Science.gov

Sample records for high-level regional meeting

  1. 75 FR 61228 - Board Meeting: Technical Lessons Gained From High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: Technical Lessons Gained From High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts Pursuant to its authority under section 5051 of Public Law 100-203, Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act...

  2. Cardiovascular health in the Americas: facts, priorities and the UN high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Ordúñez, Pedro

    2011-10-01

    Population aging, smoking, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity, in the context of globalization and unregulated urbanization, explain the high prevalences of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in the Americas, making cardiovascular diseases the main cause of death. Moreover, cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors disproportionately affect the poorest people, obstructing antipoverty efforts and further deepening health and other inequities. The global crisis of chronic non-communicable diseases has reached such proportions that the UN General Assembly called a high-level meeting in September 2011 to address the issue as one of human development, aiming to stimulate political commitment to a concerted global effort to stem the pandemic. In reference to the Americas, this article reviews the burden of cardiovascular diseases and describes priorities for strategies and action in the region and their relation to the results of the UN meeting.

  3. REGIONAL BINNING FOR CONTINUED STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    W. Lee Poe, Jr

    1998-10-01

    In the Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR) (Reference 1), DOE decided to analyze the environmental consequences of continuing to store the commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at 72 commercial nuclear power sites and DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at five Department of Energy sites by region rather than by individual site. This analysis assumes that three commercial facilities pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine-Mile Point, and Dresden and Moms--share common storage due to their proximity to each other. The five regions selected for this analysis are shown on Figure 1. Regions 1, 2, and 3 are the same as those used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in their regulatory oversight of commercial power reactors. NRC Region 4 was subdivided into two regions to more appropriately define the two different climates that exist in NRC Region 4. A single hypothetical site in each region was assumed to store all the SNF and HLW in that region. Such a site does not exist and has no geographic location but is a mathematical construct for analytical purposes. To ensure that the calculated results for the regional analyses reflect appropriate inventory, facility and material degradation, and radionuclide transport, the waste inventories, engineered barriers, and environmental conditions for the hypothetical sites were developed from data for each of the existing sites within the given region. Weighting criteria to account for the amount and types of SNF and HLW at each site were used in the development of the environmental data for the regional site, such that the results of the analyses for the hypothetical site were representative of the sum of the results of each actual site if they had been modeled independently. This report defines the actual site data used in development of this hypothetical site, shows how the individual site data was weighted to develop the regional site, and provides the weighted data used in the CSAR analysis. It is

  4. The United Nations High Level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases: a missed opportunity?

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Kavita; Parker, Richard G

    2012-11-01

    The United Nations High Level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases (September 19-20, 2011) provided an opportunity to recast the current global health agenda and offered a formidable platform to mobilize political will for concerted action. We argue that the opportunity was missed because the World Health Organization (WHO) neglected the politics of process that are key to mobilizing political support for global noncommunicable disease policies. Instead, it focused on the implementation process. The lessons to be drawn from the summit are critical because the WHO is the key agency that will be expected in the near future to steer further discussions and debate on the noncommunicable disease agenda.

  5. From Port-of-Spain summit to United Nations High Level Meeting CARICOM and the global non-communicable disease agenda.

    PubMed

    Samuels, T A; Hospedales, C J

    2011-07-01

    The English-speaking Caribbean has the highest per capita burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) in the region of the Americas. Building on a long history of cooperation in health among the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and past successes in eliminating/reducing communicable diseases through collective action, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have now been targeted CARICOM convened a "first-in-the-world" summit of Heads of Government to address NCDs, which generated the Port-of-Spain NCD Summit Declaration, "Uniting to Stop The Epidemic of Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases". This 15-point declaration calls on all of government, civil society and the private sector to jointly tackle the common risk factors for the major chronic diseases, and improve the care of such diseases. Implementation of this declaration has been mixed, being most successful where there were regional supports, and in countries with populations > 250 000 reflecting country capacity. CARICOM has elevated this approach to the global level through successful advocacy for a United Nations High Level Meeting on NCDs to be convened in September 2011. Jamaica will be one of two co-facilitators of this meeting, a reflection of the role of CARICOM countries in advancing the NCD agenda at the global level. CARICOM Heads of Government should attend this meeting, showcase the implementation of the NCD Summit Declaration in the Caribbean, commit to enhancing systems and resources, endorse and implement the commitments made and identify and support leadership for sustained action and accountability for these initiatives.

  6. High-level genetic diversity in the vapD chromosomal region of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, P; Cover, T L

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori isolates from different patients are characterized by diversity in the nucleotide sequences of individual genes, variation in genome size, and variation in gene order. Genetic diversity is particularly striking in vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) alleles. In this study, five open reading frames (ORFs) were identified within a 4.2-kb region downstream from vacA in H. pylori 60190. One of these ORFs was closely related to the virulence-associated protein D (vapD) gene of Dichelobacter nodosus (64.9% nucleotide identity). A probe derived from vapD of H. pylori 60190 hybridized with only 19 (61.3%) of 31 H. pylori strains tested. Sequence analysis of the vapD region in vapD-negative H. pylori strains revealed that there were two different families of approximately 0.5-kb DNA segments, which were both unrelated to vapD. The presence of vapD was not associated with any specific family of vacA alleles. These findings are consistent with a recombinational population structure for H. pylori. PMID:9139899

  7. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste above the water table in arid regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseboom, Eugene H.

    1983-01-01

    Locating a repository in the unsaturated zone of arid regions eliminates or simplifies many of the technological problems involved in designing a repository for operation below the water table and predicting its performance. It also offers possible accessibility and ease of monitoring throughout the operational period and possible retrieval of waste long after. The risks inherent in such a repository appear to be no greater than in one located in the saturated zone; in fact, many aspects of such a repository's performance will be much easier to predict and the uncertainties will be reduced correspondingly. A major new concern would be whether future climatic changes could produce significant consequences due to possible rise of the water table or increased flux of water through the repository. If spent fuel were used as a waste form, a second new concern would be the rates of escape of gaseous iodine-129 and carbon-14 to the atmosphere.

  8. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste above the water table in arid regions

    SciTech Connect

    Roseboom, E.H. Jr.

    1983-12-31

    Locating a repository in the unsaturated zone of arid regions eliminates or simplifies many of the technological problems involved in designing a repository for operation below the water table and predicting its performance. It also offers possible accessibility and ease of monitoring throughout the operational period and possible retrieval of waste long after. The risks inherent in such a repository appear to be no greater than in one located in the saturated zone; in fact, many aspects of such a repository`s performance will be much easier to predict and the uncertainties will be reduced correspondingly. A major new concern would be whether future climatic changes could produce significant consequences due to possible rise of the water table or increased flux of water through the repository. If spent fuel were used as a waste form, a second new concern would be the rates of escape of gaseous {sup 129}I and {sup 14}C to the atmosphere.

  9. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    SciTech Connect

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions.

  10. A regional evaluation of injections of high levels of vitamin A on reproductive performance of sows.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, M D; Brendemuhl, J H; Chiba, L I; Darroch, C S; Dove, C R; Estienne, M J; Harper, A F

    2008-02-01

    A regional study involving 443 litters from 182 sows was conducted at 5 cooperating experiment stations to determine the effects of an i.m. injection of vitamin A at weaning and breeding on subsequent litter size of sows. Sows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments given at weaning and again at breeding: 1) a placebo i.m. injection (2 mL of corn oil), 2) i.m. injection with 250,000 IU of vitamin A (1 mL of vitamin A palmitate in oil), and 3) i.m. injection with 500,000 IU of vitamin A (2 mL of vitamin A palmitate in oil). Corn-soybean meal diets in gestation were formulated to contain 13% CP and 0.60% total Lys. Lactation diets were formulated to contain 17% CP and 0.90% Lys. A common vitamin-mineral premix that supplied 11,000 IU of vitamin A/kg of diet (as-fed) was used by all stations. As expected, station effects were noted for many response measures. Analysis of the data also revealed both treatment x station and treatment x parity interactions for litter size responses. The treatment x parity interactions were stronger than the treatment x station effects, and when the litter size response was separated into early parity sows (parity 1 and 2) and late-parity sows (parity 3 to 6), the treatment x station interactions were no longer present in either subgroup. For sows of parity 1 and 2, litter sizes were increased linearly (P

  11. Cardiovascular Diseases on the Global Agenda: The United Nations High Level Meeting, Sustainable Development Goals, and the Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Johanna; Reddy, K Srinath; Fuster, Valentin; Narula, Jagat

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, the United Nations (UN) organized the first ever meeting for heads of state to discuss the problem of noncommunicable diseases (NCD), including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus. Recognizing that these had emerged as leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, including in many low- and middle-income countries, advocates from government and civil society had called for increased attention and a UN response. Earlier, NCD including CVD were absent from the global health agenda in part because of their omission from the Millennium Development Goals. The UN meeting and the global advocacy response offered a game-changing opportunity to redress this omission. The World Heart Federation (WHF) played an instrumental role in the UN meeting and follow up, including inclusion of CVD in the Sustainable Development Goals. The next phase of the global CVD movement is expected through national action, including CVD roadmaps and partnering with the World Health Organization. The WHF is heavily committed to these goals and the other nongovernmental organizations invested in the mission must help take this historical mandate forward. Instrumental to this will be the engagement of people affected by or at risk of developing CVD, to draw more attention and resources to NCD and to ensure that successes to date in global policy translate into action at the national level.

  12. Decontamination and treatment of high level liquid mixed waste to meet regulatory compliance issues outlined in Federal Facilities Agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Gaughan, T.P.; Taylor, G.A.

    1994-03-01

    High-Level Radioactive Liquid waste is stored in underground storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) located south of Aiken, SC. Treatment and disposal of this liquid Hazardous and Radioactive (Mixed) Waste required the negotiation and approval of a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the DOE, EPA and the South Carolina state regulatory agency. This agreement which also addresses many other waste sites at SRS was approved in January 1993. Included in this FFA were schedule information, operating parameters and secondary containment requirements that the DOE committed to as part of an ongoing Environmental Restoration mission at the site. Obtaining compliance with this FFA and other environmental regulations at such a unique facility provided a challenging obstacle for treatment of this liquid waste.

  13. The 2011 United Nations high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases: the Africa agenda calls for a 5-by-5 approach.

    PubMed

    Mensah, G A; Mayosi, B M

    2012-11-08

    The High Level Meeting of the 66th Session of the United Nations General Assembly was held in September 2011. The Political Declaration issued at the meeting focused the attention of world leaders and the global health community on the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). The four major NCDs (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases) and their four risk factors (tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol) constitute the target of the '4-by-4' approach, which is also supported by national and international health organisations. We argue that while preventing these eight NCDs and risk factors is also important in Africa, it will not be enough. A '5-by-5' strategy is needed, addressing neuropsychiatric disorders as the fifth NCD; and transmissible agents that underlie the neglected tropical diseases and other NCDs as the fifth risk factor. These phenomena cause substantial preventable death and disability, and must therefore be prioritised.

  14. 78 FR 78466 - Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The TVA Regional Energy Resource Council (RERC) will hold an orientation meeting... Tennessee Valley. The RERC was established to advise TVA on its energy resource activities and...

  15. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of true morels (Morchella) reveals high levels of endemics in Turkey relative ot other regions of Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to better understand how the phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey compares with species found in other regions of the world. The current research builds on our recently published survey of 10 Turkish provinces and another of the world in which D...

  16. 78 FR 60366 - Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... RERC was established to advise TVA on its energy resource activities and the priorities among competing... Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The TVA Regional Energy Resource Council (RERC) will hold an orientation...

  17. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of true morels (Morchella) reveals high levels of endemics in Turkey relative to other regions of Europe.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Hatira; Büyükalaca, Saadet; Hansen, Karen; O'Donnell, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to better understand how the phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey compares with species found in other regions of the world. The current research builds on our recently published surveys of 10 Turkish provinces and the northern hemisphere in which DNA sequence data from 247 and 562 collections respectively were analyzed phylogenetically. Herein we report on phylogenetic analyses of 243 additional collections made in spring 2009 and 2010 from eight additional provinces in the Aegean, Black Sea, central Anatolia, eastern Anatolia and Marmara regions of Turkey. Our analysis revealed that five species within the Esculenta clade (yellow morels) and 15 species within the Elata clade (black morels) were present in Turkey. Our preliminary results also indicate that M. anatolica, recently described from a collection in Muğla province in the Aegean region of Turkey, is a closely related sister of M. rufobrunnea; these two species comprise a separate evolutionary lineage from the Esculenta and Elata clades. Nine species of Morchella currently are known only from Turkey, four species were present in Turkey and other European countries and seven species might have been introduced to Turkey anthropogenically. Three of the putatively exotic species in Turkey appear to be endemic to western North America; they are nested within a clade of fire-adapted morels that dates to the late Oligocene, 25 000 000 y ago. Our results indicate that there are roughly twice as many Morchella species in Turkey compared with the other regions of Europe sampled. Knowledge of Morchella species diversity and their biogeographic distribution are crucial for formulating informed conservation policies directed at preventing species loss and ensuring that annual morel harvests are sustainable and ecologically sound.

  18. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also

  19. 75 FR 22168 - Region VI-Houston District; Advisory Council Meeting; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Region VI--Houston District; Advisory Council Meeting; Public Meeting The Small Business Administration-Region VI--Houston Advisory Council, located in the geographical Area of Houston, Texas will...

  20. Regional Cooperation To Meet Global Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Thomas

    In response to the recognition that significant changes were required in service delivery approaches to meet the changing needs for workforce training, Illinois' Joliet Junior College (JJC) implemented a series of innovative training programs. The guiding philosophy behind the programs was that service delivery must correspond to shifts in focus…

  1. High-level transgene expression in plant cells: effects of a strong scaffold attachment region from tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, G C; Hall, G; Michalowski, S; Newman, W; Spiker, S; Weissinger, A K; Thompson, W F

    1996-01-01

    We have previously shown that yeast scaffold attachment regions (SARs) flanking a chimeric beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene increased per-copy expression levels by 24-fold in tobacco suspension cell lines stably transformed by microprojectile bombardment. In this study, we examined the effect of a DNA fragment originally identified in a tobacco genomic clone by its activity in an in vitro binding assay. The tobacco SAR has much greater scaffold binding affinity than does the yeast SAR, and tobacco cell lines stably transformed with constructs containing the tobacco SAR accumulated greater than fivefold more GUS enzyme activity than did lines transformed with the yeast SAR construct. Relative to the control construct, flanking the GUS gene with plant SARs increased overall expression per transgene copy by almost 140-fold. In transient expression assays, the same construct increased expression only approximately threefold relative to a control without SARs, indicating that the full SAR effect requires integration into chromosomal DNA. GUS activity in individual stable transformants was not simply proportional to transgene copy number, and the SAR effect was maximal in cell lines with fewer than approximately 10 transgene copies per tobacco genome. Lines with significantly higher copy numbers showed greatly greatly reduced expression relative to the low-copy-number lines. Our results indicate that strong SARs flanking a transgene greatly increases expression without eliminating variation between transformants. We propose that SARs dramatically reduce the severity or likelihood of homology-dependent gene silencing in cells with small numbers of transgenes but do not prevent silencing of transgenes present in many copies. PMID:8672887

  2. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  3. Regional Planning Meeting on Literacy Initiative for Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication presents an overview of the Asia-Pacific Regional Planning Meeting on the Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (LIFE). Countries in Asia and the Pacific that participate in the LIFE initiative are Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan and Papua New Guinea. The purpose of the meeting was to assist…

  4. Appalachian Governors Consider Future Regional Development at Tenth Annal Meeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Governors recommend establishment of permanent programs and a national policy on regional development. Consists of excerpts from annual meeting of the Council of Appalachian Governors (September 17, 1969, Williamsburg, Virginia). (YP)

  5. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O'Leary

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain.

  6. Definition of the minimal requirements within the human beta-globin gene and the dominant control region for high level expression.

    PubMed Central

    Collis, P; Antoniou, M; Grosveld, F

    1990-01-01

    The human beta-globin dominant control region (DCR) was previously identified as a region from the 5' end of the human beta-globin locus which directs high level, site of integration-independent, copy number-dependent expression on a linked human beta-globin gene in transgenic mice and stably transfected mouse erythroleukaemia (MEL) cells. We have now analysed the elements comprising the DCR by systematic deletion mutagenesis in stable MEL transfectants. We have identified two independent elements within the DNase I hypersensitive sites 2 and 3, containing fragments which direct strong transcriptional inducibility of a beta-globin gene. Whilst the remaining two hypersensitive sites do not direct significant transcriptional induction, our data suggest that all four sites may be necessary for the fully regulated expression conferred by the DCR. We have also tested a number of beta-globin minigene constructs under the control of the DCR to assess if any of the local sequences from the gene may be removed without loss of expression. We find that the 3' enhancer may be removed without affecting expression, but there is an absolute requirement for the presence of the second intron, not related to the enhancer present in that intron. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2295312

  7. 20 CFR 632.18 - Regional and national planning meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Regional and national planning meetings. 632.18 Section 632.18 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Planning, Application...

  8. 20 CFR 632.18 - Regional and national planning meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regional and national planning meetings. 632.18 Section 632.18 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Planning, Application...

  9. 20 CFR 632.18 - Regional and national planning meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regional and national planning meetings. 632.18 Section 632.18 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Planning, Application...

  10. 77 FR 20871 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo...., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The Region...

  11. 76 FR 62090 - Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... National Park Service Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC)...

  12. 75 FR 16204 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo... Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District...

  13. 76 FR 59480 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo... Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District...

  14. 76 FR 3653 - Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... meeting date. SRC meeting location and dates may need to be changed based on lack of quorum, inclement... National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service...

  15. 78 FR 23951 - Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities: Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... management activities in the Powder River Coal Production Region. DATES: The RCT meeting will begin at 9 a.m... Bureau of Land Management Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities: Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The...

  16. Water-related infrastructure in a region of post-earthquake Haiti: high levels of fecal contamination and need for ongoing monitoring.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Jocelyn M; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Alam, Meer T; Morrissey, B David; Redden, Edsel; Rashid, Mohammed H; Diamond, Ulrica; Ali, Afsar; De Rochars, Madsen Beau; Blackburn, Jason K; Johnson, Judith A; Morris, J Glenn

    2014-10-01

    We inventoried non-surface water sources in the Leogane and Gressier region of Haiti (approximately 270 km(2)) in 2012 and 2013 and screened water from 345 sites for fecal coliforms and Vibrio cholerae. An international organization/non-governmental organization responsible for construction could be identified for only 56% of water points evaluated. Sixteen percent of water points were non-functional at any given time; 37% had evidence of fecal contamination, with spatial clustering of contaminated sites. Among improved water sources (76% of sites), 24.6% had fecal coliforms versus 80.9% in unimproved sources. Fecal contamination levels increased significantly from 36% to 51% immediately after the passage of Tropical Storm Sandy in October of 2012, with a return to 34% contamination in March of 2013. Long-term sustainability of potable water delivery at a regional scale requires ongoing assessment of water quality, functionality, and development of community-based management schemes supported by a national plan for the management of potable water.

  17. Water-Related Infrastructure in a Region of Post-Earthquake Haiti: High Levels of Fecal Contamination and Need for Ongoing Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, Jocelyn M.; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Alam, Meer T.; Morrissey, B. David; Redden, Edsel; Rashid, Mohammed H.; Diamond, Ulrica; Ali, Afsar; De Rochars, Madsen Beau; Blackburn, Jason K.; Johnson, Judith A.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    We inventoried non-surface water sources in the Leogane and Gressier region of Haiti (approximately 270 km2) in 2012 and 2013 and screened water from 345 sites for fecal coliforms and Vibrio cholerae. An international organization/non-governmental organization responsible for construction could be identified for only 56% of water points evaluated. Sixteen percent of water points were non-functional at any given time; 37% had evidence of fecal contamination, with spatial clustering of contaminated sites. Among improved water sources (76% of sites), 24.6% had fecal coliforms versus 80.9% in unimproved sources. Fecal contamination levels increased significantly from 36% to 51% immediately after the passage of Tropical Storm Sandy in October of 2012, with a return to 34% contamination in March of 2013. Long-term sustainability of potable water delivery at a regional scale requires ongoing assessment of water quality, functionality, and development of community-based management schemes supported by a national plan for the management of potable water. PMID:25071005

  18. Phylogeographic patterning among two codistributed shrimp species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) reveals high levels of connectivity across biogeographic regions along the South African coast

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Louisa E.; De Grave, Sammy; Daniels, Savel R.

    2017-01-01

    We compare the genetic structuring and demographic history of two sympatric caridean shrimp species with distinct life history traits, one amphidromous species Palaemon capensis and one marine/estuarine species Palaemon peringueyi, in the historical biogeographical context of South Africa. A total of 103 specimens of P. capensis collected from 12 localities and 217 specimens of P. peringueyi collected from 24 localities were sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase one (CO1) locus. Results from analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA), pairwise ΦST comparisons and haplotype networks demonstrate weak to moderate genetic differentiation in P. capensis and P. peringueyi respectively. P. peringueyi exhibits partial isolation between populations associated with distinct biogeographic regions, likely driven by the region’s oceanography. However, there is minimal evidence for the occurrence of discrete regional evolutionary lineages. This demonstrated lack of genetic differentiation is consistent with a marine, highly dispersive planktonic phase in both the amphidromous P. capensis and the marine/estuarine P. peringueyi. Bayesian skyline plots, mismatch expansions and time since expansion indicate that both species maintained stable populations during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), unlike other southern African aquatic species. PMID:28282399

  19. 78 FR 15973 - Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Pojoaque Basin Regional Water System Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Pojoaque Basin Regional Water System... Water System. As part of that process, Reclamation will host five public scoping meetings to provide... issues to be addressed in the environmental impact statement. DATES: Public scoping meetings will be...

  20. 77 FR 60741 - Meeting of the Regional Resource Stewardship Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), 5 U.S.C. App. 2. The meeting agenda includes the... information about land condition assessments, dispersed recreation web applications, and cultural resources....

  1. 76 FR 32258 - Meeting of the Regional Resource Stewardship Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... its natural resource stewardship activities. Notice of this meeting is given under the Federal... techniques for the management of TVA's biological and cultural resource management activities, recreation management activities, water resource protection and improvement activities, and reservoir lands planning....

  2. 76 FR 1458 - Public Meeting for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... National Park Service Public Meeting for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) program. SUMMARY: The...

  3. Teachers, Teacher Education and Development: Report on an APEID Regional Meeting of Directors of Educational Research and Development Institutes in the Asia and the Pacific Region. Final Report of a Regional Meeting (July 7-15, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The 1997 Asia-Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) Regional Meeting of Directors of Educational Research and Development Institutes in the Asia and the Pacific Region reviewed research from the Asia-Pacific region related to teachers, teacher education, and teacher development. The meeting identified common…

  4. High level radioactive waste glass production and product description

    SciTech Connect

    Sproull, J.F.; Marra, S.L.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report examines borosilicate glass as a means of immobilizing high-level radioactive wastes. Borosilicate glass will encapsulate most of the defense and some of the commercial HLW in the US. The resulting waste forms must meet the requirements of the WA-SRD and the WAPS, which include a short term PCT durability test. The waste form producer must report the composition(s) of the borosilicate waste glass(es) produced but can choose the composition(s) to meet site-specific requirements. Although the waste form composition is the primary determinant of durability, the redox state of the glass; the existence, content, and composition of crystals; and the presence of glass-in-glass phase separation can affect durability. The waste glass should be formulated to avoid phase separation regions. The ultimate result of this effort will be a waste form which is much more stable and potentially less mobile than the liquid high level radioactive waste is currently.

  5. 78 FR 17427 - North Slope Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... Forest Service DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service North Slope Federal Subsistence.... ACTION: Notice of meeting (teleconference). SUMMARY: This notice informs the public that the North Slope... Slope Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council will meet to review the draft Tribal...

  6. 76 FR 30324 - Regional Advisory Committees: Open Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... in Eastern Standard Time (EST); except for the Pacific Region. Appalachia Regional Advisory Committee... Committee (Hawaii, American Samoa, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, Federal States of Micronesia....-3:00 p.m. Hawaii Time/12:00 p.m.-2 p.m. Samoa Standard Time; and Thursday, June 9, 2011: 11:00...

  7. The presence of the region on pBR322 that encodes resistance to tetracycline is responsible for high levels of plasmid DNA knotting in Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I deletion mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Shishido, K; Ishii, S; Komiyama, N

    1989-01-01

    Plasmid pBR322 DNA isolated from Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I deletion mutant DM800 is estimated to contain about 10% of the knotted forms (Shishido et al., 1987). These knotted DNA species were shown to have the same primary structure as usual, unknotted pBR322 DNA. Analysis of the knotting level of deletion, insertion and sequence-rearranged derivatives of pBR322 in DM800 showed that the presence of the region on pBR322 encoding resistance to tetracycline (tet) is required for high levels of plasmid knotting. When the entire tet region is present in a native orientation, the level of knotting is highest. Inactivating the tet promoter is manifested by a middle level of knotting. For deletion derivatives lacking various portions of the tet region, the level of knotting ranges from lowest to high depending on the site and length of the tet gene remaining. Inverting the orientation of tet region on the pBR322 genome results in a middle level of knotting. Deleting the ampicillin-resistance (bla)gene outside of its second promoter does not affect the level of knotting, if the entire tet gene remains. A possible mechanism of regulation of plasmid knotting is discussed. Images PMID:2557587

  8. Two regional regulatory meetings on distributed resources. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    An overview and discussion of Eastern Regional and Western Regional State Utility Regulators Workshops on Distributed Resources (DR) is given. The purpose of the workshops was for state regulators to learn about DR and the regulatory issues surrounding their greater use. The following issues were addressed: introduction to DR technologies and their potential benefits, interconnection and market barriers, regulatory incentives, rate design issues, and environmental issues.

  9. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  10. High levels of genetic variability and differentiation in hilsa shad, Tenualosa ilisha (Clupeidae, Clupeiformes) populations revealed by PCR-RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The hilsa shad, Tenualosa ilisha (Clupeidae, Clupeiformes) is an important anadromous clupeid species from the Western division of the Indo-Pacific region. It constitutes the largest single fishable species in Bangladesh. Information on genetic variability and population structure is very important for both management and conservation purposes. Past reports on the population structure of T. ilisha involving morphometric, allozyme and RAPD analyses are contradictory. We examined genetic variability and divergence in two riverine (the Jamuna and the Meghna), two estuarine (Kuakata and Sundarbans) and one marine (Cox's Bazar) populations of T. ilisha by applying PCR-RFLP analysis of the mtDNA D-loop region. The amplified PCR products were restricted with four restriction enzymes namely, XbaI, EcoRI, EcoRV, and HaeIII. High levels of haplotype and gene diversity within and significant differentiations among, populations of T. ilisha were observed in this study. Significant FST values indicated differentiation among the river, estuary and marine populations. The UPGMA dendrogram based on genetic distance resulted in two major clusters, although, these were subsequently divided into three, corresponding to the riverine, estuarine and marine populations. The study underlines the usefulness of RFLP of mtDNA D-loop region as molecular markers, and detected at least two differentiated populations of T. ilisha in Bangladesh waters. PMID:21637667

  11. Where Three Oceans Meet: The Agulhas Retroflection Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Agulhas Retroflection Region by Sara Louise Bennett B.S. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 1977 SUBMITED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE...As children we read Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1962) and, as teenagers, the Club of Rome’s Limits to Growth (1974). We know that critical natural...and Amnesty International Group 77 of Falmouth for keeping me connected with the real world outside the ivory tower. Donna Carson and Vicki Cullen

  12. RPython high-level synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  13. 77 FR 12283 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    .... Docket No. ER11-2132 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC. Docket No. ER11-2133 Entergy Gulf States... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee.... Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting February 29, 2012 (1 pm-5 pm), March 1, 2012 (8 am-12 pm)....

  14. 77 FR 58375 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    .... Docket No. ER11-2132, Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC Docket No. ER11-2133, Entergy Gulf States... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee... efforts. Entergy Regional State Committee Working Group and Stakeholder Meeting September 25, 2012...

  15. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  16. Wind Powering America's Regional Stakeholder Meetings and Priority State Reports: FY11 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    Beginning in 2010, DOE conducted an assessment of Wind Powering America (WPA) activities to determine whether the methods the department had used to help grow the wind industry to provide 2% of the nation's electrical energy should be the same methods used to achieve 20% of the nation's energy from wind (as described in the report 20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply). After the assessment, it was determined that the initiative's state-based activities should be phased out as part of a shift to regional-based approaches. To assist with this transition, WPA hosted a series of 1-day regional meetings at six strategic locations around the country and a single teleconference for island states, U.S. territories, and remote communities. This report summarizes the results of the inaugural regional meetings and the state reports with a focus on ongoing wind deployment barriers in each region.

  17. 77 FR 69893 - Bristol Bay Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Forest Service DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Bristol Bay Federal Subsistence... Bristol Bay Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council (Council) will hold a public meeting by... with the requirements of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., the Bristol Bay...

  18. 78 FR 11868 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of...

  19. Proceedings, 1983 Annual Meeting, Southern Regional Education Board (Palm Beach, Florida, June 9-11, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    Proceedings of the 1983 annual meeting of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) are presented. Contents include a roundtable discussion, nine papers, a progress report by the SREB's Task Force on Higher Education and the Schools, a presentation on a SREB report on higher education and high technology economic development, a summary of the…

  20. 76 FR 60564 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology; Notice of Meeting: Open Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology; Notice of Meeting: Open Regional... policy choices before the President. PCAST is administered by the Office of Science and Technology Policy... Technology, ] and Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President,...

  1. Federal Advisory Group Meets to Discuss Environmental Challenges along U.S.-Mexico Border Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 8, 2016) The Good Neighbor Environmental Board (GNEB) is holding a public meeting on Feb. 10-11, 2016, in Brownsville, Texas, to discuss the annual report on environmental and infrastructural issues along the U.S.-Mexico border region

  2. 75 FR 40856 - Federal Register Meeting Notice; Webinar About Regional Innovation Clusters RFP

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... small businesses in the cluster area and industries. SBA intends to make multiple fixed-price contract... ADMINISTRATION Federal Register Meeting Notice; Webinar About Regional Innovation Clusters RFP AGENCY: U.S. Small... Clusters (RIC) Request for Proposals (RFP) No. SBAHQ-10-R-0021. SUMMARY: The SBA is issuing this notice...

  3. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  4. Regional Experts Meeting on the Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (Bangkok, 25 February - 4 March 1974). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This publication reports on the Regional Experts Meeting on the Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development, which was held by UNESCO in Bangkok from February 25-March 4, 1974. Purpose of the meeting was 1) to examine and review the Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the projects proposed for it,…

  5. 76 FR 56221 - Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Park SRC will meet at the Nondalton Community Center, (907) 294-2288 in Nondalton, Alaska on Thursday... the Lake Clark National Park SRC Meeting Contact: Mary Mc Burney, Subsistence Manager, (907) 235-7891 or Clarence Summers, Subsistence Manager, NPS Alaska Regional Office, at (907) 644-3603. If you...

  6. 78 FR 51263 - Annual Meeting of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness Boards Office of the National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Annual Meeting of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness Boards Office of the National Ombudsman AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of open meeting of the...

  7. 75 FR 65377 - Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    .... Adjournment SRC meeting location and dates may need to be changed based on lack of quorum, inclement weather... National Park Service Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  8. 76 FR 64971 - Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Date and Location: The Kobuk Valley National Park SRC will meet at the National Park Service Northwest... National Park Service Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) Program AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  9. Radiative Lifetimes for High Levels of Neutral Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, E.; Guzman, A.

    2013-01-01

    New radiative lifetime measurements for ~ 50 high lying levels of Fe I are reported. Laboratory astrophysics faces a challenge to provide basic spectroscopic data, especially reliable atomic transition probabilities, in the IR region for abundance studies. The availability of HgCdTe (HAWAII) detector arrays has opened IR spectral regions for extensive new spectroscopic studies. The SDSS III APOGEE project in the H-Band is an important example which will penetrate the dust obscuring the Galactic bulge. APOGEE will survey elemental abundances of 100,000 red giant stars in the bulge, bar, disk, and halo of the Milky Way. Many stellar spectra in the H-Band are, as expected, dominated by transitions of Fe I. Most of these IR transitions connect high levels of Fe. Our program has started an effort to meet this challenge with new radiative lifetime measurements on high lying levels of Fe I using time resolved laser induced fluorescence (TRLIF). The TRLIF method is typically accurate to 5% and is efficient. Our goal is to combine these accurate, absolute radiative lifetimes with emission branching fractions [1] to determine log(gf) values of the highest quality for Fe I lines in the UV, visible, and IR. This method was used very successfully by O’Brian et al. [2] on lower levels of Fe I. This method is still the best available for all but very simple spectra for which ab-initio theory is more accurate. Supported by NSF grant AST-0907732. [1] Branching fractions are being measured by M. Ruffoni and J. C. Pickering at Imperial College London. [2] O'Brian, T. R., Wickliffe, M. E., Lawler, J. E., Whaling, W., & Brault, J. W. 1991, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1185

  10. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste-characterization of the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Death Valley region, Nevada and California, in the Basin and Range province, is an area of about 80,200 sq km located in southern Nevada and southeastern California. Precambrian metamorphic and intrusive basement rocks are overlain by a thick section of Paleozoic clastic and evaporitic sedimentary rocks. Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks include extrusive and intrusive rocks and clastic sedimentary rocks. Structural features within the Death Valley indicate a long and complex tectonic evolution from late Precambrian to the present. Potential repository host media in the region include granite and other coarse-grained plutonic rocks, ashflow tuff, basaltic and andesitic lava flows, and basin fill. The Death Valley region is composed largely of closed topographic basins that are apparently coincident with closed groundwater flow systems. In these systems, recharge occurs sparingly at higher altitudes by infiltration of precipitation or by infiltration of ephemeral runoff. Discharge occurs largely by spring flow and by evaporation and transpiration in the playas. Death Valley proper, for which the region was named, is the ultimate discharge area for a large, complex system of groundwater aquifers that occupy the northeastern part of the region. The deepest part of the system consists of carbonate aquifers that connect closed topographic basins at depth. The discharge from the system occurs in several intermediate areas that are geomorphically, stratigraphically, and structurally controlled. Ultimately, most groundwater flow terminates by discharge to Death Valley; groundwater is discharged to the Colorado River from a small part of the region.

  11. 75 FR 3488 - Notice of Public Meetings for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... meeting be postponed due to inclement weather or lack of a quorum, the alternate meeting dates are... Lodge in Lake Minchumina, AK. Should this meeting be postponed due to inclement weather, or lack of a... to be changed based on lack of quorum, inclement weather or local circumstances. If the meeting...

  12. Unesco Regional Meeting of Computer Centre Directors in Africa (Arusha, Tanzania, April 14-18, 1980). Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Nairobi (Kenya). Regional Office of Science and Technology for Africa.

    The main points on the agenda of this meeting attended by eight chief participants from seven member states of UNESCO in the African Region and several observers were: (1) presentations by participants on their experiences in the application of informatics (i.e., computer applications in information dissemination) in the region; (2) problems in…

  13. 78 FR 14840 - U.S.-EU High Level Regulatory Cooperation Forum-Stakeholder Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... BUDGET U.S.-EU High Level Regulatory Cooperation Forum--Stakeholder Session AGENCY: Office of Management... will hold a public meeting of the U.S.-EU High Level Regulatory Cooperation Forum (the ``Forum'') in...-cooperation-forum . Oral Presentations: Any persons wishing to present an oral statement at the public...

  14. Group Meets to Help Improve Quality of Life for Border Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 10, 2016) The Good Neighbor Environmental Board (GNEB), recently hosted a meeting to discuss recommendations for environmental infrastructure needs along the U.S.-Mexico Border. The meeting focused on a number of challenges facing the

  15. Multipurpose optimization models for high level waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hoza, M.

    1994-08-01

    Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models have been developed as multipurpose tools for high-level waste studies for the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. Using nonlinear programming techniques, these models maximize the waste loading of the vitrified waste and optimize the glass formers composition such that the glass produced has the appropriate properties within the melter, and the resultant vitrified waste form meets the requirements for disposal. The OWL model can be used for a single waste stream or for blended streams. The models can determine optimal continuous blends or optimal discrete blends of a number of different wastes. The OWL models have been used to identify the most restrictive constraints, to evaluate prospective waste pretreatment methods, to formulate and evaluate blending strategies, and to determine the impacts of variability in the wastes. The OWL models will be used to aid in the design of frits and the maximize the waste in the glass for High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification.

  16. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  17. Long-term high-level waste technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornman, W. R.

    1980-07-01

    This series of reports summarizes research and development studies on the immobilization of high level wastes from the chemical reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuels. Immobilization of the wastes (defense and commercial) consists of placing them in a high integrity form with a very low potential for radionuclide release. Immobilization of commercial wastes is being considered on a contingency basis in the event that reprocessing is resumed. The basic plan for meeting the goal of immobilization of the DOE high level wastes is: (1) to develop technology to support a realistic choice of waste form alternatives for each of the three DOE sites; (2) to develop product and processing technology with sufficient scaleup to provide design data for full scale facilities; and (3) to construct and operate the facilities.

  18. Futures and Education. Report of a Regional Meeting (Bangkok, Thailand, November 2-8, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    A meeting report on education within the context of futures studies is divided into four chapters. Chapter One discusses the background of the meeting. Chapter Two outlines the studies presented by each of the eight Asian and Pacific nations represented at the meeting: Australia, India, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Korea, and…

  19. 75 FR 13139 - Notice of Public Meetings for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... Arctic National Park SRC will meet to develop and continue work on National Park Service (NPS... 5 p.m. at the National Park Service Northwest Arctic Heritage Center, Kotzebue, AK. The meeting may... Monument and Kobuk Valley National Park Meeting Contact: George Helfrich, Superintendent, Western...

  20. A Software Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shen,G.

    2009-05-04

    A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

  1. [The HIV-infection outbreak in the town Lys'va (Perm region): homozygote genotype CCR5 delta32/CCR5 delta32 provides the high level of the persistence in the parenteral transmission of the virus].

    PubMed

    Riabov, G S; Kazennova, E V; Korepanova, L B; Mal'tseva, E A; Zhalnin, V V; Krasnikova, L A; Zverev, S Ia; Pokrovskiĭ, V V; Bobkov, A F; Weber, J N

    2002-01-01

    Specific features of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission among injecting drug users were studied on HIV infection outbreak in Lysva, the Perm region. During the period from November 1998 to March 2000, 32 injecting drug users infected with the subtype A HIV-1 variant originating from the same source, were found in this town. To understand the role of the CCR5 delta 32 mutation in parenteral transmission of HIV-1 the distribution of the mutant CCR5 delta 32 allele in HIV-infected and in non-infected but HIV-exposed drug users (n = 74) was analysed. The percentage of the homozygous CCR5 delta 32 genotype among HIV-exposed individuals (4/74, 5.4%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the analogous rate for healthy blood donors in Russia (1/163, 0.6%). Thus, the homozygosity for this mutant allele confers a high resistance level to HIV even in parenteral transmission.

  2. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  3. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  4. Quasimonomorphic mononucleotide repeats for high-level microsatellite instability analysis.

    PubMed

    Buhard, Olivier; Suraweera, Nirosha; Lectard, Aude; Duval, Alex; Hamelin, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis is becoming more and more important to detect sporadic primary tumors of the MSI phenotype as well as in helping to determine Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) cases. After some years of conflicting data due to the absence of consensus markers for the MSI phenotype, a meeting held in Bethesda to clarify the situation proposed a set of 5 microsatellites (2 mononucleotide repeats and 3 dinucleotide repeats) to determine MSI tumors. A second Bethesda consensus meeting was held at the end of 2002. It was discussed here that the 1998 microsatellite panel could underestimate high-level MSI tumors and overestimate low-level MSI tumors. Amongst the suggested changes was the exclusive use of mononucleotide repeats in place of dinucleotide repeats. We have already proposed a pentaplex MSI screening test comprising 5 quasimonomorphic mononucleotide repeats. This article compares the advantages of mono or dinucleotide repeats in determining microsatellite instability.

  5. Quasimonomorphic Mononucleotide Repeats for High-Level Microsatellite Instability Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buhard, Olivier; Suraweera, Nirosha; Lectard, Aude; Duval, Alex; Hamelin, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis is becoming more and more important to detect sporadic primary tumors of the MSI phenotype as well as in helping to determine Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) cases. After some years of conflicting data due to the absence of consensus markers for the MSI phenotype, a meeting held in Bethesda to clarify the situation proposed a set of 5 microsatellites (2 mononucleotide repeats and 3 dinucleotide repeats) to determine MSI tumors. A second Bethesda consensus meeting was held at the end of 2002. It was discussed here that the 1998 microsatellite panel could underestimate high-level MSI tumors and overestimate low-level MSI tumors. Amongst the suggested changes was the exclusive use of mononucleotide repeats in place of dinucleotide repeats. We have already proposed a pentaplex MSI screening test comprising 5 quasimonomorphic mononucleotide repeats. This article compares the advantages of mono or dinucleotide repeats in determining microsatellite instability. PMID:15528790

  6. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  7. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  8. Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation Fifth Meeting of the Coordinating Committee for the Regional English Language Centre (Singapore). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional English Center (Singapore).

    The fifth meeting of the Regional English Language Centre Coordinating Committee held in Quezon City, Philippines in March 1969 was attended by Committee members from Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. S. Thavisakdi, SEAMES Director, was present, as were consultants from Thailand, the RELC Staff, and observers…

  9. A Dialogue on the Structure of American Agriculture: Summary of Regional Meetings, November 27-December 18, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    At the request of Secretary of Agriculture, Robert Bergland, 10 regional meetings were held in which 210 scheduled speakers and 365 unscheduled speakers commented on 12 broad areas of concern to American agriculture. These concerns were: landownership, control and tenancy; barriers to entering and leaving farming; production efficiency, size of…

  10. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-09

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams.

  11. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  12. EAP high-level product architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudlaugsson, T. V.; Mortensen, N. H.; Sarban, R.

    2013-04-01

    EAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. This poses the challenge to the EAP component manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products. Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing an EAP technology platform, which can form the basis for a variety of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture. This description breaks down the EAP transducer into organs that perform the functions that may be present in an EAP transducer. A physical instance of an EAP transducer contains a combination of the organs needed to fulfill the task of actuator, sensor, and generation. Alternative principles for each organ allow the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach has resulted in the first version of an EAP technology platform, on which multiple EAP products can be based. The contents of the platform have been the result of multi-disciplinary development work at Danfoss PolyPower, as well as collaboration with potential customers and research institutions. Initial results from applying the platform on demonstrator design for potential applications are promising. The scope of the article does not include technical details.

  13. Python based high-level synthesis compiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieszewski, Radosław; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a python based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in Python and map it to VHDL. FPGA combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the mapped circuit is flexible, and can be reconfigured over the lifetime of the system. FPGAs therefore have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. Creating parallel programs implemented in FPGAs is not trivial. This article describes design, implementation and first results of created Python based compiler.

  14. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Chungming; Chevtsov, Sergei; Wu, Juhao; Shen, Guobao; /Brookhaven

    2012-06-28

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  15. UNESCO-UNEVOC Regional Forum Asia and Pacific: Advancing TVET for Youth Employability and Sustainable Development (Seoul, Republic of Korea, September 4-6, 2013). Meeting Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To strengthen global and regional harmonization for the advancement of TVET transformation through the capacities of UNEVOC's unique global Network of specialized TVET institutions and affiliated partners, the UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre organized a series of meetings to be held in all regions of the world. The meetings are organized…

  16. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  17. High Level Waste Disposal System Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert; M. Connolly; J. Roach; W. Holtzscheiter

    2005-02-01

    The high level waste (HLW) disposal system consists of the Yucca Mountain Facility (YMF) and waste product (e.g. glass) generation facilities. Responsibility for management is shared between the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offices of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE-RW) and Environmental Management (DOE-EM). The DOE-RW license application and the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD), as well as the DOE-EM Waste Acceptance Product Specification for Vitrified High Level Waste Forms (WAPS) govern the overall performance of the system. This basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider waste form and process technology research and development (R&D), which have been conducted by DOE-EM, international agencies (i.e. ANSTO, CEA), and the private sector; as well as the technical bases for including additional waste forms in the final license application. This will yield a more optimized HLW disposal system to accelerate HLW disposition, more efficient utilization of the YMF, and overall system cost reduction.

  18. Umbra's High Level Architecture (HLA) Interface

    SciTech Connect

    GOTTLIEB, ERIC JOSEPH; MCDONALD, MICHAEL J.; OPPEL III, FRED J.

    2002-04-01

    This report describes Umbra's High Level Architecture HLA library. This library serves as an interface to the Defense Simulation and Modeling Office's (DMSO) Run Time Infrastructure Next Generation Version 1.3 (RTI NG1.3) software library and enables Umbra-based models to be federated into HLA environments. The Umbra library was built to enable the modeling of robots for military and security system concept evaluation. A first application provides component technologies that ideally fit the US Army JPSD's Joint Virtual Battlespace (JVB) simulation framework for Objective Force concept analysis. In addition to describing the Umbra HLA library, the report describes general issues of integrating Umbra with RTI code and outlines ways of building models to support particular HLA simulation frameworks like the JVB.

  19. The High Level Data Reduction Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, P.; Gabasch, A.; Jung, Y.; Modigliani, A.; Taylor, J.; Coccato, L.; Freudling, W.; Neeser, M.; Marchetti, E.

    2015-09-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) provides pipelines to reduce data for most of the instruments at its Very Large telescope (VLT). These pipelines are written as part of the development of VLT instruments, and are used both in the ESO's operational environment and by science users who receive VLT data. All the pipelines are highly specific geared toward instruments. However, experience showed that the independently developed pipelines include significant overlap, duplication and slight variations of similar algorithms. In order to reduce the cost of development, verification and maintenance of ESO pipelines, and at the same time improve the scientific quality of pipelines data products, ESO decided to develop a limited set of versatile high-level scientific functions that are to be used in all future pipelines. The routines are provided by the High-level Data Reduction Library (HDRL). To reach this goal, we first compare several candidate algorithms and verify them during a prototype phase using data sets from several instruments. Once the best algorithm and error model have been chosen, we start a design and implementation phase. The coding of HDRL is done in plain C and using the Common Pipeline Library (CPL) functionality. HDRL adopts consistent function naming conventions and a well defined API to minimise future maintenance costs, implements error propagation, uses pixel quality information, employs OpenMP to take advantage of multi-core processors, and is verified with extensive unit and regression tests. This poster describes the status of the project and the lesson learned during the development of reusable code implementing algorithms of high scientific quality.

  20. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  1. Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

    1979-01-01

    Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predictability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed.

  2. 77 FR 69893 - North Slope Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Forest Service DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service North Slope Federal Subsistence.... ACTION: Notice of meeting (teleconference). SUMMARY: This notice informs the public that the North Slope... with the requirements of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., the North Slope...

  3. 76 FR 58533 - Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities; Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... bidding rights in Wyoming, pursuant to 43 CFR part 3435. The RCT will also consider any coal LBAs and/or... comments or data related to existing pending applications, or any party proposing other issues to be.... 4. Coal activity since the last RCT meeting. 5. LBA presentations. 6. Potential coal bidding...

  4. 76 FR 28024 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC Docket No. ER11-2133 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC Docket No. ER11... Entergy Texas, Inc. Docket No. ER11-2161 Entergy Texas, Inc. Docket No. ER11-2562 Entergy Gulf States...-3341 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC These meetings are open to the public. For more...

  5. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  6. Proton Affinity Calculations with High Level Methods.

    PubMed

    Kolboe, Stein

    2014-08-12

    Proton affinities, stretching from small reference compounds, up to the methylbenzenes and naphthalene and anthracene, have been calculated with high accuracy computational methods, viz. W1BD, G4, G3B3, CBS-QB3, and M06-2X. Computed and the currently accepted reference proton affinities are generally in excellent accord, but there are deviations. The literature value for propene appears to be 6-7 kJ/mol too high. Reported proton affinities for the methylbenzenes seem 4-5 kJ/mol too high. G4 and G3 computations generally give results in good accord with the high level W1BD. Proton affinity values computed with the CBS-QB3 scheme are too low, and the error increases with increasing molecule size, reaching nearly 10 kJ/mol for the xylenes. The functional M06-2X fails markedly for some of the small reference compounds, in particular, for CO and ketene, but calculates methylbenzene proton affinities with high accuracy.

  7. HIGH LEVEL RF FOR THE SNS RING.

    SciTech Connect

    ZALTSMAN,A.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN,J.; BRODOWSKI,J.; METH,M.; SPITZ,R.; SEVERINO,F.

    2002-06-03

    A high level RF system (HLRF) consisting of power amplifiers (PA's) and ferrite loaded cavities is being designed and built by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project. It is a fixed frequency, two harmonic system whose main function is to maintain a gap for the kicker rise time. Three cavities running at the fundamental harmonic (h=l) will provide 40 kV and one cavity at the second harmonic (h=2) will provide 20 kV. Each cavity has two gaps with a design voltage of 10 kV per gap and will be driven by a power amplifier (PA) directly adjacent to it. The PA uses a 600kW tetrode to provide the necessary drive current. The anode of the tetrode is magnetically coupled to the downstream cell of the cavity. Drive to the PA will be provided by a wide band, solid state amplifier located remotely. A dynamic tuning scheme will be implemented to help compensate for the effect of beam loading.

  8. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces.

  9. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  10. DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS DEGRADATION

    SciTech Connect

    W. Ebert

    2001-09-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the analyses that were done to develop models for radionuclide release from high-level waste (HLW) glass dissolution that can be integrated into performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted to support site recommendation and license application for the Yucca Mountain site. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). It specifically addresses the item, ''Defense High Level Waste Glass Degradation'', of the product technical work plan. The AP-3.15Q Attachment 1 screening criteria determines the importance for its intended use of the HLW glass model derived herein to be in the category ''Other Factors for the Postclosure Safety Case-Waste Form Performance'', and thus indicates that this factor does not contribute significantly to the postclosure safety strategy. Because the release of radionuclides from the glass will depend on the prior dissolution of the glass, the dissolution rate of the glass imposes an upper bound on the radionuclide release rate. The approach taken to provide a bound for the radionuclide release is to develop models that can be used to calculate the dissolution rate of waste glass when contacted by water in the disposal site. The release rate of a particular radionuclide can then be calculated by multiplying the glass dissolution rate by the mass fraction of that radionuclide in the glass and by the surface area of glass contacted by water. The scope includes consideration of the three modes by which water may contact waste glass in the disposal system: contact by humid air, dripping water, and immersion. The models for glass dissolution under these contact modes are all based on the rate expression for aqueous dissolution of borosilicate glasses. The mechanism and rate expression for aqueous dissolution are adequately understood; the analyses in this AMR were conducted to

  11. Regional Consultation Meeting on the Asia and Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (13th, Jomtien, Thailand, June 22-26, 1992). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the Thirteenth Regional Consultation Meeting on the Asia and Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID). The meeting's objectives were to: (1) make an overall review of APEID's work during the 5-year period 1987-91; (2) to discuss major educational innovations that have…

  12. 75 FR 51103 - Notice of Public Meetings for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... 99753, or Clarence Summers, Subsistence Manager, NPS Alaska Regional Office, at (907) 644- 3603..., Aniakchak National Monument and Preserve, P.O. Box 7, King Salmon, AK 99613, or Clarence Summers..., Copper Center, AK 99753, or Clarence Summers, Subsistence Manager, NPS Alaska Regional Office, at...

  13. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  14. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  15. 77 FR 50683 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Arkansas, Inc. Docket No. ER11-2131 Entergy Arkansas, Inc. Docket No. ER11-2132 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC. Docket No. ER11-2133 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC. Docket No. ER11-2134 Entergy... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State...

  16. 78 FR 69661 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Transmission System Operator, Inc. Entergy Arkansas, Inc........ Docket No. ER12-1384 Entergy Gulf States........... Docket No. ER14-73 Entergy Arkansas, Inc........ Docket No. ER14-75 Entergy Gulf States Docket No. ER14... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State...

  17. 77 FR 33212 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...-2131 Entergy Arkansas, Inc. Docket No. ER11-2132 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC Docket No. ER11-2133 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC Docket No. ER11-2134 Entergy Mississippi, Inc. Docket No. ER11... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State...

  18. Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dantoin, T.S.

    1990-12-01

    For more than half a century, the Council of State Governments has served as a common ground for the states of the nation. The Council is a nonprofit, state-supported and -directed service organization that provides research and resources, identifies trends, supplies answers and creates a network for legislative, executive and judicial branch representatives. This List of Available Resources was prepared with the support of the US Department of Energy, Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC02-89CH10402. However, any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of DOE. The purpose of the agreement, and reports issued pursuant to it, is to identify and analyze regional issues pertaining to the transportation of high-level radioactive waste and to inform Midwestern state officials with respect to technical issues and regulatory concerns related to waste transportation.

  19. The Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Program, Climate Services, and Meeting the National Climate Change Adaptation Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, J. T.; Udall, B.; Miles, E.; Dow, K.; Anderson, C.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.; Hartmann, H.; Jones, J.; Mote, P.; Ray, A.; Shafer, M.; White, D.

    2008-12-01

    The NOAA-led RISA Program has grown steadily to nine regions and a focus that includes both natural climate variability and human-driven climate change. The RISAs are, at their core, university-based and heavily invested in partnerships, particularly with stakeholders, NOAA, and other federal agencies. RISA research, assessment and partnerships have led to new operational climate services within NOAA and other agencies, and have become important foundations in the development of local, state and regional climate change adaptation initiatives. The RISA experience indicates that a national climate service is needed, and must include: (1) services prioritized based on stakeholder needs; (2) sustained, ongoing regional interactions with users, (3) a commitment to improve climate literacy; (4) support for assessment as an ongoing, iterative process; (5) full recognition that stakeholder decisions are seldom made using climate information alone; (6) strong interagency partnership; (7) national implementation and regional in focus; (8) capability spanning local, state, tribal, regional, national and international space scales, and weeks to millennia time scales; and (9) institutional design and scientific support flexible enough to assure the effort is nimble enough to respond to rapidly-changing stakeholder needs. The RISA experience also highlights the central role that universities must play in national climate change adaptation programs. Universities have a tradition of trusted regional stakeholder partnerships, as well as the interdisciplinary expertise - including social science, ecosystem science, law, and economics - required to meet stakeholder climate-related needs; project workforce can also shift rapidly in universities. Universities have a proven ability to build and sustain interagency partnerships. Universities excel in most forms of education and training. And universities often have proven entrepreneurship, technology transfer and private sector

  20. [UNESCO] Regional Consultation Meeting on the Asia and Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) (12th, Chaing Mai, Thailand, August 20-27, 1990). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This document is the final report of a Regional Consultation Meeting (RCM) on the Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID), a mechanism developed by UNESCO to bring about regional cooperation in education in Asia and the Pacific. This RCM was attended by 55 participants, resource persons, and observers from…

  1. [Outline of the ESCAP Regional Post-World Population Conference Consultation Meeting].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, T

    1975-01-01

    The ESCAP Regional Post-World Population Conference Consultation was held from January 14th to 20th, 1975, in Bangkok. The Japanese government presented a 5 point statement: 1) recent trends of population in Japan; 2) population policies in the context of social and economic development; 3) outline of government policies and activities; 4) overall coordination machinery; and 5) international cooperation. The agenda were: opening addresses; election of officers; adoption of agenda; review of the world population plan of action; the declaration of a population strategy for development; other guidelines for action in the light of the requirements and conditions of countries of the ESCAP region; proposals for programmes and measures comprising a population strategy for development; implementation of the proposals (including means of incorporation in development planning); international cooperation and coordination; adoption of report; and closing ceremonies. 4 important recommendations were: 1) population increasing rate; 2) legal induced abortion; 3) time limitation for the promotion of family planning; and 4) practical impetus for contraception. Some countries declared the final goal of their population policies: pure reproduction rate 1 (1980) in Singapore, a zero population increasing rate (2)))) in India, and 1.3% (1981) population increasing rate in Korea.

  2. Regional Latin American Meeting on Astronomy, 5th, Merida, Mexico, Oct. 6-10, 1986, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Peimbert, Silvia; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene

    1987-05-01

    The present conference discusses topics in stellar astronomy, the interstellar medium, the solar system, and astronomical instrumentation. Attention is given to the spectroscopic binary frequency among CNO stars, the eclipsing binary star LZ Her, the photometry of the Delta Scuti star Delta Serpentis, photometric variations in B Iota Herculis, the spectroscopy of the southern Cepheid Beta Dor, the search for new cataclysmic variables, an analysis of the distortion field of the astrographic catalog, the evolution of H II regions, and the pigs, deers, and foxes of the Orion radio zoo. Also treated are JHK photometry of compact planetary nebulae, radiation hydrodynamics in astrophysics, the small scale interstellar dust distribution, aspects of the phase-portrait of resonant problems, periodic planetary events, strip photometry of Comet Halley, a numerical analysis of the azimuthal transport of solar particles, and the status of astronomical instrumentation in Mexico.

  3. Spent nuclear fuel project high-level information management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Main, G.C.

    1996-09-13

    This document presents the results of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Information Management Planning Project (IMPP), a short-term project that identified information management (IM) issues and opportunities within the SNFP and outlined a high-level plan to address them. This high-level plan for the SNMFP IM focuses on specific examples from within the SNFP. The plan`s recommendations can be characterized in several ways. Some recommendations address specific challenges that the SNFP faces. Others form the basis for making smooth transitions in several important IM areas. Still others identify areas where further study and planning are indicated. The team`s knowledge of developments in the IM industry and at the Hanford Site were crucial in deciding where to recommend that the SNFP act and where they should wait for Site plans to be made. Because of the fast pace of the SNFP and demands on SNFP staff, input and interaction were primarily between the IMPP team and members of the SNFP Information Management Steering Committee (IMSC). Key input to the IMPP came from a workshop where IMSC members and their delegates developed a set of draft IM principles. These principles, described in Section 2, became the foundation for the recommendations found in the transition plan outlined in Section 5. Availability of SNFP staff was limited, so project documents were used as a basis for much of the work. The team, realizing that the status of the project and the environment are continually changing, tried to keep abreast of major developments since those documents were generated. To the extent possible, the information contained in this document is current as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. Programs and organizations on the Hanford Site as a whole are trying to maximize their return on IM investments. They are coordinating IM activities and trying to leverage existing capabilities. However, the SNFP cannot just rely on Sitewide activities to meet its IM requirements

  4. 78 FR 5203 - Notice of Open Public Meetings for the National Park Service Alaska Region Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... meeting locations and dates may change based on inclement weather or exceptional circumstances. If the... Hall in Cantwell, AK. SRC meeting locations and dates may change based on inclement weather or... Kenny Lake, AK. SRC meeting locations and dates may change based on inclement weather or...

  5. 77 FR 14828 - Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... changed based on inclement weather or exceptional circumstances. Gates of the Arctic National Park SRC Meeting Date and Location: The Gates of the Arctic National Park SRC will meet in Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska... the Arctic National Park SRC will meet to develop and continue work on NPS subsistence...

  6. 78 FR 17428 - Notice of Open Public Meetings for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... Service Northwest Arctic Heritage Center, (907) 442-3890, in Kotzebue, AK. SRC meeting locations and dates may change based on inclement weather or exceptional circumstances. If the meeting date and location... National Park Service Notice of Open Public Meetings for the National Park Service Alaska...

  7. DELPHI expert panel evaluation of Hanford high level waste tank failure modes and release quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, G.L.; Han, F.C.

    1996-09-30

    The Failure Modes and Release Quantities of the Hanford High Level Waste Tanks due to postulated accident loads were established by a DELPHI Expert Panel consisting of both on-site and off-site experts in the field of Structure and Release. The Report presents the evaluation process, accident loads, tank structural failure conclusion reached by the panel during the two-day meeting.

  8. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Steven E.

    2013-11-11

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol.

  9. Upgrading a Social Media Strategy to Increase Twitter Engagement During the Spring Annual Meeting of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Eric S; Jaremko, Kellie M; Gupta, Rajnish K; Udani, Ankeet D; McCartney, Colin J L; Snively, Anne; Mariano, Edward R

    2017-03-06

    Microblogs known as "tweets" are a rapid, effective method of information dissemination in health care. Although several medical specialties have described their Twitter conference experiences, Twitter-related data in the fields of anesthesiology and pain medicine are sparse. We therefore analyzed the Twitter content of 2 consecutive spring meetings of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine using publicly available online transcripts. We also examined the potential contribution of a targeted social media campaign on Twitter engagement during the conferences. The original Twitter meeting content was largely scientific in nature and created by meeting attendees, the majority of whom were nontrainee physicians. Physician trainees, however, represent an important and increasing minority of Twitter contributors. Physicians not in attendance predominantly contributed via retweeting original content, particularly picture-containing tweets, and thus increased reach to nonattendees. A social media campaign prior to meetings may help increase the reach of conference-related Twitter discussion.

  10. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  11. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  12. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  13. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  14. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  15. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  16. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  17. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  18. New Approaches to Education of Children of Pre-School Age. Report of a Regional Meeting of Experts (Bangkok, Thailand, September 4-12, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This report of the regional meeting of experts in Asia and Oceania provides review of presentations from different countries, a review of research and pedagogical considerations, and recommendations concerning new approaches for early childhood education. Particular reference is made to disadvantaged rural and urban populations. Also included are…

  19. Pacific Circle Consortium: A Regional Project of OECD/CERI. Report of Annual Meeting (5th, Portland, Oregon, September 28-October 3, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    Efforts, including exchange activities and curriculum development projects, undertaken by Pacific region countries in 1981 to improve intercultural understanding were the main focus of the meeting. The report begins with a very brief description of what transpired during the sessions. Papers and reports presented are contained in the appendices,…

  20. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Richardson

    2003-03-19

    In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, Yucca Mountain was designated as the site to be investigated as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain site is an undeveloped area located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The site currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way. If the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for the repository, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) Program because of the potential of rail transportation to reduce costs and to reduce the number of shipments relative to highway transportation. A Preliminary Rail Access Study evaluated 13 potential rail spur options. Alternative routes within the major options were also developed. Each of these options was then evaluated for potential land use conflicts and access to regional rail carriers. Three potential routes having few land use conflicts and having access to regional carriers were recommended for further investigation. Figure 1-1 shows these three routes. The Jean route is estimated to be about 120 miles long, the Carlin route to be about 365 miles long, and Caliente route to be about 365 miles long. The remaining ten routes continue to be monitored and should any of the present conflicts change, a re-evaluation of that route will be made. Complete details of the evaluation of the 13 routes can be found in the previous study. The DOE has not identified any preferred route and recognizes that the transportation issues need a full and open treatment under the National Environmental Policy Act. The issue of transportation will be included in public hearings to support development of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) proceedings for either the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility or the Yucca Mountain Project or both.

  1. Temporal Processing Capacity in High-Level Visual Cortex Is Domain Specific

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Kevin S.; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-01-01

    Prevailing hierarchical models propose that temporal processing capacity—the amount of information that a brain region processes in a unit time—decreases at higher stages in the ventral stream regardless of domain. However, it is unknown if temporal processing capacities are domain general or domain specific in human high-level visual cortex. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we measured temporal capacities of functional regions in high-level visual cortex. Contrary to hierarchical models, our data reveal domain-specific processing capacities as follows: (1) regions processing information from different domains have differential temporal capacities within each stage of the visual hierarchy and (2) domain-specific regions display the same temporal capacity regardless of their position in the processing hierarchy. In general, character-selective regions have the lowest capacity, face- and place-selective regions have an intermediate capacity, and body-selective regions have the highest capacity. Notably, domain-specific temporal processing capacities are not apparent in V1 and have perceptual implications. Behavioral testing revealed that the encoding capacity of body images is higher than that of characters, faces, and places, and there is a correspondence between peak encoding rates and cortical capacities for characters and bodies. The present evidence supports a model in which the natural statistics of temporal information in the visual world may affect domain-specific temporal processing and encoding capacities. These findings suggest that the functional organization of high-level visual cortex may be constrained by temporal characteristics of stimuli in the natural world, and this temporal capacity is a characteristic of domain-specific networks in high-level visual cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual stimuli bombard us at different rates every day. For example, words and scenes are typically stationary and vary at slow rates. In contrast, bodies are dynamic

  2. Temporal Processing Capacity in High-Level Visual Cortex Is Domain Specific.

    PubMed

    Stigliani, Anthony; Weiner, Kevin S; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-09-09

    Prevailing hierarchical models propose that temporal processing capacity--the amount of information that a brain region processes in a unit time--decreases at higher stages in the ventral stream regardless of domain. However, it is unknown if temporal processing capacities are domain general or domain specific in human high-level visual cortex. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we measured temporal capacities of functional regions in high-level visual cortex. Contrary to hierarchical models, our data reveal domain-specific processing capacities as follows: (1) regions processing information from different domains have differential temporal capacities within each stage of the visual hierarchy and (2) domain-specific regions display the same temporal capacity regardless of their position in the processing hierarchy. In general, character-selective regions have the lowest capacity, face- and place-selective regions have an intermediate capacity, and body-selective regions have the highest capacity. Notably, domain-specific temporal processing capacities are not apparent in V1 and have perceptual implications. Behavioral testing revealed that the encoding capacity of body images is higher than that of characters, faces, and places, and there is a correspondence between peak encoding rates and cortical capacities for characters and bodies. The present evidence supports a model in which the natural statistics of temporal information in the visual world may affect domain-specific temporal processing and encoding capacities. These findings suggest that the functional organization of high-level visual cortex may be constrained by temporal characteristics of stimuli in the natural world, and this temporal capacity is a characteristic of domain-specific networks in high-level visual cortex. Significance statement: Visual stimuli bombard us at different rates every day. For example, words and scenes are typically stationary and vary at slow rates. In contrast, bodies are dynamic

  3. Optimization of waste loading in high-level glass in the presence of uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Hoza, M.; Fann, G.I.; Hopkins, D.F.

    1995-02-01

    Hanford high-level liquid waste will be converted into a glass form for long-term storage. The glass must meet certain constraints on its composition and properties in order to have desired properties for processing (e.g., electrical conductivity, viscosity, and liquidus temperature) and acceptable durability for long-term storage. The Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models, based on rigorous mathematical optimization techniques, have been developed to minimize the number of glass logs required and determine glass-former compositions that will produce a glass meeting all relevant constraints. There is considerable uncertainty in many of the models and data relevant to the formulation of high-level glass. In this paper, we discuss how we handle uncertainty in the glass property models and in the high-level waste composition to the vitrification process. Glass property constraints used in optimization are inequalities that relate glass property models obtained by regression analysis of experimental data to numerical limits on property values. Therefore, these constraints are subject to uncertainty. The sampling distributions of the regression models are used to describe the uncertainties associated with the constraints. The optimization then accounts for these uncertainties by requiring the constraints to be satisfied within specified confidence limits. The uncertainty in waste composition is handled using stochastic optimization. Given means and standard deviations of component masses in the high-level waste stream, distributions of possible values for each component are generated. A series of optimization runs is performed; the distribution of each waste component is sampled for each run. The resultant distribution of solutions is then statistically summarized. The ability of OWL models to handle these forms of uncertainty make them very useful tools in designing and evaluating high-level waste glasses formulations.

  4. Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

  5. 78 FR 14589 - Notice of Open Public Meetings for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Stat. 770), the NPS is hereby giving notice that the Gates of the Arctic National Park Subsistence... the Arctic National Park SRC Meeting Date and Location: The Gates of the Arctic National Park SRC will... School in Ambler, AK. SRC meeting locations and dates may change based on inclement weather...

  6. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 1, High-level Manpower for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Guy

    This document, the first part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, appraises the high-level manpower needs of the region. The report is divided into two sections: the first includes the major comments on the position of high-level manpower in…

  7. Neptunium estimation in dissolver and high-level-waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, P.N.; Prabhu, D.R.; Kanekar, A.S.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    This papers deals with the optimization of the experimental conditions for the estimation of {sup 237}Np in spent-fuel dissolver/high-level waste solutions using thenoyltrifluoroacetone as the extractant. (authors)

  8. Holism and High Level Wellness in the Treatment of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartha, Robert; Davis, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how a holistic and wellness philosophy is a viable alternative in the treatment of alcoholism. Describes five major dimensions of high-level wellness: nutritional awareness, physical fitness, stress management, environmental sensitivity, and self-responsibility. (RC)

  9. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    SciTech Connect

    d'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  10. High Levels of Molecular Chlorine found in the Arctic Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J.; Huey, L. G.; Liu, Z.; Tanner, D.; Cantrell, C. A.; Orlando, J. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Shepson, P. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Hall, S. R.; Beine, H.; Wang, Y.; Ingall, E. D.; Thompson, C. R.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Fried, A.; Mauldin, L.; Smith, J. N.; Staebler, R. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Chlorine radicals are a strong atmospheric oxidant, particularly in polar regions where levels of hydroxyl radicals can be quite low. In the atmosphere, chlorine radicals expedite the degradation of methane and tropospheric ozone and the oxidation of mercury to more toxic forms. Here, we present direct measurements of molecular chlorine levels in the Arctic marine boundary layer in Barrow, Alaska, collected in the spring of 2009 over a six-week period using chemical ionization mass spectrometry. We detected high levels of molecular chlorine of up to 400 pptv. Concentrations peaked in the early morning and late afternoon and fell to near-zero levels at night. Average daytime molecular chlorine levels were correlated with ozone concentrations, suggesting that sunlight and ozone are required for molecular chlorine formation. Using a time-dependent box model, we estimated that the chlorine radicals produced from the photolysis of molecular chlorine on average oxidized more methane than hydroxyl radicals and enhanced the abundance of short-lived peroxy radicals. Elevated hydroperoxyl radical levels, in turn, promoted the formation of hypobromous acid, which catalyzed mercury oxidation and the breakdown of tropospheric ozone. Therefore, we propose that molecular chlorine exerts a significant effect on the atmospheric chemistry in the Arctic. While the formation mechanisms of molecular chlorine are not yet understood, the main potential sources of chlorine include snowpack, sea salt, and sea ice. There is recent evidence of molecular halogen (Br2 and Cl2) formation in the Arctic snowpack. The coverage and composition of the snow may control halogen chemistry in the Arctic. Changes of sea ice and snow cover in the changing climate may affect air-snow-ice interaction and have a significant impact on the levels of radicals, ozone, mercury and methane in the Arctic troposphere.

  11. Stability of High-Level Radioactive Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.

    2001-06-22

    High-level waste (HLW) glass compositions, processing schemes, limits on waste content, and corrosion/dissolution release models are dependent on an accurate knowledge of melting temperatures and thermochemical values. Unfortunately, existing models for predicting these temperatures are empirically-based, depending on extrapolations of experimental information. In addition, present models of leaching behavior of glass waste forms use simplistic assumptions or experimentally measured values obtained under non-realistic conditions. There is thus a critical need for both more accurate and more widely applicable models for HLW glass behavior, which this project addressed. Significant progress was made in this project on modeling HLW glass. Borosilicate glass was accurately represented along with the additional important components that contain iron, lithium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The formation of crystalline inclusions in the glass, an issue in Hanford HLW formulations, was modeled and shown to be predictive. Thus the results of this work have already demonstrated practical benefits with the ability to map compositional regions where crystalline material forms, and therefore avoid that detrimental effect. With regard to a fundamental understanding, added insights on the behavior of the components of glass have been obtained, including the potential formation of molecular clusters. The EMSP project had very significant effects beyond the confines of Environmental Management. The models developed for glass have been used to solve a very costly problem in the corrosion of refractories for glass production. The effort resulted in another laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories-Livermore, to become conversant in the techniques and to apply those through a DOE Office of Industrial Technologies project joint with PPG Industries. The glass industry as a whole is now cognizant of these capabilities, and there is a Glass Manufacturer's Research Institute proposal

  12. UNESCO-UNEVOC Regional Forum Latin America and the Caribbean: Advancing TVET for Youth Employability and Sustainable Development (San José, Costa Rica, August 27-28, 2013). Meeting Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To strengthen global and regional harmonization for the advancement of TVET transformation through the capacities of UNEVOC's unique global Network of specialized TVET institutions and affiliated partners, the UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre organized a series of meetings to be held in all regions of the world. The meetings are organized…

  13. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Fox, Kevin M.

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  14. High-level aminoglycoside resistant enterococci isolated from swine.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, C. R.; Fedorka-Cray, P. J.; Barrett, J. B.; Ladely, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 42% (187/444) of swine enterococci collected between the years 1999 and 2000 exhibited high-level resistance to gentamicin (MIC > or =500 microg/ml), kanamycin (MIC > or =500 microg/ml), or streptomycin (MIC > or =1000 microg/ml). Eight aminoglycoside resistance genes were detected using PCR, most frequently ant(6)-Ia and aac(6')-Ii from Enterococcus faecium. Twenty-four per cent (45/187) of total high-level aminoglycoside-resistant isolates and 26% (4/15) of isolates resistant to high levels of all three antimicrobials were negative for all genes tested. These data suggest that enterococci isolated from swine contain diverse and possibly unidentified aminoglycoside resistance genes. PMID:15816164

  15. An overview of very high level software design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asdjodi, Maryam; Hooper, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Very High Level design methods emphasize automatic transfer of requirements to formal design specifications, and/or may concentrate on automatic transformation of formal design specifications that include some semantic information of the system into machine executable form. Very high level design methods range from general domain independent methods to approaches implementable for specific applications or domains. Applying AI techniques, abstract programming methods, domain heuristics, software engineering tools, library-based programming and other methods different approaches for higher level software design are being developed. Though one finds that a given approach does not always fall exactly in any specific class, this paper provides a classification for very high level design methods including examples for each class. These methods are analyzed and compared based on their basic approaches, strengths and feasibility for future expansion toward automatic development of software systems.

  16. High-level aminoglycoside resistant enterococci isolated from swine.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C R; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Barrett, J B; Ladely, S R

    2005-04-01

    Approximately 42% (187/444) of swine enterococci collected between the years 1999 and 2000 exhibited high-level resistance to gentamicin (MIC > or =500 microg/ml), kanamycin (MIC > or =500 microg/ml), or streptomycin (MIC > or =1000 microg/ml). Eight aminoglycoside resistance genes were detected using PCR, most frequently ant(6)-Ia and aac(6')-Ii from Enterococcus faecium. Twenty-four per cent (45/187) of total high-level aminoglycoside-resistant isolates and 26% (4/15) of isolates resistant to high levels of all three antimicrobials were negative for all genes tested. These data suggest that enterococci isolated from swine contain diverse and possibly unidentified aminoglycoside resistance genes.

  17. Cementitious Grout for Closing SRS High Level Waste Tanks - 12315

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Stefanko, D.B.; Burns, H.H.; Waymer, J.; Mhyre, W.B.; Herbert, J.E.; Jolly, J.C. Jr.

    2012-07-01

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. Ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks will also be filled to the extent practical. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and to be chemically reducing with a reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400. Grouts with this chemistry stabilize potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  18. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  19. High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1993-10-01

    This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding.

  20. Final report on cermet high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Aaron, W.S.

    1981-08-01

    Cermets are being developed as an alternate method for the fixation of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste in a terminal disposal form. Following initial feasibility assessments of this waste form, consisting of ceramic particles dispersed in an iron-nickel base alloy, significantly improved processing methods were developed. The characterization of cermets has continued through property determinations on samples prepared by various methods from a variety of simulated and actual high-level wastes. This report describes the status of development of the cermet waste form as it has evolved since 1977. 6 tables, 18 figures.

  1. High-Level Event Recognition in Unconstrained Videos

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    for polyphonic music. J Acoust Soc Am 122( 2 ):881–891 6. Aytar Y, ShahM, Luo J (2008) Utilizing semantic word similarity measures for video retrieval...Int J Multimed Info Retr (2013) 2 :73–101 DOI 10.1007/s13735-012-0024- 2 TRENDS AND SURVEYS High-level event recognition in unconstrained videos Yu...mob”). Techniques for recognizing such high-level events are essential for many practical applications such as Web video search, consumer video

  2. Test methods for selection of materials of construction for high-level radioactive waste vitrification. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D F; Corbett, R A; Morrison, W S

    1986-01-01

    Candidate materials of construction were evaluated for a facility at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant to vitrify high-level radioactive waste. Limited operating experience was available under the corrosive conditions of the complex vitrification process. The objective of the testing program was to provide a high degree of assurance that equipment will meet or exceed design lifetimes. To meet this objective in reasonable time and minimum cost, a program was designed consisting of a combination of coupon immersion and electrochemical laboratory tests and pilot-scale tests. Stainless steels and nickel-based alloys were tested. Alloys that were most resistant to general and local attack contained nickel, molybdenum (>9%), and chromium (where Cr + Mo > 30%). Alloy C-276 was selected as the reference material for process equipment. Stellite 6 was selected for abrasive service in the presence of formic acid. Alloy 690 and ALLCORR were selected for specific applications.

  3. High-Level Overview of Data Needs for RE Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Anthony

    2016-12-22

    This presentation provides a high level overview of analysis topics and associated data needs. Types of renewable energy analysis are grouped into two buckets: First, analysis for renewable energy potential, and second, analysis for other goals. Data requirements are similar but and they build upon one another.

  4. High-level manpower movement and Japan's foreign aid.

    PubMed

    Furuya, K

    1992-01-01

    "Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange."

  5. Typewriter Modifications for Persons Who Are High-Level Quadriplegics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reagan, James R.; And Others

    Standard, common electric typewriters are not completely suited to the needs of a high-level quadriplegic typing with a mouthstick. Experiences show that for complete control of a typewriter a mouthstick user needs the combined features of one-button correction, electric forward and reverse indexing, and easy character viewing. To modify a…

  6. Structuring Peer Interaction To Promote High-Level Cognitive Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Alison

    2002-01-01

    Examines the kind of peer learning that demands high-level cognitive processing, discussing how peer interaction influences cognitive processes (structuring peer interaction and using guided reciprocal peer questioning); how to promote cognitive processing (knowledge construction and integration and socio- cognitive conflict); metacognition; and…

  7. A comparison of high-level waste form characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, R.; Notz, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    There are currently about 1055 million curies of high-level waste with a thermal output of about 2950 kilowatts (KW) at four sites in the United States: West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford Site (HANF), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These quantities are expected to increase to about 1200 million curies and 3570 kw by the end of year 2020. Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, this high-level waste must ultimately be disposed of in a geologic repository. Accordingly, canisters of high-level waste immobilized in borosilicate glass or glass-ceramic mixtures are to be produced at the four sites and stored there until a repository becomes available. Data on the estimated production schedules and on the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the canisters of immobilized high-level waste have been collected in OCRWM's Waste Characteristics Data Base, including recent updates an revisions. Comparisons of some of these data for the four sites are presented in this report. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Allen, Christopher K; Chu, Paul; Galambos, John D; Pelaia II, Tom

    2009-01-01

    XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

  9. Key Ethical Issues Discussed at CDC-Sponsored International, Regional Meetings to Explore Cultural Perspectives and Contexts on Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response

    PubMed Central

    Lor, Aun; Thomas, James C.; Barrett, Drue H.; Ortmann, Leonard W.; Herrera Guibert, Dionisio J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recognizing the importance of having a broad exploration of how cultural perspectives may shape thinking about ethical considerations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded four regional meetings in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Eastern Mediterranean to explore these perspectives relevant to pandemic influenza preparedness and response. The meetings were attended by 168 health professionals, scientists, academics, ethicists, religious leaders, and other community members representing 40 countries in these regions. Methods: We reviewed the meeting reports, notes and stories and mapped outcomes to the key ethical challenges for pandemic influenza response described in the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) guidance, Ethical Considerations in Developing a Public Health Response to Pandemic Influenza: transparency and public engagement, allocation of resources, social distancing, obligations to and of healthcare workers, and international collaboration. Results: The important role of transparency and public engagement were widely accepted among participants. However, there was general agreement that no "one size fits all" approach to allocating resources can address the variety of economic, cultural and other contextual factors that must be taken into account. The importance of social distancing as a tool to limit disease transmission was also recognized, but the difficulties associated with this measure were acknowledged. There was agreement that healthcare workers often have competing obligations and that government has a responsibility to assist healthcare workers in doing their job by providing appropriate training and equipment. Finally, there was agreement about the importance of international collaboration for combating global health threats. Conclusion: Although some cultural differences in the values that frame pandemic preparedness and response efforts were observed, participants generally agreed on the key

  10. High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    D. A. Lopez

    1999-08-01

    A ''Settlement Agreement'' between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a compliance date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of the high-level waste in a High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility based on the assumption that no more New Waste Calcining Facility campaigns will be conducted after June 2000. Under this option, the sodium-bearing waste remaining in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm, and newly generated liquid waste produced between now and the start of 2013, will be processed using a different option, such as a Cesium Ion Exchange Facility. The cesium-saturated waste from this other option will be sent to the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities to be mixed with existing calcine. The calcine and cesium-saturated waste will be processed in the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility by the end of calendar year 2035. In addition, the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility will process all newly-generated liquid waste produced between 2013 and the end of 2035. Vitrification of this waste is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the waste and pouring it into stainless-steel canisters that will be ready for shipment out of Idaho to a disposal facility by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from the end of 2015 through 2035.

  11. Illinois - High-Level Commitment Key to Air Quality Success

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-12-01

    This fact sheet highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics.

  12. Youth Transitions and Network Consolidation. Regional Workshop, 20-22 May 2014 in Gaborone, Botswana. Meeting Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This workshop was designed based on the following objectives: (1) to place youth employment and related issues on the regional political agenda; to highlight regional success stories; (2) to further strengthen the UNEVOC Network consolidation process in the region; (3) to provide a platform for learning and sharing experiences; and (4) to offer an…

  13. 75 FR 63469 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional State Committee Meeting and Southwest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... 25, 2010 (8:30 a.m.-2 p.m.) Kansas City Marriott Downtown, 200 West 12th Street, Kansas City, MO... Marriott Downtown, 200 West 12th Street, Kansas City, MO 64105, 816-421-6800. SPP Board of Directors and Annual Meeting of Members October 26, 2010 (8 a.m.-3 p.m.). Kansas City Marriott Downtown, 200 West...

  14. Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Behr, Michael K; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2011-09-27

    Neuroscientists have debated for centuries whether some regions of the human brain are selectively engaged in specific high-level mental functions or whether, instead, cognition is implemented in multifunctional brain regions. For the critical case of language, conflicting answers arise from the neuropsychological literature, which features striking dissociations between deficits in linguistic and nonlinguistic abilities, vs. the neuroimaging literature, which has argued for overlap between activations for linguistic and nonlinguistic processes, including arithmetic, domain general abilities like cognitive control, and music. Here, we use functional MRI to define classic language regions functionally in each subject individually and then examine the response of these regions to the nonlinguistic functions most commonly argued to engage these regions: arithmetic, working memory, cognitive control, and music. We find little or no response in language regions to these nonlinguistic functions. These data support a clear distinction between language and other cognitive processes, resolving the prior conflict between the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literatures.

  15. Management of data quality of high level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    Over the past 10 years, the Hanford Site has been transitioning from nuclear materials production to Site cleanup operations. High-level waste characterization at the Hanford Site provides data to support present waste processing operations, tank safety programs, and future waste disposal programs. Quality elements in the high-level waste characterization program will be presented by following a sample through the data quality objective, sampling, laboratory analysis and data review process. Transition from production to cleanup has resulted in changes in quality systems and program; the changes, as well as other issues in these quality programs, will be described. Laboratory assessment through quality control and performance evaluation programs will be described, and data assessments in the laboratory and final reporting in the tank characterization reports will be discussed.

  16. Life Extension of Aging High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    BRYSON, D.

    2002-02-04

    The Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) play a critical role in the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex, and therefore activities are underway to protect and better understand these tanks. The DST Life Extension Program is focused on both tank life extension and on evaluation of tank integrity. Tank life extension activities focus on understanding tank failure modes and have produced key chemistry and operations controls to minimize tank corrosion and extend useful tank life. Tank integrity program activities have developed and applied key technologies to evaluate the condition of the tank structure and predict useful tank life. Program results to date indicate that DST useful life can be extended well beyond the original design life and allow the existing tanks to fill a critical function within the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex. In addition the tank life may now be more reliably predicted, facilitating improved planning for the use and possible future replacement of these tanks.

  17. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-05-24

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments.

  18. Hierarchical High Level Information Fusion (H2LIFT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-15

    National Strategy for Maritime Security‖, 2005. 11. J. Morgan and B. Wimmer, ― Enhancing Awareness in the Maritime Domain‖, CHIPS Magazine, 14-15, 2005...Intelligence, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 475–496, 2004. 30. K. Sambhoos, et al., ― Enhancements to high level data fusion using graph matching and state space search...range and bearing calculations over long distances. Loran -C and GPS navigation receivers use ellipsoidal earth models to compute position and waypoint

  19. Automatic rule generation for high-level vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, Frank Chung-Hoon; Krishnapuram, Raghu

    1992-01-01

    Many high-level vision systems use rule-based approaches to solving problems such as autonomous navigation and image understanding. The rules are usually elaborated by experts. However, this procedure may be rather tedious. In this paper, we propose a method to generate such rules automatically from training data. The proposed method is also capable of filtering out irrelevant features and criteria from the rules.

  20. Trustworthy System Development Through High-Level Synthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    processor manufacturers have embraced the high-level synthesis ( HLS ) design philosophy. HLS offers the potential to explore the design space of electronic...circuits and systems more efficiently than traditional methods. In this thesis, we investigate the ap- plication of HLS to hardware-oriented security and...level synthesis ( HLS ) design phi- losophy. HLS offers the potential to explore the design space of electronic circuits and systems more efficiently than

  1. Case for retrievable high-level nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseboom, Eugene H.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository have called for permanently closing and sealing the repository soon after it is filled. However, the hydrologic environment of the proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, should allow the repository to be kept open and the waste retrievable indefinitely. This would allow direct monitoring of the repository and maintain the options for future generations to improve upon the disposal methods or use the uranium in the spent fuel as an energy resource.

  2. The tracking of high level waste shipments-TRANSCOM system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    The TRANSCOM (transportation tracking and communication) system is the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) real-time system for tracking shipments of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other high-visibility shipments of radioactive material. The TRANSCOM system has been operational since 1988. The system was used during FY1993 to track almost 100 shipments within the US.DOE complex, and it is accessed weekly by 10 to 20 users.

  3. Progress in High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lockie, K. A.; McNaught, W. B.

    2002-02-26

    The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is making preparations to close two underground high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and Department of Energy (DOE) orders. Closure of these two tanks is scheduled for 2004 as the first phase in closure of the eleven 300,000 gallon tanks currently in service at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Design, development, and deployment of a remotely operated tank cleaning system were completed in August 2001. The system incorporates many commercially available components, which have been adapted for application in cleaning high-level waste tanks. The system also uses existing waste transfer technology (steam-jets) to remove tank heel solids from the tank bottoms during the cleaning operations. By using this existing transfer system and commercially available equipment, the cost of developing custom designed cleaning equipment can be avoided. Remotely operated directional spray nozzles, automatic rotating wash balls, video monitoring equipment, decontamination spray-rings, and tank specific access interface devices have been integrated to provide a system that efficiently cleans tank walls and heel solids in an acidic, radioactive environment. This system is also compliant with operational and safety performance requirements at INTEC. Through the deployment of the tank cleaning system, the INEEL High Level Waste Program has demonstrated the capability to clean tanks to meet RCRA clean closure standards and DOE closure performance measures. The tank cleaning system deployed at the INTEC offers unique advantages over other approaches evaluated at the INEEL and throughout the DOE Complex. The system's ability to agitate and homogenize the tank heel sludge will simplify verification-sampling techniques and reduce the total quantity of samples required to

  4. Automatic classification of clouds on Meteosat imagery - Application to high-level clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desbois, M.; Seze, G.; Szejwach, G.

    1982-01-01

    A statistical classification method based on clustering on three-dimensional histograms is applied to the three channels of the Meteosat imagery. The results of this classification are studied for different cloud cover cases over tropical regions. For high-level cloud classes, it is shown that the bidimensional IR-water vapor histogram allows one to deduce the cloud top temperature even for semi-transparent clouds.

  5. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  6. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  7. Education For All: A Committment and an Opportunity. National EFA Coordinators Meeting under the Sub-Regional EFA Forum for East and Southeast Asia Final Report (2nd, Bangkok, Thailand, December 10-12, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The working group of Sub-Regional Forum (SRF) and the Thematic Working Group (TWG) on Education for All (EFA) organized the second meeting of the SRF for East and Southeast Asia and the National EFA Coordinators in Bangkok, Thailand December 10-12, 2001. The meeting offered an opportunity for EFA coordinators to reflect on the outcomes of the EFA…

  8. Breast cancer and primary systemic therapy. Results of the Consensus Meeting on the recommendations for pathological examination and histological report of breast cancer specimens in the Marche Region.

    PubMed

    Santinelli, A; De Nictolis, M; Mambelli, V; Ranaldi, R; Bearzi, I; Battellpi, N; Mariotti, C; Fabbietti, L; Baldassarre, S; Giuseppetti, G M; Fabris, G

    2011-10-01

    Primary systemic therapy (PST) adds some practical problems to the pathologic examination of neoplastic breast tissue obtained from patients before and after chemotherapy. Pathologists, oncologists, breast surgeons, radiotherapists and radiologists in the Marche Region held a Consensus Meeting in Ancona on May 13, 2010, in which 15 statements dealing with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were approved by all participants. The first two statements are related to the pre-PST phase and concern the technical procedures and the histological report of the core biopsy. The other statements deal with similar issues of the post-PST surgical specimen.

  9. Regional Educational Media Centers: Meeting the Instructional Media and Educational Technology Needs of Elementary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck, Jack A.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews history of concept of regional educational media centers (REMCs), which are intended to establish ways to provide media and educational technologies for local schools. Highlights include development of Michigan's REMCs and services covered in the "Rules and Regulations Governing Michigan's Regional Educational Media Centers."…

  10. Regional Economic and Workforce Strategies: A Focus on the Mature Workforce--New Opportunities for Meeting Skill Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Regions around the country are grappling with current and anticipated skills shortages and, in some cases, labor shortages. Economic prosperity depends heavily on the quality of the workforce, and yet far too few regions have recognized their best underutilized asset: the mature workforce. Because mature workers are nearing traditional retirement…

  11. Regional Accreditation Team Members: How They Perceive Their Role and How They Make Decisions. ASHE Annual Meeting 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvers, Philip J.

    The ways in which accrediting team members perceive their role and make decisions were surveyed and approaches for improving the process were analyzed. The policy and procedures statements of the regional commissions were evaluated and a mail survey of a sample of evaluators was undertaken. Evaluators from five regional associations provided…

  12. Meeting Report: National Workshops for the Communication of Air Pollution and Health Information: Summary of Four Workshops in Different Regions of Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Eric Gordon; Fudge, Nina; Totlandsdal, Annike Irene; Hovelynck, Ingrid; Korbee, Herbert; Rameckers, Edith; Brunekreef, Bert; van Bree, Leendert

    2006-01-01

    AIRNET was a thematic network project (2002–2004) initiated to stimulate the interaction between researchers in air pollution and health in Europe. As part of AIRNET’s communication strategy, a standardized workshop model was developed to organize national meetings on air pollution and health (AIRNET network days). Emphasis was given to tailor the national workshop information and related activities to the specific needs of a wider range of stakeholders (e.g., policy makers, nongovernmental organizations, industry representatives). In this report we present an overview of the results of four workshops held in western, northern, central/eastern, and southern regions of Europe in 2004. Overall, workshop experiences indicated that by actively involving participants in the planning of each meeting, AIRNET helped create an event that addressed participants’ needs and interests. A wide range of communication formats used to discuss air pollution and health also helped stimulate active interaction among participants. Overall, the national workshops held by AIRNET offered a way to improve communication among the different stakeholders. Because a broad stakeholder involvement in decision making can positively affect the development of widely supported policies, such meetings should be continued for Europe and elsewhere. PMID:16835066

  13. Meeting report: national workshops for the communication of air pollution and health information: summary of four workshops in different regions of Europe.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Eric Gordon; Fudge, Nina; Totlandsdal, Annike Irene; Hovelynck, Ingrid; Korbee, Herbert; Rameckers, Edith; Brunekreef, Bert; van Bree, Leendert

    2006-07-01

    AIRNET was a thematic network project (2002-2004) initiated to stimulate the interaction between researchers in air pollution and health in Europe. As part of AIRNET's communication strategy, a standardized workshop model was developed to organize national meetings on air pollution and health (AIRNET network days) . Emphasis was given to tailor the national workshop information and related activities to the specific needs of a wider range of stakeholders (e.g., policy makers, nongovernmental organizations, industry representatives) . In this report we present an overview of the results of four workshops held in western, northern, central/eastern, and southern regions of Europe in 2004. Overall, workshop experiences indicated that by actively involving participants in the planning of each meeting, AIRNET helped create an event that addressed participants' needs and interests. A wide range of communication formats used to discuss air pollution and health also helped stimulate active interaction among participants. Overall, the national workshops held by AIRNET offered a way to improve communication among the different stakeholders. Because a broad stakeholder involvement in decision making can positively affect the development of widely supported policies, such meetings should be continued for Europe and elsewhere.

  14. Development of a High Level Waste Tank Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, D.K.; Loibl, M.W.; Meese, D.C.

    1995-03-21

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center was requested by it`s sister site, West Valley Nuclear Service (WVNS), to develop a remote inspection system to gather wall thickness readings of their High Level Waste Tanks. WVNS management chose to take a proactive approach to gain current information on two tanks t hat had been in service since the early 70`s. The tanks contain high level waste, are buried underground, and have only two access ports to an annular space between the tank and the secondary concrete vault. A specialized remote system was proposed to provide both a visual surveillance and ultrasonic thickness measurements of the tank walls. A magnetic wheeled crawler was the basis for the remote delivery system integrated with an off-the-shelf Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. A development program was initiated for Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to design, fabricate, and test a remote system based on the Crawler. The system was completed and involved three crawlers to perform the needed tasks, an Ultrasonic Crawler, a Camera Crawler, and a Surface Prep Crawler. The crawlers were computer controlled so that their operation could be done remotely and their position on the wall could be tracked. The Ultrasonic Crawler controls were interfaced with ABB Amdata`s I-PC, Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System so that thickness mapping of the wall could be obtained. A second system was requested by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), to perform just ultrasonic mapping on their similar Waste Storage Tanks; however, the system needed to be interfaced with the P-scan Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. Both remote inspection systems were completed 9/94. Qualifications tests were conducted by WVNS prior to implementation on the actual tank and tank development was achieved 10/94. The second inspection system was deployed at WSRC 11/94 with success, and the system is now in continuous service inspecting the remaining high level waste tanks at WSRC.

  15. High-level waste management technology program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  17. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

  18. Modern Alchemy: Solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, C.C.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is putting a modern version of alchemy to work to produce an answer to a decades-old problem. It is taking place at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York. At both locations, contractor Westinghouse Electric Corporation is applying technology that is turning liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stabilized, durable glass for safer and easier management. The process is called vitrification. SRS and WVDP are now operating the nation`s first full-scale HLW vitrification plants.

  19. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L.

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted.

  20. High-level wastes: DOE names three sites for characterization

    SciTech Connect

    1986-07-01

    DOE announced in May 1986 that there will be there site characterization studies made to determine suitability for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The studies will include several test drillings to the proposed disposal depths. Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Deaf Smith Country, Texas, and Hanford, Washington were identified as the study sites, and further studies for a second repository site in the East were postponed. The affected states all filed suits in federal circuit courts because they were given no advance warning of the announcement of their selection or the decision to suspend work on a second repository. Criticisms of the selection process include the narrowing or DOE options.

  1. Metacommunity ecology meets biogeography: effects of geographical region, spatial dynamics and environmental filtering on community structure in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Heino, Jani; Soininen, Janne; Alahuhta, Janne; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Virtanen, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Metacommunity patterns and underlying processes in aquatic organisms have typically been studied within a drainage basin. We examined variation in the composition of six freshwater organismal groups across various drainage basins in Finland. We first modelled spatial structures within each drainage basin using Moran eigenvector maps. Second, we partitioned variation in community structure among three groups of predictors using constrained ordination: (1) local environmental variables, (2) spatial variables, and (3) dummy variable drainage basin identity. Third, we examined turnover and nestedness components of multiple-site beta diversity, and tested the best fit patterns of our datasets using the "elements of metacommunity structure" analysis. Our results showed that basin identity and local environmental variables were significant predictors of community structure, whereas within-basin spatial effects were typically negligible. In half of the organismal groups (diatoms, bryophytes, zooplankton), basin identity was a slightly better predictor of community structure than local environmental variables, whereas the opposite was true for the remaining three organismal groups (insects, macrophytes, fish). Both pure basin and local environmental fractions were, however, significant after accounting for the effects of the other predictor variable sets. All organismal groups exhibited high levels of beta diversity, which was mostly attributable to the turnover component. Our results showed consistent Clementsian-type metacommunity structures, suggesting that subgroups of species responded similarly to environmental factors or drainage basin limits. We conclude that aquatic communities across large scales are mostly determined by environmental and basin effects, which leads to high beta diversity and prevalence of Clementsian community types.

  2. Burning high-level TRU waste in fusion fission reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yaosong

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the concept of actinide burning instead of a once-through fuel cycle for disposing spent nuclear fuel seems to get much more attention. A new method of burning high-level transuranic (TRU) waste combined with Thorium-Uranium (Th-U) fuel in the subcritical reactors driven by external fusion neutron sources is proposed in this paper. The thorium-based TRU fuel burns all of the long-lived actinides via a hard neutron spectrum while outputting power. A one-dimensional model of the reactor concept was built by means of the ONESN_BURN code with new data libraries. The numerical results included actinide radioactivity, biological hazard potential, and much higher burnup rate of high-level transuranic waste. The comparison of the fusion-fission reactor with the thermal reactor shows that the harder neutron spectrum is more efficient than the soft. The Th-U cycle produces less TRU, less radiotoxicity and fewer long-lived actinides. The Th-U cycle provides breeding of 233U with a long operation time (>20 years), hence significantly reducing the reactivity swing while improving safety and burnup.

  3. Learning high-level features for chord recognition using Autoencoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phongthongloa, Vilailukkana; Kamonsantiroj, Suwatchai; Pipanmaekaporn, Luepol

    2016-07-01

    Chord transcription is valuable to do by itself. It is known that the manual transcription of chords is very tiresome, time-consuming. It requires, moreover, musical knowledge. Automatic chord recognition has recently attracted a number of researches in the Music Information Retrieval field. It has known that a pitch class profile (PCP) is the commonly signal representation of musical harmonic analysis. However, the PCP may contain additional non-harmonic noise such as harmonic overtones and transient noise. The problem of non-harmonic might be generating the sound energy in term of frequency more than the actual notes of the respective chord. Autoencoder neural network may be trained to learn a mapping from low level feature to one or more higher-level representation. These high-level representations can explain dependencies of the inputs and reduce the effect of non-harmonic noise. Then these improve features are fed into neural network classifier. The proposed high-level musical features show 80.90% of accuracy. The experimental results have shown that the proposed approach can achieve better performance in comparison with other based method.

  4. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kreutz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  5. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kruetz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  6. Local acceptance of a high-level nuclear waste repository.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Lennart

    2004-06-01

    The siting of nuclear waste facilities has been very difficult in all countries. Recent experience in Sweden indicates, however, that it may be possible, under certain circumstances, to gain local support for the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository. The article reports on a study of attitudes and risk perceptions of people living in four municipalities in Sweden where HLNW siting was being intensely discussed at the political level, in media, and among the public. Data showed a relatively high level of consensus on acceptability of at least further investigation of the issue; in two cases local councils have since voted in favor of a go-ahead, and in one case only a very small majority defeated the issue. Models of policy attitudes showed that these were related to attitude to nuclear power, attributes of the perceived HLNW risk, and trust. Factors responsible for acceptance are discussed at several levels. One is the attitude to nuclear power, which is becoming more positive, probably because no viable alternatives are in sight. Other factors have to do with the extensive information programs conducted in these municipalities, and with the logical nature of the conclusion that they would be good candidates for hosting the national HLNW repository.

  7. VITRIFICATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-17

    The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent high level waste Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as vitrified at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility. These data were used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of candidate frits. The study glasses were fabricated using depleted uranium and their chemical compositions, crystalline contents and chemical durabilities were characterized. Trevorite was the only crystalline phase that was identified in a few of the study glasses after slow cooling, and is not of concern as spinels have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). All of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The results of this study indicate that a frit composition can be identified that will provide a processable and durable glass when combined with SB5.

  8. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  9. Status of high-level waste processing at West Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, A.J.; Baker, M.N. )

    1991-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is charged with the solidification of high-level liquid waste remaining from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities that were conducted at West Valley, New York, between 1966 and 1972. The 2.27 million liters (600,000 gal) of waste in an underground storage tank has separated into a sludge layer, {approximately}10% of the original volume, and a liquid layer. Prior to the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification, volume reduction of the waste is necessary. Sine May 1988, West Valley has successfully processed >1.59 million liters (420,000 gal) of HLW. Processing to date has involved the removal of {sup 139}Cs from the HLW effluent by ion exchange, evaporation to concentrate the effluent to a predetermined salt concentration, and finally cementation. This process has removed {approximately}80% of the {sup 137}Cs from the HLW liquid phase. Modifications are currently being made to begin the second phase of the HLW processing at West Valley. The second phase of HLW processing will include the removal of plutonium as well as cesium from the HLW sludge. This paper describes the progress made to date and the modifications being made to the process and to the feed stream to begin the second phase of HLW processing.

  10. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-04-23

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist.

  11. Meeting in the MIDDLE:BUILDING off Regional Policies to Promote Climate Education Partnerships on and off Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griswold, M.; Stylinski, C.; Shea, N.; Veron, D. E.; Merrill, J.

    2013-12-01

    Both the impacts of climate change and the choices available to adapt and mitigate climate change largely function at the regional scale. Understanding and addressing climate change will require a concerted campaign involving a diverse array of educations from small to large organizations. By focusing on a specific region's climate impacts, adaptation and mitigation options, and existing policies, climate education networks will likely have a higher likelihood of sustainability. Building on this concept, we have developed a climate education partnership, Maryland Delaware Climate Change Education, Assessment and Research (MADE CLEAR), to better understand effective ways to support formal-, informal- and higher-education practitioners in climate change education in this Mid-Atlantic region. We do so largely through face-to-face and web based professional development for each education practitioner group to improve their capacity to incorporate rigorous regionally-based climate science and solutions into their education strategies. We are promoting communities-of-practice within and across these groups as they share their successes and challenges and consider common messages and approaches. Our training and resources focus on impacts and solutions most relevant to our region including sea level rise, extreme events, and urban heat impacts. Our professional development approach aligns directly with existing education and natural resource, including the region's environmental literacy initiatives, the Next Generation Science Standards, and state climate adaptation and mitigation plans. We anticipate that by building off of existing policy, we will build the success of the network into the future. Our project includes design-based research of all three education groups, and thus we will identify effective climate change education strategies, in and out of schools, that are applicable in other regions.

  12. Liquid level measurement in high level nuclear waste slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, G.E.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Postles, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Accurate liquid level measurement has been a difficult problem to solve for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The nuclear waste sludge tends to plug or degrade most commercially available liquid-level measurement sensors. A liquid-level measurement system that meets demanding accuracy requirements for the DWPF has been developed. The system uses a pneumatic 1:1 pressure repeater as a sensor and a computerized error correction system. 2 figs.

  13. High-Level Vision and Planning Workshop Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    in Reports. IDA Papers ame reviWed to ensure that they meet the high standards expected of rd papers in professional pournals orformal ency repots...based on local image attributes) • Physical and geometrical modeling (study of constraints imposed by physical world and imaging process) * Global...examine reasoning about other agents from two different perspectives, * the "prescriptive/descriptive" approach and the "jointly prescriptive" ap - proach

  14. High-level DNA amplifications are common genetic aberrations in B-cell neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    Werner, C. A.; Döhner, H.; Joos, S.; Trümper, L. H.; Baudis, M.; Barth, T. F.; Ott, G.; Möller, P.; Lichter, P.; Bentz, M.

    1997-01-01

    Gene amplification is one of the molecular mechanisms resulting in the up-regulation of gene expression. In non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, such gene amplifications have been identified rarely. Using comparative genomic hybridization, a technique that has proven to be very sensitive for the detection of high-level DNA amplifications, we analyzed 108 cases of B-cell neoplasms (42 chronic B-cell leukemias, 5 mantle cell lymphomas, and 61 aggressive B-cell lymphomas). Twenty-four high-level amplifications were identified in 13% of the patients and mapped to 15 different genomic regions. Regions most frequently amplified were bands Xq26-28, 2p23-24, and 2p14-16 as well as 18q21 (three times each). Amplification of several proto-oncogenes and a cell cycle control gene (N-MYC (two cases), BCL2, CCND2, and GLI) located within the amplified regions was demonstrated by Southern blot analysis or fluorescence in situ hybridization to interphase nuclei of tumor cells. These data demonstrate that gene amplifications in B-cell neoplasms are much more frequent than previously assumed. The identification of highly amplified DNA regions and genes included in the amplicons provides important information for further analyses of genetic events involved in lymphomagenesis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9250147

  15. The New Regionalism in Sub-Saharan Africa: More Than Meets the Eye? Policy Brief No. 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Following independence in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1960s, traditional integration strategies produced disappointing results in most instances, as they started with very modest levels of intra-regional trade, marked differences in income and industrialisation levels and diffuse fiscal weakness. They also had a strong protectionist bias, trying to…

  16. Creating Pathways to a Better Life: How Four Tribal Colleges Are Training Skilled Workers to Meet Regional Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    With the tremendous job growth and economic boom on the Northern Plains, tribal colleges in Montana and North Dakota are initiating new innovative programs to address the region's workforce necessities. United Tribes Technical College (UTTC), Fort Peck Community College (FPCC), Aaniiih Nakoda College (ANC), and Cankdeska Cikana Community College…

  17. High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Lori J. P.; Troche, Michelle S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD), defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities. PMID:21860777

  18. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages.

  19. The SEISMED High Level Security Policy for Health Care.

    PubMed

    Katsikas, S K

    1996-01-01

    The proliferation of the use of automated Health Information Systems in the everyday practice of health professionals has brought a number of issues related to the security of health information to a critical point. The preservation of security of health-related information can only be achieved through a concerted approach, comprising legal, organisational, technical and educational actions. These classes of actions constitute a complete "security framework", a key aspect of which is the set of rules, laws and regulations that govern the usage of information within a Health Care Establishment. This set is commonly referred to as "Security Policy". In this paper, the SEISMED High Level Security Policy for Health Care Establishments is presented.

  20. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  1. High-level theoretical rovibrational spectroscopy of HCS+ isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, B.; Sebald, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this work the rovibrational spectrum of the HCS+ molecular cation is revisited through high-level electronic structure and variational rovibrational calculations. A local potential energy function is built from explicitly correlated coupled-cluster results, incorporating corrections for core-valence, scalar relativistic and higher-order excitation effects. The computed spectroscopic parameters, based on variational calculations with Watson's isomorphic Hamiltonian for linear molecules lead to a nearly perfect agreement with experimentally reported values (Rosenbaum et al., 1989). Furthermore, the documented Fermi resonance within the (0,00, 1) / (0,20, 0) and (1,00, 1) / (1,20, 0) pairs of states is clarified. Based on a newly developed electric dipole moment function transition dipole moments of fundamental transitions are predicted for the most important isotopologues.

  2. High-level tetracycline resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, E; Louro, D; Gomes, J P; Catry, M A; Pato, M V

    1997-05-01

    The first high-level tetracycline resistance (MIC > or = 16 mg/l) isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (TRNG) were reported in 1990 from patients attending a Sexual Transmitted Disease (STD) Center in Lisbon. The TRNG prevalence was 4% in 1991, 5.3% in 1992 and 10,8% in 1994, exploding to 52.2% in 1995. The tet M determinant was evaluated by PCR. The digests of PCRP using HpaII produced the restriction pattern 2 for all the strains, except one (pattern 3). 78.3% of the TRNG strains were beta-lactamase producers and the 4.5 MDa penicillinase plasmid was the dominant (83%), 90% and 93.3% of the TRNG strains belonged to the auxotype NR and to the serogroup IA, respectively. The IA-8/NR class represented 58.3% of the TRNG isolates, suggesting a clonal spreading.

  3. High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

    SciTech Connect

    Siemens, D.H.; Heath, W.O.; Larson, D.E.; Craig, S.N.; Berger, D.N.; Goles, R.W.

    1985-04-01

    Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system.

  4. Socioeconomic studies of high-level nuclear waste disposal.

    PubMed Central

    White, G F; Bronzini, M S; Colglazier, E W; Dohrenwend, B; Erikson, K; Hansen, R; Kneese, A V; Moore, R; Page, E B; Rappaport, R A

    1994-01-01

    The socioeconomic investigations of possible impacts of the proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been unprecedented in several respects. They bear on the public decision that sooner or later will be made as to where and how to dispose permanently of the waste presently at military weapons installations and that continues to accumulate at nuclear power stations. No final decision has yet been made. There is no clear precedent from other countries. The organization of state and federal studies is unique. The state studies involve more disciplines than any previous efforts. They have been carried out in parallel to federal studies and have pioneered in defining some problems and appropriate research methods. A recent annotated bibliography provides interested scientists with a compact guide to the 178 published reports, as well as to relevant journal articles and related documents. PMID:7971963

  5. SIMULANT DEVELOPMENT FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M; Russell Eibling, R; David Koopman, D; Dan Lambert, D; Paul Burket, P

    2007-09-04

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste (HLW) for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, and sulfate). The HLW is processed in large batches through DWPF; DWPF has recently completed processing Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and is currently processing Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The composition of metal species in SB4 is shown in Table 1 as a function of the ratio of a metal to iron. Simulants remove radioactive species and renormalize the remaining species. Supernate composition is shown in Table 2.

  6. Exceptionally high levels of multiple mating in an army ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, A. Jay; Franks, Nigel R.; Powell, Scott; Edwards, Keith J.

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, although there are notable exceptions. Competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of high levels of multiple mating, but this issue is far from resolved. Here we use microsatellites to investigate mating frequency in the army ant Eciton burchellii and show that queens mate with an exceptionally large number of males, eclipsing all but one other social insect species for which data are available. In addition we present evidence that suggests that mating is serial, continuing throughout the lifetime of the queen. This is the first demonstration of serial mating among social hymenoptera. We propose that high paternity within colonies is most likely to have evolved to increase genetic diversity and to counter high pathogen and parasite loads.

  7. Review of High Level Waste Tanks Ultrasonic Inspection Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B

    2006-03-09

    A review of the data collected during ultrasonic inspection of the Type I high level waste tanks has been completed. The data was analyzed for relevance to the possibility of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion. The review of the Type I tank UT inspection data has confirmed that the vapor space general corrosion is not an unusually aggressive phenomena and correlates well with predicted corrosion rates for steel exposed to bulk solution. The corrosion rates are seen to decrease with time as expected. The review of the temperature data did not reveal any obvious correlations between high temperatures and the occurrences of leaks. The complex nature of temperature-humidity interaction, particularly with respect to vapor corrosion requires further understanding to infer any correlation. The review of the waste level data also did not reveal any obvious correlations.

  8. Reinforcement learning for high-level fuzzy Petri nets.

    PubMed

    Shen, V L

    2003-01-01

    The author has developed a reinforcement learning algorithm for the high-level fuzzy Petri net (HLFPN) models in order to perform structure and parameter learning simultaneously. In addition to the HLFPN itself, the difference and similarity among a variety of subclasses concerning Petri nets are also discussed. As compared with the fuzzy adaptive learning control network (FALCON), the HLFPN model preserves the advantages that: 1) it offers more flexible learning capability because it is able to model both IF-THEN and IF-THEN-ELSE rules; 2) it allows multiple heterogeneous outputs to be drawn if they exist; 3) it offers a more compact data structure for fuzzy production rules so as to save information storage; and 4) it is able to learn faster due to its structural reduction. Finally, main results are presented in the form of seven propositions and supported by some experiments.

  9. ALICE: Project Overview and High Level Science Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soummer, Remi; Choquet, Elodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Brendan Hagan, J.; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Perrin, Marshall D.; Chen, Christine; Debes, John H.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; Schneider, Glenn; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian; Barman, Travis

    2015-01-01

    We report on the status of the ALICE project (Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments), which consists in a consistent reanalysis of the entire HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive. Over the last two years, we have developed a sophisticated pipeline able to handle the data of the 400 stars of the archive. This pipeline builds on the Karhunen-Loeve Image Projection (KLIP) algorithm, and was completed in the fall of 2014. We discuss the first processing and analysis results of the overall reduction campaign. As we will deliver high-level science products to the STScI MAST archive, we are defining a new standard format for high-contrast science products, which will be compatible with every new high-contrast imaging instrument (GPI, SPHERE, P1640, CHARIS, etc.) and used by the JWST coronagraphs. We present here the specifications of this standard.

  10. High-level waste tank farm set point document

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, J.A. III

    1995-01-15

    Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope.

  11. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  12. High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Calmus, R.B.

    1995-02-01

    This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program`s (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant`s melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy.

  13. High-level waste program integration within the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, J.H.; Davis, N.R.; Malone, K.; Schaus, P.S.

    1998-03-01

    Eleven major Department of Energy (DOE) site contractors were chartered by the Assistant Secretary to use a systems engineering approach to develop and evaluate technically defensible cost savings opportunities across the complex. Known as the complex-wide Environmental Management Integration (EMI), this process evaluated all the major DOE waste streams including high level waste (HLW). Across the DOE complex, this waste stream has the highest life cycle cost and is scheduled to take until at least 2035 before all HLW is processed for disposal. Technical contract experts from the four DOE sites that manage high level waste participated in the integration analysis: Hanford, Savannah River Site (SRS), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In addition, subject matter experts from the Yucca Mountain Project and the Tanks Focus Area participated in the analysis. Also, departmental representatives from the US Department of Energy Headquarters (DOE-HQ) monitored the analysis and results. Workouts were held throughout the year to develop recommendations to achieve a complex-wide integrated program. From this effort, the HLW Environmental Management (EM) Team identified a set of programmatic and technical opportunities that could result in potential cost savings and avoidance in excess of $18 billion and an accelerated completion of the HLW mission by seven years. The cost savings, schedule improvements, and volume reduction are attributed to a multifaceted HLW treatment disposal strategy which involves waste pretreatment, standardized waste matrices, risk-based retrieval, early development and deployment of a shipping system for glass canisters, and reasonable, low cost tank closure.

  14. High level waste tank closure project: ALARA applications at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Steven B; Butler, Richard; Butterworth, Steven W; Quigley, Keith D

    2005-05-01

    Bechtel BWXT Idaho, Maintenance and Operating Contractor for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, has emptied, cleaned, and sampled six of the eleven 1.135 x 10(6) L high level waste underground storage tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, well ahead of the State of Idaho Consent Order cleaning schedule. Cleaning of a seventh tank is expected to be complete by the end of calendar year 2004. The tanks, with associated vaults, valve boxes, and distribution systems, are being closed to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and Department of Energy orders. The use of remotely operated equipment placed in the tanks through existing tank riser access points, sampling methods and application of as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) principles have proven effective in keeping personnel dose low during equipment removal, tank, vault, and valve box cleaning, and sampling activities, currently at 0.03 Sv.

  15. User-Defined Data Distributions in High-Level Programming Languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaconescu, Roxana E.; Zima, Hans P.

    2006-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of today s high performance computing systems is a physically distributed memory. Efficient management of locality is essential for meeting key performance requirements for these architectures. The standard technique for dealing with this issue has involved the extension of traditional sequential programming languages with explicit message passing, in the context of a processor-centric view of parallel computation. This has resulted in complex and error-prone assembly-style codes in which algorithms and communication are inextricably interwoven. This paper presents a high-level approach to the design and implementation of data distributions. Our work is motivated by the need to improve the current parallel programming methodology by introducing a paradigm supporting the development of efficient and reusable parallel code. This approach is currently being implemented in the context of a new programming language called Chapel, which is designed in the HPCS project Cascade.

  16. Nuclear characteristics of vitrified high-level waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Arakali, V.S.; Barnes, S.M. )

    1991-11-01

    High-level liquid nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at West Valley, New York, will be vitrified as borosilicate glass and stored in stainless steel canisters prior to disposal at a waste repository. The nuclear characteristics of the vitrified waste must meet certain repository design specifications. This paper presents an evaluation of the waste form produced at West Valley with respect to its compliance to the repository specifications of heat and gas generation rates and neutron and gamma dose rates. The method consists of analyzing the composition of liquid nuclear waste in underground tanks and estimating the amount of other chemicals needed to encapsulate radionuclides in glass matrices. The number of waste canisters and the composition of each batch of canistered waste are determined from the vitrification process flow sheet. This data is used in computer codes to evaluate the waste form against repository specifications.

  17. Can Sisyphus succeed? Getting U.S. high-level nuclear waste into a geological repository.

    PubMed

    North, D Warner

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government has the obligation of managing the high-level radioactive waste from its defense activities and also, under existing law, from civilian nuclear power generation. This obligation is not being met. The January 2012 Final Report from the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future provides commendable guidance but little that is new. The author, who served on the federal Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board from 1989 to 1994 and subsequently on the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council from 1994 to 1999, provides a perspective both on the Commission's recommendations and a potential path toward progress in meeting the federal obligation. By analogy to Sisyphus of Greek mythology, our nation needs to find a way to roll the rock to the top of the hill and have it stay there, rather than continuing to roll back down again.

  18. Tank waste remediation system high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.L.; Kim, D.S.

    1994-12-01

    This study evaluates the effect of feed composition on the performance of the high-level vitrification process. It is assumed in this study that the tank wastes are retrieved and blended by tank farms, producing 12 different blends from the single-shell tank farms, two blends of double-shell tank waste, and a separately defined all-tank blend. This blending scenario was chosen only for evaluating the impact of composition on the volume of high- level waste glass produced. Special glass compositions were formulated for each waste blend based on glass property models and the properties of similar glasses. These glasses were formulated to meet the applicable viscosity, electrical conductivity, and liquidus temperature constraints for the identified candidate melters. Candidate melters in this study include the low-temperature stirred melter, which operates at 1050{degrees}C; the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant liquid-fed ceramic melter, which operates at 1150{degrees}C; and the high-temperature, joule-heated melter and the cold-crucible melter, which operate over a temperature range of 1150{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. In the most conservative case, it is estimated that 61,000 MT of glass will be produced if the Site`s high-level wastes are retrieved by tank farms and processed in the reference joule-heated melter. If an all-tank blend was processed under the same conditions, the reference melter would produce 21,250 MT of glass. If cross-tank blending were used, it is anticipated that $2.0 billion could be saved in repository disposal costs (based on an average disposal cost of $217,000 per canister) by blending the S, SX, B, and T Tank Farm wastes with other wastes prior to vitrification. General blending among all the tank farms is expected to produce great potential benefit.

  19. Regional risk assessment of the Puyallup River Watershed and the evaluation of low impact development in meeting management goals.

    PubMed

    Hines, Eleanor E; Landis, Wayne G

    2014-04-01

    The Relative Risk Model (RRM) is a tool used to calculate and assess the likelihood of effects to endpoints when multiple stressors occur in complex ecological systems. In this study, a Bayesian network was used to calculate relative risk and estimate uncertainty (BN-RRM) in the Puyallup River Watershed. First, we calculated the risk of prespawn mortality of coho salmon. Second, we evaluated the effect of low impact development (LID) as a means to reduce risk. Prespawner mortality in coho salmon within the Puyallup watershed was the endpoint selected for this study. A conceptual model showing causal pathways between stressors and endpoints was created to show where linkages exist. A relative risk gradient was found throughout the watershed. The lowest risk was found in risk regions with the least urban development, and the greatest risk of prespawner mortality was found in the highly urbanized risk regions with the largest amounts of impervious surface. LID did reduce risk but only when implemented at high intensities within the urban watersheds. The structure of the BN-RRM also provides a framework for water quality- and quantity-related endpoints within this and other watersheds. The framework is also useful for evaluating different strategies for remediation or restoration activities. The adaptability of using BNs for a relative risk assessment provides opportunities for the model to be adapted for other watersheds in the Puget Sound and Salish Sea region.

  20. INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF ALUMINUM IMPACTS ON CRYSTALLIZATION IN U.S. HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K; David Peeler, D; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P; James Marra, J

    2008-09-23

    The objective of this task was to develop glass formulations for (Department of Energy) DOE waste streams with high aluminum concentrations to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints. Liquidus temperatures and crystallization behavior were carefully characterized to support model development for higher waste loading glasses. The experimental work, characterization, and data interpretation necessary to meet these objectives were performed among three partnering laboratories: the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Projected glass compositional regions that bound anticipated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Hanford high level waste (HLW) glass regions of interest were developed and used to generate glass compositions of interest for meeting the objectives of this study. A thorough statistical analysis was employed to allow for a wide range of waste glass compositions to be examined while minimizing the number of glasses that had to be fabricated and characterized in the laboratory. The glass compositions were divided into two sets, with 45 in the test matrix investigated by the U.S. laboratories and 30 in the test matrix investigated by KRI. Fabrication and characterization of the US and KRI-series glasses were generally handled separately. This report focuses mainly on the US-series glasses. Glasses were fabricated and characterized by SRNL and PNNL. Crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the quenched and canister centerline cooled (CCC) glasses and were generally iron oxides and spinels, which are not expected to impact durability of the glass. Nepheline was detected in five of the glasses after the CCC heat treatment. Chemical composition measurements for each of the glasses were conducted

  1. High-level fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae requires mutations in parC and gyrA.

    PubMed Central

    Janoir, C; Zeller, V; Kitzis, M D; Moreau, N J; Gutmann, L

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance was studied in strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, either selected in vitro or isolated from clinical samples. By using DNA from these high-level-resistant strains, low-level-resistant transformants (MIC of pefloxacin, > or = 32 micrograms/ml; MIC of ciprofloxacin, 4 micrograms/ml; MIC of sparfloxacin, 0.50 micrograms/ml) were obtained at high frequencies (ca.10(-2)), while high-level-resistant transformants (MIC of pefloxacin, > or = 64 micrograms/ml; MIC of ciprofloxacin, 16 to 64 micrograms/ml; MIC of sparfloxacin, > or = 8 micrograms/ml) were obtained only at low frequencies (ca.10(-4)). This suggested that mutations in at least two unlinked genes were necessary to obtain high-level resistance. Low-level resistance was associated with ParC mutations (change from Ser to Tyr at position 79 [Ser79Tyr], Ser79Phe, or Asp83Gly). ParC mutations were associated, in high-level-resistant strains and transformants, with alterations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of GyrA (Ser84Tyr, Ser84Phe, and/or Glu88Lys). Low-level resistance was shown to be necessary for expression of the gyrA mutations. No mutation in the region corresponding to the quinolone resistance-determining region of GyrB and no alteration of drug accumulation were found. PMID:9124836

  2. A New High-Level Gentamicin Resistance Gene, aph(2")-Id, in Enterococcus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shane F.; Zervos, Marcus J.; Clewell, Don B.; Donabedian, Susan M.; Sahm, Daniel F.; Chow, Joseph W.

    1998-01-01

    Enterococcus casseliflavus UC73 is a clinical blood isolate with high-level resistance to gentamicin. DNA preparations from UC73 failed to hybridize with intragenic probes for aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2")-Ia and aph(2")-Ic. A 4-kb fragment from UC73 was cloned and found to confer resistance to gentamicin in Escherichia coli DH5α transformants. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of a 906-bp open reading frame whose deduced amino acid sequence had a region with homology to the aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme APH(2")-Ic and to the C-terminal domain of the bifunctional enzyme AAC(6′)-APH(2"). The gene is designated aph(2")-Id, and its observed phosphotransferase activity is designated APH(2")-Id. A PCR-generated intragenic probe hybridized to the genomic DNA from 17 of 118 enterococcal clinical isolates (108 with high-level gentamicin resistance) from five hospitals. All 17 were vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates, and pulsed-field typing revealed three distinct clones. The combination of ampicillin plus either amikacin or neomycin exhibited synergistic killing against E. casseliflavus UC73. Screening and interpretation of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococci may need to be modified to include detection of APH(2")-Id. PMID:9593155

  3. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-12

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials

  4. Interventions for Individuals With High Levels of Needle Fear

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Melanie; Taddio, Anna; Antony, Martin M.; Asmundson, Gordon J.G.; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Chambers, Christine T.; Shah, Vibhuti

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of exposure-based psychological and physical interventions for the management of high levels of needle fear and/or phobia and fainting in children and adults. Design/Methods: A systematic review identified relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of children, adults, or both with high levels of needle fear, including phobia (if not available, then populations with other specific phobias were included). Critically important outcomes were self-reported fear specific to the feared situation and stimulus (psychological interventions) or fainting (applied muscle tension). Data were pooled using standardized mean difference (SMD) or relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The systematic review included 11 trials. In vivo exposure-based therapy for children 7 years and above showed benefit on specific fear (n=234; SMD: −1.71 [95% CI: −2.72, −0.7]). In vivo exposure-based therapy with adults reduced fear of needles posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.09 [−2.04, −0.14]) but not at 1-year follow-up (n=20; SMD: −0.28 [−1.16, 0.6]). Compared with single session, a benefit was observed for multiple sessions of exposure-based therapy posttreatment (n=93; SMD: −0.66 [−1.08, −0.24]) but not after 1 year (n=83; SMD: −0.37 [−0.87, 0.13]). Non in vivo e.g., imaginal exposure-based therapy in children reduced specific fear posttreatment (n=41; SMD: −0.88 [−1.7, −0.05]) and at 3 months (n=24; SMD: −0.89 [−1.73, −0.04]). Non in vivo exposure-based therapy for adults showed benefit on specific fear (n=68; SMD: −0.62 [−1.11, −0.14]) but not procedural fear (n=17; SMD: 0.18 [−0.87, 1.23]). Applied tension showed benefit on fainting posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.16 [−2.12, −0.19]) and after 1 year (n=20; SMD: −0.97 [−1.91, −0.03]) compared with exposure alone. Conclusions: Exposure-based psychological interventions and applied muscle tension show

  5. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by closure

  6. Commercialization of biotechnology in the Asian region. Report of meeting of Asian Productivity Organization (APO) in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P L

    1990-01-01

    Detailed studies on the commercial development of biotechnology in five countries in the Asian Region (viz. Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, India) indicate a very significant role played by government in strategic planning and R & D financing. Strong growth is projected in some traditional biotechnology products e.g. amino acids such as monosodium glutamate and L-lysine, animal and human vaccines, and in environmental applications of biotechnology. The cash flow from these products will underpin future development and marketing of diagnostics, anticancer and antiviral drugs, particularly in Japan and Korea.

  7. Task alters category representations in prefrontal but not high-level visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Bugatus, Lior; Weiner, Kevin S; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2017-04-04

    A central question in neuroscience is how cognitive tasks affect category representations across the human brain. Regions in lateral occipito-temporal cortex (LOTC), ventral temporal cortex (VTC), and ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex (VLFPC) constitute the extended "what" pathway, which is considered instrumental for visual category processing. However, it is unknown (1) whether distributed responses across LOTC, VTC, and VLPC explicitly represent category, task, or some combination of both, and (2) in what way representations across these subdivisions of the extended 'what' pathway may differ. To fill these gaps in knowledge, we scanned 12 participants using fMRI to test the effect of category and task on distributed responses across LOTC, VTC, and VLPFC. Results reveal that task and category modulate responses in both high-level visual regions, as well as prefrontal cortex. However, we found fundamentally different types of representations across the brain. Distributed responses in high-level visual regions are more strongly driven by category than task, and exhibit task-independent category representations. In contrast, distributed responses in prefrontal cortex are more strongly driven by task than category, and contain task-dependent category representations. Together, these findings of differential representations across the brain support a new idea that LOTC and VTC maintain stable and separable category representations allowing efficient processing of visual information, while prefrontal cortex contains flexible representations in which separable category information may emerge only when relevant to the task.

  8. Horizontal tuning for faces originates in high-level Fusiform Face Area.

    PubMed

    Goffaux, Valerie; Duecker, Felix; Hausfeld, Lars; Schiltz, Christine; Goebel, Rainer

    2016-01-29

    Recent work indicates that the specialization of face visual perception relies on the privileged processing of horizontal angles of facial information. This suggests that stimulus properties assumed to be fully resolved in primary visual cortex (V1; e.g., orientation) in fact determine human vision until high-level stages of processing. To address this hypothesis, the present fMRI study explored the orientation sensitivity of V1 and high-level face-specialized ventral regions such as the Occipital Face Area (OFA) and Fusiform Face Area (FFA) to different angles of face information. Participants viewed face images filtered to retain information at horizontal, vertical or oblique angles. Filtered images were viewed upright, inverted and (phase-)scrambled. FFA responded most strongly to the horizontal range of upright face information; its activation pattern reliably separated horizontal from oblique ranges, but only when faces were upright. Moreover, activation patterns induced in the right FFA and the OFA by upright and inverted faces could only be separated based on horizontal information. This indicates that the specialized processing of upright face information in the OFA and FFA essentially relies on the encoding of horizontal facial cues. This pattern was not passively inherited from V1, which was found to respond less strongly to horizontal than other orientations likely due to adaptive whitening. Moreover, we found that orientation decoding accuracy in V1 was impaired for stimuli containing no meaningful shape. By showing that primary coding in V1 is influenced by high-order stimulus structure and that high-level processing is tuned to selective ranges of primary information, the present work suggests that primary and high-level levels of the visual system interact in order to modulate the processing of certain ranges of primary information depending on their relevance with respect to the stimulus and task at hand.

  9. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levich, R.A.; Stuckless, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  10. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  11. Covering Materials Incorporating Radiation-Preventing Techniques to Meet Greenhouse Cooling Challenges in Arid Regions: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Ghany, Ahmed M.; Al-Helal, Ibrahim M.; Alzahrani, Saeed M.; Alsadon, Abdullah A.; Ali, Ilias M.; Elleithy, Rabeh M.

    2012-01-01

    Cooling greenhouses is essential to provide a suitable environment for plant growth in arid regions characterized by brackish water resources. However, using conventional cooling methods are facing many challenges. Filtering out near infra-red radiation (NIR) at the greenhouse cover can significantly reduce the heating load and can solve the overheating problem of the greenhouse air. This paper is to review (i) the problems of using conventional cooling methods and (ii) the advantages of greenhouse covers that incorporate NIR reflectors. This survey focuses on how the cover type affects the transmittance of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), the reflectance or absorptance of NIR and the greenhouse air temperature. NIR-reflecting plastic films seem to be the most suitable, low cost and simple cover for greenhouses under arid conditions. Therefore, this review discusses how various additives should be incorporated in plastic film to increase its mechanical properties, durability and ability to stand up to extremely harsh weather. Presently, NIR-reflecting covers are able to reduce greenhouse air temperature by no more than 5°C. This reduction is not enough in regions where the ambient temperature may exceed 45°C in summer. There is a need to develop improved NIR-reflecting plastic film covers. PMID:22629223

  12. [Report of the third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany on 15 and 16 December 2011 at the Robert Koch Institute].

    PubMed

    Mielke, M

    2012-11-01

    Since 2004 the Robert Koch-Institute has supported the formation of regional networks for prevention of the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multiresistant pathogens (MRSA/MRP, EpiBull 5/2005)). The third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany took place on 15 and 16 December 2011. A total of 60 representatives of the Public Health Services from 12 states participated. It must be emphasized that in the meantime many successfully established networks are active and not all coordinators of existing networks could participate merely due to the organizational format. Interested parties can obtain a good overview via a link to the corresponding internet homepage of each state under http://www.rki.de → Infektionsschutz → Krankenhaushygiene → Regionale Netzwerke. In summary it was clear that the number and the activity of regional MRP networks in Germany have further increased. The networks can synergistically benefit from important experiences through the different individual focal points of each network and a corresponding exchange of ideas.

  13. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

  14. High-Level Performance Modeling of SAR Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis

    2006-01-01

    SAUSAGE (Still Another Utility for SAR Analysis that s General and Extensible) is a computer program for modeling (see figure) the performance of synthetic- aperture radar (SAR) or interferometric synthetic-aperture radar (InSAR or IFSAR) systems. The user is assumed to be familiar with the basic principles of SAR imaging and interferometry. Given design parameters (e.g., altitude, power, and bandwidth) that characterize a radar system, the software predicts various performance metrics (e.g., signal-to-noise ratio and resolution). SAUSAGE is intended to be a general software tool for quick, high-level evaluation of radar designs; it is not meant to capture all the subtleties, nuances, and particulars of specific systems. SAUSAGE was written to facilitate the exploration of engineering tradeoffs within the multidimensional space of design parameters. Typically, this space is examined through an iterative process of adjusting the values of the design parameters and examining the effects of the adjustments on the overall performance of the system at each iteration. The software is designed to be modular and extensible to enable consideration of a variety of operating modes and antenna beam patterns, including, for example, strip-map and spotlight SAR acquisitions, polarimetry, burst modes, and squinted geometries.

  15. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    DOE PAGES

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a givenmore » level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.« less

  16. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a given level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.

  17. Vestibular contributions to high-level sensorimotor functions.

    PubMed

    Medendorp, W Pieter; Selen, Luc J P

    2017-02-02

    The vestibular system, which detects motion and orientation of the head in space, is known to be important in controlling gaze to stabilize vision, to ensure postural stability and to provide our sense of self-motion. While the brain's computations underlying these functions are extensively studied, the role of the vestibular system in higher level sensorimotor functions is less clear. This review covers new research on the vestibular influence on perceptual judgments, motor decisions, and the ability to learn multiple motor actions. Guided by concepts such as optimization, inference, estimation and control, we focus on how the brain determines causal relationships between memorized and visual representations in the updating of visual space, and how vestibular, visual and efferent motor information are integrated in the estimation of body motion. We also discuss evidence that these computations involve multiple coordinate representations, some of which can be probed in parietal cortex using neuronal oscillations derived from EEG. In addition, we describe work on decision making during self-motion, showing a clear modulation of bottom-up acceleration signals on decisions in the saccadic system. Finally, we consider the importance of vestibular signals as contextual cues in motor learning and recall. Taken together, these results emphasize the impact of vestibular information on high-level sensorimotor functions, and identify future directions for theoretical, behavioral, and neurophysiological investigations.

  18. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Potential for erosion corrosion of SRS high level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    SRS high-level radioactive waste tanks will not experience erosion corrosion to any significant degree during slurry pump operations. Erosion corrosion in carbon steel structures at reported pump discharge velocities is dominated by electrochemical (corrosion) processes. Interruption of those processes, as by the addition of corrosion inhibitors, sharply reduces the rate of metal loss from erosion corrosion. The well-inhibited SRS waste tanks have a near-zero general corrosion rate, and therefore will be essentially immune to erosion corrosion. The experimental data on carbon steel erosion corrosion most relevant to SRS operations was obtained at the Hanford Site on simulated Purex waste. A metal loss rate of 2.4 mils per year was measured at a temperature of 102 C and a slurry velocity comparable to calculated SRS slurry velocities on ground specimens of the same carbon steel used in SRS waste tanks. Based on these data and the much lower expected temperatures, the metal loss rate of SRS tanks under waste removal and processing conditions should be insignificant, i.e. less than 1 mil per year.

  20. Metrics associated with NIH funding: a high-level view

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To introduce the availability of grant-to-article linkage data associated with National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants and to perform a high-level analysis of the publication outputs and impacts associated with those grants. Design Articles were linked to the grants they acknowledge using the grant acknowledgment strings in PubMed using a parsing and matching process as embodied in the NIH Scientific Publication Information Retrieval & Evaluation System system. Additional data from PubMed and citation counts from Scopus were added to the linkage data. The data comprise 2 572 576 records from 1980 to 2009. Results The data show that synergies between NIH institutes are increasing over time; 29% of current articles acknowledge grants from multiple institutes. The median time lag to publication for a new grant is 3 years. Each grant contributes to approximately 1.7 articles per year, averaged over all grant types. Articles acknowledging US Public Health Service (PHS, which includes NIH) funding are cited twice as much as US-authored articles acknowledging no funding source. Articles acknowledging both PHS funding and a non-US government funding source receive on average 40% more citations that those acknowledging PHS funding sources alone. Conclusion The US PHS is effective at funding research with a higher-than-average impact. The data are amenable to further and much more detailed analysis. PMID:21527408

  1. Hemipelvectomy: high-level amputation surgery and prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Matthew T; Kralovec, Michael E; Andrews, Karen L

    2014-07-01

    The hemipelvectomy, most commonly performed for pelvic tumor resection, is one of the most technically demanding and invasive surgical procedures performed today. Adequate soft tissue coverage and wound complications after hemipelvectomy are important considerations. Rehabilitation after hemipelvectomy is optimally managed by a multidisciplinary integrated team. Understanding the functional outcomes for this population assists the rehabilitation team to counsel patients, plan goals, and determine discharge needs. The most important rehabilitation goal is the optimal restoration of the patient's functional independence. Factors such as age, sex, etiology, level of amputation, and general health play important roles in determining prosthetic use. The three main criteria for successful prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with high-level amputation are comfort, function, and cosmesis. Recent advances in hip and knee joints have contributed to increased function. Prosthetic use after hemipelvectomy improves balance and decreases the need for a gait aid. Using a prosthesis helps maintain muscle strength and tone, cardiovascular health, and functional mobility. With new advances in prosthetic components, patients are choosing to use their prostheses for primary mobility.

  2. ATW system impact on high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products.

  3. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Aymanns, Simone; Mauerer, Stefanie; van Zandbergen, Ger; Wolz, Christiane; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb) promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  4. High Level Waste Feed Certification in Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Thien, Micheal G.; Wells, Beric E.; Adamson, Duane J.

    2010-03-01

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE’s River Protection Project (RPP) mission modeling and WTP facility modeling assume that individual 3785 cubic meter (1 million gallon) HLW feed tanks are homogenously mixed, representatively sampled, and consistently delivered to the WTP. It has been demonstrated that homogenous mixing of HLW sludge in Hanford DSTs is not likely achievable with the baseline design thereby causing representative sampling and consistent feed delivery to be more difficult. Inconsistent feed to the WTP could cause additional batch to batch operational adjustments that reduces operating efficiency and has the potential to increase the overall mission length. The Hanford mixing and sampling demonstration program will identify DST mixing performance capability, will evaluate representative sampling techniques, and will estimate feed batch consistency. An evaluation of demonstration program results will identify potential mission improvement considerations that will help ensure successful mission completion. This paper will discuss the history, progress, and future activities that will define and mitigate the mission risk.

  5. Identification of areas with high levels of untreated dental caries.

    PubMed

    Ellwood, R P; O'Mullane, D M

    1996-02-01

    In order to examine the geographical variation of dental health within 10 county districts in North Wales, 3538 children were examined. The associations between three demographic indicators, based on the 1981 OPCS census, and dental health outcomes were assessed for electoral wards within the county districts. The Townsend and Jarman indices were the first two indicators employed and the third was based on a mathematical model representing the variation in the mean number of untreated decayed surfaces per person for the wards. This model was developed using the children examined in the five most westerly county districts. Using the data derived from the five most easterly county districts, the three indicators were assessed. All three showed strong correlations (r > or = 0.88) with dental health. These results indicate that measures of dental health based on large administrative units may obscure variation within them. It is concluded that geographical methods of this type may be useful for targeting dental resources at small areas with high levels of need.

  6. Why consider subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G. R.; Hollister, C. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Leinen, M.

    1980-01-01

    Large areas of the deep seabed warrant assessment as potential disposal sites for high-level radioactive waste because: (1) they are far from seismically and tectonically active lithospheric plate boundaries; (2) they are far from active or young volcanos; (3) they contain thick layers of very uniform fine-grained clays; (4) they are devoid of natural resources likely to be exploited in the forseeable future; (5) the geologic and oceanographic processes governing the deposition of sediments in such areas are well understood, and are remarkably insensitive to past oceanographic and climatic changes; and (6) sedmentary records of tens of millions of years of slow, uninterrupted deposition of fine grained clay support predictions of the future stability of such sites. Data accumulated to date on the permeability, ion-retardation properties, and mechanical strength of pelagic clay sediments indicate that they can act as a primary barrier to the escape of buried nuclides. Work in progress should determine within the current decade whether subseabed disposal is environmentally acceptable and technically feasible, as well as address the legal, political and social issues raised by this new concept.

  7. Pupil responses to high-level image content.

    PubMed

    Naber, Marnix; Nakayama, Ken

    2013-05-17

    The link between arousal and pupil dilation is well studied, but it is less known that other cognitive processes can trigger pupil responses. Here we present evidence that pupil responses can be induced by high-level scene processing, independent of changes in low-level features or arousal. In Experiment 1, we recorded changes in pupil diameter of observers while they viewed a variety of natural scenes with or without a sun that were presented either upright or inverted. Image inversion had the strongest effect on the pupil responses. The pupil constricted more to the onset of upright images as compared to inverted images. Furthermore, the amplitudes of pupil constrictions to viewing images containing a sun were larger relative to control images. In Experiment 2, we presented cartoon versions of upright and inverted pictures that included either a sun or a moon. The image backgrounds were kept identical across conditions. Similar to Experiment 1, upright images triggered pupil constrictions with larger amplitudes than inverted images and images of the sun evoked greater pupil contraction than images of the moon. We suggest that the modulations of pupil responses were due to higher-level interpretations of image content.

  8. Ultrafilter Conditions for High Level Waste Sludge Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2006-08-28

    An evaluation of the optimal filtration conditions was performed based on test data obtained from filtration of a High Level Waste Sludge sample from the Hanford tank farms. This evaluation was performed using the anticipated configuration for the Waste Treatment Plant at the Hanford site. Testing was performed to identify the optimal pressure drop and cross flow velocity for filtration at both high and low solids loading. However, this analysis indicates that the actual filtration rate achieved is relatively insensitive to these conditions under anticipated operating conditions. The maximum filter flux was obtained by adjusting the system control valve pressure from 400 to 650 kPa while the filter feed concentration increased from 5 to 20 wt%. However, operating the system with a constant control valve pressure drop of 500 kPa resulted in a less than 1% reduction in the average filter flux. Also note that allowing the control valve pressure to swing as much as +/- 20% resulted in less than a 5% decrease in filter flux.

  9. High-level simulation of JWST event-driven operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R.; Kinzel, W.

    2012-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has an event-driven architecture: an onboard Observation Plan Executive (OPE) executes an Observation Plan (OP) consisting of a sequence of observing units (visits). During normal operations, ground action to update the OP is only expected to be necessary about once a week. This architecture is designed to tolerate uncertainty in visit duration, and occasional visit failures due to inability to acquire guide stars, without creating gaps in the observing timeline. The operations concept is complicated by the need for occasional scheduling of timecritical science and engineering visits that cannot tolerate much slippage without inducing gaps, and also by onboard momentum management. A prototype Python tool called the JWST Observation Plan Execution Simulator (JOPES) has recently been developed to simulate OP execution at a high level and analyze the response of the Observatory and OPE to both nominal and contingency scenarios. Incorporating both deterministic and stochastic behavior, JOPES has potential to be a powerful tool for several purposes: requirements analysis, system verification, systems engineering studies, and test data generation. It has already been successfully applied to a study of overhead estimation bias: whether to use conservative or average-case estimates for timing components that are inherently uncertain, such as those involving guide-star acquisition. JOPES is being enhanced to support interfaces to the operational Proposal Planning Subsystem (PPS) now being developed, with the objective of "closing the loop" between testing and simulation by feeding simulated event logs back into the PPS.

  10. The GRAVITY instrument software/high-level software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtscher, Leonard; Wieprecht, Ekkehard; Ott, Thomas; Kok, Yitping; Yazici, Senol; Anugu, Narsireddy; Dembet, Roderick; Fedou, Pierre; Lacour, Sylvestre; Ott, Jürgen; Paumard, Thibaut; Lapeyrere, Vincent; Kervella, Pierre; Abuter, Roberto; Pozna, Eszter; Eisenhauer, Frank; Blind, Nicolas; Genzel, Reinhard; Gillessen, Stefan; Hans, Oliver; Haug, Marcus; Haussmann, Frank; Kellner, Stefan; Lippa, Magdalena; Pfuhl, Oliver; Sturm, Eckhard; Weber, Johannes; Amorim, Antonio; Brandner, Wolfgang; Rousselet-Perraut, Karine; Perrin, Guy S.; Straubmeier, Christian; Schöller, Markus

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY is the four-beam, near-infrared, AO-assisted, fringe tracking, astrometric and imaging instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). It is requiring the development of one of the most complex instrument software systems ever built for an ESO instrument. Apart from its many interfaces and interdependencies, one of the most challenging aspects is the overall performance and stability of this complex system. The three infrared detectors and the fast reflective memory network (RMN) recorder contribute a total data rate of up to 20 MiB/s accumulating to a maximum of 250 GiB of data per night. The detectors, the two instrument Local Control Units (LCUs) as well as the five LCUs running applications under TAC (Tools for Advanced Control) architecture, are interconnected with fast Ethernet, RMN fibers and dedicated fiber connections as well as signals for the time synchronization. Here we give a simplified overview of all subsystems of GRAVITY and their interfaces and discuss two examples of high-level applications during observations: the acquisition procedure and the gathering and merging of data to the final FITS file.

  11. The LHCb Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger Processing Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Gaspar, C.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN collects collisions of particle bunches at 40 MHz. After a first level of hardware trigger with an output rate of 1 MHz, the physically interesting collisions are selected by running dedicated trigger algorithms in the High Level Trigger (HLT) computing farm. This farm consists of up to roughly 25000 CPU cores in roughly 1750 physical nodes each equipped with up to 4 TB local storage space. This work describes the LHCb online system with an emphasis on the developments implemented during the current long shutdown (LS1). We will elaborate the architecture to treble the available CPU power of the HLT farm and the technicalities to determine and verify precise calibration and alignment constants which are fed to the HLT event selection procedure. We will describe how the constants are fed into a two stage HLT event selection facility using extensively the local disk buffering capabilities on the worker nodes. With the installed disk buffers, the CPU resources can be used during periods of up to ten days without beams. These periods in the past accounted to more than 70% of the total time.

  12. Health literacy and the Millennium Development Goals: United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) regional meeting background paper (abstracted).

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a health literacy "lens" to look at key global health challenges, including the achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the reduction of disease burden due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Available global evidence is summarized related to: assessment of the impact of health literacy on health and development; identification of measures for reporting progress; exploring ways to strengthen multisectoral collaboration at the national, regional, and international levels to undertake joint actions for increasing health literacy; finding ways to promote better access and use of information through information and communication technology and empowerment; and building capacity for sustained action to increase health literacy. Key action messages are identified. Findings presented informed the 2009 ECOSOC Ministerial Declaration on Health Literacy.

  13. Qualification of Innovative High Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, D.; Gokaltun, S.; Varona, J.; Awwad, A.; Roelant, D.; Srivastava, R.

    2008-07-01

    In the past, some of the pipelines have plugged during high level waste (HLW) transfers resulting in schedule delays and increased costs. Furthermore, pipeline plugging has been cited by the 'best and brightest' technical review as one of the major issues that can result in unplanned outages at the Waste Treatment Plant causing inconsistent operation. As the DOE moves toward a more active high level waste retrieval, the site engineers will be faced with increasing cross-site pipeline waste slurry transfers that will result in increased probability of a pipeline getting plugged. Hence, availability of a pipeline unplugging tool/technology is crucial to ensure smooth operation of the waste transfers and in ensuring tank farm cleanup milestones are met. FIU had earlier tested and evaluated various unplugging technologies through an industry call. Based on mockup testing, two technologies were identified that could withstand the rigors of operation in a radioactive environment and with the ability to handle sharp 90 elbows. We present results of the second phase of detailed testing and evaluation of pipeline unplugging technologies and the objective is to qualify these pipeline unplugging technologies for subsequent deployment at a DOE facility. The current phase of testing and qualification comprises of a heavily instrumented 3-inch diameter (full-scale) pipeline facilitating extensive data acquisition for design optimization and performance evaluation, as it applies to three types of plugs atypical of the DOE HLW waste. Furthermore, the data from testing at three different lengths of pipe in conjunction with the physics of the process will assist in modeling the unplugging phenomenon that will then be used to scale-up process parameters and system variables for longer and site typical pipe lengths, which can extend as much as up to 19,000 ft. Detailed information resulting from the testing will provide the DOE end-user with sufficient data and understanding of the

  14. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James

    2016-07-01

    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem

  15. Review of high-level waste form properties. [146 bibliographies

    SciTech Connect

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison.

  16. High-level waste issues and resolutions document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Issues and Resolutions Document recognizes US Department of Energy (DOE) complex-wide HLW issues and offers potential corrective actions for resolving these issues. Westinghouse Management and Operations (M&O) Contractors are effectively managing HLW for the Department of Energy at four sites: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), and Hanford Reservation. Each site is at varying stages of processing HLW into a more manageable form. This HLW Issues and Resolutions Document identifies five primary issues that must be resolved in order to reach the long-term objective of HLW repository disposal. As the current M&O contractor at DOE`s most difficult waste problem sites, Westinghouse recognizes that they have the responsibility to help solve some of the complexes` HLW problems in a cost effective manner by encouraging the M&Os to work together by sharing expertise, eliminating duplicate efforts, and sharing best practices. Pending an action plan, Westinghouse M&Os will take the initiative on those corrective actions identified as the responsibility of an M&O. This document captures issues important to the management of HLW. The proposed resolutions contained within this document set the framework for the M&Os and DOE work cooperatively to develop an action plan to solve some of the major complex-wide problems. Dialogue will continue between the M&Os, DOE, and other regulatory agencies to work jointly toward the goal of storing, treating, and immobilizing HLW for disposal in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost effective manner.

  17. High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing.

    PubMed

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

    2015-02-20

    High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself.

  18. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition.

  19. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  20. Comparative genome analysis of high-level penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Tait-Kamradt, Amelia G; Cronan, Melissa; Dougherty, Thomas J

    2009-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with very high levels of penicillin resistance (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] >or=8 microg/ml) emerged in the 1990 s. Previous studies have traced the changes in penicillin binding proteins (PBP) that result in decreased penicillin susceptibility, and the role of several PBP genes in high-level resistance. In the present study, we investigated the changes that occurred at the two highest levels of penicillin resistance using NimbleGen's Comparative Genome Sequencing (CGS) technology. DNA from a highly resistant (Pen MIC 16 microg/ml) pneumococcus was used to serially transform the R6 strain to high-level resistance. Four distinct levels of penicillin resistance above the susceptible R6 strain (MIC 0.016 microg/ml) were identified. Using CGS technology, the entire genome sequences of the two highest levels of resistant transformants were examined for changes associated with the resistance phenotypes. At the third level of resistance, changes in PBPs 1a, 2b, and 2x were found, very similar to previous reports. At the fourth resistance level, two additional changes were observed in the R6 transformants. More changes were observed in PBP2x, as well as in peptidoglycan GlcNAc deacetylase (pdgA), which had a missense mutation in the coding region. Genetic transformation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products generated from the high-level resistant parent containing either the additional PBP2x or mutant pdgA gene did not increase the MIC of the third-level transformant. Only when both PCR products were simultaneously transformed into the third-level transformant did colonies emerge that were at the highest level of resistance (16-32 microg/ml), equivalent to the highly resistant parent strain. This is the first instance of the involvement of a variant pdgA gene in penicillin resistance. It is also clear from these experiments and the literature that there are multiple paths to the pneumococcus achieving high-level

  1. JET MIXING ANALYSIS FOR SRS HIGH-LEVEL WASTE RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2011-07-05

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank to ensure uniformity of the discharge stream. Mixing is accomplished with one to four slurry pumps located within the tank liquid. The slurry pump may be fixed in position or they may rotate depending on the specific mixing requirements. The high-level waste in Tank 48 contains insoluble solids in the form of potassium tetraphenyl borate compounds (KTPB), monosodium titanate (MST), and sludge. Tank 48 is equipped with 4 slurry pumps, which are intended to suspend the insoluble solids prior to transfer of the waste to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) process. The FBSR process is being designed for a normal feed of 3.05 wt% insoluble solids. A chemical characterization study has shown the insoluble solids concentration is approximately 3.05 wt% when well-mixed. The project is requesting a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) mixing study from SRNL to determine the solids behavior with 2, 3, and 4 slurry pumps in operation and an estimate of the insoluble solids concentration at the suction of the transfer pump to the FBSR process. The impact of cooling coils is not considered in the current work. The work consists of two principal objectives by taking a CFD approach: (1) To estimate insoluble solids concentration transferred from Tank 48 to the Waste Feed Tank in the FBSR process and (2) To assess the impact of different combinations of four slurry pumps on insoluble solids suspension and mixing in Tank 48. For this work, several different combinations of a maximum of four pumps are considered to determine the resulting flow patterns and local flow velocities which are thought to be associated with sludge particle mixing. Two different elevations of pump nozzles are used for an assessment of the flow patterns on the tank mixing. Pump design and operating parameters used for the analysis are summarized in Table 1. The baseline

  2. Organization of high-level visual cortex in human infants

    PubMed Central

    Deen, Ben; Richardson, Hilary; Dilks, Daniel D.; Takahashi, Atsushi; Keil, Boris; Wald, Lawrence L.; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    How much of the structure of the human mind and brain is already specified at birth, and how much arises from experience? In this article, we consider the test case of extrastriate visual cortex, where a highly systematic functional organization is present in virtually every normal adult, including regions preferring behaviourally significant stimulus categories, such as faces, bodies, and scenes. Novel methods were developed to scan awake infants with fMRI, while they viewed multiple categories of visual stimuli. Here we report that the visual cortex of 4–6-month-old infants contains regions that respond preferentially to abstract categories (faces and scenes), with a spatial organization similar to adults. However, precise response profiles and patterns of activity across multiple visual categories differ between infants and adults. These results demonstrate that the large-scale organization of category preferences in visual cortex is adult-like within a few months after birth, but is subsequently refined through development. PMID:28072399

  3. Development of Crystal-Tolerant High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Schaible, Micah J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Arrigoni, Alyssa L.; Tate, Rachel M.

    2010-12-17

    Twenty five glasses were formulated. They were batched from HLW AZ-101 simulant or raw chemicals and melted and tested with a series of tests to elucidate the effect of spinel-forming components (Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, and Zn), Al, and noble metals (Rh2O3 and RuO2) on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the high-level waste (HLW) melter. In addition, the processing properties of glasses, such as the viscosity and TL, were measured as a function of temperature and composition. Furthermore, the settling of spinel crystals in transparent low-viscosity fluids was studied at room temperature to access the shape factor and hindered settling coefficient of spinel crystals in the Stokes equation. The experimental results suggest that Ni is the most troublesome component of all the studied spinel-forming components producing settling layers of up to 10.5 mm in just 20 days in Ni-rich glasses if noble metals or a higher concentration of Fe was not introduced in the glass. The layer of this thickness can potentially plug the bottom of the riser, preventing glass from being discharged from the melter. The noble metals, Fe, and Al were the components that significantly slowed down or stopped the accumulation of spinel at the bottom. Particles of Rh2O3 and RuO2, hematite and nepheline, acted as nucleation sites significantly increasing the number of crystals and therefore decreasing the average crystal size. The settling rate of ≤10-μm crystal size around the settling velocity of crystals was too low to produce thick layers. The experimental data for the thickness of settled layers in the glasses prepared from AZ-101 simulant were used to build a linear empirical model that can predict crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass. The developed model predicts the thicknesses of accumulated layers quite well, R2 = 0.985, and can be become an efficient tool for the formulation

  4. Preliminary Waste Form Compliance Plan for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    B. A. Staples; T. P. O'Holleran

    1999-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has specific technical and documentation requirements for high-level waste (HLW) that is to be placed in a federal repository. This document describes in general terms the strategy to be used at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that vitrified HLW, if produced at the INEEL, meets these requirements. Waste form, canister, quality assurance, and documentation specifications are discussed. Compliance strategy is given, followed by an overview of how this strategy would be implemented for each specification.

  5. Electric Grid Expansion Planning with High Levels of Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W.; You, Shutang; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Liu, Yilu

    2016-02-01

    Renewables are taking a large proportion of generation capacity in U.S. power grids. As their randomness has increasing influence on power system operation, it is necessary to consider their impact on system expansion planning. To this end, this project studies the generation and transmission expansion co-optimization problem of the US Eastern Interconnection (EI) power grid with a high wind power penetration rate. In this project, the generation and transmission expansion problem for the EI system is modeled as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. This study analyzed a time series creation method to capture the diversity of load and wind power across balancing regions in the EI system. The obtained time series can be easily introduced into the MIP co-optimization problem and then solved robustly through available MIP solvers. Simulation results show that the proposed time series generation method and the expansion co-optimization model and can improve the expansion result significantly after considering the diversity of wind and load across EI regions. The improved expansion plan that combines generation and transmission will aid system planners and policy makers to maximize the social welfare. This study shows that modelling load and wind variations and diversities across balancing regions will produce significantly different expansion result compared with former studies. For example, if wind is modeled in more details (by increasing the number of wind output levels) so that more wind blocks are considered in expansion planning, transmission expansion will be larger and the expansion timing will be earlier. Regarding generation expansion, more wind scenarios will slightly reduce wind generation expansion in the EI system and increase the expansion of other generation such as gas. Also, adopting detailed wind scenarios will reveal that it may be uneconomic to expand transmission networks for transmitting a large amount of wind power through a long distance

  6. Corrosion issues in high-level nuclear waste containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asl, Samin Sharifi

    In this dissertation different aspects of corrosion and electrochemistry of copper, candidate canister material in Scandinavian high-level nuclear waste disposal program, including the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions that are predicted to occur in the practical system have been studied. A comprehensive thermodynamic study of copper in contact with granitic groundwater of the type and composition that is expected in the Forsmark repository in Sweden has been performed. Our primary objective was to ascertain whether copper would exist in the thermodynamically immune state in the repository, in which case corrosion could not occur and the issue of corrosion in the assessment of the storage technology would be moot. In spite of the fact that metallic copper has been found to exist for geological times in granitic geological formations, copper is well-known to be activated from the immune state to corrode by specific species that may exist in the environment. The principal activator of copper is known to be sulfur in its various forms, including sulfide (H2S, HS-, S2-), polysulfide (H2Sx, HSx -, Sx 2-), poly sulfur thiosulfate ( SxO3 2-), and polythionates (SxO6 2-). A comprehensive study of this aspect of copper chemistry has never been reported, and yet an understanding of this issue is vital for assessing whether copper is a suitable material for fabricating canisters for the disposal of HLNW. Our study identifies and explores those species that activate copper; these species include sulfur-containing entities as well as other, non-sulfur species that may be present in the repository. The effects of temperature, solution pH, and hydrogen pressure on the kinetics of the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) on copper in borate buffer solution have been studied by means of steady-state polarization measurements, including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In order to obtain electrokinetic parameters, such as the exchange current density and the

  7. Phylogeographic reconstruction of a bacterial species with high levels of lateral gene transfer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, T.; Giffard, P.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, S.; Auerbach, R.; Hornstra, H.; Tuanyok, A.; Price, E.P.; Glass, M.B.; Leadem, B.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, J. S.; Allan, G.J.; Foster, J.T.; Wagner, D.M.; Okinaka, R.T.; Sim, S.H.; Pearson, O.; Wu, Z.; Chang, J.; Kaul, R.; Hoffmaster, A.R.; Brettin, T.S.; Robison, R.A.; Mayo, M.; Gee, J.E.; Tan, P.; Currie, B.J.; Keim, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Phylogeographic reconstruction of some bacterial populations is hindered by low diversity coupled with high levels of lateral gene transfer. A comparison of recombination levels and diversity at seven housekeeping genes for eleven bacterial species, most of which are commonly cited as having high levels of lateral gene transfer shows that the relative contributions of homologous recombination versus mutation for Burkholderia pseudomallei is over two times higher than for Streptococcus pneumoniae and is thus the highest value yet reported in bacteria. Despite the potential for homologous recombination to increase diversity, B. pseudomallei exhibits a relative lack of diversity at these loci. In these situations, whole genome genotyping of orthologous shared single nucleotide polymorphism loci, discovered using next generation sequencing technologies, can provide very large data sets capable of estimating core phylogenetic relationships. We compared and searched 43 whole genome sequences of B. pseudomallei and its closest relatives for single nucleotide polymorphisms in orthologous shared regions to use in phylogenetic reconstruction. Results: Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of >14,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms yielded completely resolved trees for these 43 strains with high levels of statistical support. These results enable a better understanding of a separate analysis of population differentiation among >1,700 B. pseudomallei isolates as defined by sequence data from seven housekeeping genes. We analyzed this larger data set for population structure and allele sharing that can be attributed to lateral gene transfer. Our results suggest that despite an almost panmictic population, we can detect two distinct populations of B. pseudomallei that conform to biogeographic patterns found in many plant and animal species. That is, separation along Wallace's Line, a biogeographic boundary between Southeast Asia and Australia. Conclusion: We describe an

  8. Phylogeographic reconstruction of a bacterial species with high levels of lateral gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Phylogeographic reconstruction of some bacterial populations is hindered by low diversity coupled with high levels of lateral gene transfer. A comparison of recombination levels and diversity at seven housekeeping genes for eleven bacterial species, most of which are commonly cited as having high levels of lateral gene transfer shows that the relative contributions of homologous recombination versus mutation for Burkholderia pseudomallei is over two times higher than for Streptococcus pneumoniae and is thus the highest value yet reported in bacteria. Despite the potential for homologous recombination to increase diversity, B. pseudomallei exhibits a relative lack of diversity at these loci. In these situations, whole genome genotyping of orthologous shared single nucleotide polymorphism loci, discovered using next generation sequencing technologies, can provide very large data sets capable of estimating core phylogenetic relationships. We compared and searched 43 whole genome sequences of B. pseudomallei and its closest relatives for single nucleotide polymorphisms in orthologous shared regions to use in phylogenetic reconstruction. Results Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of >14,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms yielded completely resolved trees for these 43 strains with high levels of statistical support. These results enable a better understanding of a separate analysis of population differentiation among >1,700 B. pseudomallei isolates as defined by sequence data from seven housekeeping genes. We analyzed this larger data set for population structure and allele sharing that can be attributed to lateral gene transfer. Our results suggest that despite an almost panmictic population, we can detect two distinct populations of B. pseudomallei that conform to biogeographic patterns found in many plant and animal species. That is, separation along Wallace's Line, a biogeographic boundary between Southeast Asia and Australia. Conclusion We describe an

  9. Developing a Non-Formal Education and Literacy Database in the Asia-Pacific Region. Final Report of the Expert Group Consultation Meeting (Dhaka, Bangladesh, December 15-18, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The objectives of the Expert Group Consultation Meeting for Developing a Non-Formal Education and Literacy Database in the Asia-Pacific Region were: to exchange information and review the state-of-the-art in the field of data collection, analysis and indicators of non-formal education and literacy programs; to examine and review the set of…

  10. The Relationship of the State Coordinating Agency with the Executive and Legislative Divisions of State Government in Meeting Budget Needs of Higher Education Systems. Proceedings of Ten-State Regional Conference (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, December 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Higher Education Executive Officers Association.

    Proceedings of a 10-state 1976 regional conference on the relationship of the state coordinating agency with the executive and legislative divisions of state government in meeting budget needs for higher education systems are presented as part of an inservice education program. The participating states were Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas,…

  11. Cost evaluation of a DSN high level real-time language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, M.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that the implementation of a DSN High Level Real Time Language will reduce real time software expenditures is explored. The High Level Real Time Language is found to be both affordable and cost-effective.

  12. High-level waste program progress report, April 1, 1980-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The highlights of this report are on: waste management analysis for nuclear fuel cycles; fixation of waste in concrete; study of ceramic and cermet waste forms; alternative high-level waste forms development; and high-level waste container development.

  13. LANL High-Level Model (HLM) database development letter report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Traditional methods of evaluating munitions have been able to successfully compare like munition`s capabilities. On the modern battlefield, however, many different types of munitions compete for the same set of targets. Assessing the overall stockpile capability and proper mix of these weapons is not a simple task, as their use depends upon the specific geographic region of the world, the threat capabilities, the tactics and operational strategy used by both the US and Threat commanders, and of course the type and quantity of munitions available to the CINC. To sort out these types of issues, a hierarchical set of dynamic, two-sided combat simulations are generally used. The DoD has numerous suitable models for this purpose, but rarely are the models focused on munitions expenditures. Rather, they are designed to perform overall platform assessments and force mix evaluations. However, in some cases, the models could be easily adapted to provide this information, since it is resident in the model`s database. Unfortunately, these simulations` complexity (their greatest strength) precludes quick turnaround assessments of the type and scope required by senior decision-makers.

  14. Is it possible to demonstrate compliance with the regulations for high-level-waste repositories?

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, F.W.

    1992-12-31

    The regulations that currently govern repositories for spent fuel and high-level waste require demonstrations that are sometimes described as impossible to make. To make them will require an understanding of the current and the future phenomena at repository sites; it will also require credible estimates of the probabilities that the phenomena will occur in the distant future. Experts in many fields{emdash}earth sciences, statistics, numerical modeling, and the law{emdash}have questioned whether any amount of data collection can allow modelers to meet these requirements with enough confidence to satisfy the regulators. In recent years some performance assessments have begun to shed light on this question because they use results of actual site investigations. Although these studies do not settle the question definitively, a review of a recent total-system assessment suggests that compliance may be possible to demonstrate. The review also suggests, however, that the demonstration can be only at the ``reasonable`` levels of assurance mentioned, but not defined, in the regulations.

  15. Gaseous release of carbon-14: Why the high level waste regulations should be changed

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1991-04-01

    The high-level nuclear waste regulations pertaining to gaseous release of carbon-14 from a repository should be changed to allow greater release, for several reasons. Some of them are as follows. First, the total amount of carbon-14 that would be placed in a repository is small compared to that produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic rays. Second, the dose that would result to an individual from total release of repository carbon-14 would be very small compared to that from natural radiation sources and would be well below the ``Below Regulatory Concern`` criterion. Third, the limits on gaseous carbon-14 release from a repository have been set unreasonably low compared to the limits set for carbon-14 release from other fuel cycle facilities. Fourth, the additional cost for waste packages to attempt to meet the regulations for carbon-14 release would likely be of the order of a billion dollars or more, too high to be justified by the small reduction in dose that might result. 32 refs.

  16. Studies of Potential Inhibitors of Sodium Aluminosilicate Scales in High-Level Waste Evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.; Fellinger, T.L.; Hobbs, D.T.; Badheka, N.P.; Wilmarth, W.R.

    2008-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 underground storage tanks used to store High Level Waste (HLW). The tank space in these tanks must be managed to support the continued operation of key facilities. The reduction of the tank volumes in these tanks are accomplished through the use of three atmospheric pressure HLW evaporators. For a decade, evaporation of highly alkaline HLW containing dissolved aluminate and silicate has produced sodium aluminosilicate scales causing both operation and criticality hazards in the 2H Evaporator System. Segregation of aluminum-rich wastes from silicate-rich wastes minimizes the amount of scale produced and reduces cleaning expenses, but does not eliminate the scaling nor increases operation flexibility in waste process. Similar issues have affected the aluminum refining industry for many decades. Over the past several years, successful commercial products have been identified to eliminate aluminosilicate fouling in the aluminum industry, but have not been utilized in a nuclear environment. Laboratory quantities of three proprietary aluminosilicate scale inhibitors have been produced and been shown to prevent formation of scales. SRNL has been actively testing these potential inhibitors to examine their radiation stability, radiolytic degradation behaviors, and downstream impacts to determine their viability within the HLW system. One of the tested polymers successfully meets the established criteria for application in the nuclear environment. This paper will describe a summary of the methodology used to prioritize laboratory testing protocols based on potential impacts/risks identified for inhibitor deployment at SRS. (authors)

  17. STUDIES OF POTENTIAL INHIBITORS OF SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE SCALES IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE EVAPORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, B; Lawrence Oji, L; Terri Fellinger, T; David Hobbs, D; Nilesh Badheka, N

    2008-02-27

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 underground storage tanks used to store High Level Waste (HLW). The tank space in these tanks must be managed to support the continued operation of key facilities. The reduction of the tank volumes in these tanks are accomplished through the use of three atmospheric pressure HLW evaporators. For a decade, evaporation of highly alkaline HLW containing aluminum and silicates has produced sodium aluminosilicate scales causing both operation and criticality hazards in the 2H Evaporator System. Segregation of aluminum-rich wastes from silicate-rich wastes minimizes the amount of scale produced and reduces cleaning expenses, but does not eliminate the scaling nor increases operation flexibility in waste process. Similar issues have affected the aluminum refining industry for many decades. Over the past several years, successful commercial products have been identified to eliminate aluminosilicate fouling in the aluminum industry, but have not been utilized in a nuclear environment. Laboratory quantities of three proprietary aluminosilicate scale inhibitors have been produced and been shown to prevent formation of scales. SRNL has been actively testing these potential inhibitors to examine their radiation stability, radiolytic degradation behaviors, and downstream impacts to determine their viability within the HLW system. One of the tested polymers successfully meets the established criteria for application in the nuclear environment. This paper will describe a summary of the methodology used to prioritize laboratory testing protocols based on potential impacts/risks identified for inhibitor deployment at SRS.

  18. The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A. A.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Hrma, Pavel; Matyas, Josef

    2012-11-15

    Spinel crystals precipitate in high-level waste glasses containing Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn, and Ru. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}d) of spinel as the primary crystallization phase is a function of glass composition, and the spinel solubility (c{sub o}) is a function of both glass composition and temperature (T). Previously reported models of T{sub L} as a function of composition are based on T{sub L} measured directly, which requires laborious experimental procedures. Viewing the curve of c{sub o} versus T as the liquidus line allows a significant broadening of the composition region for model fitting. This paper estimates T{sub L} as a function of composition based on c{sub o} data obtained with the X-ray diffraction technique.

  19. The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef

    2014-01-15

    Spinel crystals precipitate in high-level waste glasses containing Fe, Cr, Ni , Mn, Zn, and Ru. The liquidus temperature (TL) of spinel as the primary crystallization phase is a function of glass composition and the spinel solubility (c0) is a function of both glass composition and temperature (T). Previously reported models of TL as a function of composition are based on TL measured directly, which requires laborious experimental procedures. Viewing the curve of c0 versus T as the liquidus line allows a significant broadening of the composition region for model fitting. This paper estimates TL as a function of composition based on c0 data obtained with the X-ray diffraction technique.

  20. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  1. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  2. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  3. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  4. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.725 - High-level ethanol-gasoline blends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-level ethanol-gasoline blends... Calibration Standards § 1065.725 High-level ethanol-gasoline blends. For testing vehicles capable of operating on a high-level ethanol-gasoline blend, create a test fuel as follows: (a) Add ethanol to an E10...

  6. Assessment, evaluation, and testing of technologies for environmental restoration, decontamination, and decommissioning and high level waste management. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Uzochukwu, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management objectives are being assessed and evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objectives of the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

  7. Aspects of possible magmatic disruption of a high-level radioactive waste repository in southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.; Amos, R.; Perry, F.; Self, S.; Vaniman, D.

    1982-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) region is located within the central section of a north-northeast-trending basaltic volcanic belt of late Cenozoic age, a part of the Quaternary volcanic province of the Great Basin. Future volcanism within the belt represents a potential hazard to storage of high-level radioactive waste within a buried repository located in the southwestern NTS. The hazards of future volcanism in the region are being characterized through a combination of volcanic hazards studies, probability determinations, and consequence analyses. Basaltic activity within the NTS regions is divided into two age groups consisting of relatively large-volume silicic cycle basalts (8 to 10 Myr) and rift basalts (< 8 to 0.3 Myr). This paper describes the processes of basaltic magmatism ranging from derivation of basalt melts at depth, through ascent through the upper mantle and crust, to surface eruption. Each stage in the evolution and dispersal of basaltic magma is described, and the disruption and potential dispersal of stored radioactive waste is evaluated. These data document areas of knowns and unknowns in the processes of basaltic volcanisms and provide background data necessary to assist calculations of radiation release levels due to disruption of a repository. 9 figures, 11 tables.

  8. Contour junctions underlie neural representations of scene categories in high-level human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Choo, Heeyoung; Walther, Dirk B

    2016-07-15

    Humans efficiently grasp complex visual environments, making highly consistent judgments of entry-level category despite their high variability in visual appearance. How does the human brain arrive at the invariant neural representations underlying categorization of real-world environments? We here show that the neural representation of visual environments in scene-selective human visual cortex relies on statistics of contour junctions, which provide cues for the three-dimensional arrangement of surfaces in a scene. We manipulated line drawings of real-world environments such that statistics of contour orientations or junctions were disrupted. Manipulated and intact line drawings were presented to participants in an fMRI experiment. Scene categories were decoded from neural activity patterns in the parahippocampal place area (PPA), the occipital place area (OPA) and other visual brain regions. Disruption of junctions but not orientations led to a drastic decrease in decoding accuracy in the PPA and OPA, indicating the reliance of these areas on intact junction statistics. Accuracy of decoding from early visual cortex, on the other hand, was unaffected by either image manipulation. We further show that the correlation of error patterns between decoding from the scene-selective brain areas and behavioral experiments is contingent on intact contour junctions. Finally, a searchlight analysis exposes the reliance of visually active brain regions on different sets of contour properties. Statistics of contour length and curvature dominate neural representations of scene categories in early visual areas and contour junctions in high-level scene-selective brain regions.

  9. Today's Environmental Technologies-Innovative Solutions for Regional Issues, U.S. EPA ETV and SBIR Programs Regional Workshop, October 7-8, 2008, U.S. EPA Region 2, New York City, New York, Meeting Summary Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) and Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Programs hosted a workshop on October 7–8, 2008, at the EPA Region 2 office in New York City, New York. The goals of the workshop were to: (1) ...

  10. High level of intergenera gene exchange shapes the evolution of haloarchaea in an isolated Antarctic lake

    PubMed Central

    DeMaere, Matthew Z.; Williams, Timothy J.; Allen, Michelle A.; Brown, Mark V.; Gibson, John A. E.; Rich, John; Lauro, Federico M.; Dyall-Smith, Michael; Davenport, Karen W.; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Deep Lake in Antarctica is a globally isolated, hypersaline system that remains liquid at temperatures down to −20 °C. By analyzing metagenome data and genomes of four isolates we assessed genome variation and patterns of gene exchange to learn how the lake community evolved. The lake is completely and uniformly dominated by haloarchaea, comprising a hierarchically structured, low-complexity community that differs greatly to temperate and tropical hypersaline environments. The four Deep Lake isolates represent distinct genera (∼85% 16S rRNA gene similarity and ∼73% genome average nucleotide identity) with genomic characteristics indicative of niche adaptation, and collectively account for ∼72% of the cellular community. Network analysis revealed a remarkable level of intergenera gene exchange, including the sharing of long contiguous regions (up to 35 kb) of high identity (∼100%). Although the genomes of closely related Halobacterium, Haloquadratum, and Haloarcula (>90% average nucleotide identity) shared regions of high identity between species or strains, the four Deep Lake isolates were the only distantly related haloarchaea to share long high-identity regions. Moreover, the Deep Lake high-identity regions did not match to any other hypersaline environment metagenome data. The most abundant species, tADL, appears to play a central role in the exchange of insertion sequences, but not the exchange of high-identity regions. The genomic characteristics of the four haloarchaea are consistent with a lake ecosystem that sustains a high level of intergenera gene exchange while selecting for ecotypes that maintain sympatric speciation. The peculiarities of this polar system restrict which species can grow and provide a tempo and mode for accentuating gene exchange. PMID:24082106

  11. High level of intergenera gene exchange shapes the evolution of haloarchaea in an isolated Antarctic lake.

    PubMed

    DeMaere, Matthew Z; Williams, Timothy J; Allen, Michelle A; Brown, Mark V; Gibson, John A E; Rich, John; Lauro, Federico M; Dyall-Smith, Michael; Davenport, Karen W; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Tringe, Susannah G; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2013-10-15

    Deep Lake in Antarctica is a globally isolated, hypersaline system that remains liquid at temperatures down to -20 °C. By analyzing metagenome data and genomes of four isolates we assessed genome variation and patterns of gene exchange to learn how the lake community evolved. The lake is completely and uniformly dominated by haloarchaea, comprising a hierarchically structured, low-complexity community that differs greatly to temperate and tropical hypersaline environments. The four Deep Lake isolates represent distinct genera (∼85% 16S rRNA gene similarity and ∼73% genome average nucleotide identity) with genomic characteristics indicative of niche adaptation, and collectively account for ∼72% of the cellular community. Network analysis revealed a remarkable level of intergenera gene exchange, including the sharing of long contiguous regions (up to 35 kb) of high identity (∼100%). Although the genomes of closely related Halobacterium, Haloquadratum, and Haloarcula (>90% average nucleotide identity) shared regions of high identity between species or strains, the four Deep Lake isolates were the only distantly related haloarchaea to share long high-identity regions. Moreover, the Deep Lake high-identity regions did not match to any other hypersaline environment metagenome data. The most abundant species, tADL, appears to play a central role in the exchange of insertion sequences, but not the exchange of high-identity regions. The genomic characteristics of the four haloarchaea are consistent with a lake ecosystem that sustains a high level of intergenera gene exchange while selecting for ecotypes that maintain sympatric speciation. The peculiarities of this polar system restrict which species can grow and provide a tempo and mode for accentuating gene exchange.

  12. Meeting Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, Christiaan; Aspaas, Per Pippin

    2013-06-01

    On 2-3 June 2012, the University of Tromsoe hosted a conference about the cultural and scientific history of the transits of Venus. The conference took place in Tromsoe for two very specific reasons. First and foremost, the last transit of Venus of this century lent itself to be observed on the disc of the Midnight Sun in this part of Europe during the night of 5 to 6 June 2012. Second, several Venus transit expeditions in this region were central in the global enterprise of measuring the scale of the solar system in the eighteenth century. The site of the conference was the Nordnorsk Vitensenter (Science Centre of Northern Norway), which is located at the campus of the University of Tromsoe. After the conference, participants were invited to either stay in Tromsoe until the midnight of 5-6 June, or take part in a Venus transit voyage in Finnmark, during which the historical sites Vardoe, Hammerfest, and the North Cape were to be visited. The post-conference program culminated with the participants observing the transit of Venus in or near Tromsoe, Vardoe and even from a plane near Alta. These Proceedings contain a selection of the lectures delivered on 2-3 June 2012, and also a narrative description of the transit viewing from Tromsoe, Vardoe and Alta. The title of the book, Meeting Venus, refers the title of a play by the Hungarian film director, screenwriter and opera director Istvan Szabo (1938-). The autobiographical movie Meeting Venus (1991) directed by him is based on his experience directing Tannhauser at the Paris Opera in 1984. The movie brings the story of an imaginary international opera company that encounters a never ending series of difficulties and pitfalls that symbolise the challenges of any multicultural and international endeavour. As is evident from the many papers presented in this book, Meeting Venus not only contains the epic tales of the transits of the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it also covers the conference

  13. 76 FR 23513 - Public and Closed Meeting To Discuss Comments on Draft Regulatory Basis for Rulemaking Revising...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... High-Level Radioactive Waste AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Public meeting. SUMMARY... nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This meeting is a follow-up to the NRC's notice... Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High- Level Radioactive Waste, and Reactor-Related Greater...

  14. Progress in site selection for China`s high-level radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G.; Wang, J.; Jin, Y.; Chen, W.

    1995-12-31

    In 1985, the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) worked out an R and D program called DG program for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China. The site selection process for China`s HLW repository has been carried out since then according to this program. Granite is considered as the candidate host rock for the repository. The general siting criteria are based on the principle that, under the effect of natural and human activities, the long term (100,000 years) safety of the repository can be reasonably obtained and the disposed radioactive waste can be avoided from entering the biosphere and harming human beings. During siting, two types of factors are considered: (1) social factors, including the nuclear industry distribution population, economic potential and environmental protection etc.; (2) natural factors, including geographic, meteorological and geological (crustal stability, host rocks, hydrogeology, engineering geology). The site selection process is divided into 4 stages: (1) nationwide screening, (2) regional screening; (3) district screening; and (4) site screening. During the first stage (1985--1986) the following were considered as potential regions: (1) southwest China, (2) Guangdong area, (3) Inner Mongolia, (4) east China and (5) northwest China. During the second stage (1986--1988), 21 districts were selected for further investigation. Since 1989 most efforts have been focused on the Beishan area, Gansu province, northwest China, which is considered as the most potential district for the repository.

  15. High levels of divergent HIV-1 quasispecies in patients with neurological opportunistic infections in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulin; Wei, Feili; Liang, Qi; Ding, Wei; Qiao, Luxin; Song, Fengli; Liu, Lifeng; Yang, Sufang; Jin, Ronghua; Gu, Jianhua; Li, Ning; Chen, Dexi

    2013-08-01

    Despite the fact that the survival of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has improved worldwide because of the increasingly powerful and highly active antiretroviral therapy, opportunistic infections (OIs) of the central nervous system (CNS) remain a serious burden. HIV-1 is capable of entering the CNS through infected peripheral monocytes, but its effect on OIs of CNS remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of HIV-1 in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with CNS OIs. A total of 24 patients with CNS OIs and 16 non-CNS OIs (control) cases were selected. These AIDS patients were infected with HIV-1 by paid blood donors in China. HIV-1 loads in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were detected using RT-PCR, and the C2-V5 region of HIV-1 envelope gene was amplified from viral quasispecies isolated from CSF using nested PCR. The CSF HIV-1 load of CNS OIs was higher than that of non-CNS OIs, but plasma HIV-1 load of CNS OIs was not higher than that of non-CNS OIs. The nucleotide sequence of C2-V5 region of the HIV-1 quasispecies isolated from the CSF of CNS OIs had a high diversity, and the HIV-1 quasispecies isolated from the CSF of CNS OIs revealed R5 tropism as 11/25 charge rule. These results suggest that high levels of divergent HIV-1 quasispecies in the CNS probably contribute to opportunistic infections.

  16. ROAD MAP FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.; Herman, C.

    2014-05-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystaltolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will also be addressed in this road map. The planned research described in this road map is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (significant reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized if the current constraints (T1% for WTP and TL for DWPF) are approached in an appropriate and technically defensible manner for defense waste and current melter designs. The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal-tolerant high-level waste (HLW) glasses targeting high waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. The modeling effort will be an iterative process, where model form and a broader range of conditions, e.g., glass

  17. ENHANCED DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES: SRNL GLASS SELECTION STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-01-23

    The Department of Energy has authorized a team of glass formulation and processing experts at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) at Catholic University of America to develop a systematic approach to increase high level waste melter throughput (by increasing waste loading with minimal or positive impacts on melt rate). This task is aimed at proof-of-principle testing and the development of tools to improve waste loading and melt rate, which will lead to higher waste throughput. Four specific tasks have been proposed to meet these objectives (for details, see WSRC-STI-2007-00483): (1) Integration and Oversight, (2) Crystal Accumulation Modeling (led by PNNL)/Higher Waste Loading Glasses (led by SRNL), (3) Melt Rate Evaluation and Modeling, and (4) Melter Scale Demonstrations. Task 2, Crystal Accumulation Modeling/Higher Waste Loading Glasses is the focus of this report. The objective of this study is to provide supplemental data to support the possible use of alternative melter technologies and/or implementation of alternative process control models or strategies to target higher waste loadings (WLs) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--ultimately leading to higher waste throughputs and a reduced mission life. The glass selection strategy discussed in this report was developed to gain insight into specific technical issues that could limit or compromise the ability of glass formulation efforts to target higher WLs for future sludge batches at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These technical issues include Al-dissolution, higher TiO{sub 2} limits and homogeneity issues for coupled-operations, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility, and nepheline formation. To address these technical issues, a test matrix of 28 glass compositions has been developed based on 5 different sludge projections for future processing. The glasses will be fabricated and characterized based on

  18. Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    J. T. Case; M. L. Renfro

    1998-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team downselected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their downselection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives.

  19. Implementation of scalable video coding deblocking filter from high-level SystemC description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carballo, Pedro P.; Espino, Omar; Neris, Romén.; Hernández-Fernández, Pedro; Szydzik, Tomasz M.; Núñez, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes key concepts in the design and implementation of a deblocking filter (DF) for a H.264/SVC video decoder. The DF supports QCIF and CIF video formats with temporal and spatial scalability. The design flow starts from a SystemC functional model and has been refined using high-level synthesis methodology to RTL microarchitecture. The process is guided with performance measurements (latency, cycle time, power, resource utilization) with the objective of assuring the quality of results of the final system. The functional model of the DF is created in an incremental way from the AVC DF model using OpenSVC source code as reference. The design flow continues with the logic synthesis and the implementation on the FPGA using various strategies. The final implementation is chosen among the implementations that meet the timing constraints. The DF is capable to run at 100 MHz, and macroblocks are processed in 6,500 clock cycles for a throughput of 130 fps for QCIF format and 37 fps for CIF format. The proposed architecture for the complete H.264/SVC decoder is composed of an OMAP 3530 SOC (ARM Cortex-A8 GPP + DSP) and the FPGA Virtex-5 acting as a coprocessor for DF implementation. The DF is connected to the OMAP SOC using the GPMC interface. A validation platform has been developed using the embedded PowerPC processor in the FPGA, composing a SoC that integrates the frame generation and visualization in a TFT screen. The FPGA implements both the DF core and a GPMC slave core. Both cores are connected to the PowerPC440 embedded processor using LocalLink interfaces. The FPGA also contains a local memory capable of storing information necessary to filter a complete frame and to store a decoded picture frame. The complete system is implemented in a Virtex5 FX70T device.

  20. High levels of loss at the 17p telomere suggest the close proximity of a tumour suppressor.

    PubMed Central

    White, G. R.; Stack, M.; Santibáñez-Koref, M.; Liscia, D. S.; Venesio, T.; Wang, J. C.; Helms, C.; Donis-Keller, H.; Betticher, D. C.; Altermatt, H. J.; Hoban, P. R.; Heighway, J.

    1996-01-01

    High levels of loss of distal markers on 17p13.3 in breast cancer suggested the presence within the region of at least one tumour-suppressor gene. Here we describe the derivation of two biallelic polymorphisms from the 17p telomeric yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) TYAC98. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and multiplex PCR analysis demonstrated that the high level of allelic imbalance observed in breast tumours represented loss of constitutional heterozygosity (LOH) and that this LOH extended to the telomere. Lung carcinoma (but not Wilms' tumour)-derived DNA again revealed a high level of loss of subtelomeric 17p sequences. Telomeric microsatellite polymorphisms from other chromosome arms did not show such elevated loss in either tumour type. This suggested that the 17p loss observed did not reflect a general telomeric instability and provided further evidence for the presence of a breast cancer tumour-suppressor gene in the distal region of 17p13.3. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8826850

  1. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-06-15

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

  2. Hi-LAB: A New Measure of Aptitude for High-Level Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linck, Jared A.; Hughes, Meredith M.; Campbell, Susan G.; Silbert, Noah H.; Tare, Medha; Jackson, Scott R.; Smith, Benjamin K.; Bunting, Michael F.; Doughty, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Few adult second language (L2) learners successfully attain high-level proficiency. Although decades of research on beginning to intermediate stages of L2 learning have identified a number of predictors of the rate of acquisition, little research has examined factors relevant to predicting very high levels of L2 proficiency. The current study,…

  3. Inspection and evaluation of Nuclear Fuel Services high-level waste storage system, program plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Information concerning the condition of the high-level waste tanks at the Western New York State Nuclear Service center near West Valley, New York is presented. This information is to be used in evaluating the safety of continued storage and in the development of alternatives for final disposition of the high-level waste.

  4. 78 FR 70281 - United States-Mexico High Level Economic Dialogue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... United States-Mexico High Level Economic Dialogue AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce... Register notice on the United States-Mexico High Level Economic Dialogue. DATES: The agency must receive... largest export market and third largest overall trading partner. The United States, in turn, is...

  5. High level language for measurement complex control based on the computer E-100I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubkov, B. V.

    1980-01-01

    A high level language was designed to control the process of conducting an experiment using the computer "Elektrinika-1001". Program examples are given to control the measuring and actuating devices. The procedure of including these programs in the suggested high level language is described.

  6. Characteristics Data Base: Programmer's guide to the High-Level Waste Data Base

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.E. ); Salmon, R. )

    1990-08-01

    The High-Level Waste Data Base is a menu-driven PC data base developed as part of OCRWM's technical data base on the characteristics of potential repository wastes, which also includes spent fuel and other materials. This programmer's guide completes the documentation for the High-Level Waste Data Base, the user's guide having been published previously. 3 figs.

  7. Pacific Northwest AGU Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engebretson, David C.; Beck, Myrl E., Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The 30th AGU Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting was held September 29 to October 1, 1983, on the campus of Western Washington University, Bellingham, Wash. Approximately 125 attended the meeting, and 36 papers were presented. The meeting included two fields trips, five special symposia, and a banquet where keynote speaker Don Swanson presented “Dome building on Mt. St. Helens.”The meeting highlights included a symposium on Tertiary sedimentary basins of Washington and Oregon which revealed the importance of sedimentological studies for deciphering the timing and nature of accretionary processes in tectonically active areas. Geological and geophysical studies on the recent tectonics of the Juan de Fuca plate and nearby continent were presented by workers from the United States and Canada as well as ongoing studies for the evolution and character of the crystalline North Cascades of Washington and British Columbia.

  8. Co-Operation for Reinforcing the Development of Education in Europe (CORDEE). Final Report of the Regional Consultation Meeting (Paris, February 12-15, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This report discusses a meeting to examine proposals for a new European program in the field of education. The assistant director for education stressed the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) concern that its attempt at developing cooperation in the field of education in Europe may build up yet another new…

  9. On-site storage of high level nuclear waste: Attitudes and perceptions of local residents

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, G.W. Jr.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Silva, C.

    1996-06-01

    No public policy issue has been as difficult as high-level nuclear waste. Debates continue regarding Yucca Mountain as a disposal site, and - more generally - the appropriateness of geologic disposal and the need to act quickly. Previous research has focused on possible social, political, and economic consequences of a facility in Nevada. Impacts have been predicted to be potentially large and to emanate mainly from stigmatization of the region due to increased perceptions of risk. Analogous impacts from leaving waste at power plants have been either ignored or assumed to be negligible. This paper presents survey results on attitudes of residents in three countries where nuclear waste is currently stored. Topics include perceived risk, knowledge of nuclear waste and radiation, and impacts on jobs, tourism, and housing values from leaving waste on site. Results are similar to what has been reported for Nevada; the public is concerned about possible adverse effects from on-site storage of waste. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Geochemical properties of bentonite pore water in high-level-waste repository condition

    SciTech Connect

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1997-04-01

    The chemically favorable nature of bentonite pore water is clarified by the PHREEQE geochemical simulation code. Bentonite is viewed as a candidate buffer material for a high-level-waste repository, and bentonite`s pore water chemistry is expected to result in a reduced Eh and weak alkaline pH region. Pyrite (Fe{sub 2}S), initially contained in bentonite, alters to magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), and this redox couple reaction controls the oxidation reduction potential. A mild alkaline pH condition is produced mainly by an ion exchange reaction between the sodium in bentonite and the protons in the solution. A geochemical simulation of the ion exchange reactions and the pyrite-magnetite alteration suggests that a favorable chemical condition would exist during the waste glass dissolution and indicates that the Ph and the Eh values are {minus}7.5 to {minus}9.4 and {minus}450 to {minus}320 mV, respectively, when the granitic groundwater intrudes into the compacted bentonite in the repository.

  11. Conceptualization of a hypothetical high-level nuclear waste repository site in unsaturated, fractured tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, A.M.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a performance assessment methodology for the analysis of long-term disposal and isolation of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) in alternative geologic media. As part of this exercise, SNL created a conceptualization of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport in the far field of a hypothetical HLW repository site located in unsaturated, fractured tuff formations. This study provides a foundation for the development of conceptual mathematical, and numerical models to be used in this performance assessment methodology. This conceptualization is site specific in terms of geometry, the regional ground-water flow system, stratigraphy, and structure in that these are based on information from Yucca Mountain located on the Nevada Test Site. However, in terms of processes in unsaturated, fractured, porous media, the model is generic. This report also provides a review and evaluation of previously proposed conceptual models of unsaturated and saturated flow and solute transport. This report provides a qualitative description of a hypothetical HLW repository site in fractured tuff. However, evaluation of the current knowledge of flow and transport at Yucca Mountain does not yield a single conceptual model. Instead, multiple conceptual models are possible given the existing information.

  12. High level resistance against rhizomania disease by simultaneously integrating two distinct defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Ourania I; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Skaracis, George N

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of achieving durable resistance against rhizomania disease of sugar beet, the employment of different sources of resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus was pursued. To this purpose, Nicotiana benthamiana transgenic plants that simultaneously produce dsRNA originating from a conserved region of the BNYVV replicase gene and the HrpZ(Psph) protein in a secreted form (SP/HrpZ(Psph)) were produced. The integration and expression of both transgenes as well as proper production of the harpin protein were verified in all primary transformants and selfed progeny (T1, T2). Transgenic resistance was assessed by BNYVV-challenge inoculation on T2 progeny by scoring disease symptoms and DAS-ELISA at 20 and 30 dpi. Transgenic lines possessing single transformation events for both transgenes as well as wild type plants were included in inoculation experiments. Transgenic plants were highly resistant to virus infection, whereas in some cases immunity was achieved. In all cases, the resistant phenotype of transgenic plants carrying both transgenes was superior in comparison with the ones carrying a single transgene. Collectively, our findings demonstrate, for a first time, that the combination of two entirely different resistance mechanisms provide high level resistance or even immunity against the virus. Such a novel approach is anticipated to prevent a rapid virus adaptation that could potentially lead to the emergence of isolates with resistance breaking properties.

  13. Turbulent impinging flow simulation for high-level waste storage and processing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rhea, Simon; Fairweather, Michael

    2007-07-01

    The efficient storage and processing of high-level nuclear waste could be improved by a better understanding of the behaviour of the particle-laden fluid flows involved. This work reports a mathematical modeling study of impinging single and two-phase turbulent jets that is of relevance to the flows used industrially to prevent the settling of solid particles in storage tanks, and to re-suspend particles that form a bed. A computational fluid dynamic model, that embodies a Lagrangian particle tracking technique, is applied to the prediction of these flows. Predictions in the free flow and wall regions, and along the stagnation line, of the single phase flow are in reasonable accord with data, although the addition of particles results in less satisfactory agreement between predictions and measurements. The influence of particles is, however, reproduced qualitatively by the mathematical model, with quantitative differences attributable to a lack of particle drag in the simulations. Uncertainties in experimental parameters may be responsible for some of the differences between predictions and data, and examination of the data used casts doubts on its reliability. Further work is required in terms of the use of more advanced turbulence modeling techniques, and the provision of detailed and reliable data sets. (authors)

  14. The myostatin gene of Mytilus chilensis evidences a high level of polymorphism and ubiquitous transcript expression.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-02-15

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a protein of the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and plays a crucial role in muscular development for higher vertebrates. However, its biological function in marine invertebrates remains undiscovered. This study characterizes the full-length sequence of the Mytilus chilensis myostatin gene (Mc-MSTN). Furthermore, tissue transcription patterns and putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also identified. The Mc-MSTN cDNA sequence showed 3528 base pairs (bp), consisting of 161 bp of 5' UTR, 2,110 bp of 3' UTR, and an open reading frame of 1,257 bp encoding for 418 amino acids and with an RXXR proteolytic site and nine cysteine-conserved residues. Gene transcription analysis revealed that the Mc-MSTN has ubiquitous expression among several tissues, with higher expression in the gonads and mantle than in the digestive gland, gills, and hemolymph. Furthermore, high levels of polymorphisms were detected (28 SNPs in 3'-UTR and 9 SNPs in the coding region). Two SNPs were non-synonymous and involved amino acid changes between Glu/Asp and Thr/Ile. Until now, the MSTN gene has been mainly related to muscle growth in marine bivalves. However, the present study suggests a putative biological function not entirely associated to muscle tissue and contributes molecular evidence to the current debate about the function of the MSTN gene in marine invertebrates.

  15. Perceptual learning of parametric face categories leads to the integration of high-level class-based information but not to high-level pop-out.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, Tim C; König, Peter

    2010-11-24

    To date, the relative contribution of the different levels of the visual hierarchy during perceptual decisions remains unclear. Typical models of visual processing, with the reverse hierarchy theory (RHT) as a prominent example, strongly emphasize the role of higher levels and interpret lower levels as sequence of simple feature detectors. Here, we investigate this issue based on two analyses. Using a novel combination of perceptual learning based on two classes of parametric faces and a subsequent odd-one-out paradigm, we first test a vital prediction of RHT: high-level pop-out. With this experimental approach, we overcome the low-level confounds of previous studies while still introducing distinct high-level representations. Contrary to previous findings, our analyses show that there is no high-level pop-out, despite very early, near-perfect classification accuracy and extensive training of our subjects. Second, we explore the underlying form of category representation during subsequent stages of perceptual training. This is accomplished by including class-external and class-internal target-distractor combinations. Whereas the subjects' responses during the first sessions are best explained instance-based and dependent on low-level metric differences, later patterns exhibit the inclusion of high-level, class-based information that is independent of target-stimulus similarity. Finally, we show that the utilized level of information is highly task-dependent.

  16. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Thien, Mike G.; Barnes, Steve M.

    2013-01-17

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described.

  17. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests - 13342

    SciTech Connect

    Thien, Mike G.; Barnes, Steve M.

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described. (authors)

  18. Detecting genetic introgression: high levels of intersubspecific recombination found in Xylella fastidiosa in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunney, Leonard; Yuan, Xiaoli; Bromley, Robin E; Stouthamer, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Documenting the role of novel mutation versus homologous recombination in bacterial evolution, and especially in the invasion of new hosts, is central to understanding the long-term dynamics of pathogenic bacteria. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to study this issue in Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca from Brazil, a bacterium causing citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and coffee leaf scorch (CLS). All 55 citrus isolates typed (plus one coffee isolate) defined three similar sequence types (STs) dominated by ST11 (85%), while the remaining 22 coffee isolates defined two STs, mainly ST16 (74%). This low level of variation masked unusually large allelic differences (>1% divergence with no intermediates) at five loci (leuA, petC, malF, cysG, and holC). We developed an introgression test to detect whether these large differences were due to introgression via homologous recombination from another X. fastidiosa subspecies. Using additional sequencing around these loci, we established that the seven randomly chosen MLST targets contained seven regions of introgression totaling 2,172 bp of 4,161 bp (52%), only 409 bp (10%) of which were detected by other recombination tests. This high level of introgression suggests the hypothesis that X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca became pathogenic on citrus and coffee (crops cultivated in Brazil for several hundred years) only recently after it gained genetic variation via intersubspecific recombination, facilitating a switch from native hosts. A candidate donor is the subspecies infecting plum in the region since 1935 (possibly X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex). This hypothesis predicts that nonrecombinant native X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca (not yet isolated) does not cause disease in citrus or coffee.

  19. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1: Global and zonal mean cloud amounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    Global high-level clouds identified in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements for January and July in the period 1985 to 1990 are compared with near-nadir-looking observations from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Global and zonal mean high-level cloud amounts from the two data sets agree very well, if clouds with layer extinction coefficients of less than 0.008/km at 1.02 micrometers wavelength are removed from the SAGE II results and all detected clouds are interpreted to have an average horizontal size of about 75 km along the 200 km transimission path length of the SAGE II observations. The SAGE II results are much more sensitive to variations of assumed cloud size than to variations of detection threshold. The geographical distribution of cloud fractions shows good agreement, but systematic regional differences also indicate that the average cloud size varies somewhat among different climate regimes. The more sensitive SAGE II results show that about one third of all high-level clouds are missed by ISCCP but that these clouds have very low optical thicknesses (less than 0.1 at 0.6 micrometers wavelength). SAGE II sampling error in monthly zonal cloud fraction is shown to produce no bias, to be less than the intraseasonal natural variability, but to be comparable with the natural variability at longer time scales.

  20. Contributions of low- and high-level properties to neural processing of visual scenes in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Groen, Iris I A; Silson, Edward H; Baker, Chris I

    2017-02-19

    Visual scene analysis in humans has been characterized by the presence of regions in extrastriate cortex that are selectively responsive to scenes compared with objects or faces. While these regions have often been interpreted as representing high-level properties of scenes (e.g. category), they also exhibit substantial sensitivity to low-level (e.g. spatial frequency) and mid-level (e.g. spatial layout) properties, and it is unclear how these disparate findings can be united in a single framework. In this opinion piece, we suggest that this problem can be resolved by questioning the utility of the classical low- to high-level framework of visual perception for scene processing, and discuss why low- and mid-level properties may be particularly diagnostic for the behavioural goals specific to scene perception as compared to object recognition. In particular, we highlight the contributions of low-level vision to scene representation by reviewing (i) retinotopic biases and receptive field properties of scene-selective regions and (ii) the temporal dynamics of scene perception that demonstrate overlap of low- and mid-level feature representations with those of scene category. We discuss the relevance of these findings for scene perception and suggest a more expansive framework for visual scene analysis.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.

  1. Comments on a paper tilted `The sea transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes: Unresolved safety issues`

    SciTech Connect

    Sprung, J.L.; McConnell, P.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1997-05-01

    The cited paper estimates the consequences that might occur should a purpose-built ship transporting Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) be involved in a severe collision that causes the VHLW canisters in one Type-B package to spill onto the floor of a major ocean fishing region. Release of radioactivity from VHLW glass logs, failure of elastomer cask seals, failure of VHLW canisters due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and the probabilities of the hypothesized accident scenario, of catastrophic cask failure, and of cask recovery from the sea are all discussed.

  2. Effective Fleet Integration: Improving the Employment of the Carrier Battle Group to Meet Regional Challenges in the Post Cold War Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-18

    use the other warfighting strategic principles -- Maritime and 2 Aerospace Superiority, Technological Superiority, Power Projection and Decisive Force...operational commander to meet tbis challenge: The Navy and Marine Corps will now respond to crisis and can provide the initial, "enabling" capability for...Demonstrate the intent of the United States. (2) The results must Justify the use of force. Clear correlation between the political objective and the

  3. Ontological Problem-Solving Framework for Assigning Sensor Systems and Algorithms to High-Level Missions

    PubMed Central

    Qualls, Joseph; Russomanno, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The lack of knowledge models to represent sensor systems, algorithms, and missions makes opportunistically discovering a synthesis of systems and algorithms that can satisfy high-level mission specifications impractical. A novel ontological problem-solving framework has been designed that leverages knowledge models describing sensors, algorithms, and high-level missions to facilitate automated inference of assigning systems to subtasks that may satisfy a given mission specification. To demonstrate the efficacy of the ontological problem-solving architecture, a family of persistence surveillance sensor systems and algorithms has been instantiated in a prototype environment to demonstrate the assignment of systems to subtasks of high-level missions. PMID:22164081

  4. OCCURRENCE OF HIGH-LEVEL AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES OF ENTEROCOCCI

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-level resistance fo aminoglycosides was observed in environmental isolates of enterococci. Various aquatic habitats, including agricultural runoff, creeks, rivers, wastewater, and wells, were analyzed. Strains of Enterococcus faecalis, e.faecium, E. gallinarum, and other Ent...

  5. Retrieved waste properties and high-level waste critical component ratios for privatization waste feed delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-03-04

    The purpose for this document is to provide the basis for the retrieved waste properties and high-level waste critical component ratios specified in the System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System.

  6. Property/composition relationships for Hanford high-level waste glasses melting at 1150{degrees}C volume 2: Chapters 12-16 and appendices A-K

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, P.R.; Piepel, G.F.

    1994-12-01

    A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project in support of a future high-level nuclear waste vitrification plant at the Hanford site in Washington. From 1989 to 1994, over 120 nonradioactive glasses were melted and properties measured in five statistically-designed experimental phases. Glass composition is represented by the 10 components SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, and Others (all remaining components). The properties measured include viscosity ({eta}), electrical conductivity ({epsilon}), glass transition temperature (T{sub g}), thermal expansion of solid glass ({alpha}{sub s}) and molten glass ({alpha}{sub m}), crystallinity (quenched and canister centerline cooled glasses), liquidus temperature (T{sub L}), durability based on normalized elemental releases from the Materials Characterization Center-1 28-day dissolution test (MCC-1, r{sub mi}) and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT, r{sub pi}), and solution pHs from MCC-1 and PCT. Amorphous phase separation was also evaluated. Empirical first- and second-order mixture models were fit using the CVS data to relate the various properties to glass composition. Equations for calculating the uncertainty associated with property values predicted by the models were also developed. The models were validated using both internal and external data. Other modeling approaches (e.g., non-bridging oxygen, free energy of hydration, phase-equilibria T{sub L}) were investigated for specific properties. A preliminary Qualified Composition Region was developed to identify glass compositions with high confidence of being processable in a melter and meeting waste form acceptance criteria.

  7. Property/composition relationships for Hanford high-level waste glasses melting at 115{degrees}C volume 1: Chapters 1-11

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, P.R.; Piepel, G.F.

    1994-12-01

    A Composition Variation study (CVS) is being performed within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project in support of a future high-level nuclear waste vitrification plant at the Hanford site in Washington. From 1989 to 1994, over 120 nonradioactive glasses were melted and properties measured in five statistically-designed experimental phases. Glass composition is represented by the 10 components SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, and Others (all remaining components). The properties measured include viscosity ({eta}), electrical conductivity ({epsilon}), glass transition temperature (T{sub g} ), thermal expansion of solid glass ({alpha}{sub s}) and molten glass ({alpha}{sub m}), crystallinity (quenched and canister centerline cooled glasses), liquidus temperature (T{sub L}), durability based on normalized elemental releases from the Materials Characterization Center-1 28-day dissolution test (MCC-1, r{sub mi}) and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT, r{sub pi}), and solution pHs from MCC-1 and PCT. Amorphous phase separation was also evaluated. Empirical first- and second-order mixture models were fit using the CVS data to relate the various properties to glass composition. Equations for calculating the uncertainty associated with property values predicted by the models were also developed. The models were validated using both internal and external data. Other modeling approaches (e.g., non-bridging oxygen, free energy of hydration, phase-equilibria T{sub L}) were investigated for specific properties. A preliminary Qualified Composition Region was developed to identify glass compositions with high confidence of being processable in a melter and meeting waste form acceptance criteria.

  8. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Muhlbauer, Andreas; Ackerman, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluate high-level clouds in a cloud resolving model during two convective cases, ARM9707 and KWAJEX. The simulated joint histograms of cloud occurrence and radar reflectivity compare well with cloud radar and satellite observations when using a two-moment microphysics scheme. However, simulations performed with a single moment microphysical scheme exhibit low biases of approximately 20 dB. During convective events, two-moment microphysical overestimate the amount of high-level cloud and one-moment microphysics precipitate too readily and underestimate the amount and height of high-level cloud. For ARM9707, persistent large positive biases in high-level cloud are found, which are not sensitive to changes in ice particle fall velocity and ice nuclei number concentration in the two-moment microphysics. These biases are caused by biases in large-scale forcing and maintained by the periodic lateral boundary conditions. The combined effects include significant biases in high-level cloud amount, radiation, and high sensitivity of cloud amount to nudging time scale in both convective cases. The high sensitivity of high-level cloud amount to the thermodynamic nudging time scale suggests that thermodynamic nudging can be a powerful "tuning" parameter for the simulated cloud and radiation but should be applied with caution. The role of the periodic lateral boundary conditions in reinforcing the biases in cloud and radiation suggests that reducing the uncertainty in the large-scale forcing in high levels is important for similar convective cases and has far reaching implications for simulating high-level clouds in super-parameterized global climate models such as the multiscale modeling framework.

  9. Development of high-level streptomycin resistance affected by a plasmid in lactic streptococci.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R P

    1986-08-01

    Some lactose-negative (Lac-) mutants of Streptococcus lactis C2 and ML3 exhibited development of very high level streptomycin resistance after incubation with subinhibitory concentrations of the drug for 18 to 22 h. These drug-resistant mutants showed no loss of resistance even after 6 months of subculturing in broth without any drug. The parental Lac+ strains did not show mutation to high-level streptomycin resistance. The Lac+ characteristic of the parental strain was conjugally transferred to Lac- derivatives of C2 and ML3, showing the ability to mutate to high-level resistance. When transconjugants were analyzed for this characteristic, they showed both mutable and nonmutable Lac+ types. The results suggested that genetic information for mutation to high-level streptomycin resistance in lactic streptococci resides on the chromosome, and its expression is affected by a plasmid. The plasmid profiles of strains C2, ML3, C2 Lac-, ML3 Lac-, and two kinds of transconjugants confirmed the presence of a plasmid of approximately 5.5 megadaltons in strains showing no mutation to high-level streptomycin resistance, while strains missing such a plasmid exhibited high-level streptomycin resistance after incubation with subinhibitory concentrations of the drug.

  10. Application of Quantitative NDE Techniques to High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R. B.; Rehbein, D. K.; Bastiaans, G.; Terry, M.; Alers, R.

    2002-02-25

    As various issues make the continued usage of high-level waste storage tanks attractive, there is an increasing need to sharpen the assessment of their structural integrity. One aspect of a structural integrity program, nondestructive evaluation, is the focus of this paper. In September 2000, a program to support the sites was initiated jointly by Tanks Focus Area and Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technologies Crosscutting Program of the Office of Environmental Management, Department of Energy (DOE). The vehicle was the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, one of the National Science Foundation's Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers that is operated in close collaboration with the Ames Laboratory, USDOE. The support activities that have been provided by the center will be reviewed. Included are the organization of a series of annual workshops to allow the sites to share experiences and develop coordinated approaches to common problems, the development of an electronic source of relevant information, and assistance of the sites on particular technical problems. Directions and early results on some of these technical assistance projects are emphasized. Included are the discussion of theoretical analysis of ultrasonic wave propagation in curved plates to support the interpretation of tandem synthetic aperture focusing data to detect flaws in the knuckle region of double shell tanks; the evaluation of guided ultrasonic waves, excited by couplant free, electromagnetic acoustic transducers, to rapidly screen for inner wall corrosion in tanks; the use of spread spectrum techniques to gain information about the structural integrity of concrete domes; and the use of magnetic techniques to identify the alloys used in the construction of tanks.

  11. Whole genome resequencing of Botrytis cinerea isolates identifies high levels of standing diversity

    PubMed Central

    Atwell, Susanna; Corwin, Jason A.; Soltis, Nicole E.; Subedy, Anushryia; Denby, Katherine J.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    How standing genetic variation within a pathogen contributes to diversity in host/pathogen interactions is poorly understood, partly because most studied pathogens are host-specific, clonally reproducing organisms which complicates genetic analysis. In contrast, Botrytis cinerea is a sexually reproducing, true haploid ascomycete that can infect a wide range of diverse plant hosts. While previous work had shown significant genomic variation between two isolates, we proceeded to assess the level and frequency of standing variation in a population of B. cinerea. To begin measuring standing genetic variation in B. cinerea, we re-sequenced the genomes of 13 different isolates and aligned them to the previously sequenced T4 reference genome. In addition one of these isolates was resequenced from four independently repeated cultures. A high level of genetic diversity was found within the 13 isolates. Within this variation, we could identify clusters of genes with major effect polymorphisms, i.e., polymorphisms that lead to a predicted functional knockout, that surrounded genes involved in controlling vegetative incompatibility. The genotype at these loci was able to partially predict the interaction of these isolates in vegetative fusion assays showing that these loci control vegetative incompatibility. This suggests that the vegetative incompatibility loci within B. cinerea are associated with regions of increased genetic diversity. The genome re-sequencing of four clones from the one isolate (Grape) that had been independently propagated over 10 years showed no detectable spontaneous mutation. This suggests that B. cinerea does not display an elevated spontaneous mutation rate. Future work will allow us to test if, and how, this diversity may be contributing to the pathogen's broad host range. PMID:26441923

  12. Towards Gender Equality in Basic Education: Major Challenges in Meeting Dakar EFA Goals. Regional Seminar in Asia (Kyoto, Japan, November 28-30, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    A regional UNESCO seminar aimed to follow up on the goals set at the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000 and to contribute to the "Ten Year UN Girls' Education Initiative" (UNGEI). The seminar established three primary aims: (1) to develop a regional cooperation mechanism or network of Education for All (EFA) gender focal points, to…

  13. UNESCO-UNEVOC Regional Forum Europe, CIS and North America: Advancing TVET for Youth Employability and Sustainable Development (Moscow, Russian Federation, October 28-30, 2013). Meeting Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNEVOC Regional Forum for Europe and North America was co-hosted by Moscow-based CVETS National Observatory on Vocational Education/Centre for VET Studies, with the support of the Moscow Institute for the Development of Education. It was the fourth of five regional follow-ups to the Shanghai Consensus on developing and sharing policy…

  14. The Solvation Structure of Na(+) and K(+) in Liquid Water Determined from High Level ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Christopher N; Roux, Benoıt

    2012-10-09

    Knowledge of the hydration structure of Na(+) and K(+) in the liquid phase has wide ranging implications in the field of biological chemistry. Despite numerous experimental and computational studies, even basic features such as the coordination number of these alkali ions in liquid water, thought to play a critical role in selectivity, continue to be the subject of intensive debates. Simulations based on accurate potential energy surfaces offer one approach to resolve these issues by providing reliable results on ion hydration. In this article, we report the results from molecular dynamics simulations of Na(+) and K(+) hydration based on a novel and rigorous strategy designed to overcome the challenges of QM/MM simulations of solvent molecules in the liquid phase. In this method, which we call Flexible Inner Region Ensemble Separator (FIRES), the ion and a fixed number of nearest water molecules form a dynamical and flexible inner region that is represented with high level ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) methods, while the water molecules from the surrounding bulk form an outer region that is represented by a polarizable molecular mechanical (MM) force field. Simulations yield rigorously correct thermodynamic averages as long as the solvent molecules in the flexible inner and outer regions are not allowed to exchange. Extensive FIRES simulations were carried out based on a QM/MM model in which the Na(+) or K(+) ion and the 12 nearest water molecules were represented by high level ab initio methods (RI-MP2/def2-TZVP and density functional theory with PBE/def2-TZVP), while the surrounding MM water molecules were represented by the polarizable SWM4-NDP potential. On the basis of these results, the ion coordination numbers are estimated to be within the range of 5.7-5.8 for Na(+) and 6.9-7.0 for K(+).

  15. High Performance Zero-Bleed CLSM/Grout Mixes for High-Level Waste Tank Closures Strategic Research and Development - FY99 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    2000-08-11

    The overall objective of this program, SRD-99-08, was to design and test suitable materials, which can be used to close high-level waste tanks at SRS. Fill materials can be designed to perform several functions including chemical stabilization and/or physical encapsulation of incidental waste so that the potential for transport of contaminants into the environment is reduced. Also they are needed to physically stabilize the void volume in the tanks to prevent/minimize future subsidence and inadvertent intrusion. The intent of this work was to develop a zero-bleed soil CLSM (ZBS-CLSM) and a zero-bleed concrete mix (ZBC) which meet the unique placement and stabilization/encapsulation requirements for high-level waste tank closures. These mixes in addition to the zero-bleed CLSM mixes formulated for closure of Tanks 17-F and 20-F provide design engineers with a suite of options for specifying materials for future tank closures.

  16. High-Level Clonal FGFR Amplification and Response to FGFR Inhibition in a Translational Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Babina, Irina S.; Herrera-Abreu, Maria Teresa; Tarazona, Noelia; Peckitt, Clare; Kilgour, Elaine; Smith, Neil R.; Geh, Catherine; Rooney, Claire; Cutts, Ros; Campbell, James; Ning, Jian; Fenwick, Kerry; Swain, Amanda; Brown, Gina; Chua, Sue; Thomas, Anne; Johnston, Stephen R.D.; Ajaz, Mazhar; Sumpter, Katherine; Gillbanks, Angela; Watkins, David; Chau, Ian; Popat, Sanjay; Cunningham, David; Turner, Nicholas C.

    2017-01-01

    FGFR1 and FGFR2 are amplified in many tumor types, yet what determines response to FGFR inhibition in amplified cancers is unknown. In a translational clinical trial, we show that gastric cancers with high-level clonal FGFR2 amplification have a high response rate to the selective FGFR inhibitor AZD4547, whereas cancers with subclonal or low-level amplification did not respond. Using cell lines and patient-derived xenograft models, we show that high-level FGFR2 amplification initiates a distinct oncogene addiction phenotype, characterized by FGFR2-mediated transactivation of alternative receptor kinases, bringing PI3K/mTOR signaling under FGFR control. Signaling in low-level FGFR1-amplified cancers is more restricted to MAPK signaling, limiting sensitivity to FGFR inhibition. Finally, we show that circulating tumor DNA screening can identify high-level clonally amplified cancers. Our data provide a mechanistic understanding of the distinct pattern of oncogene addiction seen in highly amplified cancers and demonstrate the importance of clonality in predicting response to targeted therapy. Significance Robust single-agent response to FGFR inhibition is seen only in high-level FGFR-amplified cancers, with copy-number level dictating response to FGFR inhibition in vitro, in vivo, and in the clinic. High-level amplification of FGFR2 is relatively rare in gastric and breast cancers, and we show that screening for amplification in circulating tumor DNA may present a viable strategy to screen patients. PMID:27179038

  17. The audit of the Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-26

    The Savannah River Site (Site), owned by the Departmen Energy (Department) and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (Westinghouse), recently changed its primary mission from producing nuclear materials to environmental restoration and waste management. A major focus in the Site`s mission is the storage, treatment, stabilization, and disposal of high level radioactive waste materials. To accomplish this mission, the Site will integrate its high level waste treatment facilities into a High Level Waste System (System), which will process the radioactive waste material in six distinct batches. An integral part of the System is the Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator (Replacement Evaporator) which will evaporate water added to the high level waste during processing, thereby minimizing the volume of the waste stream. Currently, the System has the evaporator and tank farm capacity to accommodate the processing of the first batch of radioactive waste, which is scheduled to begin in March 1996. However, the system will need the Replacement Evaporator to accommodate the volume of water and solvent added during processing of the second batch of radioactive waste scheduled to begin processing in 2004.

  18. Factors related to high-level mobility in male servicemembers with traumatic lower-limb loss.

    PubMed

    Gaunaurd, Ignacio A; Roach, Kathryn E; Raya, Michele A; Hooper, Rebecca; Linberg, Alison A; Laferrier, Justin Z; Campbell, Stuart M; Scoville, Charles; Gailey, Robert S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possible relationship between factors modifiable by rehabilitation interventions (rehabilitation factors), other factors related to lower-limb loss (other factors), and high-level mobility as measured by the Comprehensive High-Level Activity Mobility Predictor (CHAMP) in servicemembers (SMs) with traumatic lower-limb loss. One-hundred eighteen male SMs with either unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA), unilateral transfemoral amputation (TFA), or bilateral lower-limb amputation (BLLA) participated. Stepwise regression analysis was used to develop separate regression models of factors predicting CHAMP score. Regression models containing both rehabilitation factors and other factors explained 81% (TTA), 36% (TFA), and 91% (BLLA) of the variance in CHAMP score. Rehabilitation factors such as lower-limb strength and dynamic balance were found to be significantly related to CHAMP score and can be enhanced with the appropriate intervention. Further, the findings support the importance of salvaging the knee joint and its effect on high-level mobility capabilities. Lastly, the J-shaped energy storage and return feet were found to improve high-level mobility for SMs with TTA. These results could help guide rehabilitation and aid in developing appropriate interventions to assist in maximizing high-level mobility capabilities for SMs with traumatic lower-limb loss.

  19. Extending Automatic Parallelization to Optimize High-Level Abstractions for Multicore

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D J; Willcock, J J; Panas, T

    2008-12-12

    Automatic introduction of OpenMP for sequential applications has attracted significant attention recently because of the proliferation of multicore processors and the simplicity of using OpenMP to express parallelism for shared-memory systems. However, most previous research has only focused on C and Fortran applications operating on primitive data types. C++ applications using high-level abstractions, such as STL containers and complex user-defined types, are largely ignored due to the lack of research compilers that are readily able to recognize high-level object-oriented abstractions and leverage their associated semantics. In this paper, we automatically parallelize C++ applications using ROSE, a multiple-language source-to-source compiler infrastructure which preserves the high-level abstractions and gives us access to their semantics. Several representative parallelization candidate kernels are used to explore semantic-aware parallelization strategies for high-level abstractions, combined with extended compiler analyses. Those kernels include an array-base computation loop, a loop with task-level parallelism, and a domain-specific tree traversal. Our work extends the applicability of automatic parallelization to modern applications using high-level abstractions and exposes more opportunities to take advantage of multicore processors.

  20. PBP 4 Mediates High-Level Resistance to New-Generation Cephalosporins in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Liana C.; Gilbert, Aubre; Basuino, Li; da Costa, Thaina M.; Hamilton, Stephanie M.; dos Santos, Katia R.; Chambers, Henry F.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of both hospital- and community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections worldwide. β-Lactam antibiotics are the drugs of choice to treat S. aureus infections, but resistance to these and other antibiotics make treatment problematic. High-level β-lactam resistance of S. aureus has always been attributed to the horizontally acquired penicillin binding protein 2a (PBP 2a) encoded by the mecA gene. Here, we show that S. aureus can also express high-level resistance to β-lactams, including new-generation broad-spectrum cephalosporins that are active against methicillin-resistant strains, through an uncanonical core genome-encoded penicillin binding protein, PBP 4, a nonessential enzyme previously considered not to be important for staphylococcal β-lactam resistance. Our results show that PBP 4 can mediate high-level resistance to β-lactams. PMID:27067335

  1. Heat transfer analysis of the geologic disposal of spent fuel and high level waste storage canisters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G. K.

    1980-08-01

    Near-field temperatures resulting from the storage of high-level waste canisters and spent unreprocessed fuel assembly canisters in geologic formations were determined. Preliminary design of the repository was modeled for a heat transfer computer code, HEATING5, which used the finite difference method to evaluate transient heat transfer. The heat transfer system was evaluated with several two and three dimensional models which transfer heat by a combination of conduction, natural convention, and radiation. Physical properties of the materials in the model were based upon experimental values for the various geologic formations. The effects of canister spacing, fuel age, and use of an overpack were studied for the analysis of the spent fuel canisters; salt, granite, and basalt were considered as the storage media. The effects of canister diameter and use of an overpack were studied for the analysis of the high-level waste canisters; salt was considered as the only storage media for high-level waste canisters.

  2. High-level waste processing at the Savannah River Site: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.E.; Bennett, W.M.; Elder, H.H.; Lee, E.D.; Marra, S.L.; Rutland, P.L.

    1997-09-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, SC mg began immobilizing high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass in 1996. Currently, the radioactive glass is being produced as a ``sludge-only`` composition by combining washed high-level waste sludge with glass frit. The glass is poured in stainless steel canisters which will eventually be disposed of in a permanent, geological repository. To date, DWPF has produced about 100 canisters of vitrified waste. Future processing operations will, be based on a ``coupled`` feed of washed high-level waste sludge, precipitated cesium, and glass frit. This paper provides an update of the processing activities completed to date, operational/flowsheet problems encountered, and programs underway to increase production rates.

  3. Predictors of High Level of Hostility among Homeless Men on Parole.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa; Farabee, David; Hall, Elizabeth; Zhang, Sheldon; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Faucette, Mark; Leake, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    High levels of hostility present a formidable challenge among homeless ex-offenders. This cross-sectional study assessed correlates of high levels of hostility using baseline data collected on recently-released male parolees (N=472; age 18-60) participating in a randomized trial focused on prevention of illicit drug use and recidivism. Predictors of high levels of hostility included greater depressive symptomatology, lower self-esteem, having a mother who was treated for alcohol/drugs, belonging to a gang, more tangible support, having used methamphetamine and having a history of cognitive difficulties. These findings highlight the need to understand predictors of hostility among recently released homeless men and how these predictors may relate to recidivism. Research implications are discussed as these findings will shape future nurse-led harm reduction and community-based interventions.

  4. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I.; Pool, K.H.

    1994-05-01

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

  5. Infection of IL5 transgenic mice with Mesocestoides corti induces very high levels of IL5 but depressed production of eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Strath, M; Dent, L; Sanderson, C

    1992-02-01

    Transgenic mice expressing interleukin 5 (IL5) have been demonstrated to show a lifelong high level eosinophilia. These mice were produced using a construct in which the dominant control region (DCR) of the human CD2 gene was ligated to a 10-kb fragment containing the mouse IL5 gene. The construct allows the expression of the IL5 gene under the control of its own promoter, but the DCR ensures constitutive expression by all T cells. Infection of these transgenic mice with Mesocestoides corti, which is itself a potent inducer of eosinophilia, increases serum IL5 to very high levels. This demonstrates that the transgenes retain inducibility, which is a feature of the endogenous gene. However, despite the high levels of IL5, the numbers of eosinophils in the blood, marrow, and spleen decrease during the period 1-4 weeks after infection. Furthermore, there is a decrease in eosinophil precursors, as assessed by the capacity of bone marrow to produce eosinophils in culture. After this decrease eosinophils return to their previous high levels, although the levels of IL5 remain high. These results suggest that a control mechanism is operating to limit the numbers of eosinophils produced. This control appears to act at the level of the precursor production and may not be directly related to the high levels of IL5.

  6. Talc-silicon glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilization of high- level calcined waste

    SciTech Connect

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1993-06-01

    Talc-silicon glass-ceramic waste forms are being evaluated as candidates for immobilization of the high level calcined waste stored onsite at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These glass-ceramic waste forms were prepared by hot isostatically pressing a mixture of simulated nonradioactive high level calcined waste, talc, silicon and aluminum metal additives. The waste forms were characterized for density, chemical durability, and glass and crystalline phase compositions. The results indicate improved density and chemical durability as the silicon content is increased.

  7. The radiation characteristics of the transport packages with vitrified high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bogatov, S. A.; Mitenkova, E. F. Novikov, N. V.

    2015-12-15

    The calculation method of neutron yield in the (α, n) reaction for a homogeneous material of arbitrary composition is represented. It is shown that the use of the ORIGEN 2 code excluding the real elemental composition of vitrified high-level waste leads to significant underestimation of the neutron yield in the (α, n) reaction. For vitrified high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel from VVER, the neutron fluxes are analyzed. The thickness of the protective materials for a transfer cask and a shipping cask with vitrified highlevel waste are estimated.

  8. Impact of transporting defense high-level waste to a geologic repository

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Shappert, L.B.; Boyle, J.W.

    1984-08-01

    This transportation study assumes that defense high-level waste is stored in three locations (the Savannah River, Hanford, and Idaho Falls plants) and may be disposed of in (1) a commercial repository or (2) a defense-only repository, either of which could be located at one of the five candidate sites; also documented is a preliminary analysis of the costs and risks of transporting defense high-level waste from the three storage sites to the five potential candidate repository sites. 17 references, 4 figures, 27 tables.

  9. Tank waste remediation system phase I high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.L.; Stegen, G.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This report evaluates the effects of feed composition on the Phase I high-level waste immobilization process and interim storage facility requirements for the high-level waste glass.Several different Phase I staging (retrieval, blending, and pretreatment) scenarios were used to generate example feed compositions for glass formulations, testing, and glass sensitivity analysis. Glass models and data form laboratory glass studies were used to estimate achievable waste loading and corresponding glass volumes for various Phase I feeds. Key issues related to feed process ability, feed composition, uncertainty, and immobilization process technology are identified for future consideration in other tank waste disposal program activities.

  10. Performance of different types of hearing protectors undergoing high-level impulse noise.

    PubMed

    Buck, Karl

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the problems that may occur when hearing protectors, usually designed for industrial noise environments, are used for high-level impulse (weapon) noise. The military impulse noise environment is described, as are the different types of passive and active hearing protectors and the measurement procedures. The different mechanisms that may alter the effectiveness of the hearing protectors as well as their global efficiency when submitted to high-level impulse noise are presented. The paper also discusses how the performance values accessible to the user may be used in different damage risk criteria for continuous and impulse noise.

  11. The radiation characteristics of the transport packages with vitrified high-level waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogatov, S. A.; Mitenkova, E. F.; Novikov, N. V.

    2015-12-01

    The calculation method of neutron yield in the (α, n) reaction for a homogeneous material of arbitrary composition is represented. It is shown that the use of the ORIGEN 2 code excluding the real elemental composition of vitrified high-level waste leads to significant underestimation of the neutron yield in the (α, n) reaction. For vitrified high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel from VVER, the neutron fluxes are analyzed. The thickness of the protective materials for a transfer cask and a shipping cask with vitrified highlevel waste are estimated.

  12. Solvent extraction in the treatment of acidic high-level liquid waste : where do we stand?

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schulz, W. W.

    1998-06-18

    During the last 15 years, a number of solvent extraction/recovery processes have been developed for the removal of the transuranic elements, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste. These processes are based on the use of a variety of both acidic and neutral extractants. This chapter will present an overview and analysis of the various extractants and flowsheets developed to treat acidic high-level liquid waste streams. The advantages and disadvantages of each extractant along with comparisons of the individual systems are discussed.

  13. ESL flow for a hardware H.264/AVC decoder using TLM-2.0 and high level synthesis: a quantitative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thadani, M.; Carballo, P. P.; Hernández, P.; Marrero, G.; Núñez, A.

    2009-05-01

    The present paper describes an Electronic System Level (ESL) design methodology which was established and employed in the creation of a H.264/AVC baseline decoder. The methodology involves the synthesis of the algorithmic description of the functional blocks that comprise the decoder, using a high level synthesis tool. Optimization and design space exploration is carried out at the algorithmic level before performing logic synthesis. Final, post-place and route implementation results show that the decoder can operate at the target frequency of 100 MHz and meet real time requirements for QCIF frames.

  14. Undergraduate Education in Cancer in the European Region. Report on a UICC/WHO Meeting (Geneva, Switzerland, April 6-8, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    The progress of undergraduate education in cancer in European countries was assessed, and recommendations were offered for further development according to the EURO program. Based on a survey of undergraduate education in medical schools of the European region, the following areas were evaluated: goals and objectives of teaching, tasks a general…

  15. Development and application of a spatial IBM to forecast greater prairie-chicken population responses to land use in the Flint Hills region of Kansas - SCB meeting

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greater prairie-chicken (Tympanachus cupido) populations have been on the decline for decades. Recent efforts to reverse this trend are focusing on two specific disturbance regimes, cattle grazing and field burning, both prevalent in the Flint Hill region of Kansas -- an area of...

  16. Staff meeting

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    I would like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Wednesday 16 January 2008 at 3:00 p.m. Main Auditorium (bldg 500) to convey my best wishes for the new year, to review CERN’s activities during 2007 and to present the perspectives for 2008, the year of the LHC start-up. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the IT Auditorium (Bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (Bldg. 30). Simultaneous translation into English will be available in the main Auditorium. Best wishes for the festive season! Robert AYMAR

  17. Long-term performance of container materials for high-level waste: (Technical report, April 1982-August 1987)

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Thompson, N.G.; Markworth, A.J.; Cialone, H.J.; Majumdar, B.S.; McCoy, J.K.

    1987-11-01

    This report describes the results of experimental and analytical studies of high-level waste container degradation. Corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement tests were conducted on selected materials to identify environmental and metallurgical factors that promote material degradation, especially stress-corrosion cracking. A major emphasis on overpack materials focused on cast and wrought low-carbon steels. Results of the corrosion work show that, to more completely identify potential failure modes, exposure environments must be further defined. Predictions of pitting rates based on models utilizing nonreactive walls may lead to rejection of carbon steel as a viable overpack material when, on the basis of performance, it may perform satisfactorily. Hydrogen embrittlement was shown to be promoted in regions of microstructural change such as the weld heat-affected zone. These findings show that hydrogen embrittlement is important to container integrity. A small portion of this task was devoted to studying the possible internal corrosion of the canister. It was found that Type 304L stainless steel will likely contain high-level waste glass for the retrieval period and probably the thermal period. Modeling studies focused on general corrosion and pitting corrosion, with the models being extended to account for more realistic conditions. Results show that pit wall reactivity is an important consideration in predicting corrosion rates. 102 refs., 132 figs., 57 tabs.

  18. PBP2a Mutations Causing High-Level Ceftaroline Resistance in Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Long, S. Wesley; Olsen, Randall J.; Mehta, Shrenik C.; Palzkill, Timothy; Cernoch, Patricia L.; Perez, Katherine K.; Musick, William L.; Rosato, Adriana E.

    2014-01-01

    Ceftaroline is the first member of a novel class of cephalosporins approved for use in the United States. Although prior studies have identified eight ceftaroline-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in Europe and Asia with MICs ranging from 4 to 8 mg/liter, high-level resistance to ceftaroline (>32 mg/liter) has not been described in MRSA strains isolated in the United States. We isolated a ceftaroline-resistant (MIC > 32 mg/liter) MRSA strain from the blood of a cystic fibrosis patient and five MRSA strains from the respiratory tract of this patient. Whole-genome sequencing identified two amino acid-altering mutations uniquely present in the ceftaroline-binding pocket of the transpeptidase region of penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) in ceftaroline-resistant isolates. Biochemical analyses and the study of isogenic mutant strains confirmed that these changes caused ceftaroline resistance. Thus, we identified the molecular mechanism of ceftaroline resistance in the first MRSA strain with high-level ceftaroline resistance isolated in the United States. PMID:25155594

  19. Meeting information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 1986 Ocean Sciences Meeting of the American Geophysical Union and the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) will be held January 13-17, 1986, in New Orleans, La., at the Fairmont Hotel. Co-sponsoring societies are the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), the Marine Technology Society (MTS), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Oceanic Engineering Society (OES).

  20. The Geologic Basis for Volcanic Hazard Assessment for the Proposed High-Level Radioactive Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    F. Perry

    2002-10-15

    Studies of volcanic risk to the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain have been ongoing for 25 years. These studies are required because three episodes of small-volume, alkalic basaltic volcanism have occurred within 50 km of Yucca Mountain during the Quaternary. Probabilistic hazard estimates for the proposed repository depend on the recurrence rate and spatial distribution of past episodes of volcanism in the region. Several independent research groups have published estimates of the annual probability of a future volcanic disruption of the proposed repository, most of which fall in the range of 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -9} per year; similar conclusions were reached. through an extensive expert elicitation sponsored by the Department of Energy in 1995-1996. The estimated probability values are dominated by a regional recurrence rate of 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -6} volcanic events per year (equating to recurrence intervals of several hundred thousand years). The recurrence rate, as well as the spatial density of volcanoes, is low compared to most other basaltic volcanic fields in the western United States, factors that may be related to both the tectonic history of the region and a lithospheric mantle source that is relatively cold and not prone to melting. The link between volcanism and tectonism in the Yucca Mountain region is not well understood beyond a general association between volcanism and regional extension, although areas of locally high extension within the region may control the location of some volcanoes. Recently, new geologic data or hypotheses have emerged that could potentially increase past estimates of the recurrence rate, and thus the probability of repository disruption. These are (1) hypothesized episodes of anomalously high strain rate, (2) hypothesized presence of a regional mantle hotspot, and (3) new aeromagnetic data suggesting as many as twelve previously unrecognized volcanoes buried in alluvial-filled basins near

  1. A HIGH-LEVEL CALCULATION OF THE PROTON AFFINITY OF DIBORANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The experimental proton affinity of diborane (B2H6) is based on an unstable species, B2H,+, 4 which has been observed only at low temperatures. The present work calculates the proton 5 affinity of diborane using the Gaussian-3 method and other high-level compound ab initio 6 met...

  2. Experiential Learning and Its Role in Training and Improved Practice in High Level Sports Officiating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Kenda S.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated how high level sports officials engage in experiential learning to improve their practice. Adult learning occurs in formal, nonformal and informal environments, and in some cases it is difficult to differentiate between these settings. In the case of cycling officials, learning begins in a nonformal environment…

  3. The Evolution of Power System Planning with High Levels of Variable Renewable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Jessica; Milligan, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of the Greening the Grid introduces the evolution of power system planning with high levels of variable renewable generation.

  4. A SIMPLE CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL FOR HIGH-LEVEL VEGETATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have produced a simple two-dimensional (ground-plan) cellular automata model of vegetation dynamics specifically to investigate high-level community processes. The model is probabilistic, with individual plant behavior determined by physiologically-based rules derived from a w...

  5. Is It Really Possible to Test All Educationally Significant Achievements with High Levels of Reliability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    PISA claims that it can extend its reach from its current core subjects of Reading, Science, Maths and problem-solving. Yet given the requirement for high levels of reliability for PISA, especially in the light of its current high stakes character, proposed widening of its subject coverage cannot embrace some important aspects of the social and…

  6. Student Motivations as Predictors of High-Level Cognitions in Project-Based Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolk, Jonathan; Harari, Janie

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that active learning helps students engage in high-level thinking strategies and develop improved cognitive skills. Motivation and self-regulated learning research, however, illustrates that cognitive engagement is an effortful process that is related to students' valuing of the learning tasks, adoption of internalized goal…

  7. Antecedent and Concurrent Psychosocial Skills That Support High Levels of Achievement within Talent Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation and emotional regulation are important for the sustained focused study and practice required for high levels of achievement and creative productivity in adulthood. Using the talent development model proposed by the authors as a framework, the authors discuss several important psychosocial skills based on the psychological research…

  8. A Systematic Review of Research on Questioning as a High-Level Cognitive Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoudi, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Narges Amel

    2015-01-01

    Given the significance of questioning as a high-level cognitive strategy in language teaching and learning in the literature on TEFL as well as in education in general, this study sought to make a systematic review of research studies conducted in the span of the last three decades on the issue of questioning across different disciplines with a…

  9. HTML::GMap-A High Level Perl Wrapper Around the Google Maps(TM) API

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed HTML::GMap, a generic, high-level Perl wrapper, to easily build web-based geographic map displays on top of the Google MapsTM Mapping Service. Using HTML::GMap, we built custom display tools to present the molecular diversity data generated by the National Science Foundation-suppor...

  10. Coping with naturally high levels of soil salinity and boron in the westside of central California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Westside of central California, over 200,000 ha exhibit naturally high levels of salinity and boron (B). The Coast Ranges of the west central California evolved from complex folding and faulting of sedimentary and igneous rocks of Mesozoic and Tertiary age. Cretaceous and Tertiary marine sedi...

  11. Driving Objectives and High-level Requirements for KP-Lab Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakkala, Minna; Paavola, Sami; Toikka, Seppo; Bauters, Merja; Markannen, Hannu; de Groot, Reuma; Ben Ami, Zvi; Baurens, Benoit; Jadin, Tanja; Richter, Christoph; Zoserl, Eva; Batatia, Hadj; Paralic, Jan; Babic, Frantisek; Damsa, Crina; Sins, Patrick; Moen, Anne; Norenes, Svein Olav; Bugnon, Alexandra; Karlgren, Klas; Kotzinons, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    One of the central goals of the KP-Lab project is to co-design pedagogical methods and technologies for knowledge creation and practice transformation in an integrative and reciprocal manner. In order to facilitate this process user tasks, driving objectives and high-level requirements have been introduced as conceptual tools to mediate between…

  12. Effects of Crowding and Attention on High-Levels of Motion Processing and Motion Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Pavan, Andrea; Greenlee, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    The motion after-effect (MAE) persists in crowding conditions, i.e., when the adaptation direction cannot be reliably perceived. The MAE originating from complex moving patterns spreads into non-adapted sectors of a multi-sector adapting display (i.e., phantom MAE). In the present study we used global rotating patterns to measure the strength of the conventional and phantom MAEs in crowded and non-crowded conditions, and when attention was directed to the adapting stimulus and when it was diverted away from the adapting stimulus. The results show that: (i) the phantom MAE is weaker than the conventional MAE, for both non-crowded and crowded conditions, and when attention was focused on the adapting stimulus and when it was diverted from it, (ii) conventional and phantom MAEs in the crowded condition are weaker than in the non-crowded condition. Analysis conducted to assess the effect of crowding on high-level of motion adaptation suggests that crowding is likely to affect the awareness of the adapting stimulus rather than degrading its sensory representation, (iii) for high-level of motion processing the attentional manipulation does not affect the strength of either conventional or phantom MAEs, neither in the non-crowded nor in the crowded conditions. These results suggest that high-level MAEs do not depend on attention and that at high-level of motion adaptation the effects of crowding are not modulated by attention. PMID:25615577

  13. High Level Manpower and Technological Change in the Steel Industry: Implications for Corporate Manpower Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiestand, Dale L.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that high level manpower plays in the establishment of new technologies at the plant and industry level. The steel industry was selected as an appropriate industry to approach these questions due to: its considerable technological changes; its straightforward, easier-to-understand technology; its…

  14. A Simple Gauss-Newton Procedure for Covariance Structure Analysis with High-Level Computer Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cudeck, Robert; And Others

    1993-01-01

    An implementation of the Gauss-Newton algorithm for the analysis of covariance structure that is specifically adapted for high-level computer languages is reviewed. This simple method for estimating structural equation models is useful for a variety of standard models, as is illustrated. (SLD)

  15. The Role of High Level Play as a Predictor Social Functioning in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Margaret M.; Wainwright, Laurel D.

    2010-01-01

    Play and social abilities of a group of children diagnosed with high functioning autism were compared to a second group diagnosed with a variety of developmental language disorders (DLD). The children with autism engaged in fewer acts of high level play. The children with autism also had significantly lower social functioning than the DLD group…

  16. Plastid-expressed 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase genes provide high level glyphosate tolerance in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Ye, G N; Hajdukiewicz, P T; Broyles, D; Rodriguez, D; Xu, C W; Nehra, N; Staub, J M

    2001-02-01

    Plastid transformation (transplastomic) technology has several potential advantages for biotechnological applications including the use of unmodified prokaryotic genes for engineering, potential high-level gene expression and gene containment due to maternal inheritance in most crop plants. However, the efficacy of a plastid-encoded trait may change depending on plastid number and tissue type. We report a feasibility study in tobacco plastids to achieve high-level herbicide resistance in both vegetative tissues and reproductive organs. We chose to test glyphosate resistance via over-expression in plastids of tolerant forms of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Immunological, enzymatic and whole-plant assays were used to prove the efficacy of three different prokaryotic (Achromobacter, Agrobacterium and Bacillus) EPSPS genes. Using the Agrobacterium strain CP4 EPSPS as a model we identified translational control sequences that direct a 10,000-fold range of protein accumulation (to >10% total soluble protein in leaves). Plastid-expressed EPSPS could provide very high levels of glyphosate resistance, although levels of resistance in vegetative and reproductive tissues differed depending on EPSPS accumulation levels, and correlated to the plastid abundance in these tissues. Paradoxically, higher levels of plastid-expressed EPSPS protein accumulation were apparently required for efficacy than from a similar nuclear-encoded gene. Nevertheless, the demonstration of high-level glyphosate tolerance in vegetative and reproductive organs using transplastomic technology provides a necessary step for transfer of this technology to other crop species.

  17. Structural integrity and potential failure modes of hanford high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Han, F.C.

    1996-09-30

    Structural Integrity of the Hanford High-Level Waste Tanks were evaluated based on the existing Design and Analysis Documents. All tank structures were found adequate for the normal operating and seismic loads. Potential failure modes of the tanks were assessed by engineering interpretation and extrapolation of the existing engineering documents.

  18. Chemical evolution of a high-level magma system: the Black Mountain volcanic center, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, T.A.; Noble, D.C.; Younker, L.W.

    1983-09-01

    A comprehensive study of stratigraphically controlled samples of both lavas and ash-flow tuffs from the Black Mountain volcanic center enables us to evaluate magmatic processes. The results of this study are used to: (1) determine how this high-level magma system developed; (2) compare this system with other similar systems; and (3) correlate ash-flow sheets using their chemical characteristics.

  19. Interaction Networks: Generating High Level Hints Based on Network Community Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Michael; Johnson, Matthew; Barnes, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel data structure, the Interaction Network, for representing interaction-data from open problem solving environment tutors. We show how using network community detecting techniques are used to identify sub-goals in problems in a logic tutor. We then use those community structures to generate high level hints between sub-goals.…

  20. High-level waste-form-product performance evaluation. [Leaching; waste loading; mechanical stability

    SciTech Connect

    Bernadzikowski, T A; Allender, J S; Stone, J A; Gordon, D E; Gould, Jr, T H; Westberry, III, C F

    1982-01-01

    Seven candidate waste forms were evaluated for immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The waste forms were compared on the basis of leach resistance, mechanical stability, and waste loading. All forms performed well at leaching temperatures of 40, 90, and 150/sup 0/C. Ceramic forms ranked highest, followed by glasses, a metal matrix form, and concrete. 11 tables.

  1. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-06-02

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  2. Semantic-Aware Automatic Parallelization of Modern Applications Using High-Level Abstractions

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D J; Willcock, J J; Panas, T

    2009-12-21

    Automatic introduction of OpenMP for sequential applications has attracted significant attention recently because of the proliferation of multicore processors and the simplicity of using OpenMP to express parallelism for shared-memory systems. However, most previous research has only focused on C and Fortran applications operating on primitive data types. Modern applications using high-level abstractions, such as C++ STL containers and complex user-defined class types, are largely ignored due to the lack of research compilers that are readily able to recognize high-level object-oriented abstractions and leverage their associated semantics. In this paper, we use a source-to-source compiler infrastructure, ROSE, to explore compiler techniques to recognize high-level abstractions and to exploit their semantics for automatic parallelization. Several representative parallelization candidate kernels are used to study semantic-aware parallelization strategies for high-level abstractions, combined with extended compiler analyses. Preliminary results have shown that semantics of abstractions can help extend the applicability of automatic parallelization to modern applications and expose more opportunities to take advantage of multicore processors.

  3. Advanced Inverter Functions to Support High Levels of Distributed Solar: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    This paper explains how advanced inverter functions (sometimes called 'smart inverters') contribute to the integration of high levels of solar PV generation onto the electrical grid and covers the contributions of advanced functions to maintaining grid stability. Policy and regulatory considerations associated with the deployment of advanced inverter functions are also introduced.

  4. Using High Level Upperclass Undergraduates as TAs in Large Lower Division EFL Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Yeli

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to offer a feasible way to show that the problem of large EFL courses for lower division can be solved by the use of high level upperclass undergraduates as teaching assistants in and out of class. The use of UTAs fragments the large class into seemingly small classes with view to stimulating interest and effective…

  5. 77 FR 1778 - U.S.-EU High Level Working Group on Jobs and Growth

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE U.S.-EU High Level Working Group on Jobs and Growth AGENCY: Office of the United... Working Group on Jobs and Growth, led by U.S. Trade Representative Ron Kirk and EU Trade Commissioner... and investment to support mutually beneficial job creation, economic growth, and...

  6. Multilocus Phylogenetics Show High Levels of Endemic Fusaria Inhabiting Sardinian Soils (Tyrrhenian Islands)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mediterranean island of Sardinia is well known for high levels of vascular plant diversity and endemism, but little is known about its microbial diversity. Under the hypothesis that Fusarium species would show similar patterns, we estimated variability in Fusarium species composition among ten ...

  7. Design of equipment used for high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, R.F.; Brill, B.A.; Carl, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    The equipment as designed, started, and operated for high-level radioactive waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project in western New York State is described. Equipment for the processes of melter feed make-up, vitrification, canister handling, and off-gas treatment are included. For each item of equipment the functional requirements, process description, and hardware descriptions are presented.

  8. Insect cell transformation vectors that support high level expression and promoter assessment in insect cell culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A somatic transformation vector, pDP9, was constructed that provides a simplified means of producing permanently transformed cultured insect cells that support high levels of protein expression of foreign genes. The pDP9 plasmid vector incorporates DNA sequences from the Junonia coenia densovirus th...

  9. Chem I Supplement. Chemistry Related to Isolation of High-Level Nuclear Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Darleane C.; Choppin, Gregory R.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses some of the problems associated with the safe disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. Describes several waste disposal plans developed by various nations. Outlines the multiple-barrier concept of isolation in deep geological questions associated with the implementation of such a method. (TW)

  10. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-04-09

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  11. ISKAF2010 Science Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Joeri

    science issues that will be fully explored by the new generation of radio telescopes. The meeting is part of a week-long series of events organised around the opening of LOFAR and the International SKA Forum 2010. The LOFAR opening will take place on Saturday 12 June, while the Forum is scheduled on Tuesday 15 June. The (somewhat unusual) schedule of the "A new golden age for radio astronomy" meeting has been made in order to give the participants an opportunity to attend all of these events. On Monday June 14th science funding agencies from around the globe will meet to discuss how they will accommodate the SKA (Agencies SKA Group). On the same day industrial partners will join in a workshop to discuss the opportunities of the SKA, not only for science and industry but also for the society as a whole in the Connect Industry Science and Society Workshop (CISS). The venue for all of the above meetings will be the luxury resort "Hof van Saksen" located south of the city of Assen. The absolute climax of the week will be the International SKA Forum on June 15th at the TT-hal in Assen where high level politicians, top scientists, major industries, policy makers and candidate sites for the SKA will meet on `SKA beyond Astronomy'.

  12. RESULTS OF THE FY09 ENHANCED DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES AT SRNL

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-06-23

    High-level waste (HLW) throughput (i.e., the amount of waste processed per unit time) is a function of two critical parameters: waste loading (WL) and melt rate. For the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), increasing HLW throughput would significantly reduce the overall mission life cycle costs for the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this task is to develop data, assess property models, and refine or develop the necessary models to support increased WL of HLW at SRS. It is a continuation of the studies initiated in FY07, but is under the specific guidance of a Task Change Request (TCR)/Work Authorization received from DOE headquarters (Project Number RV071301). Using the data generated in FY07, FY08 and historical data, two test matrices (60 glasses total) were developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in order to generate data in broader compositional regions. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), viscosity, liquidus temperature (TL) measurement and durability as defined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study are summarized below: (1) In general, the current durability model predicts the durabilities of higher waste loading glasses quite well. A few of the glasses exhibited poorer durability than predicted. (2) Some of the glasses exhibited anomalous behavior with respect to durability (normalized leachate for boron (NL [B])). The quenched samples of FY09EM21-02, -07 and -21 contained no nepheline or other wasteform affecting crystals, but have unacceptable NL [B] values (> 10 g/L). The ccc sample of FY09EM21-07 has a NL [B] value that is more than one half the value of the quenched sample. These glasses also have lower concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}. (3) Five of the ccc samples (EM-13, -14, -15, -29 and

  13. Use of adenylate kinase as a solubility tag for high level expression of T4 DNA ligase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinxin; Huang, Anliang; Luo, Dan; Liu, Haipeng; Han, Huzi; Xu, Yang; Liang, Peng

    2015-05-01

    The discovery of T4 DNA ligase in 1960s was pivotal in the spread of molecular biotechnology. The enzyme has become ubiquitous for recombinant DNA routinely practiced in biomedical research around the globe. Great efforts have been made to express and purify T4 DNA ligase to meet the world demand, yet over-expression of soluble T4 DNA ligase in E. coli has been difficult. Here we explore the use of adenylate kinase to enhance T4 DNA ligase expression and its downstream purification. E.coli adenylate kinase, which can be expressed in active form at high level, was fused to the N-terminus of T4 DNA ligase. The resulting His-tagged AK-T4 DNA ligase fusion protein was greatly over-expressed in E. coli, and readily purified to near homogeneity via two purification steps consisting of Blue Sepharose and Ni-NTA chromatography. The purified AK-T4 DNA ligase not only is fully active for DNA ligation, but also can use ADP in addition to ATP as energy source since adenylate kinase converts ADP to ATP and AMP. Thus adenylate kinase may be used as a solubility tag to facilitate recombinant protein expression as well as their downstream purification.

  14. Subcellular targeting is a key condition for high-level accumulation of cellulase protein in transgenic maize seed.

    PubMed

    Hood, Elizabeth E; Love, Robert; Lane, Jeff; Bray, Jeff; Clough, Richard; Pappu, Kamesh; Drees, Carol; Hood, Kendall R; Yoon, Sangwoong; Ahmad, Atta; Howard, John A

    2007-11-01

    Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is being pursued as an alternative to petroleum-based transportation fuels. To succeed in this endeavour, efficient digestion of cellulose into monomeric sugar streams is a key step. Current production systems for cellulase enzymes, i.e. fungi and bacteria, cannot meet the cost and huge volume requirements of this commodity-based industry. Transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) seed containing cellulase protein in embryo tissue, with protein localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, cell wall or vacuole, allows the recovery of commercial amounts of enzyme. E1 cellulase, an endo-beta-1,4-glucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus, was recovered at levels greater than 16% total soluble protein (TSP) in single seed. More significantly, cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), an exocellulase from Trichoderma reesei, also accumulated to levels greater than 16% TSP in single seed, nearly 1000-fold higher than the expression in any other plant reported in the literature. The catalytic domain was the dominant form of E1 that was detected in the endoplasmic reticulum and vacuole, whereas CBH I holoenzyme was present in the cell wall. With one exception, individual transgenic events contained single inserts. Recovery of high levels of enzyme in T2 ears demonstrated that expression is likely to be stable over multiple generations. The enzymes were active in cleaving soluble substrate.

  15. High Levels of Persistent Problem Drinking in Women at High Risk for HIV in Kampala, Uganda: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Helen A.; Vandepitte, Judith; Bukenya, Justine N.; Mayanja, Yunia; Nakubulwa, Susan; Kamali, Anatoli; Seeley, Janet; Grosskurth, Heiner

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of problem drinking in a cohort of women at high-risk of HIV in Kampala, Uganda. Overall, 1027 women at high risk of HIV infection were followed from 2008 to 2013. The CAGE and AUDIT questionnaires were used to identify problem drinkers in the cohort. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to ascertain socio-demographic and behavioural factors. Blood and genital samples were tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. At enrollment, most women (71%) reported using alcohol at least weekly and about a third reported having drunk alcohol daily for at least 2 weeks during the past 3 months. Over half (56%) were problem drinkers by CAGE at enrollment, and this was independently associated with vulnerability (being divorced/separated/widowed, less education, recruiting clients at bars/clubs, and forced sex at first sexual experience). Factors associated with problem drinking during follow-up included younger age, meeting clients in bars/clubs, number of clients, using drugs and HSV-2 infection. HIV prevalence was associated with drinking at enrollment, but not during follow-up. This longitudinal study found high levels of persistent problem drinking. Further research is needed to adapt and implement alcohol-focused interventions in vulnerable key populations in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26805868

  16. Lead-iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1984-04-11

    Disclosed are lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste

  17. Region 9 RTOC Charter

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    U.S. EPA Pacific Southwest (Region 9) Regional Tribal Operations Committee (RTOC) Charter as amended 11/13/2014: Mission, Goals, Scope, Structure & Membership, Meetings, Administration, Charter Amendment/Review, and Current Working Draft.

  18. NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS - COLLABORATING FOR RESULTS, U.S. EPA ETV AND SBIR PROGRAMS REGIONAL WORKSHOP; MAY 8, 2007, U.S. EPA REGION 6, DALLAS, TEXAS, MEETING SUMMARY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Envirnomental Technology Verification (ETV) and Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program hosted a workshop on May 8, 2007, at the EPA Region 6 office in Dallas, Texas. One goal of the workshop was to provide information about new innovative technologies to ...

  19. High levels of diversity and population structure in the potato late blight pathogen at the Mexico centre of origin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianan; Fernández-Pavía, Sylvia P; Larsen, Meredith M; Garay-Serrano, Edith; Gregorio-Cipriano, Rosario; Rodríguez-Alvarado, Gerardo; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Goss, Erica M

    2017-02-01

    Globally destructive crop pathogens often emerge by migrating out of their native ranges. These pathogens are often diverse at their centre of origin and may exhibit adaptive variation in the invaded range via multiple introductions from different source populations. However, source populations are generally unidentified or poorly studied compared to invasive populations. Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight, is one of the most costly pathogens of potato and tomato worldwide. Mexico is the centre of origin and diversity of P. infestans and migration events out of Mexico have enormously impacted disease dynamics in North America and Europe. The debate over the origin of the pathogen, and population studies of P. infestans in Mexico, has focused on the Toluca Valley, whereas neighbouring regions have been little studied. We examined the population structure of P. infestans across central Mexico, including samples from Michoacán, Tlaxcala and Toluca. We found high levels of diversity consistent with sexual reproduction in Michoacán and Tlaxcala and population subdivision that was strongly associated with geographic region. We determined that population structure in central Mexico has contributed to diversity in introduced populations based on relatedness of U.S. clonal lineages to Mexican isolates from different regions. Our results suggest that P. infestans exists as a metapopulation in central Mexico, and this population structure could be contributing to the repeated re-emergence of P. infestans in the United States and elsewhere.

  20. Real-world scene representations in high-level visual cortex: it's the spaces more than the places.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, Dwight J; Peng, Cynthia S; Baker, Chris I

    2011-05-18

    Real-world scenes are incredibly complex and heterogeneous, yet we are able to identify and categorize them effortlessly. In humans, the ventral temporal parahippocampal place area (PPA) has been implicated in scene processing, but scene information is contained in many visual areas, leaving their specific contributions unclear. Although early theories of PPA emphasized its role in spatial processing, more recent reports of its function have emphasized semantic or contextual processing. Here, using functional imaging, we reconstructed the organization of scene representations across human ventral visual cortex by analyzing the distributed response to 96 diverse real-world scenes. We found that, although individual scenes could be decoded in both PPA and early visual cortex (EVC), the structure of representations in these regions was vastly different. In both regions, spatial rather than semantic factors defined the structure of representations. However, in PPA, representations were defined primarily by the spatial factor of expanse (open, closed) and in EVC primarily by distance (near, far). Furthermore, independent behavioral ratings of expanse and distance correlated strongly with representations in PPA and peripheral EVC, respectively. In neither region was content (manmade, natural) a major contributor to the overall organization. Furthermore, the response of PPA could not be used to decode the high-level semantic category of scenes even when spatial factors were held constant, nor could category be decoded across different distances. These findings demonstrate, contrary to recent reports, that the response PPA primarily reflects spatial, not categorical or contextual, aspects of real-world scenes.

  1. West Valley demonstration project: alternative processes for solidifying the high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.; Partain, W.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project as the result of legislation passed by the US Congress. The purpose of this project was to carry out a high level nuclear waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The DOE authorized the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, to assess alternative processes for treatment and solidification of the WNYNSC high-level wastes. The Process Alternatives Study is the suject of this report. Two pretreatment approaches and several waste form processes were selected for evaluation in this study. The two waste treatment approaches were the salt/sludge separation process and the combined waste process. Both terminal and interim waste form processes were studied.

  2. Perspective on demonstrations of compliance for high-level waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.; Smith, E.D.; O'Kelly, G.D.; Sjoreen, A.L.

    1984-03-15

    This paper discusses a perspective which we have developed on the problem of demonstrating compliance of high-level waste repositories with system performance standards. Our viewpoint arises from two primary concerns - first, that the US Environmental Protection Agency's proposed environmental standard for high-level waste disposal appears to require demonstrations of compliance which are incompatible with scientific knowledge, and, second, that the federal agencies involved in the licensing process may not appreciate fully the extent of unquantifiable and uresolvable uncertainty in repository performance-assessment models. We propose a general approach to demonstrations of compliance which we feel is compatible with the kinds of technical information that will be available for judging repository performance. Our approach emphasizes the importance of investigation alternative conceptual models and lines of reasoning in evaluating repository performance and the importance of subjective scientific judgment in the desision-making process. 24 references, 1 figure.

  3. Human factors programs for high-level radioactive waste handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pond, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Human Factors is the discipline concerned with the acquisition of knowledge about human capabilities and limitations, and the application of such knowledge to the design of systems. This paper discusses the range of human factors issues relevant to high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) management systems and, based on examples from other organizations, presents mechanisms through which to assure application of such expertise in the safe, efficient, and effective management and disposal of high-level waste. Additionally, specific attention is directed toward consideration of who might be classified as a human factors specialist, why human factors expertise is critical to the success of the HLRW management system, and determining when human factors specialists should become involved in the design and development process.

  4. Southern routes for high-level radioactive waste: Agencies, contacts, and designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The Southern Routes for High-Level Radioactive Waste: Agencies, Contacts and Designations is a compendium of sixteen southern states' routing programs for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies' rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state's governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed. This report also examines alternative route designations made by southern states and the lessons that were learned from the designation process.

  5. Southern routes for high-level radioactive waste: Agencies, contacts, and designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The Southern Routes for High-Level Radioactive Waste: Agencies, Contacts and Designations is a compendium of sixteen southern states` routing programs for the transportation of high-level radioactive materials. The report identifies the state-designated routing agencies as defined under 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 171 and provides a reference to the source and scope of the agencies` rulemaking authority. Additionally, the state agency and contact designated by the state`s governor to receive advance notification and shipment routing information under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 are also listed. This report also examines alternative route designations made by southern states and the lessons that were learned from the designation process.

  6. Unusually high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in whale sharks and reef manta rays.

    PubMed

    Couturier, L I E; Rohner, C A; Richardson, A J; Pierce, S J; Marshall, A D; Jaine, F R A; Townsend, K A; Bennett, M B; Weeks, S J; Nichols, P D

    2013-10-01

    Fatty acid (FA) signature analysis has been increasingly used to assess dietary preferences and trophodynamics in marine animals. We investigated FA signatures of connective tissue of the whale shark Rhincodon typus and muscle tissue of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi. We found high levels of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), dominated by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6; 12-17 % of total FA), and comparatively lower levels of the essential n-3 PUFA-eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; ~1 %) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3; 3-10 %). Whale sharks and reef manta rays are regularly observed feeding on surface aggregations of coastal crustacean zooplankton during the day, which generally have FA profiles dominated by n-3 PUFA. The high levels of n-6 PUFA in both giant elasmobranchs raise new questions about the origin of their main food source.

  7. Using the high-level based program interface to facilitate the large scale scientific computing.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yizi; Shang, Ling; Gao, Chuanchang; Lu, Guiming; Ye, Yuntao; Jia, Dongdong

    2014-01-01

    This paper is to make further research on facilitating the large-scale scientific computing on the grid and the desktop grid platform. The related issues include the programming method, the overhead of the high-level program interface based middleware, and the data anticipate migration. The block based Gauss Jordan algorithm as a real example of large-scale scientific computing is used to evaluate those issues presented above. The results show that the high-level based program interface makes the complex scientific applications on large-scale scientific platform easier, though a little overhead is unavoidable. Also, the data anticipation migration mechanism can improve the efficiency of the platform which needs to process big data based scientific applications.

  8. Using the High-Level Based Program Interface to Facilitate the Large Scale Scientific Computing

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Yizi; Shang, Ling; Gao, Chuanchang; Lu, Guiming; Ye, Yuntao; Jia, Dongdong

    2014-01-01

    This paper is to make further research on facilitating the large-scale scientific computing on the grid and the desktop grid platform. The related issues include the programming method, the overhead of the high-level program interface based middleware, and the data anticipate migration. The block based Gauss Jordan algorithm as a real example of large-scale scientific computing is used to evaluate those issues presented above. The results show that the high-level based program interface makes the complex scientific applications on large-scale scientific platform easier, though a little overhead is unavoidable. Also, the data anticipation migration mechanism can improve the efficiency of the platform which needs to process big data based scientific applications. PMID:24574931

  9. Enterococci from Bangkok, Thailand, with high-level resistance to currently available aminoglycosides.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, B E; Tsao, J; Panida, J

    1983-01-01

    Enterococcal endocarditis is usually treated with a combination of a penicillin and an aminoglycoside. Recent reports have documented the emergence of enterococci in France with high-level resistance to gentamicin, tobramycin, and kanamycin and the emergence of strains in Houston, Tex. with high-level resistance to all of these drugs and streptomycin. In this study, we examined strains from a geographic area where newer aminoglycosides have been less commonly used. Of 125 distinct patient isolates, 18 (14%) were resistant to greater than 2,000 micrograms of gentamicin and most other aminoglycosides per ml. Four of these strains transferred gentamicin resistance to a laboratory recipient. One strain, chosen for further study, was resistant to synergism between penicillin and gentamicin, tobramycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and amikacin and demonstrated the following enzymatic activities: 3'- and 2"-aminoglycoside phosphotransferases, 6'-aminoglycoside acetyltransferase, and adenylylation of streptomycin. Optimal therapy for endocarditis caused by such highly resistant strains is currently unknown. PMID:6614889

  10. Decision Plan for West Valley High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, Monte R.; Henderson, Colin

    2002-06-21

    Documents completion of Milestone A.3-1, "Issue Decision Plan for WVDP Tank Lay-Up," in Technical Task Plan RL30WT21A, "Post-Retrieval and Pre-Closure HLW Tank Lay-Up." This task is a collaborative effort among, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Jacobs Engineering Group Inc., and West Valley Nuclear Services. Thi primary objective of the overall task is to develop and evaluate conceptual strategies for preclosure lay-up of the two large high-level waste storage tanks at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Functions and requirments for tank lay-up were developed and previously documented in "Functions and Requirements for WVDP Lay-Up". These functions nad requirments served as the basis for cristeria to evaluate potential aly-up options documented in "West Valey High-Level Waste Tank Lay-Up Strategies".

  11. An improved retinal vessel segmentation method based on high level features for pathological images.

    PubMed

    Ganjee, Razieh; Azmi, Reza; Gholizadeh, Behrouz

    2014-09-01

    Most of the retinal blood vessel segmentation approaches use low level features, resulting in segmenting non-vessel structures together with vessel structures in pathological retinal images. In this paper, a new segmentation method based on high level features is proposed which can process the structure of vessel and non-vessel independently. In this method, segmentation is done in two steps. First, using low level features segmentation is accomplished. Second, using high level features, the non-vessel components are removed. For evaluation, STARE database is used which is publicly available in this field. The results show that the proposed method has 0.9536 accuracy and 0.0191 false positive average on all images of the database and 0.9542 accuracy and 0.0236 false positive average on pathological images. Therefore, the proposed approach shows acceptable accuracy on all images compared to other state of the art methods, and the least false positive average on pathological images.

  12. Biological Effects of Short, High-Level Exposure to Gases: Nitrogen Oxides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOT ES3 This project was one of four under the same contract; the others covered ammonia , carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide. 3 IS. KEY wOROS...characterize the biological responses to short, high-level exposures to four gases associated with certain Army weapons systems ( ammonia , carbon monoxide...20- i --- 7 (2) Biochemical and Other Effects Buckley and BalchumlO found biochemical changes, principally in enzyme activity of the liver, spleen

  13. Molecular Characterization of High-Level Mupirocin Resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Roth, Eduardo; Pintarić, Selma; Šeol Martinec, Branka

    2013-01-01

    The genetic analysis of high-level mupirocin resistance (Hi-Mupr) in a Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolate from a dog is presented. The Hi-Mupr ileS2 gene flanked by a novel rearrangement of directly repeated insertion sequence IS257 elements was located, together with the aminoglycoside resistance aacA-aphD determinant, on a conjugative plasmid related to the pSK41/pGO1 family plasmids. PMID:23269741

  14. Hanford Site River Protection Project High-Level Waste Safe Storage and Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Aromi, E. S.; Raymond, R. E.; Allen, D. I.; Payne, M. A.; DeFigh-Price, C.; Kristofzski, J. G.; Wiegman, S. A.

    2002-02-25

    This paper provides an update from last year and describes project successes and issues associated with the management and work required to safely store, enhance readiness for waste feed delivery, and prepare for treated waste receipts for the approximately 53 million gallons of mixed and high-level waste currently in aging tanks at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a 560 square-mile area in southeastern Washington State near Richland, Washington.

  15. SETTLING OF SPINEL IN A HIGH-LEVEL WASTE GLASS MELTER

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Hrma; Pert Schill; Lubomir Nemec

    2002-01-07

    High-level nuclear waste is being vitrified, i.e., converted to a durable glass that can be stored in a safe repository for hundreds of thousands of years. Waste vitrification is accomplished in reactors called melters to which the waste is charged together with glass-forming additives. The mixture is electrically heated to a temperature as high as 1150 decrees C to create a melt that becomes glass on cooling.

  16. Composite quarterly technical report long-term high-level-waste technology, October-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Cornman, W.R.

    1982-06-01

    This document summarizes work performed at participating sites on the immobilization of high-level wastes from the chemical reprocessing of reactor fuels. The plan is to develop waste form alternatives for each of the three DOE sites (SRP, ICPP, and Hanford). Progress is reported in the following areas: waste preparation; fixation in glass, concrete, tailored ceramics, and coated particles; process and equipment development; and final handling. 12 figures, 19 tables. (DLC)

  17. Impact of transporting defense high-level waste to a geologic repository

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Shappert, L.B.; Boyle, J.W.

    1984-12-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Public Law 97-425) provides for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel and requires the Secretary of Energy to evaluate five potential repository sites. One factor that is to be examined is transportation of radioactive materials to such a repository and whether transportation might be affected by shipments to a defense-only repository, or to one that accepts both defense and commercial waste. In response to this requirement, The Department of Energy has undertaken an evaluation of the cost and risk associated with the potential shipments. Two waste-flow scenarios are considered which are related to the total quantity of defense high-level waste which will be placed in a repository. The low-flow case is based on a total of 6700 canisters being transported from one site, while the high-flow case assumes that a total of 20,000 canisters will be transported from three sites. For the scenarios considered, the estimated shipping costs range from $105 million to $257 million depending upon the mode of transport and the repository location. The total risks associated with shipping defense high-level waste to a repository are estimated to be significantly smaller than predicted for other transportation activities. In addition, the cost of shipping defense high-level waste to a repository does not depend on whether the site is a defense-only or a commercial repository. Therefore, the transportation considerations are not a basis for the selection of one of the two disposal options.

  18. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior across the High-Level Waste Evaporator System

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C. J.; Crawford, C. L.; Jackson, D. G.; Shah, H. B.; Jain, V.; Occhipinti, J. E.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-06-17

    The Mercury Program team’s effort continues to develop more fundamental information concerning mercury behavior across the liquid waste facilities and unit operations. Previously, the team examined the mercury chemistry across salt processing, including the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU), and the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheets. This report documents the data and understanding of mercury across the high level waste 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  19. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  20. EEG oscillations entrain their phase to high-level features of speech sound.

    PubMed

    Zoefel, Benedikt; VanRullen, Rufin

    2016-01-01

    Phase entrainment of neural oscillations, the brain's adjustment to rhythmic stimulation, is a central component in recent theories of speech comprehension: the alignment between brain oscillations and speech sound improves speech intelligibility. However, phase entrainment to everyday speech sound could also be explained by oscillations passively following the low-level periodicities (e.g., in sound amplitude and spectral content) of auditory stimulation-and not by an adjustment to the speech rhythm per se. Recently, using novel speech/noise mixture stimuli, we have shown that behavioral performance can entrain to speech sound even when high-level features (including phonetic information) are not accompanied by fluctuations in sound amplitude and spectral content. In the present study, we report that neural phase entrainment might underlie our behavioral findings. We observed phase-locking between electroencephalogram (EEG) and speech sound in response not only to original (unprocessed) speech but also to our constructed "high-level" speech/noise mixture stimuli. Phase entrainment to original speech and speech/noise sound did not differ in the degree of entrainment, but rather in the actual phase difference between EEG signal and sound. Phase entrainment was not abolished when speech/noise stimuli were presented in reverse (which disrupts semantic processing), indicating that acoustic (rather than linguistic) high-level features play a major role in the observed neural entrainment. Our results provide further evidence for phase entrainment as a potential mechanism underlying speech processing and segmentation, and for the involvement of high-level processes in the adjustment to the rhythm of speech.

  1. Thermal analysis of Yucca Mountain commercial high-level waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Altenhofen, M.K.; Eslinger, P.W.

    1992-10-01

    The thermal performance of commercial high-level waste packages was evaluated on a preliminary basis for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. The purpose of this study is to provide an estimate for waste package component temperatures as a function of isolation time in tuff. Several recommendations are made concerning the additional information and modeling needed to evaluate the thermal performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system.

  2. High-level aminoglycoside resistance and virulence characteristics among Enterococci isolated from recreational beaches in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Dada, Ayokunle Christopher; Ahmad, Asmat; Usup, Gires; Heng, Lee Yook; Hamid, Rahimi

    2013-09-01

    We report the first study on the occurrence of high-level aminoglycoside-resistant (HLAR) Enterococci in coastal bathing waters and beach sand in Malaysia. None of the encountered isolates were resistant to high levels of gentamicin (500 μg/mL). However, high-level resistance to kanamycin (2,000 μg/mL) was observed in 14.2 % of tested isolates, the highest proportions observed being among beach sand isolates. High-level resistance to kanamycin was higher among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium than Enterococcus spp. Chi-square analysis showed no significant association between responses to tested antibiotics and the species allocation or source of isolation of all tested Enterococci. The species classification of encountered Enterococci resistance to vancomycin was highest among Enterococcus spp. (5.89 %) followed by E. faecium (4.785) and least among E. faecalis. A total of 160 isolates were also tested for virulence characteristics. On the whole, caseinase production was profoundly highest (15.01 %) while the least prevalent virulence characteristic observed among tested beach Enterococci was haemolysis of rabbit blood (3.65 %). A strong association was observed between the source of isolation and responses for each of caseinase (C = 0.47, V = 0.53) and slime (C = 0.50, V = 0.58) assays. Analysis of obtained spearman's coefficient showed a strong correlation between caseinase and each of the slime production (p = 0.04), gelatinase (p = 0.0035) and haemolytic activity on horse blood (p = 0.004), respectively. Suggestively, these are the main virulent characteristics of the studied beach Enterococci. Our findings suggest that recreational beaches may contribute to the dissemination of Enterococci with HLAR and virulence characteristics.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of high-level macrolide resistance in clinical isolates of Moraxella nonliquefaciens.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Shotaro; Matsuzaki, Kosuke; Kazama, Tomoya; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Ida, Yoko; Koyano, Saho; Sonobe, Kazunari; Okamura, Noboru; Saito, Ryoichi

    2014-02-01

    We investigated antimicrobial susceptibility and the molecular mechanism involved in conferring high-level macrolide resistance in 47 clinical isolates of Moraxella nonliquefaciens from Japan. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using Etest and agar dilution methods. Thirty-two erythromycin-non-susceptible strains were evaluated for the possibility of clonal spreading, using PFGE. To analyse the mechanism related to macrolide resistance, mutations in the 23S rRNA gene and the ribosomal proteins, and the presence of methylase genes were investigated by PCR and sequencing. The efflux system was examined using appropriate inhibitors. Penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, cefixime, levofloxacin and antimicrobials containing β-lactamase inhibitors showed strong activity against 47 M. nonliquefaciens isolates. Thirty-two (68.1 %) of the 47 isolates showed high-level MICs to macrolides (MIC ≥128 mg l(-1)) and shared the A2058T mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. The geometric mean MIC to macrolides of A2058T-mutated strains was significantly higher than that of WT strains (P<0.0001). Thirty-two isolates with high-level macrolide MICs clustered into 30 patterns on the basis of the PFGE dendrogram, indicating that the macrolide-resistant strains were not clonal. In contrast, no common mutations of the ribosomal proteins or methylase genes, or overproduction of the efflux system were observed in A2058T-mutated strains. Moreover, of the 47 M. nonliquefaciens strains, 43 (91.5 %) were bro-1 and 4 (8.5 %) were bro-2 positive. Our results suggest that most M. nonliquefaciens clinical isolates show high-level macrolide resistance conferred by the A2058T mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. This study represents the first characterization of M. nonliquefaciens.

  4. Biological Effects of Short, High-Level Exposure to Gases: Sulfur Dioxide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    This project was one of four under the same contract; the others covered were ammonia, carbon monoxide, and the nitrogen oxides. I! V It. KEY WORDS...biologic responses to short, high-level exposures to four gases (ammonia, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and the nitrogen oxides) that may be...associated with certain Army weapons systems and troop field training activities . Thisreport analyzes and synthesizes the available literature on possible

  5. The petrographic criteria of selection of geological environments for building high-level waste (HLW) repository

    SciTech Connect

    Omelyanenko, B.I.; Petrov, V.A.; Yudintsev, S.V.; Zaraisky, G.P.; Starostin, V.I.

    1993-12-31

    Igneous rocks of basic composition (basalts, diabases, gabbro-dolerites, dunites, etc.) are an appropriate geological environment for high-level waste disposal. During interaction with hot ground waters their isolation ability will increase due to the decrease of hydraulic permeability and increase of their sorption ability. According to petrophysical characteristics, such rocks are viscous-rigid media with the highest mechanical stability and do not undergo any changes in properties over the whole temperature range, which is possible in a HLW repository.

  6. Tasmanian Devil: An Application of the High Level Architecture in the Distributed Mission Training Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-03-01

    Tasmanian Devil : An Application of the High Level Architecture in the Distributed Mission Training Domain Anita Adams Zabek The MITRE...Federation, FEDEP, Objective FOM, RTI NG, VxWorks, Agile FOM Interface. ABSTRACT: The Tasmanian Devil project is a cooperative effort by the...paper describes the results and lessons learned from the Tasmanian Devil project. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188

  7. A HIGH-LEVEL PYTHON INTERFACE TO THE FERMILAB ACNET CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Halavanau, A.

    2016-10-19

    This paper discusses the implementation of a python- based high-level interface to the Fermilab acnet control system. The interface has been successfully employed during the commissioning of the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility. Specifically, we present examples of applications at FAST which include the interfacing of the elegant program to assist lattice matching, an automated emittance measurement via the quadrupole-scan method and tranverse transport matrix measurement of a superconducting RF cavity.

  8. Remote Handling Equipment for a High-Level Waste Waste Package Closure System

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Croft; Scott M. Allen; Mark W. Borland

    2006-04-01

    High-level waste will be placed in sealed waste packages inside a shielded closure cell. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has designed a system for closing the waste packages including all cell interior equipment and support systems. This paper discusses the material handling aspects of the equipment used and operations that will take place as part of the waste package closure operations. Prior to construction, the cell and support system will be assembled in a full-scale mockup at INL.

  9. Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.

    2014-02-27

    processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 °C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 °C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 °C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been

  10. High levels of homocysteine downregulate apolipoprotein E expression via nuclear factor kappa B

    PubMed Central

    Trusca, Violeta G; Mihai, Adina D; Fuior, Elena V; Fenyo, Ioana M; Gafencu, Anca V

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of high homocysteine (Hcy) levels on apolipoprotein E (apoE) expression and the signaling pathways involved in this gene regulation. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to assess apoE expression in cells treated with various concentrations (50-500 μmol/L) of Hcy. Calcium phosphate-transient transfections were performed in HEK-293 and RAW 264.7 cells to evaluate the effect of Hcy on apoE regulatory elements [promoter and distal multienhancer 2 (ME2)]. To this aim, plasmids containing the proximal apoE promoter [(-500/+73)apoE construct] alone or in the presence of ME2 [ME2/(-500/+73)apoE construct] to drive the expression of the reporter luciferase gene were used. Co-transfection experiments were carried out to investigate the downstream effectors of Hcy-mediated regulation of apoE promoter by using specific inhibitors or a dominant negative form of IKβ. In other co-transfections, the luciferase reporter was under the control of synthetic promoters containing multiple specific binding sites for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1) or nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was accomplished to detect the binding of NF-κB p65 subunit to the apoE promoter in HEK-293 treated with 500 μmol/L Hcy. As control, cells were incubated with similar concentration of cysteine. NF-κB p65 proteins bound to DNA were immunoprecipitated with anti-p65 antibodies and DNA was identified by PCR using primers amplifying the region -100/+4 of the apoE gene. RESULTS: RT-PCR revealed that high levels of Hcy (250-750 μmol/L) induced a 2-3 fold decrease in apoE mRNA levels in HEK-293 cells, while apoE gene expression was not significantly affected by treatment with lower concentrations of Hcy (100 μmol/L). Immunoblotting data provided additional evidence for the negative role of Hcy in apoE expression. Hcy decreased apoE promoter

  11. Thermal-Mechanical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, B. W.; Clayton, D. J.; Herrick, C. G.; Hadgu, T.

    2010-12-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 °C and 180 °C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient

  12. Thermal-mechanical modeling of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Hadgu, Teklu

    2010-12-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 C and 180 C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient

  13. Hybrid approach for free energy calculations with high-level methods: application to the SN2 reaction of CHCl3 and OH- in water.

    PubMed

    Valiev, Marat; Garrett, Bruce C; Tsai, Ming-Kang; Kowalski, Karol; Kathmann, Shawn M; Schenter, Gregory K; Dupuis, Michel

    2007-08-07

    We present an approach to calculate the free energy profile along a condensed-phase reaction path based on high-level electronic structure methods for the reactive region. The bulk of statistical averaging is shifted toward less expensive descriptions by using a hierarchy of representations that includes molecular mechanics, density functional theory, and coupled cluster theories. As an application of this approach we study the reaction of CHCl3 with OH- in aqueous solution.

  14. Hybrid approach for free energy calculations with high-level methods: Application to the SN2 reaction of CHCl3 and OH- in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiev, Marat; Garrett, Bruce C.; Tsai, Ming-Kang; Kowalski, Karol; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Dupuis, Michel

    2007-08-01

    We present an approach to calculate the free energy profile along a condensed-phase reaction path based on high-level electronic structure methods for the reactive region. The bulk of statistical averaging is shifted toward less expensive descriptions by using a hierarchy of representations that includes molecular mechanics, density functional theory, and coupled cluster theories. As an application of this approach we study the reaction of CHCl3 with OH- in aqueous solution.

  15. Meeting Abstracts - Annual Meeting 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These

  16. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  17. An end-to-end workflow for engineering of biological networks from high-level specifications.

    PubMed

    Beal, Jacob; Weiss, Ron; Densmore, Douglas; Adler, Aaron; Appleton, Evan; Babb, Jonathan; Bhatia, Swapnil; Davidsohn, Noah; Haddock, Traci; Loyall, Joseph; Schantz, Richard; Vasilev, Viktor; Yaman, Fusun

    2012-08-17

    We present a workflow for the design and production of biological networks from high-level program specifications. The workflow is based on a sequence of intermediate models that incrementally translate high-level specifications into DNA samples that implement them. We identify algorithms for translating between adjacent models and implement them as a set of software tools, organized into a four-stage toolchain: Specification, Compilation, Part Assignment, and Assembly. The specification stage begins with a Boolean logic computation specified in the Proto programming language. The compilation stage uses a library of network motifs and cellular platforms, also specified in Proto, to transform the program into an optimized Abstract Genetic Regulatory Network (AGRN) that implements the programmed behavior. The part assignment stage assigns DNA parts to the AGRN, drawing the parts from a database for the target cellular platform, to create a DNA sequence implementing the AGRN. Finally, the assembly stage computes an optimized assembly plan to create the DNA sequence from available part samples, yielding a protocol for producing a sample of engineered plasmids with robotics assistance. Our workflow is the first to automate the production of biological networks from a high-level program specification. Furthermore, the workflow's modular design allows the same program to be realized on different cellular platforms simply by swapping workflow configurations. We validated our workflow by specifying a small-molecule sensor-reporter program and verifying the resulting plasmids in both HEK 293 mammalian cells and in E. coli bacterial cells.

  18. Comparison of selected foreign plans and practices for spent fuel and high-level waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Hazelton, R.F.; Bradley, D.J.

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the major parameters for management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes in selected foreign countries as of December 1989 and compares them with those in the United States. The foreign countries included in this study are Belgium, Canada, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All the countries are planning for disposal of spent fuel and/or high-level wastes in deep geologic repositories. Most countries (except Canada and Sweden) plan to reprocess their spent fuel and vitrify the resultant high-level liquid wastes; in comparison, the US plans direct disposal of spent fuel. The US is planning to use a container for spent fuel as the primary engineered barrier. The US has the most developed repository concept and has one of the earliest scheduled repository startup dates. The repository environment presently being considered in the US is unique, being located in tuff above the water table. The US also has the most prescriptive regulations and performance requirements for the repository system and its components. 135 refs., 8 tabs.

  19. Strategic Minimization of High Level Waste from Pyroprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Michael F.; Benedict, Robert W.

    2007-09-01

    The pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel results in two high-level waste streams--ceramic and metal waste. Ceramic waste contains active metal fission product-loaded salt from the electrorefining, while the metal waste contains cladding hulls and undissolved noble metals. While pyroprocessing was successfully demonstrated for treatment of spent fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II in 1999, it was done so without a specific objective to minimize high-level waste generation. The ceramic waste process uses “throw-away” technology that is not optimized with respect to volume of waste generated. In looking past treatment of EBR-II fuel, it is critical to minimize waste generation for technology developed under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). While the metal waste cannot be readily reduced, there are viable routes towards minimizing the ceramic waste. Fission products that generate high amounts of heat, such as Cs and Sr, can be separated from other active metal fission products and placed into short-term, shallow disposal. The remaining active metal fission products can be concentrated into the ceramic waste form using an ion exchange process. It has been estimated that ion exchange can reduce ceramic high-level waste quantities by as much as a factor of 3 relative to throw-away technology.

  20. Ontology-Based High-Level Context Inference for Human Behavior Identification

    PubMed Central

    Villalonga, Claudia; Razzaq, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Pomares, Hector; Rojas, Ignacio; Lee, Sungyoung; Banos, Oresti

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a huge progress in the automatic identification of individual primitives of human behavior, such as activities or locations. However, the complex nature of human behavior demands more abstract contextual information for its analysis. This work presents an ontology-based method that combines low-level primitives of behavior, namely activity, locations and emotions, unprecedented to date, to intelligently derive more meaningful high-level context information. The paper contributes with a new open ontology describing both low-level and high-level context information, as well as their relationships. Furthermore, a framework building on the developed ontology and reasoning models is presented and evaluated. The proposed method proves to be robust while identifying high-level contexts even in the event of erroneously-detected low-level contexts. Despite reasonable inference times being obtained for a relevant set of users and instances, additional work is required to scale to long-term scenarios with a large number of users. PMID:27690050

  1. Oasis: A high-level/high-performance open source Navier-Stokes solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortensen, Mikael; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian

    2015-03-01

    Oasis is a high-level/high-performance finite element Navier-Stokes solver written from scratch in Python using building blocks from the FEniCS project (fenicsproject.org). The solver is unstructured and targets large-scale applications in complex geometries on massively parallel clusters. Oasis utilizes MPI and interfaces, through FEniCS, to the linear algebra backend PETSc. Oasis advocates a high-level, programmable user interface through the creation of highly flexible Python modules for new problems. Through the high-level Python interface the user is placed in complete control of every aspect of the solver. A version of the solver, that is using piecewise linear elements for both velocity and pressure, is shown to reproduce very well the classical, spectral, turbulent channel simulations of Moser et al. (1999). The computational speed is strongly dominated by the iterative solvers provided by the linear algebra backend, which is arguably the best performance any similar implicit solver using PETSc may hope for. Higher order accuracy is also demonstrated and new solvers may be easily added within the same framework.

  2. Understanding Portability of a High-Level Programming Model on Contemporary Heterogeneous Architectures

    DOE PAGES

    Sabne, Amit J.; Sakdhnagool, Putt; Lee, Seyong; ...

    2015-07-13

    Accelerator-based heterogeneous computing is gaining momentum in the high-performance computing arena. However, the increased complexity of heterogeneous architectures demands more generic, high-level programming models. OpenACC is one such attempt to tackle this problem. Although the abstraction provided by OpenACC offers productivity, it raises questions concerning both functional and performance portability. In this article, the authors propose HeteroIR, a high-level, architecture-independent intermediate representation, to map high-level programming models, such as OpenACC, to heterogeneous architectures. They present a compiler approach that translates OpenACC programs into HeteroIR and accelerator kernels to obtain OpenACC functional portability. They then evaluate the performance portability obtained bymore » OpenACC with their approach on 12 OpenACC programs on Nvidia CUDA, AMD GCN, and Intel Xeon Phi architectures. They study the effects of various compiler optimizations and OpenACC program settings on these architectures to provide insights into the achieved performance portability.« less

  3. Modeling of Boehmite Leaching from Actual Hanford High-Level Waste Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Reid A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Rapko, Brian M.; Poloski, Adam P.

    2007-06-27

    The Department of Energy plans to vitrify approximately 60,000 metric tons of high level waste sludge from underground storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. To reduce the volume of high level waste requiring treatment, a goal has been set to remove about 90 percent of the aluminum, which comprises nearly 70 percent of the sludge. Aluminum in the form of gibbsite and sodium aluminate can be easily dissolved by washing the waste stream with caustic, but boehmite, which comprises nearly half of the total aluminum, is more resistant to caustic dissolution and requires higher treatment temperatures and hydroxide concentrations. In this work, the dissolution kinetics of aluminum species during caustic leaching of actual Hanford high level waste samples is examined. The experimental results are used to develop a shrinking core model that provides a basis for prediction of dissolution dynamics from known process temperature and hydroxide concentration. This model is further developed to include the effects of particle size polydispersity, which is found to strongly influence the rate of dissolution.

  4. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. ); Weiss, H. )

    1988-06-01

    Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Understanding Portability of a High-Level Programming Model on Contemporary Heterogeneous Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Sabne, Amit J.; Sakdhnagool, Putt; Lee, Seyong; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-13

    Accelerator-based heterogeneous computing is gaining momentum in the high-performance computing arena. However, the increased complexity of heterogeneous architectures demands more generic, high-level programming models. OpenACC is one such attempt to tackle this problem. Although the abstraction provided by OpenACC offers productivity, it raises questions concerning both functional and performance portability. In this article, the authors propose HeteroIR, a high-level, architecture-independent intermediate representation, to map high-level programming models, such as OpenACC, to heterogeneous architectures. They present a compiler approach that translates OpenACC programs into HeteroIR and accelerator kernels to obtain OpenACC functional portability. They then evaluate the performance portability obtained by OpenACC with their approach on 12 OpenACC programs on Nvidia CUDA, AMD GCN, and Intel Xeon Phi architectures. They study the effects of various compiler optimizations and OpenACC program settings on these architectures to provide insights into the achieved performance portability.

  6. Novel Bifidobacterium promoters selected through microarray analysis lead to constitutive high-level gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Kim, Jin Yong; Park, Myeong Soo; Ji, Geun Eog

    2012-08-01

    For the development of a food-grade expression system for Bifidobacterium, a strong promoter leading to high-level expression of cloned gene is a prerequisite. For this purpose, a promoter screening host-vector system for Bifidobacterium has been established using β-glucosidase from Bifidobacterium lactis as a reporter and Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 as a host, which is β-glucosidase negative strain. Seven putative promoters showing constitutive high-level expression were selected through microarray analysis based on the genome sequence of B. bifidum BGN4. They were cloned into upstream of β-glucosidase gene and transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α and B. bifidum BGN4. Promoter activities were analyzed both in E. coli and B. bifidum BGN4 by measuring β-glucosidase activity. β-Glucosidase activities in all of the transformants showed growth-associated characteristics. Among them, P919 was the strongest in B. bifidum BGN4 and showed maximum activity at 18 h, while P895 was the strongest in E. coli DH5α at 7 h. This study shows that novel strong promoters such as P919 can be used for high-level expression of foreign genes in Bifidobacterium and will be useful for the construction of an efficient food-grade expression system.

  7. 2×2 dominant achievement goal profiles in high-level swimmers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini Estrada, Jose A; Mendez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Garcia, Benjamín; Saavedra, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess achievement goal dominance, self-determined situational motivation and competence in high-level swimmers before and after three training sessions set at different working intensities (medium, sub-maximal and maximal). Nineteen athletes (males, n=9, 18.00±2.32 years; females, n=10, 16.30±2.01 years, range = 14-18) agreed to participate. They completed a questionnaire that included the Dominant Achievement Goal assessment instrument, the 2×2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport (AGQ-S), The Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS) and the Competence subscale of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise questionnaire (BPNES). Results indicated that participants overwhelmingly showed mastery-approach achievement goal dominance, and it remained stable at the conclusion of the different training sessions under all intensity levels. This profile was positively correlated to self-determined situational motivation and competence. However, swimmers' feelings of competence increased only after the medium intensity level training session. After the completion of the maximal intensity training session, swimmers' self-determined motivation was significantly lower compared to the other two training sessions, which could be caused by a temporary period of burnout. Results indicated that high-level swimmers had a distinct mastery-approach dominant achievement goal profile that was not affected by the workload of the different training sessions. They also showed high levels of self-determined situational motivation and competence. However, heavy workloads should be controlled because they can cause transitory burnout.

  8. Specifying the Concept of Future Generations for Addressing Issues Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    PubMed

    Kermisch, Celine

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear community frequently refers to the concept of "future generations" when discussing the management of high-level radioactive waste. However, this notion is generally not defined. In this context, we have to assume a wide definition of the concept of future generations, conceived as people who will live after the contemporary people are dead. This definition embraces thus each generation following ours, without any restriction in time. The aim of this paper is to show that, in the debate about nuclear waste, this broad notion should be further specified and to clarify the related implications for nuclear waste management policies. Therefore, we provide an ethical analysis of different management strategies for high-level waste in the light of two principles, protection of future generations-based on safety and security-and respect for their choice. This analysis shows that high-level waste management options have different ethical impacts across future generations, depending on whether the memory of the waste and its location is lost, or not. We suggest taking this distinction into account by introducing the notions of "close future generations" and "remote future generations", which has important implications on nuclear waste management policies insofar as it stresses that a retrievable disposal has fewer benefits than usually assumed.

  9. Addressing barriers to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B and C in the face of persisting fiscal constraints in Europe: report from a high level conference.

    PubMed

    Papatheodoridis, G; Thomas, H C; Golna, C; Bernardi, M; Carballo, M; Cornberg, M; Dalekos, G; Degertekin, B; Dourakis, S; Flisiak, R; Goldberg, D; Gore, C; Goulis, I; Hadziyannis, S; Kalamitsis, G; Kanavos, P; Kautz, A; Koskinas, I; Leite, B R; Malliori, M; Manolakopoulos, S; Matičič, M; Papaevangelou, V; Pirona, A; Prati, D; Raptopoulou-Gigi, M; Reic, T; Robaeys, G; Schatz, E; Souliotis, K; Tountas, Y; Wiktor, S; Wilson, D; Yfantopoulos, J; Hatzakis, A

    2016-02-01

    In the WHO-EURO region, around 28 million people are currently living with chronic viral hepatitis, and 120,000 people die every year because of it. Lack of awareness and understanding combined with the social stigma and discrimination exacerbate barriers related to access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services for those most in need. In addition, the persisting economic crisis has impacted on public health spending, thus posing challenges on the sustainable investment in promotion, primary and secondary prevention, diagnosis and treatment of viral hepatitis across European countries. The Hepatitis B and C Public Policy Association in cooperation with the Hellenic Center for Disease Prevention and Control together with 10 partner organizations discussed at the Athens High Level Meeting held in June 2014 recent policy developments, persisting and emerging challenges related to the prevention and management of viral hepatitis and the need for a de minimis framework of urgent priorities for action, reflected in a Call to Action (Appendix S1). The discussion confirmed that persisting barriers do not allow the full realisation of the public health potential of diagnosing and preventing hepatitis B and C, treating hepatitis B and curing hepatitis C. Such barriers are related to (a) lack of evidence-based knowledge of hepatitis B and C, (b) limited access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services with poor patient pathways, (c) declining resources and (d) the presence of social stigma and discrimination. The discussion also confirmed the emerging importance of fiscal constraints on the ability of policymakers to adequately address viral hepatitis challenges, particularly through increasing coverage of newer therapies. In Europe, it is critical that public policy bodies urgently agree on a conceptual framework for addressing the existing and emerging barriers to managing viral hepatitis. Such a framework would ensure all health systems share a common

  10. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE DEFENSE HIGH-LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    G. Radulesscu; J.S. Tang

    2000-06-07

    The purpose of ''Design Analysis for the Defense High-Level Waste Disposal Container'' analysis is to technically define the defense high-level waste (DHLW) disposal container/waste package using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methods, as documented in ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000a). The DHLW disposal container is intended for disposal of commercial high-level waste (HLW) and DHLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms), placed within disposable canisters. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a DHLW disposal container along with HLW forms. The objective of this analysis is to demonstrate that the DHLW disposal container/waste package satisfies the project requirements, as embodied in Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document (SDD) (CRWMS M&O 1999a), and additional criteria, as identified in Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report (CRWMS M&Q 2000b, Table 4). The analysis briefly describes the analytical methods appropriate for the design of the DHLW disposal contained waste package, and summarizes the results of the calculations that illustrate the analytical methods. However, the analysis is limited to the calculations selected for the DHLW disposal container in support of the Site Recommendation (SR) (CRWMS M&O 2000b, Section 7). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the codisposal waste package of the Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW glass canisters and the Training, Research, Isotopes General Atomics (TRIGA) SNF loaded in a short 18-in.-outer diameter (OD) DOE standardized SNF canister. This waste package is representative of the waste packages that consist of the DHLW disposal container, the DHLW/HLW glass canisters, and the DOE-managed SNF in disposable canisters. The intended use of this analysis is to

  11. THE RETRIEVAL KNOWLEDGE CENTER EVALUATION OF LOW TANK LEVEL MIXING TECHNOLOGIES FOR DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK RETRIEVAL 10516

    SciTech Connect

    Fellinger, A.

    2009-12-08

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Complex has over two-hundred underground storage tanks containing over 80-million gallons of legacy waste from the production of nuclear weapons. The majority of the waste is located at four major sites across the nation and is planned for treatment over a period of almost forty years. The DOE Office of Technology Innovation & Development within the Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) sponsors technology research and development programs to support processing advancements and technology maturation designed to improve the costs and schedule for disposal of the waste and closure of the tanks. Within the waste processing focus area are numerous technical initiatives which included the development of a suite of waste removal technologies to address the need for proven equipment and techniques to remove high level radioactive wastes from the waste tanks that are now over fifty years old. In an effort to enhance the efficiency of waste retrieval operations, the DOE-EM Office of Technology Innovation & Development funded an effort to improve communications and information sharing between the DOE's major waste tank locations as it relates to retrieval. The task, dubbed the Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) was co-lead by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with core team members representing the Oak Ridge and Idaho sites, as well as, site contractors responsible for waste tank operations. One of the greatest challenges to the processing and closure of many of the tanks is complete removal of all tank contents. Sizeable challenges exist for retrieving waste from High Level Waste (HLW) tanks; with complications that are not normally found with tank retrieval in commercial applications. Technologies currently in use for waste retrieval are generally adequate for bulk removal; however, removal of tank heels, the materials settled in the bottom of the tank, using the same

  12. Rapid High-Level Production of Functional HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies in Transient Plant Expression Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Yvonne; Sack, Markus; Montefiori, David; Forthal, Donald; Mao, Lingjun; -Abanto, Segundo Hernandez; Urban, Lori; Landucci, Gary; Fischer, Rainer; Jiang, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01) or a single chain antibody construct (m9), for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production. PMID:23533588

  13. A proposed classification system for high-level and other radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D. C.; Croff, A. G.

    1987-06-01

    This report presents a proposal for quantitative and generally applicable risk-based definitions of high-level and other radioactive wastes. On the basis of historical descriptions and definitions of high-level waste (HLW), in which HLW has been defined in terms of its source as waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, we propose a more general definition based on the concept that HLW has two distinct attributes: HLW is (1) highly radioactive and (2) requires permanent isolation. This concept leads to a two-dimensional waste classification system in which one axis, related to ''requires permanent isolation,'' is associated with long-term risks from waste disposal and the other axis, related to ''highly radioactive,'' is associated with shorter-term risks due to high levels of decay heat and external radiation. We define wastes that require permanent isolation as wastes with concentrations of radionuclides exceeding the Class-C limits that are generally acceptable for near-surface land disposal, as specified in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's rulemaking 10 CFR Part 61 and its supporting documentation. HLW then is waste requiring permanent isolation that also is highly radioactive, and we define ''highly radioactive'' as a decay heat (power density) in the waste greater than 50 W/m/sup 3/ or an external radiation dose rate at a distance of 1 m from the waste greater than 100 rem/h (1 Sv/h), whichever is the more restrictive. This proposal also results in a definition of Transuranic (TRU) Waste and Equivalent as waste that requires permanent isolation but is not highly radioactive and a definition of low-level waste (LLW) as waste that does not require permanent isolation without regard to whether or not it is highly radioactive.

  14. Software-based high-level synthesis design of FPGA beamformers for synthetic aperture imaging.

    PubMed

    Amaro, Joao; Yiu, Billy Y S; Falcao, Gabriel; Gomes, Marco A C; Yu, Alfred C H

    2015-05-01

    Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) can potentially be configured as beamforming platforms for ultrasound imaging, but a long design time and skilled expertise in hardware programming are typically required. In this article, we present a novel approach to the efficient design of FPGA beamformers for synthetic aperture (SA) imaging via the use of software-based high-level synthesis techniques. Software kernels (coded in OpenCL) were first developed to stage-wise handle SA beamforming operations, and their corresponding FPGA logic circuitry was emulated through a high-level synthesis framework. After design space analysis, the fine-tuned OpenCL kernels were compiled into register transfer level descriptions to configure an FPGA as a beamformer module. The processing performance of this beamformer was assessed through a series of offline emulation experiments that sought to derive beamformed images from SA channel-domain raw data (40-MHz sampling rate, 12 bit resolution). With 128 channels, our FPGA-based SA beamformer can achieve 41 frames per second (fps) processing throughput (3.44 × 10(8) pixels per second for frame size of 256 × 256 pixels) at 31.5 W power consumption (1.30 fps/W power efficiency). It utilized 86.9% of the FPGA fabric and operated at a 196.5 MHz clock frequency (after optimization). Based on these findings, we anticipate that FPGA and high-level synthesis can together foster rapid prototyping of real-time ultrasound processor modules at low power consumption budgets.

  15. Rapid Induction of High-Level Carbapenem Resistance in Heteroresistant KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Adams-Sapper, Sheila; Nolen, Shantell; Donzelli, Grace Fox; Lal, Mallika; Chen, Kunihiko; Justo da Silva, Livia Helena; Moreira, Beatriz M.

    2015-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae strains producing the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) have disseminated worldwide, causing an urgent threat to public health. KPC-producing strains often exhibit low-level carbapenem resistance, which may be missed by automated clinical detection systems. In this study, eight Klebsiella pneumoniae strains with heterogeneous resistance to imipenem were used to elucidate the factors leading from imipenem susceptibility to high-level resistance as defined by clinical laboratory testing standards. Time-kill analysis with an inoculum as low as 3 × 106 CFU/ml and concentrations of imipenem 8- and 16-fold higher than the MIC resulted in the initial killing of 99.9% of the population. However, full recovery of the population occurred by 20 h of incubation in the same drug concentrations. Population profiles showed that recovery was mediated by a heteroresistant subpopulation at a frequency of 2 × 10−7 to 3 × 10−6. Samples selected 2 h after exposure to imipenem were as susceptible as the unexposed parental strain and produced the major outer membrane porin OmpK36. However, between 4 to 8 h after exposure, OmpK36 became absent, and the imipenem MIC increased at least 32-fold. Individual colonies isolated from cultures after 20 h of exposure revealed both susceptible and resistant subpopulations. Once induced, however, the high-level imipenem resistance was maintained, and OmpK36 remained unexpressed even without continued carbapenem exposure. This study demonstrates the essential coordination between blaKPC and ompK36 expression mediating high-level imipenem resistance from a population of bacteria that initially exhibits a carbapenem-susceptibility phenotype. PMID:25801565

  16. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. )

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Hot-wall corrosion testing of simulated high level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, G.T.; Zapp, P.E.; Mickalonis, J.I.

    1995-01-01

    Three materials of construction for steam tubes used in the evaporation of high level radioactive waste were tested under heat flux conditions, referred to as hot-wall tests. The materials were type 304L stainless steel alloy C276, and alloy G3. Non-radioactive acidic and alkaline salt solutions containing halides and mercury simulated different high level waste solutions stored or processed at the United States Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site. Alloy C276 was also tested for corrosion susceptibility under steady-state conditions. The nickel-based alloys C276 and G3 exhibited excellent corrosion resistance under the conditions studied. Alloy C276 was not susceptible to localized corrosion and had a corrosion rate of 0.01 mpy (0.25 {mu}m/y) when exposed to acidic waste sludge and precipitate slurry at a hot-wall temperature of 150{degrees}C. Type 304L was susceptible to localized corrosion under the same conditions. Alloy G3 had a corrosion rate of 0.1 mpy (2.5 {mu}m/y) when exposed to caustic high level waste evaporator solution at a hot-wall temperature of 220{degrees}C compared to 1.1 mpy (28.0 {mu}/y) for type 304L. Under extreme caustic conditions (45 weight percent sodium hydroxide) G3 had a corrosion rate of 0.1 mpy (2.5 {mu}m/y) at a hot-wall temperature of 180{degrees}C while type 304L had a high corrosion rate of 69.4 mpy (1.8 mm/y).

  18. Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers

    SciTech Connect

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. )

    1988-08-01

    Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The copper-based alloy materials are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The austenitic materials are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr, and they must be retrievable from the disposal site during the first 50 yr after emplacement. The containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on the phase stability of both groups of candidate alloys. The austenitic alloys are reviewed in terms of the physical metallurgy of the iron-chromium-nickel system, martensite transformations, carbide formation, and intermetallic-phase precipitation. The copper-based alloys are reviewed in terms of their phase equilibria and the possibility of precipitation of the minor alloying constituents. For the austenitic materials, the ranking based on phase stability is: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper) (best), and then both CDA 715 and CDA 613. 75 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. LLW Forum meeting report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report summarizes the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) meeting on May 29 through May 31, 1996.The LLW Forum is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  20. Workshop on the role of natural analogs in geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W.M.; Kovach, L.A.

    1995-09-01

    A workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste (HLW) was held in San Antonio, Texas, on July 22-25, 1991. It was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). Invitations to the workshop were extended to a large number of individuals with a variety of technical and professional interests related to geologic disposal of nuclear waste and natural analog studies. The objective of the workshop was to examine the role of natural analog studies in performance assessment, site characterization, and prioritization of research related to geologic disposal of HLW.

  1. Evaluation of high-level waste pretreatment processes with an approximate reasoning model

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Agnew, S.F.

    1999-04-01

    The development of an approximate-reasoning (AR)-based model to analyze pretreatment options for high-level waste is presented. AR methods are used to emulate the processes used by experts in arriving at a judgment. In this paper, the authors first consider two specific issues in applying AR to the analysis of pretreatment options. They examine how to combine quantitative and qualitative evidence to infer the acceptability of a process result using the example of cesium content in low-level waste. They then demonstrate the use of simple physical models to structure expert elicitation and to produce inferences consistent with a problem involving waste particle size effects.

  2. High level nuclear waste treatment in the Defense Waste Processing Facility: Overview and integrated flowsheet model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.; Fowler, J.R.; Edwards, R.E. Jr.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    Design and construction of the world's largest vitrification facility for high level nuclear waste has been nearly completed at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Equipment testing and calibration are currently being performed in preparation for the nonradioactive Chemical Runs in the late 1991. In 1993, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will begin producing 100 kg/hr of radioactive waste glass at 28 wt% waste oxide loading. This paper describes all phases of waste processing operations in DWPF and waste tank farms using the integrated flowsheet modeling approach. Particular emphases are given to recent developments in the DWPF processes and design.

  3. High level nuclear waste treatment in the Defense Waste Processing Facility: Overview and integrated flowsheet model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, A.S.; Fowler, J.R.; Edwards, R.E. Jr.; Randall, C.T.

    1991-12-31

    Design and construction of the world`s largest vitrification facility for high level nuclear waste has been nearly completed at the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site. Equipment testing and calibration are currently being performed in preparation for the nonradioactive Chemical Runs in the late 1991. In 1993, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will begin producing 100 kg/hr of radioactive waste glass at 28 wt% waste oxide loading. This paper describes all phases of waste processing operations in DWPF and waste tank farms using the integrated flowsheet modeling approach. Particular emphases are given to recent developments in the DWPF processes and design.

  4. Fracture toughness measurements on a glass bonded sodalite high-level waste form.

    SciTech Connect

    DiSanto, T.; Goff, K. M.; Johnson, S. G.; O'Holleran, T. P.

    1999-05-19

    The electrometallurgical treatment of metallic spent nuclear fuel produces two high-level waste streams; cladding hulls and chloride salt. Argonne National Laboratory is developing a glass bonded sodalite waste form to immobilize the salt waste stream. The waste form consists of 75 Vol.% crystalline sodalite (containing the salt) with 25 Vol.% of an ''intergranular'' glassy phase. Microindentation fracture toughness measurements were performed on representative samples of this material using a Vickers indenter. Palmqvist cracking was confirmed by post-indentation polishing of a test sample. Young's modulus was measured by an acoustic technique. Fracture toughness, microhardness, and Young's modulus values are reported, along with results from scanning electron microscopy studies.

  5. Chemical Speciation of Americium, Curium and Selected Tetravalent Actinides in High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R.

    2006-06-01

    Large volumes of high-level waste (HLW) currently stored in tanks at DOE sites contain both sludges and supernatants. The sludges are composed of insoluble precipitates of actinides, radioactive fission products, and nonradioactive components. The supernatants are alkaline carbonate solutions, which can contain soluble actinides, fission products, metal ions, and high concentrations of major electrolytes including sodium hydroxide, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, carbonate, aluminate, sulfate, and organic complexants. The organic complexants include several compounds that can form strong aqueous complexes with actinide species and fission products including ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), iminodiacetic acid (IDA), citrate, glycolate, gluconate, and degradation products, formate and oxalate.

  6. Non-Radiological Air Quality Modeling for the High-Level Waste Salt Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.H.

    1999-11-29

    Dispersion modeling of non-radiological airborne emissions associated with the construction and operation of three alternatives for high-level waste salt disposition at the Savannah River Site has been completed. The results will be used by Department of Energy-Savannah River in the preparation of the salt disposition supplemental environmental impact statement. Estimated maximum ground-level concentrations of applicable regulated air pollutants of the site boundary and at the distance to a hypothetical, co-located onsite worker are summarized in tables. In all cases, model estimated ambient concentrations are less than regulatory standards.

  7. What are Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste ?

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2002-12-01

    Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are materials from nuclear power plants and government defense programs. These materials contain highly radioactive elements, such as cesium, strontium, technetium, and neptunium. Some of these elements will remain radioactive for a few years, while others will be radioactive for millions of years. Exposure to such radioactive materials can cause human health problems. Scientists worldwide agree that the safest way to manage these materials is to dispose of them deep underground in what is called a geologic repository.

  8. High level nuclear waste repository in salt: Sealing systems status and planning report: Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    1985-09-01

    This report documents the initial conceptual design studies for a repository sealing system for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The first step in the initial design studies was to review the current design level, termed schematic designs. This review identified practicality of construction and development of a design methodology as two key issues for the conceptual design. These two issues were then investigated during the initial design studies for seal system materials, seal placement, backfill emplacement, and a testing and monitoring plan. The results of these studies have been used to develop a program plan for completion of the sealing system conceptual design. 60 refs., 26 figs., 18 tabs.

  9. Software and firmware co-development using high-level synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanathe, N. P.; Madorsky, A.; Lam, H.; Acosta, D. E.; George, A. D.; Carver, M. R.; Xia, Y.; Jyothishwara, A.; Hansen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Accelerating trigger applications on FPGAs (using VHDL/Verilog) at the CMS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider warrants consistency between each trigger firmware and its corresponding C++ model. This tedious and time consuming process of convergence is exacerbated during each upgrade study. High-level synthesis, with its promise of increased productivity and C++ design entry bridges this gap exceptionally well. This paper explores the "single source code" approach using Vivado-HLS tool for redeveloping the upgraded CMS Endcap Muon Level-1 Track finder (EMTF). Guidelines for tight latency control, optimal resource usage and compatibility with CMS software framework are outlined in this paper.

  10. Recent Update on Microbiological Monitoring of Gastrointestinal Endoscopes after High-Level Disinfection

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Suk Pyo

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopy-related infections are important contributors to nosocomial infections. Endoscope reprocessing according to standard guidelines ensures high-level disinfection and prevents endoscopy-related infections. Microbiological surveillance may help in monitoring the effectiveness of gastrointestinal endoscope disinfection. The process involves microbial cultures and non-culture methods such as bioburden assays, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence, and quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Surveillance culturing to monitor endoscopes after reprocessing has been recommended by a majority of organizations. Bioburden assays, ATP bioluminescence, and quantitative PCRs provide rapid and reliable measures. Each institution will have to try to establish its own surveillance guidelines. PMID:26473118

  11. Crevice corrosion and pitting of high-level waste containers: Integration of deterministic and probabilistic models

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.

    1998-12-31

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Alloy 400. An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in the CRM-CAM crevice on the initiation and propagation of pits through the CRM.

  12. Crevice corrosion {ampersand} pitting of high-level waste containers: integration of deterministic {ampersand} probabilistic models

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J.C.; McCright, R.D.

    1997-10-01

    A key component of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) being designed for containment of spent-fuel and high-level waste at the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is a two-layer canister. In this particular design, the inner barrier is made of a corrosion resistant material (CRM) such as Alloy 625 or C-22, while the outer barrier is made of a corrosion-allowance material (CAM) such as carbon steel or Monel 400. An integrated predictive model is being developed to account for the effects of localized environmental conditions in the CRM-CAM crevice on the initiation and propagation of pits through the CRM.

  13. Performance assessment overview for subseabed disposal of high level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) was part of an international program that investigated the feasibility of high-level radioactive waste disposal in the deep ocean sediments. This report briefly describes the seven-step iterative performance assessment procedures used in this study and presents representative results of the last iteration. The results of the performance are compared to interim standards developed for the SDP, to other conceptual repositories, and to related metrics. The attributes, limitations, uncertainties, and remaining tasks in the SDP feasibility phase are discussed.

  14. Primary Systemic Amyloidosis and High Levels of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Praena-Segovia, J.; Sanchez-Gastaldo, A.; Bernabeu-Wittel, M.; Ocete-Pérez, R.; Ávila-Polo, R.; Martino, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Infiltrative heart diseases are caused by a heterogeneous group of disorders; amyloidosis and sarcoidosis are two frequent causes of myocardial infiltration, which differ in clinical and biological outcome and treatment issues. The presence of high levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in a patient with infiltrative heart disease may increase suspicion of sarcoidosis. Nevertheless, no mention about increased ACE levels in extracerebral primary systemic amyloidosis is available. We present two cases of primary systemic amyloidosis, which are cardiac involvement and elevated ACE levels. PMID:24826302

  15. An analytical hierarchy process for decision making of high-level-waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.H.C.; Jang, W.

    1995-12-01

    To prove the existence value of nuclear technology for the world of post cold war, demonstration of safe rad-waste disposal is essential. High-level-waste (HLW) certainly is the key issue to be resolved. To assist a rational and persuasive process on various disposal options, an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for the decision making of HLW management is presented. The basic theory and rationale are discussed, and applications are shown to illustrate the usefulness of the AHP. The authors wish that the AHP can provide a better direction for the current doomed situations of Taiwan nuclear industry, and to exchange with other countries for sharing experiences on the HLW management.

  16. Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Steffler, Eric D.; McClintock, Frank A.; Lloyd, W. Randolph; Rashid, Mark M.; Williamson, Richard L.

    2005-06-01

    Cracks of various shapes and sizes exist in large high-level waste (HLW) tanks at several DOE sites. There is justifiable concern that these cracks could grow to become unstable causing a substantial release of liquid contaminants to the environment. Accurate prediction of crack growth behavior in the tanks, especially during accident scenarios, is not possible with existing analysis methodologies. This research project responds to this problem by developing an improved ability to predict crack growth in material structure combinations that are ductile (Fig. 1). This new model not only addresses the problem for these tanks, but also has applicability to any crack in any ductile structure.

  17. An analysis of the technical status of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T.; Miller, C.; Bullard, E.; Campbell, R.; Chockie, A.; Divita, E.; Douthitt, C.; Edelson, E.; Lees, L.

    1977-01-01

    The technical status of the old U.S. mailine program for high level radioactive nuclear waste management, and the newly-developing program for disposal of unreprocessed spent fuel was assessed. The method of long term containment for both of these waste forms is considered to be deep geologic isolation in bedded salt. Each major component of both waste management systems is analyzed in terms of its scientific feasibility, technical achievability and engineering achievability. The resulting matrix leads to a systematic identification of major unresolved technical or scientific questions and/or gaps in these programs.

  18. A modified acidic approach for DNA extraction from plant species containing high levels of secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, M M; Siqueira, M V B M; Val, T M; Pavanelli, J C; Monteiro, M; Grando, C; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Gimenes, M A

    2014-08-25

    Purified genomic DNA can be difficult to obtain from some plant species because of the presence of impurities such as polysaccharides, which are often co-extracted with DNA. In this study, we developed a fast, simple, and low-cost protocol for extracting DNA from plants containing high levels of secondary metabolites. This protocol does not require the use of volatile toxic reagents such as mercaptoethanol, chloroform, or phenol and allows the extraction of high-quality DNA from wild and cultivated tropical species.

  19. Accurate calculation of the p Ka of trifluoroacetic acid using high-level ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namazian, Mansoor; Zakery, Maryam; Noorbala, Mohammad R.; Coote, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    The p Ka value of trifluoroacetic acid has been successfully calculated using high-level ab initio methods such as G3 and CBS-QB3. Solvation energies have been calculated using CPCM continuum model of solvation at the HF and B3-LYP levels of theory with various basis sets. Excellent agreement with experiment (to within 0.4 p Ka units) was obtained using CPCM solvation energies at the B3-LYP/6-31+G(d) level (or larger) in conjunction with CBS-QB3 or G3 gas-phase energies of trifluoroacetic acid and its anion.

  20. RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK PITTING PREDICTIONS: AN INVESTIGATION INTO CRITICAL SOLUTION CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.

    2012-11-08

    A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of ASTM A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion the steel's susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Testing solutions were chosen to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate, in the nitrate based, high-level wastes. The results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits.