Splittings for Flow Problems
Jiang, Nan; Tran, Hoang A.
2015-04-01
In this work, we study Crank-Nicolson leap-frog (CNLF) methods with fast-slow wave splittings for Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) with a rotation/Coriolis force term, which is a simplification of geophysical flows. We propose a new stabilized CNLF method where the added stabilization completely removes the method's CFL time step condition. A comprehensive stability and error analysis is given. We also prove that for Oseen equations with the rotation term, the unstable mode (for which u(n+1) + u(n-1) equivalent to 0) of CNLF is asymptotically stable. Numerical results are provided to verify the stability and the convergence of the methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Apperson, S.; Shende, R. V.; Subramanian, S.; Tappmeyer, D.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Chen, Z.; Gangopadhyay, K.; Redner, P.; Nicholich, S.; Kapoor, D.
2007-12-01
Nanothermite composites containing metallic fuel and inorganic oxidizer are gaining importance due to their outstanding combustion characteristics. In this paper, the combustion behaviors of copper oxide/aluminum nanothermites are discussed. CuO nanorods were synthesized using the surfactant-templating method, then mixed or self-assembled with Al nanoparticles. This nanoscale mixing resulted in a large interfacial contact area between fuel and oxidizer. As a result, the reaction of the low density nanothermite composite leads to a fast propagating combustion, generating shock waves with Mach numbers up to 3.
A Lower-hybrid/Fast-wave package for the TRANSP transport analysis code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jobes, F. C.; Ignat, D. W.; McCune, D. C.
1996-11-01
A software package is being added to the TRANSP code which will permit analysis of tokamak plasmas with either lower hybrid current drive or fast wave heating or current drive. The package is a outgrowth of the LSC (Lower Hybrid Simulation) code(Ignat, D. W. et al.), Nucl. Fusion 34 837 (1994). used in conjunction with TSC (Tokamak Simulation Code)(Jardin, S. C. et al.), J. Comput. Phys. 66 481 (1986). The fastwave analysis was added to LSC, and and that combined package then adapted to TRANSP usage.
4 MW fast wave current drive upgrade for DIII-D
Callis, R.W.; Cary, W.P.; Baity, F.W.
1994-09-01
The DIII-D program has just completed a major addition to its ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) systems. This upgrade project added two new fast wave current drive (FWCD) systems, with each system consisting of a 2 MW, 30 to 120 MHz transmitter, ceramic insulated transmission lines and tuner elements, and water-cooled four-strap antenna. With this addition of 4 MW of FWCD power to the original 2 MW, 30 to 60 MHz capability, experiments can be performed that will explore advanced tokamak plasma configurations by using the centrally localized current drive to effect current profile modifications.
Design of long-pulse fast wave current drive antennas for DIII-D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baity, F. W.; Batchelor, D. B.; Bills, K. C.; Fogelman, C. H.; Jaeger, E. F.; Ping, J. L.; Riemer, B. W.; Ryan, P. M.; Stallings, D. C.; Taylor, D. J.; Yugo, J. J.
1994-10-01
Two new long-pulse fast wave current drive (FWCD) antennas will be installed on DIII-D in early 1994. These antennas will increase the available FWCD power from 2 MW to 6 MW for pulse lengths of up to 2 s, and to 4 MW for up to 10 s. Power for the new antennas is from two ASDEX-type 30- to 120-MHz transmitters. When operated at 90° phasing into a low-density plasma (˜4×1019m-3) with hot electrons (˜10 keV), these two new antennas are predicted to drive approximately 1 MA of plasma current.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, K. H.; Lee, L. C.
2016-12-01
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are often observed in the magnetosphere with frequency usually in the H+ and He+ cyclotron bands and sometimes in the O+ band. The temperature anisotropy, caused by injection of energetic ions or by compression of magnetosphere, can efficiently generate H+ EMIC waves, but not as efficient for He+ or O+ EMIC waves. Here we propose a new generation mechanism for He+ and O+ EMIC waves associated with weak fast magnetosonic shocks, which are observed in the magnetosphere. These shocks can lead to the formation of a "bunch" distribution of O+ ions in the perpendicular velocity plane. The O+ bunch distribution can excite intensive He+ EMIC waves and weak O+ and H+ waves. The dominant He+ EMIC waves are strong in quasi-perpendicular propagation and show harmonics in frequency spectrum of Fourier analysis. The proposed mechanism can explain the generation and some observed properties of He+ and O+ EMIC waves in the magnetosphere.
Wang, Hongjuan; Liu, Siqing; Gong, Jiancun; Wu, Ning; Lin, Jun
2015-06-01
We numerically study the detailed evolutionary features of the wave-like disturbance and its propagation in the eruption. This work is a follow-up to Wang et al., using significantly upgraded new simulations. We focus on the contribution of the velocity vortices and the fast shock reflection and refraction in the solar corona to the formation of the EUV waves. Following the loss of equilibrium in the coronal magnetic structure, the flux rope exhibits rapid motions and invokes the fast-mode shock at the front of the rope, which then produces a type II radio burst. The expansion of the fast shock, which is associated with outward motion, takes place in various directions, and the downward expansion shows the reflection and the refraction as a result of the non-uniform background plasma. The reflected component of the fast shock propagates upward and the refracted component propagates downward. As the refracted component reaches the boundary surface, a weak echo is excited. The Moreton wave is invoked as the fast shock touches the bottom boundary, so the Moreton wave lags the type II burst. A secondary echo occurs in the area where reflection of the fast shock encounters the slow-mode shock, and the nearby magnetic field lines are further distorted because of the interaction between the secondary echo and the velocity vortices. Our results indicate that the EUV wave may arise from various processes that are revealed in the new simulations.
Clack, Christopher T. M.; Ballai, Istvan
2009-04-15
The nonlinear theory of driven magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) waves in strongly anisotropic and dispersive plasmas, developed for slow resonance by Clack and Ballai [Phys. Plasmas 15, 2310 (2008)] and Alfven resonance by Clack et al. [Astron. Astrophys. 494, 317 (2009)], is used to study the weakly nonlinear interaction of fast magnetoacoustic (FMA) waves in a one-dimensional planar plasma. The magnetic configuration consists of an inhomogeneous magnetic slab sandwiched between two regions of semi-infinite homogeneous magnetic plasmas. Laterally driven FMA waves penetrate the inhomogeneous slab interacting with the localized slow or Alfven dissipative layer and are partly reflected, dissipated, and transmitted by this region. The nonlinearity parameter defined by Clack and Ballai (2008) is assumed to be small and a regular perturbation method is used to obtain analytical solutions in the slow dissipative layer. The effect of dispersion in the slow dissipative layer is to further decrease the coefficient of energy absorption, compared to its standard weakly nonlinear counterpart, and the generation of higher harmonics in the outgoing wave in addition to the fundamental one. The absorption of external drivers at the Alfven resonance is described within the linear MHD with great accuracy.
Ray-tracing studies of fast waves in the lower hybrid range of frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dittman, A.; Pinsker, R. I.
2016-10-01
Fast waves in the lower-hybrid range of frequencies, also referred to as `whistlers' or `helicons', will be used in the DIII-D tokamak for off-axis non-inductive current drive. Ray-tracing studies have shown that the required off-axis deposition can be achieved in target plasmas that have been recently studied in DIII-D. We wish to characterize the sensitivity of the rf power deposition profile to details of the equilibrium, and are thereby motivated to re-examine the fundamentals of ray-tracing in this regime. We have studied ray-tracing in the vicinity of regular turning points (cut-offs) and mode-coupling points in simple geometries (slab, cylinder). Later phases of the work will use the GENRAY code to study the effect of strong magnetic shear in the outer region of the plasma on the shape of the ray trajectory in that region, and on wave accessibility to the core. The usual estimate of the accessibility limit on the parallel index of refraction of the wave (n∥), based on a slab model, is inaccurate under these conditions, which could lead to improved antenna/wave coupling by utilizing a lower n∥. Work supported in part by US DoE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program and under DE-FC02-04ER54698.
Development of fast wave systems tolerant of time-varying loading
Pinsker, R.I.; Moeller, C.P.; Petty, C.C.; Phelps, D.A.
1996-06-01
A new approach to fast wave antenna array design based on the traveling wave antenna has been successfully demonstrated on the JFT-2M tokamak. A traveling wave antenna is powered though a single feed and the power flow from element to element is only via mutual reactive coupling. A combine is a particular type of traveling wave antenna, in which only the fed element and the element at the downstream end of the array are connected to vacuum feed troughs, while the intermediate elements are terminated with reactances inside the vacuum chamber. A twelve element combine for operation at 200 MHz was designed and fabricated at General Atomics, and installed and operated on the JFT-2M tokamak. The full output power of a single transmitter, 0.2 MW, was coupled to tokamak discharges with very little conditioning required. The input impedance of the combine was well matched to the transmission line impedance for all loading conditions, including vacuum (no plasma), Taylor discharge cleaning plasmas, and ohmic, L- and H-mode tokamak discharges with neutral beam heating without any adjustment of tuning elements.
Kwon, Ryun-Young; Kramar, Maxim; Wang, Tongjiang; Ofman, Leon; Davila, Joseph M.; Chae, Jongchul; Zhang, Jie
2013-10-10
We present global coronal seismology for the first time, which allows us to determine inhomogeneous magnetic field strength in the extended corona. From the measurements of the propagation speed of a fast magnetosonic wave associated with a coronal mass ejection (CME) and the coronal background density distribution derived from the polarized radiances observed by the STEREO SECCHI COR1, we determined the magnetic field strengths along the trajectories of the wave at different heliocentric distances. We found that the results have an uncertainty less than 40%, and are consistent with values determined with a potential field model and reported in previous works. The characteristics of the coronal medium we found are that (1) the density, magnetic field strength, and plasma β are lower in the coronal hole region than in streamers; (2) the magnetic field strength decreases slowly with height but the electron density decreases rapidly so that the local fast magnetosonic speed increases while plasma β falls off with height; and (3) the variations of the local fast magnetosonic speed and plasma β are dominated by variations in the electron density rather than the magnetic field strength. These results imply that Moreton and EIT waves are downward-reflected fast magnetosonic waves from the upper solar corona, rather than freely propagating fast magnetosonic waves in a certain atmospheric layer. In addition, the azimuthal components of CMEs and the driven waves may play an important role in various manifestations of shocks, such as type II radio bursts and solar energetic particle events.
Gaussian-Schell analysis of the transverse spatial properties of high-harmonic beams
Lloyd, David T.; O’Keeffe, Kevin; Anderson, Patrick N.; Hooker, Simon M.
2016-01-01
High harmonic generation (HHG) is an established means of producing coherent, short wavelength, ultrafast pulses from a compact set-up. Table-top high-harmonic sources are increasingly being used to image physical and biological systems using emerging techniques such as coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography. These novel imaging methods require coherent illumination, and it is therefore important to both characterize the spatial coherence of high-harmonic beams and understand the processes which limit this property. Here we investigate the near- and far-field spatial properties of high-harmonic radiation generated in a gas cell. The variation with harmonic order of the intensity profile, wavefront curvature, and complex coherence factor is measured in the far-field by the SCIMITAR technique. Using the Gaussian-Schell model, the properties of the harmonic beam in the plane of generation are deduced. Our results show that the order-dependence of the harmonic spatial coherence is consistent with partial coherence induced by both variation of the intensity-dependent dipole phase as well as finite spatial coherence of the driving radiation. These findings are used to suggest ways in which the coherence of harmonic beams could be increased further, which would have direct benefits to imaging with high-harmonic radiation. PMID:27465654
Gaussian-Schell analysis of the transverse spatial properties of high-harmonic beams.
Lloyd, David T; O'Keeffe, Kevin; Anderson, Patrick N; Hooker, Simon M
2016-07-28
High harmonic generation (HHG) is an established means of producing coherent, short wavelength, ultrafast pulses from a compact set-up. Table-top high-harmonic sources are increasingly being used to image physical and biological systems using emerging techniques such as coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography. These novel imaging methods require coherent illumination, and it is therefore important to both characterize the spatial coherence of high-harmonic beams and understand the processes which limit this property. Here we investigate the near- and far-field spatial properties of high-harmonic radiation generated in a gas cell. The variation with harmonic order of the intensity profile, wavefront curvature, and complex coherence factor is measured in the far-field by the SCIMITAR technique. Using the Gaussian-Schell model, the properties of the harmonic beam in the plane of generation are deduced. Our results show that the order-dependence of the harmonic spatial coherence is consistent with partial coherence induced by both variation of the intensity-dependent dipole phase as well as finite spatial coherence of the driving radiation. These findings are used to suggest ways in which the coherence of harmonic beams could be increased further, which would have direct benefits to imaging with high-harmonic radiation.
Self-Calibrating Wave-Encoded Variable-Density Single-Shot Fast Spin Echo Imaging.
Chen, Feiyu; Taviani, Valentina; Tamir, Jonathan I; Cheng, Joseph Y; Zhang, Tao; Song, Qiong; Hargreaves, Brian A; Pauly, John M; Vasanawala, Shreyas S
2017-09-14
It is highly desirable in clinical abdominal MR scans to accelerate single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) imaging and reduce blurring due to T2 decay and partial-Fourier acquisition. To develop and investigate the clinical feasibility of wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE imaging for improved image quality and scan time reduction. Prospective controlled clinical trial. With Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, the proposed method was assessed on 20 consecutive adult patients (10 male, 10 female, range, 24-84 years). A wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE sequence was developed for clinical 3.0T abdominal scans to enable high acceleration (3.5×) with full-Fourier acquisitions by: 1) introducing wave encoding with self-refocusing gradient waveforms to improve acquisition efficiency; 2) developing self-calibrated estimation of wave-encoding point-spread function and coil sensitivity to improve motion robustness; and 3) incorporating a parallel imaging and compressed sensing reconstruction to reconstruct highly accelerated datasets. Image quality was compared pairwise with standard Cartesian acquisition independently and blindly by two radiologists on a scale from -2 to 2 for noise, contrast, confidence, sharpness, and artifacts. The average ratio of scan time between these two approaches was also compared. A Wilcoxon signed-rank tests with a P value under 0.05 considered statistically significant. Wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE significantly reduced the perceived noise level and improved the sharpness of the abdominal wall and the kidneys compared with standard acquisition (mean scores 0.8, 1.2, and 0.8, respectively, P < 0.003). No significant difference was observed in relation to other features (P = 0.11). An average of 21% decrease in scan time was achieved using the proposed method. Wave-encoded variable-density sampling SSFSE achieves improved image quality with clinically relevant echo time and reduced scan time, thus providing a fast
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Wei; Ofman, Leon; Nitta, Nariaki; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Tarbell, Theodore D.
2012-01-01
We present the first unambiguous detection of quasi-periodic wave trains within the broad pulse of a global EUV wave (so-called EIT wave) occurring on the limb. These wave trains, running ahead of the lateral coronal mass ejection (CME) front of 2-4 times slower, coherently travel to distances greater than approximately solar radius/2 along the solar surface, with initial velocities up to 1400 kilometers per second decelerating to approximately 650 kilometers per second. The rapid expansion of the CME initiated at an elevated height of 110 Mm produces a strong downward and lateral compression, which may play an important role in driving the primary EUV wave and shaping its front forwardly inclined toward the solar surface. The wave trains have a dominant 2 minute periodicity that matches the X-ray flare pulsations, suggesting a causal connection. The arrival of the leading EUV wave front at increasing distances produces an uninterrupted chain sequence of deflections and/or transverse (likely fast kink mode) oscillations of local structures, including a flux-rope coronal cavity and its embedded filament with delayed onsets consistent with the wave travel time at an elevated (by approximately 50%) velocity within it. This suggests that the EUV wave penetrates through a topological separatrix surface into the cavity, unexpected from CME-caused magnetic reconfiguration. These observations, when taken together, provide compelling evidence of the fast-mode MHD wave nature of the primary (outer) fast component of a global EUV wave, running ahead of the secondary (inner) slow component of CME-caused restructuring.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wei; Ofman, Leon; Nitta, Nariaki V.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Tarbell, Theodore D.
2012-07-01
We present the first unambiguous detection of quasi-periodic wave trains within the broad pulse of a global EUV wave (so-called EIT wave) occurring on the limb. These wave trains, running ahead of the lateral coronal mass ejection (CME) front of 2-4 times slower, coherently travel to distances >~ R ⊙/2 along the solar surface, with initial velocities up to 1400 km s-1 decelerating to ~650 km s-1. The rapid expansion of the CME initiated at an elevated height of 110 Mm produces a strong downward and lateral compression, which may play an important role in driving the primary EUV wave and shaping its front forwardly inclined toward the solar surface. The wave trains have a dominant 2 minute periodicity that matches the X-ray flare pulsations, suggesting a causal connection. The arrival of the leading EUV wave front at increasing distances produces an uninterrupted chain sequence of deflections and/or transverse (likely fast kink mode) oscillations of local structures, including a flux-rope coronal cavity and its embedded filament with delayed onsets consistent with the wave travel time at an elevated (by ~50%) velocity within it. This suggests that the EUV wave penetrates through a topological separatrix surface into the cavity, unexpected from CME-caused magnetic reconfiguration. These observations, when taken together, provide compelling evidence of the fast-mode MHD wave nature of the primary (outer) fast component of a global EUV wave, running ahead of the secondary (inner) slow component of CME-caused restructuring.
Liu Wei; Nitta, Nariaki V.; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Ofman, Leon
2012-07-01
We present the first unambiguous detection of quasi-periodic wave trains within the broad pulse of a global EUV wave (so-called EIT wave) occurring on the limb. These wave trains, running ahead of the lateral coronal mass ejection (CME) front of 2-4 times slower, coherently travel to distances {approx}> R{sub Sun }/2 along the solar surface, with initial velocities up to 1400 km s{sup -1} decelerating to {approx}650 km s{sup -1}. The rapid expansion of the CME initiated at an elevated height of 110 Mm produces a strong downward and lateral compression, which may play an important role in driving the primary EUV wave and shaping its front forwardly inclined toward the solar surface. The wave trains have a dominant 2 minute periodicity that matches the X-ray flare pulsations, suggesting a causal connection. The arrival of the leading EUV wave front at increasing distances produces an uninterrupted chain sequence of deflections and/or transverse (likely fast kink mode) oscillations of local structures, including a flux-rope coronal cavity and its embedded filament with delayed onsets consistent with the wave travel time at an elevated (by {approx}50%) velocity within it. This suggests that the EUV wave penetrates through a topological separatrix surface into the cavity, unexpected from CME-caused magnetic reconfiguration. These observations, when taken together, provide compelling evidence of the fast-mode MHD wave nature of the primary (outer) fast component of a global EUV wave, running ahead of the secondary (inner) slow component of CME-caused restructuring.
The Effect of Sawtooth Oscillations on Fast Wave Coupling and Propagation in Alcator C-Mod
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reardon, J.; Bonoli, P. T.; Porkolab, M.; Wukitch, S. J.; Brambilla, M.
1998-11-01
On Alcator C-Mod the antenna loading seen during fast-wave minority heating with (0, π , 0, π ) phasing often shows modulation which follows the timing of central sawteeth. Both sawteeth and inverse sawteeth have been observed on the loadings of the two antennas, sometimes simultaneously. The loading can change by as much as a factor of two in 0.1 ms. The amplitude of the RF power detected by loop probes on the high-field side of the plasma, opposite the antennas, also often shows the imprint of central sawteeth: it increases immediately at the sawtooth crash, by as much as a factor of two, then decreases more slowly during the sawtooth reheat. The amount of sawtooth modulation on the loop probe signals is sensitive to I_p. Quantitative comparison of the measured antenna loading and the probe signals with the antenna radiation resistance and the outward-radiated power calculated by FELICE is used to diagnose the coupling and propagation of the fast wave.
Axis-dependence of molecular high harmonic emission in three dimensions.
Spector, Limor S; Artamonov, Maxim; Miyabe, Shungo; Martinez, Todd; Seideman, Tamar; Guehr, Markus; Bucksbaum, Philip H
2014-01-01
High-order harmonic generation in an atomic or molecular gas is a promising source of sub-femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet coherent radiation for transient scattering, absorption, metrology and imaging applications. High harmonic spectra are sensitive to Ångstrom-scale structure and motion of laser-driven molecules, but interference from radiation produced by random molecular orientations obscures this in all but the simplest cases, such as linear molecules. Here we show how to extract full body-frame high harmonic generation information for molecules with more complicated geometries by utilizing the methods of coherent transient rotational spectroscopy. To demonstrate this approach, we obtain the relative strength of harmonic emission along the three principal axes in the asymmetric-top sulphur dioxide. This greatly simplifies the analysis task of high harmonic spectroscopy and extends its usefulness to more complex molecules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Seung-Woo
2010-03-01
Seung-Woo Kim has been researching femtosecond ultrafast optics for ultraprecision manufacturing technologies including EUV and X-ray generation. Recently, he and his colleagues achieved a novel method of high-harmonic generation by exploiting the local field enhancement in the nanogap induced by resonant plasmons within a metallic nanostructure consisting of bow-tie shaped gold elements on a sapphire substrate. Plasmonic gold elements enhance the pulse intensity enough to induce high harmonic generation with no extra cavities at all. By injection of argon and xenon gas jets onto bow-tie nanostructures, high harmonics up to 21st (38 nm) order were produced while the incident laser intensity remained only 10^11 Wcm-2. Other nanostructures such as tapered cones are now being investigated to construct laptop-sized coherent EUV sources for advanced lithography and high resolution imaging applications.
Axis-dependence of molecular high harmonic emission in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spector, Limor S.; Artamonov, Maxim; Miyabe, Shungo; Martinez, Todd; Seideman, Tamar; Guehr, Markus; Bucksbaum, Philip H.
2014-02-01
High-order harmonic generation in an atomic or molecular gas is a promising source of sub-femtosecond vacuum ultraviolet coherent radiation for transient scattering, absorption, metrology and imaging applications. High harmonic spectra are sensitive to Ångstrom-scale structure and motion of laser-driven molecules, but interference from radiation produced by random molecular orientations obscures this in all but the simplest cases, such as linear molecules. Here we show how to extract full body-frame high harmonic generation information for molecules with more complicated geometries by utilizing the methods of coherent transient rotational spectroscopy. To demonstrate this approach, we obtain the relative strength of harmonic emission along the three principal axes in the asymmetric-top sulphur dioxide. This greatly simplifies the analysis task of high harmonic spectroscopy and extends its usefulness to more complex molecules.
Thomas, Alexander Roy; Krushelnick, Karl
2016-09-08
We have studied ion motion effects in high harmonic generation, including shifts to the harmonics which result in degradation of the attosecond pulse train, and how to mitigate them. We have examined the scaling with intensity of harmonic emission. We have also switched the geometry of the interaction to measure, for the first time, harmonics from a normal incidence interaction. This was performed by using a special parabolic reflector with an on axis hole and is to allow measurements of the attosecond pulses using standard techniques. Here is a summary of the findings: First high harmonic generation in laser-solid interactions at 10^{21} Wcm^{-2}, demonstration of harmonic focusing, study of ion motion effects in high harmonic generation in laser-solid interactions, and demonstration of harmonic amplification.
Multilevel fast multipole algorithm for elastic wave scattering by large three-dimensional objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Mei Song; Chew, Weng Cho
2009-02-01
Multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) is developed for solving elastic wave scattering by large three-dimensional (3D) objects. Since the governing set of boundary integral equations (BIE) for the problem includes both compressional and shear waves with different wave numbers in one medium, the double-tree structure for each medium is used in the MLFMA implementation. When both the object and surrounding media are elastic, four wave numbers in total and thus four FMA trees are involved. We employ Nyström method to discretize the BIE and generate the corresponding matrix equation. The MLFMA is used to accelerate the solution process by reducing the complexity of matrix-vector product from O(N2) to O(NlogN) in iterative solvers. The multiple-tree structure differs from the single-tree frame in electromagnetics (EM) and acoustics, and greatly complicates the MLFMA implementation due to the different definitions for well-separated groups in different FMA trees. Our Nyström method has made use of the cancellation of leading terms in the series expansion of integral kernels to handle hyper singularities in near terms. This feature is kept in the MLFMA by seeking the common near patches in different FMA trees and treating the involved near terms synergistically. Due to the high cost of the multiple-tree structure, our numerical examples show that we can only solve the elastic wave scattering problems with 0.3-0.4 millions of unknowns on our Dell Precision 690 workstation using one core.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lizurek, Grzegorz; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Wiszniowski, Jan
2017-03-01
Bucharest, with a population of approximately 2 million people, has suffered damage from earthquakes in the Vrancea seismic zone, which is located about 170 km from Bucharest, at a depth of 80-200 km. Consequently, an earthquake early warning system (Bucharest Rapid earthquake Early Warning System or BREWS) was constructed to provide some warning about impending shaking from large earthquakes in the Vrancea zone. In order to provide quick estimates of magnitude, seismic moment was first determined from P-waves and then a moment magnitude was determined from the moment. However, this magnitude may not be consistent with previous estimates of magnitude from the Romanian Seismic Network. This paper introduces the algorithm using P-wave spectral levels and compares them with catalog estimates. The testing procedure used waveforms from about 90 events with catalog magnitudes from 3.5 to 5.4. Corrections to the P-wave determined magnitudes according to dominant intermediate depth events mechanism were tested for November 22, 2014, M5.6 and October 17, M6 events. The corrections worked well, but unveiled overestimation of the average magnitude result of about 0.2 magnitude unit in the case of shallow depth event ( H < 60 km). The P-wave spectral approach allows for the relatively fast estimates of magnitude for use in BREWS. The average correction taking into account the most common focal mechanism for radiation pattern coefficient may lead to overestimation of the magnitude for shallow events of about 0.2 magnitude unit. However, in case of events of intermediate depth of M6 the resulting M w is underestimated at about 0.1-0.2. We conclude that our P-wave spectral approach is sufficiently robust for the needs of BREWS for both shallow and intermediate depth events.
Multielectron Correlation in High-Harmonic Generation: A 2D Model Analysis
Sukiasyan, Suren; McDonald, Chris; Destefani, Carlos; Brabec, Thomas; Ivanov, Misha Yu.
2009-06-05
We analyze the role of multielectron dynamics in high-harmonic generation spectroscopy, using an example of a two-electron system. We identify and systematically quantify the importance of correlation and exchange effects. One of the main sources for correlation is identified to be the polarization of the ion by the recombining continuum electron. This effect, which plays an important qualitative and quantitative role, seriously undermines the validity of the standard approaches to high-harmonic generation, which ignore the contribution of excited ionic states to the radiative recombination of the continuum electron.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emelina, A. S.; Emelin, M. Yu.; Ryabikin, M. Yu.
2016-04-01
Using the theoretical description beyond the dipole approximation, we examine the impact of the electron magnetic drift caused by a strong midinfrared laser field on the feasibility and ultimate limitations of the method proposed recently [C. Hernández-García et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.033002] as a route to the generation of zeptosecond x-ray waveforms; this method relies on the interference of high-harmonic emission from multiple reencounters of the electron wave packet with the ion. We show that the electron magnetic drift serves as the spectral filter changing the relative weights of the contributions to the high-harmonic signal from different rescattering events. For a range of driving wavelengths in the midinfrared, the use of the control of the carrier-envelope phase, occasionally in combination with the spectral filtering, to cope with the magnetic drift effect is shown to facilitate the production of intense high-contrast keV beats of durations shorter than 0.8 attosecond. The limitations on the laser wavelengths usable for implementing this approach are determined by the growing unamendable imbalance between the contributions of interfering paths and by an overall decline in the efficiency of high-harmonic generation at longer driving wavelengths.
Experimental Study of RF Sheath Formation on a Fast Wave Antenna and Limiter in the LAPD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Michael; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; van Compernolle, Bart; Carter, Troy
2015-11-01
Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) will be an essential component of heating power in ITER. During ICRH, radio frequency (RF) sheaths may form both at the exciting antenna and further away, e.g. in the divertor region, and may cause wall material sputtering and decreased RF power coupling to the plasma. It is important to do detailed laboratory experiments that fully diagnose the sheaths and wave fields. This is not possible in fusion devices. A new RF system has recently been constructed for performing such studies in the LAPD plasma column (ne ~1012 -1013cm-3 , Te ~ 1 - 10 eV ,B0 ~ 400 - 2000 G , diameter ~ 60cm , length ~ 18 m) . The RF system is capable of pulsing at the 1 Hz rep. rate of the LAPD plasma and operating between 2-6 MHz (1st - 9th harmonic of fci in H) with a power output of 200 kW. First results of this system driving a single-strap fast wave antenna will be presented. Emissive and Langmuir probe measurements in the vicinity of both the antenna and a remote limiter and wave coupling measured by magnetic pickup loops will be presented.
Experimental investigation of the shock wave in a fast discharge with cylindrical geometry
Antsiferov, P. S.; Dorokhin, L. A.
2013-08-15
The work is devoted to the registration and the study of the properties of cylindrical shock waves generated in the fast discharge (dI/dt ∼ 10{sup 12} A/s) inside the ceramic tube (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) filled by argon at pressures of 100 and 300 Pa. The shock wave appears at the inner wall of the insulator and moves to the discharge axis with a velocity of about (3−4) × 10{sup 6} cm/s with subsequent cumulation. The plasma behind the front is heated enough to produce radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region, which makes it possible to study its structure by means of a pinhole camera with a microchannel plate detector. The time resolution of the registration system was 10 ns. The analysis of VUV spectra of the plasma shows that the electron temperature behind the shock wave front is about several eV; after the moment of cumulation, its temperature increases to 20–30 eV.
Observational and Theoretical Challenges to Wave or Turbulence Accelerations of the Fast Solar Wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, D. Aaron
2008-01-01
We use both observations and theoretical considerations to show that hydromagnetic waves or turbulence cannot produce the acceleration of the fast solar wind and the related heating of the open solar corona. Waves do exist as shown by Hinode and other observations, and can play a role in the differential heating and acceleration of minor ions but their amplitudes are not sufficient to power the wind, as demonstrated by extrapolation of magnetic spectra from Helios and Ulysses observations. Dissipation mechanisms invoked to circumvent this conclusion cannot be effective for a variety of reasons. In particular, turbulence does not play a strong role in the corona as shown by both eclipse observations of coronal striations and theoretical considerations of line-tying to a nonturbulent photosphere, nonlocality of interactions, and the nature of kinetic dissipation. In the absence of wave heating and acceleration, the chromosphere and transition region become the natural source of open coronal energization. We suggest a variant of the velocity filtration approach in which the emergence and complex churning of the magnetic flux in the chromosphere and transition region continuously and ubiquitously produces the nonthermal distributions required. These particles are then released by magnetic carpet reconnection at a wide range of scales and produce the wind as described in kinetic approaches. Since the carpet reconnection is not the main source of the energization of the plasma, there is no expectation of an observable release of energy in nanoflares.
Experimental investigation of the shock wave in a fast discharge with cylindrical geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antsiferov, P. S.; Dorokhin, L. A.
2013-08-01
The work is devoted to the registration and the study of the properties of cylindrical shock waves generated in the fast discharge ( dI/ dt ˜ 1012 A/s) inside the ceramic tube (Al2O3) filled by argon at pressures of 100 and 300 Pa. The shock wave appears at the inner wall of the insulator and moves to the discharge axis with a velocity of about (3-4) × 106 cm/s with subsequent cumulation. The plasma behind the front is heated enough to produce radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region, which makes it possible to study its structure by means of a pinhole camera with a microchannel plate detector. The time resolution of the registration system was 10 ns. The analysis of VUV spectra of the plasma shows that the electron temperature behind the shock wave front is about several eV; after the moment of cumulation, its temperature increases to 20-30 eV.
Observational and Theoretical Challenges to Wave or Turbulence Accelerations of the Fast Solar Wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, D. Aaron
2008-01-01
We use both observations and theoretical considerations to show that hydromagnetic waves or turbulence cannot produce the acceleration of the fast solar wind and the related heating of the open solar corona. Waves do exist as shown by Hinode and other observations, and can play a role in the differential heating and acceleration of minor ions but their amplitudes are not sufficient to power the wind, as demonstrated by extrapolation of magnetic spectra from Helios and Ulysses observations. Dissipation mechanisms invoked to circumvent this conclusion cannot be effective for a variety of reasons. In particular, turbulence does not play a strong role in the corona as shown by both eclipse observations of coronal striations and theoretical considerations of line-tying to a nonturbulent photosphere, nonlocality of interactions, and the nature of kinetic dissipation. In the absence of wave heating and acceleration, the chromosphere and transition region become the natural source of open coronal energization. We suggest a variant of the velocity filtration approach in which the emergence and complex churning of the magnetic flux in the chromosphere and transition region continuously and ubiquitously produces the nonthermal distributions required. These particles are then released by magnetic carpet reconnection at a wide range of scales and produce the wind as described in kinetic approaches. Since the carpet reconnection is not the main source of the energization of the plasma, there is no expectation of an observable release of energy in nanoflares.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hollweg, Joseph V.; Markovskii, S. A.
2002-06-01
There is a growing consensus that cyclotron resonances play important roles in heating protons and ions in coronal holes where the fast solar wind originates and throughout interplanetary space as well. Most work on cyclotron resonant interactions has concentrated on the special, but unrealistic, case of propagation along the ambient magnetic field, B0, because of the great simplification it gives. This paper offers a physical discussion of how the cyclotron resonances behave when the waves propagate obliquely to B0. We show how resonances at harmonics of the cyclotron frequency come about, and how the physics can be different depending on whether E⊥ is in or perpendicular to the plane containing k and B0 (k is wave vector, and E⊥ is the component of the wave electric field perpendicular to B0). If E⊥ is in the k-B0 plane, the resonances are analogous to the Landau resonance and arise because the particle tends to stay in phase with the wave during the part of its orbit when it is interacting most strongly with E⊥. If E⊥ is perpendicular to the k-B0 plane, then the resonances depend on the fact that the particle is at different positions during the parts of its orbit when it is interacting most strongly with E⊥. Our main results are our
Anderson, Christian C.; Bauer, Adam Q.; Holland, Mark R.; Pakula, Michal; Laugier, Pascal; Bretthorst, G. Larry; Miller, James G.
2010-01-01
Quantitative ultrasonic characterization of cancellous bone can be complicated by artifacts introduced by analyzing acquired data consisting of two propagating waves (a fast wave and a slow wave) as if only one wave were present. Recovering the ultrasonic properties of overlapping fast and slow waves could therefore lead to enhancement of bone quality assessment. The current study uses Bayesian probability theory to estimate phase velocity and normalized broadband ultrasonic attenuation (nBUA) parameters in a model of fast and slow wave propagation. Calculations are carried out using Markov chain Monte Carlo with simulated annealing to approximate the marginal posterior probability densities for parameters in the model. The technique is applied to simulated data, to data acquired on two phantoms capable of generating two waves in acquired signals, and to data acquired on a human femur condyle specimen. The models are in good agreement with both the simulated and experimental data, and the values of the estimated ultrasonic parameters fall within expected ranges. PMID:21110589
Song, Pengfei; Manduca, Armando; Zhao, Heng; Urban, Matthew W.; Greenleaf, James F.; Chen, Shigao
2014-01-01
A fast shear compounding method was developed in this study using only one shear wave push-detect cycle, such that the shear wave imaging frame rate is preserved and motion artifacts are minimized. The proposed method is composed of the following steps: 1. applying a comb-push to produce multiple differently angled shear waves at different spatial locations simultaneously; 2. decomposing the complex shear wave field into individual shear wave fields with differently oriented shear waves using a multi-directional filter; 3. using a robust two-dimensional (2D) shear wave speed calculation to reconstruct 2D shear elasticity maps from each filter direction; 4. compounding these 2D maps from different directions into a final map. An inclusion phantom study showed that the fast shear compounding method could achieve comparable performance to conventional shear compounding without sacrificing the imaging frame rate. A multi-inclusion phantom experiment showed that the fast shear compounding method could provide a full field-of-view (FOV), 2D, and compounded shear elasticity map with three types of inclusions clearly resolved and stiffness measurements showing excellent agreement to the nominal values. PMID:24613636
Initial Testing of Optical Arc Detector Inside 285/300 Fast Wave Antenna Box on DIII-D
Diem, Stephanie J; Fehling, Dan T; Hillis, Donald Lee; Horton, Anthony R; Unterberg, E. A.; Nagy, A.; Pinsker, R.
2013-01-01
Locating arcs within the fast wave current drive system is necessary to improve antenna performance and coupling to the plasma. Previously, there had been no way to observe arcs inside the vacuum vessel in an ICRF antenna on DIII-D. A new diagnostic that uses photomultiplier tubes has been installed for the 2012 run campaign on the 285/300 antenna of the fast wave system. The diagnostic has top and bottom views of the back of the four antenna straps and uses narrow-bandpass visible filters to isolate emission lines of copper (577 nm) and deuterium (656.1 nm). This diagnostic is based on the ORNL filterscope system currently in use on multiple devices. The system will be used to guide fast wave antenna conditioning, plasma operation and provide insight into future antenna upgrades on DIII-D.
Yang, Liping; Zhang, Lei; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Wang, Linghua; Peter, Hardi; Zhang, Shaohua; Feng, Xueshang
2015-02-20
The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory has directly imaged the fast-propagating magnetosonic waves (FMWs) successively propagating outward along coronal magnetic funnels. In this study we perform a numerical investigation of the excitation of FMWs in the interchange reconnection scenario, with footpoint shearing flow being used to energize the system and drive the reconnection. The modeling results show that as a result of magnetic reconnection, the plasma in the current sheet is heated up by Joule dissipation to ∼10 MK and is ejected rapidly, developing the hot outflows. Meanwhile, the current sheet is torn into plasmoids, which are shot quickly both upward and downward. When the plasmoids reach the outflow regions, they impact and collide with the ambient magnetic field there, which consecutively launches FMWs. The FMWs propagate outward divergently away from the impact regions, with a phase speed of the Alfvén speed of ∼1000 km s{sup –1}. In the k – ω diagram of the Fourier wave power, the FMWs display a broad frequency distribution with a straight ridge that represents the dispersion relation. With the WKB approximation, at the distance of 15 Mm from the wave source region, we estimate the energy flux of FMWs to be E ∼ 7.0 × 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, which is ∼50 times smaller than the energy flux related to the tube-channeled reconnection outflow. These simulation results indicate that energetically and dynamically the outflow is far more important than the waves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ba Dinh, Khuong; Le, Hoang Vu; Hannaford, Peter; Van Dao, Lap
2017-08-01
A table-top coherent diffractive imaging experiment on a sample with biological-like characteristics using a focused narrow-bandwidth high harmonic source around 30 nm is performed. An approach involving a beam stop and a new reconstruction algorithm to enhance the quality of reconstructed the image is described.
Spin angular momentum and tunable polarization in high-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleischer, Avner; Kfir, Ofer; Diskin, Tzvi; Sidorenko, Pavel; Cohen, Oren
2014-07-01
The roles of energy, momentum and orbital angular momentum conservation in high-harmonic generation were studied in the past. Here, we explore the role of spin angular momentum in high-harmonic generation by experimentally generating high harmonics of bichromatic elliptically polarized pump beams that interact with isotropic media. We explain qualitatively many observed intricate selection rules with a model that includes spin conservation in the conversion of many pump photons into a single photon. However, we also observe unequivocal deviations from this model, indicating that emission of an elliptically polarized high-energy photon is accompanied by an additional excitation (radiative or electronic). The presented results are also important for applications, because our system exhibits full control over the polarization of the harmonics, from circular through elliptical to linear polarization, without compromising the efficiency of the process. This work paves the way for a broad range of applications with high-harmonic generation, including ultrafast circular dichroism of molecules and magnetic materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vermeersen, B. L.; Schotman, H. H.
2006-12-01
The Earth's asthenosphere and lower continental crust can regionally have viscosities that are one to several orders of magnitude smaller than typical mantle viscosities. As a consequence, such shallow low-viscosity layers could induce high-harmonic (spherical harmonics 50 - 200) gravity and geoid anomalies due to remaining isostasy deviations following Late-Pleistocene glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Such high- harmonic geoid and gravity signatures would depend also on the detailed ice and meltwater loading distribution and history. ESA's GOCE satellite mission, planned for launch Summer 2007, is designed to map the quasi-static geoid with centimeter accuracy and gravity anomalies with milligal accuracy at a resolution of 100 kilometers or better. This might offer the possibility of detecting gravity and geoid effects of low-viscosity shallow earth layers and differences of the effects of various Pleistocene ice decay scenarios. For example, our predictions show that for a typical low-viscosity crustal zone GOCE should be able to discern differences between ice-load histories down to length scales of about 150 km. One of the major challenges in interpreting such high-harmonic, regional-scale, geoid signatures in GOCE solutions will be to discriminate GIA-signatures from various other solid-earth contributions. It might be of help here that the high-harmonic geoid and gravity signatures form quite characteristic 2-D patterns, depending on both ice load and low-viscosity zone model parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Xiaotian; Liu, Kaijun; Wang, Xueyi; Min, Kyungguk; Lin, Yu; Wang, Xiaogang
2017-06-01
Two-dimensional simulations using a gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion (GeFi) scheme are preformed to study the excitation of fast magnetosonic waves in the terrestrial magnetosphere, which arise from the ion Bernstein instability driven by proton velocity distributions with a positive slope with respect to the perpendicular velocity. Since both ion and electron kinetics are relevant, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have often been employed to study the wave excitation. However, the full particle-in-cell scheme is computationally expensive for simulating waves in the ion scale because the electron scale must be fully resolved. Therefore, such simulations are limited to reduced proton-to-electron mass ratio ( m p / m e) and light-to-Alfvén speed ratio ( c / v A). The present study exploits the GeFi scheme that can break through these limitations to some extent, so larger m p / m e and c / v A can be used. In the simulations presented, the ion Bernstein instability is driven by a proton velocity distribution composed of 10% energetic protons with a shell distribution and 90% relatively cool, background protons with a Maxwellian distribution. The capability of the GeFi code in simulating the ion Bernstein instability is first demonstrated by comparing a GeFi simulation using reduced mass ratio ( m p / m e = 100) and speed ratio ( c / v A = 15) to a corresponding PIC simulation as well as linear dispersion analysis. A realistic speed ratio ( c / v A = 400) and a larger mass ratio ( m p / m e = 400) are then adopted in the GeFi code to explore how the results vary. It is shown that, as the increased m p / m e and c / v A lead to a larger lower hybrid frequency, ion Bernstein waves are excited at more ion cyclotron harmonics, consistent with the general prediction of linear dispersion theory. On the other hand, the GeFi simulations also revealed some interesting features after the instability saturation, which are likely related to nonlinear wave-wave
Homodyne High-Harmonic Spectroscopy: Coherent Imaging of a Unimolecular Chemical Reaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beaudoin Bertrand, Julien
At the heart of high harmonic generation lies a combination of optical and collision physics entwined by a strong laser field. An electron, initially tunnel-ionized by the field, driven away then back in the continuum, finally recombines back to rest in its initial ground state via a radiative transition. The emitted attosecond (atto=10-18) XUV light pulse carries all the information (polarization, amplitude and phase) about the photorecombination continuum-to-ground transition dipolar field. Photorecombination is related to the time-reversed photoionization process. In this perspective, high-harmonic spectroscopy extends well-established photoelectron spectroscopy, based on charged particle detection, to a fully coherent one, based on light characterization. The main achievement presented in this thesis is to use high harmonic generation to probe femtosecond (femto=10-15) chemical dynamics for the first time. Thanks to the coherence imposed by the strong driving laser field, homodyne detection of attosecond pulses from excited molecules undergoing dynamics is achieved, the signal from unexcited molecules acting as the reference local oscillator. First, applying time-resolved high-harmonic spectroscopy to the photodissociation of a diatomic molecule, Br2 → Br + Br, allows us to follow the break of a chemical bond occurring in a few hundreds of femtoseconds. Second, extending it to a triatomic (NO2) lets us observe both the previously unseen (but predicted) early femtosecond conical intersection dynamics followed by the late picosecond statistical photodissociation taking place in the reaction NO2 → NO + O. Another important realization of this thesis is the development of a complementary technique to time-resolved high-harmonic spectroscopy called LAPIN, for Linked Attosecond Phase INterferometry. When combined together, time-resolved high-harmonic spectroscopy and LAPIN give access to the complex photorecombination dipole of aligned excited molecules. These
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mandt, M. E.; Lee, L. C.
1991-01-01
The high correlation of Pc 1 events with magnetospheric compressions is known. A mechanism is proposed which leads to the generation of Pc 1 waves. The interaction of a dynamic pressure pulse with the earth's bow shock leads to the formation of a weak fast-mode shock propagating into the magnetoshealth. The shock wave can pass right through a tangential discontinuity (magnetopause) and into the magnetosphere, without disturbing either of the structures. In a quasiperpendicular geometry, the shock wave exhibits anisotropic heating. This anisotropy drives unstable ion-cyclotron waves which can contribute to the generation of the Pc 1 waves which are detected. The viability of the mechanism is demonstrated with simulations. This mechanism could explain the peak in the occurrence of observed Pc 1 waves in the postnoon sector where a field-aligned discontinuity in the solar wind would most often be parallel to the magnetopause surface due to the average Parker-spiral magnetic-field configuration.
Fast dropouts of multi-MeV electrons due to combined effects of EMIC and whistler mode waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A. V.; Ma, Q.; Agapitov, O. V.; Li, W.
2016-05-01
We investigate how whole populations of 2-6 MeV electrons can be quickly lost from the Earth's outer radiation belt at L= 3-6 through precipitation into the atmosphere due to quasi-linear pitch angle scattering by combined electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) and whistler mode waves of realistic intensities occurring at the same or different local times. We provide analytical estimates of the corresponding relativistic electron lifetimes, emphasizing that the combined effects of both waves can lead to very fast (2-10 h) dropouts. Scaling laws for the loss timescales are derived, allowing us to determine the various plasma and wave parameter domains potentially leading to strong and fast dropouts. The analysis reveals that the fastest MeV electron dropouts occur at approximately the same rate over some high energy range and almost independently of EMIC wave amplitudes above a certain threshold. These results should help to better understand the dynamic variability of the radiation belts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vackář, Jiří; Zahradník, Jiří; Sokos, Efthimios
2014-01-01
The January 18, 2010, shallow earthquake in the Corinth Gulf, Greece ( M w 5.3) generated unusually strong long-period waves (periods 4-8 s) between the P and S wave arrival. These periods, being significantly longer than the source duration, indicated a structural effect. The waves were observed in epicentral distances 40-250 km and were significant on radial and vertical component. None of existing velocity models of the studied region provided explanation of the waves. By inverting complete waveforms, we obtained an 1-D crustal model explaining the observation. The most significant feature of the best-fitting model (as well as the whole suite of models almost equally well fitting the waveforms) is a strong velocity step at depth about 4 km. In the obtained velocity model, the fast long-period wave was modeled by modal summation and identified as a superposition of several leaking modes. In this sense, the wave is qualitatively similar to P long or Pnl waves, which however are usually reported in larger epicentral distances. The main innovation of this paper is emphasis to smaller epicentral distances. We studied properties of the wave using synthetic seismograms. The wave has a normal dispersion. Azimuthal and distance dependence of the wave partially explains its presence at 46 stations of 70 examined. Depth dependence shows that the studied earthquake was very efficient in the excitation of these waves just due to its shallow centroid depth (4.5 km).
Development of a fast traveling-wave beam chopper for the National Spallation Neutron Source
Kurennoy, S.S.; Jason, A.J.; Krawczyk, F.L.; Power, J.
1997-10-01
High current and severe restrictions on beam losses, below 1 nA/m, in the designed linac for the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS) require clean and fast--with the rise time from 2% to 98% less than 2.5 ns to accommodate a 402.5-MHz beam structure--beam chopping in its front end, at the beam energy 2.5 MeV. The R and D program includes both modification of the existing LANSCE coax-plate chopper to reduce parasitic coupling between adjacent plates, and development of new traveling-wave deflecting structures, in particular, based on a meander line. Using analytical methods and three-dimensional time-domain computer simulations the authors study transient effects in such structures to choose an optimal chopper design.
Friedt, J-M; Droit, C; Ballandras, S; Alzuaga, S; Martin, G; Sandoz, P
2012-05-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators can advantageously operate as passive sensors which can be interrogated through a wireless link. Amongst the practical applications of such devices, structural health monitoring through stress measurement and more generally vibration characteristics of mechanical structures benefit from the ability to bury such sensors within the considered structure (wireless and battery-less). However, measurement bandwidth becomes a significant challenge when measuring wideband vibration characteristics of mechanical structures. A fast SAW resonator measurement scheme is demonstrated here. The measurement bandwidth is limited by the physical settling time of the resonator (Q/π periods), requiring only two probe pulses through a monostatic RADAR-like electronic setup to identify the sensor resonance frequency and hence stress on a resonator acting as a strain gauge. A measurement update rate of 4800 Hz using a high quality factor SAW resonator operating in the 434 MHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band is experimentally demonstrated.
Design Concepts For A Long Pulse Upgrade For The DIII-D Fast Wave Antenna Array
Ryan, Philip Michael; Baity Jr, F Wallace; Caughman, John B; Goulding, Richard Howell; Hosea, J.; Greenough, Nevell; Nagy, Alex; Pinsker, R.; Rasmussen, David A
2009-01-01
A goal in the 5-year plan for the fast wave program on DIII-D is to couple a total of 3.6 MW of RF power into a long pulse, H-mode plasma for central electron heating. The present short-pulse 285/300 antenna array would need to be replaced with one capable of at least 1.2 MW, 10 s operation at 60 MHz into an H-mode (low resistive loading) plasma condition. The primary design under consideration uses a poloidally-segmented strap (3 sections) for reduced strap voltage near the plasma/Faraday screen region. Internal capacitance makes the antenna structure self-resonant at 60 MHz, strongly reducing peak E-fields in the vacuum coax and feed throughs.
Investigations of Low and Moderate Harmonic Fast Wave Physics on CDX-U
J. Spaleta; R. Majeski; C.K. Phillips; R.J. Dumont; R. Kaita; V. Soukhanovskii; L. Zakharov
2003-07-14
Third harmonic hydrogen cyclotron fast wave heating studies are planned in the near term on CDX-U to investigate the potential for bulk ion heating. In preparation for these studies, the available radio-frequency power in CDX-U has been increased to 0.5 MW. The operating frequency of the CDX-U radio-frequency transmitter was lowered to operate in the range of 8-10 MHz, providing access to the ion harmonic range 2* {approx} 4* in hydrogen. A similar regime is accessible for the 30 MHz radio-frequency system on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), at 0.6 Tesla in hydrogen. Preliminary computational studies over the plasma regimes of interest for NSTX and CDX-U indicate the possibility of strong localized absorption on bulk ion species.
Spectral shaping and phase control of a fast-wave current drive antenna array
Baity, F.W.; Gardner, W.L.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Ryan, P.M.
1989-01-01
The requirements for antenna design and phase control circuitry for a fast-wave current drive (FWCD) array operating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies are considered. The design of a phase control system that can operate at arbitrary phasing over a wide range of plasma-loading and strap-coupling values is presented for a four-loop antenna array, prototypical of an array planned for the DIII-D tokamak (General Atomics, San Diego, California). The goal is to maximize the power launched with the proper polarization for current drive while maintaining external control of phase. Since it is desirable to demonstrate the feasibility of FWCD prior to ITER, a four-strap array has been designed for DIII-D to operate with the existing 2-MW transmitter at 60 MHz. 3 refs., 6 figs.
Design of long-pulse fast wave current drive antennas for DIII-D
Baity, F.W.; Batchelor, D.B.; Bills, K.C.; Fogelman, C.H.; Jaeger, E.F.; Ping, J.L.; Riemer, B.W.; Ryan, P.M.; Stallings, D.C.; Taylor, D.J.; Yugo, J.J. )
1994-10-15
Two new long-pulse fast wave current drive (FWCD) antennas will be installed on DIII-D in early 1994. These antennas will increase the available FWCD power from 2 MW to 6 MW for pulse lengths of up to 2 s, and to 4 MW for up to 10 s. Power for the new antennas is from two ASDEX-type 30- to 120-MHz transmitters. When operated at 90[degree] phasing into a low-density plasma ([similar to]4[times]10[sup 19]m[sup [minus]3]) with hot electrons ([similar to]10 keV), these two new antennas are predicted to drive approximately 1 MA of plasma current.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedt, J.-M.; Droit, C.; Ballandras, S.; Alzuaga, S.; Martin, G.; Sandoz, P.
2012-05-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators can advantageously operate as passive sensors which can be interrogated through a wireless link. Amongst the practical applications of such devices, structural health monitoring through stress measurement and more generally vibration characteristics of mechanical structures benefit from the ability to bury such sensors within the considered structure (wireless and battery-less). However, measurement bandwidth becomes a significant challenge when measuring wideband vibration characteristics of mechanical structures. A fast SAW resonator measurement scheme is demonstrated here. The measurement bandwidth is limited by the physical settling time of the resonator (Q/π periods), requiring only two probe pulses through a monostatic RADAR-like electronic setup to identify the sensor resonance frequency and hence stress on a resonator acting as a strain gauge. A measurement update rate of 4800 Hz using a high quality factor SAW resonator operating in the 434 MHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band is experimentally demonstrated.
Mézière, F; Juskova, P; Woittequand, J; Muller, M; Bossy, E; Boistel, Renaud; Malaquin, L; Derode, A
2016-02-01
In this paper, ultrasound measurements of 1:1 scale three-dimensional (3D) printed trabecular bone phantoms are reported. The micro-structure of a trabecular horse bone sample was obtained via synchrotron x-ray microtomography, converted to a 3D binary data set, and successfully 3D-printed at scale 1:1. Ultrasound through-transmission experiments were also performed through a highly anisotropic version of this structure, obtained by elongating the digitized structure prior to 3D printing. As in real anisotropic trabecular bone, both the fast and slow waves were observed. This illustrates the potential of stereolithography and the relevance of such bone phantoms for the study of ultrasound propagation in bone.
The efficiency of fast wave current drive for a weakly relativistic plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiu, S. C.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Karney, C. F. F.
1994-10-01
Current drive by fast waves (FWCD) is an important candidate for steady-state operation of tokamaks. Major experiments using this scheme are being carried out on DIII-D. There has been considerable study of the theoretical efficiency of FWCD. In Refs. 4 and 5, the nonrelativistic efficiency of FWCD at arbitrary frequencies was studied. For DIII-D parameters, the results can be considerably different from the Landau and Alfvén limits. At the high temperatures of reactors and DIII-D upgrade, relativistic effects become important. In this paper, the relativistic FWCD efficiency for arbitrary frequencies is studied. Assuming that the plasma is weakly relativistic, i.e., Te/mc2 is small, an analytic expression for FWCD is obtained for high resonant energies (uph/uTe≫1). Comparisons with the results from a numerical code ADJ and the nonrelativistic results shall be made and analytical fits in the whole range of velocities shall be presented.
State-Space Realization of the Wave-Radiation Force within FAST: Preprint
Duarte, T.; Sarmento, A.; Alves, M.; Jonkman, J.
2013-06-01
Several methods have been proposed in the literature to find a state-space model for the wave-radiation forces. In this paper, four methods were compared, two in the frequency domain and two in the time domain. The frequency-response function and the impulse response of the resulting state-space models were compared against the ones derived by the numerical code WAMIT. The implementation of the state-space module within the FAST offshore wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool was verified, comparing the results against the previously implemented numerical convolution method. The results agreed between the two methods, with a significant reduction in required computational time when using the state-space module.
Millimeter-wave center of curvature test for a fast paraboloid.
Goldberg, Samuel; Padin, Stephen
2012-01-20
We describe a technique for measuring the surface profile of a radio telescope with a fast paraboloidal primary. The technique uses a sensor, at the center of curvature of the primary, consisting of a millimeter-wave source and an array of receivers to measure the field in the caustic. The sensor is mounted on the telescope enclosure and it moves with the telescope, so the measurements can be used for continuous, slow, closed-loop control of the surface. Sensor decenter and despace errors, due to wind buffeting and thermal deformation of the sensor support, do not compromise the surface measurements because they result in profile errors that are mainly translation, which has no effect on astronomical observations, or tilt and defocus, which can be measured using astronomical sources. If the position of the sensor is known to 20 μm rms, the surface can be measured to ~1 μm rms at λ=3 mm.
A fast neuronal signal-sensitive continuous-wave near-infrared imaging system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhongxing; Sun, Bailei; Gong, Hui; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Jinyan; Wang, Bangde; Luo, Qingming
2012-09-01
We have developed a continuous-wave near-infrared imaging system to measure fast neuronal signals. We used a simultaneous sampling method with a separate high-speed analog-to-digital converter for each input channel, which provides a much larger point sample in a digital lock-in algorithm, higher temporal resolution, and lower crosstalk among detected channels. Without any analog filter, digital lock-in detection with a large point sample suppresses noise excellently, making the system less complex and offering better flexibility. In addition, using a custom-made collimator, more photons can reach the brain tissue due to the smaller divergence angle. Performance analysis shows high detection sensitivity (on the order of 0.1 pW) and high temporal resolution (˜50 Hz, 48 channels). Simulation experiments show that intensity changes on the order of 0.01% can be resolved by our instrument when averaging over approximately 500 stimuli. In vivo experiments over the motor cortex show that our instrument can detect fast neuronal signals in the human brain.
A fast neuronal signal-sensitive continuous-wave near-infrared imaging system.
Zhang, Zhongxing; Sun, Bailei; Gong, Hui; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Jinyan; Wang, Bangde; Luo, Qingming
2012-09-01
We have developed a continuous-wave near-infrared imaging system to measure fast neuronal signals. We used a simultaneous sampling method with a separate high-speed analog-to-digital converter for each input channel, which provides a much larger point sample in a digital lock-in algorithm, higher temporal resolution, and lower crosstalk among detected channels. Without any analog filter, digital lock-in detection with a large point sample suppresses noise excellently, making the system less complex and offering better flexibility. In addition, using a custom-made collimator, more photons can reach the brain tissue due to the smaller divergence angle. Performance analysis shows high detection sensitivity (on the order of 0.1 pW) and high temporal resolution (~50 Hz, 48 channels). Simulation experiments show that intensity changes on the order of 0.01% can be resolved by our instrument when averaging over approximately 500 stimuli. In vivo experiments over the motor cortex show that our instrument can detect fast neuronal signals in the human brain.
Fast methods for computing scene raw signals in millimeter-wave sensor simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olson, Richard F.; Reynolds, Terry M.; Satterfield, H. Dewayne
2010-04-01
Modern millimeter wave (mmW) radar sensor systems employ wideband transmit waveforms and efficient receiver signal processing methods for resolving accurate measurements of targets embedded in complex backgrounds. Fast Fourier Transform processing of pulse return signal samples is used to resolve range and Doppler locations, and amplitudes of scattered RF energy. Angle glint from RF scattering centers can be measured by performing monopulse arithmetic on signals resolved in both delta and sum antenna channels. Environment simulations for these sensors - including all-digital and hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) scene generators - require fast, efficient methods for computing radar receiver input signals to support accurate simulations with acceptable execution time and computer cost. Although all-digital and HWIL simulations differ in their representations of the radar sensor (which is itself a simulation in the all-digital case), the signal computations for mmW scene modeling are closely related for both types. Engineers at the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) have developed various fast methods for computing mmW scene raw signals to support both HWIL scene projection and all-digital receiver model input signal synthesis. These methods range from high level methods of decomposing radar scenes for accurate application of spatially-dependent nonlinear scatterer phase history, to low-level methods of efficiently computing individual scatterer complex signals and single precision transcendental functions. The efficiencies of these computations are intimately tied to math and memory resources provided by computer architectures. The paper concludes with a summary of radar scene computing performance on available computer architectures, and an estimate of future growth potential for this computational performance.
Afzal, Adeel; Iqbal, Naseer; Mujahid, Adnan; Schirhagl, Romana
2013-07-17
The necessity of selectively detecting various organic vapors is primitive not only with respect to regular environmental and industrial hazard monitoring, but also in detecting explosives to combat terrorism and for defense applications. Today, the huge arsenal of micro-sensors has revolutionized the traditional methods of analysis by, e.g. replacing expensive laboratory equipment, and has made the remote screening of atmospheric threats possible. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors - based on piezoelectric crystal resonators - are extremely sensitive to even very small perturbations in the external atmosphere, because the energy associated with the acoustic waves is confined to the crystal surface. Combined with suitably designed molecular recognition materials SAW devices could develop into highly selective and fast responsive miniaturized sensors, which are capable of continuously monitoring a specific organic gas, preferably in the sub-ppm regime. For this purpose, different types of recognition layers ranging from nanostructured metal oxides and carbons to pristine or molecularly imprinted polymers and self-assembled monolayers have been applied in the past decade. We present a critical review of the recent developments in nano- and micro-engineered synthetic recognition materials predominantly used for SAW-based organic vapor sensors. Besides highlighting their potential to realize real-time vapor sensing, their limitations and future perspectives are also discussed.
Fast simulated annealing inversion of surface waves on pavement using phase-velocity spectra
Ryden, N.; Park, C.B.
2006-01-01
The conventional inversion of surface waves depends on modal identification of measured dispersion curves, which can be ambiguous. It is possible to avoid mode-number identification and extraction by inverting the complete phase-velocity spectrum obtained from a multichannel record. We use the fast simulated annealing (FSA) global search algorithm to minimize the difference between the measured phase-velocity spectrum and that calculated from a theoretical layer model, including the field setup geometry. Results show that this algorithm can help one avoid getting trapped in local minima while searching for the best-matching layer model. The entire procedure is demonstrated on synthetic and field data for asphalt pavement. The viscoelastic properties of the top asphalt layer are taken into account, and the inverted asphalt stiffness as a function of frequency compares well with laboratory tests on core samples. The thickness and shear-wave velocity of the deeper embedded layers are resolved within 10% deviation from those values measured separately during pavement construction. The proposed method may be equally applicable to normal soil site investigation and in the field of ultrasonic testing of materials. ?? 2006 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
The gradient waves of perturbations as an instability factor in fast-flow lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedoseev, A. I.; Mushenkov, A. V.; Odintsov, A. I.; Smirnov, A. P.
2016-07-01
We study the mechanism of the self-oscillation instability associated with the nonlinear interaction of radiation with a moving active medium in a fast-flow gas laser. The results of our analytical and numerical calculations of the frequencies and increments of the small self-oscillation perturbations in an unstable cavity of the laser with a non-uniform pumping rate are presented. In the analytical model the small perturbations of the gain in each point of the flow consist of two parts. The first part includes the ‘local’ perturbations that are not related to a motion of the medium. The second part includes the ‘flow’ perturbations that arise upstream of the flow due to the gradients of the pumping rate and the laser field intensity. These perturbations are carried by the flow in the form of traveling waves. The interference of the ‘gradient’ waves of the flow perturbations results in the resonant properties of the feedback produced by the flow. It is demonstrated that it is feasible to control the lasing regime based on these resonant properties of the feedback. The simulation of the nonlinear lasing regimes demonstrates that the conversion of continuous lasing into the periodical self-pulsing regime is not accompanied by a significant reduction in the average power output.
Two-point studies of fast Z-mode waves with dipoles in the ionosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horita, R. E.; James, H. G.
2004-08-01
An HF transmitter and synchronized receiver, both connected to dipoles, were operated during the tethered rocket experiment OEDIPUS C. On the flight downleg after the tether had been cut, direct bistatic propagation experiments were carried out with the transmitter in one subpayload and the receiver in the other subpayload. Medium-frequency Z-mode transmissions were observed to be strong compared with the adjoining wave modes. This fast Z mode is the left-hand polarized mode propagating between its cutoff frequency fZ and the local plasma frequency fp. The Z mode is of particular theoretical interest because its refractive index surface evolves from a simple ellipsoid to an ellipsoid with inflections as the frequency is swept through the band. The Z-mode signal was strongest at frequencies just below fp, at relatively low fp values. At higher values of fp, the Z-mode signals were strongest at frequencies just above fZ. Details of these characteristics and of the measurements are presented. The magnitudes of transmitted signals predicted by a cold-plasma theory for short dipoles are found generally to be in good agreement with the measurements. The exceptions were at the highest frequencies where the inflected shape of the refractive index surface leads to three separate wave vector directions for a single group direction. A possible explanation for the relatively strong Z-mode signal is that the transmitting dipole impedance in the fZ - fp frequency range provides a better match to the output of the transmitter than in the bands of other wave modes swept.
Development of fast two-dimensional standing wave microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gliko, Olga; Reddy, Duemani G.; Brownell, William E.; Saggau, Peter
2008-02-01
A novel scheme for two-dimensional (2D) standing wave fluorescence microscopy (SWFM) using acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) is proposed. Two laser beams were coupled into an inverted microscope and focused at the back focal plane of the objective lens. The position of each of two beams at the back focal plane was controlled by a pair of AODs. This resulted in two collimated beams that interfered in the focal plane, creating a lateral periodic excitation pattern with variable spacing and orientation. The phase of the standing wave pattern was controlled by phase delay between two RF sinusoidal signals driving the AODs. Nine SW patterns of three different orientations about the optical axis and three different phases were generated. The excitation of the specimen using these patterns will result in a SWFM image with enhanced 2D lateral resolution with a nearly isotropic effective point-spread function. Rotation of the SW pattern relative to specimen and varying the SW phase do not involve any mechanical movements and are only limited by the time required for the acoustic wave to fill the aperture of AOD. The resulting total acquisition time can be as short as 100 Âµs and is only further limited by speed and sensitivity of the employed CCD camera. Therefore, this 2D SWFM can provide a real time imaging of subresolution processes such as docking and fusion of synaptic vesicles. In addition, the combination of 2D SWFM with variable angle total internal reflection (TIR) can extend this scheme to fast microscopy with enhanced three-dimensional (3D) resolution.
60 MHz fast wave current drive experiments for DIII-D
Mayberry, M.J.; Chiu, S.C.; Porkolab, M.; Chan, V.; Freeman, R.; Harvey, R.; Pinsker, R.
1989-05-01
Non-inductive current drive is an essential element of the ITER program because it enhances high fluence nuclear testing during the technology phase of operations. By using fast waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), current drive efficiencies comparable to lower-hybrid current drive can be obtained with good penetration of wave power to the high temperature plasma core. An additional advantage of the low frequency scheme is its technological simplicity due to the present availability of efficient, multi-megawatt rf sources in the ICRF. The DIII-D facility provides an excellent opportunity to test the feasibility of the low frequency FWCD approach. By combining with high power (2 MW) ECH injection at 60 GHz, it should be possible to generate plasmas with central electron temperatures of T/sub e0/ approx. = 4 keV, and by operating at a reduced toroidal field (B = 1T) to increase the electron ..beta.., strong single-pass absorption (/eta//sub abs/ greater than or equal to 0.3) can be achieved. The availability of a wide port recess (1m toroidal by 0.5m poloidal) will enable a travelling wave spectrum to be launched with N/sub parallel/ approx. = 5--7 at 60 MHz, which should be optimum for strong electron interaction. The resulting current drive efficiency should be sufficiently high to demonstrate FWCD at the /approximately/ 0.25--0.5 MA level at moderate densities (/bar n/ approx. = 1.3 /times/ 10/sup 19/ m/sup /minus/3/) using the existing 2 MW ICRF transmitter. 7 refs., 5 figs.
Green, David L; Jaeger, Erwin Frederick; Berry, Lee A; Choi, M.
2009-01-01
The rf-SciDAC collaboration is developing computer simulations to predict the damping of radio frequency (rf) waves in fusion plasmas. Here we extend self-consistent quasi-linear calculations of ion cyclotron resonant heating to include the finite drift of ions from magnetic flux surfaces and rf induced spatial transport. The all-orders spectral wave solver AORSA is iteratively coupled with a particle based update of the plasma distribution function using a quasi-linear diffusion tersor representative of the (k) over right arrow spectrum. Initial results are presented for a high power minority heating scenario on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak and a high harmonic beam heating scenario on DIII-D. Finite orbit effects are shown to give a less peaked perpendicular energy profile and rf induced transport.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carter, Troy; Martin, Michael; van Compernolle, Bart; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Pat; Vincena, Stephen; Tripathi, Shreekrishna; van Eester, Dirk; Crombe, Kristel
2016-10-01
The LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA is a 17 m long, up to 60 cm diameter magnetized plasma column with typical plasma parameters ne 1012 -1013 cm-3, Te 1 - 10 eV, and B 1 kG. A new high-power ( 200 kW) RF system and antenna has been developed for LAPD, enabling the generation of large amplitude fast waves in LAPD. Interaction between the fast waves and density fluctuations is observed, resulting in modulation of the coupled RF power. Two classes of RF-induced density fluctuations are observed. First, a coherent (10 kHz) oscillation is observed spatially near the antenna in response to the initial RF turn-on transient. Second, broadband density fluctuations are enhanced when the RF power is above a threshold a threshold. Strong modulation of the fast wave magnetic fluctuations is observed along with broadening of the primary RF spectral line. Ultimately, high power fast waves will be used for ion heating in LAPD through minority species fundamental heating or second harmonic minority or majority heating. Initial experimental results from heating experiments will be presented along with a discussion of future plans. BaPSF supported by NSF and DOE.
Dorodnitsyn, Vladimir; Van Damme, Bart
2016-06-01
Wave propagation in cellular and porous media is widely studied due to its abundance in nature and industrial applications. Biot's theory for open-cell media predicts the existence of two simultaneous pressure waves, distinguished by its velocity. A fast wave travels through the solid matrix, whereas a much slower wave is carried by fluid channels. In closed-cell materials, the slow wave disappears due to a lack of a continuous fluid path. However, recent finite element (FE) simulations done by the authors of this paper also predict the presence of slow pressure waves in saturated closed-cell materials. The nature of the slow wave is not clear. In this paper, an equivalent unit cell of a medium with square cells is proposed to permit an analytical description of the dynamics of such a material. A simplified FE model suggests that the fluid-structure interaction can be fully captured using a wavenumber-dependent spring support of the vibrating cell walls. Using this approach, the pressure wave behavior can be calculated with high accuracy, but with less numerical effort. Finally, Rayleigh's energy method is used to investigate the coexistence of two waves with different velocities.
Model of resonant high harmonic generation in multi-electron systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Redkin, P. V.; Ganeev, R. A.
2017-09-01
We extend the 4-step analytical model of resonant enhancement of high harmonic generation to the systems possessing resonant transitions of inner-shell electrons. Resonant enhancement is explained by lasing without inversion in a three-level system of ground, excited and shifted resonant states, which are coupled to the fundamental field and its high harmonics. The role of inelastic scattering is studied by simulation of an excited state’s population dynamics. It is shown that maximal gain is achieved when the energy shift between the excited state and resonant state is close to the energy of the fundamental photon. To prove the concept we demonstrate the enhancement of harmonics in the In plasma using different pumps.
Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology
Chen, Cong; Tao, Zhensheng; Hernández-García, Carlos; Matyba, Piotr; Carr, Adra; Knut, Ronny; Kfir, Ofer; Zusin, Dimitry; Gentry, Christian; Grychtol, Patrik; Cohen, Oren; Plaja, Luis; Becker, Andreas; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret
2016-01-01
Bright, circularly polarized, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray high-harmonic beams can now be produced using counter-rotating circularly polarized driving laser fields. Although the resulting circularly polarized harmonics consist of relatively simple pairs of peaks in the spectral domain, in the time domain, the field is predicted to emerge as a complex series of rotating linearly polarized bursts, varying rapidly in amplitude, frequency, and polarization. We extend attosecond metrology techniques to circularly polarized light by simultaneously irradiating a copper surface with circularly polarized high-harmonic and linearly polarized infrared laser fields. The resulting temporal modulation of the photoelectron spectra carries essential phase information about the EUV field. Utilizing the polarization selectivity of the solid surface and by rotating the circularly polarized EUV field in space, we fully retrieve the amplitude and phase of the circularly polarized harmonics, allowing us to reconstruct one of the most complex coherent light fields produced to date. PMID:26989782
Tomographic reconstruction of circularly polarized high-harmonic fields: 3D attosecond metrology.
Chen, Cong; Tao, Zhensheng; Hernández-García, Carlos; Matyba, Piotr; Carr, Adra; Knut, Ronny; Kfir, Ofer; Zusin, Dimitry; Gentry, Christian; Grychtol, Patrik; Cohen, Oren; Plaja, Luis; Becker, Andreas; Jaron-Becker, Agnieszka; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret
2016-02-01
Bright, circularly polarized, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray high-harmonic beams can now be produced using counter-rotating circularly polarized driving laser fields. Although the resulting circularly polarized harmonics consist of relatively simple pairs of peaks in the spectral domain, in the time domain, the field is predicted to emerge as a complex series of rotating linearly polarized bursts, varying rapidly in amplitude, frequency, and polarization. We extend attosecond metrology techniques to circularly polarized light by simultaneously irradiating a copper surface with circularly polarized high-harmonic and linearly polarized infrared laser fields. The resulting temporal modulation of the photoelectron spectra carries essential phase information about the EUV field. Utilizing the polarization selectivity of the solid surface and by rotating the circularly polarized EUV field in space, we fully retrieve the amplitude and phase of the circularly polarized harmonics, allowing us to reconstruct one of the most complex coherent light fields produced to date.
Generation of high harmonic free electron laser with phase-merging effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Heting; Jia, Qika; Zhao, Zhouyu
2017-03-01
An easy-to-implement scheme is proposed to produce the longitudinal electron bunch density modulation with phase-merging phenomenon. In this scheme an electron bunch is firstly transversely dispersed in a modified dogleg to generate the exact dependence of electron energy on the transverse position, then it is modulated in a normal modulator. After travelling through a modified chicane with specially designed transfer matrix elements, the density modulation with phase-merging effect is generated which contains high harmonic components of the seed laser. We present theoretical analysis and numerical simulations for seeded soft x-ray free-electron laser. The results demonstrate that this technique can significantly enhance the frequency up-conversion efficiency and allow a seeded FEL operating at very high harmonics.
Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.
2014-11-20
We develop a model for stochastic acceleration of electrons in solar flares. As in several previous models, the electrons are accelerated by turbulent fast magnetosonic waves ({sup f}ast waves{sup )} via transit-time-damping (TTD) interactions. (In TTD interactions, fast waves act like moving magnetic mirrors that push the electrons parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic field). We also include the effects of Coulomb collisions and the waves' parallel electric fields. Unlike previous models, our model is two-dimensional in both momentum space and wavenumber space and takes into account the anisotropy of the wave power spectrum F{sub k} and electron distribution function f {sub e}. We use weak turbulence theory and quasilinear theory to obtain a set of equations that describes the coupled evolution of F{sub k} and f {sub e}. We solve these equations numerically and find that the electron distribution function develops a power-law-like non-thermal tail within a restricted range of energies E in (E {sub nt}, E {sub max}). We obtain approximate analytic expressions for E {sub nt} and E {sub max}, which describe how these minimum and maximum energies depend upon parameters such as the electron number density and the rate at which fast-wave energy is injected into the acceleration region at large scales. We contrast our results with previous studies that assume that F{sub k} and f {sub e} are isotropic, and we compare one of our numerical calculations with the time-dependent hard-X-ray spectrum observed during the 1980 June 27 flare. In our numerical calculations, the electron energy spectra are softer (steeper) than in models with isotropic F{sub k} and f {sub e} and closer to the values inferred from observations of solar flares.
Two-Color Laser High-Harmonic Generation in Cavitated Plasma Wakefields
Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim
2016-10-03
A method is proposed for producing coherent x-rays via high-harmonic generation using a laser interacting with highly-stripped ions in cavitated plasma wakefields. Two laser pulses of different colors are employed: a long-wavelength pulse for cavitation and a short-wavelength pulse for harmonic generation. This method enables efficient laser harmonic generation in the sub-nm wavelength regime.
High-harmonic XUV source for time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy
Dakovski, Georgi L; Li, Yinwan; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Rodriguez, George
2009-01-01
We present a laser-based apparatus for visible pump/XUV probe time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TRARPES) utilizing high-harmonic generation from a noble gas. Femtosecond temporal resolution for each selected harmonic is achieved by using a time-delay-compensated monochromator (TCM). The source has been used to obtain photoemission spectra from insulators (UO{sub 2}) and ultrafast pump/probe processes in semiconductors (GaAs).
Diffractive imaging using a polychromatic high-harmonic generation soft-x-ray source
Dilanian, Ruben A.; Chen Bo; Williams, Garth J.; Quiney, Harry M.; Nugent, Keith A.; Teichmann, Sven; Hannaford, Peter; Dao, Lap V.; Peele, Andrew G.
2009-07-15
A new approach to diffractive imaging using polychromatic diffraction data is described. The method is tested using simulated and experimental data and is shown to yield high-quality reconstructions. Diffraction data produced using a high-harmonic generation source are considered explicitly here. The formalism can be readily adapted, however, to any short-wavelength source producing a discrete spectrum and possessing sufficient spatial coherence.
13.5 nm High Harmonic Generation Driven by a Visible Noncollinear Optical Parametric Amplifier
2011-11-11
light source. We build a high energy tunable visible Optical Parametric Amplifier, and drive High Harmonic Generation in Argon and Helium . We study how...wavelength of 13.5 nm. The results agree well with a previously developed theoretical model. We predict that using a 630-nm driver in Helium could have a...light on the photo resist. Current techniques are capable of producing sub-100-nm features by using UV light at 193 nm from excimer lasers, but for
Generation of Bright Phase-matched Circularly-polarized Extreme Ultraviolet High Harmonics
2014-12-08
molecular decay dynamics2, the direct measurement of quantum phases (for example, Berry’s phase and pseudo- spin ) in graphene and topological insulators3,4 and...Lett. 12, 3900–3904 (2012). 4. Xu, S.-Y. et al. Hedgehog spin texture and Berry’s phase tuning in a magnetic topological insulator. Nature Phys. 8, 616...Mauger, F., Bandrauk, A. D., Kamor, A., Uzer, T. & Chandre, C. Quantum - classical correspondence in circularly polarized high harmonic generation. J. Phys
Commissioning of the long-pulse fast wave current drive antennas for DIII-D
Baity, F.W.; Barber, G.C.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; DeGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Petty, C.C.; Cary, W.
1995-09-01
Two new four-element fast wave current drive antennas have been installed on DIII-D. These antennas are designed for 10-s pulses at 2 MW each in the frequency range of 30 to 120 MHz. Each element comprises two poloidal segments fed in parallel in order to optimize plasma coupling at the upper end of the frequency range. The antennas are mounted on opposite sides of the vacuum vessel, in ports designated 0{degrees} and 180{degrees} after their toroidal angle. Each antenna array is fed by a single transmitter. The power is first split two ways by means of a 3-dB hybrid coupler, then each of these lines feeds a resonant loop connecting a pair of array elements. The power transfer during asymmetric phasing is shunted between resonant loops by a decoupler. The resonant loops are fitted with line stretchers so that multiple frequencies of operation are possible without reconfiguring the transmission line. Commissioning of these antennas has been underway since June 1994. Several deficiencies in the transmission line system were uncovered during initial vacuum conditioning, including problems with the transmission line insulators and with the drive rods for the variable elements. The former was solved by replacing the original alumina insulators, and the latter has been avoided during operation to date by positioning the tuners to avoid high voltage appearing on the drive rods. A modified design for the drive rods will be implemented before RF operations resume operation June 1995. New transmitters were procured from ABB for the new antennas and were installed in parallel with the antenna installation. During initial vacuum conditioning of the antenna in the 180{degree} port a fast digital oscilloscope was used to try to pinpoint the location of arcing by a time-of-flight technique and to develop an understanding of the typical arc signature in the system.
Thoen, D. J.; Bongers, W. A.; Westerhof, E.; Baar, M. R. de; Berg, M. A. van den; Beveren, V. van; Goede, A. P. H.; Graswinckel, M. F.; Schueller, F. C.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Buerger, A.; Hennen, B. A.
2009-10-15
A fast Fourier transform (FFT) based wide range millimeter wave diagnostics for spectral characterization of scattered millimeter waves in plasmas has been successfully brought into operation. The scattered millimeter waves are heterodyne downconverted and directly digitized using a fast analog-digital converter and a compact peripheral component interconnect computer. Frequency spectra are obtained by FFT in the time domain of the intermediate frequency signal. The scattered millimeter waves are generated during high power electron cyclotron resonance heating experiments on the TEXTOR tokamak and demonstrate the performance of the diagnostics and, in particular, the usability of direct digitizing and Fourier transformation of millimeter wave signals. The diagnostics is able to acquire 4 GHz wide spectra of signals in the range of 136-140 GHz. The rate of spectra is tunable and has been tested between 200 000 spectra/s with a frequency resolution of 100 MHz and 120 spectra/s with a frequency resolution of 25 kHz. The respective dynamic ranges are 52 and 88 dB. Major benefits of the new diagnostics are a tunable time and frequency resolution due to postdetection, near-real time processing of the acquired data. This diagnostics has a wider application in astrophysics, earth observation, plasma physics, and molecular spectroscopy for the detection and analysis of millimeter wave radiation, providing high-resolution spectra at high temporal resolution and large dynamic range.
Schmidt, J L; Tweten, D J; Benegal, A N; Walker, C H; Portnoi, T E; Okamoto, R J; Garbow, J R; Bayly, P V
2016-05-03
Mechanical anisotropy is an important property of fibrous tissues; for example, the anisotropic mechanical properties of brain white matter may play a key role in the mechanics of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The simplest anisotropic material model for small deformations of soft tissue is a nearly incompressible, transversely isotropic (ITI) material characterized by three parameters: minimum shear modulus (µ), shear anisotropy (ϕ=µ1µ-1) and tensile anisotropy (ζ=E1E2-1). These parameters can be determined using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to visualize shear waves, if the angle between the shear-wave propagation direction and fiber direction is known. Most MRE studies assume isotropic material models with a single shear (µ) or tensile (E) modulus. In this study, two types of shear waves, "fast" and "slow", were analyzed for a given propagation direction to estimate anisotropic parameters µ, ϕ, and ζ in two fibrous soft materials: turkey breast ex vivo and aligned fibrin gels. As expected, the speed of slow shear waves depended on the angle between fiber direction and propagation direction. Fast shear waves were observed when the deformations due to wave motion induced stretch in the fiber direction. Finally, MRE estimates of anisotropic mechanical properties in turkey breast were compared to estimates from direct mechanical tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
High harmonics from solid surfaces as a source of ultra-bright XUV radiation for experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hörlein, R.; Nomura, Y.; Osterhoff, J.; Major, Zs; Karsch, S.; Krausz, F.; Tsakiris, G. D.
2008-12-01
The coherent high-order harmonic generation from the interaction of ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulses with solid density plasmas holds promise for tabletop sources of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft x-ray radiation with attosecond duration and unprecedented intensities. Together with the generation of mono-energetic electron beams from gas jets and capillaries and the generation of mono-energetic ions from thin foils, this offers a unique tool box of tabletop-laser-generated radiation sources for a wide range of applications previously only accessible with large-scale accelerator and synchrotron-radiation facilities. Especially, the generation of high harmonics from laser plasmas has the potential of being applied to a wide range of experiments from plasma physics to molecular dynamics. So far the studies addressing the generation of high harmonics from laser-generated overcritical plasma surfaces have concentrated mainly on the characterization of the harmonic beams themselves not considering how, in a next step, these beams could be applied to experiments. In this paper we discuss the generation of surface harmonics with the ATLAS (800 mJ, 40 fs) laser system with the emphasis on the transport, spectral shaping refocusing of the harmonic beams, all of these being absolute prerequisites for multi-shot experiments. We also present considerations for future improvements and possible future experiments exploiting the full potential of high harmonic radiation from solid targets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turnbull, A. D.; Choi, M.; Lao, L. L.; Chan, V. S.; Chu, M. S.; Jeon, Y. M.; Li, G.; Ren, Q.; Gorelenkov, N.
2007-11-01
Validation of a predictive sawtooth model is important for burning plasma experiments such as ITER. The Porcelli model using simplified expressions for the key contributions has been found to predict average sawtooth periods reasonably well in existing tokamaks. We evaluate this model using realistic models for the ideal MHD contribution from GATO, and a nonisotropic fast ion contribution using ORBIT-RF and TORIC for the rf-modified fast-ion pressure. Application to the first giant sawtooth cycle in a DIII-D discharge where beam ions accelerated by fast waves modify the sawteeth shows the model can predict the crash time consistent with the experimental crash. The stabilizing contributions depend strongly on uncertainties in the magnetic shear at q=1 and the fast ion poloidal beta. The model will be also applied to other sawteeth in the same discharge and compared to predictions from the more complete NOVA-K stability code with full anistropy.
Fast-wave heating in the two-ion hybrid regime on PLT
Hwang, D.Q.; Chrien, R.E.; Colestock, P.
1981-01-01
Plasma heating using the fast magnetosonic wave in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies is being studied both experimentally and theoretically in order to evaluate its potential for heating reactor plasmas. RF pulses at power levels up to 800 kW and length >130 ms have been delivered to a set of two parallel 1/2 turn loop antennae with 80% of the power coupled to the plasma. The parallel antennae have been driven both in and out-of-place so that the k/sub phi/ dependence of the antenna coupling and plasma heating can be determined. The heating experiments were conducted in the two-ion hybrid regime where the deuterium plasma contained a small component of a second ion species (hydrogen or /sup 3/He). A bulk ion temperature increase of up to 1.2 keV has been achieved at the 620 kW power level with /sup 3/He as the minority species and anti n/sub e/ = 2.9 x 10/sup 13/ cm/sup -3/. Energetic minority distributions have been detected consistent with theory.
Gravitational Waves from Rotating Neutron Stars and Evaluation of fast Chirp Transform Techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strohmayer, Tod E.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
X-ray observations suggest that neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB) are rotating with frequencies from 300 - 600 Hz. These spin rates are significantly less than the break-up rates for essentially all realistic neutron star equations of state, suggesting that some process may limit the spin frequencies of accreting neutron stars to this range. If the accretion induced spin up torque is in equilibrium with gravitational radiation losses, these objects could be interesting sources of gravitational waves. I present a brief summary of current measurements of neutron star spins in LMXBs based on the observations of high-Q oscillations during thermonuclear bursts (so called 'burst oscillations'). Further measurements of neutron star spins will be important in exploring the gravitational radiation hypothesis in more detail. To this end I also present a study of fast chirp transform (FCT) techniques as described by Jenet and Prince in the context of searching for the chirping signals observed during X-ray bursts.
Generation of plasma rotation in a tokamak by ion-cyclotron absorption of fast Alfven waves
F.W. Perkins; R.B. White; P. Bonoli
2000-06-13
Control of rotation in tokamak plasmas provides a method for suppressing fine-scale turbulent transport by velocity shear and for stabilizing large-scale magnetohydrodynamic instabilities via a close-fitting conducting shell. The experimental discovery of rotation in a plasma heated by the fast-wave minority ion cyclotron process is important both as a potential control method for a fusion reactor and as a fundamental issue, because rotation arises even though this heating process introduces negligible angular momentum. This paper proposes and evaluates a mechanism which resolves this apparent conflict. First, it is assumed that angular momentum transport in a tokamak is governed by a diffusion equation with a no-slip boundary condition at the plasma surface and with a torque-density source that is a function of radius. When the torque density source consists of two separated regions of positive and negative torque density, a non-zero central rotation velocity results, even when the total angular momentum input vanishes. Secondly, the authors show that localized ion-cyclotron heating can generate regions of positive and negative torque density and consequently central plasma rotation.
Efficiency of fast wave current drive for a weakly relativistic plasma
Chiu, S.C.; Lin-Liu, Y.R. ); Karney, C.F.F. . Plasma Physics Lab.)
1993-04-01
Current drive by fast waves (FWCD) is an important candidate for steady-state operation of tokamaks. Major experiments using this scheme are being carried out on DIII-D. There has been considerable study of the theoretical efficiency of FWCD. In Refs. 4 and 5, the nonrelativistic efficiency of FWCD at arbitrary frequencies was studied. For DIII-D parameters, the results can be considerably different from the Landau and Alfven limits. At the high temperatures of reactors and DIII-D upgrade, relativistic effects become important. In this paper, the relativistic FWCD efficiency for arbitrary frequencies is studied. Assuming that the plasma is weakly relativistic, i.e., T[sub e]/Mc[sup 2] is small, an analytic expression for FWCD is obtained for high resonant energies (U[sub ph]/u[sub Te][much gt]). Comparisons with the results from a numerical code ADJ and the nonrelativistic results shall be made and analytical fits in the whole range of velocities shall be presented.
Efficiency of fast wave current drive for a weakly relativistic plasma
Chiu, S.C.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Karney, C.F.F.
1993-04-01
Current drive by fast waves (FWCD) is an important candidate for steady-state operation of tokamaks. Major experiments using this scheme are being carried out on DIII-D. There has been considerable study of the theoretical efficiency of FWCD. In Refs. 4 and 5, the nonrelativistic efficiency of FWCD at arbitrary frequencies was studied. For DIII-D parameters, the results can be considerably different from the Landau and Alfven limits. At the high temperatures of reactors and DIII-D upgrade, relativistic effects become important. In this paper, the relativistic FWCD efficiency for arbitrary frequencies is studied. Assuming that the plasma is weakly relativistic, i.e., T{sub e}/Mc{sup 2} is small, an analytic expression for FWCD is obtained for high resonant energies (U{sub ph}/u{sub Te}{much_gt}). Comparisons with the results from a numerical code ADJ and the nonrelativistic results shall be made and analytical fits in the whole range of velocities shall be presented.
Design and performance of fast wave current drive systems in the ICRF
Goulding, R.H.; Baity, R.W.; Batchelor, D.B.; Carter, M.D.; Jaeger, E.F.; Hoffman, D.J.; Ryan, P.M.; Tolliver, J.S. ); Mayberry, M.J.; Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.I.; Prater, R. )
1991-01-01
Experiments have begun on D3-D using the fast wave current drive (FWCD) phased antenna array. The array consists of four elements with slotted septa between them to reduce mutual coupling. The passive phasing/matching circuit developed for the launcher incorporates only five tuning elements and is driven by a single rf power supply. The system has successfully operated in the presence of plasma at power levels up to 1.25 MW, with {pi}/2 relative phasing, and approximately equal currents and voltages on all elements. Tuning algorithms that allow proper setting of all five elements within 1--2 shots have been developed. In addition, substantial modeling has been undertaken in support of the D3-D FWCD program. Loading calculations that take into account currents induced in the septa as well as other effects related to antenna geometry have been performed, and the results agree well with the observed data. A circuit model has been developed that, in combination with the loading calculations, allows the simulation of shot-to-shot matching for various tuning algorithms. 6 refs., 8 figs.
Alcator C-Mod ICRF fast wave antenna design and analysis and expected plasma performance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takase, Y.; Golovato, S.; Porkolab, M.; Becker, H.; Diatchenko, N.; Kochan, S.; McCoy, C.; Pierce, N.
1989-07-01
The design and analysis of the fast wave antenna to be used for ICRF heating experiments on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak are described. A movable single-strap low-field-side-launch loop antenna will be used during the initial operation period. Structural analysis against disruption and thermal analysis are performed. Optimized two-strap antennae with twice the surface area are planned for high-power heating experiments. Antenna-plasma coupling studies indicate a poor (<20%) single-pass ion absorption for D(3He), and a radiation resistance of ≳10Ω. Minority ions are not expected to be accelerated to very high energies under typical operating densities (Teff≲50 keV for n¯e≳3×1020m-3), and energetic ions should mainly slow down on ions. The transport of minority ions broadens the energetic minority ion and slowing down profiles and reduces Teff, but the effect is small for n¯e≳3×1020m-3.
The ORNL fast wave ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) antenna for Alcator C-Mod
Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Conner, D.L.; Hammonds, C.J.; Ping, J.L.; Riemer, B.W.; Ryan, P.M.; Taylor, D.J.; Wysor, R.B.; Yugo, J.J. )
1989-01-01
A fast wave ICRF antenna is being designed for Alcator C-Mod which is prototypical in many respects of the baseline launcher design for the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT). The C-Mod launcher has a single current strap, with a strap and cavity geometry very similar to one quadrant of the CIT launcher, which has four straps in a 2 {times} 2 configuration. The antenna fits entirely within an 8 in. wide by 25 in. long port and is radially movable over a distance of 15 cm. It will operate at a frequency of 80 MHz for pulse lengths up to 1 s, at a maximum power level of 2 MW, corresponding to a power flux of >1.5 kW/cm{sup 2}. The antenna is an end fed double loop configuration in which the current strap is grounded in the middle to provide mechanical support. The design includes a disruption support system which accommodates thermal expansion of the antenna box while supporting large disruption loads. It also includes a novel matching system consisting of an external resonant loop with two shunt capacitors serving as tuning/matching elements. 8 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.
Gravitational waves from rotating neutron stars and evaluation of fast chirp transform techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strohmayer, Tod E.
2002-04-01
X-ray observations suggest that neutron stars in low mass x-ray binaries (LMXB) are rotating with frequencies in the range 300-600 Hz. These spin rates are significantly less than the break-up rates for essentially all realistic neutron star equations of state, suggesting that some process may limit the spin frequencies of accreting neutron stars to this range. If the accretion-induced spin up torque is in equilibrium with gravitational radiation losses, these objects could be interesting sources of gravitational waves. I present a brief summary of current measurements of neutron star spins in LMXBs based on the observations of high-Q oscillations during thermonuclear bursts (so-called 'burst oscillations'). Further measurements of neutron star spins will be important in exploring the gravitational radiation hypothesis in more detail. To this end, I also present a study of fast chirp transform (FCT) techniques as described by Jenet and Prince (Prince T A and Jenet F A 2000 Phys. Rev. D 62 122001) in the context of searching for the chirping signals observed during x-ray bursts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizuguchi, Yusuke; Sakai, Jun-Ichi; Yousefi, Hamid Reza; Haruki, Takayuki; Masugata, Katsumi
2007-03-01
High-energy particles of a few hundred keV for electrons and up to MeV for ions were observed in a plasma focus device. Haruki et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 082106-1 (2006)] studied the mechanism of high-energy particle production in pinched plasma discharges by use of a 3D relativistic and fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. It was found that the pinched current is unstable against a sausage instability, and then becomes unstable against a kink instability. As a result high-energy electrons were observed, but protons with MeV energies were not observed. In this paper the same pinch dynamics as Haruki and co-workers is investigated, focusing on the shock formation and the shock acceleration during the pinched current. It is found that a fast magnetosonic shock wave is produced during the pinching phase which, after the maximum pinch occurs, is strongly enhanced and propagates outwards. Some protons trapped in the electrostatic potential produced near the shock front can be accelerated to a few MeV by the surfatron acceleration mechanism. It is also found that the protons accelerated along the pinched axis have a ring-shaped angular distribution that is observed from numerous experiments.
Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Catheline, Stefan; Chaffaï, Sana; Fink, Mathias
2003-07-01
From the measurement of a low frequency (50-150 Hz) shear wave speed, transient elastography evaluates the Young's modulus in isotropic soft tissues. In this paper, it is shown that a rod source can generate a low frequency polarized shear strain waves. Consequently this technique allows to study anisotropic medium such as muscle. The evidence of the polarization of low frequency shear strain waves is supported by both numeric simulations and experiments. The numeric simulations are based on theoretical Green's functions in isotropic and anisotropic media (hexagonal system). The experiments in vitro led on beef muscle proves the pertinent of this simple anisotropic pattern. Results in vivo on man biceps shows the existence of slow and fast shear waves as predicted by theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boardsen, S. A.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.; Santolik, O.; Wygant, J. R.; MacDonald, E.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Kurth, W. S.; Khazanov, G. V.
2015-12-01
The fast magnetosonic mode, also referred to as equatorial noise, occurs at frequencies mainly between the proton cyclotron frequency (fcp) and the lower hybrid frequency. The wave properties of this mode are characterized by a strong magnetic compressional component. These waves are observed around the magnetic equator in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. Case studies of the spectra of these waves have found the emissions to be composed of 1) harmonics, usually with spacing near the local fcp, 2) broad band hiss-like structure, or 3) a superposition of the two spectral types. No statistical studies of the frequency structure of these waves have been made. Using ~600,000 burst mode wave captures from the EMFISIS Wave Form Receiver and the EFW instrument on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft this mode will be identified in the high resolution frequency spectra and its frequency structure will be characterized. The variation of the frequency structure will be investigated as a function of normalized frequency, location, and geomagnetic conditions, and with spacecraft separation. The frequency structure will be compared with path integrated gain using proton ring distributions as the wave source. Recently the modulation of the fast magnetosonic mode has been reported, with modulation periods in the range of 30s to 240s. It has been proposed that frequency drift observed during each modulation is due to strong inward diffusion in energy of the proton ring distributions that generate these waves. As the inner edge of the ring distribution diffuses towards lower energies the band of unstable harmonics increases in frequency. If in the source region, for modulations with periods greater than say 100s, the inward energy diffusion should be observable in the HOPE proton data which has a cycle time of 24s.
Arpin, P.; Popmintchev, T.; Kapteyn, H. C.; Murnane, M. M.; Wagner, N. L.; Cohen, O.
2009-10-02
By combining laser pulse self-compression and high harmonic generation within a single waveguide, we demonstrate high harmonic emission from multiply charged ions for the first time. This approach enhances the laser intensity and counteracts ionization-induced defocusing, extending the cutoff photon energy in argon above 500 eV for the first time, with higher spectral intensity and cutoff energy than He for the same input laser parameters. This Letter demonstrates a pathway for extending high harmonic emission to very high photon energies using large, multiply charged, ions with high ionization potentials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jianlin; Di, Jianglei; Jiang, Biqiang
2015-04-01
A scheme for recording fast process at nanosecond scale by using digital holographic interferometry with continuous wave (CW) laser is described and demonstrated experimentally, which employs delayed-time fibers and angular multiplexing technique and can realize the variable temporal resolution at nanosecond scale and different measured depths of object field at certain temporal resolution. The actual delay-time is controlled by two delayed-time fibers with different lengths. The object field information in two different states can be simultaneously recorded in a composite hologram. This scheme is also suitable for recording fast process at picosecond scale, by using an electro-optic modulator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Cong; Li, Xiangyang; Huang, Guangtan
2017-08-01
Oil-water discrimination is of great significance in the design and adjustment of development projects in oil fields. For fractured reservoirs, based on anisotropic S-wave splitting information, it becomes possible to effectively solve such problems which are difficult to deal with in traditional longitudinal wave exploration, due to the similar bulk modulus and density of these two fluids. In this paper, by analyzing the anisotropic character of the Chapman model (2009 Geophysics 74 97-103), the velocity and reflection coefficient differences between the fast and slow S-wave caused by fluid substitution have been verified. Then, through a wave field response analysis of the theoretical model, we found that water saturation causes a longer time delay, a larger time delay gradient and a lower amplitude difference between the fast and slow S-wave, while the oil case corresponds to a lower time delay, a lower gradient and a higher amplitude difference. Therefore, a new class attribute has been proposed regarding the amplitude energy of the fast and slow shear wave, used for oil-water distinction. This new attribute, as well as that of the time delay gradient, were both applied to the 3D3C seismic data of carbonate fractured reservoirs in the Luojia area of the Shengli oil field in China. The results show that the predictions of the energy attributes are more consistent with the well information than the time delay gradient attribute, hence demonstrating the great advantages and potential of this new attribute in oil-water recognition.
Förster, Johann; Saenz, Alejandro
2013-05-10
In a recent PACER (Probing Attosecond dynamics with Chirp-Encoded Recollisions) experiment on ammonia that comprises a comparison of the high-harmonic spectra of the isotopes NH3 and ND3, the nuclear dynamics of the created ammonia cation is traced with a time resolution of about 100 attoseconds. For modelling the experiment the autocorrelation functions between the neutral initial state and the ionic wave packet are extracted from experimental photoelectron spectra incorporating a correction for the geometry-dependent strong-field ionisation probability. Good agreement is found between model and experiment, but in addition an unexpected maximum in the autocorrelation ratio is predicted by the model, however occurring at 5 fs and thus outside the experimentally covered time interval. In this work the autocorrelation functions are calculated explicitly using a one-dimensional model for describing the inversion motion of ammonia and its cation, adopting a position-dependent mass for considering the coupling with the stretching mode of the hydrogen atoms in neutral ammonia. This results in a clear physical picture explaining the occurrence of the previously predicted maximum in the ratio of the autocorrelation functions. Furthermore, different initial states and two different ways of incorporating strong-field corrections to the Franck-Condon approximation are briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imamura, Takeshi; Watanabe, Ayuka; Maejima, Yasumitsu
2016-03-01
Generation of gravity waves by convection was studied using a nonlinear two-dimensional model. A boundary-layer convection forced by a horizontally-uniform heating and a plume forced by a localized heating representing a local dust storm were tested. The results suggest that vigorous convection occurs due to the low density of the martian atmosphere and that short-period waves having frequencies near the buoyancy frequency can be preferentially generated. The propagation of those gravity waves to thermospheric heights was studied using a linearized one-dimensional model. Because of the fast vertical propagation the waves attain large amplitudes in the lower thermosphere, being consistent with Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey's accelerometer measurements and MAVEN's neutral and ion measurements. The heating and cooling caused by the waves are expected to be significant in the energy budget of the thermosphere, and the vertical mixing induced by those gravity waves should influence the homopause height. Since the thermospheric densities of light, minor species increase with the lowering of the homopause, a lower homopause may have enhanced the escape of such species to space for early Mars, where slower, weaker gravity waves should dominate.
Kim, J; Lee, K C; Kaita, R; Phillips, C K; Domier, C W; Valeo, E; Luhmann, N C; Bonoli, P T; Park, H
2010-10-01
A rf detection system for waves in the 30 MHz range has been constructed for the Far Infrared Tangential Interferometer/Polarimeter on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). It is aimed at monitoring high frequency density fluctuations driven by 30 MHz high harmonic fast wave fields. The levels of density fluctuations at various radial chords and antenna phase angles can be estimated using the electric field calculated by TORIC code and linearized continuity equation for the electron density. In this paper, the experimental arrangement for the detection of rf signal and preliminary results of simulation will be discussed.
Wave Driven Fast Ion Loss in the National Spherical Torus Experiment
E.D. Fredrickson; C.Z. Cheng; D. Darrow; G. Fu; N.N. Gorelenkov; G. Kramer; S.S. Medley; J. Menard; L. Roquemore; D. Stutman; R.B. White
2003-01-28
Spherical tokamaks, with their relatively low toroidal field, extend fast-ion-driven instability physics to parameter ranges not normally accessed in conventional tokamaks. The low field means that both the fast-ion Larmor radius normalized to the plasma minor radius and the ratio of the fast-ion velocity to the Alfven speed are relatively large. The large Larmor radius of the ions enhances their interaction with instability modes, influencing the structure of the unstable mode spectrum. The relatively large fast-ion velocity allows for a larger population of fast ions to be in resonance with the mode, increasing the drive. It is therefore an important goal of the present proof-of-principle spherical tokamaks to evaluate the role of fast-ion-driven instabilities in fast-ion confinement. This paper presents the first observations of fast-ion losses resulting from toroidal Alfven eigenmodes and a new, fishbone-like, energetic particle mode.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.
2015-08-01
Using the high spatiotemporal resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we conduct a statistical study of the observational properties of the coronal EUV propagating fronts. We find that it might be a universal phenomenon for two types of fronts to coexist in a large solar eruptive event. It is consistent with the hybrid model of EUV propagating fronts, which predicts that coronal EUV propagating fronts consist of both a fast magneto-acoustic wave and a nonwave component. We find that the morphologies, propagation behaviors, and kinematic features of the two EUV propagating fronts are completely different from each other. The fast magneto-acoustic wave fronts are almost isotropic. They travel continuously from the flaring region across multiple magnetic polarities to global distances. On the other hand, the slow nonwave fronts appear as anisotropic and sequential patches of EUV brightening. Each patch propagates locally in the magnetic domains where the magnetic field lines connect to the bottom boundary and stops at the magnetic domain boundaries. Within each magnetic domain, the velocities of the slow patchy nonwave component are an order of magnitude lower than that of the fast-wave component. However, the patches of the slow EUV propagating front can jump from one magnetic domain to a remote one. The velocities of such a transit between different magnetic domains are about one-third to one-half of those of the fast-wave component. The results show that the velocities of the nonwave component, both within one magnetic domain and between different magnetic domains, are highly nonuniform due to the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field in the lower atmosphere.
2005-10-01
Fast computation of the Narcissus reflection coefficient for the Herschel far-infraredsubmillimeter-wave Cassegrain telescope Robert L. Lucke...reduces Narcissus reflection. To calculate the remaining Narcissus reflection, a time-consuming physical optics code such as GRASP8 is often used to...or dis- tort the Doppler-broadened spectral features that the HIFI is designed to measure. Although the degrading effects of Narcissus reflec- tion
Guo, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.
2015-08-15
Using the high spatiotemporal resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we conduct a statistical study of the observational properties of the coronal EUV propagating fronts. We find that it might be a universal phenomenon for two types of fronts to coexist in a large solar eruptive event. It is consistent with the hybrid model of EUV propagating fronts, which predicts that coronal EUV propagating fronts consist of both a fast magneto-acoustic wave and a nonwave component. We find that the morphologies, propagation behaviors, and kinematic features of the two EUV propagating fronts are completely different from each other. The fast magneto-acoustic wave fronts are almost isotropic. They travel continuously from the flaring region across multiple magnetic polarities to global distances. On the other hand, the slow nonwave fronts appear as anisotropic and sequential patches of EUV brightening. Each patch propagates locally in the magnetic domains where the magnetic field lines connect to the bottom boundary and stops at the magnetic domain boundaries. Within each magnetic domain, the velocities of the slow patchy nonwave component are an order of magnitude lower than that of the fast-wave component. However, the patches of the slow EUV propagating front can jump from one magnetic domain to a remote one. The velocities of such a transit between different magnetic domains are about one-third to one-half of those of the fast-wave component. The results show that the velocities of the nonwave component, both within one magnetic domain and between different magnetic domains, are highly nonuniform due to the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field in the lower atmosphere.
System for tunerless operation of a four-element phased array antenna for fast wave current drive
Pinsker, R.I.; Cary, W.P.; Petty, C.C.; Callis, R.W.; Grassie, J.S. de; Baity, F.W.; Martin, W.C.
1997-11-01
A simple transmission line configuration for powering a four-element phased antenna array is described. This system, called the balanced feed configuration (BFC) is suitable for co- or counter- Fast Wave Current Drive (FWCD) applications. It has the property of presenting a constant matched load to the transmitter despite wide variations in the antenna load impedance without the use of variable tuning elements. This system has been implemented on a 2 MW 60 MHz FWCD antenna on the DIII-D tokamak.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aknoun, Sherazade; Bon, Pierre; Savatier, Julien; Monneret, Serge; Wattellier, Benoit F.
2016-03-01
We describe the use of polarized spatially coherent illumination to perform linear retardance imaging and measurements of semi-transparent biological samples using a quantitative phase imaging technique [1]. Quantitative phase imaging techniques [2-5] are used in microscopy for the imaging of semi-transparent samples and gives information about the optical path difference (OPD). The strength of those techniques is their non-invasive (the sample is not labelled) and fast approach. However, this high contrast is non-specific and cannot be linked to specific properties of the sample. To overcome this limitation, we propose to use polarized light in combination with QPI. Indeed, anisotropy has been used to reveal ordered fibrous structures in biological samples without any staining or labelling with polarized light microscopy [6-8]. Recent studies have shown polarimetry as a potential diagnostic tool for various dermatological diseases on thick tissue samples [9]. Particularly, specific collagen fibers spatial distribution has been demonstrated to be a signature for the optical diagnosis and prognosis of cancer in tissues [10]. In this paper, we describe a technical improvement of our technique based on high-resolution quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometry (QWLSI) and liquid crystal retarder to perform quantitative linear birefringence measurements on biological samples. The system combines a set of quantitative phase images with different excitation polarizations to create birefringence images. These give information about the local retardance and orientation of biological anisotropic components. We propose using a commercial QWLSI [11] (SID4Bio, Phasics SA, Saint Aubin, France) directly plugged onto a lateral video port of an inverted microscope (TE2000-U, Nikon, Japan). We are able to take retardance images in less than 1 second which allows us to record dynamic phenomena (living cells study) and make high speed acquisitions to reconstruct tissues virtual
Interferences induced by spatially nonhomogeneous fields in high-harmonic generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebadi, H.
2014-05-01
The high-harmonic spectrum simulated in a few-cycle laser pulse with spatially nonhomogeneous field presents two types of interferences, which characterize different plateaus in the spectrum. One of these plateaus is discernible with the nonequidistant peaks due to the interference of short and long trajectories, while another one is distinguished by a periodicity much larger than the laser frequency arising from trajectories modified by the nonhomogeneous field. Beside, the continuum-continuum harmonic generation appears in the spectrogram in the tunneling regime of the laser parameters. These features bear the tracking of classical trajectories and the complete characterization of emission spectrum, when using nanostructures in attoscience.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schoun, S. B.; Camper, A.; Salières, P.; Lucchese, R. R.; Agostini, P.; DiMauro, L. F.
2017-01-01
We report on spectral intensity and group delay measurements of the highest-occupied molecular-orbital (HOMO) recombination dipole moment of N2 in the molecular-frame using high harmonic spectroscopy. We take advantage of the long-wavelength 1.3 μ m driving laser to isolate the HOMO in the near threshold region, 19-67 eV. The precision of our group delay measurements reveals previously unseen angle-resolved spectral features associated with autoionizing resonances, and allows quantitative comparison with cutting-edge correlated 8-channel photoionization dipole moment calculations.
Ultrafast High Harmonic, Soft X-Ray Probing of Molecular Dynamics
2009-12-16
experiments. 4 Photon Energy (eV) S ig n a l (a rb . u n it s ) Neon Argon Figure 2. High harmonics generated in neon and argon . Note...the lower energy cutoff in argon , the higher intensity from argon and the overlapping orders of the grating in the neon spectrum. For the process of...Br2 + , and Cl2 + ," J. Phys. Chem. 92, 5373 (1988). 34. Y. Hatano, "Interaction of VUV photons with molecules - Spectroscopy and dynamics of
Calero, Venancio; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Albero, Jorge; Sánchez-López, María M; Moreno, Ignacio
2013-11-15
Unusually large phase modulation in a commercial liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCSLM) is reported. Such a situation is obtained by illuminating with visible light a device designed to operate in the infrared range. The phase modulation range reaches 6π radians in the red region of the visible spectrum and 10π radians in the blue region. Excellent diffraction efficiency in high harmonic orders is demonstrated despite a concomitant and non-negligible Fabry-Perot interference effect. This type of SLM opens the possibility to implement diffractive elements with reduced chromatic dispersion or chromatic control.
Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams.
Sandberg, Richard L; Paul, Ariel; Raymondson, Daisy A; Hädrich, Steffen; Gaudiosi, David M; Holtsnider, Jim; Tobey, Ra'anan I; Cohen, Oren; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Song, Changyong; Miao, Jianwei; Liu, Yanwei; Salmassi, Farhad
2007-08-31
We present the first experimental demonstration of lensless diffractive imaging using coherent soft x rays generated by a tabletop soft-x-ray source. A 29 nm high harmonic beam illuminates an object, and the subsequent diffraction is collected on an x-ray CCD camera. High dynamic range diffraction patterns are obtained by taking multiple exposures while blocking small-angle diffraction using beam blocks of varying size. These patterns reconstruct to images with 214 nm resolution. This work demonstrates a practical tabletop lensless microscope that promises to find applications in materials science, nanoscience, and biology.
Merge of high harmonic generation from gases and solids and its implications for attosecond science
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vampa, G.; Brabec, T.
2017-04-01
High harmonic generation (HHG) in atomic and molecular gases builds the foundation of attosecond science. In recent experiments HHG has been demonstrated in solids for the first time. A theoretical analysis has revealed that one of the mechanisms driving HHG in semiconductors is similar to the one in atomic and molecular gases. As a result, many of the processes developed for attosecond science in gases can be adapted and applied to the condensed matter phase. In this tutorial, the connection between atomic and solid HHG is summarized with covering both theoretical and experimental work, and some implications for attosecond science in solids are presented.
Time and Space Resolved High Harmonic Imaging of Electron Tunnelling from Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnova, O.
2009-05-01
High harmonic generation in intense laser fields carries the promise of combining sub-Angstrom spatial and attosecond temporal resolution of electronic structures and dynamics in molecules, see e.g. [1-3]. High harmonic emission occurs when an electron detached from a molecule by an intense laser field recombines with the parent ion [4]. Similar to Young's double-slit experiment, recombination to several ``lobes'' of the same molecular orbital can produce interference minima and maxima in harmonic intensities [1]. These minima (maxima) carry structural information -- they occur when the de-Broglie wavelength of the recombining electron matches distances between the centers. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that amplitude minima (maxima) in the harmonic spectra can also have dynamical origin, reflecting multi-electron dynamics in the molecule. We use high harmonic spectra to record this dynamics and reconstruct the position of the hole left in the molecule after ionization. Experimental data are consistent with the hole starting in different places as the ionization dynamics changes from tunnelling to the multi-photon regime. Importantly, hole localization and subsequent attosecond dynamics are induced even in the tunnelling limit. Thus, even ``static'' tunnelling induced by a tip of a tunnelling microscope will generate similar attosecond dynamics in a sample. We anticipate that our approach will become standard in disentangling spatial and temporal information from high harmonic spectra of molecules.[4pt] In collaboration with Serguei Patchkovskii, National Research Council, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6, Canada; Yann Mairesse, NRC Canada and CELIA, Universit'e Bordeaux I, UMR 5107 (CNRS, Bordeaux 1, CEA), 351 Cours de la Lib'eration, 33405 Talence Cedex, France; Nirit Dudovich, NRC Canada and Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel; David Villeneuve, Paul Corkum, NRC Canada
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilles, Antonin; Gioia, Patrick; Cozot, Rémi; Morin, Luce
2015-09-01
The hybrid point-source/wave-field method is a newly proposed approach for Computer-Generated Hologram (CGH) calculation, based on the slicing of the scene into several depth layers parallel to the hologram plane. The complex wave scattered by each depth layer is then computed using either a wave-field or a point-source approach according to a threshold criterion on the number of points within the layer. Finally, the complex waves scattered by all the depth layers are summed up in order to obtain the final CGH. Although outperforming both point-source and wave-field methods without producing any visible artifact, this approach has not yet been used for animated holograms, and the possible exploitation of temporal redundancies has not been studied. In this paper, we propose a fast computation of video holograms by taking into account those redundancies. Our algorithm consists of three steps. First, intensity and depth data of the current 3D video frame are extracted and compared with those of the previous frame in order to remove temporally redundant data. Then the CGH pattern for this compressed frame is generated using the hybrid point-source/wave-field approach. The resulting CGH pattern is finally transmitted to the video output and stored in the previous frame buffer. Experimental results reveal that our proposed method is able to produce video holograms at interactive rates without producing any visible artifact.
Parametric Excitations of Fast Plasma Waves by Counter-propagating Laser Beams
G. Shvets; N.J. Fisch
2001-03-19
Short- and long-wavelength plasma waves can become strongly coupled in the presence of two counter-propagating laser pump pulses detuned by twice the cold plasma frequency. What makes this four-wave interaction important is that the growth rate of the plasma waves occurs much faster than in the more obvious co-propagating geometry.
Slow Wave Excitation in the ICRF and HHFW Regimes
Phillips, C. K.; Valeo, E. J.; Hosea, J. C.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Wilson, J. R.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Ryan, P. M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Wright, J. C.; Smithe, D. N.
2011-12-23
Theoretical considerations and high spatial resolution numerical simulations of radio frequency (rf) wave heating in tokamaks and in spherical toruses (ST) indicate that fast waves launched into tokamaks in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) or into spherical toruses in the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) regime may excite a short wavelength slow mode inside of the plasma discharge due to the presence of hot electrons that satisfy the condition {omega}
Kinetic effects in the conversion of fast waves in pre-heated, low aspect ratio tokamak plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kommoshvili, K.; Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C.
2003-03-01
Kinetic effects in the conversion of fast waves to Alfvèn waves and their subsequent deposition in low aspect ratio (spherical) tokamaks (LARTs) have been investigated theoretically. More specifically, we have considered the consequences of incorporation of kinetic effects in the electron parallel (to the ambient magnetic field) dynamics derived by following the drift-tearing mode analysis of Chen et al (Chen L, Rutherford P H and Tang W M 1977 Phys. Rev. Lett. 39 460), and particle-conserving Krook collision operator for the passing electrons involved (Mett R R and Mahajan S M 1992 Phys. Fluids B 4 2885). The perpendicular plasma dynamics is described by a quite general resistive two-fluid (2F) model based dielectric tensor-operator (Cuperman S, Bruma C and Komoshvili K 2002 Solution of the resistive 2F wave equations for Alfvènic modes in spherical tokamak plasmas J. Plasma Phys. accepted for publication). The full-wave electromagnetic equations, formulated in terms of the vector and scalar potentials, have been solved by the aid of an advanced finite elements numerical code (Sewell G 1993 Adv. Eng. Software 17 105). Detailed solutions of the full-wave equations are obtained and compared with those corresponding to a pure resistive 2F model, this, for the illustrative pre-heated START-type device (Sykes 1994). Our results quantitatively confirm the general theory of the conversion of fast waves with subsequent power dissipation for the conditions of spherical tokamaks thus providing the required auxilliary energy source for the succesful operation of LARTs. Moreover, these results indicate the absolute necessity of using a full model for the parallel electron dynamics, i.e. including both kinetic and collisional effects.
Shen Yuandeng; Liu Yu
2012-07-01
On 2011 May 30, quasi-periodic fast-propagating (QFP) magnetosonic waves accompanied by a C2.8 flare were directly imaged by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The QFP waves successively emanated from the flare kernel, they propagated along a cluster of open coronal loops with a phase speed of {approx}834 km s{sup -1} during the flare's rising phase, and the multiple arc-shaped wave trains can be fitted with a series of concentric circles. We generate the k - {omega} diagram of the Fourier power and find a straight ridge that represents the dispersion relation of the waves. Along the ridge, we find a lot of prominent nodes which represent the available frequencies of the QFP waves. On the other hand, the frequencies of the flare are also obtained by analyzing the flare light curves using the wavelet technique. The results indicate that almost all the main frequencies of the flare are consistent with those of the QFP waves. This suggests that the flare and the QFP waves were possibly excited by a common physical origin. On the other hand, a few low frequencies (e.g., 2.5 mHz (400 s) and 0.7 mHz (1428 s)) revealed by the k - {omega} diagram cannot be found in the accompanying flare. We propose that these low frequencies were possibly due to the leakage of the pressure-driven p-mode oscillations from the photosphere into the low corona, which should be a noticeable mechanism for driving the QFP waves observed in the corona.
Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism
Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; ...
2015-11-03
Here, we demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantummore » trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.« less
Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism.
Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J; Mancuso, Christopher A; Hogle, Craig W; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L; Dorney, Kevin M; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G; Fullerton, Eric E; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M; Milošević, Dejan B; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C
2015-11-17
We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform.
Generation of bright phase-matched circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet high harmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kfir, Ofer; Grychtol, Patrik; Turgut, Emrah; Knut, Ronny; Zusin, Dmitriy; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Popmintchev, Tenio; Nembach, Hans; Shaw, Justin M.; Fleischer, Avner; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret; Cohen, Oren
2015-02-01
Circularly-polarized extreme ultraviolet and X-ray radiation is useful for analysing the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of materials. To date, such radiation has only been available at large-scale X-ray facilities such as synchrotrons. Here, we demonstrate the first bright, phase-matched, extreme ultraviolet circularly-polarized high harmonics source. The harmonics are emitted when bi-chromatic counter-rotating circularly-polarized laser pulses field-ionize a gas in a hollow-core waveguide. We use this new light source for magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the M-shell absorption edges of Co. We show that phase-matching of circularly-polarized harmonics is unique and robust, producing a photon flux comparable to linearly polarized high harmonic sources. This work represents a critical advance towards the development of table-top systems for element-specific imaging and spectroscopy of multiple elements simultaneously in magnetic and other chiral media with very high spatial and temporal resolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braenzel, J.; Andreev, A. A.; Platonov, K. Y.; Ehrentraut, L.; Schnürer, M.
2017-08-01
We report on a remarkable enhancement of high harmonic (HH) radiation emitted from the interaction of an ultra-intense laser pulse with ultra-thin foils by a manipulation of foil pre-plasma conditions. With a strong counter-propagating pre-pulse, we introduce a concerted expansion of the ultrathin foil target, and this significantly raises the efficiency of the HH generation process. Our experimental results show how the emission efficiency can be easily controlled by the intensity and delay time of the pre-pulse. The results give an important insight into the high harmonic generation process from solid dense plasmas when spatially limited. 1D particles in cell simulations confirm our experimental findings and show a significant dependency of the HH emission efficiency on the plasma density. The simplicity of the ultra-thin foil target and interaction geometry hold promise for specifically compact realization of imaging experiments with ultra-short and bright extreme ultra violet-pulses.
Bright circularly polarized soft X-ray high harmonics for X-ray magnetic circular dichroism
Fan, Tingting; Grychtol, Patrik; Knut, Ronny; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Dollar, Franklin J.; Mancuso, Christopher A.; Hogle, Craig W.; Kfir, Ofer; Legut, Dominik; Carva, Karel; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Dorney, Kevin M.; Chen, Cong; Shpyrko, Oleg G.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Cohen, Oren; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Milošević, Dejan B.; Becker, Andreas; Jaroń-Becker, Agnieszka A.; Popmintchev, Tenio; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.
2015-01-01
We demonstrate, to our knowledge, the first bright circularly polarized high-harmonic beams in the soft X-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and use them to implement X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements in a tabletop-scale setup. Using counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields at 1.3 and 0.79 µm, we generate circularly polarized harmonics with photon energies exceeding 160 eV. The harmonic spectra emerge as a sequence of closely spaced pairs of left and right circularly polarized peaks, with energies determined by conservation of energy and spin angular momentum. We explain the single-atom and macroscopic physics by identifying the dominant electron quantum trajectories and optimal phase-matching conditions. The first advanced phase-matched propagation simulations for circularly polarized harmonics reveal the influence of the finite phase-matching temporal window on the spectrum, as well as the unique polarization-shaped attosecond pulse train. Finally, we use, to our knowledge, the first tabletop X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements at the N4,5 absorption edges of Gd to validate the high degree of circularity, brightness, and stability of this light source. These results demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating the polarization, spectrum, and temporal shape of high harmonics in the soft X-ray region by manipulating the driving laser waveform. PMID:26534992
Sullivan, David; Csicsvari, Jozsef; Mizuseki, Kenji; Montgomery, Sean; Diba, Kamran; Buzsáki, György
2011-01-01
Summary Hippocampal sharp waves (SPW) and associated fast (‘ripple’) oscillations in the CA1 region are among the most synchronous physiological patterns in the mammalian brain. Using two-dimensional arrays of electrodes for recording local field potentials and unit discharges in freely moving rats, we studied the emergence of ripple oscillations (140–220 Hz) and compared their origin and cellular-synaptic mechanisms with fast gamma oscillations (90–140 Hz). We show that (a) hippocampal SPW-Rs and fast gamma oscillations are quantitatively distinct patterns but involve the same networks and share similar mechanisms, (b) both the frequency and magnitude of fast oscillations is positively correlated with the magnitude of SPWs, (c) during both ripples and fast gamma oscillations the frequency of network oscillation is higher in CA1 than in CA3, (d) SPWs and associated firing of neurons are synchronous in the dorsal hippocampus and dorso-medial entorhinal cortex but ripples are confined to the CA1 pyramidal layer and its downstream targets and (e) the emergence of CA3 population bursts, a prerequisite for SPW-ripples, is biased by activity patterns in the dentate gyrus and entorhinal cortex, with highest probability of ripples associated with an ‘optimum’ level of dentate gamma power. We hypothesize that each hippocampal subnetwork possesses distinct resonant properties, tuned by the magnitude of the excitatory drive. PMID:21653864
A fast method for fully nonlinear three-dimensional water wave simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clamond, D.; Fructus, D.; Grue, J.; Francius, M.
2003-04-01
Fully nonlinear simulations of freak waves in three-dimension are investigated by a rapid numerical procedure. The method solves the Laplace equation by using the Green function method, that is reformulated in a quickly computable way. This method has already been proved useful for two-dimensional problems. We investigate the three-dimensional effect on freak waves, evolution of wave groups, horse-shoe patterns, etc.
Kohno, H.; Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.
2015-07-15
Interactions between propagating fast waves and radio-frequency (RF) sheaths in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies are numerically investigated based on a cold fluid plasma model coupled with a sheath boundary condition. In this two-dimensional study, the capability of the finite element code rfSOL, which was developed in previous numerical work, is extended to analyze self-consistent RF sheath-plasma interaction problems in a tokamak with a non-circular cross-section. It is found that a large sheath voltage is generated near the edges of the limiter-shaped deformation as a result of the conversion from fast to slow waves on the sheaths. The sheath voltage associated with this conversion is particularly significant in the localized region where the contact angle between the magnetic field line and the conducting wall varies rapidly along the curved sheath surface, which is consistent with the results in previous one-dimensional theoretical work. The dependences of the RF sheaths on various parameters in plasma such as the toroidal wavenumber, edge plasma density, and the degree of the RF wave absorption in the core region are also examined in detail.
Grassi, Davide; Draijer, Richard; Desideri, Giovambattista; Mulder, Theo; Ferri, Claudio
2015-01-01
Hypertension and arterial stiffening are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Flavonoids may exert some vascular protection. We investigated the effects of black tea on blood pressure (BP) and wave reflections before and after fat load in hypertensives. According to a randomized, double-blind, controlled, cross-over design, 19 patients were assigned to consume black tea (129 mg flavonoids) or placebo twice a day for eight days (13 day wash-out period). Digital volume pulse and BP were measured before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after tea consumption. Measurements were performed in a fasted state and after a fat load. Compared to placebo, reflection index and stiffness index decreased after tea consumption (p < 0.0001). Fat challenge increased wave reflection, which was counteracted by tea consumption (p < 0.0001). Black tea decreased systolic and diastolic BP (−3.2 mmHg, p < 0.005 and −2.6 mmHg, p < 0.0001; respectively) and prevented BP increase after a fat load (p < 0.0001). Black tea consumption lowers wave reflections and BP in the fasting state, and during the challenging haemodynamic conditions after a fat load in hypertensives. Considering lipemia-induced impairment of arterial function may occur frequently during the day, our findings suggest regular consumption of black tea may be relevant for cardiovascular protection. PMID:25658240
NONLINEAR REFLECTION PROCESS OF LINEARLY POLARIZED, BROADBAND ALFVÉN WAVES IN THE FAST SOLAR WIND
Shoda, M.; Yokoyama, T.
2016-04-01
Using one-dimensional numerical simulations, we study the elementary process of Alfvén wave reflection in a uniform medium, including nonlinear effects. In the linear regime, Alfvén wave reflection is triggered only by the inhomogeneity of the medium, whereas in the nonlinear regime, it can occur via nonlinear wave–wave interactions. Such nonlinear reflection (backscattering) is typified by decay instability. In most studies of decay instabilities, the initial condition has been a circularly polarized Alfvén wave. In this study we consider a linearly polarized Alfvén wave, which drives density fluctuations by its magnetic pressure force. For generality, we also assume a broadband wave with a red-noise spectrum. In the data analysis, we decompose the fluctuations into characteristic variables using local eigenvectors, thus revealing the behaviors of the individual modes. Different from the circular-polarization case, we find that the wave steepening produces a new energy channel from the parent Alfvén wave to the backscattered one. Such nonlinear reflection explains the observed increasing energy ratio of the sunward to the anti-sunward Alfvénic fluctuations in the solar wind with distance against the dynamical alignment effect.
Sarkar, Chitrakshya; Bhattacharyya, S S; Saha, Samir
2011-01-14
We have theoretically studied the role of high-lying molecular electronic states on the high harmonic generation (HHG) in H(2)(+) within the framework of a time-independent Hermitian nonperturbative three-dimensional Floquet technique for continuous wave monochromatic lasers of intensities of 2.59 × 10(13), 4.0 × 10(13), and 5.6 × 10(13) W∕cm(2), and wavelengths of 1064, 532, and 355 nm. To evaluate the HHG spectra, the resonance Floquet quasienergy and the Fourier components of the Floquet state corresponding to the initial vibrational-rotational level v = 0, J = 0 have been computed by solving the time-independent close-coupled Schrödinger equation following the Floquet method. The calculations include seven molecular electronic states in the basis set expansion of the Floquet state. The electronic states considered, apart from the two lowest 1sσ(g) and 2pσ(u) states, are 2pπ(u), 2sσ(g), 3pσ(u), 3dσ(g), and 4fσ(u). All the concerned higher excited molecular electronic states asymptotically degenerate into the atomic state H(2 l) with l = 0, 1. The computations reveal signature of significant oscillations in the HHG spectra due to the interference effect of the higher molecular electronic states for all the considered laser intensities and wavelengths. We have attempted to explain, without invoking any ionization, the dynamics of HHG in H(2)(+) within the framework of electronic transitions due to the electric dipole moments and the nuclear motions on the field coupled ground, the first and the higher excited electronic states of this one-electron molecular ion.
Fetić, B; Milošević, D B
2017-05-01
Time evolution of the bound state of a molecular hydrogen cation in an intense, linearly polarized laser field is investigated by solving the full three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Our method is based on the Born-Oppenheimer and dipole approximations, and the wave function is expanded in finite series using B-spline functions and spherical harmonics in prolate spheroidal coordinates. After solving the stationary Schrödinger equation, the initial state is propagated under the influence of the laser field employing the Crank-Nicolson propagator. Using this method we calculate and present high-harmonic photon spectra and above-threshold ionization angle-resolved electron spectra.
Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pertot, Yoann; Schmidt, Cédric; Matthews, Mary; Chauvet, Adrien; Huppert, Martin; Svoboda, Vit; von Conta, Aaron; Tehlar, Andres; Baykusheva, Denitsa; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Wörner, Hans Jakob
2017-01-01
Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy (TR-XAS) has so far practically been limited to large-scale facilities, to subpicosecond temporal resolution, and to the condensed phase. We report the realization of TR-XAS with a temporal resolution in the low femtosecond range by developing a tabletop high-harmonic source reaching up to 350 electron volts, thus partially covering the spectral region of 280 to 530 electron volts, where water is transmissive. We used this source to follow previously unexamined light-induced chemical reactions in the lowest electronic states of isolated CF4+ and SF6+ molecules in the gas phase. By probing element-specific core-to-valence transitions at the carbon K-edge or the sulfur L-edges, we characterized their reaction paths and observed the effect of symmetry breaking through the splitting of absorption bands and Rydberg-valence mixing induced by the geometry changes.
Ultrafast Material Science Probed Using Coherent X-ray Pulses from High-Harmonic Generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathias, Stefan; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.
X-rays represent one of the most powerful tools for understanding materials at the nanoscale, uncovering important information related to magnetism, photochemistry, materials, biology, nanoscience and many other areas of science and technology. The recent availability of ultrashort x-ray pulses paves the way for a completely new generation of experiments that can capture the coupled dynamics of elementary excitations in materials. Ultrashort x-ray pulses can access the fundamental interactions between charge, lattice, orbital, and spin dynamics in real time, which eventually determine the intrinsic physical limits at which, for example, a phase-transition in a correlated-electron material occurs, the magnetic state of a material can be switched, or a chemical reaction on a surface evolves. The goal of this chapter is to review recent breakthroughs in using ultrashort x-ray pulses from high-harmonic generation for the study of ultrafast material science.
Attosecond Probing of Nuclear Dynamics with Trajectory-Resolved High-Harmonic Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lan, Pengfei; Ruhmann, Marc; He, Lixin; Zhai, Chunyang; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Qingbin; Zhou, Yueming; Li, Min; Lein, Manfred; Lu, Peixiang
2017-07-01
We report attosecond-scale probing of the laser-induced dynamics in molecules. We apply the method of high-harmonic spectroscopy, where laser-driven recolliding electrons on various trajectories record the motion of their parent ion. Based on the transient phase-matching mechanism of high-order harmonic generation, short and long trajectories contributing to the same harmonic order are distinguishable in both the spatial and frequency domains, giving rise to a one-to-one map between time and photon energy for each trajectory. The short and long trajectories in H2 and D2 are used simultaneously to retrieve the nuclear dynamics on the attosecond and ångström scale. Compared to using only short trajectories, this extends the temporal range of the measurement to one optical cycle. The experiment is also applied to methane and ammonia molecules.
Impact of the Electronic Band Structure in High-Harmonic Generation Spectra of Solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tancogne-Dejean, Nicolas; Mücke, Oliver D.; Kärtner, Franz X.; Rubio, Angel
2017-02-01
An accurate analytic model describing the microscopic mechanism of high-harmonic generation (HHG) in solids is derived. Extensive first-principles simulations within a time-dependent density-functional framework corroborate the conclusions of the model. Our results reveal that (i) the emitted HHG spectra are highly anisotropic and laser-polarization dependent even for cubic crystals; (ii) the harmonic emission is enhanced by the inhomogeneity of the electron-nuclei potential; the yield is increased for heavier atoms; and (iii) the cutoff photon energy is driver-wavelength independent. Moreover, we show that it is possible to predict the laser polarization for optimal HHG in bulk crystals solely from the knowledge of their electronic band structure. Our results pave the way to better control and optimize HHG in solids by engineering their band structure.
Wavelength Scaling of High Harmonic Generation Close to the Multiphoton Ionization Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Chien-Jen; Cirmi, Giovanni; Hong, Kyung-Han; Moses, Jeffrey; Huang, Shu-Wei; Granados, Eduardo; Keathley, Phillip; Bhardwaj, Siddharth; Kärtner, Franz X.
2013-08-01
We study the wavelength scaling of high harmonic generation efficiency with visible driver wavelengths in the transition between the tunneling and the multiphoton ionization regimes where the Keldysh parameter is around unity. Our experiment shows a less dramatic wavelength scaling of efficiency than the conventional case for near- and mid-IR driver wavelengths, and it is well explained by a generalized three-step model for increased Keldysh parameters that employs complex ionization times in addition to the nonadiabatic ionization. The complex ionization time is critical to avoid the divergence when replacing the quasistatic ionization model by the more general nonadiabatic ionization model. Together, the two modifications present a consistent description of the influence of the atomic potential on the rescattering process in the intermediate Keldysh regime.
Anomalous circular dichroism in high harmonic generation of stereoisomers with two chiral centers.
Zhu, Xiaosong; Liu, Xi; Lan, Pengfei; Wang, Dian; Zhang, Qingbin; Li, Wei; Lu, Peixiang
2016-10-31
When a molecule has more than one chiral center, it can be either a chiral molecule or a meso isomer. High harmonic generation (HHG) of stereoisomers with two chiral centers driven by circularly polarized (CP) laser pulses is investigated. Counterintuitively, it is found that the HHG exhibits prominent circular dichroism for the meso isomer, while the harmonic spectra with left and right CP laser pulses are nearly the same for the chiral isomers. We show that the anomalous circular dichroism is attributed to the characteristic recollision dynamics of HHG. This feature makes the HHG a promising tool to discriminate the meso isomer and racemic mixture, where no optical activity can be found in both cases. Similar dichroism responses are also found by applying the counter-rotating bicircular laser pulses.
High harmonic generation by anions and atoms: effect of initial/final-state wavefunctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostrovsky, V. N.
2005-12-01
When high harmonic generation (HHG) is considered theoretically within the ideas of the rescattering mechanism, the specifics of initial/final state of an active electron usually attract little attention. We explore such specifics related to initial/final bound p-state of the active electron (existing studies concentrated on s-states). The halogen anions and noble gas atoms (except He) provide important examples of such targets. The present theory with realistic wavefunctions gives HHG rates by 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than previous calculations with asymptotic (single-exponential) wavefunctions. This indicates that the HHG process is much more sensitive to the description of the bound-state wavefunctions in the inner domain than the above-threshold ionization where the asymptotic (large-r) approach is sufficient and self-consistent. The rates of HHG processes with and without change of electron magnetic quantum number mell are compared for B(2p) and H(2p) targets.
Impact of the Electronic Band Structure in High-Harmonic Generation Spectra of Solids.
Tancogne-Dejean, Nicolas; Mücke, Oliver D; Kärtner, Franz X; Rubio, Angel
2017-02-24
An accurate analytic model describing the microscopic mechanism of high-harmonic generation (HHG) in solids is derived. Extensive first-principles simulations within a time-dependent density-functional framework corroborate the conclusions of the model. Our results reveal that (i) the emitted HHG spectra are highly anisotropic and laser-polarization dependent even for cubic crystals; (ii) the harmonic emission is enhanced by the inhomogeneity of the electron-nuclei potential; the yield is increased for heavier atoms; and (iii) the cutoff photon energy is driver-wavelength independent. Moreover, we show that it is possible to predict the laser polarization for optimal HHG in bulk crystals solely from the knowledge of their electronic band structure. Our results pave the way to better control and optimize HHG in solids by engineering their band structure.
Ozawa, Akira; Zhao, Zhigang; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto; Kobayashi, Yohei
2015-06-15
Intracavity high harmonic generation was utilized to generate high average-power coherent radiation at vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) wavelengths. A ytterbium-doped fiber-laser based master-oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) system with a 10 MHz repetition frequency was developed and used as a driving laser for an external cavity. A series of odd-order harmonic radiations was generated extending down to ∼ 30 nm (41 eV in photon energy). The 7th harmonic radiation generated was centered at 149 nm and had an average output power of up to 0.5 mW. In this way, we developed a sub-mW coherent vuv-laser with a 10 MHz repetition frequency, which, if used as an excitation laser source for photo-electron spectroscopy, could improve the signal count-rate without deterioration of the spectral-resolution caused by space-charge effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yang; Song, Hai-Ying; Liu, H. Y.; Liu, Shi-Bing; Meng, Jian-Qiao; Duan, Yu-Xia
2017-08-01
High harmonic generation (HHG) by ultrashort intense laser pulse obliquely irradiating a laminar grating-structured target is studied by PIC (particle-in-cell) simulation. For different incident angles of laser pulse, the intense near-surface harmonics is observed due to the strong dependence of harmonic components on the incident angle. Unlike the case of a normal incidence, the spatial distribution of harmonics is mainly dominated by the oscillation of equivalent electric-dipole (OEED) and spatial modulation factor rather than by the current grating equation. The intensities of harmonic emission are stronger than that in the case of a normal incidence, which is associated with the orientation of equivalent electric-dipole. Furthermore, when the incident angle becomes larger (such as 45°-60° ), the near-surface harmonics are all observably restrained.
High-harmonic generation in graphene enhanced by elliptically polarized light excitation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshikawa, Naotaka; Tamaya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Koichiro
2017-05-01
The electronic properties of graphene can give rise to a range of nonlinear optical responses. One of the most desirable nonlinear optical processes is high-harmonic generation (HHG) originating from coherent electron motion induced by an intense light field. Here, we report on the observation of up to ninth-order harmonics in graphene excited by mid-infrared laser pulses at room temperature. The HHG in graphene is enhanced by an elliptically polarized laser excitation, and the resultant harmonic radiation has a particular polarization. The observed ellipticity dependence is reproduced by a fully quantum mechanical treatment of HHG in solids. The zero-gap nature causes the unique properties of HHG in graphene, and our findings open up the possibility of investigating strong-field and ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear behavior of massless Dirac fermions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Y. Z.; Wang, S.; Dong, F. L.; Li, Y. P.; Chen, Y. J.
2017-03-01
We study the influence of pulse duration on high harmonic generation (HHG) by exploring a wide laser-parameter region theoretically. Previous studies have shown that for high laser intensities close to saturation ionization intensity, the HHG inversion efficiency is higher for shorter pulses since the ground-state depletion is weaker in short pulses. Our simulations show that this high efficiency also appears for a moderate laser intensity at which the ionization is not very strong. A classical effect relating to shorter travel distances of the rescattering electron in shorter pulses is shown to contribute importantly to this high efficiency. The effect can be amplified significantly if a two-color laser field is used, suggesting a potential approach to increasing the HHG yield and generating short and bright attosecond pulses.
Relativistic high harmonics and (sub-)attosecond pulses: relativistic spikes and relativistic mirror
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pukhov, A.; Baeva, T.; An der Brügge, D.; Münster, S.
2009-11-01
Using particle-in-cell simulations, we study high harmonic generation from overdense plasmas in the relativistic regime. Different incidence angles as well as different laser polarizations are considered and scalings are recovered. It is shown that the theory of relativistic spikes and the BGP power-law spectra [Phys. Rev. E 74, 046404 (2006)] describes well the normal incidence and s-polarized obliquely incident laser pulses. In the case of p-polarized laser pulses, exceptions from the BGP theory can appear when the quasi-static vector potential build-up at the plasma boundary becomes equal to that of the laser. In this case, the spectrum flattens significantly and has a lower cutoff.
High harmonic XUV spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction.
Mairesse, Y; Gobert, O; Breger, P; Merdji, H; Meynadier, P; Monchicourt, P; Perdrix, M; Salières, P; Carré, B
2005-05-06
We demonstrate the first experimental complete temporal characterization of high-harmonic XUV pulses by spectral phase interferometry, with an all-optical setup. This method allows us to perform single-shot measurements of the harmonic temporal profile and phase, revealing a remarkable shot-to-shot stability. We characterize harmonics generated in argon by a 50 fs 800 nm laser pulse. The 11th harmonic is found to be 22 fs long with a negative chirp rate of -4.8 x 10(27) s(-2). This duration can be reduced to 13 fs by modulating the polarization of the generating laser. The technique is easy to implement and could be routinely used in femtosecond XUV pump-probe experiments with harmonics.
High Harmonic XUV Spectral Phase Interferometry for Direct Electric-Field Reconstruction
Mairesse, Y.; Gobert, O.; Breger, P.; Merdji, H.; Meynadier, P.; Monchicourt, P.; Perdrix, M.; Salieres, P.; Carre, B.
2005-05-06
We demonstrate the first experimental complete temporal characterization of high-harmonic XUV pulses by spectral phase interferometry, with an all-optical setup. This method allows us to perform single-shot measurements of the harmonic temporal profile and phase, revealing a remarkable shot-to-shot stability. We characterize harmonics generated in argon by a 50 fs 800 nm laser pulse. The 11th harmonic is found to be 22 fs long with a negative chirp rate of -4.8x10{sup 27} s{sup -2}. This duration can be reduced to 13 fs by modulating the polarization of the generating laser. The technique is easy to implement and could be routinely used in femtosecond XUV pump-probe experiments with harmonics.
Correlated energy-spread removal with space charge for high-harmonic generation.
Hemsing, E; Marinelli, A; Marcus, G; Xiang, D
2014-09-26
We study the effect of longitudinal space charge on the correlated energy spread of a relativistic high-brightness electron beam that has been density modulated for the emission of coherent, high-harmonic radiation. We show that, in the case of electron bunching induced by a laser modulator followed by a dispersive chicane, longitudinal space charge forces can act to strongly reduce the induced energy modulation of the beam without a significant reduction in the harmonic bunching content. This effect may be optimized to enhance the output power and overall performance of free-electron lasers that produce coherent light through high-gain harmonic generation. It also increases the harmonic number achievable in these devices, which are otherwise gain-limited by the induced energy modulation from the laser.
High-harmonic generation in α -quartz by electron-hole recombination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otobe, T.
2016-12-01
A calculation of the high-harmonic generation (HHG) in α -quartz using the time-dependent density functional theory is reported. The interband process is attributed to the dominant in HHG above the band gap. The photon energy is set to 1.55 eV, and the cutoff energy of the plateau region is found to be limited at the 19th harmonic (30 eV). The dependence of the HHG efficiency at the cutoff energy region on laser intensity is consistent with that of the hole density in the lowest-lying valence band. Numerical results indicate that electron-hole recombination plays a crucial role in HHG in α -quartz. It is found that a 200 attosecond pulse train is produced using HHG around the plateau cutoff energy.
Wave Driven Fast Ion Loss in the National Spherical Torus Experiment
E.D. Fredrickson; C.Z. Cheng; D. Darrow; G. Fu; N.N. Gorelenkov; G. Kramer; S.S. Medley; J. Menard; L. Roquemore; D. Stutman; R.B. White
2003-08-05
The study of fast ion instabilities in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks is motivated in large part by their potential to negatively impact the ignition threshold in fusion reactors by causing fast ion losses. Spherical tokamak's (ST), with intrinsically low magnetic fields, are particularly susceptible to fast ion driven instabilities. The 3.5 MeV alpha's from the D-T [deuterium-tritium] fusion reaction in proposed ST reactors will have velocities much higher than the Alfven speed. The Larmor radius of the fusion alphas, normalized to the plasma size, will also be larger than for conventional aspect ratio tokamak reactors. The resulting longer wavelengths of the *AE instabilities will be more effective in driving fast ion loss. The change in magnetic topology also influences the mode structure, as in the case of the Compressional Alfven Eigenmodes (CAE) seen on NSTX.
Fast and Slow Mode Solitary Waves in a Five Component Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sebastian, Sijo; Michael, Manesh; Varghese, Anu; Sreekala, G.; Venugopal, Chandu
2016-07-01
We have investigated fast and slow mode solitary profiles in a five component plasma consisting of positively and negatively charged pair ions, hydrogen ions and hotter and colder electrons. Of these, the heavier ions and colder photo-electrons are of cometary origin while the other components are of solar origin; the electrons being described by kappa distributions. The Zakharov-Kuznetzov (ZK) equation is derived and solutions for fast and slow mode solitary structures are plotted for parameters relevant to that of comet Halley. From the figures, it is seen that the presence of hydrogen ion determines the polarity of fast and slow mode solitary structures. Also different pair ions like He, C and O have significant effect on the width of the fast and slow mode solitary structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xuan, Weipeng; He, Mei; Meng, Nan; He, Xingli; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Jinkai; Shi, Tianjin; Hasan, Tawfique; Xu, Zhen; Xu, Yang; Luo, J. K.
2014-11-01
We report ZnO/glass surface acoustic wave (SAW) humidity sensors with high sensitivity and fast response using graphene oxide sensing layer. The frequency shift of the sensors is exponentially correlated to the humidity change, induced mainly by mass loading effect rather than the complex impedance change of the sensing layer. The SAW sensors show high sensitivity at a broad humidity range from 0.5%RH to 85%RH with < 1 sec rise time. The simple design and excellent stability of our GO-based SAW humidity sensors, complemented with full humidity range measurement, highlights their potential in a wide range of applications.
Xuan, Weipeng; He, Mei; Meng, Nan; He, Xingli; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Jinkai; Shi, Tianjin; Hasan, Tawfique; Xu, Zhen; Xu, Yang; Luo, J K
2014-11-26
We report ZnO/glass surface acoustic wave (SAW) humidity sensors with high sensitivity and fast response using graphene oxide sensing layer. The frequency shift of the sensors is exponentially correlated to the humidity change, induced mainly by mass loading effect rather than the complex impedance change of the sensing layer. The SAW sensors show high sensitivity at a broad humidity range from 0.5%RH to 85%RH with < 1 sec rise time. The simple design and excellent stability of our GO-based SAW humidity sensors, complemented with full humidity range measurement, highlights their potential in a wide range of applications.
Xuan, Weipeng; He, Mei; Meng, Nan; He, Xingli; Wang, Wenbo; Chen, Jinkai; Shi, Tianjin; Hasan, Tawfique; Xu, Zhen; Xu, Yang; Luo, J. K.
2014-01-01
We report ZnO/glass surface acoustic wave (SAW) humidity sensors with high sensitivity and fast response using graphene oxide sensing layer. The frequency shift of the sensors is exponentially correlated to the humidity change, induced mainly by mass loading effect rather than the complex impedance change of the sensing layer. The SAW sensors show high sensitivity at a broad humidity range from 0.5%RH to 85%RH with < 1 sec rise time. The simple design and excellent stability of our GO-based SAW humidity sensors, complemented with full humidity range measurement, highlights their potential in a wide range of applications. PMID:25425458
Single-pass high harmonic generation at high repetition rate and photon flux
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hädrich, Steffen; Rothhardt, Jan; Krebs, Manuel; Demmler, Stefan; Klenke, Arno; Tünnermann, Andreas; Limpert, Jens
2016-09-01
Sources of short wavelength radiation with femtosecond to attosecond pulse durations, such as synchrotrons or free electron lasers, have already made possible numerous, and will facilitate more, seminal studies aimed at understanding atomic and molecular processes on fundamental length and time scales. Table-top sources of coherent extreme ultraviolet to soft x-ray radiation enabled by high harmonic generation (HHG) of ultrashort pulse lasers have also gained significant attention in the last few years due to their enormous potential for addressing a plethora of applications, therefore constituting a complementary source to large-scale facilities (synchrotrons and free electron lasers). Ti:sapphire based laser systems have been the workhorses for HHG for decades, but are limited in repetition rate and average power. On the other hand, it has been widely recognized that fostering applications in fields such as photoelectron spectroscopy and microscopy, coincidence detection, coherent diffractive imaging and frequency metrology requires a high repetition rate and high photon flux HHG sources. In this article we will review recent developments in realizing the demanding requirement of producing a high photon flux and repetition rate at the same time. Particular emphasis will be put on suitable ultrashort pulse and high average power lasers, which directly drive harmonic generation without the need for external enhancement cavities. To this end we describe two complementary schemes that have been successfully employed for high power fiber lasers, i.e. optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers and nonlinear pulse compression. Moreover, the issue of phase-matching in tight focusing geometries will be discussed and connected to recent experiments. We will highlight the latest results in fiber laser driven high harmonic generation that currently produce the highest photon flux of all existing sources. In addition, we demonstrate the first promising applications and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Brum, Christiano GM; Batista, Paulo P.; Gurubaran, Subramanian; Pancheva, Dora; Bageston, Jose V.; Batista, Inez S.; Takahashi, Hisao
2015-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the role of eastward and upward propagating fast (FK) and ultrafast Kelvin (UFK) waves in the day-to-day variability of equatorial evening prereversal vertical drift and post sunset generation of spread F/plasma bubble irregularities. Meteor wind data from Cariri and Cachoeira Paulista (Brazil) and medium frequency (MF) radar wind data from Tirunelveli (India) are analyzed together with Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (TIMED/SABER) temperature in the 40- to 100-km region to characterize the zonal and vertical propagations of these waves. Also analyzed are the F region evening vertical drift and spread F (ESF) development features as diagnosed by Digisonde (Lowell Digisonde International, LLC, Lowell, MA, USA) operated at Fortaleza and Sao Luis in Brazil. The SABER temperature data permitted determination of the upward propagation characteristics of the FK (E1) waves with propagation speed in the range of 4 km/day. The radar mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) winds in the widely separated longitude sectors have yielded the eastward phase velocity of both the FK and UFK waves. The vertical propagation of these waves cause strong oscillation in the F region evening prereversal vertical drift, observed for the first time at both FK and UFK periodicities. A delay of a few (approximately 10) days is observed in the F region vertical drift perturbation with respect to the corresponding FK/UFK zonal wind oscillations, or temperature oscillations in the MLT region, which has permitted a direct identification of the sunset electrodynamic coupling process as being responsible for the generation of the FK/UFK-induced vertical drift oscillation. The vertical drift oscillations are found to cause significant modulation in the spread F/plasma bubble irregularity development. The overall results highlight the role of FK/UFK waves in the day
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Wei; Li, Dongsheng; Zhang, Shuaifang; Ou, Jinping
2017-07-01
This paper presents a hybrid method that combines the B-spline wavelet on the interval (BSWI) finite element method and spectral analysis based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) to study wave propagation in One-Dimensional (1D) structures. BSWI scaling functions are utilized to approximate the theoretical wave solution in the spatial domain and construct a high-accuracy dynamic stiffness matrix. Dynamic reduction on element level is applied to eliminate the interior degrees of freedom of BSWI elements and substantially reduce the size of the system matrix. The dynamic equations of the system are then transformed and solved in the frequency domain through FFT-based spectral analysis which is especially suitable for parallel computation. A comparative analysis of four different finite element methods is conducted to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed method when utilized in high-frequency wave problems. Other numerical examples are utilized to simulate the influence of crack and delamination on wave propagation in 1D rods and beams. Finally, the errors caused by FFT and their corresponding solutions are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belashov, V. Yu.; Belashova, E. S.
2016-11-01
On the basis of the model of the three-dimensional (3D) generalized Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation for magnetic field h = B / B the formation, stability, and dynamics of 3D soliton-like structures, such as the beams of fast magnetosonic (FMS) waves generated in ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma at a low-frequency branch of oscillations when β = 4 πnT/ B 2 ≪ 1 and β > 1, are studied. The study takes into account the highest dispersion correction determined by values of the plasma parameters and the angle θ = ( B, k), which plays a key role in the FMS beam propagation at those angles to the magnetic field that are close to π/2. The stability of multidimensional solutions is studied by an investigation of the Hamiltonian boundness under its deformations on the basis of solving of the corresponding variational problem. The evolution and dynamics of the 3D FMS wave beam are studied by the numerical integration of equations with the use of specially developed methods. The results can be interpreted in terms of the self-focusing phenomenon, as the formation of a stationary beam and the scattering and self-focusing of the solitary beam of FMS waves. These cases were studied with a detailed investigation of all evolutionary stages of the 3D FMS wave beams in the ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma.
Mirror modes and fast magnetoacoustic waves near the magnetic pileup boundary of comet P/Halley
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glassmeier, Karl-Heintz; Motschmann, Uwe; Mazelle, C.; Neubauer, Fritz M.; Sauer, K.; Fuselier, S. A.; Acuna, M. H.
1993-01-01
Large-amplitude ultralow-frequency wave structure observed on both sides of the magnetic pileup boundary of comet P/Halley during the flyby of the Giotto spacecraft have been analyzed using suprathermal electron density and magnetic field observations. Upstream of the boundary, electron density and magnetic field magnitude variations are anticorrelated, while in the pileup region these quantities are clearly correlated. Both in front of and behind the pileup boundary the observed waves are quasi-perpendicular wave structures as a minimum variance analysis shows. A detailed comparison of our observations in the prepileup region with theoretical and numerical results shows that the mirror mode mode waves may have been generated by a mirror instability driven by the pressure anisotropy of the ring-type distributions of the heavy (water group) pickup cometary ions.
Mirror modes and fast magnetoacoustic waves near the magnetic pileup boundary of comet P/Halley
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glassmeier, Karl-Heintz; Motschmann, Uwe; Mazelle, C.; Neubauer, Fritz M.; Sauer, K.; Fuselier, S. A.; Acuna, M. H.
1993-01-01
Large-amplitude ultralow-frequency wave structure observed on both sides of the magnetic pileup boundary of comet P/Halley during the flyby of the Giotto spacecraft have been analyzed using suprathermal electron density and magnetic field observations. Upstream of the boundary, electron density and magnetic field magnitude variations are anticorrelated, while in the pileup region these quantities are clearly correlated. Both in front of and behind the pileup boundary the observed waves are quasi-perpendicular wave structures as a minimum variance analysis shows. A detailed comparison of our observations in the prepileup region with theoretical and numerical results shows that the mirror mode mode waves may have been generated by a mirror instability driven by the pressure anisotropy of the ring-type distributions of the heavy (water group) pickup cometary ions.
Goh, S J; Reinink, J; Tao, Y; van der Slot, P J M; Bastiaens, H J M; Herek, J L; Biedron, S G; Milton, S V; Boller, K-J
2016-01-25
We experimentally investigate spectral control of high-harmonic generation in a wide-diameter (508 μm) capillary that allows using significantly lower gas pressures coupled with elevated drive laser energies to achieve higher harmonic energies. Using phase shaping to change the linear chirp of the drive laser pulses, we observe wavelength tuning of the high-harmonic output to both larger and smaller values. Comparing tuning via the gas pressure with the amount of blue shift in the transmitted drive laser spectrum, we conclude that both adiabatic and non-adiabatic effects cause pulse-shaping induced tuning of high harmonics. We obtain a fractional wavelength tuning, Δλ/λ, in the range from -0.007 to + 0.01, which is comparable to what is achieved with standard capillaries of smaller diameter and higher pressures.
Cassou, Kevin; Daboussi, Sameh; Hort, Ondrej; Guilbaud, Olivier; Descamps, Dominique; Petit, Stéphane; Mével, Eric; Constant, Eric; Kazamias, Sophie
2014-07-01
We show that a significant enhancement of the photon flux produced by high harmonic generation can be obtained through guided configuration at high laser intensity largely above the saturation intensity. We identify two regimes. At low pressure, we observe an intense second plateau in the high harmonic spectrum in argon. At relatively high pressure, complex interplay between strongly time-dependent ionization processes and propagation effects leads to important spectral broadening without loss of spectral brightness. We show that the relevant parameter for this physical process is the product of laser peak power by gas pressure. We compare source performances with high harmonic generation using a gas jet in loose focusing geometry and conclude that the source developed is a good candidate for injection devices such as seeded soft x-ray lasers or free electron lasers in the soft x-ray range.
Bierbach, Jana; Yeung, Mark; Eckner, Erich; Roedel, Christian; Kuschel, Stephan; Zepf, Matt; Paulus, Gerhard G.
2015-05-01
Surface high-harmonic generation in the relativistic regime is demonstrated as a source of extreme ultra-violet (XUV) pulses with extended operation time. Relativistic high-harmonic generation is driven by a frequency-doubled high-power Ti:Sapphire laser focused to a peak intensity of 3·1019 W/cm2 onto spooling tapes. We demonstrate continuous operation over up to one hour runtime at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Harmonic spectra ranging from 20 eV to 70 eV (62 nm to 18 nm) were consecutively recorded by an XUV spectrometer. An average XUV pulse energy in the µJ range is measured. With the presented setup, relativistic surface high-harmonic generation becomes a powerful source of coherent XUV pulses that might enable applications in, e.g. attosecond laser physics and the seeding of free-electron lasers, when the laser issues causing 80-% pulse energy fluctuations are overcome.
Evidence of wave-particle duality for single fast hydrogen atoms.
Schmidt, H T; Fischer, D; Berenyi, Z; Cocke, C L; Gudmundsson, M; Haag, N; Johansson, H A B; Källberg, A; Levin, S B; Reinhed, P; Sassenberg, U; Schuch, R; Simonsson, A; Støchkel, K; Cederquist, H
2008-08-22
We report the direct observation of interference effects in a Young's double-slit experiment where the interfering waves are two spatially separated components of the de Broglie wave of single 1.3 MeV hydrogen atoms formed close to either target nucleus in H++H2 electron-transfer collisions. Quantum interference strongly influences the results even though the hydrogen atoms have a de Broglie wavelength, lambda_{dB}, as small as 25 fm.
Local One-Dimensional ICRF Full-Wave Solutions Valid to All Orders in k-Perpendicular-Rho
Batchelor, D.B.; Berry, L.A.; Jaeger, E.F.
1999-04-12
High harmonic ion cyclotron resonances are important for understanding future fast wave heating experiments on NSTX 1 as well as recent ICRF flow drive experiments on PBX-M^{2} and TFTR^{3}. Unfortunately, many of our ICRF wave analysis codes are based on an expansion to second order in k-perpendicular-Rho where k-perpendicular is the perpendicular wave number, and Rho is the Larmor radius. Such codes are limited to cyclotron harmonics less than or equal to 2. Integral codes^{4,5} on the other hand, are valid to all orders in both k-perpendicular-Rho and Rho/LL where L is the equilibrium scale length. But velocity space integrals in these codes require long running times. Here we take a simpler approach which assumes a local plasma conductivity (Rho/L << 1), while still retaining all orders in k-perpendicular-Rho. This allows high harmonic fast wave and flow drive applications, while requiring less computing time than conventional integral codes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stepanov, Serguei I.; Plata Sánchez, Marcos; Hernández, Eliseo
2017-02-01
Dynamic population Bragg gratings can be recorded in the rare-earth-doped (e.g. doped with erbium or ytterbium) optical fibers with mWatt-scale cw laser power. Two-wave mixing (TWM) via such gratings is utilized in single-frequency fiber lasers and in adaptive interferometric fiber sensors with automatic stabilization of the operation point. Slow and fast light propagation can also be observed in the vicinity of narrow ( 20-200Hz) spectral profile of stationary no-degenerate TWM. In particular, slow light propagation is observed for the purely amplitude grating, recorded in the erbium-doped fiber in spectral range 1510-1550nm. In its turn, in ytterbium-doped fibers at 1064nm (or in erbium-doped fiber at the wavelength below 1500nm) the dynamic grating has significant contribution of the phase component, the TWM profile has essentially asymmetric form, and both slow and fast (superluminal) light propagation is possible at different frequency off-sets between the counter-propagating interacting waves.
Alfvénic waves with sufficient energy to power the quiet solar corona and fast solar wind.
McIntosh, Scott W; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats; Hansteen, Viggo; Boerner, Paul; Goossens, Marcel
2011-07-27
Energy is required to heat the outer solar atmosphere to millions of degrees (refs 1, 2) and to accelerate the solar wind to hundreds of kilometres per second (refs 2-6). Alfvén waves (travelling oscillations of ions and magnetic field) have been invoked as a possible mechanism to transport magneto-convective energy upwards along the Sun's magnetic field lines into the corona. Previous observations of Alfvénic waves in the corona revealed amplitudes far too small (0.5 km s(-1)) to supply the energy flux (100-200 W m(-2)) required to drive the fast solar wind or balance the radiative losses of the quiet corona. Here we report observations of the transition region (between the chromosphere and the corona) and of the corona that reveal how Alfvénic motions permeate the dynamic and finely structured outer solar atmosphere. The ubiquitous outward-propagating Alfvénic motions observed have amplitudes of the order of 20 km s(-1) and periods of the order of 100-500 s throughout the quiescent atmosphere (compatible with recent investigations), and are energetic enough to accelerate the fast solar wind and heat the quiet corona.
Fast damping of poloidal Alfven waves by bounce-resonant ions: observations and modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, C.; Rankin, R.; Sydorenko, D.; Zong, Q.
2015-12-01
Interplanetary shocks and solar wind dynamic pressure variations can excite intense ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves in the inner magnetosphere. An analysis of two interplanetary shocks observed by Cluster on 7 November 2004 and 30 August 2001 shows that the poloidal waves excited in these events are damped away rapidly in tens of minutes. This damping is the result of wave-particle interactions involving H+ and O+ ions with energies in the range of several to a few tens of keV [Wang et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2015]. Damping is found to be more effective in the plasmasphere boundary layer due to the relatively higher proportion of Landau resonant ions that exists in that region. In the November 2004 shock event it has been suggested that energy-dispersed ions observed travelling parallel and anti-parallel direction to the geomagnetic field immediately after the shockare locally accelerated rather than originating from Earth's ionosphere. We use test-particle simulations to show that adiabatic advection of the particle differential flux caused bydrift-bounce-resonance with ULF waves is responsible for the energy-dispersed ions observed in these events. In the simulations,Liouville's theorem is used to reconstruct the iondistribution function and differential flux in a model dipole magnetosphere.It is shown that flux modulations of H and O ions can be reproduced when test-particle ions are advanced in the electric fields of the 3D ULF wave model we have developed.
Co-counter asymmetry in fast wave heating and current drive
Jaeger, E.F.; Carter, M.D.; Berry, L.A.; Batchelor, D.B.; Forest, C.B.; Weitzner, H.
1997-04-01
Full wave ICRF coupling models show differences in plasma response when antenna arrays are phase to drive currents and counter to the plasma current. The source of this difference lies in the natural up- sown asymmetry of the antenna`s radiated power spectrum. This asymmetry is due to Hall terms in the wave equation, and occurs even without a poloidal magnetic field. When a poloidal field is included, the up-down asymmetry acquires a toroidal component. The result is that plasma absorption (i.e. antenna loading) is shifted or skewed toward the co-current drive direction, independent of the direction of the magnetic field. When wave are launched to drive current counter the plasma current , electron heating an current profiles are more peaked on axis, and this peaking becomes more pronounce a lower toroidal magnetic fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Basabe, Jonás D.; Sen, Mrinal K.; Wheeler, Mary F.
2008-10-01
Recently, there has been an increased interest in applying the discontinuous Galerkin method (DGM) to wave propagation. In this work, we investigate the applicability of the interior penalty DGM to elastic wave propagation by analysing it's grid dispersion properties, with particular attention to the effect that different basis functions have on the numerical dispersion. We consider different types of basis functions that naturally yield a diagonal mass matrix. This is relevant to seismology because a diagonal mass matrix is tantamount to an explicit and efficient time marching scheme. We find that the Legendre basis functions that are traditionally used in the DGM introduce numerical dispersion and anisotropy. Furthermore, we find that using Lagrange basis functions along with the Gauss nodes has attractive advantages for numerical wave propagation.
Bllaci, Loreta; Kjellström, Sven; Eliasson, Lena; Friend, James R; Yeo, Leslie Y; Nilsson, Staffan
2013-03-05
A desire for higher speed and performance in molecular profiling analysis at a reduced cost is driving a trend in miniaturization and simplification of procedures. Here we report the use of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer for fast sample handling in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) peptide and protein profiling of Islets of Langerhans, for future type 2 diabetes (T2D) studies. Here the SAW atomizer was used for ultrasound (acoustic) extraction of insulin and other peptide hormones released from freshly prepared islets, stimulated directly on a membrane. A high energy propagating SAW atomizes the membrane-bound liquid into approximately 2 μm diameter droplets, rich in cell-released molecules. Besides acting as a sample carrier, the membrane provides a purification step by entrapping cell clusters and other impurities within its fibers. A new SAW-based sample-matrix deposition method for MALDI MS was developed and characterized by a strong insulin signal, and a limit of detection (LOD) lower than 100 amol was achieved. Our results support previous work reporting the SAW atomizer as a fast and inexpensive tool for ultrasound, membrane-based sample extraction. When interfaced with MALDI MS, the SAW atomizer constitutes a valuable tool for rapid cell studies. Other biomedical applications of SAW-MALDI MS are currently being developed, aiming at fast profiling of biofluids. The membrane sampling is a simplistic and noninvasive collection method of limited volume biofluids such as the gingival fluid and the tearfilm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Kanika; Baliyan, Sweta; Sajal, Vivek; Kumar, Ravindra; Sharma, Navneet K.
2016-07-01
The parametric decay of large amplitude non-resonant beating mode of counter-propagating lasers (having a frequency difference ≥ 2 ω p ) into a pair of upper hybrid waves is studied in magnetized plasma. One of the excited upper hybrid waves (known as fast wave) having phase velocity close to c , can be utilized for electron acceleration. The coupled mode equations of fast and slow upper hybrid waves are modelled by solving equation of motion and continuity equation simultaneously (using the density perturbation technique) to derive the dispersion relation for two plasmon decay process. The growth rate of the present excitation process using right circularly polarized beating lasers is higher as compared with the growth rates of the excitation processes using ordinary and extraordinary beating lasers. However, the growth rate is not significant in the case of left circularly polarized beating lasers. The growth rate ˜ 0.15 ω p s - 1 is achieved for right circularly polarized beating lasers having v 1 , 2 / c = 0.1 for scattering angle θ s ˜ 160 ° and applied magnetic field ˜ 90 T. The growth rate of fast upper hybrid wave was reduced with the applied axial magnetic field in the present case. The present work is not only significant for the electron acceleration by fast upper hybrid wave but also for diagnostic purpose.
Levko, Dmitry; Raja, Laxminarayan L.
2016-04-21
The influence of field emission of electrons from surfaces on the fast ionization wave (FIW) propagation in high-voltage nanosecond pulse discharge in the atmospheric-pressure nitrogen is studied by a one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions model. A strong influence of field emission on the FIW dynamics and plasma parameters is obtained. Namely, the accounting for the field emission makes possible the bridging of the cathode–anode gap by rather dense plasma (∼10{sup 13 }cm{sup −3}) in less than 1 ns. This is explained by the generation of runaway electrons from the field emitted electrons. These electrons are able to cross the entire gap pre-ionizing it and promoting the ionization wave propagation. We have found that the propagation of runaway electrons through the gap cannot be accompanied by the streamer propagation, because the runaway electrons align the plasma density gradients. In addition, we have obtained that the field enhancement factor allows controlling the speed of ionization wave propagation.
A New Method for Very Fast Simulation of Blast Wave Propagation in Complex Built Environments
2010-01-01
as AUTODYN (ANSYS, 2008)). Unfortunately, three dimensional CFD models of blast wave propagation, even when limited to a single barrier and...The work reported in this paper was completed with the support of USAF, contract FA4819- 07-D-0001. References ANSYS. (2008). “ AUTODYN 2D and 3D
Lamb waves based fast subwavelength imaging using a DORT-MUSIC algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Jiaze; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo
2016-02-01
A Lamb wave-based, subwavelength imaging algorithm is developed for damage imaging in large-scale, plate-like structures based on a decomposition of the time-reversal operator (DORT) method combined with the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm in the space-frequency domain. In this study, a rapid, hybrid non-contact scanning system was proposed to image an aluminum plate using a piezoelectric linear array for actuation and a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) line-scan for sensing. The physics of wave propagation, reflection, and scattering that underlies the response matrix in the DORT method is mathematically formulated in the context of guided waves. The singular value decomposition (SVD) and MUSIC-based imaging condition enable quantifying the damage severity by a `reflectivity' parameter and super-resolution imaging. With the flexibility of this scanning system, a considerably large area can be imaged using lower frequency Lamb waves with limited line-scans. The experimental results showed that the hardware system with a signal processing tool such as the DORT-MUSIC (TR-MUSIC) imaging technique can provide rapid, highly accurate imaging results as well as damage quantification with unknown material properties.
Experimental Validation of a Fast Forward Model for Guided Wave Tomography of Pipe Elbows.
Brath, Alex J; Simonetti, Francesco; Nagy, Peter B; Instanes, Geir
2017-05-01
Ultrasonic guided wave tomography (GWT) methods for the detection of corrosion and erosion damage in straight pipe sections are now well advanced. However, successful application of GWT to pipe bends has not yet been demonstrated due to the computational burden associated with the complex forward model required to simulate guided wave propagation through the bend. In a previous paper [Brath et al., IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control, vol. 61, pp. 815-829, 2014], we have shown that the speed of the forward model can be increased by replacing the 3-D pipe bend with a 2-D rectangular domain in which guided wave propagation is formulated based on an artificially inhomogeneous and elliptically anisotropic (INELAN) acoustic model. This paper provides further experimental validation of the INLEAN model by studying the traveltime shifts caused by the introduction of shallow defects on the elbow of a pipe bend. Comparison between experiments and simulations confirms that a defect can be modeled as a phase velocity perturbation to the INLEAN velocity field with accuracy that is within the experimental error of the measurements. In addition, it is found that the sensitivity of traveltime measurements to the presence of damage decreases as the damage position moves from the interior side of the bend (intrados) to the exterior one (extrados). This effect is due to the nonuniform ray coverage obtainable when transmitting the guided wave signals with one ring array of sources on one side of the elbow and receiving with a second array on the other side.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryland, Elizabeth S.; Lin, Ming-Fu; Verkamp, Max A.; Vura-Weis, Josh
2016-06-01
Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectroscopy is an inner shell technique that probes the M2,3-edge excitation of atoms. Absorption of the XUV photon causes a 3p→3d transition, the energy and shape of which is directly related to the element and ligand environment. This technique is thus element-, oxidation state-, spin state-, and ligand field specific. A process called high-harmonic generation (HHG) enables the production of ultrashort (≈20fs) pulses of collimated XUV photons in a tabletop instrument. This allows transient XUV spectroscopy to be conducted as an in-lab experiment, where it was previously only possible at accelerator-based light sources. Additionally, ultrashort pulses provide the capability for unprecedented time resolution (≈70fs IRF). This technique has the capacity to serve a pivotal role in the study of electron and energy transfer processes in materials and chemical biology. I will present the XUV transient absorption instrument we have built over the past two years, along with preliminary data and simulations of the M2,3-edge absorption data of a battery of small inorganic molecules to demonstrate the high specificity of this ultrafast tabletop technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryland, Elizabeth S.; Lin, Ming-Fu; Benke, Kristin; Verkamp, Max A.; Zhang, Kaili; Vura-Weis, Josh
2017-06-01
Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectroscopy is an inner shell technique that probes the M_{2,3}-edge excitation of atoms. Absorption of the XUV photon causes a 3p→3d transition, the energy and shape of which is directly related to the element and ligand environment. This technique is thus element-, oxidation state-, spin state-, and ligand field specific. A process called high-harmonic generation (HHG) enables the production of ultrashort (˜20fs) pulses of collimated XUV photons in a tabletop instrument. This allows transient XUV spectroscopy to be conducted as an in-lab experiment, where it was previously only possible at accelerator-based light sources. Additionally, ultrashort pulses provide the capability for unprecedented time resolution (˜50fs IRF). This technique has the capacity to serve a pivotal role in the study of electron and energy transfer processes in materials and chemical biology. I will present the XUV transient absorption instrument we have built, along with ultrafast transient M_{2,3}-edge absorption data of a series of small inorganic molecules in order to demonstrate the high specificity and time resolution of this tabletop technique as well as how our group is applying it to the study of ultrafast electronic dynamics of coordination complexes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seideman, Tamar
2008-03-01
Nonadiabatic alignment is a coherent approach to control over the spatial properties of molecules, wherein a short, moderately- intense laser pulse is applied to populate a broad rotational wavepacket with fascinating properties. In the limit of small isolated molecules, nonadiabatic alignment has evolved in recent years into an active field of theoretical and experimental research with a rich variety of applications. Following a brief review of the essential physics underlying nonadiabatic alignment, we discuss one of these applications, namely the use of high harmonics generated from aligned molecules as a probe of the underlying electronic dynamics and rotational coherences. Next, we extend the alignment concept to dissipative media, including dense gases, solutions, and interfaces. We illustrate the application of rotational wavepackets as a probe of the dissipative properties of dense media and propose a means of disentangling population relaxation from decoherence effects via strong laser alignment. We extend alignment to control the torsional motions of polyatomic molecules, and apply torsional control in solutions to manipulate charge transfer events, suggesting a potential route to light controlled molecular switches. Turning to interfaces, we introduce a route to guided molecular assembly, wherein laser alignment is extended to induce long-range orientational order in molecular layers. Finally, we combine the nonadiabatic alignment concept with recent research on nanoplasmonics and on conductance via molecular junctions to develop an approach to optical control of transport in the nanoscale.
Isolated high-harmonic XUV photon absorption and NIR strong-field tunnel ionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bryan, W. A.; Frassetto, F.; Froud, C. A.; Turcu, I. C. E.; King, R. B.; Calvert, C. R.; Nemeth, G. R. A. J.; Villoresi, P.; Poletto, L.; Springate, E.
2012-01-01
Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses with a duration of tens of femtoseconds initiate 4s-1 or 4p-1 photoionization of krypton, which populates highly excited satellite states through the electron correlation. The excited ions are then tunnel ionized to Kr2+4s-14p-1 or 4p-2 by a strong-field near-infrared (NIR) pulse of a similar duration. The XUV pulses are produced by high harmonic generation in a gas jet and we employ a state-of-the-art time-preserving monochromator to isolate individual XUV harmonic orders. An enhancement of the Kr2+ yield as a function of harmonic photon energy and XUV-pump NIR-probe delay is observed and compared with a two-step model, which allows the population of the satellite states to be inferred. Furthermore, relative 4s and 4p satellite excitation cross-sections are predicted at the photon energies studied. This proof-of-principle experiment demonstrates that isolated harmonics can be employed to pump specific electronic states, which will be highly complementary to synchrotron, attosecond and x-ray free-electron laser studies of complex systems.
High-harmonic generation by field enhanced femtosecond pulses in metal-sapphire nanostructure
Han, Seunghwoi; Kim, Hyunwoong; Kim, Yong Woo; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seungchul; Park, In-Yong; Kim, Seung-Woo
2016-01-01
Plasmonic high-harmonic generation (HHG) drew attention as a means of producing coherent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation by taking advantage of field enhancement occurring in metallic nanostructures. Here a metal-sapphire nanostructure is devised to provide a solid tip as the HHG emitter, replacing commonly used gaseous atoms. The fabricated solid tip is made of monocrystalline sapphire surrounded by a gold thin-film layer, and intended to produce EUV harmonics by the inter- and intra-band oscillations of electrons driven by the incident laser. The metal-sapphire nanostructure enhances the incident laser field by means of surface plasmon polaritons, triggering HHG directly from moderate femtosecond pulses of ∼0.1 TW cm−2 intensities. The measured EUV spectra exhibit odd-order harmonics up to ∼60 nm wavelengths without the plasma atomic lines typically seen when using gaseous atoms as the HHG emitter. This experimental outcome confirms that the plasmonic HHG approach is a promising way to realize coherent EUV sources for nano-scale near-field applications in spectroscopy, microscopy, lithography and atto-second physics. PMID:27721374
Data Acquisition in a High Harmonic Generation Lab and at LCLS
Hirokawa, Takako; /U. Colorado, Boulder /SLAC
2011-06-22
In this paper, we examine data acquisition in a high harmonic generation (HHG) lab and preliminary data analysis with the Cyclohexadiene Collaboration at the Linac Coherent Lightsource (LCLS) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. HHG experiments have a large number of parameters that need to be monitored constantly. In particular, the pressure of the target is critical to HHG yield. However, this pressure can fluctuate wildly and without a tool to monitor it, it is difficult to analyze the correlation between HHG yield and the pressure. I used the Arduino microcontroller board and created a complementary MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI), thereby enhancing the ease with which users can acquire time-stamped parameter data. Using the Arduino, it is much easier to match the pressure to the corresponding HHG yield. Collecting data by using the Arduino and the GUI is flexible, user-friendly, and cost-effective. In the future, we hope to be able to control and monitor parts of the lab with the Arduino alone. While more parameter information is needed in the HHG lab, we needed to reduce the amount of data during the cyclohexadiene collaboration. This was achieved by sorting the data into bins and filtering out unnecessary details. This method was highly effective in that it minimized the amount of data without losing any valuable information. This effective preliminary data analysis technique will continue to be used to decrease the size of the collected data.
Coherent diffractive imaging microscope with a tabletop high harmonic EUV source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Bosheng; Seaberg, Matthew D.; Adams, Daniel E.; Gardner, Dennis F.; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.
2013-04-01
Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) using EUV/X-rays has proven to be a powerful microscopy method for imaging nanoscale objects. In traditional CDI, the oversampling condition limits its applicability to small, isolated objects. A new technique called keyhole CDI was demonstrated on a synchrotron X-ray source to circumvent this limitation. Here we demonstrate the first keyhole CDI result with a tabletop extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The EUV source is based on high harmonic generation (HHG), and our modified form of keyhole CDI uses a highly reflective curved EUV mirror instead of a lossy Fresnel zone plate, offering a ~10x increase in photon throughput of the imaging system, and a more uniform illumination on the sample. In addition, we have demonstrated a record 22 nm resolution using our tabletop CDI setup, and also the successful extension to reflection mode for a periodic sample. Combining these results with keyhole CDI will open the path to the realization of a compact EUV microscope for imaging general non-isolated and non-periodic samples, in both transmission and reflection mode.
Ultrafast high harmonics for probing the fastest spin and charge dynamics in magnetic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grychtol, Patrick
2015-03-01
Ultrafast light based on the high-harmonic up-conversion of femtosecond laser pulses have been successfully employed to access resonantly enhanced magnetic contrast at the Mabsorption edges of the 3d ferromagnets Fe, Co and Ni in a table-top setup. Thus, it has been possible to study element-specific dynamics in magnetic materials at femtosecond time scales in a laboratory environment, providing a wealth of opportunities for a greater fundamental understanding of correlated phenomena in solid-state matter. However, these investigations have so far been limited to linear polarized harmonics, since most techniques by which circular soft x-rays can be generated are highly inefficient reducing the photon flux to a level unfit for scientific applications. Besides presenting key findings of our ultrafast studies on charge and spin dynamics, we introduce a simple setup which allows for the efficient generation of circular harmonics bright enough for XMCD experiments. Our work thus represents a critical advance that enables element-specific imaging and spectroscopy of multiple elements simultaneously in magnetic and other chiral media with very high spatial and temporal resolution on the tabletop. In collboration with Ronny Knut, Emrah Turgut, Dmitriy Zusin, Christian Gentry, Henry Kapteyn, Margaret Murnane, JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder; Justin Shaw, Hans Nembach, Tom Silva, Electromagnetics Division, NIST, Boulder, CO; and Ofer Kfir, Avner Fleischer, Oren Cohen, Extreme Nonlinear Optics Group, Solid State Institute, Technion, Israel.
Tunable High Harmonic Generation driven by a Visible Optical Parametric Amplifier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cirmi, G.; Lai, C.-J.; Huang, S.-W.; Granados, E.; Sell, A.; Moses, J.; Hong, K.-H.; Keathley, P.; Kärtner, F. X.
2013-03-01
We studied high-harmonic generation (HHG) in Ar, Ne and He gas jets using a broadly tunable, high-energy optical parametric amplifier (OPA) in the visible wavelength range. We optimized the noncollinear OPA to deliver tunable, femtosecond pulses with 200-500 μJ energy at 1-kHz repetition rate with excellent spatiotemporal properties, suitable for HHG experiments. By tuning the central wavelength of the OPA while keeping energy, duration and beam size constant, we experimentally studied the scaling law of conversion efficiency and cut-off energy with the driver wavelength in argon and helium respectively. Our measurements show a λ-5.9±0.9 wavelength dependence of the conversion efficiency and a λ1.7±0.2 dependence of the HHG cut-off photon energy over the full visible range in agreement with previous experiments of near- and mid-IR wavelengths. By tuning the central wavelength of the driver source and changing the gas, the high order harmonic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet cover the full range of photon energy between ~25 eV and ~100 eV. Due to the high coherence intrinsic in HHG, as well as the broad and continuous tunability in the extreme UV range, a high energy, high repetition rate version of this source might be an ideal seed for free electron lasers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grychtol, Patrick; Turgut, Emrah; Zusin, Dmitriy; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Popmintchev, Tenio; Kapteyn, Henry; Murnane, Margaret; Knut, Ronny; Nembach, Hans; Shaw, Justin; Kfir, Ofer; Fleischer, Avner; Cohen, Oren
2014-03-01
Ultrafast short wavelength sources based on high harmonic upconversion of femtosecond lasers are unique in their ability to simultaneously probe the magnetically-sensitive M absorption edges of the 3d ferromagnets Fe, Co and Ni. This novel capability to capture the fastest spin dynamics in materials has uncovered a wealth of new fundamental understanding about spin scattering and transport on few-femtosecond timescales. However, to date these investigations have used linearly polarized higher harmonics, since it has not been possible to generate circularly polarized harmonics with sufficient flux for scientific applications. In this contribution, we present a simple setup that enables the efficient generation of circularly polarized harmonics, and demonstrates that they are bright enough for studies of magnetic materials. The fundamental and second harmonic of a Ti:sapphire laser are focused into a gas filled waveguide under good phase matching conditions, with opposite chirality circular polarizations. Thus, circularly-polarized harmonics are produced that are then used to perform magnetic circular dichroism studies in the extreme ultraviolet photon energy range.
Coherent diffractive imaging of single helium nanodroplets with a high harmonic generation source.
Rupp, Daniela; Monserud, Nils; Langbehn, Bruno; Sauppe, Mario; Zimmermann, Julian; Ovcharenko, Yevheniy; Möller, Thomas; Frassetto, Fabio; Poletto, Luca; Trabattoni, Andrea; Calegari, Francesca; Nisoli, Mauro; Sander, Katharina; Peltz, Christian; J Vrakking, Marc; Fennel, Thomas; Rouzée, Arnaud
2017-09-08
Coherent diffractive imaging of individual free nanoparticles has opened routes for the in situ analysis of their transient structural, optical, and electronic properties. So far, single-shot single-particle diffraction was assumed to be feasible only at extreme ultraviolet and X-ray free-electron lasers, restricting this research field to large-scale facilities. Here we demonstrate single-shot imaging of isolated helium nanodroplets using extreme ultraviolet pulses from a femtosecond-laser-driven high harmonic source. We obtain bright wide-angle scattering patterns, that allow us to uniquely identify hitherto unresolved prolate shapes of superfluid helium droplets. Our results mark the advent of single-shot gas-phase nanoscopy with lab-based short-wavelength pulses and pave the way to ultrafast coherent diffractive imaging with phase-controlled multicolor fields and attosecond pulses.Diffraction imaging studies of free individual nanoparticles have so far been restricted to XUV and X-ray free - electron laser facilities. Here the authors demonstrate the possibility of using table-top XUV laser sources to image prolate shapes of superfluid helium droplets.
Two-color probe of high harmonic generation from argon atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Zengxiu; Yuan, Jianmin; Meng, Chao; Chen, Wenbo
2014-05-01
Two-color control of high harmonic generation has been proven a powerful in situ tool to characterize the intrinsic chirp of attosecond bursts. The weak second harmonic pulse introduces a phase modulation of the strong field quantum processes, leading to the generation of even-order harmonic. We measure the yields of even-order harmonics from argon gases as a function of the phase delay between the fundamental and its second harmonic pulse. We found that the modulation of even-order harmonics exhibits a phase jump around the 28th harmonic (48eV), closely resembling the result from. However, we show by varying laser intensity that the phase jump is unlikely to be attributed to the switching from short to long trajectories of HHG near the cut-off. In addition, we demonstrate that the phase of jump depends on the driving laser wavelength. Single-active-electron simulation fails to reproduce the experimental observation. We therefore suspect that multielectron response comes into play for the two-color control of HHG from Argon. Preliminary analysis suggests that there exists competing pathways of HHG from inner orbitals, even for argon atoms whose interaction with strong laser fields is usually assumed well described by SAE approximation.
Designs and numerical calculations for echo-enabled harmonic generation at very high harmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penn, G.; Reinsch, M.
2011-09-01
The echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) scheme for driving an FEL using two seeded energy modulations at much longer wavelengths than the output wavelength is a promising concept for future seeded FELs. There are many competing requirements in the design of an EEHG beamline which need careful optimization. Furthermore, revised simulation tools and methods are necessary because of both the high harmonic numbers simulated and the complicated nature of the phase space manipulations which are intrinsic to the scheme. This paper explores the constraints on performance and the required tolerances for reaching wavelengths well below 1/100th of that of the seed lasers, and describes some of the methodology for designing such a beamline. Numerical tools, developed both for the GENESIS and GINGER FEL codes, are presented and used here for more accurate study of the scheme beyond a time-averaged model. In particular, the impact of the local structure in peak current and bunching, which is an inherent part of the EEHG scheme, is evaluated.
Tuning high-harmonic generation by controlled deposition of ultrathin ionic layers on metal surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguirre, Néstor F.; Martín, Fernando
2016-12-01
High-harmonic generation (HHG) from semiconductors and insulators has become a very active area of research due to its great potential for developing compact HHG devices. Here we show, that by growing monolayers (ML) of insulators on single-crystal metal surfaces, one can tune the harmonic spectrum by just varying the thickness of the ultrathin layer, rather than the laser properties. This is shown from numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for Cu(111)/n -ML NaCl systems (n =1 -50 ) based on realistic potentials. Remarkably, the harmonic cutoff increases linearly with n and as much as an order of magnitude when going from n =1 to 30, while keeping the laser intensity low and the wavelength in the near-infrared range. The origin of this behavior is twofold: the initial localization of electrons in a Cu-surface state and the reduction of electronic "friction" when moving from the essentially discrete energy spectrum associated with a few-ML system to the continuous spectrum (bands) inherent in extended periodic systems. Our findings are valid for both few- and multicycle IR pulses and wavelengths ˜1 -2 μ m .
Progress in Large Period Multilayer Coatings for High Harmonic and Solar Applications
Jones, Juanita; Aquila, Andrew; Salmassi, Farhad; Gullikson, Eric
2008-01-07
Multilayer coatings for normal incidence optics designed for the long wavelength region (25 nm < {lambda} < 50 nm) are particularly challenging due to the few number of layers that can be utilized in the reflection. Recently, Mg/SiC multilayers have been fabricated with normal incidence reflectivity in the vicinity of 40% for wavelengths near the He-II line at 30.4 nm. Motivated by this success we have investigated the use of a tri-band multilayer to increase the bandwidth while maintaining the reflectivity. The multilayers were deposited by conventional magnetron sputtering. Using Mg/SiC bilayers a reflectivity of 45% was achieved at 27 to 32 nm at an angle of 5 deg from normal. The Mg/Sc/SiC multilayer systems have also been investigated. It obtained a near normal incidence reflectivity of 35% while increasing the bandwidth by a factor of 2. These results are very encouraging for the possibility of more widespread applications of normal incidence optics in high harmonic applications.
Angular and Intensity Dependent Spectral Modulations in High Harmonics from N2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McFarland, Brian; Farrell, Joseph; Bucksbaum, Philip; Guehr, Markus
2009-05-01
The spectral amplitude and phase modulation of high harmonics (HHG) in molecules provides important clues to molecular structure and dynamics in strong laser fields. We have studied these effects in aligned N2. Earlier results of HHG experiments claimed that the spectral amplitude modulation was predominantly due to geometrical interference between the recombining electron and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) [1]. We report evidence that contradicts this simple view. We observe a phase jump accompanied by a spectral minimum for HHG in aligned N2. The minimum shifts to lower harmonics as the angle between the molecular axis and harmonic generation polarization increases, and shifts to higher harmonics with increasing harmonic generation intensity. The features observed cannot be fully explained by a geometrical model. We discuss alternative explanations involving multi orbital effects [2]. [0pt] [1] Lein et al., Phys. Rev. A, 66, 023805 (2002) [2] B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum and M. Gühr, Science 322, 1232 (2008)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jianzhong; Huang, Yueqin; Song, Lin-Ping; Liu, Qing-Huo
2011-03-01
We propose a new ray tracing technique in a 3-D heterogeneous isotropic media based on bilinear traveltime interpolation and the wave front group marching. In this technique, the media is discretized into a series of rectangular cells. There are two steps to be carried out: one is a forward step where wave front expansion is evolved from sources to whole computational domain and the subsequent one is a backward step where ray paths are calculated for any source-receiver configuration as desired. In the forward step, we derive a closed-form expression to calculate traveltime at an arbitrary point in a cell using a bilinear interpolation of the known traveltimes on the cell's surface. Then the group marching method (GMM), a fast wave front advancing method, is applied to expand the wave front from the source to all girds. In the backward step, ray paths starting from receivers are traced by finding the intersection points of potential ray propagation vectors with the surfaces of relevant cells. In this step, the same TI scheme is used to compute the candidate intersection points on all surfaces of each relevant cell. In this process, the point with the minimum traveltime is selected as a ray point from which the similar step is continued until sources. A number of numerical experiments demonstrate that our 3-D ray tracing technique is able to achieve very accurate computation of traveltimes and ray paths and meanwhile take much less computer time in comparison with the existing popular ones like the finite-difference-based GMM method, which is combined with the maximum gradient ray tracing, and the shortest path method.
Fast acceleration of 2D wave propagation simulations using modern computational accelerators.
Wang, Wei; Xu, Lifan; Cavazos, John; Huang, Howie H; Kay, Matthew
2014-01-01
Recent developments in modern computational accelerators like Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and coprocessors provide great opportunities for making scientific applications run faster than ever before. However, efficient parallelization of scientific code using new programming tools like CUDA requires a high level of expertise that is not available to many scientists. This, plus the fact that parallelized code is usually not portable to different architectures, creates major challenges for exploiting the full capabilities of modern computational accelerators. In this work, we sought to overcome these challenges by studying how to achieve both automated parallelization using OpenACC and enhanced portability using OpenCL. We applied our parallelization schemes using GPUs as well as Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) coprocessor to reduce the run time of wave propagation simulations. We used a well-established 2D cardiac action potential model as a specific case-study. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to study auto-parallelization of 2D cardiac wave propagation simulations using OpenACC. Our results identify several approaches that provide substantial speedups. The OpenACC-generated GPU code achieved more than 150x speedup above the sequential implementation and required the addition of only a few OpenACC pragmas to the code. An OpenCL implementation provided speedups on GPUs of at least 200x faster than the sequential implementation and 30x faster than a parallelized OpenMP implementation. An implementation of OpenMP on Intel MIC coprocessor provided speedups of 120x with only a few code changes to the sequential implementation. We highlight that OpenACC provides an automatic, efficient, and portable approach to achieve parallelization of 2D cardiac wave simulations on GPUs. Our approach of using OpenACC, OpenCL, and OpenMP to parallelize this particular model on modern computational accelerators should be applicable to other computational models of
Fast Acceleration of 2D Wave Propagation Simulations Using Modern Computational Accelerators
Wang, Wei; Xu, Lifan; Cavazos, John; Huang, Howie H.; Kay, Matthew
2014-01-01
Recent developments in modern computational accelerators like Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and coprocessors provide great opportunities for making scientific applications run faster than ever before. However, efficient parallelization of scientific code using new programming tools like CUDA requires a high level of expertise that is not available to many scientists. This, plus the fact that parallelized code is usually not portable to different architectures, creates major challenges for exploiting the full capabilities of modern computational accelerators. In this work, we sought to overcome these challenges by studying how to achieve both automated parallelization using OpenACC and enhanced portability using OpenCL. We applied our parallelization schemes using GPUs as well as Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) coprocessor to reduce the run time of wave propagation simulations. We used a well-established 2D cardiac action potential model as a specific case-study. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to study auto-parallelization of 2D cardiac wave propagation simulations using OpenACC. Our results identify several approaches that provide substantial speedups. The OpenACC-generated GPU code achieved more than speedup above the sequential implementation and required the addition of only a few OpenACC pragmas to the code. An OpenCL implementation provided speedups on GPUs of at least faster than the sequential implementation and faster than a parallelized OpenMP implementation. An implementation of OpenMP on Intel MIC coprocessor provided speedups of with only a few code changes to the sequential implementation. We highlight that OpenACC provides an automatic, efficient, and portable approach to achieve parallelization of 2D cardiac wave simulations on GPUs. Our approach of using OpenACC, OpenCL, and OpenMP to parallelize this particular model on modern computational accelerators should be applicable to other computational models of wave propagation in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xian-Feng; Cai, Lu-Zhong; Wang, Yu-Rong; Li, Dai-Lin; Yan, Ru-Sen
2010-04-01
An important approach of complex wave reconstruction in generalized phase-shifting interferometry (GPSI) with arbitrary unknown phase shifts is the combination of two (a conventional and an inverse) least square methods (LSMs), where the conventional LSM requires the calculation of solving a set of least square equations for each pixel in each iteration, giving rise to a heavy computation burden. Here a much-simplified algorithm is suggested to extract reference phase and then reconstruct object wave-front by replacing the conventional LSM in above process with our specially derived wave reconstruction formulae for GPSI. In this method, only one least-square equation is needed in each iteration to retrieve the reference phase, and the object phase can be calculated analytically and simultaneously. The feasibility and effectiveness of this algorithm have been verified by computer simulations with both the smooth and diffusing objects. The results show that this innovation can save computing time by about 20 times compared with previous two-LSM algorithm while still ensures its high precision. This approach can be used for GPSI with three or more frames in the wide range of unknown positive or negative phase shifts. Optical experiments have also made with satisfactory results.
Fast events and waves in an active region of the Sun observed in Hα with high spatial resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez-Andrade Nuño, B.; Bello González, N.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Kneer, F.; Puschmann, K. G.
2008-08-01
Context: We study the chromosphere of an active region of the Sun in the Hα line. Aims: The development of new instrumentation and new methods of data analysis allows to scrutinize the dynamics of the solar chromosphere with high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution. The observations we present shed light on some magneto-dynamic processes occurring above an active region in the chromosphere. Methods: We took a time series of 55 min in Hα from AR 10875 at θ≈36°. We used the “Göttingen” Fabry-Perot spectrometer at the Vacuum Tower Telescope, Observatorio del Teide/Tenerife, to obtain two-dimensional spectrograms in Hα. Adaptive optics and image reconstruction yielded a spatial resolution better than 0.5 arcsec throughout the time sequence. From the wealth of structures, we selected areas of interest to study further, in detail, some ongoing processes. Results: A small straight surge developed aside of a pore with upward phase speed of 100 km s-1 and line-of-sight (LOS) velocity of 15 km s-1. The surge retreated rapidly with LOS velocity of 45 km s-1 at its mouth. It underwent a rebound and fell back again. Two sympathetic mini-flares were observed that lasted only approximately 40 s, but showed strong Hα emission. We found magnetoacoustic waves in long fibrils as mainly short wave trains, short packets or pulses, i.e., solitary waves consisting of small (1´´-2´´) blobs. They start at either end of the fibrils and travel with phase speeds of 12-14 km s-1, i.e., close to the tube speed and approximately the sound velocity for sufficiently large magnetic field strengths. Some waves speed up to reach velocities of the order of 30 km s-1. This is much lower than the expected Alfvén velocity of ≥200 km s-1 for reasonable magnetic field strengths and mass densities. We suggest that slow waves are not purely longitudinal, but possess gas velocities perpendicular to the direction of propagation of few km s-1. Also, fast waves travel along sinuous
Zhang Shichang
2010-05-15
Nonlinear model and simulation technique of the interaction and energy transfer between a fast wave and a large-orbit relativistic electron beam in a coaxial electrostatic wiggler are presented. Unlike the situations in a magnetostatic-wiggler free-electron laser (MWFEL) and in an electron cyclotron maser (ECM), the electrostatic potential of the electrons plays an important role and participates in the energy exchange between the wave and the electron beam. Compared to MWFEL and ECM, the coaxial electrostatic-wiggler configuration has a distinguishing peculiarity that besides the electron-beam's kinetic energy, its electrostatic potential energy can be effectively transferred to the fast wave. Simulation shows that wave could be amplified with ultrahigh gain by extracting both the kinetic energy and electrostatic potential energy of the electron beam.
A new approach for fast security scanning with millimetre-waves: SARGATE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lang, Stefan A.; Hägelen, Manfred; Ender, Joachim; Hantscher, Sebastian; Essen, Helmut
2011-05-01
Measuring many people within a short time is still a great challenge to scanners in security related areas, e.g. airports or stations. A new approach for fast and high resolution scanning is presented, based on the so called "circular synthetic aperture radar" (CSAR), applied to a walkway. Due to the circular movement, each of the receiving antennas creates a circular synthetic aperture itself. By reconstructing the complex valued SAR-images for each receiver channel, the ability to perform interferometric SAR-Analysis of a tested person is given. The screened persons do not have to stand still, thus, a measurement in a passenger flow is possible.
Ferguson, S.W.; Callis, R.W.; Cary, W.P.; Phelps, D.A.; Ponce, D.; Baity, F.W.; Barber, G.
1995-12-01
The performance of the high voltage rf components of the DIII-D Fast Wave Current Drive System (FWCD) have been evaluated under various conditions of insulator configuration, insulator material, insulating gas and gas pressure. The insulator materials that have been investigated are alumina, steatite, pyrex, quartz, and teflon. The results of this evaluation are discussed in this paper. Additionally a rf high potter was developed to aid in the evaluation of rf high voltage components. The high potter consists of a 50 {Omega}, 1/4 wavelength cavity with a variable position short and a 50 ohm matched tap at one end of the cavity. With this configuration rf voltages were generated in excess of 100 kVp in the frequency range 30 to 60 MHz.
2006-09-30
αηηx + βη = 0 (1) where co = gh , α = 3co / 2h and . The KdV equation has the generalized Fourier solution (for periodic and/or quasi... numerical integration of the partial differential equations of surface water waves is the long-term goal of this work. The approach is a...applications of the method. APPROACH We first consider the shallow water equation known as the Korteweg-deVries ( KdV ) equation ): ηt + coηx
Empirical approaches for fast robust inversion of seismic moment tensor from surface waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barriot, J.; Reymond, D.; Crusem, R.
2009-12-01
The generalized discrete inverse method of Tarantola-Valette is applied to the inversion of surface waves for obtaining the seismic moment tensor. Different criteria based on residuals and signal to noise ratio are re-injected in the covariance matrix at each step of the inversion process to perform a robust inversion (called also IRLS: Iterative Reweighted Least Square). The great advantages with the use of such techniques, is that aberrant data are automatically removed through the inversion process, without the necessity for careful human inspection and control of data quality.
Fast torsional waves and strong magnetic field within the Earth's core.
Gillet, Nicolas; Jault, Dominique; Canet, Elisabeth; Fournier, Alexandre
2010-05-06
The magnetic field inside the Earth's fluid and electrically conducting outer core cannot be directly probed. The root-mean-squared (r.m.s.) intensity for the resolved part of the radial magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary is 0.3 mT, but further assumptions are needed to infer the strength of the field inside the core. Recent diagnostics obtained from numerical geodynamo models indicate that the magnitude of the dipole field at the surface of a fluid dynamo is about ten times weaker than the r.m.s. field strength in its interior, which would yield an intensity of the order of several millitesla within the Earth's core. However, a 60-year signal found in the variation in the length of day has long been associated with magneto-hydrodynamic torsional waves carried by a much weaker internal field. According to these studies, the r.m.s. strength of the field in the cylindrical radial direction (calculated for all length scales) is only 0.2 mT, a figure even smaller than the r.m.s. strength of the large-scale (spherical harmonic degree n
Hashimoto, Ken-ya; Kashiwa, Keiskue; Wu, Nan; Omori, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Masatsune; Takano, Osamu; Meguro, Sakae; Akahane, Koichi
2011-01-01
This paper describes the development of a phasesensitive laser probe with fast mechanical scan for RF surface and bulk acoustic wave (SAW/BAW) devices. The Sagnac interferometer composed of micro-optic elements was introduced for the selective detection of RF vertical motion associated with RF SAW/BAW propagation and vibration. A high-pass characteristic of the interferometer makes the measurement very insensitive to low-frequency vibration. This feature allows us to apply the fast mechanical scan to the interferometric measurement without badly sacrificing its SNR and spatial resolution. The system was applied to the visualization of a field pattern on the vibrating surface of an RF BAW resonator operating in the 2 GHz range. The field pattern was obtained in 17 min as a 2-D image (500 × 750 pixel with 0.4 μm resolution and SNR of 40 dB). The system was also applied to the characterization of an RF SAW resonator operating in the 1 GHz range, and the applicability of the system was demonstrated.
Fiber-optic evanescent-wave spectroscopy for fast multicomponent analysis of human blood
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simhi, Ronit; Gotshal, Yaron; Bunimovich, David; Katzir, Abraham; Sela, Ben-Ami
1996-07-01
A spectral analysis of human blood serum was undertaken by fiber-optic evanescent-wave spectroscopy (FEWS) by the use of a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. A special cell for the FEWS measurements was designed and built that incorporates an IR-transmitting silver halide fiber and a means for introducing the blood-serum sample. Further improvements in analysis were obtained by the adoption of multivariate calibration techniques that are already used in clinical chemistry. The partial least-squares algorithm was used to calculate the concentrations of cholesterol, total protein, urea, and uric acid in human blood serum. The estimated prediction errors obtained (in percent from the average value) were 6% for total protein, 15% for cholesterol, 30% for urea, and 30% for uric acid. These results were compared with another independent prediction method that used a neural-network model. This model yielded estimated prediction errors of 8.8% for total protein, 25% for cholesterol, and 21% for uric acid. spectroscopy, fiber-optic evanescent-wave spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer, blood, multivariate calibration, neural networks.
Plasmonic phased array feeder enabling ultra-fast beam steering at millimeter waves.
Bonjour, R; Burla, M; Abrecht, F C; Welschen, S; Hoessbacher, C; Heni, W; Gebrewold, S A; Baeuerle, B; Josten, A; Salamin, Y; Haffner, C; Johnston, P V; Elder, D L; Leuchtmann, P; Hillerkuss, D; Fedoryshyn, Y; Dalton, L R; Hafner, C; Leuthold, J
2016-10-31
In this paper, we demonstrate an integrated microwave phoneeded for beamtonics phased array antenna feeder at 60 GHz with a record-low footprint. Our design is based on ultra-compact plasmonic phase modulators (active area <2.5µm^{2}) that not only provide small size but also ultra-fast tuning speed. In our design, the integrated circuit footprint is in fact only limited by the contact pads of the electrodes and by the optical feeding waveguides. Using the high speed of the plasmonic modulators, we demonstrate beam steering with less than 1 ns reconfiguration time, i.e. the beam direction is reconfigured in-between 1 GBd transmitted symbols.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, X.; Liu, K.; Wang, X.; Min, K.; Lin, Y.
2016-12-01
Two-dimensional simulations using a gyro-kinetic electron and fully-kinetic ion (GeFi) scheme are preformed to study the excitation of fast magnetosonic waves in the magnetosphere, which arise from the ion Bernstein instability driven by ring-like proton velocity distributions (with a positive slope with respect to the perpendicular velocity). Since both ion and electron kinetics are relevant, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have often been employed to study the wave excitation. However, such simulations are limited to reduced ion-to-electron mass ratio (mi/me) and light-to-Alfvén speed ratio (c/VA) due to the computationally expensive nature of PIC codes. The present study exploits a GeFi scheme that can break through these limitations and use larger/more realistic mi/me and c/VA. The capability of the GeFi code in simulating the ion Bernstein instability is first demonstrated by comparing a GeFi simulation using reduced mass ratio (mi/me=100) and speed ratio (c/VA=15) to a corresponding PIC simulation. A realistic speed ratio (c/VA=400) and a larger mass ratio (mi/me=400) are then adopted in the GeFi code to explore how the results vary. It is shown that the increased mi/me and c/VA lead to a larger lower hybrid frequency and allow waves to arise at more ion cyclotron harmonics, consistent with the general prediction of linear dispersion theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tripathi, S.; Gekelman, W. N.
2012-12-01
Arched magnetic flux ropes (AMFRs) are arch-shaped, magnetoplasma structures that carry electrical current. In a laboratory plasma experiment, eruption of solar AMFRs is simulated by careful scaling of the solar plasma parameters and precisely controlling the boundary conditions. The experiment runs continuously with a 0.5 Hz repetition rate. Hence, evolution of the plasma parameters is recorded with a good spatiotemporal resolution using computer-controlled movable probes. A lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) plasma source produces the AMFR (n ~ 1013 cm-3, Te ~ 10 eV, L = 0.5 m, I = 100 A, B ~ 1 kG at footpoints) in presence of an arched vacuum magnetic field. The AMFR evolves in a large magnetoplasma (n ~ 1012 cm-3, Te ~ 4 eV, B0 = 20-100 G) produced by another LaB6 source in a cylindrical vacuum chamber (5 m long, 1 m diameter). The ambient magnetic field B0 is normal to the symmetry plane of the AMFR evolution. By changing the direction of the ambient magnetic field, the JxB force can be arranged to either accelerate the AMFR expansion or inhibit the expansion. During the initial phase of the AMFR formation, in presence of an ambient magnetic field (20-60 G) that inhibits the expansion, global oscillations of the AMFR are recorded in the density and magnetic-field measurements. Frequency of the oscillation (f ~ 10 kHz-150 kHz) critically depends on the ambient magnetic field and AMFR current. On application of a strong ambient magnetic field (> 60 G), the global oscillations disappear and the AMFR plasma is released to the background forming a large flux rope on a slow time scale (~50.Alfven transit times tA). In another experiment, dense plasma and magnetic flux (produced by two laser plasma sources) are injected in the AMFR on a fast time scale (~2.tA), which drives the impulsive eruption of the AMFR. In the post-eruption AMFR, low frequency global oscillations (f ~ 200 kHz) appear concurrently with high-frequency fast waves (f ~ 5 MHz) that propagate in all
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maynard, N. C.; Burke, W. J.; Ober, D. M.; Farrugia, C. J.; Kucharek, H.; Lester, M.; Mozer, F. S.; Russell, C. T.; Siebert, K. D.
2007-12-01
Shortly after 06:00 UT on 7 April 2000 a tangential discontinuity (TD) in the solar wind passed the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite (ACE). It was characterized by a rotation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) by ~145° and more than a factor-of-two decrease in the plasma density. About 50 minutes later Polar encountered more complex manifestations of the discontinuity near noon in the magnetosheath outside the northern hemisphere cusp. Based on Polar observations, theoretical modeling, and MHD simulations we interpret the event as demonstrating that: (1) a fast-mode rarefaction wave was generated during the TD-bow shock interaction, (2) the fast wave carried a significant fraction of the density change to the magnetopause while the remainder stayed with the transmitted discontinuity, and (3) magnetic merging occurred between IMF field lines within the magnetosheath on opposite sides of the discontinuity's surface as it approached the magnetopause. Before the discontinuity passed the spacecraft, Polar detected ions accelerated anti-parallel to B in the fast wave and perpendicular to B in a weak slow-mode structure located adjacent to and just downstream of the fast wave. The anti-parallel accelerated ions in the fast wave had no measurable ion-velocity dispersion signature, placing their source a few RE equatorward of Polar. Simulation results, a Walén test, detections of wave Poynting flux parallel to B, bi-directional electron heat flux, and ion velocity enhancements all indicate that the three ion bursts associated with the passage of the discontinuity were signatures of time- dependent, magnetic merging events within the magnetosheath.
Tunable compression of template banks for fast gravitational-wave detection and localization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chua, Alvin J. K.; Gair, Jonathan R.
2016-06-01
One strategy for reducing the online computational cost of matched-filter searches for gravitational waves is to introduce a compressed basis for the waveform template bank in a grid-based search. In this paper, we propose and investigate several tunable compression schemes for a general template bank. Through offline compression, such schemes are shown to yield faster detection and localization of signals, along with moderately improved sensitivity and accuracy over coarsened banks at the same level of computational cost. This is potentially useful for any search involving template banks, and especially in the analysis of data from future space-based detectors such as eLISA, for which online grid searches are difficult due to the long-duration waveforms and large parameter spaces.
Fast plane wave density functional theory molecular dynamics calculations on multi-GPU machines
Jia, Weile; Fu, Jiyun; Cao, Zongyan; Wang, Long; Chi, Xuebin; Gao, Weiguo; Wang, Lin-Wang
2013-10-15
Plane wave pseudopotential (PWP) density functional theory (DFT) calculation is the most widely used method for material simulations, but its absolute speed stagnated due to the inability to use large scale CPU based computers. By a drastic redesign of the algorithm, and moving all the major computation parts into GPU, we have reached a speed of 12 s per molecular dynamics (MD) step for a 512 atom system using 256 GPU cards. This is about 20 times faster than the CPU version of the code regardless of the number of CPU cores used. Our tests and analysis on different GPU platforms and configurations shed lights on the optimal GPU deployments for PWP-DFT calculations. An 1800 step MD simulation is used to study the liquid phase properties of GaInP.
Optical emission from a fast shock wave - The remnants of Tycho's supernova and SN 1006
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chevalier, R. A.; Raymond, J. C.
1978-01-01
The faint optical filaments in Tycho's supernova remnant appear to be emission from a shock front moving at 5600 km/s. The intensity of the hydrogen lines, the absence of forbidden lines of heavy elements in the spectrum, and the width of the filaments are explained by a model in which a collisionless shock wave is moving into partially neutral gas. The presence of the neutral gas can be used to set an upper limit of approximately 5 x 10 to the 47th power ergs to the energy in ionizing radiation emitted by a Type I supernova. The patchy neutral gas is probably part of the warm neutral component of the interstellar medium. The existing information on the remnant of SN 1006 indicates that its emission is similar in nature to that from Tycho's remnant.
Quasi-phase-matched high-harmonic generation in composites of metal nanoparticles and a noble gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Husakou, A.; Herrmann, J.
2014-08-01
We theoretically study high-harmonic generation (HHG) in a composite which consists of ellipsoidal silver nanoparticles in argon. The significant field enhancement in argon in the vicinity of metal nanoparticles allows us to use much lower incident intensities than in typical HHG experiments. A periodic modulation of the nanoparticle concentration provides quasi-phase matching, which mitigates the negative effect of the significant phase mismatch. First, we study the linear optical properties of such a composite and the field enhancement and consider the technological possibilities of creating such a composite. Then the generation of high harmonics is simulated using a propagation equation which includes field enhancement, phase mismatch, absorption of the pump beam and harmonics, and other relevant effects. Generation of harmonics with an efficiency above 10-7 is predicted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorney, Kevin M.; Ellis, Jennifer L.; Hernández-García, Carlos; Hickstein, Daniel D.; Mancuso, Christopher A.; Brooks, Nathan; Fan, Tingting; Fan, Guangyu; Zusin, Dmitriy; Gentry, Christian; Grychtol, Patrik; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.
2017-08-01
High harmonics driven by two-color counterrotating circularly polarized laser fields are a unique source of bright, circularly polarized, extreme ultraviolet, and soft x-ray beams, where the individual harmonics themselves are completely circularly polarized. Here, we demonstrate the ability to preferentially select either the right or left circularly polarized harmonics simply by adjusting the relative intensity ratio of the bichromatic circularly polarized driving laser field. In the frequency domain, this significantly enhances the harmonic orders that rotate in the same direction as the higher-intensity driving laser. In the time domain, this helicity-dependent enhancement corresponds to control over the polarization of the resulting attosecond waveforms. This helicity control enables the generation of circularly polarized high harmonics with a user-defined polarization of the underlying attosecond bursts. In the future, this technique should allow for the production of bright highly elliptical harmonic supercontinua as well as the generation of isolated elliptically polarized attosecond pulses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, R. Jason; Moll, Kevin D.; Thorpe, Michael J.; Ye, Jun
2005-05-01
We demonstrate the generation of phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum utraviolet spectral region. The output from a mode-locked laser is stabilized to a femtosecond enhancement cavity with a gas jet at the intracavity focus. The resulting high-peak power of the intracavity pulse enables efficient high-harmonic generation by utilizing the full repetition rate of the laser. Optical-heterodyne-based measurements reveal that the coherent frequency comb structure of the original laser is fully preserved in the high-harmonic generation process. These results open the door for precision frequency metrology at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths and permit the efficient generation of phase-coherent high-order harmonics using only a standard laser oscillator without active amplification of single pulses.
Fast acoustic streaming in standing waves: generation of an additional outer streaming cell.
Reyt, Ida; Daru, Virginie; Bailliet, Hélène; Moreau, Solène; Valière, Jean-Christophe; Baltean-Carlès, Diana; Weisman, Catherine
2013-09-01
Rayleigh streaming in a cylindrical acoustic standing waveguide is studied both experimentally and numerically for nonlinear Reynolds numbers from 1 to 30 [Re(NL)=(U0/c0)(2)(R/δν)(2), with U0 the acoustic velocity amplitude at the velocity antinode, c0 the speed of sound, R the tube radius, and δν the acoustic boundary layer thickness]. Streaming velocity is measured by means of laser Doppler velocimetry in a cylindrical resonator filled with air at atmospheric pressure at high intensity sound levels. The compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically with high resolution finite difference schemes. The resonator is excited by shaking it along the axis at imposed frequency. Results of measurements and of numerical calculation are compared with results given in the literature and with each other. As expected, the axial streaming velocity measured and calculated agrees reasonably well with the slow streaming theory for small ReNL but deviates significantly from such predictions for fast streaming (ReNL>1). Both experimental and numerical results show that when ReNL is increased, the center of the outer streaming cells are pushed toward the acoustic velocity nodes until counter-rotating additional vortices are generated near the acoustic velocity antinodes.
Maneva, Y. G.; Araneda, J. A.; Marsch, E.
2014-03-10
We study the preferential heating and differential acceleration of minor ions by dissipation of ion-acoustic waves (IAWs) generated by parametric instabilities of a finite-amplitude monochromatic Alfvén-cyclotron pump wave. We consider the associated kinetic effects of Landau damping and nonlinear pitch-angle scattering of protons and α particles in the tenuous plasma of coronal holes and the fast solar wind. Various data collected by Wind spacecraft show signatures for a local transverse heating of the minor ions, presumably by Alfvén-cyclotron wave dissipation, and an unexpected parallel heating by a so far unknown mechanism. Here, we present the results from a set of 1.5 dimensional hybrid simulations in search for a plausible explanation for the observed field-aligned kinetic features in the fast solar wind minor ions. We investigate the origin and regulation of ion relative drifts and temperature anisotropies in low plasma β, fast solar wind conditions. Depending on their initial drifts, both ion species can heat up not only transversely through cyclotron resonance and non-resonant wave-particle interactions, but also strongly in the parallel direction by Landau damping of the daughter IAWs. We discuss the dependence of the relative ion drifts and temperature anisotropies on the plasma β of the individual species and we describe the effect of the pump wave amplitude on the ion heating and acceleration.
Empirical approaches for fast robust inversion of seismic moment tensor from surface waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reymond, D.; Crusem, R.; Barriot, J. P.
2010-04-01
We present a method of robust inversion (also called IRLS: Iterative Reweighted Least Squares) which is surprisingly insensitive to outlier data points, as it discards automatically the aberrant points, without the necessity for careful human inspection and control of data quality. Different criteria based on residuals and signal-to-noise ratio are injected into the covariance matrix (acting like a weighting function), to perform the robust inversion using the iterative generalized discrete inverse method of Tarantola-Valette. From a practical point of view, this algorithm is used as the Preliminary Determination of Focal Mechanism (PDFM) method, which is a project for rapid estimation of source parameters of strong earthquakes in the context of tsunami warning. The input data to be inverted are spectra of long period surface waves, and as an output, the computed result is the seismic moment tensor, from which focal geometry of an earthquake, and principal stress axes are obtained. This method can be applied to any other method of non-linear (iterative) inversions confronted to the problem of outlier points polluting the data sets.
Alfven Wave Evolution in an Interaction System of the Fast and Slow Solar Wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsubouchi, K.
2007-12-01
Large-amplitude Alfven waves (AWs) are often embedded in a high-speed stream of the solar wind. As the high- speed streams overtake the low-speed streams ahead, corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are produced in low heliographic latitudes. In this study, the nonlinear evolution of AWs swept into CIRs is numerically investigated by one-dimensional MHD simulations. Ulysses observations suggest that not only AWs amplified through the reverse shock but also magnetic depression structures (MDs) are found in the trailing portions of CIRs (e.g., Tsurutani et al., 1995). Our interest is the generation mechanism of MDs in the context of AWs-CIRs interaction system. While MDs are supposed to be remnants of the mirror instability (e.g., Winterhalter et al., 1994), we give alternative processes from a macroscopic view as follows. A large pressure gradient developed in CIRs results in intensifying the diamagnetic current, which reflects a portion of the incident AW energy in the opposite direction (from a plasma-rest frame) as AWs penetrate into CIRs. Since the reflected AWs also carry the current, the reduction of the background field intensity (i.e. MD formation) is simultaneously taken place in the area sandwiched between the forward-reverse pair of AWs. Further analysis will be given via hybrid simulations to show how these MHD processes are manifested in particle behaviors, such as an acceleration due to a ponderomotive force.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aknoun, Sherazade; Savatier, Julien; Bon, Pierre; Wattellier, Benoit; Monneret, Serge
2017-02-01
We describe a technique based on the use of a high-resolution quadri-wave lateral shearing interferometer to perform quantitative linear birefringence measurements on biological samples [1] such as living cells and tissues. The system combines QPI with different excitation polarizations to create retardance images. This creates a new kind of image contrast based on the local retardance, reveals the structure of sample anisotropic components and adds specificity to label-free phase images. We implemented this technique allowing us to take retardance images in less than 1 second which allows us to make high speed acquisitions to reconstruct tissues virtual slides with different modalities (i.e intensity, phase and retardance). Comparisons between healthy and tumoral 10 µm thick skin tissues and collagen orientation studies in the latter will be presented. [1] S. Aknoun, P. Bon, J. Savatier, B. Wattellier, and S. Monneret, "Quantitative retardance imaging of biological samples using quadriwave lateral shearing interferometry," Opt. Express 23, 16383-16406 (2015).
Galloway, Benjamin R; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Pisanty, Emilio; Hickstein, Daniel D; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Popmintchev, Tenio
2016-09-19
We present a semi-classical study of the effects of the Lorentz force on electrons during high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions driven by near- and mid-infrared lasers with wavelengths from 0.8 to 20 μm, and at intensities below 10^{15} W/cm^{2}. The transverse extent of the longitudinal Lorentz drift is compared for both Gaussian focus and waveguide geometries. Both geometries exhibit a longitudinal electric field component that cancels the magnetic Lorentz drift in some regions of the focus, once each full optical cycle. We show that the Lorentz force contributes a super-Gaussian scaling which acts in addition to the dominant high harmonic flux scaling of λ^{-(5-6)} due to quantum diffusion. We predict that the high harmonic yield will be reduced for driving wavelengths > 6 μm, and that the presence of dynamic spatial mode asymmetries results in the generation of both even and odd harmonic orders. Remarkably, we show that under realistic conditions, the recollision process can be controlled and does not shut off completely even for wavelengths >10 μm and recollision energies greater than 15 keV.
Bierbach, Jana; Yeung, Mark; Eckner, Erich; ...
2015-05-01
Surface high-harmonic generation in the relativistic regime is demonstrated as a source of extreme ultra-violet (XUV) pulses with extended operation time. Relativistic high-harmonic generation is driven by a frequency-doubled high-power Ti:Sapphire laser focused to a peak intensity of 3·1019 W/cm2 onto spooling tapes. We demonstrate continuous operation over up to one hour runtime at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Harmonic spectra ranging from 20 eV to 70 eV (62 nm to 18 nm) were consecutively recorded by an XUV spectrometer. An average XUV pulse energy in the µJ range is measured. With the presented setup, relativistic surface high-harmonic generationmore » becomes a powerful source of coherent XUV pulses that might enable applications in, e.g. attosecond laser physics and the seeding of free-electron lasers, when the laser issues causing 80-% pulse energy fluctuations are overcome.« less
High harmonic generation with intense infrared few-cycle laser pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legare, Francois
2013-05-01
Further shortening of attosecond pulse duration via high harmonic generation (HHG) can be achieved utilizing few-cycle pulses at wavelengths longer than 800 nm, because the HHG cut-off shifts towards higher photon energies proportional to the square of the laser wavelength. The IR spectral range at 1800 nm is accessed by choosing the narrow band Idler of a white light seeded optical parametric amplifier which enables passive carrier envelope phase (CEP) stabilization. Pulse compression is achieved via the combined action of nonlinear propagation in a hollow-core fiber (HCF) followed by subsequent linear propagation through fused silica (FS) in the anomalous dispersion regime, enabling sub-millijoule sub-two-cycle pulses. HHG spectra from Xenon and cyclohexadiene isomers will be presented demonstrating the benefit of using those ultrashort IR pulses for HHG spectroscopy. To amplify those pulses in the millijoule range, we introduce the concept of Fourier-plane Optical Parametric Amplification (FOPA). The key idea for amplification of octave-spanning spectra without loss of spectral width is to amplify the broad spectrum ``slice by slice.'' Opposed to traditional schemes where amplification takes place in time domain, we propose to amplify different spectral parts independently of each other in the spectral domain. The spectral dispersion is carried out according to a 4-f setup which performs an optical Fourier transformation of time domain input pulses into the spectral domain and vice versa. After amplification which takes place in the Fourier plane, the pulses are transformed back into the time domain. As a first demonstration, the FOPA was used to amplify 0.1 mJ sub-two-cycle pulses to 1.4 mJ denoting 14 fold amplification. Driving the process of HHG from Neon and Helium with those pulses have enabled to generate soft X-ray spectra extending beyond the Oxygen K-edge (~540 eV) denoting a first step towards the generation of isolated attosecond pulses in the water
Fast color flow mode imaging using plane wave excitation and temporal encoding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jorgen A.
2005-04-01
In conventional ultrasound color flow mode imaging, a large number (~500) of pulses have to be emitted in order to form a complete velocity map. This lowers the frame-rate and temporal resolution. A method for color flow imaging in which a few (~10) pulses have to be emitted to form a complete velocity image is presented. The method is based on using a plane wave excitation with temporal encoding to compensate for the decreased SNR, resulting from the lack of focusing. The temporal encoding is done with a linear frequency modulated signal. To decrease lateral sidelobes, a Tukey window is used as apodization on the transmitting aperture. The data are beamformed along the direction of the flow, and the velocity is found by 1-D cross correlation of these data. First the method is evaluated in simulations using the Field II program. Secondly, the method is evaluated using the experimental scanner RASMUS and a 7 MHz linear array transducer, which scans a circulating flowrig. The velocity of the blood mimicking fluid in the flowrig is constant and parabolic, and the center of the scanned area is situated at a depth of 40 mm. A CFM image of the blood flow in the flowrig is estimated from two pulse emissions. At the axial center line of the CFM image, the velocity is estimated over the vessel with a mean relative standard deviation of 2.64% and a mean relative bias of 6.91%. At an axial line 5 mm to the right of the center of the CFM image, the velocity is estimated over the vessel with a relative standard deviation of 0.84% and a relative bias of 5.74%. Finally the method is tested on the common carotid artery of a healthy 33-year-old male.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Picolloto, A. M.; Mariucci, V. V. G.; Szpak, W.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Astrath, F. B. G.; Santos, A. D.; Moraes, J. C. S.; Bento, A. C.
2013-11-01
The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (˜7 min) and with similar thermal expansion (˜12 μstrain/ °C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 μm thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) μm, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) μl. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10-3 cm2/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s0.5/cm2 K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm3 K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 μm using 57 μl of distilled water).
Picolloto, A. M.; Mariucci, V. V. G.; Szpak, W.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Astrath, F. B. G.; Bento, A. C.; Santos, A. D.; Moraes, J. C. S.
2013-11-21
The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (∼7 min) and with similar thermal expansion (∼12 μstrain/ °C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 μm thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) μm, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) μl. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s{sup 0.5}/cm{sup 2} K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm{sup 3} K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 μm using 57 μl of distilled water)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Wangtao; Qian, Jianliang; Burridge, Robert
2016-05-01
In some applications, it is reasonable to assume that geodesics (rays) have a consistent orientation so that the Helmholtz equation can be viewed as an evolution equation in one of the spatial directions. With such applications in mind, starting from Babich's expansion, we develop a new high-order asymptotic method, which we dub the fast Huygens sweeping method, for solving point-source Helmholtz equations in inhomogeneous media in the high-frequency regime and in the presence of caustics. The first novelty of this method is that we develop a new Eulerian approach to compute the asymptotics, i.e. the traveltime function and amplitude coefficients that arise in Babich's expansion, yielding a locally valid solution, which is accurate close enough to the source. The second novelty is that we utilize the Huygens-Kirchhoff integral to integrate many locally valid wavefields to construct globally valid wavefields. This automatically treats caustics and yields uniformly accurate solutions both near the source and remote from it. The third novelty is that the butterfly algorithm is adapted to accelerate the Huygens-Kirchhoff summation, achieving nearly optimal complexity O (Nlog N), where N is the number of mesh points; the complexity prefactor depends on the desired accuracy and is independent of the frequency. To reduce the storage of the resulting tables of asymptotics in Babich's expansion, we use the multivariable Chebyshev series expansion to compress each table by encoding the information into a small number of coefficients. The new method enjoys the following desired features. First, it precomputes the asymptotics in Babich's expansion, such as traveltime and amplitudes. Second, it takes care of caustics automatically. Third, it can compute the point-source Helmholtz solution for many different sources at many frequencies simultaneously. Fourth, for a specified number of points per wavelength, it can construct the wavefield in nearly optimal complexity in terms
Weatherford, Brandon R. E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Barnat, E. V. E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Xiong, Zhongmin E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Kushner, Mark J. E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu
2014-09-14
Fast ionization waves (FIWs), often generated with high voltage pulses over nanosecond timescales, are able to produce large volumes of ions and excited states at moderate pressures. The mechanisms of FIW propagation were experimentally and computationally investigated to provide insights into the manner in which these large volumes are excited. The two-dimensional structure of electron and metastable densities produced by short-pulse FIWs sustained in helium were measured using laser-induced fluorescence and laser collision-induced fluorescence diagnostics for times of 100–120 ns after the pulse, as the pressure was varied from 1 to 20 Torr. A trend of center-peaked to volume-filling to wall-peaked electron density profiles was observed as the pressure was increased. Instantaneous FIW velocities, obtained from plasma-induced emission, ranged from 0.1 to 3×10⁹cm s⁻¹, depending on distance from the high voltage electrode and pressure. Predictions from two-dimensional modeling of the propagation of a single FIW correlated well with the experimental trends in electron density profiles and wave velocity. Results from the model show that the maximum ionization rate occurs in the wavefront, and the discharge continues to propagate forward after the removal of high voltage from the powered electrode due to the potential energy stored in the space charge. As the pressure is varied, the radial distribution of the ionization rate is shaped by changes in the electron mean free path, and subsequent localized electric field enhancement at the walls or on the centerline of the discharge.
Daneshgar, Parandis; Norouzi, Parviz; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Ordikhani-Seyedlar, Amin; Eshraghi, Hasan
2009-01-01
A new detection technique called the fast Fourier transform square-wave voltammetry (FFT-SWV) is based on the measurements of electrode admittance as a function of potential. The response of the detector (microelectrode) is fast, which makes the method suitable for most applications involving flowing electrolytes. The carbon paste electrode was modified by nanostructures to improve better sensitivity. The response is generated by a redox processes. The redox property of L-dopa was used for determination of it in human serum and urine samples. The support electrolyte that provided a more defined and intense peak current for L-dopa determination was at 0.05 mol l(-1) acetate buffer pH 7.0. Synthesized dysprosium nanowires make more effective surface like nanotubes [P.M. Ajayan, S. Iijima, Nature 361 (1993) 333; I.A. Merkoc, Microchim. Acta 152 (2006) 157; F.H. Wu, G.C. Zhao, X.W. Wei, Z.S. Yang, Microchim. Acta 144 (2004) 243; L. Liu, J. Song, Anal. Biochem. 354 (2006) 22] so they are good candidates for using as a modifier for electrochemical reactions. The drug presented one irreversible oxidation peaks at 360 mV versus Ag/AgCl by modified nanowire carbon paste electrode which produced high current and reduced the oxidation potential about 80 mV. Furthermore, signal-to-noise ratio has significantly increased by application of discrete fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, background subtraction and two-dimensional integration of the electrode response over a selected potential range and time window. To obtain the much sensitivity the effective parameters such as frequency, amplitude and pH was optimized. As a result, C(DL) of 4.0 x 10(-9)M and an LOQ of 7.0 x 10(-9) M were found for determination for L-dopa. A good recovery was obtained for assay spiked urine samples and a good quantification of L-dopa was achieved in a commercial formulation.