Science.gov

Sample records for high-level regional meeting

  1. [Report of the Latin American regional meeting conducted in preparation for the International Conference on Population within the framework of the 7th session of the Committee of High-Level Government Experts].

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    The meeting adopted 3 resolutions. 1) Adopt the Regional Population Program proposed by the Latin American Center for Demography (CELADE) in its document E/CEPAL/CEGAN/POB.2/L.5, as ammended, and include the study, promotion, and preservation of the families as 1 of the activities of the Regional Program. 2) Expedite the decentralization of the activities of the Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA) with respect to population; strengthen CELADE's work program; foster the participation of the community and of institutions of higher education in CELADE's actities; deploy national personnel with expertise in demography and related areas to CELADE; and promote the creation of a regional fund to be administered by ECLA for the sponsoring of technical assistance and training programs. 3) A summary of the Latin American position at the International Conference on Population reaffirming the principles adopted in the World Population Plan of Action. It recommends the adoption of a final report containing a statement of principles and universal recommendations; the formulation and implementation of population policies as a sovereign right of each nation; the development of a population policy within a development framework; the initiation of regional activities in accordance with the WPPA; the fostering of voluntary meand of population control, in accordance with social and cultural values; the control of disease and the development of nutrition programs; the developing of regional policies with respect to internal migration; the training of human resources in the areas of population, demography, health, migration, and related fields; improving demographic research; and the strenghtening of all UN regional bodies related to population planning.

  2. 75 FR 61228 - Board Meeting: Technical Lessons Gained From High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD Board Meeting: Technical Lessons Gained From High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Efforts... Board will consider technical lessons that can be gained from those experiences that may be useful...

  3. Cardiovascular health in the Americas: facts, priorities and the UN high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Ordúñez, Pedro

    2011-10-01

    Population aging, smoking, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity, in the context of globalization and unregulated urbanization, explain the high prevalences of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in the Americas, making cardiovascular diseases the main cause of death. Moreover, cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors disproportionately affect the poorest people, obstructing antipoverty efforts and further deepening health and other inequities. The global crisis of chronic non-communicable diseases has reached such proportions that the UN General Assembly called a high-level meeting in September 2011 to address the issue as one of human development, aiming to stimulate political commitment to a concerted global effort to stem the pandemic. In reference to the Americas, this article reviews the burden of cardiovascular diseases and describes priorities for strategies and action in the region and their relation to the results of the UN meeting.

  4. The road to the United Nations High Level Meeting on chronic non-communicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Hassell, T; Hennis, A

    2011-07-01

    The United Nations High Level Meeting (UNHLM) on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will take place in New York on September 19 and 20, 2011. This historic event will focus world attention on the chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) for the first time. In 2008, CNCDs, principally cardiovascular disease, cancer; chronic lung diseases and diabetes, accounted for 63% (or 36 million) of the 57 million deaths occurring worldwide. Many of these deaths may be considered premature (involving 9.1 million persons aged less than 60 years), and around 80% of overall deaths occurred in low and middle income countries. Chronic non-communicable diseases are therefore a major cause of premature death, with resulting enormous negative impact on national economies and global development, while continuing to increase at worrying rates particularly in the developing world. Without successful interventions, NCD-related deaths are projected to reach 52 million by 2030.

  5. Activity in high-level brain regions reflects visibility of low-level stimuli.

    PubMed

    Imamoglu, F; Heinzle, J; Imfeld, A; Haynes, J-D

    2014-11-15

    Stimulus visibility is associated with neural signals in multiple brain regions, ranging from visual cortex to prefrontal regions. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate to which extent the perceived visibility of a "low-level" grating stimulus is reflected in the brain activity in high-level brain regions. Oriented grating stimuli were presented under varying visibility conditions created by backward masking. Visibility was manipulated using four different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), which created a continuum from invisible to highly visible target stimuli. Brain activity in early visual areas, high-level visual brain regions (fusiform gyrus), as well as parietal and prefrontal brain regions was significantly correlated with subjects' psychometric visibility functions. In addition, increased stimulus visibility was reflected in the functional coupling between low and high-level visual areas. Specifically, neuroimaging signals in the middle occipital gyrus were significantly more correlated with signals in the inferior temporal gyrus when subjects successfully perceived the target stimulus than when they did not. These results provide evidence that not only low-level visual but also high-level brain regions reflect visibility of low-level grating stimuli and that changes in functional connectivity reflect perceived stimulus visibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. REGIONAL BINNING FOR CONTINUED STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    W. Lee Poe, Jr

    1998-10-01

    In the Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR) (Reference 1), DOE decided to analyze the environmental consequences of continuing to store the commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at 72 commercial nuclear power sites and DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at five Department of Energy sites by region rather than by individual site. This analysis assumes that three commercial facilities pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine-Mile Point, and Dresden and Moms--share common storage due to their proximity to each other. The five regions selected for this analysis are shown on Figure 1. Regions 1, 2, and 3 are the same as those used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in their regulatory oversight of commercial power reactors. NRC Region 4 was subdivided into two regions to more appropriately define the two different climates that exist in NRC Region 4. A single hypothetical site in each region was assumed to store all the SNF and HLW in that region. Such a site does not exist and has no geographic location but is a mathematical construct for analytical purposes. To ensure that the calculated results for the regional analyses reflect appropriate inventory, facility and material degradation, and radionuclide transport, the waste inventories, engineered barriers, and environmental conditions for the hypothetical sites were developed from data for each of the existing sites within the given region. Weighting criteria to account for the amount and types of SNF and HLW at each site were used in the development of the environmental data for the regional site, such that the results of the analyses for the hypothetical site were representative of the sum of the results of each actual site if they had been modeled independently. This report defines the actual site data used in development of this hypothetical site, shows how the individual site data was weighted to develop the regional site, and provides the weighted data used in the CSAR analysis. It is

  7. Pacific Northwest regional AGU meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, R.; Hinthome, J.

    The 28th Annual Pacific Northwest Regional American Geophysical Union Meeting, September 13-20, 1981, was hosted by the Department of Geology at Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington. A total of 31 papers was presented to the 91 registrants in two general sessions. Topics included seismology, general geophysics, volcanology, hydrology, oceanography, and two special symposia: Tectonics of the Columbia Plateau and Neogene —Quaternary Faults of the Pacific Northwest' and ‘Studies of the Eruption of Mount Saint Helens.’ Before and after the formal meetings, several field conferences were conducted to examine the Neogene tectonics of the Coast Range (Bob Bentley, Al Niem, and Ray Wells, leaders); the Columbia River Gorge (Bob Bentley, Marv Beeson, and Terry Tolan, leaders); the western Columbia Plateau northsouth transect (Bob Bentley and Jim Anderson, leaders); Quaternary structures of the Toppenish Ridge anticline (Don Tahkeal, Newell Campbell, and Bob Bentley, leaders); the Umtanum imbricate fault zone and pre-Saddle Mountains unconformity near Priest Rapids Dam (Ed Price and Bob Bentley, leaders); and the Yakima anticlines in the Cle Elum-Wallula deformed zone between Ellensburg and Yakima (Bob Bentley, leader).

  8. The United Nations High Level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases: a missed opportunity?

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Kavita; Parker, Richard G

    2012-11-01

    The United Nations High Level Meeting on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases (September 19-20, 2011) provided an opportunity to recast the current global health agenda and offered a formidable platform to mobilize political will for concerted action. We argue that the opportunity was missed because the World Health Organization (WHO) neglected the politics of process that are key to mobilizing political support for global noncommunicable disease policies. Instead, it focused on the implementation process. The lessons to be drawn from the summit are critical because the WHO is the key agency that will be expected in the near future to steer further discussions and debate on the noncommunicable disease agenda.

  9. From Port-of-Spain summit to United Nations High Level Meeting CARICOM and the global non-communicable disease agenda.

    PubMed

    Samuels, T A; Hospedales, C J

    2011-07-01

    The English-speaking Caribbean has the highest per capita burden of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) in the region of the Americas. Building on a long history of cooperation in health among the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and past successes in eliminating/reducing communicable diseases through collective action, non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have now been targeted CARICOM convened a "first-in-the-world" summit of Heads of Government to address NCDs, which generated the Port-of-Spain NCD Summit Declaration, "Uniting to Stop The Epidemic of Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases". This 15-point declaration calls on all of government, civil society and the private sector to jointly tackle the common risk factors for the major chronic diseases, and improve the care of such diseases. Implementation of this declaration has been mixed, being most successful where there were regional supports, and in countries with populations > 250 000 reflecting country capacity. CARICOM has elevated this approach to the global level through successful advocacy for a United Nations High Level Meeting on NCDs to be convened in September 2011. Jamaica will be one of two co-facilitators of this meeting, a reflection of the role of CARICOM countries in advancing the NCD agenda at the global level. CARICOM Heads of Government should attend this meeting, showcase the implementation of the NCD Summit Declaration in the Caribbean, commit to enhancing systems and resources, endorse and implement the commitments made and identify and support leadership for sustained action and accountability for these initiatives.

  10. High-level genetic diversity in the vapD chromosomal region of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, P; Cover, T L

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori isolates from different patients are characterized by diversity in the nucleotide sequences of individual genes, variation in genome size, and variation in gene order. Genetic diversity is particularly striking in vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA) alleles. In this study, five open reading frames (ORFs) were identified within a 4.2-kb region downstream from vacA in H. pylori 60190. One of these ORFs was closely related to the virulence-associated protein D (vapD) gene of Dichelobacter nodosus (64.9% nucleotide identity). A probe derived from vapD of H. pylori 60190 hybridized with only 19 (61.3%) of 31 H. pylori strains tested. Sequence analysis of the vapD region in vapD-negative H. pylori strains revealed that there were two different families of approximately 0.5-kb DNA segments, which were both unrelated to vapD. The presence of vapD was not associated with any specific family of vacA alleles. These findings are consistent with a recombinational population structure for H. pylori. PMID:9139899

  11. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste above the water table in arid regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseboom, Eugene H.

    1983-01-01

    Locating a repository in the unsaturated zone of arid regions eliminates or simplifies many of the technological problems involved in designing a repository for operation below the water table and predicting its performance. It also offers possible accessibility and ease of monitoring throughout the operational period and possible retrieval of waste long after. The risks inherent in such a repository appear to be no greater than in one located in the saturated zone; in fact, many aspects of such a repository's performance will be much easier to predict and the uncertainties will be reduced correspondingly. A major new concern would be whether future climatic changes could produce significant consequences due to possible rise of the water table or increased flux of water through the repository. If spent fuel were used as a waste form, a second new concern would be the rates of escape of gaseous iodine-129 and carbon-14 to the atmosphere.

  12. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste above the water table in arid regions

    SciTech Connect

    Roseboom, E.H. Jr.

    1983-12-31

    Locating a repository in the unsaturated zone of arid regions eliminates or simplifies many of the technological problems involved in designing a repository for operation below the water table and predicting its performance. It also offers possible accessibility and ease of monitoring throughout the operational period and possible retrieval of waste long after. The risks inherent in such a repository appear to be no greater than in one located in the saturated zone; in fact, many aspects of such a repository`s performance will be much easier to predict and the uncertainties will be reduced correspondingly. A major new concern would be whether future climatic changes could produce significant consequences due to possible rise of the water table or increased flux of water through the repository. If spent fuel were used as a waste form, a second new concern would be the rates of escape of gaseous {sup 129}I and {sup 14}C to the atmosphere.

  13. A regional evaluation of injections of high levels of vitamin A on reproductive performance of sows.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, M D; Brendemuhl, J H; Chiba, L I; Darroch, C S; Dove, C R; Estienne, M J; Harper, A F

    2008-02-01

    A regional study involving 443 litters from 182 sows was conducted at 5 cooperating experiment stations to determine the effects of an i.m. injection of vitamin A at weaning and breeding on subsequent litter size of sows. Sows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments given at weaning and again at breeding: 1) a placebo i.m. injection (2 mL of corn oil), 2) i.m. injection with 250,000 IU of vitamin A (1 mL of vitamin A palmitate in oil), and 3) i.m. injection with 500,000 IU of vitamin A (2 mL of vitamin A palmitate in oil). Corn-soybean meal diets in gestation were formulated to contain 13% CP and 0.60% total Lys. Lactation diets were formulated to contain 17% CP and 0.90% Lys. A common vitamin-mineral premix that supplied 11,000 IU of vitamin A/kg of diet (as-fed) was used by all stations. As expected, station effects were noted for many response measures. Analysis of the data also revealed both treatment x station and treatment x parity interactions for litter size responses. The treatment x parity interactions were stronger than the treatment x station effects, and when the litter size response was separated into early parity sows (parity 1 and 2) and late-parity sows (parity 3 to 6), the treatment x station interactions were no longer present in either subgroup. For sows of parity 1 and 2, litter sizes were increased linearly (P

  14. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    SciTech Connect

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions.

  15. Cardiovascular Diseases on the Global Agenda: The United Nations High Level Meeting, Sustainable Development Goals, and the Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Johanna; Reddy, K Srinath; Fuster, Valentin; Narula, Jagat

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, the United Nations (UN) organized the first ever meeting for heads of state to discuss the problem of noncommunicable diseases (NCD), including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus. Recognizing that these had emerged as leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, including in many low- and middle-income countries, advocates from government and civil society had called for increased attention and a UN response. Earlier, NCD including CVD were absent from the global health agenda in part because of their omission from the Millennium Development Goals. The UN meeting and the global advocacy response offered a game-changing opportunity to redress this omission. The World Heart Federation (WHF) played an instrumental role in the UN meeting and follow up, including inclusion of CVD in the Sustainable Development Goals. The next phase of the global CVD movement is expected through national action, including CVD roadmaps and partnering with the World Health Organization. The WHF is heavily committed to these goals and the other nongovernmental organizations invested in the mission must help take this historical mandate forward. Instrumental to this will be the engagement of people affected by or at risk of developing CVD, to draw more attention and resources to NCD and to ensure that successes to date in global policy translate into action at the national level.

  16. Decontamination and treatment of high level liquid mixed waste to meet regulatory compliance issues outlined in Federal Facilities Agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Gaughan, T.P.; Taylor, G.A.

    1994-03-01

    High-Level Radioactive Liquid waste is stored in underground storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site (SRS) located south of Aiken, SC. Treatment and disposal of this liquid Hazardous and Radioactive (Mixed) Waste required the negotiation and approval of a Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the DOE, EPA and the South Carolina state regulatory agency. This agreement which also addresses many other waste sites at SRS was approved in January 1993. Included in this FFA were schedule information, operating parameters and secondary containment requirements that the DOE committed to as part of an ongoing Environmental Restoration mission at the site. Obtaining compliance with this FFA and other environmental regulations at such a unique facility provided a challenging obstacle for treatment of this liquid waste.

  17. The 2011 United Nations high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases: the Africa agenda calls for a 5-by-5 approach.

    PubMed

    Mensah, G A; Mayosi, B M

    2012-11-08

    The High Level Meeting of the 66th Session of the United Nations General Assembly was held in September 2011. The Political Declaration issued at the meeting focused the attention of world leaders and the global health community on the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). The four major NCDs (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases) and their four risk factors (tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol) constitute the target of the '4-by-4' approach, which is also supported by national and international health organisations. We argue that while preventing these eight NCDs and risk factors is also important in Africa, it will not be enough. A '5-by-5' strategy is needed, addressing neuropsychiatric disorders as the fifth NCD; and transmissible agents that underlie the neglected tropical diseases and other NCDs as the fifth risk factor. These phenomena cause substantial preventable death and disability, and must therefore be prioritised.

  18. 78 FR 78466 - Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The TVA Regional Energy Resource Council (RERC) will hold an orientation meeting... Tennessee Valley. The RERC was established to advise TVA on its energy resource activities and...

  19. 75 FR 22168 - Region VI-Houston District; Advisory Council Meeting; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region VI--Houston District; Advisory Council Meeting; Public Meeting The Small Business Administration-Region VI--Houston Advisory Council, located in the geographical Area of Houston, Texas will hold..., Houston, TX 77074. The purpose of the meeting is to discuss the following. (1) Houston District Office...

  20. 78 FR 60366 - Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... RERC was established to advise TVA on its energy resource activities and the priorities among competing... Meeting of the Regional Energy Resource Council AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The TVA Regional Energy Resource Council (RERC) will hold an orientation...

  1. Regional Cooperation To Meet Global Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Thomas

    In response to the recognition that significant changes were required in service delivery approaches to meet the changing needs for workforce training, Illinois' Joliet Junior College (JJC) implemented a series of innovative training programs. The guiding philosophy behind the programs was that service delivery must correspond to shifts in focus…

  2. Regional Disease Surveillance Meeting - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2006-08-08

    On June 1, 2006, public health officials working in surveillance, epidemiological modeling, and information technology communities from the Seattle/Tacoma area and State of Washington met with members of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to discuss the current state of disease surveillance and gaps and needs to improve the current systems. The meeting also included a discussion of PNNL initiatives that might be appropriate to enhance disease surveillance and the current tools being used for disease surveillance. Participants broke out into two groups to identify critical gaps and needs for improving a surveillance system, and discuss the requirements for developing improved surveillance. Each group developed a list of key priorities summarizing the requirements for improved surveillance. The objective of this meeting was to work towards the development of an improved disease surveillance system.

  3. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of true morels (Morchella) reveals high levels of endemics in Turkey relative ot other regions of Europe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The present study was conducted to better understand how the phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey compares with species found in other regions of the world. The current research builds on our recently published survey of 10 Turkish provinces and another of the world in which D...

  4. Regional Planning Meeting on Literacy Initiative for Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication presents an overview of the Asia-Pacific Regional Planning Meeting on the Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (LIFE). Countries in Asia and the Pacific that participate in the LIFE initiative are Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan and Papua New Guinea. The purpose of the meeting was to assist…

  5. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of true morels (Morchella) reveals high levels of endemics in Turkey relative to other regions of Europe.

    PubMed

    Taskin, Hatira; Büyükalaca, Saadet; Hansen, Karen; O'Donnell, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to better understand how the phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey compares with species found in other regions of the world. The current research builds on our recently published surveys of 10 Turkish provinces and the northern hemisphere in which DNA sequence data from 247 and 562 collections respectively were analyzed phylogenetically. Herein we report on phylogenetic analyses of 243 additional collections made in spring 2009 and 2010 from eight additional provinces in the Aegean, Black Sea, central Anatolia, eastern Anatolia and Marmara regions of Turkey. Our analysis revealed that five species within the Esculenta clade (yellow morels) and 15 species within the Elata clade (black morels) were present in Turkey. Our preliminary results also indicate that M. anatolica, recently described from a collection in Muğla province in the Aegean region of Turkey, is a closely related sister of M. rufobrunnea; these two species comprise a separate evolutionary lineage from the Esculenta and Elata clades. Nine species of Morchella currently are known only from Turkey, four species were present in Turkey and other European countries and seven species might have been introduced to Turkey anthropogenically. Three of the putatively exotic species in Turkey appear to be endemic to western North America; they are nested within a clade of fire-adapted morels that dates to the late Oligocene, 25 000 000 y ago. Our results indicate that there are roughly twice as many Morchella species in Turkey compared with the other regions of Europe sampled. Knowledge of Morchella species diversity and their biogeographic distribution are crucial for formulating informed conservation policies directed at preventing species loss and ensuring that annual morel harvests are sustainable and ecologically sound.

  6. Appalachian Governors Consider Future Regional Development at Tenth Annal Meeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Governors recommend establishment of permanent programs and a national policy on regional development. Consists of excerpts from annual meeting of the Council of Appalachian Governors (September 17, 1969, Williamsburg, Virginia). (YP)

  7. Appalachian Governors Consider Future Regional Development at Tenth Annal Meeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Governors recommend establishment of permanent programs and a national policy on regional development. Consists of excerpts from annual meeting of the Council of Appalachian Governors (September 17, 1969, Williamsburg, Virginia). (YP)

  8. A new watershed assessment framework for Nova Scotia: A high-level, integrated approach for regions without a dense network of monitoring stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, Shannon M.; Garroway, Kevin; Guan, Yue; Ambrose, Sarah M.; Horne, Peter; Kennedy, Gavin W.

    2014-11-01

    High-level, integrated watershed assessments are a basic requirement for freshwater planning, as they create regional summaries of multiple environmental stressors for the prioritization of watershed conservation, restoration, monitoring, and mitigation. There is a heightened need for a high-level, integrated watershed assessment in Nova Scotia as it faces pressing watershed issues relating to acidification, soil erosion, acid rock drainage, eutrophication, and water withdrawals related to potential shale gas development. But because of the relative sparseness of the on-the-ground effects-based data, for example on water quality or fish assemblages, previously created approaches for integrated watershed assessment cannot be used. In a government/university collaboration, we developed a new approach that relies solely on easier-to-collect and more available exposure-based variables to perform the first high-level watershed assessment in Nova Scotia. In this assessment, a total of 295 watershed units were studied. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to map and analyze 13 stressor variables that represent risks to aquatic environment (e.g., road/stream crossing density, acid rock drainage risk, surface water withdrawals, human land use, and dam density). We developed a model to link stressors with impacts to aquatic systems to serve as a basis for a watershed threat ranking system. Resource management activities performed by government and other stakeholders were also included in this analysis. Our assessment identifies the most threatened watersheds, enables informed comparisons among watersheds, and indicates where to focus resource management and monitoring efforts. Stakeholder communication tools produced by the NSWAP include a watershed atlas to communicate the assessment results to a broader audience, including policy makers and public stakeholders. This new framework for high-level watershed assessments provides a resource for other regions that also

  9. Human genomic regions with exceptionally high levels of population differentiation identified from 911 whole-genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Population differentiation has proved to be effective for identifying loci under geographically localized positive selection, and has the potential to identify loci subject to balancing selection. We have previously investigated the pattern of genetic differentiation among human populations at 36.8 million genomic variants to identify sites in the genome showing high frequency differences. Here, we extend this dataset to include additional variants, survey sites with low levels of differentiation, and evaluate the extent to which highly differentiated sites are likely to result from selective or other processes. Results We demonstrate that while sites with low differentiation represent sampling effects rather than balancing selection, sites showing extremely high population differentiation are enriched for positive selection events and that one half may be the result of classic selective sweeps. Among these, we rediscover known examples, where we actually identify the established functional SNP, and discover novel examples including the genes ABCA12, CALD1 and ZNF804, which we speculate may be linked to adaptations in skin, calcium metabolism and defense, respectively. Conclusions We identify known and many novel candidate regions for geographically restricted positive selection, and suggest several directions for further research. PMID:24980144

  10. Human genomic regions with exceptionally high levels of population differentiation identified from 911 whole-genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Colonna, Vincenza; Ayub, Qasim; Chen, Yuan; Pagani, Luca; Luisi, Pierre; Pybus, Marc; Garrison, Erik; Xue, Yali; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Auton, Adam; Brooks, Lisa D; DePristo, Mark A; Durbin, Richard M; Handsaker, Robert E; Kang, Hyun Min; Marth, Gabor T; McVean, Gil A

    2014-06-30

    Population differentiation has proved to be effective for identifying loci under geographically localized positive selection, and has the potential to identify loci subject to balancing selection. We have previously investigated the pattern of genetic differentiation among human populations at 36.8 million genomic variants to identify sites in the genome showing high frequency differences. Here, we extend this dataset to include additional variants, survey sites with low levels of differentiation, and evaluate the extent to which highly differentiated sites are likely to result from selective or other processes. We demonstrate that while sites with low differentiation represent sampling effects rather than balancing selection, sites showing extremely high population differentiation are enriched for positive selection events and that one half may be the result of classic selective sweeps. Among these, we rediscover known examples, where we actually identify the established functional SNP, and discover novel examples including the genes ABCA12, CALD1 and ZNF804, which we speculate may be linked to adaptations in skin, calcium metabolism and defense, respectively. We identify known and many novel candidate regions for geographically restricted positive selection, and suggest several directions for further research.

  11. High-level transgene expression in plant cells: effects of a strong scaffold attachment region from tobacco.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, G C; Hall, G; Michalowski, S; Newman, W; Spiker, S; Weissinger, A K; Thompson, W F

    1996-01-01

    We have previously shown that yeast scaffold attachment regions (SARs) flanking a chimeric beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene increased per-copy expression levels by 24-fold in tobacco suspension cell lines stably transformed by microprojectile bombardment. In this study, we examined the effect of a DNA fragment originally identified in a tobacco genomic clone by its activity in an in vitro binding assay. The tobacco SAR has much greater scaffold binding affinity than does the yeast SAR, and tobacco cell lines stably transformed with constructs containing the tobacco SAR accumulated greater than fivefold more GUS enzyme activity than did lines transformed with the yeast SAR construct. Relative to the control construct, flanking the GUS gene with plant SARs increased overall expression per transgene copy by almost 140-fold. In transient expression assays, the same construct increased expression only approximately threefold relative to a control without SARs, indicating that the full SAR effect requires integration into chromosomal DNA. GUS activity in individual stable transformants was not simply proportional to transgene copy number, and the SAR effect was maximal in cell lines with fewer than approximately 10 transgene copies per tobacco genome. Lines with significantly higher copy numbers showed greatly greatly reduced expression relative to the low-copy-number lines. Our results indicate that strong SARs flanking a transgene greatly increases expression without eliminating variation between transformants. We propose that SARs dramatically reduce the severity or likelihood of homology-dependent gene silencing in cells with small numbers of transgenes but do not prevent silencing of transgenes present in many copies. PMID:8672887

  12. Rabbit whey acidic protein gene upstream region controls high-level expression of bovine growth hormone in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Thépot, D; Devinoy, E; Fontaine, M L; Stinnakre, M G; Massoud, M; Kann, G; Houdebine, L M

    1995-11-01

    Transgenic mice were produced which secreted high levels of bGH into milk. The 6.3-kb upstream region of the rabbit whey acidic protein (rWAP) gene was linked to the structural part of the bovine growth hormone (bGH) gene, and the chimeric gene was radioimmunoassay into mouse oocytes. bGH was detected by radioimmunoassay in the milk of all resulting transgenic mice. bGH concentrations in milk varied from line to line, from 1.0-16 mg/ml. This expression was not correlated to the number of transgene copies. In all lines studied, the mammary gland was the major organ expressing bGH mRNA during lactation. bGH mRNA concentrations were barely detectable in the mammary gland of cyclic females; they increased during pregnancy. These results show that the upstream region of the rWAP gene harbors powerful regulatory elements which target high levels of bGH transgene expression to the mammary gland of lactating transgenic mice.

  13. Regulatory region of the vitellogenin receptor gene sufficient for high-level, germ line cell-specific ovarian expression in transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kook-Ho; Cheon, Hyang-Mi; Kokoza, Vladimir; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2006-04-01

    Vitellogenin receptor (VgR) is responsible for the receptor-mediated endocytosis of vitellogenin (Vg) in the egg formation of an oviparous animal, including insects. Little is known about regulation of VgR gene expression. We analyzed the upstream region of the VgR gene from Aedes aegypti (AaVgR) to identify regulatory elements responsible for its expression in germ cell-specific ovarian expression. Experiments with genetic transformation using the transgene containing the 1.5-Kb upstream portion of the AaVgR gene fused with DsRed and the piggyBac vector showed that this regulatory region is sufficient for correct female and ovary-specific expression of the transgene. This 1.5-Kb upstream region contained binding sites for the ecdysone regulatory hierarchy early gene products E74 and BR-C, as well as transcription factors determining correct tissue- and stage-specific expression of GATA and HNF3/fkh. In situ hybridization demonstrated that in the ovaries of transgenic females DsRed mRNA was present in ovarian germ cells and nurse cells of mature ovarian follicles, together with VgR mRNA. In contrast, DsRed mRNA was absent in the oocyte that had a high level of endogenous VgR mRNA. Although the 1.5-Kb upstream region was sufficient to drive a high-level germ line cell-specific expression of the reporter, additional signals were required for translocation of exogenous mRNA from nurse cells into the oocyte.

  14. 20 CFR 632.18 - Regional and national planning meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Regional and national planning meetings. 632.18 Section 632.18 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Planning, Application...

  15. 20 CFR 632.18 - Regional and national planning meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regional and national planning meetings. 632.18 Section 632.18 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Planning, Application...

  16. 20 CFR 632.18 - Regional and national planning meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Regional and national planning meetings. 632.18 Section 632.18 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Planning, Application...

  17. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Evaluation of the regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    Six regions in the Basin and Range province, ranging in size from 21,600 to 80,000 square kilometers, were evaluated to identify prospective hydrogeologic environments for isolation of high-level radioactive waste. Prospective hydrogeologic environments were evaluated on the basis of the surface distribution of potential host rocks, late Cenozoic tectonic activity, hydrogeologic characteristics, and mineral and energy resources. These regions were selected as prospective for this study from a screening of the Basin and Range province. The six regions have certain characteristics that appear favorable for isolation of radioactive waste. The scant precipitation and great potential for water loss by evaporation and transpiration results in little surface runoff and ground-water recharge. This, combined with other hydrogeologic factors, results in areas within the regions that have thick unsaturated zones and long ground-water flow paths and traveltimes. Potential host media in the unsaturated zone include crystalline rocks, volcanic rocks, and basin fill. Potential host media in the saturated zone are predominantly crystalline igneous rocks but also include argillaceous rocks, evaporitic rocks, intracaldera tuffs, and laharic breccias.

  18. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O'Leary

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain.

  19. Definition of the minimal requirements within the human beta-globin gene and the dominant control region for high level expression.

    PubMed Central

    Collis, P; Antoniou, M; Grosveld, F

    1990-01-01

    The human beta-globin dominant control region (DCR) was previously identified as a region from the 5' end of the human beta-globin locus which directs high level, site of integration-independent, copy number-dependent expression on a linked human beta-globin gene in transgenic mice and stably transfected mouse erythroleukaemia (MEL) cells. We have now analysed the elements comprising the DCR by systematic deletion mutagenesis in stable MEL transfectants. We have identified two independent elements within the DNase I hypersensitive sites 2 and 3, containing fragments which direct strong transcriptional inducibility of a beta-globin gene. Whilst the remaining two hypersensitive sites do not direct significant transcriptional induction, our data suggest that all four sites may be necessary for the fully regulated expression conferred by the DCR. We have also tested a number of beta-globin minigene constructs under the control of the DCR to assess if any of the local sequences from the gene may be removed without loss of expression. We find that the 3' enhancer may be removed without affecting expression, but there is an absolute requirement for the presence of the second intron, not related to the enhancer present in that intron. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2295312

  20. 77 FR 20871 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo...., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council. The Region...

  1. High level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, J L

    1980-01-01

    The DOE Division of Waste Products through a lead office at Savannah River is developing a program to immobilize all US high-level nuclear waste for terminal disposal. DOE high-level wastes include those at the Hanford Plant, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, and the Savannah River Plant. Commercial high-level wastes, for which DOE is also developing immobilization technology, include those at the Nuclear Fuel Services Plant and any future commercial fuels reprocessing plants. The first immobilization plant is to be the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River, scheduled for 1983 project submission to Congress and 1989 operation. Waste forms are still being selected for this plant. Borosilicate glass is currently the reference form, but alternate candidates include concretes, calcines, other glasses, ceramics, and matrix forms.

  2. 75 FR 16204 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo... Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District...

  3. 76 FR 59480 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo... Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District...

  4. 78 FR 23951 - Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities: Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... River Regional Coal Team (RCT) has scheduled a public meeting for June 19, 2013, to review coal management activities in the Powder River Coal Production Region. DATES: The RCT meeting will begin at 9 a.m... coal-related topics planned for the RCT meeting include: 1. Update on U.S. Geological Survey coal...

  5. Regional neurovascular coupling and cognitive performance in those with low blood pressure secondary to high-level spinal cord injury: improved by alpha-1 agonist midodrine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Aaron A; Warburton, Darren E R; Ainslie, Philip N; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2014-05-01

    Individuals with high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) experience low blood pressure (BP) and cognitive impairments. Such dysfunction may be mediated in part by impaired neurovascular coupling (NVC) (i.e., cerebral blood flow responses to neurologic demand). Ten individuals with SCI >T6 spinal segment, and 10 age- and sex-matched controls were assessed for beat-by-beat BP, as well as middle and posterior cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv, PCAv) in response to a NVC test. Tests were repeated in SCI after 10 mg midodrine (alpha1-agonist). Verbal fluency was measured before and after midodrine in SCI, and in the control group as an index of cognitive function. At rest, mean BP was lower in SCI (70 ± 10 versus 92 ± 14 mm Hg; P<0.05); however, PCAv conductance was higher (0.56 ± 0.13 versus 0.39 ± 0.15 cm/second/mm Hg; P<0.05). Controls exhibited a 20% increase in PCAv during cognition; however, the response in SCI was completely absent (P<0.01). When BP was increased with midodrine, NVC was improved 70% in SCI, which was reflected by a 13% improved cognitive function (P<0.05). Improvements in BP were related to improved cognitive function in those with SCI (r(2)=0.52; P<0.05). Impaired NVC, secondary to low BP, may partially mediate reduced cognitive function in individuals with high-level SCI.

  6. Regional neurovascular coupling and cognitive performance in those with low blood pressure secondary to high-level spinal cord injury: improved by alpha-1 agonist midodrine hydrochloride

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Aaron A; Warburton, Darren ER; Ainslie, Philip N; Krassioukov, Andrei V

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) experience low blood pressure (BP) and cognitive impairments. Such dysfunction may be mediated in part by impaired neurovascular coupling (NVC) (i.e., cerebral blood flow responses to neurologic demand). Ten individuals with SCI >T6 spinal segment, and 10 age- and sex-matched controls were assessed for beat-by-beat BP, as well as middle and posterior cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv, PCAv) in response to a NVC test. Tests were repeated in SCI after 10 mg midodrine (alpha1-agonist). Verbal fluency was measured before and after midodrine in SCI, and in the control group as an index of cognitive function. At rest, mean BP was lower in SCI (70±10 versus 92±14 mm Hg; P<0.05); however, PCAv conductance was higher (0.56±0.13 versus 0.39±0.15 cm/second/mm Hg; P<0.05). Controls exhibited a 20% increase in PCAv during cognition; however, the response in SCI was completely absent (P<0.01). When BP was increased with midodrine, NVC was improved 70% in SCI, which was reflected by a 13% improved cognitive function (P<0.05). Improvements in BP were related to improved cognitive function in those with SCI (r2=0.52; P<0.05). Impaired NVC, secondary to low BP, may partially mediate reduced cognitive function in individuals with high-level SCI. PMID:24473484

  7. 78 FR 15973 - Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Pojoaque Basin Regional Water System Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Notice of Public Scoping Meetings for the Pojoaque Basin Regional Water System... Water System. As part of that process, Reclamation will host five public scoping meetings to provide... issues to be addressed in the environmental impact statement. DATES: Public scoping meetings will be...

  8. 77 FR 60741 - Meeting of the Regional Resource Stewardship Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), 5 U.S.C. App. 2. The meeting agenda includes the... information about land condition assessments, dispersed recreation web applications, and cultural resources....

  9. ILO African Regional Workers' Education Meeting Conclusions and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Central issues of the International Labour Organisation meeting were financing workers' education in Africa, identification and development of special training programs, and the role of trade unions in labor education. (SK)

  10. 76 FR 62090 - Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... changed based on inclement weather or exceptional circumstances. DATES: Cape Krusenstern National Monument... National Park Service Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence... for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC) program...

  11. Teachers, Teacher Education and Development: Report on an APEID Regional Meeting of Directors of Educational Research and Development Institutes in the Asia and the Pacific Region. Final Report of a Regional Meeting (July 7-15, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Educational Research, Tokyo (Japan).

    The 1997 Asia-Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) Regional Meeting of Directors of Educational Research and Development Institutes in the Asia and the Pacific Region reviewed research from the Asia-Pacific region related to teachers, teacher education, and teacher development. The meeting identified common…

  12. Water-Related Infrastructure in a Region of Post-Earthquake Haiti: High Levels of Fecal Contamination and Need for Ongoing Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, Jocelyn M.; Weppelmann, Thomas A.; Alam, Meer T.; Morrissey, B. David; Redden, Edsel; Rashid, Mohammed H.; Diamond, Ulrica; Ali, Afsar; De Rochars, Madsen Beau; Blackburn, Jason K.; Johnson, Judith A.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    We inventoried non-surface water sources in the Leogane and Gressier region of Haiti (approximately 270 km2) in 2012 and 2013 and screened water from 345 sites for fecal coliforms and Vibrio cholerae. An international organization/non-governmental organization responsible for construction could be identified for only 56% of water points evaluated. Sixteen percent of water points were non-functional at any given time; 37% had evidence of fecal contamination, with spatial clustering of contaminated sites. Among improved water sources (76% of sites), 24.6% had fecal coliforms versus 80.9% in unimproved sources. Fecal contamination levels increased significantly from 36% to 51% immediately after the passage of Tropical Storm Sandy in October of 2012, with a return to 34% contamination in March of 2013. Long-term sustainability of potable water delivery at a regional scale requires ongoing assessment of water quality, functionality, and development of community-based management schemes supported by a national plan for the management of potable water. PMID:25071005

  13. Phylogeographic patterning among two codistributed shrimp species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae) reveals high levels of connectivity across biogeographic regions along the South African coast

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Louisa E.; De Grave, Sammy; Daniels, Savel R.

    2017-01-01

    We compare the genetic structuring and demographic history of two sympatric caridean shrimp species with distinct life history traits, one amphidromous species Palaemon capensis and one marine/estuarine species Palaemon peringueyi, in the historical biogeographical context of South Africa. A total of 103 specimens of P. capensis collected from 12 localities and 217 specimens of P. peringueyi collected from 24 localities were sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase one (CO1) locus. Results from analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA), pairwise ΦST comparisons and haplotype networks demonstrate weak to moderate genetic differentiation in P. capensis and P. peringueyi respectively. P. peringueyi exhibits partial isolation between populations associated with distinct biogeographic regions, likely driven by the region’s oceanography. However, there is minimal evidence for the occurrence of discrete regional evolutionary lineages. This demonstrated lack of genetic differentiation is consistent with a marine, highly dispersive planktonic phase in both the amphidromous P. capensis and the marine/estuarine P. peringueyi. Bayesian skyline plots, mismatch expansions and time since expansion indicate that both species maintained stable populations during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), unlike other southern African aquatic species. PMID:28282399

  14. Water-related infrastructure in a region of post-earthquake Haiti: high levels of fecal contamination and need for ongoing monitoring.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Jocelyn M; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Alam, Meer T; Morrissey, B David; Redden, Edsel; Rashid, Mohammed H; Diamond, Ulrica; Ali, Afsar; De Rochars, Madsen Beau; Blackburn, Jason K; Johnson, Judith A; Morris, J Glenn

    2014-10-01

    We inventoried non-surface water sources in the Leogane and Gressier region of Haiti (approximately 270 km(2)) in 2012 and 2013 and screened water from 345 sites for fecal coliforms and Vibrio cholerae. An international organization/non-governmental organization responsible for construction could be identified for only 56% of water points evaluated. Sixteen percent of water points were non-functional at any given time; 37% had evidence of fecal contamination, with spatial clustering of contaminated sites. Among improved water sources (76% of sites), 24.6% had fecal coliforms versus 80.9% in unimproved sources. Fecal contamination levels increased significantly from 36% to 51% immediately after the passage of Tropical Storm Sandy in October of 2012, with a return to 34% contamination in March of 2013. Long-term sustainability of potable water delivery at a regional scale requires ongoing assessment of water quality, functionality, and development of community-based management schemes supported by a national plan for the management of potable water. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Perturbed and spontaneous regional cerebral blood flow responses to changes in blood pressure after high-level spinal cord injury: the effect of midodrine.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Aaron A; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Ainslie, Philip N; Warburton, Darren E R

    2014-03-15

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) above the T6 spinal segment suffer from orthostatic intolerance. How cerebral blood flow (CBF) responds to orthostatic challenges in SCI is poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear how interventions meant to improve orthostatic tolerance in SCI influence CBF. This study aimed to examine 1) the acute regional CBF responses to rapid changes in blood pressure (BP) during orthostatic stress in individuals with SCI and able-bodied (AB) individuals; and 2) the effect of midodrine (alpha1-agonist) on orthostatic tolerance and CBF regulation in SCI. Ten individuals with SCI >T6, and 10 age- and sex-matched AB controls had beat-by-beat BP and middle and posterior cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv, PCAv, respectively) recorded during a progressive tilt-test to quantify the acute CBF response and orthostatic tolerance. Dynamic MCAv and PCAv to BP relationships were evaluated continuously in the time domain and frequency domain (via transfer function analysis). The SCI group was tested again after administration of 10 mg midodrine to elevate BP. Coherence (i.e., linearity) was elevated in SCI between BP-MCAv and BP-PCAv by 35% and 22%, respectively, compared with AB, whereas SCI BP-PCAv gain (i.e., magnitudinal relationship) was reduced 30% compared with AB (all P < 0.05). The acute (i.e., 0-30 s after tilt) MCAv and PCAv responses were similar between groups. In individuals with SCI, midodrine led to improved PCAv responses 30-60 s following tilt (10 ± 3% vs. 4 ± 2% decline; P < 0.05), and a 59% improvement in orthostatic tolerance (P < 0.01). The vertebrobasilar region may be particularly susceptible to hypoperfusion in SCI, leading to increased orthostatic intolerance.

  16. Perturbed and spontaneous regional cerebral blood flow responses to changes in blood pressure after high-level spinal cord injury: the effect of midodrine

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Aaron A.; Krassioukov, Andrei V.; Ainslie, Philip N.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) above the T6 spinal segment suffer from orthostatic intolerance. How cerebral blood flow (CBF) responds to orthostatic challenges in SCI is poorly understood. Furthermore, it is unclear how interventions meant to improve orthostatic tolerance in SCI influence CBF. This study aimed to examine 1) the acute regional CBF responses to rapid changes in blood pressure (BP) during orthostatic stress in individuals with SCI and able-bodied (AB) individuals; and 2) the effect of midodrine (alpha1-agonist) on orthostatic tolerance and CBF regulation in SCI. Ten individuals with SCI >T6, and 10 age- and sex-matched AB controls had beat-by-beat BP and middle and posterior cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv, PCAv, respectively) recorded during a progressive tilt-test to quantify the acute CBF response and orthostatic tolerance. Dynamic MCAv and PCAv to BP relationships were evaluated continuously in the time domain and frequency domain (via transfer function analysis). The SCI group was tested again after administration of 10 mg midodrine to elevate BP. Coherence (i.e., linearity) was elevated in SCI between BP-MCAv and BP-PCAv by 35% and 22%, respectively, compared with AB, whereas SCI BP-PCAv gain (i.e., magnitudinal relationship) was reduced 30% compared with AB (all P < 0.05). The acute (i.e., 0–30 s after tilt) MCAv and PCAv responses were similar between groups. In individuals with SCI, midodrine led to improved PCAv responses 30–60 s following tilt (10 ± 3% vs. 4 ± 2% decline; P < 0.05), and a 59% improvement in orthostatic tolerance (P < 0.01). The vertebrobasilar region may be particularly susceptible to hypoperfusion in SCI, leading to increased orthostatic intolerance. PMID:24436297

  17. 76 FR 58533 - Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities; Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... management activities in the Powder River Coal Production Region. DATES: The RCT meeting will begin at 9 a.m... Powder River Coal Production Region as well as other Federal coal- related actions in the region... existing coal LBAs in the Powder River Coal Production Region. 2. Update on U.S. Geological Survey coal...

  18. 75 FR 51103 - Notice of Public Meetings for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...) program. SUMMARY: The Lake Clark National Park SRC, Aniakchak National Monument SRC and Wrangell-St. Elias..., Subsistence Manager, NPS Alaska Regional Office, at (907) 644- 3603. Wrangell-St-Elias National Park SRC Meeting Date and Location: The Wrangell-St. Elias National Park SRC meeting will be held on October 6...

  19. 76 FR 30324 - Regional Advisory Committees: Open Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... in Eastern Standard Time (EST); except for the Pacific Region. Appalachia Regional Advisory Committee... Committee (Hawaii, American Samoa, Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands, Federal States of Micronesia....-3:00 p.m. Hawaii Time/12:00 p.m.-2 p.m. Samoa Standard Time; and Thursday, June 9, 2011: 11:00...

  20. Two regional regulatory meetings on distributed resources. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    An overview and discussion of Eastern Regional and Western Regional State Utility Regulators Workshops on Distributed Resources (DR) is given. The purpose of the workshops was for state regulators to learn about DR and the regulatory issues surrounding their greater use. The following issues were addressed: introduction to DR technologies and their potential benefits, interconnection and market barriers, regulatory incentives, rate design issues, and environmental issues.

  1. The Regional Assessment Center Meets the Principal Preparation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Claire G.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a plan to assess 27 administrator candidates, drawing on a partnership between the Southwest Virginia Regional Assessment Center Leadership Academy and Virginia Tech's principal preparation program. Participants completed a reduced-item inbasket exercise, participated in leaderless-group and fact-finding exercises, and submitted a…

  2. Regional Meeting of Pacific Islands Women's Non-Governmental Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Pacific Commission, Noumea (New Caledonia).

    Papers presented at a 1985 regional conference of the Pacific Islands Women's Non-Governmental Organizations are provided in this document. Each paper reports on a different country and discusses developmental issues relating to women's role, such as medical programs, health, social status and welfare, education, employment, and other subjects.…

  3. Where Three Oceans Meet: The Agulhas Retroflection Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Agulhas Retroflection Region by Sara Louise Bennett B.S. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 1977 SUBMITED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE...As children we read Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring (1962) and, as teenagers, the Club of Rome’s Limits to Growth (1974). We know that critical natural...and Amnesty International Group 77 of Falmouth for keeping me connected with the real world outside the ivory tower. Donna Carson and Vicki Cullen

  4. High level radioactive waste glass production and product description

    SciTech Connect

    Sproull, J.F.; Marra, S.L.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report examines borosilicate glass as a means of immobilizing high-level radioactive wastes. Borosilicate glass will encapsulate most of the defense and some of the commercial HLW in the US. The resulting waste forms must meet the requirements of the WA-SRD and the WAPS, which include a short term PCT durability test. The waste form producer must report the composition(s) of the borosilicate waste glass(es) produced but can choose the composition(s) to meet site-specific requirements. Although the waste form composition is the primary determinant of durability, the redox state of the glass; the existence, content, and composition of crystals; and the presence of glass-in-glass phase separation can affect durability. The waste glass should be formulated to avoid phase separation regions. The ultimate result of this effort will be a waste form which is much more stable and potentially less mobile than the liquid high level radioactive waste is currently.

  5. 77 FR 12283 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    .... Docket No. ER11-2132 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC. Docket No. ER11-2133 Entergy Gulf States... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee.... Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting February 29, 2012 (1 pm-5 pm), March 1, 2012 (8 am-12 pm)....

  6. 77 FR 58375 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    .... Docket No. ER11-2132, Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC Docket No. ER11-2133, Entergy Gulf States... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee... efforts. Entergy Regional State Committee Working Group and Stakeholder Meeting September 25, 2012...

  7. The presence of the region on pBR322 that encodes resistance to tetracycline is responsible for high levels of plasmid DNA knotting in Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I deletion mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Shishido, K; Ishii, S; Komiyama, N

    1989-01-01

    Plasmid pBR322 DNA isolated from Escherichia coli DNA topoisomerase I deletion mutant DM800 is estimated to contain about 10% of the knotted forms (Shishido et al., 1987). These knotted DNA species were shown to have the same primary structure as usual, unknotted pBR322 DNA. Analysis of the knotting level of deletion, insertion and sequence-rearranged derivatives of pBR322 in DM800 showed that the presence of the region on pBR322 encoding resistance to tetracycline (tet) is required for high levels of plasmid knotting. When the entire tet region is present in a native orientation, the level of knotting is highest. Inactivating the tet promoter is manifested by a middle level of knotting. For deletion derivatives lacking various portions of the tet region, the level of knotting ranges from lowest to high depending on the site and length of the tet gene remaining. Inverting the orientation of tet region on the pBR322 genome results in a middle level of knotting. Deleting the ampicillin-resistance (bla)gene outside of its second promoter does not affect the level of knotting, if the entire tet gene remains. A possible mechanism of regulation of plasmid knotting is discussed. Images PMID:2557587

  8. High levels of genetic variability and differentiation in hilsa shad, Tenualosa ilisha (Clupeidae, Clupeiformes) populations revealed by PCR-RFLP analysis of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The hilsa shad, Tenualosa ilisha (Clupeidae, Clupeiformes) is an important anadromous clupeid species from the Western division of the Indo-Pacific region. It constitutes the largest single fishable species in Bangladesh. Information on genetic variability and population structure is very important for both management and conservation purposes. Past reports on the population structure of T. ilisha involving morphometric, allozyme and RAPD analyses are contradictory. We examined genetic variability and divergence in two riverine (the Jamuna and the Meghna), two estuarine (Kuakata and Sundarbans) and one marine (Cox's Bazar) populations of T. ilisha by applying PCR-RFLP analysis of the mtDNA D-loop region. The amplified PCR products were restricted with four restriction enzymes namely, XbaI, EcoRI, EcoRV, and HaeIII. High levels of haplotype and gene diversity within and significant differentiations among, populations of T. ilisha were observed in this study. Significant FST values indicated differentiation among the river, estuary and marine populations. The UPGMA dendrogram based on genetic distance resulted in two major clusters, although, these were subsequently divided into three, corresponding to the riverine, estuarine and marine populations. The study underlines the usefulness of RFLP of mtDNA D-loop region as molecular markers, and detected at least two differentiated populations of T. ilisha in Bangladesh waters. PMID:21637667

  9. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  10. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  11. The ALICE high level trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, T.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Röhrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbø, A.; Vik, T.; Wiebalck, A.; the ALICE Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The ALICE experiment at LHC will implement a high-level trigger system for online event selection and/or data compression. The largest computing challenge is posed by the TPC detector, which requires real-time pattern recognition. The system entails a very large processing farm that is designed for an anticipated input data stream of 25 GB s-1. In this paper, we present the architecture of the system and the current state of the tracking methods and data compression applications.

  12. High-Level Connectionist Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    Artficial Intelligence Research Computer and Information Science Department The Ohio State Universiy Columbus, Ohio 43210 pja@ci.ohio-state.edu saunders...Peter J. Angeline, Gregory M. Saunders and Jordan B. Pollack Laboratory for Artficial Intelligence Research Computer and 1i4ormadon Science Deparment...AD-A273 638 OHIOi High-Level Connectionist Models 5LPJE UNIVERSITY Jordan B. Pollack Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence Research Department of

  13. RPython high-level synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  14. 75 FR 47651 - Annual Meeting of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness Boards Office of the National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Annual Meeting of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness Boards Office of the National... Small Business Regulatory Fairness Boards. SUMMARY: The SBA, Office of the National Ombudsman is issuing... Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness Boards (Regional Regulatory Fairness Boards). The meeting is...

  15. 76 FR 54523 - Annual Meeting of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness Boards, Office of the National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Annual Meeting of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness Boards, Office of the National... Small Business Regulatory Fairness Boards. SUMMARY: The SBA, Office of the National Ombudsman is issuing... Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness Boards (Regional Regulatory Fairness Boards). The meeting is...

  16. Wind Powering America's Regional Stakeholder Meetings and Priority State Reports: FY11 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, Ian

    2013-06-01

    Beginning in 2010, DOE conducted an assessment of Wind Powering America (WPA) activities to determine whether the methods the department had used to help grow the wind industry to provide 2% of the nation's electrical energy should be the same methods used to achieve 20% of the nation's energy from wind (as described in the report 20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution toU.S. Electricity Supply). After the assessment, it was determined that the initiative's state-based activities should be phased out as part of a shift to regional-based approaches. To assist with this transition, WPA hosted a series of 1-day regional meetings at six strategic locations around the country and a single teleconference for island states, U.S. territories, and remote communities.This report summarizes the results of the inaugural regional meetings and the state reports with a focus on ongoing wind deployment barriers in each region.

  17. Wind Powering America's Regional Stakeholder Meetings and Priority State Reports: FY11 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    Beginning in 2010, DOE conducted an assessment of Wind Powering America (WPA) activities to determine whether the methods the department had used to help grow the wind industry to provide 2% of the nation's electrical energy should be the same methods used to achieve 20% of the nation's energy from wind (as described in the report 20% Wind Energy by 2030: Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply). After the assessment, it was determined that the initiative's state-based activities should be phased out as part of a shift to regional-based approaches. To assist with this transition, WPA hosted a series of 1-day regional meetings at six strategic locations around the country and a single teleconference for island states, U.S. territories, and remote communities. This report summarizes the results of the inaugural regional meetings and the state reports with a focus on ongoing wind deployment barriers in each region.

  18. Federal Advisory Group Meets to Discuss Environmental Challenges along U.S.-Mexico Border Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 8, 2016) The Good Neighbor Environmental Board (GNEB) is holding a public meeting on Feb. 10-11, 2016, in Brownsville, Texas, to discuss the annual report on environmental and infrastructural issues along the U.S.-Mexico border region

  19. 75 FR 40856 - Federal Register Meeting Notice; Webinar About Regional Innovation Clusters RFP

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Register Meeting Notice; Webinar About Regional Innovation Clusters RFP AGENCY: U.S. Small... Clusters (RIC) Request for Proposals (RFP) No. SBAHQ-10-R-0021. SUMMARY: The SBA is issuing this notice to... Innovation Clusters RFP. For more information please go to http://www.sba.gov/clusters/index.html . The...

  20. 76 FR 60564 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology; Notice of Meeting: Open Regional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology; Notice of Meeting: Open Regional... policy choices before the President. PCAST is administered by the Office of Science and Technology Policy... Technology, ] and Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President,...

  1. 78 FR 11868 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) hereby gives notice that members of its...

  2. Proceedings, 1983 Annual Meeting, Southern Regional Education Board (Palm Beach, Florida, June 9-11, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    Proceedings of the 1983 annual meeting of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) are presented. Contents include a roundtable discussion, nine papers, a progress report by the SREB's Task Force on Higher Education and the Schools, a presentation on a SREB report on higher education and high technology economic development, a summary of the…

  3. 77 FR 69893 - Bristol Bay Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Forest Service DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Bristol Bay Federal Subsistence... Bristol Bay Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council (Council) will hold a public meeting by... with the requirements of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App., the Bristol Bay...

  4. 78 FR 14840 - U.S.-EU High Level Regulatory Cooperation Forum-Stakeholder Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... BUDGET U.S.-EU High Level Regulatory Cooperation Forum--Stakeholder Session AGENCY: Office of Management... will hold a public meeting of the U.S.-EU High Level Regulatory Cooperation Forum (the ``Forum'') in...:00 a.m. and ending by 12:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: Public Meeting: As with previous Forum meetings, the...

  5. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Characterization of the Bonneville region, Utah and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, William H.

    1990-01-01

    The Bonneville region of the Basin and Range province in westcentral Utah and adjacent Nevada includes several basins lying south of the Great Salt Lake Desert. Physiographically, the region consists of linear, north-trending mountain ranges separated by valleys, many of which are closed basins underlain by thick sequences of fill. Surface drainage of open basins and ground-water flow is to the Great Salt Lake Desert. In structure and composition the ranges are faulted Paleozoic rocks, locally intruded by Mesozoic and Tertiary plugs and stocks. In the southern and northeastern parts of the region, volcanic rocks are widespread and form large parts of some mountain ranges. The Paleozoic sedimentary rocks include great thicknesses of carbonate rocks which compose a significant aquifer in the regionMedia considered to have potential for isolation of high-level radioactive waste in the region include intrusive rocks, such as granite; ash-flow tuff; and basalt and basaltic andesite lava flows. These rock types, basin fill, and possibly other rock types, may have potential as host media in the unsaturated zone. Quaternary tectonism in the region is evidenced by seismic activity, local areas of above-normal geothermal heat flow, Quaternary faulting, late Cenozoic volcanic activity, and active vertical crustal movement. The Bonneville region is part of a large ground-water flow system that is integrated partly through basin-fill deposits, but largely through an underlying carbonate-rock sequence. The region includes: (1) several topographically closed basins with virtually no local surface discharge that are drained by the underlying carbonate-rock aquifer; (2) closed basins with local surface discharge by evapotranspiration; and (3) basins open to the Great Salt Lake Desert that discharge by groundwater underflow and evapotranspiration. The carbonate-rock aquifer discharges to large springs in the Desert and in basins tributary to the Desert. The climate is arid to

  6. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  7. 78 FR 51263 - Annual Meeting of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness Boards Office of the National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office U.S. SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Annual Meeting of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness Boards Office of the National Ombudsman AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of open meeting of the Regional...

  8. 77 FR 69893 - North Slope Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ...This notice informs the public that the North Slope Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council (Council) will hold a public meeting by teleconference on December 7, 2013. The public is invited to participate and to provide oral testimony. The purpose of the Council is to provide recommendations and information to the Federal Subsistence Board, to review policies and management plans, and to provide a public forum for subsistence issues.

  9. 78 FR 17427 - North Slope Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ...This notice informs the public that the North Slope Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Council (Council) will hold a public meeting by teleconference on April 16, 2013. The public is invited to participate and to provide oral testimony. The purpose of the Council is to provide recommendations and information to the Federal Subsistence Board, to review policies and management plans, and to provide a public forum for subsistence issues.

  10. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  11. 78 FR 17428 - Notice of Open Public Meetings for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... may change based on inclement weather or exceptional circumstances. If the meeting date and location... National Park Service Notice of Open Public Meetings for the National Park Service Alaska Region's... VIII, Section 808 of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, Public Law 96- 487. Cape...

  12. 78 FR 14589 - Notice of Open Public Meetings for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... School in Ambler, AK. SRC meeting locations and dates may change based on inclement weather or... National Park Service Notice of Open Public Meetings for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's... VIII, Section 808 of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, Public Law 96-487. Gates of...

  13. Regional Experts Meeting on the Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (Bangkok, 25 February - 4 March 1974). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This publication reports on the Regional Experts Meeting on the Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development, which was held by UNESCO in Bangkok from February 25-March 4, 1974. Purpose of the meeting was 1) to examine and review the Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) and the projects proposed for it,…

  14. 76 FR 56221 - Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Park SRC will meet at the Nondalton Community Center, (907) 294-2288 in Nondalton, Alaska on Thursday... the Lake Clark National Park SRC Meeting Contact: Mary Mc Burney, Subsistence Manager, (907) 235-7891 or Clarence Summers, Subsistence Manager, NPS Alaska Regional Office, at (907) 644-3603. If you...

  15. 75 FR 3488 - Notice of Public Meetings for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... meeting be postponed due to inclement weather or lack of a quorum, the alternate meeting dates are... Lodge in Lake Minchumina, AK. Should this meeting be postponed due to inclement weather, or lack of a... to be changed based on lack of quorum, inclement weather or local circumstances. If the meeting date...

  16. The northeast regional SPS meeting update: Safety pharmacology innovations and applications.

    PubMed

    Pannirselvam, Malar; Brabham, Tiffini; Botchway, Alfred W; Hodges, Donald B; Traebert, Martin; Pugsley, Michael K

    The Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) held a Northeast (NE) regional meeting in Boston, MA on May 13, 2016 at the Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated site. There were 103 attendees from the pharmaceutical industry, contract research organizations (CROs), academia, and global regulatory agencies. An assortment of scientific topics were presented by 7 speakers that included broad topics in the cardiovascular (organ on chip, statistical power and translation of rat cardiovascular telemetry data and dual inhibition of IKr and IKs on QT interval prolongation) and central nervous system (in vitro platform for neurotoxicity, an integrated risk assessment of suicidal ideation and behavior, and EEG advances in safety pharmacology) and a novel topic discussing preclinical challenges faced in the development of a novel gene therapy. A highlight of the meeting was an in-depth discussion on the fatty acid acyl hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor BIA 10-2474 which involved a comprehensive overview of the biology and pharmacology of FAAH followed by a presentation from the Biotrial (Rennes, France) team that conducted the clinical trial. An additional poster session was held that included 13 fascinating posters on cutting edge safety pharmacology topics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Unesco Regional Meeting of Computer Centre Directors in Africa (Arusha, Tanzania, April 14-18, 1980). Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Nairobi (Kenya). Regional Office of Science and Technology for Africa.

    The main points on the agenda of this meeting attended by eight chief participants from seven member states of UNESCO in the African Region and several observers were: (1) presentations by participants on their experiences in the application of informatics (i.e., computer applications in information dissemination) in the region; (2) problems in…

  18. Unesco Regional Meeting of Computer Centre Directors in Africa (Arusha, Tanzania, April 14-18, 1980). Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Nairobi (Kenya). Regional Office of Science and Technology for Africa.

    The main points on the agenda of this meeting attended by eight chief participants from seven member states of UNESCO in the African Region and several observers were: (1) presentations by participants on their experiences in the application of informatics (i.e., computer applications in information dissemination) in the region; (2) problems in…

  19. Radiative Lifetimes for High Levels of Neutral Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, E.; Guzman, A.

    2013-01-01

    New radiative lifetime measurements for ~ 50 high lying levels of Fe I are reported. Laboratory astrophysics faces a challenge to provide basic spectroscopic data, especially reliable atomic transition probabilities, in the IR region for abundance studies. The availability of HgCdTe (HAWAII) detector arrays has opened IR spectral regions for extensive new spectroscopic studies. The SDSS III APOGEE project in the H-Band is an important example which will penetrate the dust obscuring the Galactic bulge. APOGEE will survey elemental abundances of 100,000 red giant stars in the bulge, bar, disk, and halo of the Milky Way. Many stellar spectra in the H-Band are, as expected, dominated by transitions of Fe I. Most of these IR transitions connect high levels of Fe. Our program has started an effort to meet this challenge with new radiative lifetime measurements on high lying levels of Fe I using time resolved laser induced fluorescence (TRLIF). The TRLIF method is typically accurate to 5% and is efficient. Our goal is to combine these accurate, absolute radiative lifetimes with emission branching fractions [1] to determine log(gf) values of the highest quality for Fe I lines in the UV, visible, and IR. This method was used very successfully by O’Brian et al. [2] on lower levels of Fe I. This method is still the best available for all but very simple spectra for which ab-initio theory is more accurate. Supported by NSF grant AST-0907732. [1] Branching fractions are being measured by M. Ruffoni and J. C. Pickering at Imperial College London. [2] O'Brian, T. R., Wickliffe, M. E., Lawler, J. E., Whaling, W., & Brault, J. W. 1991, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1185

  20. Group Meets to Help Improve Quality of Life for Border Region

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 10, 2016) The Good Neighbor Environmental Board (GNEB), recently hosted a meeting to discuss recommendations for environmental infrastructure needs along the U.S.-Mexico Border. The meeting focused on a number of challenges facing the

  1. Futures and Education. Report of a Regional Meeting (Bangkok, Thailand, November 2-8, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    A meeting report on education within the context of futures studies is divided into four chapters. Chapter One discusses the background of the meeting. Chapter Two outlines the studies presented by each of the eight Asian and Pacific nations represented at the meeting: Australia, India, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Korea, and…

  2. 75 FR 13139 - Notice of Public Meetings for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... Arctic National Park SRC will meet to develop and continue work on National Park Service (NPS... 5 p.m. at the National Park Service Northwest Arctic Heritage Center, Kotzebue, AK. The meeting may... Monument and Kobuk Valley National Park Meeting Contact: George Helfrich, Superintendent, Western Arctic...

  3. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range province, southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste-characterization of the Death Valley region, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Death Valley region, Nevada and California, in the Basin and Range province, is an area of about 80,200 sq km located in southern Nevada and southeastern California. Precambrian metamorphic and intrusive basement rocks are overlain by a thick section of Paleozoic clastic and evaporitic sedimentary rocks. Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks include extrusive and intrusive rocks and clastic sedimentary rocks. Structural features within the Death Valley indicate a long and complex tectonic evolution from late Precambrian to the present. Potential repository host media in the region include granite and other coarse-grained plutonic rocks, ashflow tuff, basaltic and andesitic lava flows, and basin fill. The Death Valley region is composed largely of closed topographic basins that are apparently coincident with closed groundwater flow systems. In these systems, recharge occurs sparingly at higher altitudes by infiltration of precipitation or by infiltration of ephemeral runoff. Discharge occurs largely by spring flow and by evaporation and transpiration in the playas. Death Valley proper, for which the region was named, is the ultimate discharge area for a large, complex system of groundwater aquifers that occupy the northeastern part of the region. The deepest part of the system consists of carbonate aquifers that connect closed topographic basins at depth. The discharge from the system occurs in several intermediate areas that are geomorphically, stratigraphically, and structurally controlled. Ultimately, most groundwater flow terminates by discharge to Death Valley; groundwater is discharged to the Colorado River from a small part of the region.

  4. A Dialogue on the Structure of American Agriculture: Summary of Regional Meetings, November 27-December 18, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    At the request of Secretary of Agriculture, Robert Bergland, 10 regional meetings were held in which 210 scheduled speakers and 365 unscheduled speakers commented on 12 broad areas of concern to American agriculture. These concerns were: landownership, control and tenancy; barriers to entering and leaving farming; production efficiency, size of…

  5. Communication from the National Forest Inventories Working Group of the 16th Caribbean Foresters meeting: proposal for a regional workshop

    Treesearch

    Humfredo Marcano-Vega; Carlton Roberts; Henri Valles; Jacqueline Andre; Kevin Boswell; Dennis Lemen; Floyd Liburd; Christian López

    2016-01-01

    We addressed the National Forests Inventories Working Group of the 16th Caribbean Foresters Meeting to propose a series of training modules regarding how to conduct national forest inventories and analyze the data collected. Improving regional capacity is crucial to ensuring the sustainable management of Caribbean forest ecosystems. We focused on the statistical and...

  6. Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation Fifth Meeting of the Coordinating Committee for the Regional English Language Centre (Singapore). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional English Center (Singapore).

    The fifth meeting of the Regional English Language Centre Coordinating Committee held in Quezon City, Philippines in March 1969 was attended by Committee members from Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. S. Thavisakdi, SEAMES Director, was present, as were consultants from Thailand, the RELC Staff, and observers…

  7. Social Change and Training of Educational Personnel. Report of a Regional Design Meeting (Bangkok, Thailand, July 26-August 3, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    An overview of 19 papers presented at the meeting indicates that countries in the Asia and Pacific region are aware of socioeconomic changes and the need for national educational systems to provide adequate responses to these changes. New personnel profiles and educational training programs are needed. Factors which will affect the development of…

  8. 76 FR 1458 - Public Meeting for the National Park Service Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource Commission (SRC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... information from public review, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. Wrangell-St. Elias National Park SRC Meeting Date and Location: The Wrangell-St. Elias National Park SRC will meet at the Ahtna..., (907) 822- 7236, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, P.O. Box 439, Copper Center, Alaska...

  9. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  10. Multipurpose optimization models for high level waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hoza, M.

    1994-08-01

    Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models have been developed as multipurpose tools for high-level waste studies for the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. Using nonlinear programming techniques, these models maximize the waste loading of the vitrified waste and optimize the glass formers composition such that the glass produced has the appropriate properties within the melter, and the resultant vitrified waste form meets the requirements for disposal. The OWL model can be used for a single waste stream or for blended streams. The models can determine optimal continuous blends or optimal discrete blends of a number of different wastes. The OWL models have been used to identify the most restrictive constraints, to evaluate prospective waste pretreatment methods, to formulate and evaluate blending strategies, and to determine the impacts of variability in the wastes. The OWL models will be used to aid in the design of frits and the maximize the waste in the glass for High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification.

  11. Long-term high-level waste technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornman, W. R.

    1980-07-01

    This series of reports summarizes research and development studies on the immobilization of high level wastes from the chemical reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuels. Immobilization of the wastes (defense and commercial) consists of placing them in a high integrity form with a very low potential for radionuclide release. Immobilization of commercial wastes is being considered on a contingency basis in the event that reprocessing is resumed. The basic plan for meeting the goal of immobilization of the DOE high level wastes is: (1) to develop technology to support a realistic choice of waste form alternatives for each of the three DOE sites; (2) to develop product and processing technology with sufficient scaleup to provide design data for full scale facilities; and (3) to construct and operate the facilities.

  12. [The HIV-infection outbreak in the town Lys'va (Perm region): homozygote genotype CCR5 delta32/CCR5 delta32 provides the high level of the persistence in the parenteral transmission of the virus].

    PubMed

    Riabov, G S; Kazennova, E V; Korepanova, L B; Mal'tseva, E A; Zhalnin, V V; Krasnikova, L A; Zverev, S Ia; Pokrovskiĭ, V V; Bobkov, A F; Weber, J N

    2002-01-01

    Specific features of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission among injecting drug users were studied on HIV infection outbreak in Lysva, the Perm region. During the period from November 1998 to March 2000, 32 injecting drug users infected with the subtype A HIV-1 variant originating from the same source, were found in this town. To understand the role of the CCR5 delta 32 mutation in parenteral transmission of HIV-1 the distribution of the mutant CCR5 delta 32 allele in HIV-infected and in non-infected but HIV-exposed drug users (n = 74) was analysed. The percentage of the homozygous CCR5 delta 32 genotype among HIV-exposed individuals (4/74, 5.4%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the analogous rate for healthy blood donors in Russia (1/163, 0.6%). Thus, the homozygosity for this mutant allele confers a high resistance level to HIV even in parenteral transmission.

  13. A Software Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shen,G.

    2009-05-04

    A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

  14. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  15. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  16. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  17. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  18. Do we understand high-level vision?

    PubMed

    Cox, David Daniel

    2014-04-01

    'High-level' vision lacks a single, agreed upon definition, but it might usefully be defined as those stages of visual processing that transition from analyzing local image structure to analyzing structure of the external world that produced those images. Much work in the last several decades has focused on object recognition as a framing problem for the study of high-level visual cortex, and much progress has been made in this direction. This approach presumes that the operational goal of the visual system is to read-out the identity of an object (or objects) in a scene, in spite of variation in the position, size, lighting and the presence of other nearby objects. However, while object recognition as a operational framing of high-level is intuitive appealing, it is by no means the only task that visual cortex might do, and the study of object recognition is beset by challenges in building stimulus sets that adequately sample the infinite space of possible stimuli. Here I review the successes and limitations of this work, and ask whether we should reframe our approaches to understanding high-level vision. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. UNESCO-UNEVOC Regional Forum Asia and Pacific: Advancing TVET for Youth Employability and Sustainable Development (Seoul, Republic of Korea, September 4-6, 2013). Meeting Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To strengthen global and regional harmonization for the advancement of TVET transformation through the capacities of UNEVOC's unique global Network of specialized TVET institutions and affiliated partners, the UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre organized a series of meetings to be held in all regions of the world. The meetings are organized…

  20. High-Level Binocular Rivalry Effects

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Michal; Hochstein, Shaul

    2011-01-01

    Binocular rivalry (BR) occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: (1) BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low-levels have access to utrocular information. (2) All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn’t stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. (3) Rivalry is affected by low-level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. (4) There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high-level mechanism: (1) Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. (2) Attention affects alternations. (3) Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI) regarding cortical level(s) of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution. We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other non-words and find significantly longer dominance durations for non-words. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that BR has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level mechanism

  1. High-level binocular rivalry effects.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Michal; Hochstein, Shaul

    2011-01-01

    Binocular rivalry (BR) occurs when the brain cannot fuse percepts from the two eyes because they are different. We review results relating to an ongoing controversy regarding the cortical site of the BR mechanism. Some BR qualities suggest it is low-level: (1) BR, as its name implies, is usually between eyes and only low-levels have access to utrocular information. (2) All input to one eye is suppressed: blurring doesn't stimulate accommodation; pupilary constrictions are reduced; probe detection is reduced. (3) Rivalry is affected by low-level attributes, contrast, spatial frequency, brightness, motion. (4) There is limited priming due to suppressed words or pictures. On the other hand, recent studies favor a high-level mechanism: (1) Rivalry occurs between patterns, not eyes, as in patchwork rivalry or a swapping paradigm. (2) Attention affects alternations. (3) Context affects dominance. There is conflicting evidence from physiological studies (single cell and fMRI) regarding cortical level(s) of conscious perception. We discuss the possibility of multiple BR sites and theoretical considerations that rule out this solution. We present new data regarding the locus of the BR switch by manipulating stimulus semantic content or high-level characteristics. Since these variations are represented at higher cortical levels, their affecting rivalry supports high-level BR intervention. In Experiment I, we measure rivalry when one eye views words and the other non-words and find significantly longer dominance durations for non-words. In Experiment II, we find longer dominance times for line drawings of simple, structurally impossible figures than for similar, possible objects. In Experiment III, we test the influence of idiomatic context on rivalry between words. Results show that generally words within their idiomatic context have longer mean dominance durations. We conclude that BR has high-level cortical influences, and may be controlled by a high-level mechanism.

  2. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-09

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams.

  3. Cross-Regional Differences in Meeting the Challenge of Teacher Salary Increase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derkachev, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of studies on the correlations of teacher pay to regional economics and to regional factors affecting the size of teacher salaries. It describes the basic pay indicators for teachers in the regions: absolute salary, teacher pay level as compared to the average regional salary, and ratio of salary to the cost of a…

  4. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Joseph M.; Bickford, Dennis F.; Day, Delbert E.; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L.; Marra, Sharon L.; Peeler, David K.; Strachan, Denis M.; Triplett, Mark B.; Vienna, John D.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  5. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  6. 76 FR 56405 - Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... Wednesday, September 28, 2011 from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. (see SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION for agenda items... Director; telephone: (808) 522-8220. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Wednesday, September 28, 2011; 10 a.m. A... Management Council (Council) will convene a meeting of the Hawaii Members of its Non- Commercial Fisheries...

  7. 76 FR 28024 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC Docket No. ER11-2133 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC Docket No. ER11... Entergy Texas, Inc. Docket No. ER11-2161 Entergy Texas, Inc. Docket No. ER11-2562 Entergy Gulf States...-3341 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC These meetings are open to the public. For more...

  8. EAP high-level product architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudlaugsson, T. V.; Mortensen, N. H.; Sarban, R.

    2013-04-01

    EAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. This poses the challenge to the EAP component manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products. Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing an EAP technology platform, which can form the basis for a variety of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture. This description breaks down the EAP transducer into organs that perform the functions that may be present in an EAP transducer. A physical instance of an EAP transducer contains a combination of the organs needed to fulfill the task of actuator, sensor, and generation. Alternative principles for each organ allow the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach has resulted in the first version of an EAP technology platform, on which multiple EAP products can be based. The contents of the platform have been the result of multi-disciplinary development work at Danfoss PolyPower, as well as collaboration with potential customers and research institutions. Initial results from applying the platform on demonstrator design for potential applications are promising. The scope of the article does not include technical details.

  9. High-level waste qualification: Managing uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, B.A.

    1993-09-01

    A vitrification facility is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York, where approximately 300 canisters of high-level nuclear waste glass will be produced. To assure that the produced waste form is acceptable, uncertainty must be managed. Statistical issues arise due to sampling, waste variations, processing uncertainties, and analytical variations. This paper presents elements of a strategy to characterize and manage the uncertainties associated with demonstrating that an acceptable waste form product is achieved. Specific examples are provided within the context of statistical work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL).

  10. Python based high-level synthesis compiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieszewski, Radosław; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a python based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in Python and map it to VHDL. FPGA combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the mapped circuit is flexible, and can be reconfigured over the lifetime of the system. FPGAs therefore have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. Creating parallel programs implemented in FPGAs is not trivial. This article describes design, implementation and first results of created Python based compiler.

  11. The effects of high level infrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    This paper will attempt to survey the current knowledge on the effects of relative high levels of infrasound on humans. While this conference is concerned mainly about hearing, some discussion of other physiological effects is appropriate. Such discussion also serves to highlight a basic question, 'Is hearing the main concern of infrasound and low frequency exposure, or is there a more sensitive mechanism'. It would be comforting to know that the focal point of this conference is indeed the most important concern. Therefore, besides hearing loss and auditory threshold of infrasonic and low frequency exposure, four other effects will be provided. These are performance, respiration, annoyance, and vibration.

  12. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Chungming; Chevtsov, Sergei; Wu, Juhao; Shen, Guobao; /Brookhaven

    2012-06-28

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  13. High Level Waste Disposal System Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert; M. Connolly; J. Roach; W. Holtzscheiter

    2005-02-01

    The high level waste (HLW) disposal system consists of the Yucca Mountain Facility (YMF) and waste product (e.g. glass) generation facilities. Responsibility for management is shared between the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offices of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE-RW) and Environmental Management (DOE-EM). The DOE-RW license application and the Waste Acceptance System Requirements Document (WASRD), as well as the DOE-EM Waste Acceptance Product Specification for Vitrified High Level Waste Forms (WAPS) govern the overall performance of the system. This basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider waste form and process technology research and development (R&D), which have been conducted by DOE-EM, international agencies (i.e. ANSTO, CEA), and the private sector; as well as the technical bases for including additional waste forms in the final license application. This will yield a more optimized HLW disposal system to accelerate HLW disposition, more efficient utilization of the YMF, and overall system cost reduction.

  14. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  15. Regional Consultation Meeting on the Asia and Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (13th, Jomtien, Thailand, June 22-26, 1992). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the Thirteenth Regional Consultation Meeting on the Asia and Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID). The meeting's objectives were to: (1) make an overall review of APEID's work during the 5-year period 1987-91; (2) to discuss major educational innovations that have…

  16. Umbra's High Level Architecture (HLA) Interface

    SciTech Connect

    GOTTLIEB, ERIC JOSEPH; MCDONALD, MICHAEL J.; OPPEL III, FRED J.

    2002-04-01

    This report describes Umbra's High Level Architecture HLA library. This library serves as an interface to the Defense Simulation and Modeling Office's (DMSO) Run Time Infrastructure Next Generation Version 1.3 (RTI NG1.3) software library and enables Umbra-based models to be federated into HLA environments. The Umbra library was built to enable the modeling of robots for military and security system concept evaluation. A first application provides component technologies that ideally fit the US Army JPSD's Joint Virtual Battlespace (JVB) simulation framework for Objective Force concept analysis. In addition to describing the Umbra HLA library, the report describes general issues of integrating Umbra with RTI code and outlines ways of building models to support particular HLA simulation frameworks like the JVB.

  17. Remote ignitability analysis of high-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lundholm, C.W.; Morgan, J.M.; Shurtliff, R.M.; Trejo, L.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), was used to reprocess nuclear fuel from government owned reactors to recover the unused uranium-235. These processes generated highly radioactive liquid wastes which are stored in large underground tanks prior to being calcined into a granular solid. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and state/federal clean air statutes require waste characterization of these high level radioactive wastes for regulatory permitting and waste treatment purposes. The determination of the characteristic of ignitability is part of the required analyses prior to calcination and waste treatment. To perform this analysis in a radiologically safe manner, a remoted instrument was needed. The remote ignitability Method and Instrument will meet the 60 deg. C. requirement as prescribed for the ignitability in method 1020 of SW-846. The method for remote use will be equivalent to method 1020 of SW-846.

  18. The High Level Data Reduction Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, P.; Gabasch, A.; Jung, Y.; Modigliani, A.; Taylor, J.; Coccato, L.; Freudling, W.; Neeser, M.; Marchetti, E.

    2015-09-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) provides pipelines to reduce data for most of the instruments at its Very Large telescope (VLT). These pipelines are written as part of the development of VLT instruments, and are used both in the ESO's operational environment and by science users who receive VLT data. All the pipelines are highly specific geared toward instruments. However, experience showed that the independently developed pipelines include significant overlap, duplication and slight variations of similar algorithms. In order to reduce the cost of development, verification and maintenance of ESO pipelines, and at the same time improve the scientific quality of pipelines data products, ESO decided to develop a limited set of versatile high-level scientific functions that are to be used in all future pipelines. The routines are provided by the High-level Data Reduction Library (HDRL). To reach this goal, we first compare several candidate algorithms and verify them during a prototype phase using data sets from several instruments. Once the best algorithm and error model have been chosen, we start a design and implementation phase. The coding of HDRL is done in plain C and using the Common Pipeline Library (CPL) functionality. HDRL adopts consistent function naming conventions and a well defined API to minimise future maintenance costs, implements error propagation, uses pixel quality information, employs OpenMP to take advantage of multi-core processors, and is verified with extensive unit and regression tests. This poster describes the status of the project and the lesson learned during the development of reusable code implementing algorithms of high scientific quality.

  19. Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

    1979-01-01

    Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predictability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed.

  20. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  1. Meeting the Regional Climate Information Needs of Decision Makers: The CORDEX Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asrar, G. R.; Jones, C.; Giorgi, F.

    2011-12-01

    Regional Climate Downscaling (RCD), both dynamical (e.g. regional climate modeling) and statistical, is an important approach to produce fine scale climate information for use in impact assessment and adaptation/mitigation studies and practices. RCD techniques have evolved significantly over the last decade, however a coherent and wide picture of regional climate change based on RCD products is still not available and the potentials, limitations and uncertainties of RCD methods need to be better understood by the user community. In order to address these issues a new initiative has been launched under the WCRP auspices, referred to as Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment, or CORDEX. The aim of CORDEX is to bring together the international RCD community to assess different RCD techniques, recommend best practices and produce a next generation set of RCD-based projections of climate change for regions world-wide. This will involve close interactions between the RCD, global climate modeling, and end users communities. This paper will describe the motivations and design of the first phase of the CORDEX framework, which has a priority focus on Africa, along with the steps that are envisioned to achieve the CORDEX goals within the time framework of the Fifth IPCC assessment report. Some early results for Africa will be presented, together with a short summary of the CORDEX activities in Asia, Americas and other regions of the world.

  2. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  3. Proton Affinity Calculations with High Level Methods.

    PubMed

    Kolboe, Stein

    2014-08-12

    Proton affinities, stretching from small reference compounds, up to the methylbenzenes and naphthalene and anthracene, have been calculated with high accuracy computational methods, viz. W1BD, G4, G3B3, CBS-QB3, and M06-2X. Computed and the currently accepted reference proton affinities are generally in excellent accord, but there are deviations. The literature value for propene appears to be 6-7 kJ/mol too high. Reported proton affinities for the methylbenzenes seem 4-5 kJ/mol too high. G4 and G3 computations generally give results in good accord with the high level W1BD. Proton affinity values computed with the CBS-QB3 scheme are too low, and the error increases with increasing molecule size, reaching nearly 10 kJ/mol for the xylenes. The functional M06-2X fails markedly for some of the small reference compounds, in particular, for CO and ketene, but calculates methylbenzene proton affinities with high accuracy.

  4. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces.

  5. The ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter high level triggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronchetti, F.; Blanco, F.; Figueredo, M.; Knospe, A. G.; Xaplanteris, L.

    2012-12-01

    The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) detector yields a huge sample of data from different sub-detectors. On-line data processing is applied to select and reduce the volume of the stored data. ALICE applies a multi-level hardware trigger scheme where fast detectors are used to feed a three-level (L0, L1, and L2) deep chain. The High-Level Trigger (HLT) is a fourth filtering stage sitting logically between the L2 trigger and the data acquisition event building. The EMCal detector comprises a large area electromagnetic calorimeter that extends the momentum measurement of photons and neutral mesons up to pT = 250 GeV/c, which improves the ALICE capability to perform jet reconstruction with measurement of the neutral energy component of jets. An online reconstruction and trigger chain has been developed within the HLT framework to sharpen the EMCal hardware triggers, by combining the central barrel tracking information with the shower reconstruction (clusters) in the calorimeter. In the present report the status and the functionality of the software components developed for the EMCal HLT online reconstruction and trigger chain will be discussed, as well as preliminary results from their commissioning performed during the 2011 LHC running period.

  6. HIGH LEVEL RF FOR THE SNS RING.

    SciTech Connect

    ZALTSMAN,A.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN,J.; BRODOWSKI,J.; METH,M.; SPITZ,R.; SEVERINO,F.

    2002-06-03

    A high level RF system (HLRF) consisting of power amplifiers (PA's) and ferrite loaded cavities is being designed and built by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project. It is a fixed frequency, two harmonic system whose main function is to maintain a gap for the kicker rise time. Three cavities running at the fundamental harmonic (h=l) will provide 40 kV and one cavity at the second harmonic (h=2) will provide 20 kV. Each cavity has two gaps with a design voltage of 10 kV per gap and will be driven by a power amplifier (PA) directly adjacent to it. The PA uses a 600kW tetrode to provide the necessary drive current. The anode of the tetrode is magnetically coupled to the downstream cell of the cavity. Drive to the PA will be provided by a wide band, solid state amplifier located remotely. A dynamic tuning scheme will be implemented to help compensate for the effect of beam loading.

  7. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  8. Convenio "Andres Bello:" Informe Final [de la] Segunda Reunion de Ministros de Educacion de la Region Andina ("Andres Bello" Agreement: Final Report of the Second Meeting of the Andean Region Ministers of Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministros de Educacion de la Region Andina, Lima (Peru).

    This final report of the second meeting of the Andean Region Ministers of Education subscribing to the Andres Bello Agreement on education and culture contains a resume of the individual sessions and the proposals approved during that meeting. The proposals cover various educational problems and issues and begin with the Declaration of Lima which…

  9. 77 FR 50683 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Arkansas, Inc. Docket No. ER11-2131 Entergy Arkansas, Inc. Docket No. ER11-2132 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC. Docket No. ER11-2133 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC. Docket No. ER11-2134 Entergy... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State...

  10. 78 FR 69661 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Transmission System Operator, Inc. Entergy Arkansas, Inc........ Docket No. ER12-1384 Entergy Gulf States........... Docket No. ER14-73 Entergy Arkansas, Inc........ Docket No. ER14-75 Entergy Gulf States Docket No. ER14... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State...

  11. 77 FR 33212 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State Committee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...-2131 Entergy Arkansas, Inc. Docket No. ER11-2132 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC Docket No. ER11-2133 Entergy Gulf States, Louisiana, LLC Docket No. ER11-2134 Entergy Mississippi, Inc. Docket No. ER11... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Entergy Regional State...

  12. DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS DEGRADATION

    SciTech Connect

    W. Ebert

    2001-09-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the analyses that were done to develop models for radionuclide release from high-level waste (HLW) glass dissolution that can be integrated into performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted to support site recommendation and license application for the Yucca Mountain site. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). It specifically addresses the item, ''Defense High Level Waste Glass Degradation'', of the product technical work plan. The AP-3.15Q Attachment 1 screening criteria determines the importance for its intended use of the HLW glass model derived herein to be in the category ''Other Factors for the Postclosure Safety Case-Waste Form Performance'', and thus indicates that this factor does not contribute significantly to the postclosure safety strategy. Because the release of radionuclides from the glass will depend on the prior dissolution of the glass, the dissolution rate of the glass imposes an upper bound on the radionuclide release rate. The approach taken to provide a bound for the radionuclide release is to develop models that can be used to calculate the dissolution rate of waste glass when contacted by water in the disposal site. The release rate of a particular radionuclide can then be calculated by multiplying the glass dissolution rate by the mass fraction of that radionuclide in the glass and by the surface area of glass contacted by water. The scope includes consideration of the three modes by which water may contact waste glass in the disposal system: contact by humid air, dripping water, and immersion. The models for glass dissolution under these contact modes are all based on the rate expression for aqueous dissolution of borosilicate glasses. The mechanism and rate expression for aqueous dissolution are adequately understood; the analyses in this AMR were conducted to

  13. The high-level trigger of ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilsner, H.; Alt, T.; Aurbakken, K.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Nystrand, J.; Roehrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A.; Vik, T.

    One of the main tracking detectors of the forthcoming ALICE Experiment at the LHC is a cylindrical Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with an expected data volume of about 75 MByte per event. This data volume, in combination with the presumed maximum bandwidth of 1.2 GByte/s to the mass storage system, would limit the maximum event rate to 20 Hz. In order to achieve higher event rates, online data processing has to be applied. This implies either the detection and read-out of only those events which contain interesting physical signatures or an efficient compression of the data by modeling techniques. In order to cope with the anticipated data rate, massive parallel computing power is required. It will be provided in form of a clustered farm of SMP-nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, which are connected with a high bandwidth low overhead network. This High-Level Trigger (HLT) will be able to process a data rate of 25 GByte/s online. The front-end electronics of the individual sub-detectors is connected to the HLT via an optical link and a custom PCI card which is mounted in the clustered PCs. The PCI card is equipped with an FPGA necessary for the implementation of the PCI-bus protocol. Therefore, this FPGA can also be used to assist the host processor with first-level processing. The first-level processing done on the FPGA includes conventional cluster-finding for low multiplicity events and local track finding based on the Hough Transformation of the raw data for high multiplicity events. PACS: 07.05.-t Computers in experimental physics - 07.05.Hd Data acquisition: hardware and software - 29.85.+c Computer data analysis

  14. 78 FR 5203 - Notice of Open Public Meetings for the National Park Service Alaska Region Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... newspapers and radio stations to announce the meeting. Aniakchak National Monument SRC Proposed Meeting... release and use local newspapers and radio stations to announce the meeting. Denali National Park SRC... use local newspapers and radio stations to announce the meeting. Wrangell-St. Elias Park SRC Proposed...

  15. The Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Program, Climate Services, and Meeting the National Climate Change Adaptation Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overpeck, J. T.; Udall, B.; Miles, E.; Dow, K.; Anderson, C.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.; Hartmann, H.; Jones, J.; Mote, P.; Ray, A.; Shafer, M.; White, D.

    2008-12-01

    The NOAA-led RISA Program has grown steadily to nine regions and a focus that includes both natural climate variability and human-driven climate change. The RISAs are, at their core, university-based and heavily invested in partnerships, particularly with stakeholders, NOAA, and other federal agencies. RISA research, assessment and partnerships have led to new operational climate services within NOAA and other agencies, and have become important foundations in the development of local, state and regional climate change adaptation initiatives. The RISA experience indicates that a national climate service is needed, and must include: (1) services prioritized based on stakeholder needs; (2) sustained, ongoing regional interactions with users, (3) a commitment to improve climate literacy; (4) support for assessment as an ongoing, iterative process; (5) full recognition that stakeholder decisions are seldom made using climate information alone; (6) strong interagency partnership; (7) national implementation and regional in focus; (8) capability spanning local, state, tribal, regional, national and international space scales, and weeks to millennia time scales; and (9) institutional design and scientific support flexible enough to assure the effort is nimble enough to respond to rapidly-changing stakeholder needs. The RISA experience also highlights the central role that universities must play in national climate change adaptation programs. Universities have a tradition of trusted regional stakeholder partnerships, as well as the interdisciplinary expertise - including social science, ecosystem science, law, and economics - required to meet stakeholder climate-related needs; project workforce can also shift rapidly in universities. Universities have a proven ability to build and sustain interagency partnerships. Universities excel in most forms of education and training. And universities often have proven entrepreneurship, technology transfer and private sector

  16. [Outline of the ESCAP Regional Post-World Population Conference Consultation Meeting].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, T

    1975-01-01

    The ESCAP Regional Post-World Population Conference Consultation was held from January 14th to 20th, 1975, in Bangkok. The Japanese government presented a 5 point statement: 1) recent trends of population in Japan; 2) population policies in the context of social and economic development; 3) outline of government policies and activities; 4) overall coordination machinery; and 5) international cooperation. The agenda were: opening addresses; election of officers; adoption of agenda; review of the world population plan of action; the declaration of a population strategy for development; other guidelines for action in the light of the requirements and conditions of countries of the ESCAP region; proposals for programmes and measures comprising a population strategy for development; implementation of the proposals (including means of incorporation in development planning); international cooperation and coordination; adoption of report; and closing ceremonies. 4 important recommendations were: 1) population increasing rate; 2) legal induced abortion; 3) time limitation for the promotion of family planning; and 4) practical impetus for contraception. Some countries declared the final goal of their population policies: pure reproduction rate 1 (1980) in Singapore, a zero population increasing rate (2)))) in India, and 1.3% (1981) population increasing rate in Korea.

  17. [UNESCO] Regional Consultation Meeting on the Asia and Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) (12th, Chaing Mai, Thailand, August 20-27, 1990). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This document is the final report of a Regional Consultation Meeting (RCM) on the Asia Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID), a mechanism developed by UNESCO to bring about regional cooperation in education in Asia and the Pacific. This RCM was attended by 55 participants, resource persons, and observers from…

  18. Regional Latin American Meeting on Astronomy, 5th, Merida, Mexico, Oct. 6-10, 1986, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Peimbert, Silvia; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene

    1987-05-01

    The present conference discusses topics in stellar astronomy, the interstellar medium, the solar system, and astronomical instrumentation. Attention is given to the spectroscopic binary frequency among CNO stars, the eclipsing binary star LZ Her, the photometry of the Delta Scuti star Delta Serpentis, photometric variations in B Iota Herculis, the spectroscopy of the southern Cepheid Beta Dor, the search for new cataclysmic variables, an analysis of the distortion field of the astrographic catalog, the evolution of H II regions, and the pigs, deers, and foxes of the Orion radio zoo. Also treated are JHK photometry of compact planetary nebulae, radiation hydrodynamics in astrophysics, the small scale interstellar dust distribution, aspects of the phase-portrait of resonant problems, periodic planetary events, strip photometry of Comet Halley, a numerical analysis of the azimuthal transport of solar particles, and the status of astronomical instrumentation in Mexico.

  19. Osteoporotic fractures, DXA, and fracture risk assessment: meeting future challenges in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Baddoura, R; Hoteit, M; El-Hajj Fuleihan, G

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to report on the burden of osteoporotic fractures in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) and the use of bone mineral density (BMD) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) databases for osteoporosis diagnosis. PubMed electronic database was reviewed using the following MeSH terms: "Hip fractures," "Fractures, Compression," "Radius Fractures," "Osteoporosis," "Bone density," and "Middle East" up to July 2009. Incidence of hip fractures varied across the EMR between 100 and 295 per 100,000 person-years in women and 71 and 200 per 100,000 person-years in men. No data were found on other nonvertebral osteoporotic fractures. Prevalence of radiographic vertebral fractures older than 65 yr ranged between 15% and 25% in women and 7.3% and 18% in men. By 2020, the number of hip fractures older than 50 yr would increase by 20%. DXA manufacturer's reference curves for the spine were higher than population-specific ones. At the hip, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and population-based curves were comparable. Estimates of the relative risk of vertebral fracture per SD decrease in BMD using NHANES and local data set were similar, that is, 1.61 (1.17-2.23) and 1.49 (1.14-1.95), respectively. The EMR is similar to southern Europe regarding incidence rates of hip fracture, suggesting the health burden to be significant. Using DXA at the hip, population-specific reference databases did not perform better than NHANES on which the FRAX model has been developed highlighting the need for reviewing fracture risk assessment strategies in the EMR. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Does WEPP meet the specificity of soil erosion in steep mountain regions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konz, N.; Bänninger, D.; Nearing, M.; Alewell, C.

    2009-03-01

    We chose the WEPP model (Water Erosion Prediction Project) to describe soil erosion in the Urseren Valley (central Switzerland) as it seems to be one of the most promising models for steep mountain environments. Crucial model parameters were determined in the field (slope, plant species, fractional vegetation cover, initial saturation level), by laboratory analyses (grain size, organic matter) or by the WEPP manual (rill- and interrill erodibility, effective hydraulic conductivity, cation exchange capacity). The quantification of soil erosion was performed on hill slope scale for three different land use types: meadows, pastures with dwarf shrubs and pastures without dwarf shrubs. Erosion rates for the vegetation period were measured with sediment traps between June 2006 and November 2007. Long-term soil erosion rates were estimated by measuring Cs-137 redistribution, deposited after the Chernobyl accident. In addition to the erosion rates, soil moisture and surface flow was additionally measured during the vegetation period in the field and compared to model output. Short-term erosion rates are simulated well whereas long term erosion rates were underestimated by the model. Simulated soil moisture has a parallel development compared to measured data from April onwards but a converse dynamic in early spring (simulated increase and measured decrease in March and April). The discrepancy in soil water during springtime was explained by delayed simulated snow cover melting. The underestimation of simulated long term erosion rates is attributed to alpine processes other than overland flow and splash. Snow gliding processes might dominate erosion processes during winter time. We assume that these differences lead to the general simulated underestimation of erosion rates. Thus, forcing erosion processes which dominate erosion rates in mountainous regions have to be implemented to WEPP for a successful application in the future.

  1. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  2. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  3. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  4. Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dantoin, T.S.

    1990-12-01

    For more than half a century, the Council of State Governments has served as a common ground for the states of the nation. The Council is a nonprofit, state-supported and -directed service organization that provides research and resources, identifies trends, supplies answers and creates a network for legislative, executive and judicial branch representatives. This List of Available Resources was prepared with the support of the US Department of Energy, Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC02-89CH10402. However, any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of DOE. The purpose of the agreement, and reports issued pursuant to it, is to identify and analyze regional issues pertaining to the transportation of high-level radioactive waste and to inform Midwestern state officials with respect to technical issues and regulatory concerns related to waste transportation.

  5. Electrophysiological correlates of high-level perception during spatial navigation

    PubMed Central

    Weidemann, Christoph T.; Mollison, Matthew V.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the electrophysiological basis o object recognition by recording scalp EEG while participants played a virtual reality taxi driver game. Participants searched for passengers and stores during virtual navigation in simulated towns. We compared oscillatory brain activity for store views that were targets or non-targets (during store search) or neutral (during passenger search). Even though store category was solely defined by task context (rather than sensory cues), frontal electrophysiological activity in low frequency bands (primarily in the theta [4–8 Hz] band) reliably distinguished between target, non-target, and neutral store views. These results implicate low frequency oscillatory brain activity in frontal regions as an important variable in the study of cognitive processes involved in object recognition, categorization, and other forms of high-level perception. PMID:19293100

  6. Upgrading a Social Media Strategy to Increase Twitter Engagement During the Spring Annual Meeting of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Eric S; Jaremko, Kellie M; Gupta, Rajnish K; Udani, Ankeet D; McCartney, Colin J L; Snively, Anne; Mariano, Edward R

    Microblogs known as "tweets" are a rapid, effective method of information dissemination in health care. Although several medical specialties have described their Twitter conference experiences, Twitter-related data in the fields of anesthesiology and pain medicine are sparse. We therefore analyzed the Twitter content of 2 consecutive spring meetings of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine using publicly available online transcripts. We also examined the potential contribution of a targeted social media campaign on Twitter engagement during the conferences. The original Twitter meeting content was largely scientific in nature and created by meeting attendees, the majority of whom were nontrainee physicians. Physician trainees, however, represent an important and increasing minority of Twitter contributors. Physicians not in attendance predominantly contributed via retweeting original content, particularly picture-containing tweets, and thus increased reach to nonattendees. A social media campaign prior to meetings may help increase the reach of conference-related Twitter discussion.

  7. Spent nuclear fuel project high-level information management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Main, G.C.

    1996-09-13

    This document presents the results of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Information Management Planning Project (IMPP), a short-term project that identified information management (IM) issues and opportunities within the SNFP and outlined a high-level plan to address them. This high-level plan for the SNMFP IM focuses on specific examples from within the SNFP. The plan`s recommendations can be characterized in several ways. Some recommendations address specific challenges that the SNFP faces. Others form the basis for making smooth transitions in several important IM areas. Still others identify areas where further study and planning are indicated. The team`s knowledge of developments in the IM industry and at the Hanford Site were crucial in deciding where to recommend that the SNFP act and where they should wait for Site plans to be made. Because of the fast pace of the SNFP and demands on SNFP staff, input and interaction were primarily between the IMPP team and members of the SNFP Information Management Steering Committee (IMSC). Key input to the IMPP came from a workshop where IMSC members and their delegates developed a set of draft IM principles. These principles, described in Section 2, became the foundation for the recommendations found in the transition plan outlined in Section 5. Availability of SNFP staff was limited, so project documents were used as a basis for much of the work. The team, realizing that the status of the project and the environment are continually changing, tried to keep abreast of major developments since those documents were generated. To the extent possible, the information contained in this document is current as of the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. Programs and organizations on the Hanford Site as a whole are trying to maximize their return on IM investments. They are coordinating IM activities and trying to leverage existing capabilities. However, the SNFP cannot just rely on Sitewide activities to meet its IM requirements

  8. Abstracts of the 11th Annual U.S. Geological Survey, Central Region, 1999 Poster Review; Collected Abstracts of Selected Poster Papers Presented at Scientific Meetings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modreski, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey Central Region had a poster review where USGS scientists showcased posters that had been presented at scientific meetings. This report contains abstracts for selected posters that were presented at this review. Science topics were from several USGS teams with a broad range of topics.

  9. New Approaches to Education of Children of Pre-School Age. Report of a Regional Meeting of Experts (Bangkok, Thailand, September 4-12, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This report of the regional meeting of experts in Asia and Oceania provides review of presentations from different countries, a review of research and pedagogical considerations, and recommendations concerning new approaches for early childhood education. Particular reference is made to disadvantaged rural and urban populations. Also included are…

  10. Pacific Circle Consortium: A Regional Project of OECD/CERI. Report of Annual Meeting (5th, Portland, Oregon, September 28-October 3, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    Efforts, including exchange activities and curriculum development projects, undertaken by Pacific region countries in 1981 to improve intercultural understanding were the main focus of the meeting. The report begins with a very brief description of what transpired during the sessions. Papers and reports presented are contained in the appendices,…

  11. Pacific Circle Consortium: A Regional Project of OECD/CERI. Report of Annual Meeting (5th, Portland, Oregon, September 28-October 3, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    Efforts, including exchange activities and curriculum development projects, undertaken by Pacific region countries in 1981 to improve intercultural understanding were the main focus of the meeting. The report begins with a very brief description of what transpired during the sessions. Papers and reports presented are contained in the appendices,…

  12. The Role of Industrial Relations Centers, Proceedings of a Regional Meeting of the International Industrial Relations Association (Chicago, May 17-18, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Industrial Relations Research Inst.

    This meeting was held to exchange views on organization, operation, and goals of industrial relations centers, institutes, and schools. The opening speaker outlined the structure and functions of the international organization and of the regional conferences. The first paper, "Administrative Arrangements in Industrial Relations Centers," was based…

  13. Regional Consultation Meeting on the Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (9th, Bangkok, Thailand, March 20-26, 1984). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The report of the Ninth Regional Consultation Meeting on the Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) reviews activities and progress for 1982-83 in eight program areas: (1) universalization of education (access to education at first level by both formal and nonformal means), (2) promotion of scientific and technological…

  14. Sixth Regional Consultation Meeting on the Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development. (Bangalore, India, April 22-30, 1979). Review and Developments, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This report contains a review of the Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID), a cooperative program of 18 member states in Asia and Oceania. The review was conducted by the Sixth Regional Consultation Meeting, held at Bangalore, India, from April 22 to 30, 1979. The report is comprised of four parts. Part I contains a…

  15. Report of the First Meeting of the Governing Board, SEAMEO Regional Centre for Education in Science and Mathematics (Penang, Malaysia, October 8-12, 1970). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (Singapore). Regional Center for Education in Science and Mathematics.

    This report details the proceedings of the first meeting of the Governing Board of the SEAMEO Regional Centre for Education in Science and Mathematics held in Penang, Malaysia from October 8-12, 1970. Procedural matters detailed in the report include: (1) the election of officers; (2) the acceptance of the annual report of the events and…

  16. Meeting children's needs: a mixed-methods approach to a regionalized pediatric surge plan-the Los Angeles County experience.

    PubMed

    Berg, Bridget M; Muller, Valerie M; Wilson, Millicent; Amara, Roel; Fruhwirth, Kay; Stevenson, Kathleen; Burke, Rita V; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Children are one of the most vulnerable populations during mass casualty incidents because of their unique physiological, developmental, and psychological attributes. The objective of this project was to enhance Los Angeles County's (LAC) pediatric surge capabilities. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) determine gaps in pediatric surge capacity and capabilities; (2) double pediatric inpatient capacity; and (3) document a plan to address gaps and meet pediatric inpatient surge. We hypothesized that LAC would be able to meet the identified pediatric surge target by leveraging resources of hospitals within the region. Deliverables included a pediatric surge plan for LAC, pediatric surge training resources, and pediatric supplies for hospitals participating in LAC's Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP). After Institutional Review Board approval, the authors used a mixed-methods approach to explore gaps in hospital capacity and capabilities in a large urban county. Hospitals were surveyed via Qualtrics® on 38 questions regarding capacity, staffing, availability of pediatric supplies, and existing pediatric surge plans. Publicly available inpatient bed data were collected from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development for the year ending June 2010 and supplemented by hospital survey responses. Population data was used from US Census 2010. This combined dataset was analyzed for capacity, pediatric designations, and capabilities. To supplement this data, three focus groups were conducted between April 2011 and May 2012. Focus group topics included: supplies and training needed for pediatric surge, surge targets, and plan development and functionality. Hospitals varied in pediatric capacity and capability. Forty-six percent of facilities provide inpatient pediatric services. Forty-one hospitals are designated as an Emergency Department Approved for Pediatrics. Identified gaps included: limited pediatric bed capacity, geographic variability, limited

  17. 76 FR 64971 - Notice of Public Meeting for the National Park Service (NPS) Alaska Region's Subsistence Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Consultation Requirements. 6. Climate Change Research. b. Subsistence Manager Updates. c. Resource Management... the meeting date and location are changed, a notice will be published in local newspapers and... changed based on inclement weather or exceptional circumstances. Kobuk Valley National Park SRC Meeting...

  18. DELPHI expert panel evaluation of Hanford high level waste tank failure modes and release quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, G.L.; Han, F.C.

    1996-09-30

    The Failure Modes and Release Quantities of the Hanford High Level Waste Tanks due to postulated accident loads were established by a DELPHI Expert Panel consisting of both on-site and off-site experts in the field of Structure and Release. The Report presents the evaluation process, accident loads, tank structural failure conclusion reached by the panel during the two-day meeting.

  19. Demonstrating Reliable High Level Waste Slurry Sampling Techniques to Support Hanford Waste Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Steven E.

    2013-11-11

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HL W) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOC must demonstrate the ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP Waste Acceptance Criteria and Data Quality Objectives. The sampling method employed must support both TOC and WTP requirements. To facilitate information transfer between the two facilities the mixing and sampling demonstrations are led by the One System Integrated Project Team. The One System team, Waste Feed Delivery Mixing and Sampling Program, has developed a full scale sampling loop to demonstrate sampler capability. This paper discusses the full scale sampling loops ability to meet precision and accuracy requirements, including lessons learned during testing. Results of the testing showed that the Isolok(R) sampler chosen for implementation provides precise, repeatable results. The Isolok(R) sampler accuracy as tested did not meet test success criteria. Review of test data and the test platform following testing by a sampling expert identified several issues regarding the sampler used to provide reference material used to judge the Isolok's accuracy. Recommendations were made to obtain new data to evaluate the sampler's accuracy utilizing a reference sampler that follows good sampling protocol.

  20. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the...

  1. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the...

  2. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  3. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  4. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  5. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  6. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from the operation of the first cycle solvent extraction system, or equivalent, and the concentrated waste...

  7. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a...

  8. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a...

  9. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a...

  10. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a...

  11. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a...

  12. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a...

  13. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  14. High-Level Clouds and Relation to Sea Surface Temperature as Inferred from Japan's GMS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Lindzen, Richard S.; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    High-level clouds have a significant impact on the radiation energy budgets and, hence, the climate of the Earth. Convective cloud systems, which are controlled by large-scale thermal and dynamical conditions, propagate rapidly within days. At this time scale, changes of sea surface temperature (SST) are small. Radiances measured by Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) are used to study the relation between high-level clouds and SST in the tropical western and central Pacific (30 S-30 N; 130 E-170 W), where the ocean is warm and deep convection is intensive. Twenty months (January 1998 - August, 1999) of GMS data are used, which cover the second half of the strong 1997-1998 El Nino. Brightness temperature at the 11-micron channel is used to identify high-level clouds. The core of convection is identified based on the difference in the brightness temperatures of the 11- and 12-micron channels. Because of the rapid movement of clouds, there is little correlation between clouds six hours apart. When most of deep convection moves to regions of high SST, the domain averaged high-level cloud amount decreases. A +2C change of SST in cloudy regions results in a relative change of -30% in high-level cloud amount. This large change in cloud amount is due to clouds moving from cool regions to warm regions but not the change in SST itself. A reduction in high-level cloud amount in the equatorial region implies an expanded dry upper troposphere in the off-equatorial region, and the greenhouse warming of high clouds and water vapor is reduced through enhanced longwave cooling to space. The results are important for understanding the physical processes relating SST, convection, and water vapor in the tropics. They are also important for validating climate simulations using global general circulation models.

  15. UNESCO-UNEVOC Regional Forum Latin America and the Caribbean: Advancing TVET for Youth Employability and Sustainable Development (San José, Costa Rica, August 27-28, 2013). Meeting Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To strengthen global and regional harmonization for the advancement of TVET transformation through the capacities of UNEVOC's unique global Network of specialized TVET institutions and affiliated partners, the UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre organized a series of meetings to be held in all regions of the world. The meetings are organized…

  16. PLUTONIUM/HIGH-LEVEL VITRIFIED WASTE BDBE DOSE CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    D.C. Richardson

    2003-03-19

    In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, Yucca Mountain was designated as the site to be investigated as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain site is an undeveloped area located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The site currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way. If the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for the repository, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Waste Management (OCRWM) Program because of the potential of rail transportation to reduce costs and to reduce the number of shipments relative to highway transportation. A Preliminary Rail Access Study evaluated 13 potential rail spur options. Alternative routes within the major options were also developed. Each of these options was then evaluated for potential land use conflicts and access to regional rail carriers. Three potential routes having few land use conflicts and having access to regional carriers were recommended for further investigation. Figure 1-1 shows these three routes. The Jean route is estimated to be about 120 miles long, the Carlin route to be about 365 miles long, and Caliente route to be about 365 miles long. The remaining ten routes continue to be monitored and should any of the present conflicts change, a re-evaluation of that route will be made. Complete details of the evaluation of the 13 routes can be found in the previous study. The DOE has not identified any preferred route and recognizes that the transportation issues need a full and open treatment under the National Environmental Policy Act. The issue of transportation will be included in public hearings to support development of the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) proceedings for either the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility or the Yucca Mountain Project or both.

  17. Temporal Processing Capacity in High-Level Visual Cortex Is Domain Specific

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Kevin S.; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-01-01

    Prevailing hierarchical models propose that temporal processing capacity—the amount of information that a brain region processes in a unit time—decreases at higher stages in the ventral stream regardless of domain. However, it is unknown if temporal processing capacities are domain general or domain specific in human high-level visual cortex. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we measured temporal capacities of functional regions in high-level visual cortex. Contrary to hierarchical models, our data reveal domain-specific processing capacities as follows: (1) regions processing information from different domains have differential temporal capacities within each stage of the visual hierarchy and (2) domain-specific regions display the same temporal capacity regardless of their position in the processing hierarchy. In general, character-selective regions have the lowest capacity, face- and place-selective regions have an intermediate capacity, and body-selective regions have the highest capacity. Notably, domain-specific temporal processing capacities are not apparent in V1 and have perceptual implications. Behavioral testing revealed that the encoding capacity of body images is higher than that of characters, faces, and places, and there is a correspondence between peak encoding rates and cortical capacities for characters and bodies. The present evidence supports a model in which the natural statistics of temporal information in the visual world may affect domain-specific temporal processing and encoding capacities. These findings suggest that the functional organization of high-level visual cortex may be constrained by temporal characteristics of stimuli in the natural world, and this temporal capacity is a characteristic of domain-specific networks in high-level visual cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual stimuli bombard us at different rates every day. For example, words and scenes are typically stationary and vary at slow rates. In contrast, bodies are dynamic

  18. Temporal Processing Capacity in High-Level Visual Cortex Is Domain Specific.

    PubMed

    Stigliani, Anthony; Weiner, Kevin S; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-09-09

    Prevailing hierarchical models propose that temporal processing capacity--the amount of information that a brain region processes in a unit time--decreases at higher stages in the ventral stream regardless of domain. However, it is unknown if temporal processing capacities are domain general or domain specific in human high-level visual cortex. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we measured temporal capacities of functional regions in high-level visual cortex. Contrary to hierarchical models, our data reveal domain-specific processing capacities as follows: (1) regions processing information from different domains have differential temporal capacities within each stage of the visual hierarchy and (2) domain-specific regions display the same temporal capacity regardless of their position in the processing hierarchy. In general, character-selective regions have the lowest capacity, face- and place-selective regions have an intermediate capacity, and body-selective regions have the highest capacity. Notably, domain-specific temporal processing capacities are not apparent in V1 and have perceptual implications. Behavioral testing revealed that the encoding capacity of body images is higher than that of characters, faces, and places, and there is a correspondence between peak encoding rates and cortical capacities for characters and bodies. The present evidence supports a model in which the natural statistics of temporal information in the visual world may affect domain-specific temporal processing and encoding capacities. These findings suggest that the functional organization of high-level visual cortex may be constrained by temporal characteristics of stimuli in the natural world, and this temporal capacity is a characteristic of domain-specific networks in high-level visual cortex. Significance statement: Visual stimuli bombard us at different rates every day. For example, words and scenes are typically stationary and vary at slow rates. In contrast, bodies are dynamic

  19. Optimization of waste loading in high-level glass in the presence of uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Hoza, M.; Fann, G.I.; Hopkins, D.F.

    1995-02-01

    Hanford high-level liquid waste will be converted into a glass form for long-term storage. The glass must meet certain constraints on its composition and properties in order to have desired properties for processing (e.g., electrical conductivity, viscosity, and liquidus temperature) and acceptable durability for long-term storage. The Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models, based on rigorous mathematical optimization techniques, have been developed to minimize the number of glass logs required and determine glass-former compositions that will produce a glass meeting all relevant constraints. There is considerable uncertainty in many of the models and data relevant to the formulation of high-level glass. In this paper, we discuss how we handle uncertainty in the glass property models and in the high-level waste composition to the vitrification process. Glass property constraints used in optimization are inequalities that relate glass property models obtained by regression analysis of experimental data to numerical limits on property values. Therefore, these constraints are subject to uncertainty. The sampling distributions of the regression models are used to describe the uncertainties associated with the constraints. The optimization then accounts for these uncertainties by requiring the constraints to be satisfied within specified confidence limits. The uncertainty in waste composition is handled using stochastic optimization. Given means and standard deviations of component masses in the high-level waste stream, distributions of possible values for each component are generated. A series of optimization runs is performed; the distribution of each waste component is sampled for each run. The resultant distribution of solutions is then statistically summarized. The ability of OWL models to handle these forms of uncertainty make them very useful tools in designing and evaluating high-level waste glasses formulations.

  20. Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

  1. Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slate, S. C.; Ross, W. A.; Partain, W. L.

    1981-09-01

    Technical data and performance characteristics of a high level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository are presented. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high level waste product that is produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

  2. Holism and High Level Wellness in the Treatment of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartha, Robert; Davis, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how a holistic and wellness philosophy is a viable alternative in the treatment of alcoholism. Describes five major dimensions of high-level wellness: nutritional awareness, physical fitness, stress management, environmental sensitivity, and self-responsibility. (RC)

  3. Neptunium estimation in dissolver and high-level-waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, P.N.; Prabhu, D.R.; Kanekar, A.S.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    This papers deals with the optimization of the experimental conditions for the estimation of {sup 237}Np in spent-fuel dissolver/high-level waste solutions using thenoyltrifluoroacetone as the extractant. (authors)

  4. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume III, Part 1, High-level Manpower for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Guy

    This document, the first part of the third volume of a study concerned with the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia, appraises the high-level manpower needs of the region. The report is divided into two sections: the first includes the major comments on the position of high-level manpower in…

  5. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    SciTech Connect

    d'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  6. Key Ethical Issues Discussed at CDC-Sponsored International, Regional Meetings to Explore Cultural Perspectives and Contexts on Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response.

    PubMed

    Lor, Aun; Thomas, James C; Barrett, Drue H; Ortmann, Leonard W; Herrera Guibert, Dionisio J

    2016-05-17

    Recognizing the importance of having a broad exploration of how cultural perspectives may shape thinking about ethical considerations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded four regional meetings in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Eastern Mediterranean to explore these perspectives relevant to pandemic influenza preparedness and response. The meetings were attended by 168 health professionals, scientists, academics, ethicists, religious leaders, and other community members representing 40 countries in these regions. We reviewed the meeting reports, notes and stories and mapped outcomes to the key ethical challenges for pandemic influenza response described in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) guidance, Ethical Considerations in Developing a Public Health Response to Pandemic Influenza: transparency and public engagement, allocation of resources, social distancing, obligations to and of healthcare workers, and international collaboration. The important role of transparency and public engagement were widely accepted among participants. However, there was general agreement that no "one size fits all" approach to allocating resources can address the variety of economic, cultural and other contextual factors that must be taken into account. The importance of social distancing as a tool to limit disease transmission was also recognized, but the difficulties associated with this measure were acknowledged. There was agreement that healthcare workers often have competing obligations and that government has a responsibility to assist healthcare workers in doing their job by providing appropriate training and equipment. Finally, there was agreement about the importance of international collaboration for combating global health threats. Although some cultural differences in the values that frame pandemic preparedness and response efforts were observed, participants generally agreed on the key ethical principles discussed in the WHO's guidance

  7. Key Ethical Issues Discussed at CDC-Sponsored International, Regional Meetings to Explore Cultural Perspectives and Contexts on Pandemic Influenza Preparedness and Response

    PubMed Central

    Lor, Aun; Thomas, James C.; Barrett, Drue H.; Ortmann, Leonard W.; Herrera Guibert, Dionisio J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recognizing the importance of having a broad exploration of how cultural perspectives may shape thinking about ethical considerations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded four regional meetings in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Eastern Mediterranean to explore these perspectives relevant to pandemic influenza preparedness and response. The meetings were attended by 168 health professionals, scientists, academics, ethicists, religious leaders, and other community members representing 40 countries in these regions. Methods: We reviewed the meeting reports, notes and stories and mapped outcomes to the key ethical challenges for pandemic influenza response described in the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) guidance, Ethical Considerations in Developing a Public Health Response to Pandemic Influenza: transparency and public engagement, allocation of resources, social distancing, obligations to and of healthcare workers, and international collaboration. Results: The important role of transparency and public engagement were widely accepted among participants. However, there was general agreement that no "one size fits all" approach to allocating resources can address the variety of economic, cultural and other contextual factors that must be taken into account. The importance of social distancing as a tool to limit disease transmission was also recognized, but the difficulties associated with this measure were acknowledged. There was agreement that healthcare workers often have competing obligations and that government has a responsibility to assist healthcare workers in doing their job by providing appropriate training and equipment. Finally, there was agreement about the importance of international collaboration for combating global health threats. Conclusion: Although some cultural differences in the values that frame pandemic preparedness and response efforts were observed, participants generally agreed on the key

  8. Stability of High-Level Radioactive Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.

    2001-06-22

    High-level waste (HLW) glass compositions, processing schemes, limits on waste content, and corrosion/dissolution release models are dependent on an accurate knowledge of melting temperatures and thermochemical values. Unfortunately, existing models for predicting these temperatures are empirically-based, depending on extrapolations of experimental information. In addition, present models of leaching behavior of glass waste forms use simplistic assumptions or experimentally measured values obtained under non-realistic conditions. There is thus a critical need for both more accurate and more widely applicable models for HLW glass behavior, which this project addressed. Significant progress was made in this project on modeling HLW glass. Borosilicate glass was accurately represented along with the additional important components that contain iron, lithium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The formation of crystalline inclusions in the glass, an issue in Hanford HLW formulations, was modeled and shown to be predictive. Thus the results of this work have already demonstrated practical benefits with the ability to map compositional regions where crystalline material forms, and therefore avoid that detrimental effect. With regard to a fundamental understanding, added insights on the behavior of the components of glass have been obtained, including the potential formation of molecular clusters. The EMSP project had very significant effects beyond the confines of Environmental Management. The models developed for glass have been used to solve a very costly problem in the corrosion of refractories for glass production. The effort resulted in another laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories-Livermore, to become conversant in the techniques and to apply those through a DOE Office of Industrial Technologies project joint with PPG Industries. The glass industry as a whole is now cognizant of these capabilities, and there is a Glass Manufacturer's Research Institute proposal

  9. High Levels of Molecular Chlorine found in the Arctic Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, J.; Huey, L. G.; Liu, Z.; Tanner, D.; Cantrell, C. A.; Orlando, J. J.; Flocke, F. M.; Shepson, P. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Hall, S. R.; Beine, H.; Wang, Y.; Ingall, E. D.; Thompson, C. R.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Fried, A.; Mauldin, L.; Smith, J. N.; Staebler, R. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Chlorine radicals are a strong atmospheric oxidant, particularly in polar regions where levels of hydroxyl radicals can be quite low. In the atmosphere, chlorine radicals expedite the degradation of methane and tropospheric ozone and the oxidation of mercury to more toxic forms. Here, we present direct measurements of molecular chlorine levels in the Arctic marine boundary layer in Barrow, Alaska, collected in the spring of 2009 over a six-week period using chemical ionization mass spectrometry. We detected high levels of molecular chlorine of up to 400 pptv. Concentrations peaked in the early morning and late afternoon and fell to near-zero levels at night. Average daytime molecular chlorine levels were correlated with ozone concentrations, suggesting that sunlight and ozone are required for molecular chlorine formation. Using a time-dependent box model, we estimated that the chlorine radicals produced from the photolysis of molecular chlorine on average oxidized more methane than hydroxyl radicals and enhanced the abundance of short-lived peroxy radicals. Elevated hydroperoxyl radical levels, in turn, promoted the formation of hypobromous acid, which catalyzed mercury oxidation and the breakdown of tropospheric ozone. Therefore, we propose that molecular chlorine exerts a significant effect on the atmospheric chemistry in the Arctic. While the formation mechanisms of molecular chlorine are not yet understood, the main potential sources of chlorine include snowpack, sea salt, and sea ice. There is recent evidence of molecular halogen (Br2 and Cl2) formation in the Arctic snowpack. The coverage and composition of the snow may control halogen chemistry in the Arctic. Changes of sea ice and snow cover in the changing climate may affect air-snow-ice interaction and have a significant impact on the levels of radicals, ozone, mercury and methane in the Arctic troposphere.

  10. Youth Transitions and Network Consolidation. Regional Workshop, 20-22 May 2014 in Gaborone, Botswana. Meeting Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This workshop was designed based on the following objectives: (1) to place youth employment and related issues on the regional political agenda; to highlight regional success stories; (2) to further strengthen the UNEVOC Network consolidation process in the region; (3) to provide a platform for learning and sharing experiences; and (4) to offer an…

  11. 75 FR 63469 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Regional State Committee Meeting and Southwest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... 25, 2010 (8:30 a.m.-2 p.m.) Kansas City Marriott Downtown, 200 West 12th Street, Kansas City, MO... Marriott Downtown, 200 West 12th Street, Kansas City, MO 64105, 816-421-6800. SPP Board of Directors and Annual Meeting of Members October 26, 2010 (8 a.m.-3 p.m.). Kansas City Marriott Downtown, 200 West...

  12. High level resistance to aminoglycosides in enterococci from Riyadh.

    PubMed

    Al-Ballaa, S R; Qadri, S M; Al-Ballaa, S R; Kambal, A M; Saldin, H; Al-Qatary, K

    1994-07-01

    Enterococci with high level of aminoglycosides resistance are being reported from different parts of the world with increasing frequency. Treatment of infections caused by such isolates is associated with a high incidence of failure or relapse. This is attributed to the loss of the synergetic effect of aminoglycosides and cell wall active agents against isolates exhibiting this type of resistance. To determine the prevalence of enterococci with high level resistance to aminoglycosides in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 241 distinct clinical isolates were examined by disk diffusion method using high content aminoglycosides disks. Seventy-four isolates (30%) were resistant to one or more of the aminoglycosides tested. The most common pattern of resistance was that to streptomycin and kanamycin. Of the 241 isolates tested, 29 (12%) were resistant to high levels of gentamicin, 35 (15%) to tobramycin, 65 (27%) to kanamycin and 53 (22%) to streptomycin. The highest rate of resistance to a high level of gentamicin was found among enterococcal blood isolates (30%). Eighteen of the isolates were identified as Enterococcus faecium, 13 (72%) of these showed high level resistance to two or more of the aminoglycosides tested.

  13. Advanced High-Level Waste Glass Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Fox, Kevin M.

    2015-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection (ORP) has implemented an integrated program to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. The integrated ORP program is focused on providing a technical, science-based foundation from which key decisions can be made regarding the successful operation of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) facilities. The fundamental data stemming from this program will support development of advanced glass formulations, key process control models, and tactical processing strategies to ensure safe and successful operations for both the low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) vitrification facilities with an appreciation toward reducing overall mission life. The purpose of this advanced HLW glass research and development plan is to identify the near-, mid-, and longer-term research and development activities required to develop and validate advanced HLW glasses and their associated models to support facility operations at WTP, including both direct feed and full pretreatment flowsheets. This plan also integrates technical support of facility operations and waste qualification activities to show the interdependence of these activities with the advanced waste glass (AWG) program to support the full WTP mission. Figure ES-1 shows these key ORP programmatic activities and their interfaces with both WTP facility operations and qualification needs. The plan is a living document that will be updated to reflect key advancements and mission strategy changes. The research outlined here is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (e.g., significant increases in waste throughput and reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized when advancements in glass formulation continue and models supporting facility operations are implemented. Developing and applying advanced

  14. Cementitious Grout for Closing SRS High Level Waste Tanks - 12315

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.; Stefanko, D.B.; Burns, H.H.; Waymer, J.; Mhyre, W.B.; Herbert, J.E.; Jolly, J.C. Jr.

    2012-07-01

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. Ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks will also be filled to the extent practical. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and to be chemically reducing with a reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400. Grouts with this chemistry stabilize potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted to support the mass placement strategy developed by

  15. High-level aminoglycoside resistant enterococci isolated from swine.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, C. R.; Fedorka-Cray, P. J.; Barrett, J. B.; Ladely, S. R.

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 42% (187/444) of swine enterococci collected between the years 1999 and 2000 exhibited high-level resistance to gentamicin (MIC > or =500 microg/ml), kanamycin (MIC > or =500 microg/ml), or streptomycin (MIC > or =1000 microg/ml). Eight aminoglycoside resistance genes were detected using PCR, most frequently ant(6)-Ia and aac(6')-Ii from Enterococcus faecium. Twenty-four per cent (45/187) of total high-level aminoglycoside-resistant isolates and 26% (4/15) of isolates resistant to high levels of all three antimicrobials were negative for all genes tested. These data suggest that enterococci isolated from swine contain diverse and possibly unidentified aminoglycoside resistance genes. PMID:15816164

  16. An overview of very high level software design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asdjodi, Maryam; Hooper, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Very High Level design methods emphasize automatic transfer of requirements to formal design specifications, and/or may concentrate on automatic transformation of formal design specifications that include some semantic information of the system into machine executable form. Very high level design methods range from general domain independent methods to approaches implementable for specific applications or domains. Applying AI techniques, abstract programming methods, domain heuristics, software engineering tools, library-based programming and other methods different approaches for higher level software design are being developed. Though one finds that a given approach does not always fall exactly in any specific class, this paper provides a classification for very high level design methods including examples for each class. These methods are analyzed and compared based on their basic approaches, strengths and feasibility for future expansion toward automatic development of software systems.

  17. High-level aminoglycoside resistant enterococci isolated from swine.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C R; Fedorka-Cray, P J; Barrett, J B; Ladely, S R

    2005-04-01

    Approximately 42% (187/444) of swine enterococci collected between the years 1999 and 2000 exhibited high-level resistance to gentamicin (MIC > or =500 microg/ml), kanamycin (MIC > or =500 microg/ml), or streptomycin (MIC > or =1000 microg/ml). Eight aminoglycoside resistance genes were detected using PCR, most frequently ant(6)-Ia and aac(6')-Ii from Enterococcus faecium. Twenty-four per cent (45/187) of total high-level aminoglycoside-resistant isolates and 26% (4/15) of isolates resistant to high levels of all three antimicrobials were negative for all genes tested. These data suggest that enterococci isolated from swine contain diverse and possibly unidentified aminoglycoside resistance genes.

  18. Characterization of high level ampicillin- and aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci isolated from non-hospital sources.

    PubMed

    Ngbede, Emmanuel O; Raji, Mashood A; Kwanashie, Clara N; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Adikwu, Alex A; Maurice, Nanven A; Adamu, Andrew M

    2017-07-01

    High level ampicillin- and aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci are being increasingly reported from non-hospital sources. This study was carried out to characterize these strains from non-hospital sources in Nigeria. A collection of Enterococcus faecium isolated from vegetables, soil, farm animals and manure and observed to be resistant to ampicillin (n=63) and gentamicin (n=37) discs, were screened for resistance to high levels of ampicillin and aminoglycoside using E-test strips. Putative high level ampicillin- and aminoglycoside-resistant strains were screened for pbp5 and aminoglycoside modifying enzyme genes, respectively, by PCR. The C-terminal region of the amplified pbp5 gene was also sequenced. Five (5/63) and thirty-five (35/37) of the ampicillin- and aminoglycoside-resistant strains were identified as high level ampicillin- and aminoglycoside-resistant E. faecium strains, respectively, based on the MIC results. The amplified pbp5 gene from the high level ampicillin-resistant isolates displayed 96-99 % nucleotide sequence similarity with the reference strains and three novel insertions (500Glu→Leu, 502Asp→Arg and 614Ile→Phe) in the amino acid sequence. Aminoglycoside modifying enzyme genes aac(6')-Ie-aph(2″) (100 %), aph(2')-Ic (88.8 %), aph(3')-IIIa (90 %) and ant(4')-Ia (40 %) were detected among the high level aminoglycoside-resistant isolates. This is the first report on the characterization of high level ampicillin- and aminoglycoside-resistant Enterococcus faecium among animals and vegetables in Nigeria. The results show that non-hospital sources can constitute a reservoir for potential dissemination of these strains and genes to humans via the food chain or by direct contact.

  19. High-level trigger system for the LHC ALICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramm, R.; Helstrup, H.; Lien, J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Röhrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbø, A.; Wiebalck, A.; ALICE Colloboration

    2003-04-01

    The central detectors of the ALICE experiment at LHC will produce a data size of up to 75 MB/ event at an event rate ⩽200 Hz resulting in a data rate of ˜15 GB/ s. Online processing of the data is necessary in order to select interesting (sub)events ("High Level Trigger"), or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Processing this data requires a massive parallel computing system (High Level Trigger System). The system will consist of a farm of clustered SMP-nodes based on off-the-shelf PCs connected with a high bandwidth low latency network.

  20. High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1993-10-01

    This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding.

  1. Final report on cermet high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Aaron, W.S.

    1981-08-01

    Cermets are being developed as an alternate method for the fixation of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste in a terminal disposal form. Following initial feasibility assessments of this waste form, consisting of ceramic particles dispersed in an iron-nickel base alloy, significantly improved processing methods were developed. The characterization of cermets has continued through property determinations on samples prepared by various methods from a variety of simulated and actual high-level wastes. This report describes the status of development of the cermet waste form as it has evolved since 1977. 6 tables, 18 figures.

  2. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  3. Education For All: A Committment and an Opportunity. National EFA Coordinators Meeting under the Sub-Regional EFA Forum for East and Southeast Asia Final Report (2nd, Bangkok, Thailand, December 10-12, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The working group of Sub-Regional Forum (SRF) and the Thematic Working Group (TWG) on Education for All (EFA) organized the second meeting of the SRF for East and Southeast Asia and the National EFA Coordinators in Bangkok, Thailand December 10-12, 2001. The meeting offered an opportunity for EFA coordinators to reflect on the outcomes of the EFA…

  4. Regional Economic and Workforce Strategies: A Focus on the Mature Workforce--New Opportunities for Meeting Skill Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Regions around the country are grappling with current and anticipated skills shortages and, in some cases, labor shortages. Economic prosperity depends heavily on the quality of the workforce, and yet far too few regions have recognized their best underutilized asset: the mature workforce. Because mature workers are nearing traditional retirement…

  5. Regional Accreditation Team Members: How They Perceive Their Role and How They Make Decisions. ASHE Annual Meeting 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvers, Philip J.

    The ways in which accrediting team members perceive their role and make decisions were surveyed and approaches for improving the process were analyzed. The policy and procedures statements of the regional commissions were evaluated and a mail survey of a sample of evaluators was undertaken. Evaluators from five regional associations provided…

  6. Breast cancer and primary systemic therapy. Results of the Consensus Meeting on the recommendations for pathological examination and histological report of breast cancer specimens in the Marche Region.

    PubMed

    Santinelli, A; De Nictolis, M; Mambelli, V; Ranaldi, R; Bearzi, I; Battellpi, N; Mariotti, C; Fabbietti, L; Baldassarre, S; Giuseppetti, G M; Fabris, G

    2011-10-01

    Primary systemic therapy (PST) adds some practical problems to the pathologic examination of neoplastic breast tissue obtained from patients before and after chemotherapy. Pathologists, oncologists, breast surgeons, radiotherapists and radiologists in the Marche Region held a Consensus Meeting in Ancona on May 13, 2010, in which 15 statements dealing with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were approved by all participants. The first two statements are related to the pre-PST phase and concern the technical procedures and the histological report of the core biopsy. The other statements deal with similar issues of the post-PST surgical specimen.

  7. Test methods for selection of materials of construction for high-level radioactive waste vitrification. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D F; Corbett, R A; Morrison, W S

    1986-01-01

    Candidate materials of construction were evaluated for a facility at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant to vitrify high-level radioactive waste. Limited operating experience was available under the corrosive conditions of the complex vitrification process. The objective of the testing program was to provide a high degree of assurance that equipment will meet or exceed design lifetimes. To meet this objective in reasonable time and minimum cost, a program was designed consisting of a combination of coupon immersion and electrochemical laboratory tests and pilot-scale tests. Stainless steels and nickel-based alloys were tested. Alloys that were most resistant to general and local attack contained nickel, molybdenum (>9%), and chromium (where Cr + Mo > 30%). Alloy C-276 was selected as the reference material for process equipment. Stellite 6 was selected for abrasive service in the presence of formic acid. Alloy 690 and ALLCORR were selected for specific applications.

  8. Meeting report: national workshops for the communication of air pollution and health information: summary of four workshops in different regions of Europe.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Eric Gordon; Fudge, Nina; Totlandsdal, Annike Irene; Hovelynck, Ingrid; Korbee, Herbert; Rameckers, Edith; Brunekreef, Bert; van Bree, Leendert

    2006-07-01

    AIRNET was a thematic network project (2002-2004) initiated to stimulate the interaction between researchers in air pollution and health in Europe. As part of AIRNET's communication strategy, a standardized workshop model was developed to organize national meetings on air pollution and health (AIRNET network days) . Emphasis was given to tailor the national workshop information and related activities to the specific needs of a wider range of stakeholders (e.g., policy makers, nongovernmental organizations, industry representatives) . In this report we present an overview of the results of four workshops held in western, northern, central/eastern, and southern regions of Europe in 2004. Overall, workshop experiences indicated that by actively involving participants in the planning of each meeting, AIRNET helped create an event that addressed participants' needs and interests. A wide range of communication formats used to discuss air pollution and health also helped stimulate active interaction among participants. Overall, the national workshops held by AIRNET offered a way to improve communication among the different stakeholders. Because a broad stakeholder involvement in decision making can positively affect the development of widely supported policies, such meetings should be continued for Europe and elsewhere.

  9. Meeting Report: National Workshops for the Communication of Air Pollution and Health Information: Summary of Four Workshops in Different Regions of Europe

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Eric Gordon; Fudge, Nina; Totlandsdal, Annike Irene; Hovelynck, Ingrid; Korbee, Herbert; Rameckers, Edith; Brunekreef, Bert; van Bree, Leendert

    2006-01-01

    AIRNET was a thematic network project (2002–2004) initiated to stimulate the interaction between researchers in air pollution and health in Europe. As part of AIRNET’s communication strategy, a standardized workshop model was developed to organize national meetings on air pollution and health (AIRNET network days). Emphasis was given to tailor the national workshop information and related activities to the specific needs of a wider range of stakeholders (e.g., policy makers, nongovernmental organizations, industry representatives). In this report we present an overview of the results of four workshops held in western, northern, central/eastern, and southern regions of Europe in 2004. Overall, workshop experiences indicated that by actively involving participants in the planning of each meeting, AIRNET helped create an event that addressed participants’ needs and interests. A wide range of communication formats used to discuss air pollution and health also helped stimulate active interaction among participants. Overall, the national workshops held by AIRNET offered a way to improve communication among the different stakeholders. Because a broad stakeholder involvement in decision making can positively affect the development of widely supported policies, such meetings should be continued for Europe and elsewhere. PMID:16835066

  10. High-Level Overview of Data Needs for RE Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Anthony

    2016-12-22

    This presentation provides a high level overview of analysis topics and associated data needs. Types of renewable energy analysis are grouped into two buckets: First, analysis for renewable energy potential, and second, analysis for other goals. Data requirements are similar but and they build upon one another.

  11. High-level manpower movement and Japan's foreign aid.

    PubMed

    Furuya, K

    1992-01-01

    "Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange."

  12. Typewriter Modifications for Persons Who Are High-Level Quadriplegics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reagan, James R.; And Others

    Standard, common electric typewriters are not completely suited to the needs of a high-level quadriplegic typing with a mouthstick. Experiences show that for complete control of a typewriter a mouthstick user needs the combined features of one-button correction, electric forward and reverse indexing, and easy character viewing. To modify a…

  13. Structuring Peer Interaction To Promote High-Level Cognitive Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Alison

    2002-01-01

    Examines the kind of peer learning that demands high-level cognitive processing, discussing how peer interaction influences cognitive processes (structuring peer interaction and using guided reciprocal peer questioning); how to promote cognitive processing (knowledge construction and integration and socio- cognitive conflict); metacognition; and…

  14. Typewriter Modifications for Persons Who Are High-Level Quadriplegics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reagan, James R.; And Others

    Standard, common electric typewriters are not completely suited to the needs of a high-level quadriplegic typing with a mouthstick. Experiences show that for complete control of a typewriter a mouthstick user needs the combined features of one-button correction, electric forward and reverse indexing, and easy character viewing. To modify a…

  15. THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Allen, Christopher K; Chu, Paul; Galambos, John D; Pelaia II, Tom

    2009-01-01

    XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

  16. A comparison of high-level waste form characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, R.; Notz, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    There are currently about 1055 million curies of high-level waste with a thermal output of about 2950 kilowatts (KW) at four sites in the United States: West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford Site (HANF), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These quantities are expected to increase to about 1200 million curies and 3570 kw by the end of year 2020. Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, this high-level waste must ultimately be disposed of in a geologic repository. Accordingly, canisters of high-level waste immobilized in borosilicate glass or glass-ceramic mixtures are to be produced at the four sites and stored there until a repository becomes available. Data on the estimated production schedules and on the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the canisters of immobilized high-level waste have been collected in OCRWM's Waste Characteristics Data Base, including recent updates an revisions. Comparisons of some of these data for the four sites are presented in this report. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  17. High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    D. A. Lopez

    1999-08-01

    A ''Settlement Agreement'' between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho mandates that all radioactive high-level waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center will be treated so that it is ready to be moved out of Idaho for disposal by a compliance date of 2035. This report investigates vitrification treatment of the high-level waste in a High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility based on the assumption that no more New Waste Calcining Facility campaigns will be conducted after June 2000. Under this option, the sodium-bearing waste remaining in the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm, and newly generated liquid waste produced between now and the start of 2013, will be processed using a different option, such as a Cesium Ion Exchange Facility. The cesium-saturated waste from this other option will be sent to the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities to be mixed with existing calcine. The calcine and cesium-saturated waste will be processed in the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility by the end of calendar year 2035. In addition, the High-Level Waste Vitrification Facility will process all newly-generated liquid waste produced between 2013 and the end of 2035. Vitrification of this waste is an acceptable treatment method for complying with the Settlement Agreement. This method involves vitrifying the waste and pouring it into stainless-steel canisters that will be ready for shipment out of Idaho to a disposal facility by 2035. These canisters will be stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory until they are sent to a national geologic repository. The operating period for vitrification treatment will be from the end of 2015 through 2035.

  18. Metacommunity ecology meets biogeography: effects of geographical region, spatial dynamics and environmental filtering on community structure in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Heino, Jani; Soininen, Janne; Alahuhta, Janne; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Virtanen, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Metacommunity patterns and underlying processes in aquatic organisms have typically been studied within a drainage basin. We examined variation in the composition of six freshwater organismal groups across various drainage basins in Finland. We first modelled spatial structures within each drainage basin using Moran eigenvector maps. Second, we partitioned variation in community structure among three groups of predictors using constrained ordination: (1) local environmental variables, (2) spatial variables, and (3) dummy variable drainage basin identity. Third, we examined turnover and nestedness components of multiple-site beta diversity, and tested the best fit patterns of our datasets using the "elements of metacommunity structure" analysis. Our results showed that basin identity and local environmental variables were significant predictors of community structure, whereas within-basin spatial effects were typically negligible. In half of the organismal groups (diatoms, bryophytes, zooplankton), basin identity was a slightly better predictor of community structure than local environmental variables, whereas the opposite was true for the remaining three organismal groups (insects, macrophytes, fish). Both pure basin and local environmental fractions were, however, significant after accounting for the effects of the other predictor variable sets. All organismal groups exhibited high levels of beta diversity, which was mostly attributable to the turnover component. Our results showed consistent Clementsian-type metacommunity structures, suggesting that subgroups of species responded similarly to environmental factors or drainage basin limits. We conclude that aquatic communities across large scales are mostly determined by environmental and basin effects, which leads to high beta diversity and prevalence of Clementsian community types.

  19. Illinois - High-Level Commitment Key to Air Quality Success

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-12-01

    This fact sheet highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics.

  20. Meeting in the MIDDLE:BUILDING off Regional Policies to Promote Climate Education Partnerships on and off Campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griswold, M.; Stylinski, C.; Shea, N.; Veron, D. E.; Merrill, J.

    2013-12-01

    Both the impacts of climate change and the choices available to adapt and mitigate climate change largely function at the regional scale. Understanding and addressing climate change will require a concerted campaign involving a diverse array of educations from small to large organizations. By focusing on a specific region's climate impacts, adaptation and mitigation options, and existing policies, climate education networks will likely have a higher likelihood of sustainability. Building on this concept, we have developed a climate education partnership, Maryland Delaware Climate Change Education, Assessment and Research (MADE CLEAR), to better understand effective ways to support formal-, informal- and higher-education practitioners in climate change education in this Mid-Atlantic region. We do so largely through face-to-face and web based professional development for each education practitioner group to improve their capacity to incorporate rigorous regionally-based climate science and solutions into their education strategies. We are promoting communities-of-practice within and across these groups as they share their successes and challenges and consider common messages and approaches. Our training and resources focus on impacts and solutions most relevant to our region including sea level rise, extreme events, and urban heat impacts. Our professional development approach aligns directly with existing education and natural resource, including the region's environmental literacy initiatives, the Next Generation Science Standards, and state climate adaptation and mitigation plans. We anticipate that by building off of existing policy, we will build the success of the network into the future. Our project includes design-based research of all three education groups, and thus we will identify effective climate change education strategies, in and out of schools, that are applicable in other regions.

  1. Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Fedorenko, Evelina; Behr, Michael K; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2011-09-27

    Neuroscientists have debated for centuries whether some regions of the human brain are selectively engaged in specific high-level mental functions or whether, instead, cognition is implemented in multifunctional brain regions. For the critical case of language, conflicting answers arise from the neuropsychological literature, which features striking dissociations between deficits in linguistic and nonlinguistic abilities, vs. the neuroimaging literature, which has argued for overlap between activations for linguistic and nonlinguistic processes, including arithmetic, domain general abilities like cognitive control, and music. Here, we use functional MRI to define classic language regions functionally in each subject individually and then examine the response of these regions to the nonlinguistic functions most commonly argued to engage these regions: arithmetic, working memory, cognitive control, and music. We find little or no response in language regions to these nonlinguistic functions. These data support a clear distinction between language and other cognitive processes, resolving the prior conflict between the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literatures.

  2. Nondestructive examination of DOE high-level waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, S.; Bandyopadhyay, K.; Kassir, M.; Mather, B.; Shewmon, P.; Streicher, M.; Thompson, B.; van Rooyen, D.; Weeks, J.

    1995-05-01

    A number of DOE sites have buried tanks containing high-level waste. Tanks of particular interest am double-shell inside concrete cylinders. A program has been developed for the inservice inspection of the primary tank containing high-level waste (HLW), for testing of transfer lines and for the inspection of the concrete containment where possible. Emphasis is placed on the ultrasonic examination of selected areas of the primary tank, coupled with a leak-detection system capable of detecting small leaks through the wall of the primary tank. The NDE program is modelled after ASME Section XI in many respects, particularly with respects to the sampling protocol. Selected testing of concrete is planned to determine if there has been any significant degradation. The most probable failure mechanisms are corrosion-related so that the examination program gives major emphasis to possible locations for corrosion attack.

  3. Life Extension of Aging High-Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, D.; Callahan, V.; Ostrom, M.; Bryan, W.; Berman, H.

    2002-02-26

    The Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) play a critical role in the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex, and therefore activities are underway to protect and better understand these tanks. The DST Life Extension Program is focused on both tank life extension and on evaluation of tank integrity. Tank life extension activities focus on understanding tank failure modes and have produced key chemistry and operations controls to minimize tank corrosion and extend useful tank life. Tank integrity program activities have developed and applied key technologies to evaluate the condition of the tank structure and predict useful tank life. Program results to date indicate that DST useful life can be extended well beyond the original design life and allow the existing tanks to fill a critical function within the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex. In addition the tank life may now be more reliably predicted, facilitating improved planning for the use and possible future replacement of these tanks.

  4. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Bernadzikowski, T. A.; Allender, J. S.; Butler, J. L.; Gordon, D. E.; Gould, Jr., T. H.; Stone, J. A.

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms.

  5. Long-term high-level waste technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corman, W. R.

    1981-08-01

    Work performed at sites to immobilize high-level radioactive wastes is described. Program management and support with subtasks of management and budget, environmental and safety assessments, waste preparation, storage or disposal; waste retrieval, separation and concentration are discussed. Waste fixation and characterization, process and equipment development, final handling, canister development and characterization and onsite storage or disposal are also reported. Event trees defining possible accidents were completed in a safety assessment of continued in-tank storage of high-level waste. Two low-cost waste forms (tailored concrete and bitumen) were investigated as candidate immobilization forms. Comparative impact tests and leaching tests were also conducted on glasses, ceramics, and concretes. A process design description was written for the tailored ceramic process.

  6. FPGA based compute nodes for high level triggering in PANDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, W.; Gilardi, C.; Kirschner, D.; Lang, J.; Lange, S.; Liu, M.; Perez, T.; Yang, S.; Schmitt, L.; Jin, D.; Li, L.; Liu, Z.; Lu, Y.; Wang, Q.; Wei, S.; Xu, H.; Zhao, D.; Korcyl, K.; Otwinowski, J. T.; Salabura, P.; Konorov, I.; Mann, A.

    2008-07-01

    PANDA is a new universal detector for antiproton physics at the HESR facility at FAIR/GSI. The PANDA data acquisition system has to handle interaction rates of the order of 107/s and data rates of several 100 Gb/s. FPGA based compute nodes with multi-Gb/s bandwidth capability using the ATCA architecture are designed to handle tasks such as event building, feature extraction and high level trigger processing. Data connectivity is provided via optical links as well as multiple Gb Ethernet ports. The boards will support trigger algorithms such us pattern recognition for RICH detectors, EM shower analysis, fast tracking algorithms and global event characterization. Besides VHDL, high level C-like hardware description languages will be considered to implement the firmware.

  7. Management of data quality of high level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    Over the past 10 years, the Hanford Site has been transitioning from nuclear materials production to Site cleanup operations. High-level waste characterization at the Hanford Site provides data to support present waste processing operations, tank safety programs, and future waste disposal programs. Quality elements in the high-level waste characterization program will be presented by following a sample through the data quality objective, sampling, laboratory analysis and data review process. Transition from production to cleanup has resulted in changes in quality systems and program; the changes, as well as other issues in these quality programs, will be described. Laboratory assessment through quality control and performance evaluation programs will be described, and data assessments in the laboratory and final reporting in the tank characterization reports will be discussed.

  8. Life Extension of Aging High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    BRYSON, D.

    2002-02-04

    The Double Shell Tanks (DSTs) play a critical role in the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex, and therefore activities are underway to protect and better understand these tanks. The DST Life Extension Program is focused on both tank life extension and on evaluation of tank integrity. Tank life extension activities focus on understanding tank failure modes and have produced key chemistry and operations controls to minimize tank corrosion and extend useful tank life. Tank integrity program activities have developed and applied key technologies to evaluate the condition of the tank structure and predict useful tank life. Program results to date indicate that DST useful life can be extended well beyond the original design life and allow the existing tanks to fill a critical function within the Hanford High-Level Waste Treatment Complex. In addition the tank life may now be more reliably predicted, facilitating improved planning for the use and possible future replacement of these tanks.

  9. Progress in High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lockie, K. A.; McNaught, W. B.

    2002-02-26

    The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is making preparations to close two underground high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and Department of Energy (DOE) orders. Closure of these two tanks is scheduled for 2004 as the first phase in closure of the eleven 300,000 gallon tanks currently in service at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Design, development, and deployment of a remotely operated tank cleaning system were completed in August 2001. The system incorporates many commercially available components, which have been adapted for application in cleaning high-level waste tanks. The system also uses existing waste transfer technology (steam-jets) to remove tank heel solids from the tank bottoms during the cleaning operations. By using this existing transfer system and commercially available equipment, the cost of developing custom designed cleaning equipment can be avoided. Remotely operated directional spray nozzles, automatic rotating wash balls, video monitoring equipment, decontamination spray-rings, and tank specific access interface devices have been integrated to provide a system that efficiently cleans tank walls and heel solids in an acidic, radioactive environment. This system is also compliant with operational and safety performance requirements at INTEC. Through the deployment of the tank cleaning system, the INEEL High Level Waste Program has demonstrated the capability to clean tanks to meet RCRA clean closure standards and DOE closure performance measures. The tank cleaning system deployed at the INTEC offers unique advantages over other approaches evaluated at the INEEL and throughout the DOE Complex. The system's ability to agitate and homogenize the tank heel sludge will simplify verification-sampling techniques and reduce the total quantity of samples required to

  10. Online pattern recognition for the ALICE high level trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramm, R.; Helstrup, H.; Lien, J.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Rohrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbø, A.; Wiebalck, A.; Alice Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger system needs to reconstruct events online at high data rates. Focusing on the Time Projection Chamber we present two pattern recognition methods under investigation: the sequential approach (cluster finding, track follower) and the iterative approach (Hough Transform, cluster assignment, re-fitting). The implementation of the former in hardware indicates that we can reach the designed inspection rate for p-p collisions of 1 kHz with 98% efficiency.

  11. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-05-24

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments.

  12. Case for retrievable high-level nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseboom, Eugene H.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository have called for permanently closing and sealing the repository soon after it is filled. However, the hydrologic environment of the proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, should allow the repository to be kept open and the waste retrievable indefinitely. This would allow direct monitoring of the repository and maintain the options for future generations to improve upon the disposal methods or use the uranium in the spent fuel as an energy resource.

  13. Cake: Enabling High-level SLOs on Shared Storage Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-07

    Cake : Enabling High-level SLOs on Shared Storage Systems Andrew Wang Shivaram Venkataraman Sara Alspaugh Randy H. Katz Ion Stoica Electrical...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 07 NOV 2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cake : Enabling High...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Cake is a coordinated, multi-resource scheduler for shared distributed storage environments with the goal of

  14. Automatic rule generation for high-level vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, Frank Chung-Hoon; Krishnapuram, Raghu

    1992-01-01

    Many high-level vision systems use rule-based approaches to solving problems such as autonomous navigation and image understanding. The rules are usually elaborated by experts. However, this procedure may be rather tedious. In this paper, we propose a method to generate such rules automatically from training data. The proposed method is also capable of filtering out irrelevant features and criteria from the rules.

  15. The tracking of high level waste shipments-TRANSCOM system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    The TRANSCOM (transportation tracking and communication) system is the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) real-time system for tracking shipments of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other high-visibility shipments of radioactive material. The TRANSCOM system has been operational since 1988. The system was used during FY1993 to track almost 100 shipments within the US.DOE complex, and it is accessed weekly by 10 to 20 users.

  16. The New Regionalism in Sub-Saharan Africa: More Than Meets the Eye? Policy Brief No. 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Following independence in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1960s, traditional integration strategies produced disappointing results in most instances, as they started with very modest levels of intra-regional trade, marked differences in income and industrialisation levels and diffuse fiscal weakness. They also had a strong protectionist bias, trying to…

  17. Creating Pathways to a Better Life: How Four Tribal Colleges Are Training Skilled Workers to Meet Regional Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    With the tremendous job growth and economic boom on the Northern Plains, tribal colleges in Montana and North Dakota are initiating new innovative programs to address the region's workforce necessities. United Tribes Technical College (UTTC), Fort Peck Community College (FPCC), Aaniiih Nakoda College (ANC), and Cankdeska Cikana Community College…

  18. Creating Pathways to a Better Life: How Four Tribal Colleges Are Training Skilled Workers to Meet Regional Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    With the tremendous job growth and economic boom on the Northern Plains, tribal colleges in Montana and North Dakota are initiating new innovative programs to address the region's workforce necessities. United Tribes Technical College (UTTC), Fort Peck Community College (FPCC), Aaniiih Nakoda College (ANC), and Cankdeska Cikana Community College…

  19. The New Regionalism in Sub-Saharan Africa: More Than Meets the Eye? Policy Brief No. 20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Following independence in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1960s, traditional integration strategies produced disappointing results in most instances, as they started with very modest levels of intra-regional trade, marked differences in income and industrialisation levels and diffuse fiscal weakness. They also had a strong protectionist bias, trying to…

  20. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  1. High-Level Visual Object Representations Are Constrained by Position

    PubMed Central

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Baker, Chris I.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely assumed that high-level visual object representations are position-independent (or invariant). While there is sensitivity to position in high-level object-selective cortex, position and object identity are thought to be encoded independently in the population response such that position information is available across objects and object information is available across positions. Contrary to this view, we show, with both behavior and neuroimaging, that visual object representations are position-dependent (tied to limited portions of the visual field). Behaviorally, we show that the effect of priming an object was greatly reduced with any change in position (within- or between-hemifields), indicating nonoverlapping representations of the same object across different positions. Furthermore, using neuroimaging, we show that object-selective cortex is not only highly sensitive to object position but also the ability to differentiate objects based on its response is greatly reduced across different positions, consistent with the observed behavior and the receptive field properties observed in macaque object-selective neurons. Thus, even at the population level, the object information available in response of object-selective cortex is constrained by position. We conclude that even high-level visual object representations are position-dependent. PMID:20351021

  2. High-level visual object representations are constrained by position.

    PubMed

    Kravitz, Dwight J; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Baker, Chris I

    2010-12-01

    It is widely assumed that high-level visual object representations are position-independent (or invariant). While there is sensitivity to position in high-level object-selective cortex, position and object identity are thought to be encoded independently in the population response such that position information is available across objects and object information is available across positions. Contrary to this view, we show, with both behavior and neuroimaging, that visual object representations are position-dependent (tied to limited portions of the visual field). Behaviorally, we show that the effect of priming an object was greatly reduced with any change in position (within- or between-hemifields), indicating nonoverlapping representations of the same object across different positions. Furthermore, using neuroimaging, we show that object-selective cortex is not only highly sensitive to object position but also the ability to differentiate objects based on its response is greatly reduced across different positions, consistent with the observed behavior and the receptive field properties observed in macaque object-selective neurons. Thus, even at the population level, the object information available in response of object-selective cortex is constrained by position. We conclude that even high-level visual object representations are position-dependent.

  3. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  4. Bacteriologic testing of endoscopes after high-level disinfection.

    PubMed

    Rejchrt, Stanislav; Cermák, Pavel; Pavlatová, Ludmila; McKová, Eva; Bures, Jan

    2004-07-01

    There are no definitive data available concerning microbiologic safety of prolonged endoscope storage after reprocessing and disinfection. This study evaluated the durability of high-level disinfection of endoscopes stored in a dust-proof cabinet for 5 days. Three different types of endoscopes (upper endoscopes, duodenoscopes, colonoscopes) were tested. After completion of the endoscopic procedure, endoscopes were subjected to an initial decontamination, followed by manual cleaning with the endoscope immersed in detergent. The endoscopes then were placed in an automatic reprocessor that provides high-level disinfection. They then were stored by hanging in a dust-proof cabinet. Bacteriologic samples were obtained from the surface of the endoscopes, the openings for the piston valves, and the accessory channel daily for 5 days, and by flush-through (combined with brushing) from the accessory channels after 5 days of storage. Samples were cultured for all types of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including bacterial spores, and for Candida species. For all assays, all endoscopes were bacteria-free immediately after high-level disinfection. Only 4 assays (of 135) were positive during the subsequent 5-day assessment (skin bacteria cultured from endoscope surfaces). All flush-through samples were sterile. When endoscope reprocessing guidelines are strictly observed and endoscopes are stored in appropriate cabinets for up to 5 days, reprocessing before use may not be necessary.

  5. Automatic classification of clouds on Meteosat imagery - Application to high-level clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desbois, M.; Seze, G.; Szejwach, G.

    1982-01-01

    A statistical classification method based on clustering on three-dimensional histograms is applied to the three channels of the Meteosat imagery. The results of this classification are studied for different cloud cover cases over tropical regions. For high-level cloud classes, it is shown that the bidimensional IR-water vapor histogram allows one to deduce the cloud top temperature even for semi-transparent clouds.

  6. Regional risk assessment of the Puyallup River Watershed and the evaluation of low impact development in meeting management goals.

    PubMed

    Hines, Eleanor E; Landis, Wayne G

    2014-04-01

    The Relative Risk Model (RRM) is a tool used to calculate and assess the likelihood of effects to endpoints when multiple stressors occur in complex ecological systems. In this study, a Bayesian network was used to calculate relative risk and estimate uncertainty (BN-RRM) in the Puyallup River Watershed. First, we calculated the risk of prespawn mortality of coho salmon. Second, we evaluated the effect of low impact development (LID) as a means to reduce risk. Prespawner mortality in coho salmon within the Puyallup watershed was the endpoint selected for this study. A conceptual model showing causal pathways between stressors and endpoints was created to show where linkages exist. A relative risk gradient was found throughout the watershed. The lowest risk was found in risk regions with the least urban development, and the greatest risk of prespawner mortality was found in the highly urbanized risk regions with the largest amounts of impervious surface. LID did reduce risk but only when implemented at high intensities within the urban watersheds. The structure of the BN-RRM also provides a framework for water quality- and quantity-related endpoints within this and other watersheds. The framework is also useful for evaluating different strategies for remediation or restoration activities. The adaptability of using BNs for a relative risk assessment provides opportunities for the model to be adapted for other watersheds in the Puget Sound and Salish Sea region. © 2013 SETAC.

  7. Commercialization of biotechnology in the Asian region. Report of meeting of Asian Productivity Organization (APO) in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P L

    1990-01-01

    Detailed studies on the commercial development of biotechnology in five countries in the Asian Region (viz. Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, India) indicate a very significant role played by government in strategic planning and R & D financing. Strong growth is projected in some traditional biotechnology products e.g. amino acids such as monosodium glutamate and L-lysine, animal and human vaccines, and in environmental applications of biotechnology. The cash flow from these products will underpin future development and marketing of diagnostics, anticancer and antiviral drugs, particularly in Japan and Korea.

  8. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  9. Development of a High Level Waste Tank Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, D.K.; Loibl, M.W.; Meese, D.C.

    1995-03-21

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center was requested by it`s sister site, West Valley Nuclear Service (WVNS), to develop a remote inspection system to gather wall thickness readings of their High Level Waste Tanks. WVNS management chose to take a proactive approach to gain current information on two tanks t hat had been in service since the early 70`s. The tanks contain high level waste, are buried underground, and have only two access ports to an annular space between the tank and the secondary concrete vault. A specialized remote system was proposed to provide both a visual surveillance and ultrasonic thickness measurements of the tank walls. A magnetic wheeled crawler was the basis for the remote delivery system integrated with an off-the-shelf Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. A development program was initiated for Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to design, fabricate, and test a remote system based on the Crawler. The system was completed and involved three crawlers to perform the needed tasks, an Ultrasonic Crawler, a Camera Crawler, and a Surface Prep Crawler. The crawlers were computer controlled so that their operation could be done remotely and their position on the wall could be tracked. The Ultrasonic Crawler controls were interfaced with ABB Amdata`s I-PC, Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System so that thickness mapping of the wall could be obtained. A second system was requested by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), to perform just ultrasonic mapping on their similar Waste Storage Tanks; however, the system needed to be interfaced with the P-scan Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. Both remote inspection systems were completed 9/94. Qualifications tests were conducted by WVNS prior to implementation on the actual tank and tank development was achieved 10/94. The second inspection system was deployed at WSRC 11/94 with success, and the system is now in continuous service inspecting the remaining high level waste tanks at WSRC.

  10. High-level waste management technology program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Covering Materials Incorporating Radiation-Preventing Techniques to Meet Greenhouse Cooling Challenges in Arid Regions: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Ghany, Ahmed M.; Al-Helal, Ibrahim M.; Alzahrani, Saeed M.; Alsadon, Abdullah A.; Ali, Ilias M.; Elleithy, Rabeh M.

    2012-01-01

    Cooling greenhouses is essential to provide a suitable environment for plant growth in arid regions characterized by brackish water resources. However, using conventional cooling methods are facing many challenges. Filtering out near infra-red radiation (NIR) at the greenhouse cover can significantly reduce the heating load and can solve the overheating problem of the greenhouse air. This paper is to review (i) the problems of using conventional cooling methods and (ii) the advantages of greenhouse covers that incorporate NIR reflectors. This survey focuses on how the cover type affects the transmittance of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), the reflectance or absorptance of NIR and the greenhouse air temperature. NIR-reflecting plastic films seem to be the most suitable, low cost and simple cover for greenhouses under arid conditions. Therefore, this review discusses how various additives should be incorporated in plastic film to increase its mechanical properties, durability and ability to stand up to extremely harsh weather. Presently, NIR-reflecting covers are able to reduce greenhouse air temperature by no more than 5°C. This reduction is not enough in regions where the ambient temperature may exceed 45°C in summer. There is a need to develop improved NIR-reflecting plastic film covers. PMID:22629223

  12. Modern Alchemy: Solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, C.C.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is putting a modern version of alchemy to work to produce an answer to a decades-old problem. It is taking place at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York. At both locations, contractor Westinghouse Electric Corporation is applying technology that is turning liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stabilized, durable glass for safer and easier management. The process is called vitrification. SRS and WVDP are now operating the nation`s first full-scale HLW vitrification plants.

  13. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L.

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted.

  14. Very-high-level neutral-beam control system

    SciTech Connect

    Elischer, V.; Jacobson, V.; Theil, E.

    1981-10-01

    As increasing numbers of neutral beams are added to fusion machines, their operation can consume a significant fraction of a facility's total resources. LBL has developed a very high level control system that allows a neutral beam injector to be treated as a black box with just 2 controls: one to set the beam power and one to set the pulse duration. This 2 knob view allows simple operation and provides a natural base for implementing even higher level controls such as automatic source conditioning.

  15. High level trigger online calibration framework in ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bablok, S. R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Kanaki, K.; Nystrand, J.; Richter, M.; Röhrich, D.; Skjerdal, K.; Ullaland, K.; Øvrebekk, G.; Larsen, D.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Lindenstruth, V.; Steinbeck, T. M.; Thäder, J.; Kebschull, U.; Böttger, S.; Kalcher, S.; Lara, C.; Panse, R.; Appelshäuser, H.; Ploskon, M.; Helstrup, H.; Hetland, K. F.; Haaland, Ø.; Roed, K.; Thingnæs, T.; Aamodt, K.; Hille, P. T.; Lovhoiden, G.; Skaali, B.; Tveter, T.; Das, I.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Becker, B.; Cicalo, C.; Marras, D.; Siddhanta, S.; Cleymans, J.; Szostak, A.; Fearick, R.; Vaux, G. d.; Vilakazi, Z.

    2008-07-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is designed to perform event analysis of heavy ion and proton-proton collisions as well as calibration calculations online. A large PC farm, currently under installation, enables analysis algorithms to process these computationally intensive tasks. The HLT receives event data from all major detectors in ALICE. Interfaces to the various other systems provide the analysis software with required additional information. Processed results are sent back to the corresponding systems. To allow online performance monitoring of the detectors an interface for visualizing these results has been developed.

  16. Ionization chamber for measurements of high-level tritium gas

    SciTech Connect

    Carstens, D.H.W.; David, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction and calibration of a simple ionization-chamber apparatus for measurement of high level tritium gas is described. The apparatus uses an easily constructed but rugged chamber containing the unknown gas and an inexpensive digital multimeter for measuring the ion current. The equipment after calibration is suitable for measuring 0.01 to 100% tritium gas in hydrogen-helium mixes with an accuracy of a few percent. At both the high and low limits of measurements deviations from the predicted theoretical current are observed. These are briefly discussed.

  17. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

  18. High-level wastes: DOE names three sites for characterization

    SciTech Connect

    1986-07-01

    DOE announced in May 1986 that there will be there site characterization studies made to determine suitability for a high-level radioactive waste repository. The studies will include several test drillings to the proposed disposal depths. Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Deaf Smith Country, Texas, and Hanford, Washington were identified as the study sites, and further studies for a second repository site in the East were postponed. The affected states all filed suits in federal circuit courts because they were given no advance warning of the announcement of their selection or the decision to suspend work on a second repository. Criticisms of the selection process include the narrowing or DOE options.

  19. [Report of the third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany on 15 and 16 December 2011 at the Robert Koch Institute].

    PubMed

    Mielke, M

    2012-11-01

    Since 2004 the Robert Koch-Institute has supported the formation of regional networks for prevention of the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multiresistant pathogens (MRSA/MRP, EpiBull 5/2005)). The third meeting of the coordinators of the regional MRP networks in Germany took place on 15 and 16 December 2011. A total of 60 representatives of the Public Health Services from 12 states participated. It must be emphasized that in the meantime many successfully established networks are active and not all coordinators of existing networks could participate merely due to the organizational format. Interested parties can obtain a good overview via a link to the corresponding internet homepage of each state under http://www.rki.de → Infektionsschutz → Krankenhaushygiene → Regionale Netzwerke. In summary it was clear that the number and the activity of regional MRP networks in Germany have further increased. The networks can synergistically benefit from important experiences through the different individual focal points of each network and a corresponding exchange of ideas.

  20. SYNAPSE, Symposium for Young Neuroscientists and Professors of the Southeast: A One-day, Regional Neuroscience Meeting Focusing on Undergraduate Research

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Mark W.; Lom, Barbara; Silver, Wayne L.

    2011-01-01

    The Symposium for Young Neuroscientists and Professors of the Southeast (SYNAPSE; synapse.cofc.edu) was designed to encourage contacts among faculty and students interested in neuroscience. Since its inception in 2003, the SYNAPSE conference has consistently drawn faculty and undergraduate interest from the region. This unique meeting provides undergraduates with a valuable opportunity for neuroscience education; students interact with noted neuroscience faculty, present research results, obtain feedback from neuroscientists at other institutions, and form connections with other neuroscientists in the region. Additionally, SYNAPSE allows undergraduate students and faculty to attend workshops and panel discussions about issues related to professional skills and career options. The SYNAPSE conference currently travels among host institutions in the southeastern United States in two-year cycles. This article briefly describes the genesis of SYNAPSE and reviews SYNAPSE conferences from 2006 through 2010. The goal of this paper is to highlight key issues organizers have experienced launching, sustaining, and hosting this regional undergraduate neuroscience conference as well as assist faculty to develop similar conferences. PMID:23493950

  1. Controlling acute pain to improve the quality of postoperative pain management: an update from the European Society of Regional Anesthesia meeting held in Maastricht (September 2016).

    PubMed

    Andrés, Jose De; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther; Huygen, Frank; Neugebauer, Edmund; Fawcett, William

    2017-08-10

    Improvement in postoperative pain management remains a global concern with a significant unmet need for patients. This was the focus of a 'Change Pain' session at the 35th European Society of Regional Anesthesia meeting (Maastricht, September 2016). Awareness of the size and nature of the problem is important to improve postoperative pain management strategies. Optimal treatment of acute pain should aim to avoid long-term sequelae such as the development of chronic pain disorders (e.g., phantom limb pain). Cases highlighting unsuccessful and successful strategies to manage individuals undergoing surgery were presented. The benefits of personalized care, encouraging patients to be more involved in decisions regarding their treatment and their preferred clinical outcomes were discussed and considered to be a step forward in acute pain management.

  2. Health literacy and the Millennium Development Goals: United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) regional meeting background paper (abstracted).

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a health literacy "lens" to look at key global health challenges, including the achievement of health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the reduction of disease burden due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Available global evidence is summarized related to: assessment of the impact of health literacy on health and development; identification of measures for reporting progress; exploring ways to strengthen multisectoral collaboration at the national, regional, and international levels to undertake joint actions for increasing health literacy; finding ways to promote better access and use of information through information and communication technology and empowerment; and building capacity for sustained action to increase health literacy. Key action messages are identified. Findings presented informed the 2009 ECOSOC Ministerial Declaration on Health Literacy.

  3. Considering risks to healthcare workers from glutaraldehyde alternatives in high-level disinfection.

    PubMed

    Rideout, K; Teschke, K; Dimich-Ward, H; Kennedy, S M

    2005-01-01

    Due to concerns over glutaraldehyde's toxicity, two substitutes have recently been introduced; ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), and a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid. There is limited information about the health effects for employees from these products. This study assesses the current practices regarding the use of high-level disinfectants in British Columbian hospitals and predicts the relative toxicities of each product. Industry practices were compiled using a comprehensive survey of current practices and decision processes in all hospitals in British Columbia. Of 95 hospitals, 64 returned surveys; 80% of these used high-level disinfection. Among user hospitals, 49% used glutaraldehyde alone and 51% had introduced alternatives. Concern about staff health was the most common reason for substituting, but this was frequently not considered when choosing specific alternatives. Hospitals that involved occupational health, infection control or regional staff in high-level disinfectant decisions used glutaraldehyde alternatives less often. In most hospitals, it was difficult to find individuals who were knowledgeable about the use of disinfectants. Potential health effects associated with each type of high-level disinfectant were assessed by review of the published literature and available manufacturers' data along with qualitative structure-activity relationship analysis. Results indicated that although all products irritate the skin and respiratory tract, OPA is a potential dermal and respiratory sensitizer but hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid do not cause allergic reactions. Despite little being known about the risks to employees from glutaraldehyde alternatives, their use is widespread. The potential risks of all high-level disinfectants are serious; thus regulators and users are faced with important risk management decisions before and after they have been introduced into the workplace.

  4. High-level expressing YAC vector for transgenic animal bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Y; Miwa, M; Takahashi, R; Kodaira, K; Hirabayashi, M; Suzuki, T; Ueda, M

    1999-04-01

    The position effect is one major problem in the production of transgenic animals as mammary gland bioreactors. In the present study, we introduced the human growth hormone (hGH) gene into 210-kb human alpha-lactalbumin position-independent YAC vectors using homologous recombination and produced transgenic rats via microinjection of YAC DNA into rat embryos. The efficiency of producing transgenic rats with the YAC vector DNA was the same as that using plasmid constructs. All analyzed transgenic rats had one copy of the transgene and produced milk containing a high level of hGH (0.25-8.9 mg/ml). In transgenic rats with the YAC vector in which the human alpha-lactalbumin gene was replaced with the hGH gene, tissue specificity of hGH mRNA was the same as that of the endogenous rat alpha-lactalbumin gene. Thus, the 210-kb human alpha-lactalbumin YAC is a useful vector for high-level expression of foreign genes in the milk of transgenic animals.

  5. Learning high-level features for chord recognition using Autoencoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phongthongloa, Vilailukkana; Kamonsantiroj, Suwatchai; Pipanmaekaporn, Luepol

    2016-07-01

    Chord transcription is valuable to do by itself. It is known that the manual transcription of chords is very tiresome, time-consuming. It requires, moreover, musical knowledge. Automatic chord recognition has recently attracted a number of researches in the Music Information Retrieval field. It has known that a pitch class profile (PCP) is the commonly signal representation of musical harmonic analysis. However, the PCP may contain additional non-harmonic noise such as harmonic overtones and transient noise. The problem of non-harmonic might be generating the sound energy in term of frequency more than the actual notes of the respective chord. Autoencoder neural network may be trained to learn a mapping from low level feature to one or more higher-level representation. These high-level representations can explain dependencies of the inputs and reduce the effect of non-harmonic noise. Then these improve features are fed into neural network classifier. The proposed high-level musical features show 80.90% of accuracy. The experimental results have shown that the proposed approach can achieve better performance in comparison with other based method.

  6. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kreutz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  7. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kruetz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  8. Burning high-level TRU waste in fusion fission reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yaosong

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the concept of actinide burning instead of a once-through fuel cycle for disposing spent nuclear fuel seems to get much more attention. A new method of burning high-level transuranic (TRU) waste combined with Thorium-Uranium (Th-U) fuel in the subcritical reactors driven by external fusion neutron sources is proposed in this paper. The thorium-based TRU fuel burns all of the long-lived actinides via a hard neutron spectrum while outputting power. A one-dimensional model of the reactor concept was built by means of the ONESN_BURN code with new data libraries. The numerical results included actinide radioactivity, biological hazard potential, and much higher burnup rate of high-level transuranic waste. The comparison of the fusion-fission reactor with the thermal reactor shows that the harder neutron spectrum is more efficient than the soft. The Th-U cycle produces less TRU, less radiotoxicity and fewer long-lived actinides. The Th-U cycle provides breeding of 233U with a long operation time (>20 years), hence significantly reducing the reactivity swing while improving safety and burnup.

  9. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  10. Local acceptance of a high-level nuclear waste repository.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, Lennart

    2004-06-01

    The siting of nuclear waste facilities has been very difficult in all countries. Recent experience in Sweden indicates, however, that it may be possible, under certain circumstances, to gain local support for the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository. The article reports on a study of attitudes and risk perceptions of people living in four municipalities in Sweden where HLNW siting was being intensely discussed at the political level, in media, and among the public. Data showed a relatively high level of consensus on acceptability of at least further investigation of the issue; in two cases local councils have since voted in favor of a go-ahead, and in one case only a very small majority defeated the issue. Models of policy attitudes showed that these were related to attitude to nuclear power, attributes of the perceived HLNW risk, and trust. Factors responsible for acceptance are discussed at several levels. One is the attitude to nuclear power, which is becoming more positive, probably because no viable alternatives are in sight. Other factors have to do with the extensive information programs conducted in these municipalities, and with the logical nature of the conclusion that they would be good candidates for hosting the national HLNW repository.

  11. VITRIFICATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-17

    The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent high level waste Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as vitrified at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility. These data were used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of candidate frits. The study glasses were fabricated using depleted uranium and their chemical compositions, crystalline contents and chemical durabilities were characterized. Trevorite was the only crystalline phase that was identified in a few of the study glasses after slow cooling, and is not of concern as spinels have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). All of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The results of this study indicate that a frit composition can be identified that will provide a processable and durable glass when combined with SB5.

  12. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-04-23

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist.

  13. Status of high-level waste processing at West Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, A.J.; Baker, M.N. )

    1991-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is charged with the solidification of high-level liquid waste remaining from nuclear fuel reprocessing activities that were conducted at West Valley, New York, between 1966 and 1972. The 2.27 million liters (600,000 gal) of waste in an underground storage tank has separated into a sludge layer, {approximately}10% of the original volume, and a liquid layer. Prior to the high-level waste (HLW) vitrification, volume reduction of the waste is necessary. Sine May 1988, West Valley has successfully processed >1.59 million liters (420,000 gal) of HLW. Processing to date has involved the removal of {sup 139}Cs from the HLW effluent by ion exchange, evaporation to concentrate the effluent to a predetermined salt concentration, and finally cementation. This process has removed {approximately}80% of the {sup 137}Cs from the HLW liquid phase. Modifications are currently being made to begin the second phase of the HLW processing at West Valley. The second phase of HLW processing will include the removal of plutonium as well as cesium from the HLW sludge. This paper describes the progress made to date and the modifications being made to the process and to the feed stream to begin the second phase of HLW processing.

  14. High-level power analysis and optimization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, Anand

    1997-12-01

    This thesis combines two ubiquitous trends in the VLSI design world--the move towards designing at higher levels of design abstraction, and the increasing importance of power consumption as a design metric. Power estimation and optimization tools are becoming an increasingly important part of design flows, driven by a variety of requirements such as prolonging battery life in portable computing and communication devices, thermal considerations and system cooling and packaging costs, reliability issues (e.g. electromigration, ground bounce, and I-R drops in the power network), and environmental concerns. This thesis presents a suite of techniques to automatically perform power analysis and optimization for designs at the architecture or register-transfer, and behavior or algorithm levels of the design hierarchy. High-level synthesis refers to the process of synthesizing, from an abstract behavioral description, a register-transfer implementation that satisfies the desired constraints. High-level synthesis tools typically perform one or more of the following tasks: transformations, module selection, clock selection, scheduling, and resource allocation and assignment (also called resource sharing or hardware sharing). High-level synthesis techniques for minimizing the area, maximizing the performance, and enhancing the testability of the synthesized designs have been investigated. This thesis presents high-level synthesis techniques that minimize power consumption in the synthesized data paths. This thesis investigates the effects of resource sharing on the power consumption in the data path, provides techniques to efficiently estimate power consumption during resource sharing, and resource sharing algorithms to minimize power consumption. The RTL circuit that is obtained from the high-level synthesis process can be further optimized for power by applying power-reducing RTL transformations. This thesis presents macro-modeling and estimation techniques for switching

  15. Liquid level measurement in high level nuclear waste slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, G.E.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Postles, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Accurate liquid level measurement has been a difficult problem to solve for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The nuclear waste sludge tends to plug or degrade most commercially available liquid-level measurement sensors. A liquid-level measurement system that meets demanding accuracy requirements for the DWPF has been developed. The system uses a pneumatic 1:1 pressure repeater as a sensor and a computerized error correction system. 2 figs.

  16. High-Level Vision and Planning Workshop Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    in Reports. IDA Papers ame reviWed to ensure that they meet the high standards expected of rd papers in professional pournals orformal ency repots...based on local image attributes) • Physical and geometrical modeling (study of constraints imposed by physical world and imaging process) * Global...examine reasoning about other agents from two different perspectives, * the "prescriptive/descriptive" approach and the "jointly prescriptive" ap - proach

  17. High-level DNA amplifications are common genetic aberrations in B-cell neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    Werner, C. A.; Döhner, H.; Joos, S.; Trümper, L. H.; Baudis, M.; Barth, T. F.; Ott, G.; Möller, P.; Lichter, P.; Bentz, M.

    1997-01-01

    Gene amplification is one of the molecular mechanisms resulting in the up-regulation of gene expression. In non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, such gene amplifications have been identified rarely. Using comparative genomic hybridization, a technique that has proven to be very sensitive for the detection of high-level DNA amplifications, we analyzed 108 cases of B-cell neoplasms (42 chronic B-cell leukemias, 5 mantle cell lymphomas, and 61 aggressive B-cell lymphomas). Twenty-four high-level amplifications were identified in 13% of the patients and mapped to 15 different genomic regions. Regions most frequently amplified were bands Xq26-28, 2p23-24, and 2p14-16 as well as 18q21 (three times each). Amplification of several proto-oncogenes and a cell cycle control gene (N-MYC (two cases), BCL2, CCND2, and GLI) located within the amplified regions was demonstrated by Southern blot analysis or fluorescence in situ hybridization to interphase nuclei of tumor cells. These data demonstrate that gene amplifications in B-cell neoplasms are much more frequent than previously assumed. The identification of highly amplified DNA regions and genes included in the amplicons provides important information for further analyses of genetic events involved in lymphomagenesis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9250147

  18. ALICE: Project Overview and High Level Science Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soummer, Remi; Choquet, Elodie; Pueyo, Laurent; Brendan Hagan, J.; Gofas-Salas, Elena; Rajan, Abhijith; Perrin, Marshall D.; Chen, Christine; Debes, John H.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; Schneider, Glenn; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Marois, Christian; Barman, Travis

    2015-01-01

    We report on the status of the ALICE project (Archival Legacy Investigation of Circumstellar Environments), which consists in a consistent reanalysis of the entire HST-NICMOS coronagraphic archive. Over the last two years, we have developed a sophisticated pipeline able to handle the data of the 400 stars of the archive. This pipeline builds on the Karhunen-Loeve Image Projection (KLIP) algorithm, and was completed in the fall of 2014. We discuss the first processing and analysis results of the overall reduction campaign. As we will deliver high-level science products to the STScI MAST archive, we are defining a new standard format for high-contrast science products, which will be compatible with every new high-contrast imaging instrument (GPI, SPHERE, P1640, CHARIS, etc.) and used by the JWST coronagraphs. We present here the specifications of this standard.

  19. Review of High Level Waste Tanks Ultrasonic Inspection Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B

    2006-03-09

    A review of the data collected during ultrasonic inspection of the Type I high level waste tanks has been completed. The data was analyzed for relevance to the possibility of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion. The review of the Type I tank UT inspection data has confirmed that the vapor space general corrosion is not an unusually aggressive phenomena and correlates well with predicted corrosion rates for steel exposed to bulk solution. The corrosion rates are seen to decrease with time as expected. The review of the temperature data did not reveal any obvious correlations between high temperatures and the occurrences of leaks. The complex nature of temperature-humidity interaction, particularly with respect to vapor corrosion requires further understanding to infer any correlation. The review of the waste level data also did not reveal any obvious correlations.

  20. High Level Waste System Impacts from Acid Dissolution of Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    KETUSKY, EDWARD

    2006-04-20

    This research evaluates the ability of OLI{copyright} equilibrium based software to forecast Savannah River Site High Level Waste system impacts from oxalic acid dissolution of Tank 1-15 sludge heels. Without further laboratory and field testing, only the use of oxalic acid can be considered plausible to support sludge heel dissolution on multiple tanks. Using OLI{copyright} and available test results, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Material and energy balances, coupled with the model, identify potential safety concerns. Overpressurization and overheating are shown to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen could, however, overwhelm the tank ventilation. While pH adjustment can restore the minimal hydrogen generation, resultant precipitates will notably increase the sludge volume. OLI{copyright} is used to develop a flowsheet such that additional sludge vitrification canisters and other negative system impacts are minimized. Sensitivity analyses are used to assess the processability impacts from variations in the sludge/quantities of acids.

  1. Mammut: High-level management of system knobs and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sensi, Daniele; Torquati, Massimo; Danelutto, Marco

    Managing low-level architectural features for controlling performance and power consumption is a growing demand in the parallel computing community. Such features include, but are not limited to: energy profiling, platform topology analysis, CPU cores disabling and frequency scaling. However, these low-level mechanisms are usually managed by specific tools, without any interaction between each other, thus hampering their usability. More important, most existing tools can only be used through a command line interface and they do not provide any API. Moreover, in most cases, they only allow monitoring and managing the same machine on which the tools are used. MAMMUT provides and integrates architectural management utilities through a high-level and easy-to-use object-oriented interface. By using MAMMUT, is possible to link together different collected information and to exploit them on both local and remote systems, to build architecture-aware applications.

  2. Online Pattern Recognition for the ALICE High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Rohrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Stock, R.; Tilsner, H.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A.; Vik, T.

    2004-06-01

    The ALICE high level trigger has to process data online, in order to select interesting (sub)events, or to compress data efficiently by modeling techniques. Focusing on the main data source, the time projection chamber (TPC), we present two pattern recognition methods under investigation: a sequential approach (cluster finder and track follower) and an iterative approach (track candidate finder and cluster deconvoluter). We show, that the former is suited for pp and low multiplicity PbPb collisions, whereas the latter might be applicable for high multiplicity PbPb collisions of dN/dy>3000. Based on the developed tracking schemes we show that using modeling techniques, a compression factor of around 10 might be achievable.

  3. Socioeconomic studies of high-level nuclear waste disposal.

    PubMed Central

    White, G F; Bronzini, M S; Colglazier, E W; Dohrenwend, B; Erikson, K; Hansen, R; Kneese, A V; Moore, R; Page, E B; Rappaport, R A

    1994-01-01

    The socioeconomic investigations of possible impacts of the proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been unprecedented in several respects. They bear on the public decision that sooner or later will be made as to where and how to dispose permanently of the waste presently at military weapons installations and that continues to accumulate at nuclear power stations. No final decision has yet been made. There is no clear precedent from other countries. The organization of state and federal studies is unique. The state studies involve more disciplines than any previous efforts. They have been carried out in parallel to federal studies and have pioneered in defining some problems and appropriate research methods. A recent annotated bibliography provides interested scientists with a compact guide to the 178 published reports, as well as to relevant journal articles and related documents. PMID:7971963

  4. National high-level waste systems analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kristofferson, K.; Oholleran, T.P.; Powell, R.H.; Thiel, E.C.

    1995-05-01

    This document details the development of modeling capabilities that can provide a system-wide view of all US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level waste (HLW) treatment and storage systems. This model can assess the impact of budget constraints on storage and treatment system schedules and throughput. These impacts can then be assessed against existing and pending milestones to determine the impact to the overall HLW system. A nation-wide view of waste treatment availability will help project the time required to prepare HLW for disposal. The impacts of the availability of various treatment systems and throughput can be compared to repository readiness to determine the prudent application of resources or the need to renegotiate milestones.

  5. Exceptionally high levels of multiple mating in an army ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, A. Jay; Franks, Nigel R.; Powell, Scott; Edwards, Keith J.

    Most species of social insects have singly mated queens, although there are notable exceptions. Competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of high levels of multiple mating, but this issue is far from resolved. Here we use microsatellites to investigate mating frequency in the army ant Eciton burchellii and show that queens mate with an exceptionally large number of males, eclipsing all but one other social insect species for which data are available. In addition we present evidence that suggests that mating is serial, continuing throughout the lifetime of the queen. This is the first demonstration of serial mating among social hymenoptera. We propose that high paternity within colonies is most likely to have evolved to increase genetic diversity and to counter high pathogen and parasite loads.

  6. High-level theoretical rovibrational spectroscopy of HCS+ isotopologues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, B.; Sebald, P.

    2016-12-01

    In this work the rovibrational spectrum of the HCS+ molecular cation is revisited through high-level electronic structure and variational rovibrational calculations. A local potential energy function is built from explicitly correlated coupled-cluster results, incorporating corrections for core-valence, scalar relativistic and higher-order excitation effects. The computed spectroscopic parameters, based on variational calculations with Watson's isomorphic Hamiltonian for linear molecules lead to a nearly perfect agreement with experimentally reported values (Rosenbaum et al., 1989). Furthermore, the documented Fermi resonance within the (0,00, 1) / (0,20, 0) and (1,00, 1) / (1,20, 0) pairs of states is clarified. Based on a newly developed electric dipole moment function transition dipole moments of fundamental transitions are predicted for the most important isotopologues.

  7. High-level waste tank farm set point document

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, J.A. III

    1995-01-15

    Setpoints for nuclear safety-related instrumentation are required for actions determined by the design authorization basis. Minimum requirements need to be established for assuring that setpoints are established and held within specified limits. This document establishes the controlling methodology for changing setpoints of all classifications. The instrumentation under consideration involve the transfer, storage, and volume reduction of radioactive liquid waste in the F- and H-Area High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The setpoint document will encompass the PROCESS AREA listed in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (DPSTSA-200-10 Sup 18) which includes the diversion box HDB-8 facility. In addition to the PROCESS AREAS listed in the SAR, Building 299-H and the Effluent Transfer Facility (ETF) are also included in the scope.

  8. High-level tetracycline resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolated in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, E; Louro, D; Gomes, J P; Catry, M A; Pato, M V

    1997-05-01

    The first high-level tetracycline resistance (MIC > or = 16 mg/l) isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (TRNG) were reported in 1990 from patients attending a Sexual Transmitted Disease (STD) Center in Lisbon. The TRNG prevalence was 4% in 1991, 5.3% in 1992 and 10,8% in 1994, exploding to 52.2% in 1995. The tet M determinant was evaluated by PCR. The digests of PCRP using HpaII produced the restriction pattern 2 for all the strains, except one (pattern 3). 78.3% of the TRNG strains were beta-lactamase producers and the 4.5 MDa penicillinase plasmid was the dominant (83%), 90% and 93.3% of the TRNG strains belonged to the auxotype NR and to the serogroup IA, respectively. The IA-8/NR class represented 58.3% of the TRNG isolates, suggesting a clonal spreading.

  9. SIMULANT DEVELOPMENT FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M; Russell Eibling, R; David Koopman, D; Dan Lambert, D; Paul Burket, P

    2007-09-04

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste (HLW) for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, and sulfate). The HLW is processed in large batches through DWPF; DWPF has recently completed processing Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and is currently processing Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The composition of metal species in SB4 is shown in Table 1 as a function of the ratio of a metal to iron. Simulants remove radioactive species and renormalize the remaining species. Supernate composition is shown in Table 2.

  10. 4.5 Meter high level waste canister study

    SciTech Connect

    Calmus, R. B.

    1997-10-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Storage and Disposal Project has established the Immobilized High-Level Waste (IBLW) Storage Sub-Project to provide the capability to store Phase I and II BLW products generated by private vendors. A design/construction project, Project W-464, was established under the Sub-Project to provide the Phase I capability. Project W-464 will retrofit the Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB) to accommodate the Phase I I-ILW products. Project W-464 conceptual design is currently being performed to interim store 3.0 m-long BLW stainless steel canisters with a 0.61 in diameter, DOE is considering using a 4.5 in canister of the same diameter to reduce permanent disposal costs. This study was performed to assess the impact of replacing the 3.0 in canister with the 4.5 in canister. The summary cost and schedule impacts are described.

  11. The SEISMED High Level Security Policy for Health Care.

    PubMed

    Katsikas, S K

    1996-01-01

    The proliferation of the use of automated Health Information Systems in the everyday practice of health professionals has brought a number of issues related to the security of health information to a critical point. The preservation of security of health-related information can only be achieved through a concerted approach, comprising legal, organisational, technical and educational actions. These classes of actions constitute a complete "security framework", a key aspect of which is the set of rules, laws and regulations that govern the usage of information within a Health Care Establishment. This set is commonly referred to as "Security Policy". In this paper, the SEISMED High Level Security Policy for Health Care Establishments is presented.

  12. A High-Level Language for Rule-Based Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages. PMID:26043208

  13. High-Level Language Production in Parkinson's Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Lori J. P.; Troche, Michelle S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses impairments of high-level, complex language production in Parkinson's disease (PD), defined as sentence and discourse production, and situates these impairments within the framework of current psycholinguistic theories of language production. The paper comprises three major sections, an overview of the effects of PD on the brain and cognition, a review of the literature on language production in PD, and a discussion of the stages of the language production process that are impaired in PD. Overall, the literature converges on a few common characteristics of language production in PD: reduced information content, impaired grammaticality, disrupted fluency, and reduced syntactic complexity. Many studies also document the strong impact of differences in cognitive ability on language production. Based on the data, PD affects all stages of language production including conceptualization and functional and positional processing. Furthermore, impairments at all stages appear to be exacerbated by impairments in cognitive abilities. PMID:21860777

  14. High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

    SciTech Connect

    Siemens, D.H.; Heath, W.O.; Larson, D.E.; Craig, S.N.; Berger, D.N.; Goles, R.W.

    1985-04-01

    Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system.

  15. A high-level language for rule-based modelling.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew; Plotkin, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based languages such as Kappa excel in their support for handling the combinatorial complexities prevalent in many biological systems, including signalling pathways. But Kappa provides little structure for organising rules, and large models can therefore be hard to read and maintain. This paper introduces a high-level, modular extension of Kappa called LBS-κ. We demonstrate the constructs of the language through examples and three case studies: a chemotaxis switch ring, a MAPK cascade, and an insulin signalling pathway. We then provide a formal definition of LBS-κ through an abstract syntax and a translation to plain Kappa. The translation is implemented in a compiler tool which is available as a web application. We finally demonstrate how to increase the expressivity of LBS-κ through embedded scripts in a general-purpose programming language, a technique which we view as generally applicable to other domain specific languages.

  16. Reinforcement learning for high-level fuzzy Petri nets.

    PubMed

    Shen, V L

    2003-01-01

    The author has developed a reinforcement learning algorithm for the high-level fuzzy Petri net (HLFPN) models in order to perform structure and parameter learning simultaneously. In addition to the HLFPN itself, the difference and similarity among a variety of subclasses concerning Petri nets are also discussed. As compared with the fuzzy adaptive learning control network (FALCON), the HLFPN model preserves the advantages that: 1) it offers more flexible learning capability because it is able to model both IF-THEN and IF-THEN-ELSE rules; 2) it allows multiple heterogeneous outputs to be drawn if they exist; 3) it offers a more compact data structure for fuzzy production rules so as to save information storage; and 4) it is able to learn faster due to its structural reduction. Finally, main results are presented in the form of seven propositions and supported by some experiments.

  17. User-Defined Data Distributions in High-Level Programming Languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaconescu, Roxana E.; Zima, Hans P.

    2006-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of today s high performance computing systems is a physically distributed memory. Efficient management of locality is essential for meeting key performance requirements for these architectures. The standard technique for dealing with this issue has involved the extension of traditional sequential programming languages with explicit message passing, in the context of a processor-centric view of parallel computation. This has resulted in complex and error-prone assembly-style codes in which algorithms and communication are inextricably interwoven. This paper presents a high-level approach to the design and implementation of data distributions. Our work is motivated by the need to improve the current parallel programming methodology by introducing a paradigm supporting the development of efficient and reusable parallel code. This approach is currently being implemented in the context of a new programming language called Chapel, which is designed in the HPCS project Cascade.

  18. Can Sisyphus succeed? Getting U.S. high-level nuclear waste into a geological repository.

    PubMed

    North, D Warner

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government has the obligation of managing the high-level radioactive waste from its defense activities and also, under existing law, from civilian nuclear power generation. This obligation is not being met. The January 2012 Final Report from the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future provides commendable guidance but little that is new. The author, who served on the federal Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board from 1989 to 1994 and subsequently on the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council from 1994 to 1999, provides a perspective both on the Commission's recommendations and a potential path toward progress in meeting the federal obligation. By analogy to Sisyphus of Greek mythology, our nation needs to find a way to roll the rock to the top of the hill and have it stay there, rather than continuing to roll back down again.

  19. Nuclear characteristics of vitrified high-level waste at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Arakali, V.S.; Barnes, S.M. )

    1991-11-01

    High-level liquid nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at West Valley, New York, will be vitrified as borosilicate glass and stored in stainless steel canisters prior to disposal at a waste repository. The nuclear characteristics of the vitrified waste must meet certain repository design specifications. This paper presents an evaluation of the waste form produced at West Valley with respect to its compliance to the repository specifications of heat and gas generation rates and neutron and gamma dose rates. The method consists of analyzing the composition of liquid nuclear waste in underground tanks and estimating the amount of other chemicals needed to encapsulate radionuclides in glass matrices. The number of waste canisters and the composition of each batch of canistered waste are determined from the vitrification process flow sheet. This data is used in computer codes to evaluate the waste form against repository specifications.

  20. High level waste tank closure project: ALARA applications at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Steven B; Butler, Richard; Butterworth, Steven W; Quigley, Keith D

    2005-05-01

    Bechtel BWXT Idaho, Maintenance and Operating Contractor for the Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, has emptied, cleaned, and sampled six of the eleven 1.135 x 10(6) L high level waste underground storage tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, well ahead of the State of Idaho Consent Order cleaning schedule. Cleaning of a seventh tank is expected to be complete by the end of calendar year 2004. The tanks, with associated vaults, valve boxes, and distribution systems, are being closed to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations and Department of Energy orders. The use of remotely operated equipment placed in the tanks through existing tank riser access points, sampling methods and application of as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) principles have proven effective in keeping personnel dose low during equipment removal, tank, vault, and valve box cleaning, and sampling activities, currently at 0.03 Sv.

  1. User-Defined Data Distributions in High-Level Programming Languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaconescu, Roxana E.; Zima, Hans P.

    2006-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of today s high performance computing systems is a physically distributed memory. Efficient management of locality is essential for meeting key performance requirements for these architectures. The standard technique for dealing with this issue has involved the extension of traditional sequential programming languages with explicit message passing, in the context of a processor-centric view of parallel computation. This has resulted in complex and error-prone assembly-style codes in which algorithms and communication are inextricably interwoven. This paper presents a high-level approach to the design and implementation of data distributions. Our work is motivated by the need to improve the current parallel programming methodology by introducing a paradigm supporting the development of efficient and reusable parallel code. This approach is currently being implemented in the context of a new programming language called Chapel, which is designed in the HPCS project Cascade.

  2. High-level waste melter alternatives assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Calmus, R.B.

    1995-02-01

    This document describes the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Program`s (hereafter referred to as HLW Program) Melter Candidate Assessment Activity performed in fiscal year (FY) 1994. The mission of the TWRS Program is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The goal of the HLW Program is to immobilize the HLW fraction of pretreated tank waste into a vitrified product suitable for interim onsite storage and eventual offsite disposal at a geologic repository. Preparation of the encapsulated strontium and cesium isotopic sources for final disposal is also included in the HLW Program. As a result of trade studies performed in 1992 and 1993, processes planned for pretreatment of tank wastes were modified substantially because of increasing estimates of the quantity of high-level and transuranic tank waste remaining after pretreatment. This resulted in substantial increases in needed vitrification plant capacity compared to the capacity of original Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The required capacity has not been finalized, but is expected to be four to eight times that of the HWVP design. The increased capacity requirements for the HLW vitrification plant`s melter prompted the assessment of candidate high-capacity HLW melter technologies to determine the most viable candidates and the required development and testing (D and T) focus required to select the Hanford Site HLW vitrification plant melter system. An assessment process was developed in early 1994. This document describes the assessment team, roles of team members, the phased assessment process and results, resulting recommendations, and the implementation strategy.

  3. Hip Arthroscopy in High-Level Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J W Thomas; Jones, Kay S

    2015-08-01

    To report the results of hip arthroscopy among high-level baseball players as recorded by outcome scores and return to baseball. All patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were prospectively assessed with the modified Harris Hip Score. On review of all procedures performed over a 12-year period, 44 hips were identified among 41 intercollegiate or professional baseball players who had achieved 2-year follow-up. Among the 41 players, follow-up averaged 45 months (range, 24 to 120 months), with a mean age of 23 years (range, 18 to 34 years). There were 23 collegiate (1 bilateral) and 18 professional (2 bilateral) baseball players, including 10 Major League Baseball players. Of the 8 Major League Baseball pitchers, 6 (75%) also underwent ulnar collateral ligament elbow surgery. Improvement in the modified Harris Hip Score averaged 13 points (from 81 points preoperatively to 94 points postoperatively); a paired-samples t test determined that this mean improvement of 13 points was statistically significant (P < .001). Players returned to baseball after 42 of 44 procedures (95%) at a mean of 4.3 months (range, 3 to 8 months), with 90% regaining the ability to participate at their previous level of competition. There were no complications. Three players (1 bilateral) underwent repeat arthroscopy. This study supports the idea that arthroscopic treatment for a variety of hip pathologies in high-level baseball players provides a successful return to sport and improvement in functional outcome scores. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  5. High-level waste program integration within the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, J.H.; Davis, N.R.; Malone, K.; Schaus, P.S.

    1998-03-01

    Eleven major Department of Energy (DOE) site contractors were chartered by the Assistant Secretary to use a systems engineering approach to develop and evaluate technically defensible cost savings opportunities across the complex. Known as the complex-wide Environmental Management Integration (EMI), this process evaluated all the major DOE waste streams including high level waste (HLW). Across the DOE complex, this waste stream has the highest life cycle cost and is scheduled to take until at least 2035 before all HLW is processed for disposal. Technical contract experts from the four DOE sites that manage high level waste participated in the integration analysis: Hanford, Savannah River Site (SRS), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). In addition, subject matter experts from the Yucca Mountain Project and the Tanks Focus Area participated in the analysis. Also, departmental representatives from the US Department of Energy Headquarters (DOE-HQ) monitored the analysis and results. Workouts were held throughout the year to develop recommendations to achieve a complex-wide integrated program. From this effort, the HLW Environmental Management (EM) Team identified a set of programmatic and technical opportunities that could result in potential cost savings and avoidance in excess of $18 billion and an accelerated completion of the HLW mission by seven years. The cost savings, schedule improvements, and volume reduction are attributed to a multifaceted HLW treatment disposal strategy which involves waste pretreatment, standardized waste matrices, risk-based retrieval, early development and deployment of a shipping system for glass canisters, and reasonable, low cost tank closure.

  6. Tank waste remediation system high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.L.; Kim, D.S.

    1994-12-01

    This study evaluates the effect of feed composition on the performance of the high-level vitrification process. It is assumed in this study that the tank wastes are retrieved and blended by tank farms, producing 12 different blends from the single-shell tank farms, two blends of double-shell tank waste, and a separately defined all-tank blend. This blending scenario was chosen only for evaluating the impact of composition on the volume of high- level waste glass produced. Special glass compositions were formulated for each waste blend based on glass property models and the properties of similar glasses. These glasses were formulated to meet the applicable viscosity, electrical conductivity, and liquidus temperature constraints for the identified candidate melters. Candidate melters in this study include the low-temperature stirred melter, which operates at 1050{degrees}C; the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant liquid-fed ceramic melter, which operates at 1150{degrees}C; and the high-temperature, joule-heated melter and the cold-crucible melter, which operate over a temperature range of 1150{degrees}C to 1400{degrees}C. In the most conservative case, it is estimated that 61,000 MT of glass will be produced if the Site`s high-level wastes are retrieved by tank farms and processed in the reference joule-heated melter. If an all-tank blend was processed under the same conditions, the reference melter would produce 21,250 MT of glass. If cross-tank blending were used, it is anticipated that $2.0 billion could be saved in repository disposal costs (based on an average disposal cost of $217,000 per canister) by blending the S, SX, B, and T Tank Farm wastes with other wastes prior to vitrification. General blending among all the tank farms is expected to produce great potential benefit.

  7. Open high-level data formats and software for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deil, Christoph; Boisson, Catherine; Kosack, Karl; Perkins, Jeremy; King, Johannes; Eger, Peter; Mayer, Michael; Wood, Matthew; Zabalza, Victor; Knödlseder, Jürgen; Hassan, Tarek; Mohrmann, Lars; Ziegler, Alexander; Khelifi, Bruno; Dorner, Daniela; Maier, Gernot; Pedaletti, Giovanna; Rosado, Jaime; Contreras, José Luis; Lefaucheur, Julien; Brügge, Kai; Servillat, Mathieu; Terrier, Régis; Walter, Roland; Lombardi, Saverio

    2017-01-01

    In gamma-ray astronomy, a variety of data formats and proprietary software have been traditionally used, often developed for one specific mission or experiment. Especially for ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs), data and software are mostly private to the collaborations operating the telescopes. However, there is a general movement in science towards the use of open data and software. In addition, the next-generation IACT instrument, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), will be operated as an open observatory. We have created a Github organisation at https://github.com/open-gamma-ray-astro where we are developing high-level data format specifications. A public mailing list was set up at https://lists.nasa.gov/mailman/listinfo/open-gamma-ray-astro and a first face-to-face meeting on the IACT high-level data model and formats took place in April 2016 in Meudon (France). This open multi-mission effort will help to accelerate the development of open data formats and open-source software for gamma-ray astronomy, leading to synergies in the development of analysis codes and eventually better scientific results (reproducible, multi-mission). This write-up presents this effort for the first time, explaining the motivation and context, the available resources and process we use, as well as the status and planned next steps for the data format specifications. We hope that it will stimulate feedback and future contributions from the gamma-ray astronomy community.

  8. INTERNATIONAL STUDY OF ALUMINUM IMPACTS ON CRYSTALLIZATION IN U.S. HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K; David Peeler, D; Tommy Edwards, T; David Best, D; Irene Reamer, I; Phyllis Workman, P; James Marra, J

    2008-09-23

    The objective of this task was to develop glass formulations for (Department of Energy) DOE waste streams with high aluminum concentrations to avoid nepheline formation while maintaining or meeting waste loading and/or waste throughput expectations as well as satisfying critical process and product performance related constraints. Liquidus temperatures and crystallization behavior were carefully characterized to support model development for higher waste loading glasses. The experimental work, characterization, and data interpretation necessary to meet these objectives were performed among three partnering laboratories: the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Projected glass compositional regions that bound anticipated Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and Hanford high level waste (HLW) glass regions of interest were developed and used to generate glass compositions of interest for meeting the objectives of this study. A thorough statistical analysis was employed to allow for a wide range of waste glass compositions to be examined while minimizing the number of glasses that had to be fabricated and characterized in the laboratory. The glass compositions were divided into two sets, with 45 in the test matrix investigated by the U.S. laboratories and 30 in the test matrix investigated by KRI. Fabrication and characterization of the US and KRI-series glasses were generally handled separately. This report focuses mainly on the US-series glasses. Glasses were fabricated and characterized by SRNL and PNNL. Crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in the quenched and canister centerline cooled (CCC) glasses and were generally iron oxides and spinels, which are not expected to impact durability of the glass. Nepheline was detected in five of the glasses after the CCC heat treatment. Chemical composition measurements for each of the glasses were conducted

  9. Meeting the needs of regional minority groups: the University of Washington's programs to increase the American Indian and Alaskan native physician workforce.

    PubMed

    Acosta, David; Olsen, Polly

    2006-10-01

    Minority populations in the United States are growing rapidly, but physician workforce diversity has not kept pace with the needs of underserved communities. Minorities comprised 26.4% of the population in 1995; by 2050, these groups will comprise nearly half. Medical schools must enlist greater numbers of minority physicians and train all physicians to provide culturally responsive care. The University of Washington School of Medicine (UWSOM) is the nation's only medical school that serves a five-state region (Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho). Its mission addresses the need to serve the region, rectify primary care shortages, and meet increasing regional demands for underserved populations. The UWSOM Native American Center of Excellence (NACOE) was established as one important way to respond to this charge. The authors describe pipeline and minority recruitment programs at UWSOM, focusing on the NACOE and other activities to recruit American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) applicants to medical schools. These programs have increased the numbers of AI/AN medical students; developed the Indian Health Pathway; worked to prepare students to provide culturally responsive care for AI/AN communities; researched health disparities specific to AI/AN populations; provided retention programs and services to ensure successful completion of medical training; developed mentorship networks; and provided faculty-development programs to increase entry of AI/AN physicians into academia. Challenges lie ahead. Barriers to the pipeline will continue to plague students, and inadequate federal funding will have a significant and negative impact on achieving needed physician-workforce diversity. Medical schools must play a larger role in resolving these, and continue to provide pipeline programs, retention programs, and minority faculty development that can make a difference.

  10. A positive cis-acting DNA element is required for high-level transcription in Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, C S; Tan, M

    2000-09-01

    The spacer A/T region is a positive cis-acting DNA element that was identified in the Chlamydia trachomatis rRNA promoter region. We have now demonstrated that similar sequences in other chlamydial promoters are important for transcription. Substitution of candidate spacer A/T regions in four chlamydial promoters decreased transcription by partially purified C. trachomatis RNA polymerase in an in vitro transcription assay. Addition of a spacer A/T region to the dnaK promoter, which does not contain an identifiable spacer A/T region, increased transcription 16-fold. Transcription of Escherichia coli promoters by C. trachomatis RNA polymerase also appeared to be dependent on the spacer A/T region. However, the effect of the spacer A/T region on transcription by E. coli RNA polymerase was small. In summary, the spacer A/T region is a novel DNA element that is required for high-level transcription of many promoters by chlamydial RNA polymerase.

  11. A Positive cis-Acting DNA Element Is Required for High-Level Transcription in Chlamydia

    PubMed Central

    Schaumburg, Chris S.; Tan, Ming

    2000-01-01

    The spacer A/T region is a positive cis-acting DNA element that was identified in the Chlamydia trachomatis rRNA promoter region. We have now demonstrated that similar sequences in other chlamydial promoters are important for transcription. Substitution of candidate spacer A/T regions in four chlamydial promoters decreased transcription by partially purified C. trachomatis RNA polymerase in an in vitro transcription assay. Addition of a spacer A/T region to the dnaK promoter, which does not contain an identifiable spacer A/T region, increased transcription 16-fold. Transcription of Escherichia coli promoters by C. trachomatis RNA polymerase also appeared to be dependent on the spacer A/T region. However, the effect of the spacer A/T region on transcription by E. coli RNA polymerase was small. In summary, the spacer A/T region is a novel DNA element that is required for high-level transcription of many promoters by chlamydial RNA polymerase. PMID:10960101

  12. High-level fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae requires mutations in parC and gyrA.

    PubMed Central

    Janoir, C; Zeller, V; Kitzis, M D; Moreau, N J; Gutmann, L

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of high-level fluoroquinolone resistance was studied in strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, either selected in vitro or isolated from clinical samples. By using DNA from these high-level-resistant strains, low-level-resistant transformants (MIC of pefloxacin, > or = 32 micrograms/ml; MIC of ciprofloxacin, 4 micrograms/ml; MIC of sparfloxacin, 0.50 micrograms/ml) were obtained at high frequencies (ca.10(-2)), while high-level-resistant transformants (MIC of pefloxacin, > or = 64 micrograms/ml; MIC of ciprofloxacin, 16 to 64 micrograms/ml; MIC of sparfloxacin, > or = 8 micrograms/ml) were obtained only at low frequencies (ca.10(-4)). This suggested that mutations in at least two unlinked genes were necessary to obtain high-level resistance. Low-level resistance was associated with ParC mutations (change from Ser to Tyr at position 79 [Ser79Tyr], Ser79Phe, or Asp83Gly). ParC mutations were associated, in high-level-resistant strains and transformants, with alterations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of GyrA (Ser84Tyr, Ser84Phe, and/or Glu88Lys). Low-level resistance was shown to be necessary for expression of the gyrA mutations. No mutation in the region corresponding to the quinolone resistance-determining region of GyrB and no alteration of drug accumulation were found. PMID:9124836

  13. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-12

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials

  14. A New High-Level Gentamicin Resistance Gene, aph(2")-Id, in Enterococcus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Shane F.; Zervos, Marcus J.; Clewell, Don B.; Donabedian, Susan M.; Sahm, Daniel F.; Chow, Joseph W.

    1998-01-01

    Enterococcus casseliflavus UC73 is a clinical blood isolate with high-level resistance to gentamicin. DNA preparations from UC73 failed to hybridize with intragenic probes for aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2")-Ia and aph(2")-Ic. A 4-kb fragment from UC73 was cloned and found to confer resistance to gentamicin in Escherichia coli DH5α transformants. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of a 906-bp open reading frame whose deduced amino acid sequence had a region with homology to the aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme APH(2")-Ic and to the C-terminal domain of the bifunctional enzyme AAC(6′)-APH(2"). The gene is designated aph(2")-Id, and its observed phosphotransferase activity is designated APH(2")-Id. A PCR-generated intragenic probe hybridized to the genomic DNA from 17 of 118 enterococcal clinical isolates (108 with high-level gentamicin resistance) from five hospitals. All 17 were vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates, and pulsed-field typing revealed three distinct clones. The combination of ampicillin plus either amikacin or neomycin exhibited synergistic killing against E. casseliflavus UC73. Screening and interpretation of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococci may need to be modified to include detection of APH(2")-Id. PMID:9593155

  15. Health aspects of disaster preparedness and response. Report from a regional meeting of countries of South East Asia; Bangkok, Thailand, 21-23 November 2005.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This Supplement is a Report of the Conference convened by the South East Asia Regional Office (SEARO) of the World Health Organization (WHO). The Conference was a follow-up to the WHO Conference of May 2005 in Phuket, Thailand on the Earthquake and Tsunami of 26 December 2004. The invitational meeting brought together representatives of 11 countries impacted by the events. The goal of the Conference was to produce a plan of action that meets the specific needs of the countries and ensure that the countries of the Region will be better equipped to cope with any future event. The objectives of the Conference were to: (1) identify gaps in the health needs of the affected and vulnerable populations for preparedness, responses, recovery, and rehabilitation; (2) determine the next steps in addressing these gaps; and (3) develop benchmarks and a corresponding framework for action that must be achieved to solidify the capacities and capabilities of the health sector to meet emergencies. Presentations of background papers, panel discussions, and Working Groups were used. Based, in part, on the materials presented, the Working Groups drafted benchmarks that could mark the progress in achieving the overall goal and proposed strategies that could be used to reach the benchmarks. Representatives of the participating countries summarized the current status of their respective countries relative to each of the defined benchmarks. The benchmarks relate to: (1) legal framework for preparedness and response; (2) national disaster plan for preparedness and response; (3) budget; (4) rules of engagement for external actors; (5) community plan based on risk identification and vulnerability assessment; (6)community-based capacities; (7) local capacity for provision of essential services and supplies; (8) awareness and advocacy programs; (9) identification of hazards, risks, and vulnerabilities; (10) education and training; (11) "safe" health facilities; and (12) surveillance and early

  16. Interventions for Individuals With High Levels of Needle Fear

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Melanie; Taddio, Anna; Antony, Martin M.; Asmundson, Gordon J.G.; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Chambers, Christine T.; Shah, Vibhuti

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of exposure-based psychological and physical interventions for the management of high levels of needle fear and/or phobia and fainting in children and adults. Design/Methods: A systematic review identified relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of children, adults, or both with high levels of needle fear, including phobia (if not available, then populations with other specific phobias were included). Critically important outcomes were self-reported fear specific to the feared situation and stimulus (psychological interventions) or fainting (applied muscle tension). Data were pooled using standardized mean difference (SMD) or relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The systematic review included 11 trials. In vivo exposure-based therapy for children 7 years and above showed benefit on specific fear (n=234; SMD: −1.71 [95% CI: −2.72, −0.7]). In vivo exposure-based therapy with adults reduced fear of needles posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.09 [−2.04, −0.14]) but not at 1-year follow-up (n=20; SMD: −0.28 [−1.16, 0.6]). Compared with single session, a benefit was observed for multiple sessions of exposure-based therapy posttreatment (n=93; SMD: −0.66 [−1.08, −0.24]) but not after 1 year (n=83; SMD: −0.37 [−0.87, 0.13]). Non in vivo e.g., imaginal exposure-based therapy in children reduced specific fear posttreatment (n=41; SMD: −0.88 [−1.7, −0.05]) and at 3 months (n=24; SMD: −0.89 [−1.73, −0.04]). Non in vivo exposure-based therapy for adults showed benefit on specific fear (n=68; SMD: −0.62 [−1.11, −0.14]) but not procedural fear (n=17; SMD: 0.18 [−0.87, 1.23]). Applied tension showed benefit on fainting posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.16 [−2.12, −0.19]) and after 1 year (n=20; SMD: −0.97 [−1.91, −0.03]) compared with exposure alone. Conclusions: Exposure-based psychological interventions and applied muscle tension show

  17. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by closure

  18. Task alters category representations in prefrontal but not high-level visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Bugatus, Lior; Weiner, Kevin S; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2017-04-04

    A central question in neuroscience is how cognitive tasks affect category representations across the human brain. Regions in lateral occipito-temporal cortex (LOTC), ventral temporal cortex (VTC), and ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex (VLFPC) constitute the extended "what" pathway, which is considered instrumental for visual category processing. However, it is unknown (1) whether distributed responses across LOTC, VTC, and VLPC explicitly represent category, task, or some combination of both, and (2) in what way representations across these subdivisions of the extended 'what' pathway may differ. To fill these gaps in knowledge, we scanned 12 participants using fMRI to test the effect of category and task on distributed responses across LOTC, VTC, and VLPFC. Results reveal that task and category modulate responses in both high-level visual regions, as well as prefrontal cortex. However, we found fundamentally different types of representations across the brain. Distributed responses in high-level visual regions are more strongly driven by category than task, and exhibit task-independent category representations. In contrast, distributed responses in prefrontal cortex are more strongly driven by task than category, and contain task-dependent category representations. Together, these findings of differential representations across the brain support a new idea that LOTC and VTC maintain stable and separable category representations allowing efficient processing of visual information, while prefrontal cortex contains flexible representations in which separable category information may emerge only when relevant to the task.

  19. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levich, R.A.; Stuckless, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  20. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste (Volume 1) Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Levich; J.S. Stuckless

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation.

  1. Horizontal tuning for faces originates in high-level Fusiform Face Area.

    PubMed

    Goffaux, Valerie; Duecker, Felix; Hausfeld, Lars; Schiltz, Christine; Goebel, Rainer

    2016-01-29

    Recent work indicates that the specialization of face visual perception relies on the privileged processing of horizontal angles of facial information. This suggests that stimulus properties assumed to be fully resolved in primary visual cortex (V1; e.g., orientation) in fact determine human vision until high-level stages of processing. To address this hypothesis, the present fMRI study explored the orientation sensitivity of V1 and high-level face-specialized ventral regions such as the Occipital Face Area (OFA) and Fusiform Face Area (FFA) to different angles of face information. Participants viewed face images filtered to retain information at horizontal, vertical or oblique angles. Filtered images were viewed upright, inverted and (phase-)scrambled. FFA responded most strongly to the horizontal range of upright face information; its activation pattern reliably separated horizontal from oblique ranges, but only when faces were upright. Moreover, activation patterns induced in the right FFA and the OFA by upright and inverted faces could only be separated based on horizontal information. This indicates that the specialized processing of upright face information in the OFA and FFA essentially relies on the encoding of horizontal facial cues. This pattern was not passively inherited from V1, which was found to respond less strongly to horizontal than other orientations likely due to adaptive whitening. Moreover, we found that orientation decoding accuracy in V1 was impaired for stimuli containing no meaningful shape. By showing that primary coding in V1 is influenced by high-order stimulus structure and that high-level processing is tuned to selective ranges of primary information, the present work suggests that primary and high-level levels of the visual system interact in order to modulate the processing of certain ranges of primary information depending on their relevance with respect to the stimulus and task at hand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  2. ATW system impact on high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.

    1992-12-01

    This report discusses the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept which aims at destruction of key long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste (HLW), both fission products and actinides. This focus makes it different from most other transmutation concepts which concentrate primarily on actinide burning. The ATW system uses an accelerator-driven, sub-critical assembly to create an intense thermal neutron environment for radionuclide transmutation. This feature allows rapid transmutation under low-inventory system conditions, which in turn, has a direct impact on the size of chemical separations and materials handling components of the system. Inventories in ATW are factors of eight to thirty times smaller than reactor systems of equivalent thermal power. Chemical separations systems are relatively small in scale and can be optimized to achieve high decontamination factors and minimized waste streams. The low-inventory feature also directly impacts material amounts remaining in the system at its end of life. In addition to its low-inventory operation, the accelerator-driven neutron source features of ATW are key to providing a sufficient level of neutrons to allow transmutation of long-lived fission products.

  3. Why consider subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, G. R.; Hollister, C. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Leinen, M.

    1980-01-01

    Large areas of the deep seabed warrant assessment as potential disposal sites for high-level radioactive waste because: (1) they are far from seismically and tectonically active lithospheric plate boundaries; (2) they are far from active or young volcanos; (3) they contain thick layers of very uniform fine-grained clays; (4) they are devoid of natural resources likely to be exploited in the forseeable future; (5) the geologic and oceanographic processes governing the deposition of sediments in such areas are well understood, and are remarkably insensitive to past oceanographic and climatic changes; and (6) sedmentary records of tens of millions of years of slow, uninterrupted deposition of fine grained clay support predictions of the future stability of such sites. Data accumulated to date on the permeability, ion-retardation properties, and mechanical strength of pelagic clay sediments indicate that they can act as a primary barrier to the escape of buried nuclides. Work in progress should determine within the current decade whether subseabed disposal is environmentally acceptable and technically feasible, as well as address the legal, political and social issues raised by this new concept.

  4. The ALICE High Level Trigger: status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Rohr, David; Gorbunov, Sergey; Breitner, Timo; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lindenstruth, Volker; Berzano, Dario

    2015-12-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online reconstruction, triggering and data compression system used in the ALICE experiment at CERN. Unique among the LHC experiments, it extensively uses modern coprocessor technologies like general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPU) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) in the data flow. Realtime data compression is performed using a cluster finder algorithm implemented on FPGA boards. These data, instead of raw clusters, are used in the subsequent processing and storage, resulting in a compression factor of around 4. Track finding is performed using a cellular automaton and a Kalman filter algorithm on GPGPU hardware, where both CUDA and OpenCL technologies can be used interchangeably. The ALICE upgrade requires further development of online concepts to include detector calibration and stronger data compression. The current HLT farm will be used as a test bed for online calibration and both synchronous and asynchronous processing frameworks already before the upgrade, during Run 2. For opportunistic use as a Grid computing site during periods of inactivity of the experiment a virtualisation based setup is deployed.

  5. High level bacterial contamination of secondary school students’ mobile phones

    PubMed Central

    Kõljalg, Siiri; Mändar, Rando; Sõber, Tiina; Rööp, Tiiu; Mändar, Reet

    2017-01-01

    Introduction While contamination of mobile phones in the hospital has been found to be common in several studies, little information about bacterial abundance on phones used in the community is available. Our aim was to quantitatively determine the bacterial contamination of secondary school students’ mobile phones. Methods Altogether 27 mobile phones were studied. The contact plate method and microbial identification using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer were used for culture studies. Quantitative PCR reaction for detection of universal 16S rRNA, Enterococcus faecalis 16S rRNA and Escherichia coli allantoin permease were performed, and the presence of tetracycline (tetA, tetB, tetM), erythromycin (ermB) and sulphonamide (sul1) resistance genes was assessed. Results We found a high median bacterial count on secondary school students’ mobile phones (10.5 CFU/cm2) and a median of 17,032 bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies per phone. Potentially pathogenic microbes (Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus cereus and Neisseria flavescens) were found among dominant microbes more often on phones with higher percentage of E. faecalis in total bacterial 16S rRNA. No differences in contamination level or dominating bacterial species between phone owner’s gender and between phone types (touch screen/keypad) were found. No antibiotic resistance genes were detected on mobile phone surfaces. Conclusion Quantitative study methods revealed high level bacterial contamination of secondary school students’ mobile phones. PMID:28626737

  6. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Aymanns, Simone; Mauerer, Stefanie; van Zandbergen, Ger; Wolz, Christiane; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb) promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  7. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    DOE PAGES

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a givenmore » level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.« less

  8. High-level simulation of JWST event-driven operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R.; Kinzel, W.

    2012-09-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) has an event-driven architecture: an onboard Observation Plan Executive (OPE) executes an Observation Plan (OP) consisting of a sequence of observing units (visits). During normal operations, ground action to update the OP is only expected to be necessary about once a week. This architecture is designed to tolerate uncertainty in visit duration, and occasional visit failures due to inability to acquire guide stars, without creating gaps in the observing timeline. The operations concept is complicated by the need for occasional scheduling of timecritical science and engineering visits that cannot tolerate much slippage without inducing gaps, and also by onboard momentum management. A prototype Python tool called the JWST Observation Plan Execution Simulator (JOPES) has recently been developed to simulate OP execution at a high level and analyze the response of the Observatory and OPE to both nominal and contingency scenarios. Incorporating both deterministic and stochastic behavior, JOPES has potential to be a powerful tool for several purposes: requirements analysis, system verification, systems engineering studies, and test data generation. It has already been successfully applied to a study of overhead estimation bias: whether to use conservative or average-case estimates for timing components that are inherently uncertain, such as those involving guide-star acquisition. JOPES is being enhanced to support interfaces to the operational Proposal Planning Subsystem (PPS) now being developed, with the objective of "closing the loop" between testing and simulation by feeding simulated event logs back into the PPS.

  9. Metrics associated with NIH funding: a high-level view

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To introduce the availability of grant-to-article linkage data associated with National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants and to perform a high-level analysis of the publication outputs and impacts associated with those grants. Design Articles were linked to the grants they acknowledge using the grant acknowledgment strings in PubMed using a parsing and matching process as embodied in the NIH Scientific Publication Information Retrieval & Evaluation System system. Additional data from PubMed and citation counts from Scopus were added to the linkage data. The data comprise 2 572 576 records from 1980 to 2009. Results The data show that synergies between NIH institutes are increasing over time; 29% of current articles acknowledge grants from multiple institutes. The median time lag to publication for a new grant is 3 years. Each grant contributes to approximately 1.7 articles per year, averaged over all grant types. Articles acknowledging US Public Health Service (PHS, which includes NIH) funding are cited twice as much as US-authored articles acknowledging no funding source. Articles acknowledging both PHS funding and a non-US government funding source receive on average 40% more citations that those acknowledging PHS funding sources alone. Conclusion The US PHS is effective at funding research with a higher-than-average impact. The data are amenable to further and much more detailed analysis. PMID:21527408

  10. Commissioning and first experiences of the ALICE High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbeck, Timm M.; Alice Hlt Collaboration

    2010-04-01

    For the ALICE heavy-ion experiment a large computing cluster will be used to perform the last triggering stages in the High Level Trigger (HLT). For the first year of operation the cluster consisted of about 100 multi-processing nodes with 4 or 8 CPU cores each, to be increased to more than 1000 nodes for the coming years of operation. During the commissioning phases of the detector, the preparations for first LHC beam, as well as during the periods of first LHC beam, the HLT has been used extensively already to reconstruct, compress, and display data from the different detectors. For example the HLT has been used to compress Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) data by a factor of 15, lossless, on the fly at a rate of more than 800 Hz. For ALICE's Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detector the HLT has been used to reconstruct tracks online and show the reconstructed tracks in an online event display. The event display can also display online reconstructed data from the Dimuon and Photon Spectrometer (PHOS) detectors. For the latter detector a first selection mechanism has also been put into place to select only events for forwarding to the online display in which data has passed through the PHOS detector. In this contribution we will present experiences and results from these commissioning phases.

  11. High Level Trigger Applications for the ALICE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, M.; Aamodt, K.; Alt, T.; Bablok, S.; Cheshkov, C.; Hille, P. T.; Lindenstruth, V.; Ovrebekk, G.; Ploskon, M.; Popescu, S.; Rohrich, D.; Steinbeck, T. M.; Thader, J.

    2008-02-01

    For the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN/Geneva, a high level trigger system (HLT) for online event selection and data compression has been developed and a computing cluster of several hundred dual-processor nodes is being installed. A major system integration test was carried out during the commissioning of the time projection chamber (TPC), where the HLT also provides a monitoring system. All major parts like a small computing cluster, hardware input devices, the online data transportation framework, and the HLT analysis could be tested successfully. A common interface for HLT processing components has been designed to run the components from either the online or offline analysis framework without changes. The interface adapts the component to the needs of the online processing and allows the developer to use the offline framework for easy development, debugging, and benchmarking. Following this approach, results can be compared directly. For the upcoming commissioning of the whole detector, the HLT is currently prepared to run online data analysis for the main detectors, e.g., the inner tracking system (ITS), the TPC, and the transition radiation detector (TRD). The HLT processing capability is indispensable for the photon spectrometer (PHOS), where the online pulse shape analysis reduces the data volume by a factor 20. A common monitoring framework is in place and detector calibration algorithms have been ported to the HLT. The paper describes briefly the architecture of the HLT system. It focuses on typical applications and component development.

  12. Hemipelvectomy: high-level amputation surgery and prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Matthew T; Kralovec, Michael E; Andrews, Karen L

    2014-07-01

    The hemipelvectomy, most commonly performed for pelvic tumor resection, is one of the most technically demanding and invasive surgical procedures performed today. Adequate soft tissue coverage and wound complications after hemipelvectomy are important considerations. Rehabilitation after hemipelvectomy is optimally managed by a multidisciplinary integrated team. Understanding the functional outcomes for this population assists the rehabilitation team to counsel patients, plan goals, and determine discharge needs. The most important rehabilitation goal is the optimal restoration of the patient's functional independence. Factors such as age, sex, etiology, level of amputation, and general health play important roles in determining prosthetic use. The three main criteria for successful prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with high-level amputation are comfort, function, and cosmesis. Recent advances in hip and knee joints have contributed to increased function. Prosthetic use after hemipelvectomy improves balance and decreases the need for a gait aid. Using a prosthesis helps maintain muscle strength and tone, cardiovascular health, and functional mobility. With new advances in prosthetic components, patients are choosing to use their prostheses for primary mobility.

  13. High Level Waste Feed Certification in Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Thien, Micheal G.; Wells, Beric E.; Adamson, Duane J.

    2010-03-01

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE’s River Protection Project (RPP) mission modeling and WTP facility modeling assume that individual 3785 cubic meter (1 million gallon) HLW feed tanks are homogenously mixed, representatively sampled, and consistently delivered to the WTP. It has been demonstrated that homogenous mixing of HLW sludge in Hanford DSTs is not likely achievable with the baseline design thereby causing representative sampling and consistent feed delivery to be more difficult. Inconsistent feed to the WTP could cause additional batch to batch operational adjustments that reduces operating efficiency and has the potential to increase the overall mission length. The Hanford mixing and sampling demonstration program will identify DST mixing performance capability, will evaluate representative sampling techniques, and will estimate feed batch consistency. An evaluation of demonstration program results will identify potential mission improvement considerations that will help ensure successful mission completion. This paper will discuss the history, progress, and future activities that will define and mitigate the mission risk.

  14. Wind resource quality affected by high levels of renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Diakov, Victor

    2015-06-17

    For solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind resources, the capacity factor is an important parameter describing the quality of the resource. As the share of variable renewable resources (such as PV and wind) on the electric system is increasing, so does curtailment (and the fraction of time when it cannot be avoided). At high levels of renewable generation, curtailments effectively change the practical measure of resource quality from capacity factor to the incremental capacity factor. The latter accounts only for generation during hours of no curtailment and is directly connected with the marginal capital cost of renewable generators for a given level of renewable generation during the year. The Western U.S. wind generation is analyzed hourly for a system with 75% of annual generation from wind, and it is found that the value for the system of resources with equal capacity factors can vary by a factor of 2, which highlights the importance of using the incremental capacity factor instead. Finally, the effect is expected to be more pronounced in smaller geographic areas (or when transmission limitations imposed) and less pronounced at lower levels of renewable energy in the system with less curtailment.

  15. Ultrafilter Conditions for High Level Waste Sludge Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2006-08-28

    An evaluation of the optimal filtration conditions was performed based on test data obtained from filtration of a High Level Waste Sludge sample from the Hanford tank farms. This evaluation was performed using the anticipated configuration for the Waste Treatment Plant at the Hanford site. Testing was performed to identify the optimal pressure drop and cross flow velocity for filtration at both high and low solids loading. However, this analysis indicates that the actual filtration rate achieved is relatively insensitive to these conditions under anticipated operating conditions. The maximum filter flux was obtained by adjusting the system control valve pressure from 400 to 650 kPa while the filter feed concentration increased from 5 to 20 wt%. However, operating the system with a constant control valve pressure drop of 500 kPa resulted in a less than 1% reduction in the average filter flux. Also note that allowing the control valve pressure to swing as much as +/- 20% resulted in less than a 5% decrease in filter flux.

  16. Vestibular contributions to high-level sensorimotor functions.

    PubMed

    Medendorp, W Pieter; Selen, Luc J P

    2017-02-02

    The vestibular system, which detects motion and orientation of the head in space, is known to be important in controlling gaze to stabilize vision, to ensure postural stability and to provide our sense of self-motion. While the brain's computations underlying these functions are extensively studied, the role of the vestibular system in higher level sensorimotor functions is less clear. This review covers new research on the vestibular influence on perceptual judgments, motor decisions, and the ability to learn multiple motor actions. Guided by concepts such as optimization, inference, estimation and control, we focus on how the brain determines causal relationships between memorized and visual representations in the updating of visual space, and how vestibular, visual and efferent motor information are integrated in the estimation of body motion. We also discuss evidence that these computations involve multiple coordinate representations, some of which can be probed in parietal cortex using neuronal oscillations derived from EEG. In addition, we describe work on decision making during self-motion, showing a clear modulation of bottom-up acceleration signals on decisions in the saccadic system. Finally, we consider the importance of vestibular signals as contextual cues in motor learning and recall. Taken together, these results emphasize the impact of vestibular information on high-level sensorimotor functions, and identify future directions for theoretical, behavioral, and neurophysiological investigations.

  17. Pupil responses to high-level image content.

    PubMed

    Naber, Marnix; Nakayama, Ken

    2013-05-17

    The link between arousal and pupil dilation is well studied, but it is less known that other cognitive processes can trigger pupil responses. Here we present evidence that pupil responses can be induced by high-level scene processing, independent of changes in low-level features or arousal. In Experiment 1, we recorded changes in pupil diameter of observers while they viewed a variety of natural scenes with or without a sun that were presented either upright or inverted. Image inversion had the strongest effect on the pupil responses. The pupil constricted more to the onset of upright images as compared to inverted images. Furthermore, the amplitudes of pupil constrictions to viewing images containing a sun were larger relative to control images. In Experiment 2, we presented cartoon versions of upright and inverted pictures that included either a sun or a moon. The image backgrounds were kept identical across conditions. Similar to Experiment 1, upright images triggered pupil constrictions with larger amplitudes than inverted images and images of the sun evoked greater pupil contraction than images of the moon. We suggest that the modulations of pupil responses were due to higher-level interpretations of image content.

  18. Potential for erosion corrosion of SRS high level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, P.E.

    1994-01-01

    SRS high-level radioactive waste tanks will not experience erosion corrosion to any significant degree during slurry pump operations. Erosion corrosion in carbon steel structures at reported pump discharge velocities is dominated by electrochemical (corrosion) processes. Interruption of those processes, as by the addition of corrosion inhibitors, sharply reduces the rate of metal loss from erosion corrosion. The well-inhibited SRS waste tanks have a near-zero general corrosion rate, and therefore will be essentially immune to erosion corrosion. The experimental data on carbon steel erosion corrosion most relevant to SRS operations was obtained at the Hanford Site on simulated Purex waste. A metal loss rate of 2.4 mils per year was measured at a temperature of 102 C and a slurry velocity comparable to calculated SRS slurry velocities on ground specimens of the same carbon steel used in SRS waste tanks. Based on these data and the much lower expected temperatures, the metal loss rate of SRS tanks under waste removal and processing conditions should be insignificant, i.e. less than 1 mil per year.

  19. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters

    SciTech Connect

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Identification of areas with high levels of untreated dental caries.

    PubMed

    Ellwood, R P; O'Mullane, D M

    1996-02-01

    In order to examine the geographical variation of dental health within 10 county districts in North Wales, 3538 children were examined. The associations between three demographic indicators, based on the 1981 OPCS census, and dental health outcomes were assessed for electoral wards within the county districts. The Townsend and Jarman indices were the first two indicators employed and the third was based on a mathematical model representing the variation in the mean number of untreated decayed surfaces per person for the wards. This model was developed using the children examined in the five most westerly county districts. Using the data derived from the five most easterly county districts, the three indicators were assessed. All three showed strong correlations (r > or = 0.88) with dental health. These results indicate that measures of dental health based on large administrative units may obscure variation within them. It is concluded that geographical methods of this type may be useful for targeting dental resources at small areas with high levels of need.

  1. High-Level Performance Modeling of SAR Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Curtis

    2006-01-01

    SAUSAGE (Still Another Utility for SAR Analysis that s General and Extensible) is a computer program for modeling (see figure) the performance of synthetic- aperture radar (SAR) or interferometric synthetic-aperture radar (InSAR or IFSAR) systems. The user is assumed to be familiar with the basic principles of SAR imaging and interferometry. Given design parameters (e.g., altitude, power, and bandwidth) that characterize a radar system, the software predicts various performance metrics (e.g., signal-to-noise ratio and resolution). SAUSAGE is intended to be a general software tool for quick, high-level evaluation of radar designs; it is not meant to capture all the subtleties, nuances, and particulars of specific systems. SAUSAGE was written to facilitate the exploration of engineering tradeoffs within the multidimensional space of design parameters. Typically, this space is examined through an iterative process of adjusting the values of the design parameters and examining the effects of the adjustments on the overall performance of the system at each iteration. The software is designed to be modular and extensible to enable consideration of a variety of operating modes and antenna beam patterns, including, for example, strip-map and spotlight SAR acquisitions, polarimetry, burst modes, and squinted geometries.

  2. Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The Defense High-Level Waste Leaching Mechanisms Program brought six major US laboratories together for three years of cooperative research. The participants reached a consensus that solubility of the leached glass species, particularly solubility in the altered surface layer, is the dominant factor controlling the leaching behavior of defense waste glass in a system in which the flow of leachant is constrained, as it will be in a deep geologic repository. Also, once the surface of waste glass is contacted by ground water, the kinetics of establishing solubility control are relatively rapid. The concentrations of leached species reach saturation, or steady-state concentrations, within a few months to a year at 70 to 90/sup 0/C. Thus, reaction kinetics, which were the main subject of earlier leaching mechanisms studies, are now shown to assume much less importance. The dominance of solubility means that the leach rate is, in fact, directly proportional to ground water flow rate. Doubling the flow rate doubles the effective leach rate. This relationship is expected to obtain in most, if not all, repository situations.

  3. The GRAVITY instrument software/high-level software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtscher, Leonard; Wieprecht, Ekkehard; Ott, Thomas; Kok, Yitping; Yazici, Senol; Anugu, Narsireddy; Dembet, Roderick; Fedou, Pierre; Lacour, Sylvestre; Ott, Jürgen; Paumard, Thibaut; Lapeyrere, Vincent; Kervella, Pierre; Abuter, Roberto; Pozna, Eszter; Eisenhauer, Frank; Blind, Nicolas; Genzel, Reinhard; Gillessen, Stefan; Hans, Oliver; Haug, Marcus; Haussmann, Frank; Kellner, Stefan; Lippa, Magdalena; Pfuhl, Oliver; Sturm, Eckhard; Weber, Johannes; Amorim, Antonio; Brandner, Wolfgang; Rousselet-Perraut, Karine; Perrin, Guy S.; Straubmeier, Christian; Schöller, Markus

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY is the four-beam, near-infrared, AO-assisted, fringe tracking, astrometric and imaging instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). It is requiring the development of one of the most complex instrument software systems ever built for an ESO instrument. Apart from its many interfaces and interdependencies, one of the most challenging aspects is the overall performance and stability of this complex system. The three infrared detectors and the fast reflective memory network (RMN) recorder contribute a total data rate of up to 20 MiB/s accumulating to a maximum of 250 GiB of data per night. The detectors, the two instrument Local Control Units (LCUs) as well as the five LCUs running applications under TAC (Tools for Advanced Control) architecture, are interconnected with fast Ethernet, RMN fibers and dedicated fiber connections as well as signals for the time synchronization. Here we give a simplified overview of all subsystems of GRAVITY and their interfaces and discuss two examples of high-level applications during observations: the acquisition procedure and the gathering and merging of data to the final FITS file.

  4. The LHCb Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger Processing Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Gaspar, C.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN collects collisions of particle bunches at 40 MHz. After a first level of hardware trigger with an output rate of 1 MHz, the physically interesting collisions are selected by running dedicated trigger algorithms in the High Level Trigger (HLT) computing farm. This farm consists of up to roughly 25000 CPU cores in roughly 1750 physical nodes each equipped with up to 4 TB local storage space. This work describes the LHCb online system with an emphasis on the developments implemented during the current long shutdown (LS1). We will elaborate the architecture to treble the available CPU power of the HLT farm and the technicalities to determine and verify precise calibration and alignment constants which are fed to the HLT event selection procedure. We will describe how the constants are fed into a two stage HLT event selection facility using extensively the local disk buffering capabilities on the worker nodes. With the installed disk buffers, the CPU resources can be used during periods of up to ten days without beams. These periods in the past accounted to more than 70% of the total time.

  5. Cytotoxicity assessment of residual high-level disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Mizuyuki; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Kawamukai, Emiko; Quan, Glenlelyn; Furuta, Taro

    2013-01-01

    Some studies show the uptake of disinfectants on medical devices but no studies on their cytotoxicity have been reported. This study aimed to assess that cytotoxicity in a 3-dimensional culture system using HeLa cells grown in matrices composed of collagen. Plastic materials were soaked in the use solutions of the widely used high-level disinfectants, glutaraldehyde (GA), ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA) and peracetic acid (PAA). After being rinsed, they were allowed to dry and were embedded into the cell medium to investigate the cytotoxicity of the residual disinfectants. Cytotoxicity was observed with the polyvinyl chloride, polyurethane and silicon tubes soaked in GA and OPA, indicating that both disinfectants were absorbed in the test pieces, whereas for PAA, none was observed. As for the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubes, no disinfectant displayed cytotoxicity. GA and OPA are primary irritants, having a potential to cause anaphylaxis and other forms of allergic reactions. There should be consideration not only about the toxicity of the residual disinfectant from poor rinsing, but also about the toxicity that would result from the disinfectants that were absorbed and consequently released from the medical devices or materials.

  6. The IFR pyroprocessing for high-level waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Laidler, J.J. )

    1993-01-01

    The process developed for the recycle of integral fast reactor (IFR) spent fuel utilizes a combination of pyrometallurgical and electrochemical methods and has been termed pyroprocessing. The process has been operated at full scale with simulated spent fuel using nonradioactive fission product elements. A comprehensive demonstration of the pyroprocessing of irradiated IFR fuel will begin later this year. Pyroprocessing involves the anodic dissolution of all the constituent elements of the IFR spent fuel and controlled electrotransport (electrorefining) to separate the actinide elements from the fission products present in the spent fuel. The process be applied to the processing of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel as well, requiring only the addition of a reduction step to convert the LWR fuel as well, requiring only the addition of a reduction step to convert the LWR oxide fuel to metallic form and a separation step to separate uranium from the transuranic (TRU) elements. The TRU elements are then recovered by electroefining in the same manner as the actinides from the IFR high-level wastes arising from pyroprocessing are virtually free of actinides, and the volume of the wastes is minimized by the intrinsic characteristics of the processing of the processing method.

  7. Qualification of Innovative High Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, D.; Gokaltun, S.; Varona, J.; Awwad, A.; Roelant, D.; Srivastava, R.

    2008-07-01

    In the past, some of the pipelines have plugged during high level waste (HLW) transfers resulting in schedule delays and increased costs. Furthermore, pipeline plugging has been cited by the 'best and brightest' technical review as one of the major issues that can result in unplanned outages at the Waste Treatment Plant causing inconsistent operation. As the DOE moves toward a more active high level waste retrieval, the site engineers will be faced with increasing cross-site pipeline waste slurry transfers that will result in increased probability of a pipeline getting plugged. Hence, availability of a pipeline unplugging tool/technology is crucial to ensure smooth operation of the waste transfers and in ensuring tank farm cleanup milestones are met. FIU had earlier tested and evaluated various unplugging technologies through an industry call. Based on mockup testing, two technologies were identified that could withstand the rigors of operation in a radioactive environment and with the ability to handle sharp 90 elbows. We present results of the second phase of detailed testing and evaluation of pipeline unplugging technologies and the objective is to qualify these pipeline unplugging technologies for subsequent deployment at a DOE facility. The current phase of testing and qualification comprises of a heavily instrumented 3-inch diameter (full-scale) pipeline facilitating extensive data acquisition for design optimization and performance evaluation, as it applies to three types of plugs atypical of the DOE HLW waste. Furthermore, the data from testing at three different lengths of pipe in conjunction with the physics of the process will assist in modeling the unplugging phenomenon that will then be used to scale-up process parameters and system variables for longer and site typical pipe lengths, which can extend as much as up to 19,000 ft. Detailed information resulting from the testing will provide the DOE end-user with sufficient data and understanding of the

  8. Seasonal changes in stress indicators in high level football.

    PubMed

    Faude, O; Kellmann, M; Ammann, T; Schnittker, R; Meyer, T

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed at describing changes in stress and performance indicators throughout a competitive season in high level football. 15 players (19.5±3.0 years, 181±5 cm, 75.7±9.0 kg) competing under professional circumstances were tested at baseline and 3 times during the season 2008/09 (in-season 1, 2, 3). Testing consisted of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (Total Stress and Recovery score), vertical jump tests (counter movement and drop jump (DJ)), and a maximal ramp-like running test. Average match exposure was higher during a 3-weeks period prior to in-season 3 compared to in-season 1 and 2 (1.5 vs. 1 h/week, p=0.05). Total Stress score was elevated at in-season 1 and 2 compared to baseline (p<0.01) with a further increase at in-season 3 (p<0.03; generalized eta squared (η(2)(g))=0.37). Total Recovery score was decreased at in-season 1 and 3 compared to baseline (p<0.05; η(2)(g)=0.21). Maximal running velocity (V(max)) and jumping heights were not significantly affected (η(2)(g)≤0.04). Changes in DJ height and V (max) between baseline and in-season 3 were correlated with the corresponding changes in Total Stress score (r=-0.55 and r=-0.61, p<0.03). Usual match exposure during a professional football season does not induce relevant changes in performance indicators. Accumulated stress and a lack of recovery towards the end of a season might be indicated by psychometric deteriorations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

    2015-01-01

    High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself. PMID:25699232

  10. High-Level Waste Systems Plan. Revision 7

    SciTech Connect

    Brooke, J.N.; Gregory, M.V.; Paul, P.; Taylor, G.; Wise, F.E.; Davis, N.R.; Wells, M.N.

    1996-10-01

    This revision of the High-Level Waste (HLW) System Plan aligns SRS HLW program planning with the DOE Savannah River (DOE-SR) Ten Year Plan (QC-96-0005, Draft 8/6), which was issued in July 1996. The objective of the Ten Year Plan is to complete cleanup at most nuclear sites within the next ten years. The two key principles of the Ten Year Plan are to accelerate the reduction of the most urgent risks to human health and the environment and to reduce mortgage costs. Accordingly, this System Plan describes the HLW program that will remove HLW from all 24 old-style tanks, and close 20 of those tanks, by 2006 with vitrification of all HLW by 2018. To achieve these goals, the DWPF canister production rate is projected to climb to 300 canisters per year starting in FY06, and remain at that rate through the end of the program in FY18, (Compare that to past System Plans, in which DWPF production peaked at 200 canisters per year, and the program did not complete until 2026.) An additional $247M (FY98 dollars) must be made available as requested over the ten year planning period, including a one-time $10M to enhance Late Wash attainment. If appropriate resources are made available, facility attainment issues are resolved and regulatory support is sufficient, then completion of the HLW program in 2018 would achieve a $3.3 billion cost savings to DOE, versus the cost of completing the program in 2026. Facility status information is current as of October 31, 1996.

  11. High-level waste issues and resolutions document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The High-Level Waste (HLW) Issues and Resolutions Document recognizes US Department of Energy (DOE) complex-wide HLW issues and offers potential corrective actions for resolving these issues. Westinghouse Management and Operations (M&O) Contractors are effectively managing HLW for the Department of Energy at four sites: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), and Hanford Reservation. Each site is at varying stages of processing HLW into a more manageable form. This HLW Issues and Resolutions Document identifies five primary issues that must be resolved in order to reach the long-term objective of HLW repository disposal. As the current M&O contractor at DOE`s most difficult waste problem sites, Westinghouse recognizes that they have the responsibility to help solve some of the complexes` HLW problems in a cost effective manner by encouraging the M&Os to work together by sharing expertise, eliminating duplicate efforts, and sharing best practices. Pending an action plan, Westinghouse M&Os will take the initiative on those corrective actions identified as the responsibility of an M&O. This document captures issues important to the management of HLW. The proposed resolutions contained within this document set the framework for the M&Os and DOE work cooperatively to develop an action plan to solve some of the major complex-wide problems. Dialogue will continue between the M&Os, DOE, and other regulatory agencies to work jointly toward the goal of storing, treating, and immobilizing HLW for disposal in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost effective manner.

  12. Engineering neural systems for high-level problem solving.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Jared; Reggia, James

    2016-07-01

    There is a long-standing, sometimes contentious debate in AI concerning the relative merits of a symbolic, top-down approach vs. a neural, bottom-up approach to engineering intelligent machine behaviors. While neurocomputational methods excel at lower-level cognitive tasks (incremental learning for pattern classification, low-level sensorimotor control, fault tolerance and processing of noisy data, etc.), they are largely non-competitive with top-down symbolic methods for tasks involving high-level cognitive problem solving (goal-directed reasoning, metacognition, planning, etc.). Here we take a step towards addressing this limitation by developing a purely neural framework named galis. Our goal in this work is to integrate top-down (non-symbolic) control of a neural network system with more traditional bottom-up neural computations. galis is based on attractor networks that can be "programmed" with temporal sequences of hand-crafted instructions that control problem solving by gating the activity retention of, communication between, and learning done by other neural networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that it can be applied successfully to solve sequential card matching problems, using both human performance and a top-down symbolic algorithm as experimental controls. Solving this kind of problem makes use of top-down attention control and the binding together of visual features in ways that are easy for symbolic AI systems but not for neural networks to achieve. Our model can not only be instructed on how to solve card matching problems successfully, but its performance also qualitatively (and sometimes quantitatively) matches the performance of both human subjects that we had perform the same task and the top-down symbolic algorithm that we used as an experimental control. We conclude that the core principles underlying the galis framework provide a promising approach to engineering purely neurocomputational systems for problem

  13. Review of high-level waste form properties. [146 bibliographies

    SciTech Connect

    Rusin, J.M.

    1980-12-01

    This report is a review of waste form options for the immobilization of high-level-liquid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. This review covers the status of international research and development on waste forms as of May 1979. Although the emphasis in this report is on waste form properties, process parameters are discussed where they may affect final waste form properties. A summary table is provided listing properties of various nuclear waste form options. It is concluded that proposed waste forms have properties falling within a relatively narrow range. In regard to crystalline versus glass waste forms, the conclusion is that either glass of crystalline materials can be shown to have some advantage when a single property is considered; however, at this date no single waste form offers optimum properties over the entire range of characteristics investigated. A long-term effort has been applied to the development of glass and calcine waste forms. Several additional waste forms have enough promise to warrant continued research and development to bring their state of development up to that of glass and calcine. Synthetic minerals, the multibarrier approach with coated particles in a metal matrix, and high pressure-high temperature ceramics offer potential advantages and need further study. Although this report discusses waste form properties, the total waste management system should be considered in the final selection of a waste form option. Canister design, canister materials, overpacks, engineered barriers, and repository characteristics, as well as the waste form, affect the overall performance of a waste management system. These parameters were not considered in this comparison.

  14. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition.

  15. High-level disinfection of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing.

    PubMed

    Chiu, King-Wah; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Chiou, Shue-Shian

    2015-02-20

    High level disinfection (HLD) of the gastrointestinal (GI) endoscope is not simply a slogan, but rather is a form of experimental monitoring-based medicine. By definition, GI endoscopy is a semicritical medical device. Hence, such medical devices require major quality assurance for disinfection. And because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods, such as liquid chemical germicide, must be used rather than steam sterilization. In summarizing guidelines for infection prevention and control for GI endoscopy, there are three important steps that must be highlighted: manual washing, HLD with automated endoscope reprocessor, and drying. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because compared to any other medical device, the GI endoscope is associated with more outbreaks linked to inadequate cleaning or disinfecting during HLD. Both experimental evaluation on the surveillance bacterial cultures and in-use clinical results have shown that, the monitoring of the stringent processes to prevent and control infection is an essential component of the broader strategy to ensure the delivery of safe endoscopy services, because endoscope reprocessing is a multistep procedure involving numerous factors that can interfere with its efficacy. Based on our years of experience in the surveillance of culture monitoring of endoscopic reprocessing, we aim in this study to carefully describe what details require attention in the GI endoscopy disinfection and to share our experience so that patients can be provided with high quality and safe medical practices. Quality management encompasses all aspects of pre- and post-procedural care including the efficiency of the endoscopy unit and reprocessing area, as well as the endoscopic procedure itself.

  16. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  17. Developing a Non-Formal Education and Literacy Database in the Asia-Pacific Region. Final Report of the Expert Group Consultation Meeting (Dhaka, Bangladesh, December 15-18, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The objectives of the Expert Group Consultation Meeting for Developing a Non-Formal Education and Literacy Database in the Asia-Pacific Region were: to exchange information and review the state-of-the-art in the field of data collection, analysis and indicators of non-formal education and literacy programs; to examine and review the set of…

  18. The Relationship of the State Coordinating Agency with the Executive and Legislative Divisions of State Government in Meeting Budget Needs of Higher Education Systems. Proceedings of Ten-State Regional Conference (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, December 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Higher Education Executive Officers Association.

    Proceedings of a 10-state 1976 regional conference on the relationship of the state coordinating agency with the executive and legislative divisions of state government in meeting budget needs for higher education systems are presented as part of an inservice education program. The participating states were Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Kansas,…

  19. Leading Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John; Heynderickx, James

    Chapter 13 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter offers suggestions to help educators improve their performance in meetings, both as group leaders and as participants. Well-run meetings can rejuvenate an organization, leading to improved teamwork, communication, and morale. A poor meeting, on the other hand, can have a…

  20. Managing Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Meetings are a means of giving people a chance to contribute. Meetings are also the nursery where the people's skills of listening, speaking, and building good working relationships are honed. They are where people practice being courteously challenging and confident, and they are where people are fascinated and fascinating. Meetings are where…

  1. Comparative genome analysis of high-level penicillin resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Tait-Kamradt, Amelia G; Cronan, Melissa; Dougherty, Thomas J

    2009-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with very high levels of penicillin resistance (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] >or=8 microg/ml) emerged in the 1990 s. Previous studies have traced the changes in penicillin binding proteins (PBP) that result in decreased penicillin susceptibility, and the role of several PBP genes in high-level resistance. In the present study, we investigated the changes that occurred at the two highest levels of penicillin resistance using NimbleGen's Comparative Genome Sequencing (CGS) technology. DNA from a highly resistant (Pen MIC 16 microg/ml) pneumococcus was used to serially transform the R6 strain to high-level resistance. Four distinct levels of penicillin resistance above the susceptible R6 strain (MIC 0.016 microg/ml) were identified. Using CGS technology, the entire genome sequences of the two highest levels of resistant transformants were examined for changes associated with the resistance phenotypes. At the third level of resistance, changes in PBPs 1a, 2b, and 2x were found, very similar to previous reports. At the fourth resistance level, two additional changes were observed in the R6 transformants. More changes were observed in PBP2x, as well as in peptidoglycan GlcNAc deacetylase (pdgA), which had a missense mutation in the coding region. Genetic transformation with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products generated from the high-level resistant parent containing either the additional PBP2x or mutant pdgA gene did not increase the MIC of the third-level transformant. Only when both PCR products were simultaneously transformed into the third-level transformant did colonies emerge that were at the highest level of resistance (16-32 microg/ml), equivalent to the highly resistant parent strain. This is the first instance of the involvement of a variant pdgA gene in penicillin resistance. It is also clear from these experiments and the literature that there are multiple paths to the pneumococcus achieving high-level

  2. JET MIXING ANALYSIS FOR SRS HIGH-LEVEL WASTE RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    2011-07-05

    The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank to ensure uniformity of the discharge stream. Mixing is accomplished with one to four slurry pumps located within the tank liquid. The slurry pump may be fixed in position or they may rotate depending on the specific mixing requirements. The high-level waste in Tank 48 contains insoluble solids in the form of potassium tetraphenyl borate compounds (KTPB), monosodium titanate (MST), and sludge. Tank 48 is equipped with 4 slurry pumps, which are intended to suspend the insoluble solids prior to transfer of the waste to the Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) process. The FBSR process is being designed for a normal feed of 3.05 wt% insoluble solids. A chemical characterization study has shown the insoluble solids concentration is approximately 3.05 wt% when well-mixed. The project is requesting a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) mixing study from SRNL to determine the solids behavior with 2, 3, and 4 slurry pumps in operation and an estimate of the insoluble solids concentration at the suction of the transfer pump to the FBSR process. The impact of cooling coils is not considered in the current work. The work consists of two principal objectives by taking a CFD approach: (1) To estimate insoluble solids concentration transferred from Tank 48 to the Waste Feed Tank in the FBSR process and (2) To assess the impact of different combinations of four slurry pumps on insoluble solids suspension and mixing in Tank 48. For this work, several different combinations of a maximum of four pumps are considered to determine the resulting flow patterns and local flow velocities which are thought to be associated with sludge particle mixing. Two different elevations of pump nozzles are used for an assessment of the flow patterns on the tank mixing. Pump design and operating parameters used for the analysis are summarized in Table 1. The baseline

  3. Meeting Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, Christiaan; Aspaas, Per Pippin

    2013-06-01

    On 2-3 June 2012, the University of Tromsoe hosted a conference about the cultural and scientific history of the transits of Venus. The conference took place in Tromsoe for two very specific reasons. First and foremost, the last transit of Venus of this century lent itself to be observed on the disc of the Midnight Sun in this part of Europe during the night of 5 to 6 June 2012. Second, several Venus transit expeditions in this region were central in the global enterprise of measuring the scale of the solar system in the eighteenth century. The site of the conference was the Nordnorsk Vitensenter (Science Centre of Northern Norway), which is located at the campus of the University of Tromsoe. After the conference, participants were invited to either stay in Tromsoe until the midnight of 5-6 June, or take part in a Venus transit voyage in Finnmark, during which the historical sites Vardoe, Hammerfest, and the North Cape were to be visited. The post-conference program culminated with the participants observing the transit of Venus in or near Tromsoe, Vardoe and even from a plane near Alta. These Proceedings contain a selection of the lectures delivered on 2-3 June 2012, and also a narrative description of the transit viewing from Tromsoe, Vardoe and Alta. The title of the book, Meeting Venus, refers the title of a play by the Hungarian film director, screenwriter and opera director Istvan Szabo (1938-). The autobiographical movie Meeting Venus (1991) directed by him is based on his experience directing Tannhauser at the Paris Opera in 1984. The movie brings the story of an imaginary international opera company that encounters a never ending series of difficulties and pitfalls that symbolise the challenges of any multicultural and international endeavour. As is evident from the many papers presented in this book, Meeting Venus not only contains the epic tales of the transits of the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it also covers the conference

  4. Organization of high-level visual cortex in human infants

    PubMed Central

    Deen, Ben; Richardson, Hilary; Dilks, Daniel D.; Takahashi, Atsushi; Keil, Boris; Wald, Lawrence L.; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    How much of the structure of the human mind and brain is already specified at birth, and how much arises from experience? In this article, we consider the test case of extrastriate visual cortex, where a highly systematic functional organization is present in virtually every normal adult, including regions preferring behaviourally significant stimulus categories, such as faces, bodies, and scenes. Novel methods were developed to scan awake infants with fMRI, while they viewed multiple categories of visual stimuli. Here we report that the visual cortex of 4–6-month-old infants contains regions that respond preferentially to abstract categories (faces and scenes), with a spatial organization similar to adults. However, precise response profiles and patterns of activity across multiple visual categories differ between infants and adults. These results demonstrate that the large-scale organization of category preferences in visual cortex is adult-like within a few months after birth, but is subsequently refined through development. PMID:28072399

  5. Development of Crystal-Tolerant High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Schaible, Micah J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Arrigoni, Alyssa L.; Tate, Rachel M.

    2010-12-17

    Twenty five glasses were formulated. They were batched from HLW AZ-101 simulant or raw chemicals and melted and tested with a series of tests to elucidate the effect of spinel-forming components (Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, and Zn), Al, and noble metals (Rh2O3 and RuO2) on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the high-level waste (HLW) melter. In addition, the processing properties of glasses, such as the viscosity and TL, were measured as a function of temperature and composition. Furthermore, the settling of spinel crystals in transparent low-viscosity fluids was studied at room temperature to access the shape factor and hindered settling coefficient of spinel crystals in the Stokes equation. The experimental results suggest that Ni is the most troublesome component of all the studied spinel-forming components producing settling layers of up to 10.5 mm in just 20 days in Ni-rich glasses if noble metals or a higher concentration of Fe was not introduced in the glass. The layer of this thickness can potentially plug the bottom of the riser, preventing glass from being discharged from the melter. The noble metals, Fe, and Al were the components that significantly slowed down or stopped the accumulation of spinel at the bottom. Particles of Rh2O3 and RuO2, hematite and nepheline, acted as nucleation sites significantly increasing the number of crystals and therefore decreasing the average crystal size. The settling rate of ≤10-μm crystal size around the settling velocity of crystals was too low to produce thick layers. The experimental data for the thickness of settled layers in the glasses prepared from AZ-101 simulant were used to build a linear empirical model that can predict crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass. The developed model predicts the thicknesses of accumulated layers quite well, R2 = 0.985, and can be become an efficient tool for the formulation

  6. Today's Environmental Technologies-Innovative Solutions for Regional Issues, U.S. EPA ETV and SBIR Programs Regional Workshop, October 7-8, 2008, U.S. EPA Region 2, New York City, New York, Meeting Summary Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) and Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Programs hosted a workshop on October 7–8, 2008, at the EPA Region 2 office in New York City, New York. The goals of the workshop were to: (1) ...

  7. Today's Environmental Technologies-Innovative Solutions for Regional Issues, U.S. EPA ETV and SBIR Programs Regional Workshop, October 7-8, 2008, U.S. EPA Region 2, New York City, New York, Meeting Summary Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) and Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Programs hosted a workshop on October 7–8, 2008, at the EPA Region 2 office in New York City, New York. The goals of the workshop were to: (1) ...

  8. Exceptionally high levels of recombination across the honey bee genome.

    PubMed

    Beye, Martin; Gattermeier, Irene; Hasselmann, Martin; Gempe, Tanja; Schioett, Morten; Baines, John F; Schlipalius, David; Mougel, Florence; Emore, Christine; Rueppell, Olav; Sirviö, Anu; Guzmán-Novoa, Ernesto; Hunt, Greg; Solignac, Michel; Page, Robert E

    2006-11-01

    The first draft of the honey bee genome sequence and improved genetic maps are utilized to analyze a genome displaying 10 times higher levels of recombination (19 cM/Mb) than previously analyzed genomes of higher eukaryotes. The exceptionally high recombination rate is distributed genome-wide, but varies by two orders of magnitude. Analysis of chromosome, sequence, and gene parameters with respect to recombination showed that local recombination rate is associated with distance to the telomere, GC content, and the number of simple repeats as described for low-recombining genomes. Recombination rate does not decrease with chromosome size. On average 5.7 recombination events per chromosome pair per meiosis are found in the honey bee genome. This contrasts with a wide range of taxa that have a uniform recombination frequency of about 1.6 per chromosome pair. The excess of recombination activity does not support a mechanistic role of recombination in stabilizing pairs of homologous chromosome during chromosome pairing. Recombination rate is associated with gene size, suggesting that introns are larger in regions of low recombination and may improve the efficacy of selection in these regions. Very few transposons and no retrotransposons are present in the high-recombining genome. We propose evolutionary explanations for the exceptionally high genome-wide recombination rate.

  9. Comparison of potential health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.; Smith, E.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1984-12-31

    A comparative assessment has been performed of the potential long- and short-term health and safety impacts of different disposal options for defense high-level wastes. Conservative models and assumptions were used. The assessment suggests that considerations of health and safety will not be significant in choosing among disposal options, primarily because of the need to meet stringent standards in all cases. Rather, the ease and cost of assuring compliance of a particular disposal option with health and safety standards may be a more important factor. 11 references.

  10. Preliminary Waste Form Compliance Plan for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    B. A. Staples; T. P. O'Holleran

    1999-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has specific technical and documentation requirements for high-level waste (HLW) that is to be placed in a federal repository. This document describes in general terms the strategy to be used at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that vitrified HLW, if produced at the INEEL, meets these requirements. Waste form, canister, quality assurance, and documentation specifications are discussed. Compliance strategy is given, followed by an overview of how this strategy would be implemented for each specification.

  11. Electric Grid Expansion Planning with High Levels of Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W.; You, Shutang; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Liu, Yilu

    2016-02-01

    Renewables are taking a large proportion of generation capacity in U.S. power grids. As their randomness has increasing influence on power system operation, it is necessary to consider their impact on system expansion planning. To this end, this project studies the generation and transmission expansion co-optimization problem of the US Eastern Interconnection (EI) power grid with a high wind power penetration rate. In this project, the generation and transmission expansion problem for the EI system is modeled as a mixed-integer programming (MIP) problem. This study analyzed a time series creation method to capture the diversity of load and wind power across balancing regions in the EI system. The obtained time series can be easily introduced into the MIP co-optimization problem and then solved robustly through available MIP solvers. Simulation results show that the proposed time series generation method and the expansion co-optimization model and can improve the expansion result significantly after considering the diversity of wind and load across EI regions. The improved expansion plan that combines generation and transmission will aid system planners and policy makers to maximize the social welfare. This study shows that modelling load and wind variations and diversities across balancing regions will produce significantly different expansion result compared with former studies. For example, if wind is modeled in more details (by increasing the number of wind output levels) so that more wind blocks are considered in expansion planning, transmission expansion will be larger and the expansion timing will be earlier. Regarding generation expansion, more wind scenarios will slightly reduce wind generation expansion in the EI system and increase the expansion of other generation such as gas. Also, adopting detailed wind scenarios will reveal that it may be uneconomic to expand transmission networks for transmitting a large amount of wind power through a long distance

  12. Corrosion issues in high-level nuclear waste containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asl, Samin Sharifi

    In this dissertation different aspects of corrosion and electrochemistry of copper, candidate canister material in Scandinavian high-level nuclear waste disposal program, including the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions that are predicted to occur in the practical system have been studied. A comprehensive thermodynamic study of copper in contact with granitic groundwater of the type and composition that is expected in the Forsmark repository in Sweden has been performed. Our primary objective was to ascertain whether copper would exist in the thermodynamically immune state in the repository, in which case corrosion could not occur and the issue of corrosion in the assessment of the storage technology would be moot. In spite of the fact that metallic copper has been found to exist for geological times in granitic geological formations, copper is well-known to be activated from the immune state to corrode by specific species that may exist in the environment. The principal activator of copper is known to be sulfur in its various forms, including sulfide (H2S, HS-, S2-), polysulfide (H2Sx, HSx -, Sx 2-), poly sulfur thiosulfate ( SxO3 2-), and polythionates (SxO6 2-). A comprehensive study of this aspect of copper chemistry has never been reported, and yet an understanding of this issue is vital for assessing whether copper is a suitable material for fabricating canisters for the disposal of HLNW. Our study identifies and explores those species that activate copper; these species include sulfur-containing entities as well as other, non-sulfur species that may be present in the repository. The effects of temperature, solution pH, and hydrogen pressure on the kinetics of the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) on copper in borate buffer solution have been studied by means of steady-state polarization measurements, including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In order to obtain electrokinetic parameters, such as the exchange current density and the

  13. Perspectives on the closed fuel cycle Implications for high-level waste matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gras, Jean-Marie; Quang, Richard Do; Masson, Hervé; Lieven, Thierry; Ferry, Cécile; Poinssot, Christophe; Debes, Michel; Delbecq, Jean-Michel

    2007-05-01

    Nuclear energy accounts for 80% of electricity production in France, generating approximately 1150 t of spent fuel for an electrical output of 420 TWh. Based on a reprocessing-conditioning-recycling strategy, the orientations taken by Électricité de France (EDF) for the mid-term and the far-future are to keep the fleet performances at the highest level, and to maintain the nuclear option fully open by the replacement of present pressurized water reactor (PWR) by new light water reactor (LWR), such as the evolutionary pressurized reactor (EPR) and future Generation IV designs. Adaptations of waste materials to new requirements will come with these orientations in order to meet long-term energy sustainability. In particular, waste materials and spent fuels are expected to meet increased requirements in comparison with the present situation. So the treatment of higher burn-up UO2 spent fuel and MOX fuel requires determining the performances of glass and other matrices according to several criteria: chemical 'digestibility' (i.e. capacity of glass to incorporate fission products and minor actinides without loss of quality), resistance to alpha self-irradiation, residual power in view of disposal. Considering the long-term evolution of spent MOX fuel in storage, the helium production, the influence of irradiation damages accumulation and the evolution of the microstructure of the fuel pellet need to be known, as well as for the future fuels. Further, the eventual transmutation of minor actinides in fast neutron reactors (FR) of Generation IV, if its interest in optimising high-level waste management is proven, may also raise new challenges about the materials and fuel design. Some major questions in terms of waste materials and spent fuel are discussed in this paper.

  14. Complete Suppression of Tumor Formation by High Levels of Basement Membrane Collagen

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ann; Harris, Henry; Hollingsworth, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Suppression of tumorigenicity was first shown in hybrids produced by the fusion of a range of different highly malignant tumor cells with diploid fibroblasts. Cytogenetic analysis of these hybrids revealed that suppression involved a genetic region located in one specific chromosome donated to the hybrid cell by the fibroblast parent. The identity of the gene responsible for this dramatic effect has remained obscure. We now present strong evidence that the primary determinant is the gene specifying collagen XV, a proteoglycan closely associated with the basement membrane. We transfected a line of highly tumorigenic human cervical carcinoma cells with an expression vector carrying the full-length cDNA of the human collagen XV gene. We selected clones making various amounts of collagen XV, examined their growth in vitro, and tested their tumorigenicity in nude mice. High levels of collagen XV altered the growth properties of the cells in three-dimensional cultures. Moreover, we found that, in a dose-dependent manner, the production of collagen XV completely suppressed tumorigenicity in clones that synthesized this molecule at high levels. Immunohistologic studies suggest that suppression is associated with extracellular deposition of the proteoglycan at the cell periphery. PMID:18171981

  15. Amygdala responsivity to high-level social information from unseen faces.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jonathan B; Stolier, Ryan M; Ingbretsen, Zachary A; Hehman, Eric A

    2014-08-06

    Previous research shows that the amygdala automatically responds to a face's trustworthiness when a face is clearly visible. However, it is unclear whether the amygdala could evaluate such high-level facial information without a face being consciously perceived. Using a backward masking paradigm, we demonstrate in two functional neuroimaging experiments that the human amygdala is sensitive to subliminal variation in facial trustworthiness. Regions in the amygdala tracked how untrustworthy a face appeared (i.e., negative-linear responses) as well as the overall strength of a face's trustworthiness signal (i.e., nonlinear responses), despite faces not being subjectively seen. This tracking was robust across blocked and event-related designs and both real and computer-generated faces. The findings demonstrate that the amygdala can be influenced by even high-level facial information before that information is consciously perceived, suggesting that the amygdala's processing of social cues in the absence of awareness may be more extensive than previously described. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410573-09$15.00/0.

  16. Phylogeographic reconstruction of a bacterial species with high levels of lateral gene transfer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, T.; Giffard, P.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, S.; Auerbach, R.; Hornstra, H.; Tuanyok, A.; Price, E.P.; Glass, M.B.; Leadem, B.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, J. S.; Allan, G.J.; Foster, J.T.; Wagner, D.M.; Okinaka, R.T.; Sim, S.H.; Pearson, O.; Wu, Z.; Chang, J.; Kaul, R.; Hoffmaster, A.R.; Brettin, T.S.; Robison, R.A.; Mayo, M.; Gee, J.E.; Tan, P.; Currie, B.J.; Keim, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Phylogeographic reconstruction of some bacterial populations is hindered by low diversity coupled with high levels of lateral gene transfer. A comparison of recombination levels and diversity at seven housekeeping genes for eleven bacterial species, most of which are commonly cited as having high levels of lateral gene transfer shows that the relative contributions of homologous recombination versus mutation for Burkholderia pseudomallei is over two times higher than for Streptococcus pneumoniae and is thus the highest value yet reported in bacteria. Despite the potential for homologous recombination to increase diversity, B. pseudomallei exhibits a relative lack of diversity at these loci. In these situations, whole genome genotyping of orthologous shared single nucleotide polymorphism loci, discovered using next generation sequencing technologies, can provide very large data sets capable of estimating core phylogenetic relationships. We compared and searched 43 whole genome sequences of B. pseudomallei and its closest relatives for single nucleotide polymorphisms in orthologous shared regions to use in phylogenetic reconstruction. Results: Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of >14,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms yielded completely resolved trees for these 43 strains with high levels of statistical support. These results enable a better understanding of a separate analysis of population differentiation among >1,700 B. pseudomallei isolates as defined by sequence data from seven housekeeping genes. We analyzed this larger data set for population structure and allele sharing that can be attributed to lateral gene transfer. Our results suggest that despite an almost panmictic population, we can detect two distinct populations of B. pseudomallei that conform to biogeographic patterns found in many plant and animal species. That is, separation along Wallace's Line, a biogeographic boundary between Southeast Asia and Australia. Conclusion: We describe an

  17. Phylogeographic reconstruction of a bacterial species with high levels of lateral gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Phylogeographic reconstruction of some bacterial populations is hindered by low diversity coupled with high levels of lateral gene transfer. A comparison of recombination levels and diversity at seven housekeeping genes for eleven bacterial species, most of which are commonly cited as having high levels of lateral gene transfer shows that the relative contributions of homologous recombination versus mutation for Burkholderia pseudomallei is over two times higher than for Streptococcus pneumoniae and is thus the highest value yet reported in bacteria. Despite the potential for homologous recombination to increase diversity, B. pseudomallei exhibits a relative lack of diversity at these loci. In these situations, whole genome genotyping of orthologous shared single nucleotide polymorphism loci, discovered using next generation sequencing technologies, can provide very large data sets capable of estimating core phylogenetic relationships. We compared and searched 43 whole genome sequences of B. pseudomallei and its closest relatives for single nucleotide polymorphisms in orthologous shared regions to use in phylogenetic reconstruction. Results Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of >14,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms yielded completely resolved trees for these 43 strains with high levels of statistical support. These results enable a better understanding of a separate analysis of population differentiation among >1,700 B. pseudomallei isolates as defined by sequence data from seven housekeeping genes. We analyzed this larger data set for population structure and allele sharing that can be attributed to lateral gene transfer. Our results suggest that despite an almost panmictic population, we can detect two distinct populations of B. pseudomallei that conform to biogeographic patterns found in many plant and animal species. That is, separation along Wallace's Line, a biogeographic boundary between Southeast Asia and Australia. Conclusion We describe an

  18. High levels of cryptic species diversity uncovered in Amazonian frogs

    PubMed Central

    Funk, W. Chris; Caminer, Marcel; Ron, Santiago R.

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for biodiversity conservation is the poor understanding of species diversity. Molecular methods have dramatically improved our ability to uncover cryptic species, but the magnitude of cryptic diversity remains unknown, particularly in diverse tropical regions such as the Amazon Basin. Uncovering cryptic diversity in amphibians is particularly pressing because amphibians are going extinct globally at an alarming rate. Here, we use an integrative analysis of two independent Amazonian frog clades, Engystomops toadlets and Hypsiboas treefrogs, to test whether species richness is underestimated and, if so, by how much. We sampled intensively in six countries with a focus in Ecuador (Engystomops: 252 individuals from 36 localities; Hypsiboas: 208 individuals from 65 localities) and combined mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, morphological, and bioacoustic data to detect cryptic species. We found that in both clades, species richness was severely underestimated, with more undescribed species than described species. In Engystomops, the two currently recognized species are actually five to seven species (a 150–250% increase in species richness); in Hypsiboas, two recognized species represent six to nine species (a 200–350% increase). Our results suggest that Amazonian frog biodiversity is much more severely underestimated than previously thought. PMID:22130600

  19. LANL High-Level Model (HLM) database development letter report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Traditional methods of evaluating munitions have been able to successfully compare like munition`s capabilities. On the modern battlefield, however, many different types of munitions compete for the same set of targets. Assessing the overall stockpile capability and proper mix of these weapons is not a simple task, as their use depends upon the specific geographic region of the world, the threat capabilities, the tactics and operational strategy used by both the US and Threat commanders, and of course the type and quantity of munitions available to the CINC. To sort out these types of issues, a hierarchical set of dynamic, two-sided combat simulations are generally used. The DoD has numerous suitable models for this purpose, but rarely are the models focused on munitions expenditures. Rather, they are designed to perform overall platform assessments and force mix evaluations. However, in some cases, the models could be easily adapted to provide this information, since it is resident in the model`s database. Unfortunately, these simulations` complexity (their greatest strength) precludes quick turnaround assessments of the type and scope required by senior decision-makers.

  20. Studies of Potential Inhibitors of Sodium Aluminosilicate Scales in High-Level Waste Evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.N.; Fellinger, T.L.; Hobbs, D.T.; Badheka, N.P.; Wilmarth, W.R.

    2008-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 underground storage tanks used to store High Level Waste (HLW). The tank space in these tanks must be managed to support the continued operation of key facilities. The reduction of the tank volumes in these tanks are accomplished through the use of three atmospheric pressure HLW evaporators. For a decade, evaporation of highly alkaline HLW containing dissolved aluminate and silicate has produced sodium aluminosilicate scales causing both operation and criticality hazards in the 2H Evaporator System. Segregation of aluminum-rich wastes from silicate-rich wastes minimizes the amount of scale produced and reduces cleaning expenses, but does not eliminate the scaling nor increases operation flexibility in waste process. Similar issues have affected the aluminum refining industry for many decades. Over the past several years, successful commercial products have been identified to eliminate aluminosilicate fouling in the aluminum industry, but have not been utilized in a nuclear environment. Laboratory quantities of three proprietary aluminosilicate scale inhibitors have been produced and been shown to prevent formation of scales. SRNL has been actively testing these potential inhibitors to examine their radiation stability, radiolytic degradation behaviors, and downstream impacts to determine their viability within the HLW system. One of the tested polymers successfully meets the established criteria for application in the nuclear environment. This paper will describe a summary of the methodology used to prioritize laboratory testing protocols based on potential impacts/risks identified for inhibitor deployment at SRS. (authors)

  1. Gaseous release of carbon-14: Why the high level waste regulations should be changed

    SciTech Connect

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1991-04-01

    The high-level nuclear waste regulations pertaining to gaseous release of carbon-14 from a repository should be changed to allow greater release, for several reasons. Some of them are as follows. First, the total amount of carbon-14 that would be placed in a repository is small compared to that produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic rays. Second, the dose that would result to an individual from total release of repository carbon-14 would be very small compared to that from natural radiation sources and would be well below the ``Below Regulatory Concern`` criterion. Third, the limits on gaseous carbon-14 release from a repository have been set unreasonably low compared to the limits set for carbon-14 release from other fuel cycle facilities. Fourth, the additional cost for waste packages to attempt to meet the regulations for carbon-14 release would likely be of the order of a billion dollars or more, too high to be justified by the small reduction in dose that might result. 32 refs.

  2. TWRS retrieval and disposal mission, immobilized high-level waste storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Calmus, R.B.

    1998-01-07

    This project plan has a two fold purpose. First, it provides a plan specific to the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Immobilized High-Level Waste (EMW) Storage Subproject for the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) that meets the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-90-01 (Ecology et al. 1996) and is consistent with the project plan content guidelines found in Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement action plan. Second, it provides an upper tier document that can be used as the basis for future subproject line item construction management plans. The planning elements for the construction management plans are derived from applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) planning guidance documents (DOE Orders 4700.1 (DOE 1992a) and 430.1 (DOE 1995)). The format and content of this project plan are designed to accommodate the plan`s dual purpose. A cross-check matrix is provided in Appendix A to explain where in the plan project planning elements required by Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement are addressed.

  3. STUDIES OF POTENTIAL INHIBITORS OF SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE SCALES IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE EVAPORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, B; Lawrence Oji, L; Terri Fellinger, T; David Hobbs, D; Nilesh Badheka, N

    2008-02-27

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 underground storage tanks used to store High Level Waste (HLW). The tank space in these tanks must be managed to support the continued operation of key facilities. The reduction of the tank volumes in these tanks are accomplished through the use of three atmospheric pressure HLW evaporators. For a decade, evaporation of highly alkaline HLW containing aluminum and silicates has produced sodium aluminosilicate scales causing both operation and criticality hazards in the 2H Evaporator System. Segregation of aluminum-rich wastes from silicate-rich wastes minimizes the amount of scale produced and reduces cleaning expenses, but does not eliminate the scaling nor increases operation flexibility in waste process. Similar issues have affected the aluminum refining industry for many decades. Over the past several years, successful commercial products have been identified to eliminate aluminosilicate fouling in the aluminum industry, but have not been utilized in a nuclear environment. Laboratory quantities of three proprietary aluminosilicate scale inhibitors have been produced and been shown to prevent formation of scales. SRNL has been actively testing these potential inhibitors to examine their radiation stability, radiolytic degradation behaviors, and downstream impacts to determine their viability within the HLW system. One of the tested polymers successfully meets the established criteria for application in the nuclear environment. This paper will describe a summary of the methodology used to prioritize laboratory testing protocols based on potential impacts/risks identified for inhibitor deployment at SRS.

  4. Is it possible to demonstrate compliance with the regulations for high-level-waste repositories?

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, F.W.

    1992-12-31

    The regulations that currently govern repositories for spent fuel and high-level waste require demonstrations that are sometimes described as impossible to make. To make them will require an understanding of the current and the future phenomena at repository sites; it will also require credible estimates of the probabilities that the phenomena will occur in the distant future. Experts in many fields{emdash}earth sciences, statistics, numerical modeling, and the law{emdash}have questioned whether any amount of data collection can allow modelers to meet these requirements with enough confidence to satisfy the regulators. In recent years some performance assessments have begun to shed light on this question because they use results of actual site investigations. Although these studies do not settle the question definitively, a review of a recent total-system assessment suggests that compliance may be possible to demonstrate. The review also suggests, however, that the demonstration can be only at the ``reasonable`` levels of assurance mentioned, but not defined, in the regulations.

  5. Cost evaluation of a DSN high level real-time language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, M.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that the implementation of a DSN High Level Real Time Language will reduce real time software expenditures is explored. The High Level Real Time Language is found to be both affordable and cost-effective.

  6. High-level waste program progress report, April 1, 1980-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    The highlights of this report are on: waste management analysis for nuclear fuel cycles; fixation of waste in concrete; study of ceramic and cermet waste forms; alternative high-level waste forms development; and high-level waste container development.

  7. Cost evaluation of a DSN high level real-time language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, M.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that the implementation of a DSN High Level Real Time Language will reduce real time software expenditures is explored. The High Level Real Time Language is found to be both affordable and cost-effective.

  8. Characterization of high-level nuclear waste glass using magnetic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.N.; Grant, J.R.; Barkatt, A.

    1994-12-31

    Magnetic measurements constitute a promising method for the characterization of nuclear waste glasses in view of their simplicity and small sample weight requirements. Initial studies of simulated high-level waste glasses show that the Curie constant is generally a useful indicator of the Fe{sup 2+}:Fe{sup 3+} ratio. Glasses produced by air-cooling in large vessels show systematic deviations between experimental and calcined values, which are indicative of the presence of small amounts of crystalline iron-containing phases. Most of the iron in these phases becomes dissolved in the glass upon re-heating and more rapid quenching. The studies further show that upon leaching the glass in water some of the iron in the surface regions of the glass is converted to a form which has high temperature-independent magnetic susceptibility.

  9. The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, A. A.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Hrma, Pavel; Matyas, Josef

    2012-11-15

    Spinel crystals precipitate in high-level waste glasses containing Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Zn, and Ru. The liquidus temperature (T{sub L}d) of spinel as the primary crystallization phase is a function of glass composition, and the spinel solubility (c{sub o}) is a function of both glass composition and temperature (T). Previously reported models of T{sub L} as a function of composition are based on T{sub L} measured directly, which requires laborious experimental procedures. Viewing the curve of c{sub o} versus T as the liquidus line allows a significant broadening of the composition region for model fitting. This paper estimates T{sub L} as a function of composition based on c{sub o} data obtained with the X-ray diffraction technique.

  10. The effect of high-level waste glass composition on spinel liquidus temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Riley, Brian J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Matyas, Josef

    2014-01-15

    Spinel crystals precipitate in high-level waste glasses containing Fe, Cr, Ni , Mn, Zn, and Ru. The liquidus temperature (TL) of spinel as the primary crystallization phase is a function of glass composition and the spinel solubility (c0) is a function of both glass composition and temperature (T). Previously reported models of TL as a function of composition are based on TL measured directly, which requires laborious experimental procedures. Viewing the curve of c0 versus T as the liquidus line allows a significant broadening of the composition region for model fitting. This paper estimates TL as a function of composition based on c0 data obtained with the X-ray diffraction technique.

  11. On-site storage of high level nuclear waste: attitudes and perceptions of local residents.

    PubMed

    Bassett, G W; Jenkins-Smith, H C; Silva, C

    1996-06-01

    No public policy issue has been as difficult as high-level nuclear waste. Debates continue regarding Yucca Mountain as a disposal site, and-more generally-the appropriateness of geologic disposal and the need to act quickly. Previous research has focused on possible social, political, and economic consequences of a facility in Nevada. Impacts have been predicted to be potentially large and to emanate mainly from stigmatization of the region due to increased perceptions of risk. Analogous impacts from leaving waste at power plants have been either ignored or assumed to be negligible. This paper presents survey results on attitudes of residents in three counties where nuclear waste is currently stored. Topics include perceived risk, knowledge of nuclear waste and radiation, and impacts on jobs, tourism, and housing values from leaving waste on site. Results are similar to what has been reported for Nevada; the public is concerned about possible adverse effects from on-site storage of waste.

  12. 76 FR 23513 - Public and Closed Meeting To Discuss Comments on Draft Regulatory Basis for Rulemaking Revising...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... High-Level Radioactive Waste AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Public meeting. SUMMARY... nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This meeting is a follow-up to the NRC's notice... Independent Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High- Level Radioactive Waste, and Reactor-Related Greater Than...

  13. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  14. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  15. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  16. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  17. 21 CFR 880.6885 - Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid chemical sterilants/high level... and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6885 Liquid chemical sterilants/high level disinfectants. (a) Identification. A liquid chemical sterilant/high level disinfectant is a germicide that...

  18. 40 CFR 1065.725 - High-level ethanol-gasoline blends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-level ethanol-gasoline blends... Calibration Standards § 1065.725 High-level ethanol-gasoline blends. For testing vehicles capable of operating on a high-level ethanol-gasoline blend, create a test fuel as follows: (a) Add ethanol to an E10...

  19. Assessment, evaluation, and testing of technologies for environmental restoration, decontamination, and decommissioning and high level waste management. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Uzochukwu, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear and commercial non-nuclear technologies that have the potential of meeting the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management objectives are being assessed and evaluated. A detailed comparison of innovative technologies available will be performed to determine the safest and most economical technology for meeting these objectives. Information derived from this effort will be matched with the multi-objectives of the environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and high-level waste management effort to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the best, most economical, and the safest technologies are used in decision making at USDOE-SRS. Technology-related variables will be developed and the resulting data formatted and computerized for multimedia systems. The multimedia system will be made available to technology developers and evaluators to ensure that the safest and most economical technologies are developed for use at SRS and other DOE sites.

  20. Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories. Draft 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Smith, E.D.

    1984-11-01

    This report is concerned with evaluating the health and safety aspects of defense waste disposal during both the operational and the post-closure phase of a repository. In each case, the evaluation includes three aspects: (1) an identification and discussion of the various factors which are expected to influence the health and safety impacts of the different disposal options for defense high-level waste, (2) an identification of the general assumptions which were used in estimating potential health and safety effects and a selection of appropriate models for estimating the health and safety impacts of the various disposal options, and (3) an analysis of the health and safety impacts for each disposal option for defense high-level waste. This report describes our initial results in these areas. Based on the evaluations presented in this report, our initial conclusion is that the potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options that might be chosen for defense high-level waste, primarily because of the need to meet standards in all cases. The differences in estimated health and safety aspects for different options are in all cases much smaller than the uncertainties which will be associated with realistic estimates of these impacts.

  1. Contour junctions underlie neural representations of scene categories in high-level human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Choo, Heeyoung; Walther, Dirk B

    2016-07-15

    Humans efficiently grasp complex visual environments, making highly consistent judgments of entry-level category despite their high variability in visual appearance. How does the human brain arrive at the invariant neural representations underlying categorization of real-world environments? We here show that the neural representation of visual environments in scene-selective human visual cortex relies on statistics of contour junctions, which provide cues for the three-dimensional arrangement of surfaces in a scene. We manipulated line drawings of real-world environments such that statistics of contour orientations or junctions were disrupted. Manipulated and intact line drawings were presented to participants in an fMRI experiment. Scene categories were decoded from neural activity patterns in the parahippocampal place area (PPA), the occipital place area (OPA) and other visual brain regions. Disruption of junctions but not orientations led to a drastic decrease in decoding accuracy in the PPA and OPA, indicating the reliance of these areas on intact junction statistics. Accuracy of decoding from early visual cortex, on the other hand, was unaffected by either image manipulation. We further show that the correlation of error patterns between decoding from the scene-selective brain areas and behavioral experiments is contingent on intact contour junctions. Finally, a searchlight analysis exposes the reliance of visually active brain regions on different sets of contour properties. Statistics of contour length and curvature dominate neural representations of scene categories in early visual areas and contour junctions in high-level scene-selective brain regions.

  2. Aspects of possible magmatic disruption of a high-level radioactive waste repository in southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.; Amos, R.; Perry, F.; Self, S.; Vaniman, D.

    1982-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) region is located within the central section of a north-northeast-trending basaltic volcanic belt of late Cenozoic age, a part of the Quaternary volcanic province of the Great Basin. Future volcanism within the belt represents a potential hazard to storage of high-level radioactive waste within a buried repository located in the southwestern NTS. The hazards of future volcanism in the region are being characterized through a combination of volcanic hazards studies, probability determinations, and consequence analyses. Basaltic activity within the NTS regions is divided into two age groups consisting of relatively large-volume silicic cycle basalts (8 to 10 Myr) and rift basalts (< 8 to 0.3 Myr). This paper describes the processes of basaltic magmatism ranging from derivation of basalt melts at depth, through ascent through the upper mantle and crust, to surface eruption. Each stage in the evolution and dispersal of basaltic magma is described, and the disruption and potential dispersal of stored radioactive waste is evaluated. These data document areas of knowns and unknowns in the processes of basaltic volcanisms and provide background data necessary to assist calculations of radiation release levels due to disruption of a repository. 9 figures, 11 tables.

  3. Pacific Northwest AGU Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engebretson, David C.; Beck, Myrl E., Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The 30th AGU Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting was held September 29 to October 1, 1983, on the campus of Western Washington University, Bellingham, Wash. Approximately 125 attended the meeting, and 36 papers were presented. The meeting included two fields trips, five special symposia, and a banquet where keynote speaker Don Swanson presented “Dome building on Mt. St. Helens.”The meeting highlights included a symposium on Tertiary sedimentary basins of Washington and Oregon which revealed the importance of sedimentological studies for deciphering the timing and nature of accretionary processes in tectonically active areas. Geological and geophysical studies on the recent tectonics of the Juan de Fuca plate and nearby continent were presented by workers from the United States and Canada as well as ongoing studies for the evolution and character of the crystalline North Cascades of Washington and British Columbia.

  4. High level of intergenera gene exchange shapes the evolution of haloarchaea in an isolated Antarctic lake

    PubMed Central

    DeMaere, Matthew Z.; Williams, Timothy J.; Allen, Michelle A.; Brown, Mark V.; Gibson, John A. E.; Rich, John; Lauro, Federico M.; Dyall-Smith, Michael; Davenport, Karen W.; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Deep Lake in Antarctica is a globally isolated, hypersaline system that remains liquid at temperatures down to −20 °C. By analyzing metagenome data and genomes of four isolates we assessed genome variation and patterns of gene exchange to learn how the lake community evolved. The lake is completely and uniformly dominated by haloarchaea, comprising a hierarchically structured, low-complexity community that differs greatly to temperate and tropical hypersaline environments. The four Deep Lake isolates represent distinct genera (∼85% 16S rRNA gene similarity and ∼73% genome average nucleotide identity) with genomic characteristics indicative of niche adaptation, and collectively account for ∼72% of the cellular community. Network analysis revealed a remarkable level of intergenera gene exchange, including the sharing of long contiguous regions (up to 35 kb) of high identity (∼100%). Although the genomes of closely related Halobacterium, Haloquadratum, and Haloarcula (>90% average nucleotide identity) shared regions of high identity between species or strains, the four Deep Lake isolates were the only distantly related haloarchaea to share long high-identity regions. Moreover, the Deep Lake high-identity regions did not match to any other hypersaline environment metagenome data. The most abundant species, tADL, appears to play a central role in the exchange of insertion sequences, but not the exchange of high-identity regions. The genomic characteristics of the four haloarchaea are consistent with a lake ecosystem that sustains a high level of intergenera gene exchange while selecting for ecotypes that maintain sympatric speciation. The peculiarities of this polar system restrict which species can grow and provide a tempo and mode for accentuating gene exchange. PMID:24082106

  5. High level of intergenera gene exchange shapes the evolution of haloarchaea in an isolated Antarctic lake.

    PubMed

    DeMaere, Matthew Z; Williams, Timothy J; Allen, Michelle A; Brown, Mark V; Gibson, John A E; Rich, John; Lauro, Federico M; Dyall-Smith, Michael; Davenport, Karen W; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Tringe, Susannah G; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2013-10-15

    Deep Lake in Antarctica is a globally isolated, hypersaline system that remains liquid at temperatures down to -20 °C. By analyzing metagenome data and genomes of four isolates we assessed genome variation and patterns of gene exchange to learn how the lake community evolved. The lake is completely and uniformly dominated by haloarchaea, comprising a hierarchically structured, low-complexity community that differs greatly to temperate and tropical hypersaline environments. The four Deep Lake isolates represent distinct genera (∼85% 16S rRNA gene similarity and ∼73% genome average nucleotide identity) with genomic characteristics indicative of niche adaptation, and collectively account for ∼72% of the cellular community. Network analysis revealed a remarkable level of intergenera gene exchange, including the sharing of long contiguous regions (up to 35 kb) of high identity (∼100%). Although the genomes of closely related Halobacterium, Haloquadratum, and Haloarcula (>90% average nucleotide identity) shared regions of high identity between species or strains, the four Deep Lake isolates were the only distantly related haloarchaea to share long high-identity regions. Moreover, the Deep Lake high-identity regions did not match to any other hypersaline environment metagenome data. The most abundant species, tADL, appears to play a central role in the exchange of insertion sequences, but not the exchange of high-identity regions. The genomic characteristics of the four haloarchaea are consistent with a lake ecosystem that sustains a high level of intergenera gene exchange while selecting for ecotypes that maintain sympatric speciation. The peculiarities of this polar system restrict which species can grow and provide a tempo and mode for accentuating gene exchange.

  6. Co-Operation for Reinforcing the Development of Education in Europe (CORDEE). Final Report of the Regional Consultation Meeting (Paris, February 12-15, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This report discusses a meeting to examine proposals for a new European program in the field of education. The assistant director for education stressed the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) concern that its attempt at developing cooperation in the field of education in Europe may build up yet another new…

  7. Use of depleted uranium metal as cask shielding in high-level waste storage, transport, and disposal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; McAllaster, M.E.

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE has amassed over 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium from its uranium enrichment operations. Rather than dispose of this depleted uranium as waste, this study explores a beneficial use of depleted uranium as metal shielding in casks designed to contain canisters of vitrified high-level waste. Two high-level waste storage, transport, and disposal shielded cask systems are analyzed. The first system employs a shielded storage and disposal cask having a separate reusable transportation overpack. The second system employs a shielded combined storage, transport, and disposal cask. Conceptual cask designs that hold 1, 3, 4 and 7 high-level waste canisters are described for both systems. In all cases, cask design feasibility was established and analyses indicate that these casks meet applicable thermal, structural, shielding, and contact-handled requirements. Depleted uranium metal casting, fabrication, environmental, and radiation compatibility considerations are discussed and found to pose no serious implementation problems. About one-fourth of the depleted uranium inventory would be used to produce the casks required to store and dispose of the nearly 15,400 high-level waste canisters that would be produced. This study estimates the total-system cost for the preferred 7-canister storage and disposal configuration having a separate transportation overpack would be $6.3 billion. When credits are taken for depleted uranium disposal cost, a cost that would be avoided if depleted uranium were used as cask shielding material rather than disposed of as waste, total system net costs are between $3.8 billion and $5.5 billion.

  8. High-Level Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Ophthalmic Clinical Isolates Belonging to the Species Corynebacterium macginleyi▿

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Hiroshi; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Miyamoto, Tatsuro; Nakayama-Imaohji, Haruyuki; Ichimura, Minoru; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Shiota, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    The clinical importance of nondiphtherial Corynebacterium, a ubiquitous member of the normal human microflora of the skin and mucous membrane, for ocular surface infections has been recognized recently. We performed an antimicrobial susceptibility test with Etest strips for three fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and levofloxacin) and a taxonomic analysis on 21 isolates of Corynebacterium from ophthalmic samples. Of these, 16 isolates were identified as C. macginleyi at the species level on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. The remaining five isolates were determined to be C. mastitidis (four) or C. accolens (one). Eleven of the C. macginleyi isolates showed high levels of resistance to all of the fluoroquinolones tested, and one isolate was resistant to norfloxacin alone. An analysis of the amplified quinolone-resistance-determining regions of the gyrA genes revealed that a single amino acid substitution in position 83 of the gyrA product was sufficient to generate the norfloxacin resistance phenotype, and double mutations leading to amino acid changes in positions 83 and 87 were necessary for high-level resistance against the other fluoroquinolones. We conducted the first example of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis on C. macginleyi. The MLST analysis grouped the majority of C. macginleyi isolates into a single lineage, and another molecular strain typing by random amplified polymorphic DNA fragment patterns supported the finding, indicating that a particular lineage of C. macginleyi is dominant on the human ocular surface. This type of population might be particularly adaptable to the milieu on the human ocular surface. PMID:18077650

  9. Immunostaining of modified histones defines high-level features of the human metaphase epigenome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Immunolabeling of metaphase chromosome spreads can map components of the human epigenome at the single cell level. Previously, there has been no systematic attempt to explore the potential of this approach for epigenomic mapping and thereby to complement approaches based on chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and sequencing technologies. Results By immunostaining and immunofluorescence microscopy, we have defined the distribution of selected histone modifications across metaphase chromosomes from normal human lymphoblastoid cells and constructed immunostained karyotypes. Histone modifications H3K9ac, H3K27ac and H3K4me3 are all located in the same set of sharply defined immunofluorescent bands, corresponding to 10- to 50-Mb genomic segments. Primary fibroblasts gave broadly the same banding pattern. Bands co-localize with regions relatively rich in genes and CpG islands. Staining intensity usually correlates with gene/CpG island content, but occasional exceptions suggest that other factors, such as transcription or SINE density, also contribute. H3K27me3, a mark associated with gene silencing, defines a set of bands that only occasionally overlap with gene-rich regions. Comparison of metaphase bands with histone modification levels across the interphase genome (ENCODE, ChIP-seq) shows a close correspondence for H3K4me3 and H3K27ac, but major differences for H3K27me3. Conclusions At metaphase the human genome is packaged as chromatin in which combinations of histone modifications distinguish distinct regions along the euchromatic chromosome arms. These regions reflect the high-level interphase distributions of some histone modifications, and may be involved in heritability of epigenetic states, but we also find evidence for extensive remodeling of the epigenome at mitosis. PMID:21078160

  10. ROAD MAP FOR DEVELOPMENT OF CRYSTAL-TOLERANT HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.; Herman, C.

    2014-05-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is building a Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is being temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in glass while meeting melter lifetime expectancies and process, regulatory, and product quality requirements. This road map guides the research and development for formulation and processing of crystaltolerant glasses, identifying near- and long-term activities that need to be completed over the period from 2014 to 2019. The primary objective is to maximize waste loading for Hanford waste glasses without jeopardizing melter operation by crystal accumulation in the melter or melter discharge riser. The potential applicability to the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will also be addressed in this road map. The planned research described in this road map is motivated by the potential for substantial economic benefits (significant reductions in glass volumes) that will be realized if the current constraints (T1% for WTP and TL for DWPF) are approached in an appropriate and technically defensible manner for defense waste and current melter designs. The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal-tolerant high-level waste (HLW) glasses targeting high waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. The modeling effort will be an iterative process, where model form and a broader range of conditions, e.g., glass

  11. High levels of divergent HIV-1 quasispecies in patients with neurological opportunistic infections in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulin; Wei, Feili; Liang, Qi; Ding, Wei; Qiao, Luxin; Song, Fengli; Liu, Lifeng; Yang, Sufang; Jin, Ronghua; Gu, Jianhua; Li, Ning; Chen, Dexi

    2013-08-01

    Despite the fact that the survival of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has improved worldwide because of the increasingly powerful and highly active antiretroviral therapy, opportunistic infections (OIs) of the central nervous system (CNS) remain a serious burden. HIV-1 is capable of entering the CNS through infected peripheral monocytes, but its effect on OIs of CNS remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of HIV-1 in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with CNS OIs. A total of 24 patients with CNS OIs and 16 non-CNS OIs (control) cases were selected. These AIDS patients were infected with HIV-1 by paid blood donors in China. HIV-1 loads in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were detected using RT-PCR, and the C2-V5 region of HIV-1 envelope gene was amplified from viral quasispecies isolated from CSF using nested PCR. The CSF HIV-1 load of CNS OIs was higher than that of non-CNS OIs, but plasma HIV-1 load of CNS OIs was not higher than that of non-CNS OIs. The nucleotide sequence of C2-V5 region of the HIV-1 quasispecies isolated from the CSF of CNS OIs had a high diversity, and the HIV-1 quasispecies isolated from the CSF of CNS OIs revealed R5 tropism as 11/25 charge rule. These results suggest that high levels of divergent HIV-1 quasispecies in the CNS probably contribute to opportunistic infections.

  12. Unconscious high-level information processing: implication for neurobiological theories of consciousness.

    PubMed

    van Gaal, Simon; Lamme, Victor A F

    2012-06-01

    Theories about the neural correlates and functional relevance of consciousness have traditionally assigned a crucial role to the prefrontal cortex in generating consciousness as well as in orchestrating high-level conscious control over behavior. However, recent neuroscientific findings show that prefrontal cortex can be activated unconsciously. The depth, direction, and scope of these activations depend on several top-down factors such as the task being probed (task-set, strategy) and on (temporal/spatial) attention. Regardless, such activations-when mediated by feedforward activation only-do not lead to a conscious sensation. Although unconscious, these prefrontal activations are functional, in the sense that they are associated with behavioral effects of cognitive control, such as response inhibition, task switching, conflict monitoring, and error detection. These findings challenge the pivotal role of the prefrontal cortex in consciousness. Instead, it appears that specific brain areas (or cognitive modules) may support specific cognitive functions but that consciousness is independent of this. Conscious sensations arise only when the brain areas involved engage in recurrent interactions enabling the long-lasting exchange of information between brain regions. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that also the state of consciousness, for example, in vegetative state patients or during sleep and anesthesia, is closely related to the scope and extent of residual recurrent interactions among brain regions.

  13. Progress in site selection for China`s high-level radioactive waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G.; Wang, J.; Jin, Y.; Chen, W.

    1995-12-31

    In 1985, the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) worked out an R and D program called DG program for the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China. The site selection process for China`s HLW repository has been carried out since then according to this program. Granite is considered as the candidate host rock for the repository. The general siting criteria are based on the principle that, under the effect of natural and human activities, the long term (100,000 years) safety of the repository can be reasonably obtained and the disposed radioactive waste can be avoided from entering the biosphere and harming human beings. During siting, two types of factors are considered: (1) social factors, including the nuclear industry distribution population, economic potential and environmental protection etc.; (2) natural factors, including geographic, meteorological and geological (crustal stability, host rocks, hydrogeology, engineering geology). The site selection process is divided into 4 stages: (1) nationwide screening, (2) regional screening; (3) district screening; and (4) site screening. During the first stage (1985--1986) the following were considered as potential regions: (1) southwest China, (2) Guangdong area, (3) Inner Mongolia, (4) east China and (5) northwest China. During the second stage (1986--1988), 21 districts were selected for further investigation. Since 1989 most efforts have been focused on the Beishan area, Gansu province, northwest China, which is considered as the most potential district for the repository.

  14. High-level production of extracellular lipase by Yarrowia lipolytica mutants from methyl oleate.

    PubMed

    Darvishi, Farshad; Destain, Jacqueline; Nahvi, Iraj; Thonart, Philippe; Zarkesh-Esfahani, Hamid

    2011-10-01

    The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica degrades efficiently low-cost hydrophobic substrates for the production of various added-value products such as lipases. To obtain yeast strains producing high levels of extracellular lipase, Y. lipolytica DSM3286 was subjected to mutation using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and ultraviolet (UV) light. Twenty mutants were selected out of 1600 mutants of Y. lipolytica treated with EMS and UV based on lipase production ability on selective medium. A new industrial medium containing methyl oleate was optimized for lipase production. In the 20 L bioreactor containing new industrial medium, one UV mutant (U6) produced 356 U/mL of lipase after 24h, which is about 10.5-fold higher than that produced by the wild type strain. The properties of the mutant lipase were the same as those of the wild type: molecular weight 38 kDa, optimum temperature 37°C and optimum pH 7. Furthermore, the nucleotide sequences of extracellular lipase gene (LIP2) in wild type and mutant strains were determined. Only two silent substitutions at 362 and 385 positions were observed in the ORF region of LIP2. Two single substitutions and two duplications of the T nucleotide were also detected in the promoter region. LIP2 sequence comparison of the Y. lipolytica DSM3286 and U6 strains shows good targets to effective DNA recombinant for extracellular lipase of Y. lipolytica. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ENHANCED DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER THROUGHPUT STUDIES: SRNL GLASS SELECTION STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-01-23

    The Department of Energy has authorized a team of glass formulation and processing experts at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) at Catholic University of America to develop a systematic approach to increase high level waste melter throughput (by increasing waste loading with minimal or positive impacts on melt rate). This task is aimed at proof-of-principle testing and the development of tools to improve waste loading and melt rate, which will lead to higher waste throughput. Four specific tasks have been proposed to meet these objectives (for details, see WSRC-STI-2007-00483): (1) Integration and Oversight, (2) Crystal Accumulation Modeling (led by PNNL)/Higher Waste Loading Glasses (led by SRNL), (3) Melt Rate Evaluation and Modeling, and (4) Melter Scale Demonstrations. Task 2, Crystal Accumulation Modeling/Higher Waste Loading Glasses is the focus of this report. The objective of this study is to provide supplemental data to support the possible use of alternative melter technologies and/or implementation of alternative process control models or strategies to target higher waste loadings (WLs) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--ultimately leading to higher waste throughputs and a reduced mission life. The glass selection strategy discussed in this report was developed to gain insight into specific technical issues that could limit or compromise the ability of glass formulation efforts to target higher WLs for future sludge batches at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These technical issues include Al-dissolution, higher TiO{sub 2} limits and homogeneity issues for coupled-operations, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solubility, and nepheline formation. To address these technical issues, a test matrix of 28 glass compositions has been developed based on 5 different sludge projections for future processing. The glasses will be fabricated and characterized based on

  16. Independent Assessment of the Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Alternatives Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    J. T. Case; M. L. Renfro

    1998-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Independent Project Evaluation (IPE) Team assessment of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company High-Level Waste Salt Disposition Systems Engineering (SE) Team's deliberations, evaluations, and selections. The Westinghouse Savannah River Company concluded in early 1998 that production goals and safety requirements for processing SRS HLW salt to remove Cs-137 could not be met in the existing In-Tank Precipitation Facility as currently configured for precipitation of cesium tetraphenylborate. The SE Team was chartered to evaluate and recommend an alternative(s) for processing the existing HLW salt to remove Cs-137. To replace the In-Tank Precipitation process, the Savannah River Site HLW Salt Disposition SE Team downselected (October 1998) 140 candidate separation technologies to two alternatives: Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate (TPB) Precipitation (primary alternative) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Nonelutable Ion Exchange (backup alternative). The IPE Team, commissioned by the Department of Energy, concurs that both alternatives are technically feasible and should meet all salt disposition requirements. But the IPE Team judges that the SE Team's qualitative criteria and judgments used in their downselection to a primary and a backup alternative do not clearly discriminate between the two alternatives. To properly choose between Small-Tank TPB and CST Ion Exchange for the primary alternative, the IPE Team suggests the following path forward: Complete all essential R and D activities for both alternatives and formulate an appropriate set of quantitative decision criteria that will be rigorously applied at the end of the R and D activities. Concurrent conceptual design activities should be limited to common elements of the alternatives.

  17. Efficient agroinfiltration of plants for high-level transient expression of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Leuzinger, Kahlin; Dent, Matthew; Hurtado, Jonathan; Stahnke, Jake; Lai, Huafang; Zhou, Xiaohong; Chen, Qiang

    2013-07-23

    Mammalian cell culture is the major platform for commercial production of human vaccines and therapeutic proteins. However, it cannot meet the increasing worldwide demand for pharmaceuticals due to its limited scalability and high cost. Plants have shown to be one of the most promising alternative pharmaceutical production platforms that are robust, scalable, low-cost and safe. The recent development of virus-based vectors has allowed rapid and high-level transient expression of recombinant proteins in plants. To further optimize the utility of the transient expression system, we demonstrate a simple, efficient and scalable methodology to introduce target-gene containing Agrobacterium into plant tissue in this study. Our results indicate that agroinfiltration with both syringe and vacuum methods have resulted in the efficient introduction of Agrobacterium into leaves and robust production of two fluorescent proteins; GFP and DsRed. Furthermore, we demonstrate the unique advantages offered by both methods. Syringe infiltration is simple and does not need expensive equipment. It also allows the flexibility to either infiltrate the entire leave with one target gene, or to introduce genes of multiple targets on one leaf. Thus, it can be used for laboratory scale expression of recombinant proteins as well as for comparing different proteins or vectors for yield or expression kinetics. The simplicity of syringe infiltration also suggests its utility in high school and college education for the subject of biotechnology. In contrast, vacuum infiltration is more robust and can be scaled-up for commercial manufacture of pharmaceutical proteins. It also offers the advantage of being able to agroinfiltrate plant species that are not amenable for syringe infiltration such as lettuce and Arabidopsis. Overall, the combination of syringe and vacuum agroinfiltration provides researchers and educators a simple, efficient, and robust methodology for transient protein expression. It

  18. Implementation of scalable video coding deblocking filter from high-level SystemC description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carballo, Pedro P.; Espino, Omar; Neris, Romén.; Hernández-Fernández, Pedro; Szydzik, Tomasz M.; Núñez, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes key concepts in the design and implementation of a deblocking filter (DF) for a H.264/SVC video decoder. The DF supports QCIF and CIF video formats with temporal and spatial scalability. The design flow starts from a SystemC functional model and has been refined using high-level synthesis methodology to RTL microarchitecture. The process is guided with performance measurements (latency, cycle time, power, resource utilization) with the objective of assuring the quality of results of the final system. The functional model of the DF is created in an incremental way from the AVC DF model using OpenSVC source code as reference. The design flow continues with the logic synthesis and the implementation on the FPGA using various strategies. The final implementation is chosen among the implementations that meet the timing constraints. The DF is capable to run at 100 MHz, and macroblocks are processed in 6,500 clock cycles for a throughput of 130 fps for QCIF format and 37 fps for CIF format. The proposed architecture for the complete H.264/SVC decoder is composed of an OMAP 3530 SOC (ARM Cortex-A8 GPP + DSP) and the FPGA Virtex-5 acting as a coprocessor for DF implementation. The DF is connected to the OMAP SOC using the GPMC interface. A validation platform has been developed using the embedded PowerPC processor in the FPGA, composing a SoC that integrates the frame generation and visualization in a TFT screen. The FPGA implements both the DF core and a GPMC slave core. Both cores are connected to the PowerPC440 embedded processor using LocalLink interfaces. The FPGA also contains a local memory capable of storing information necessary to filter a complete frame and to store a decoded picture frame. The complete system is implemented in a Virtex5 FX70T device.

  19. Effective Fleet Integration: Improving the Employment of the Carrier Battle Group to Meet Regional Challenges in the Post Cold War Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-18

    use the other warfighting strategic principles -- Maritime and 2 Aerospace Superiority, Technological Superiority, Power Projection and Decisive Force...operational commander to meet tbis challenge: The Navy and Marine Corps will now respond to crisis and can provide the initial, "enabling" capability for...Demonstrate the intent of the United States. (2) The results must Justify the use of force. Clear correlation between the political objective and the

  20. Synergy characterization for Enterococcus faecalis strains displaying moderately high-level gentamicin and streptomycin resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Bantar, C E; Micucci, M; Fernandez Canigia, L; Smayevsky, J; Bianchini, H M

    1993-01-01

    Synergy of 14 Enterococcus faecalis strains displaying moderately high-level aminoglycoside resistance (MICs, 500 and 256 to 1,000 micrograms/ml for gentamicin and streptomycin, respectively) was characterized by time-kill studies. All strains proved resistant to penicillin plus the respective aminoglycoside. Strains with moderately high-level aminoglycoside resistance should be considered to exhibit high-level resistance in severe infections. PMID:8349776

  1. High levels of loss at the 17p telomere suggest the close proximity of a tumour suppressor.

    PubMed Central

    White, G. R.; Stack, M.; Santibáñez-Koref, M.; Liscia, D. S.; Venesio, T.; Wang, J. C.; Helms, C.; Donis-Keller, H.; Betticher, D. C.; Altermatt, H. J.; Hoban, P. R.; Heighway, J.

    1996-01-01

    High levels of loss of distal markers on 17p13.3 in breast cancer suggested the presence within the region of at least one tumour-suppressor gene. Here we describe the derivation of two biallelic polymorphisms from the 17p telomeric yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) TYAC98. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and multiplex PCR analysis demonstrated that the high level of allelic imbalance observed in breast tumours represented loss of constitutional heterozygosity (LOH) and that this LOH extended to the telomere. Lung carcinoma (but not Wilms' tumour)-derived DNA again revealed a high level of loss of subtelomeric 17p sequences. Telomeric microsatellite polymorphisms from other chromosome arms did not show such elevated loss in either tumour type. This suggested that the 17p loss observed did not reflect a general telomeric instability and provided further evidence for the presence of a breast cancer tumour-suppressor gene in the distal region of 17p13.3. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8826850

  2. Meeting Demand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneman, Kathy

    1998-01-01

    Addresses how a school district can use temporary classroom space to meet increasing student enrollment while additional space is being built. Provides examples of using portable facilities to supplement educational sites, including how to protect students who are in portable classrooms when tornadoes appear. (GR)

  3. Towards Gender Equality in Basic Education: Major Challenges in Meeting Dakar EFA Goals. Regional Seminar in Asia (Kyoto, Japan, November 28-30, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    A regional UNESCO seminar aimed to follow up on the goals set at the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000 and to contribute to the "Ten Year UN Girls' Education Initiative" (UNGEI). The seminar established three primary aims: (1) to develop a regional cooperation mechanism or network of Education for All (EFA) gender focal points, to…

  4. UNESCO-UNEVOC Regional Forum Europe, CIS and North America: Advancing TVET for Youth Employability and Sustainable Development (Moscow, Russian Federation, October 28-30, 2013). Meeting Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNEVOC Regional Forum for Europe and North America was co-hosted by Moscow-based CVETS National Observatory on Vocational Education/Centre for VET Studies, with the support of the Moscow Institute for the Development of Education. It was the fourth of five regional follow-ups to the Shanghai Consensus on developing and sharing policy…

  5. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-06-15

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

  6. High level language for measurement complex control based on the computer E-100I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubkov, B. V.

    1980-01-01

    A high level language was designed to control the process of conducting an experiment using the computer "Elektrinika-1001". Program examples are given to control the measuring and actuating devices. The procedure of including these programs in the suggested high level language is described.

  7. Characteristics Data Base: Programmer's guide to the High-Level Waste Data Base

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.E. ); Salmon, R. )

    1990-08-01

    The High-Level Waste Data Base is a menu-driven PC data base developed as part of OCRWM's technical data base on the characteristics of potential repository wastes, which also includes spent fuel and other materials. This programmer's guide completes the documentation for the High-Level Waste Data Base, the user's guide having been published previously. 3 figs.

  8. Absence of high-level vancomycin resistance in enterococci isolated from meat-processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Bodnaruk, P W; Krakar, P J; Tompkin, R B

    2001-01-01

    Enterococci isolated from packaging areas of meat-processing facilities that produce ready-to-eat meat products were examined for high-level vancomycin resistance. A total of 406 enterococci isolates from the plants' packaging areas were examined for vancomycin resistance. High-level vancomycin resistance was not demonstrated in any enterococci isolated from 12 meat-processing plants.

  9. Absence of high-level vancomycin resistance in enterococci isolated from meat-processing facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Bodnaruk, P. W.; Krakar, P. J.; Tompkin, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Enterococci isolated from packaging areas of meat-processing facilities that produce ready-to-eat meat products were examined for high-level vancomycin resistance. A total of 406 enterococci isolates from the plants' packaging areas were examined for vancomycin resistance. High-level vancomycin resistance was not demonstrated in any enterococci isolated from 12 meat-processing plants. PMID:11747735

  10. Inspection and evaluation of Nuclear Fuel Services high-level waste storage system, program plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-01-01

    Information concerning the condition of the high-level waste tanks at the Western New York State Nuclear Service center near West Valley, New York is presented. This information is to be used in evaluating the safety of continued storage and in the development of alternatives for final disposition of the high-level waste.

  11. Hi-LAB: A New Measure of Aptitude for High-Level Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linck, Jared A.; Hughes, Meredith M.; Campbell, Susan G.; Silbert, Noah H.; Tare, Medha; Jackson, Scott R.; Smith, Benjamin K.; Bunting, Michael F.; Doughty, Catherine J.

    2013-01-01

    Few adult second language (L2) learners successfully attain high-level proficiency. Although decades of research on beginning to intermediate stages of L2 learning have identified a number of predictors of the rate of acquisition, little research has examined factors relevant to predicting very high levels of L2 proficiency. The current study,…

  12. A Low-Rank Method for Characterizing High-Level Neural Computations

    PubMed Central

    Kaardal, Joel T.; Theunissen, Frédéric E.; Sharpee, Tatyana O.

    2017-01-01

    The signal transformations that take place in high-level sensory regions of the brain remain enigmatic because of the many nonlinear transformations that separate responses of these neurons from the input stimuli. One would like to have dimensionality reduction methods that can describe responses of such neurons in terms of operations on a large but still manageable set of relevant input features. A number of methods have been developed for this purpose, but often these methods rely on the expansion of the input space to capture as many relevant stimulus components as statistically possible. This expansion leads to a lower effective sampling thereby reducing the accuracy of the estimated components. Alternatively, so-called low-rank methods explicitly search for a small number of components in the hope of achieving higher estimation accuracy. Even with these methods, however, noise in the neural responses can force the models to estimate more components than necessary, again reducing the methods' accuracy. Here we describe how a flexible regularization procedure, together with an explicit rank constraint, can strongly improve the estimation accuracy compared to previous methods suitable for characterizing neural responses to natural stimuli. Applying the proposed low-rank method to responses of auditory neurons in the songbird brain, we find multiple relevant components making up the receptive field for each neuron and characterize their computations in terms of logical OR and AND computations. The results highlight potential differences in how invariances are constructed in visual and auditory systems. PMID:28824408

  13. Unique Flap Conformation in an HIV-1 Protease with High-Level Darunavir Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Masaaki; Ode, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Koji; Fujino, Masayuki; Maejima, Masami; Kimura, Yuki; Masaoka, Takashi; Hattori, Junko; Matsuda, Masakazu; Hachiya, Atsuko; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Atsuo; Watanabe, Nobuhisa; Sugiura, Wataru; Iwatani, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    Darunavir (DRV) is one of the most powerful protease inhibitors (PIs) for treating human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection and presents a high genetic barrier to the generation of resistant viruses. However, DRV-resistant HIV-1 infrequently emerges from viruses exhibiting resistance to other protease inhibitors. To address this resistance, researchers have gathered genetic information on DRV resistance. In contrast, few structural insights into the mechanism underlying DRV resistance are available. To elucidate this mechanism, we determined the crystal structure of the ligand-free state of a protease with high-level DRV resistance and six DRV resistance-associated mutations (including I47V and I50V), which we generated by in vitro selection. This crystal structure showed a unique curling conformation at the flap regions that was not found in the previously reported ligand-free protease structures. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the curled flap conformation altered the flap dynamics. These results suggest that the preference for a unique flap conformation influences DRV binding. These results provide new structural insights into elucidating the molecular mechanism of DRV resistance and aid to develop PIs effective against DRV-resistant viruses. PMID:26870021

  14. The myostatin gene of Mytilus chilensis evidences a high level of polymorphism and ubiquitous transcript expression.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-02-15

    Myostatin (MSTN) is a protein of the Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily and plays a crucial role in muscular development for higher vertebrates. However, its biological function in marine invertebrates remains undiscovered. This study characterizes the full-length sequence of the Mytilus chilensis myostatin gene (Mc-MSTN). Furthermore, tissue transcription patterns and putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were also identified. The Mc-MSTN cDNA sequence showed 3528 base pairs (bp), consisting of 161 bp of 5' UTR, 2,110 bp of 3' UTR, and an open reading frame of 1,257 bp encoding for 418 amino acids and with an RXXR proteolytic site and nine cysteine-conserved residues. Gene transcription analysis revealed that the Mc-MSTN has ubiquitous expression among several tissues, with higher expression in the gonads and mantle than in the digestive gland, gills, and hemolymph. Furthermore, high levels of polymorphisms were detected (28 SNPs in 3'-UTR and 9 SNPs in the coding region). Two SNPs were non-synonymous and involved amino acid changes between Glu/Asp and Thr/Ile. Until now, the MSTN gene has been mainly related to muscle growth in marine bivalves. However, the present study suggests a putative biological function not entirely associated to muscle tissue and contributes molecular evidence to the current debate about the function of the MSTN gene in marine invertebrates.

  15. High level functional expression of the ABCG2 multidrug transporter in undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Apáti, Agota; Orbán, Tamás I; Varga, Nóra; Németh, Andrea; Schamberger, Anita; Krizsik, Virág; Erdélyi-Belle, Boglárka; Homolya, László; Várady, György; Padányi, Rita; Karászi, Eva; Kemna, Evelien W M; Német, Katalin; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2008-12-01

    Expression of multidrug resistance ABC transporters has been suggested as a functional marker and chemoprotective element in early human progenitor cell types. In this study we examined the expression and function of the key multidrug-ABC transporters, ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 in two human embryonic stem (HuES) cell lines. We detected a high level ABCG2 expression in the undifferentiated HuES cells, while the expression of this protein significantly decreased during early cell differentiation. ABCG2 in HuES cells provided protection against mitoxantrone toxicity, with a drug-stimulated overexpression of the transporter. No significant expression of ABCB1/ABCC1 was found either in the undifferentiated or partially differentiated HuES cells. Examination of the ABCG2 mRNA in HuES cells indicated the use of selected promoter sites and a truncated 3' untranslated region, suggesting a functionally distinct regulation of this transporter in undifferentiated stem cells. The selective expression of the ABCG2 multidrug transporter indicates that ABCG2 can be applied as a marker for undifferentiated HuES cells. Moreover, protection of embryonic stem cells against xenobiotics and endobiotics may depend on ABCG2 expression and regulation.

  16. Extracellular DNA amplicon sequencing reveals high levels of benthic eukaryotic diversity in the central Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Pearman, John K; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to characterize the benthic eukaryotic biodiversity patterns at a coarse taxonomic level in three areas of the central Red Sea (a lagoon, an offshore area in Thuwal and a shallow coastal area near Jeddah) based on extracellular DNA. High-throughput amplicon sequencing targeting the V9 region of the 18S rRNA gene was undertaken for 32 sediment samples. High levels of alpha-diversity were detected with 16,089 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being identified. The majority of the OTUs were assigned to Metazoa (29.2%), Alveolata (22.4%) and Stramenopiles (17.8%). Stramenopiles (Diatomea) and Alveolata (Ciliophora) were frequent in a lagoon and in shallower coastal stations, whereas metazoans (Arthropoda: Maxillopoda) were dominant in deeper offshore stations. Only 24.6% of total OTUs were shared among all areas. Beta-diversity was generally lower between the lagoon and Jeddah (nearshore) than between either of those and the offshore area, suggesting a nearshore-offshore biodiversity gradient. The current approach allowed for a broad-range of benthic eukaryotic biodiversity to be analysed with significantly less labour than would be required by other traditional taxonomic approaches. Our findings suggest that next generation sequencing techniques have the potential to provide a fast and standardised screening of benthic biodiversity at large spatial and temporal scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel Endogenous Type D Retroviral Particles Expressed at High Levels in a SCID Mouse Thymic Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ristevski, Sika; Purcell, Damian F. J.; Marshall, John; Campagna, Daniella; Nouri, Sara; Fenton, Simon P.; McPhee, Dale A.; Kannourakis, George

    1999-01-01

    A xenograft model of the human disease Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) was investigated with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Transplantation of human LCH biopsy material into SCID mice resulted in the generation of mouse tumors resembling lymphomas. A thymoma cell line (ThyE1M6) was generated from one of these mice and found to display significant levels of Mg2+-dependent reverse transcriptase activity. Electron microscopy revealed particles with type D retroviral morphology budding from ThyE1M6 cells at a high frequency, whereas control cultures were negative. Reverse transcription-PCR of virion RNA with degenerate primers for conserved regions of various mouse, human, and primate retroviruses amplified novel sequences related to primate type D retroviruses, murine intracisternal A particles, Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus, and murine long interspersed nuclear elements but not other retroviral classes. We demonstrate that these sequences represent a novel group of endogenous retroviruses expressed at low levels in mice but expressed at high levels in the ThyE1M6 cell line. Furthermore, we propose that the activation of endogenous retroviral elements may be associated with a high incidence of thymomas in SCID mice. PMID:10233925

  18. AIDS virus reverse transcriptase defined by high level expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Larder, B; Purifoy, D; Powell, K; Darby, G

    1987-01-01

    The causative agent of AIDS the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encodes as part of its pol gene a reverse transcriptase (RT) which has a key role in the replication of the virus and thus constitutes an ideal target for antiviral chemotherapy. The purified HIV RT from virus particles consists of two related polypeptides of 66 and 51 kd mol. wt and similar polypeptides are found on expression of the complete HIV pol gene using prokaryotic systems. Here we describe the expression of the 66-kd protein in Escherichia coli and demonstrate that this polypeptide alone has authentic RT activity. Thus, a central HIV pol gene segment encodes and is sufficient for high levels of RT activity. The RT has been purified from E. coli extracts using a purification procedure involving two chromotography steps resulting in an enzyme preparation near homogeneity. Deletion of the C-terminal region of the RT thought to encode the RNase H domain resulted in loss of polymerase activity. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:2446866

  19. Turbulent impinging flow simulation for high-level waste storage and processing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rhea, Simon; Fairweather, Michael

    2007-07-01

    The efficient storage and processing of high-level nuclear waste could be improved by a better understanding of the behaviour of the particle-laden fluid flows involved. This work reports a mathematical modeling study of impinging single and two-phase turbulent jets that is of relevance to the flows used industrially to prevent the settling of solid particles in storage tanks, and to re-suspend particles that form a bed. A computational fluid dynamic model, that embodies a Lagrangian particle tracking technique, is applied to the prediction of these flows. Predictions in the free flow and wall regions, and along the stagnation line, of the single phase flow are in reasonable accord with data, although the addition of particles results in less satisfactory agreement between predictions and measurements. The influence of particles is, however, reproduced qualitatively by the mathematical model, with quantitative differences attributable to a lack of particle drag in the simulations. Uncertainties in experimental parameters may be responsible for some of the differences between predictions and data, and examination of the data used casts doubts on its reliability. Further work is required in terms of the use of more advanced turbulence modeling techniques, and the provision of detailed and reliable data sets. (authors)

  20. On-site storage of high level nuclear waste: Attitudes and perceptions of local residents

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, G.W. Jr.; Jenkins-Smith, H.C.; Silva, C.

    1996-06-01

    No public policy issue has been as difficult as high-level nuclear waste. Debates continue regarding Yucca Mountain as a disposal site, and - more generally - the appropriateness of geologic disposal and the need to act quickly. Previous research has focused on possible social, political, and economic consequences of a facility in Nevada. Impacts have been predicted to be potentially large and to emanate mainly from stigmatization of the region due to increased perceptions of risk. Analogous impacts from leaving waste at power plants have been either ignored or assumed to be negligible. This paper presents survey results on attitudes of residents in three countries where nuclear waste is currently stored. Topics include perceived risk, knowledge of nuclear waste and radiation, and impacts on jobs, tourism, and housing values from leaving waste on site. Results are similar to what has been reported for Nevada; the public is concerned about possible adverse effects from on-site storage of waste. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Conceptualization of a hypothetical high-level nuclear waste repository site in unsaturated, fractured tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, A.M.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a performance assessment methodology for the analysis of long-term disposal and isolation of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) in alternative geologic media. As part of this exercise, SNL created a conceptualization of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport in the far field of a hypothetical HLW repository site located in unsaturated, fractured tuff formations. This study provides a foundation for the development of conceptual mathematical, and numerical models to be used in this performance assessment methodology. This conceptualization is site specific in terms of geometry, the regional ground-water flow system, stratigraphy, and structure in that these are based on information from Yucca Mountain located on the Nevada Test Site. However, in terms of processes in unsaturated, fractured, porous media, the model is generic. This report also provides a review and evaluation of previously proposed conceptual models of unsaturated and saturated flow and solute transport. This report provides a qualitative description of a hypothetical HLW repository site in fractured tuff. However, evaluation of the current knowledge of flow and transport at Yucca Mountain does not yield a single conceptual model. Instead, multiple conceptual models are possible given the existing information.

  2. High level resistance against rhizomania disease by simultaneously integrating two distinct defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Ourania I; Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Skaracis, George N

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of achieving durable resistance against rhizomania disease of sugar beet, the employment of different sources of resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus was pursued. To this purpose, Nicotiana benthamiana transgenic plants that simultaneously produce dsRNA originating from a conserved region of the BNYVV replicase gene and the HrpZ(Psph) protein in a secreted form (SP/HrpZ(Psph)) were produced. The integration and expression of both transgenes as well as proper production of the harpin protein were verified in all primary transformants and selfed progeny (T1, T2). Transgenic resistance was assessed by BNYVV-challenge inoculation on T2 progeny by scoring disease symptoms and DAS-ELISA at 20 and 30 dpi. Transgenic lines possessing single transformation events for both transgenes as well as wild type plants were included in inoculation experiments. Transgenic plants were highly resistant to virus infection, whereas in some cases immunity was achieved. In all cases, the resistant phenotype of transgenic plants carrying both transgenes was superior in comparison with the ones carrying a single transgene. Collectively, our findings demonstrate, for a first time, that the combination of two entirely different resistance mechanisms provide high level resistance or even immunity against the virus. Such a novel approach is anticipated to prevent a rapid virus adaptation that could potentially lead to the emergence of isolates with resistance breaking properties.

  3. Geochemical properties of bentonite pore water in high-level-waste repository condition

    SciTech Connect

    Ohe, Toshiaki; Tsukamoto, Masaki

    1997-04-01

    The chemically favorable nature of bentonite pore water is clarified by the PHREEQE geochemical simulation code. Bentonite is viewed as a candidate buffer material for a high-level-waste repository, and bentonite`s pore water chemistry is expected to result in a reduced Eh and weak alkaline pH region. Pyrite (Fe{sub 2}S), initially contained in bentonite, alters to magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}), and this redox couple reaction controls the oxidation reduction potential. A mild alkaline pH condition is produced mainly by an ion exchange reaction between the sodium in bentonite and the protons in the solution. A geochemical simulation of the ion exchange reactions and the pyrite-magnetite alteration suggests that a favorable chemical condition would exist during the waste glass dissolution and indicates that the Ph and the Eh values are {minus}7.5 to {minus}9.4 and {minus}450 to {minus}320 mV, respectively, when the granitic groundwater intrudes into the compacted bentonite in the repository.

  4. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Thien, Mike G.; Barnes, Steve M.

    2013-01-17

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described.

  5. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests - 13342

    SciTech Connect

    Thien, Mike G.; Barnes, Steve M.

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described. (authors)

  6. Perceptual learning of parametric face categories leads to the integration of high-level class-based information but not to high-level pop-out.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, Tim C; König, Peter

    2010-11-24

    To date, the relative contribution of the different levels of the visual hierarchy during perceptual decisions remains unclear. Typical models of visual processing, with the reverse hierarchy theory (RHT) as a prominent example, strongly emphasize the role of higher levels and interpret lower levels as sequence of simple feature detectors. Here, we investigate this issue based on two analyses. Using a novel combination of perceptual learning based on two classes of parametric faces and a subsequent odd-one-out paradigm, we first test a vital prediction of RHT: high-level pop-out. With this experimental approach, we overcome the low-level confounds of previous studies while still introducing distinct high-level representations. Contrary to previous findings, our analyses show that there is no high-level pop-out, despite very early, near-perfect classification accuracy and extensive training of our subjects. Second, we explore the underlying form of category representation during subsequent stages of perceptual training. This is accomplished by including class-external and class-internal target-distractor combinations. Whereas the subjects' responses during the first sessions are best explained instance-based and dependent on low-level metric differences, later patterns exhibit the inclusion of high-level, class-based information that is independent of target-stimulus similarity. Finally, we show that the utilized level of information is highly task-dependent.

  7. Detecting genetic introgression: high levels of intersubspecific recombination found in Xylella fastidiosa in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunney, Leonard; Yuan, Xiaoli; Bromley, Robin E; Stouthamer, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Documenting the role of novel mutation versus homologous recombination in bacterial evolution, and especially in the invasion of new hosts, is central to understanding the long-term dynamics of pathogenic bacteria. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to study this issue in Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca from Brazil, a bacterium causing citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and coffee leaf scorch (CLS). All 55 citrus isolates typed (plus one coffee isolate) defined three similar sequence types (STs) dominated by ST11 (85%), while the remaining 22 coffee isolates defined two STs, mainly ST16 (74%). This low level of variation masked unusually large allelic differences (>1% divergence with no intermediates) at five loci (leuA, petC, malF, cysG, and holC). We developed an introgression test to detect whether these large differences were due to introgression via homologous recombination from another X. fastidiosa subspecies. Using additional sequencing around these loci, we established that the seven randomly chosen MLST targets contained seven regions of introgression totaling 2,172 bp of 4,161 bp (52%), only 409 bp (10%) of which were detected by other recombination tests. This high level of introgression suggests the hypothesis that X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca became pathogenic on citrus and coffee (crops cultivated in Brazil for several hundred years) only recently after it gained genetic variation via intersubspecific recombination, facilitating a switch from native hosts. A candidate donor is the subspecies infecting plum in the region since 1935 (possibly X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex). This hypothesis predicts that nonrecombinant native X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca (not yet isolated) does not cause disease in citrus or coffee.

  8. [High levels of atrial natriuretic peptide and copeptin and mortality risk].

    PubMed

    Rey, Corsino; García-Cendón, Clara; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; López-Herce, Jesús; Concha-Torre, Andrés; Medina, Alberto; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Mayordomo-Colunga, Juan

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether high levels of mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), copeptin, and procalcitonin (PCT) plasma concentrations are associated with increased mortality risk. Prospective observational study including 254 critically ill children. MR-proANP, copeptin and PCT were compared between children with high (Group A; n=33) and low (Group B; n=221) mortality risk, and between patients with failure of more than 1 organ (Group 1; n=71) and less than 2 (Group 2; n=183). Median (range) of MR-proANP, copeptin, and PCT levels in group A vs B were, respectively: 209.4 (30.5-1415.8) vs. 75.0 (14.6-867.2) pmol/L (P<.001); 104.4 (7.4-460.9) vs. 26.6 (0.00-613.1) pmol/L (P<.001), and 7.8 (0.3-552.0) vs. 0.3 (0.02-107.0) ng/mL (P<.001). The area under the curve (AUC) for the differentiation of group A and B was 0.764 (95% CI: 0.674-0.854) for MR-proANP; 0.735 (0.642-0.827) for copeptin, and 0.842 (0.744-0.941) for PCT, with no statistical differences. The AUCs for the differentiation of group 1 and 2 were: 0.837 (0.784-0.891) for MR-proANP, 0.735 (0.666-0.804) for copeptin, and 0.804 (0.715-0.892) for PCT, with statistical differences between MR-proANP and copeptin, P=.01. High levels of MR-proANP, copeptin and PCT were associated with increased mortality risk scores. MR-proANP showed a higher association than copeptin with number of organs in failure. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Solar Wind Plasma Streams, High-Level Clouds and Extratropical Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, P.

    2006-12-01

    Time series of a high-level cloud area index (HCAI) based on infrared cloud amounts (cloud top pressure < 440 mb) extracted from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) D1 dataset covering 22 years are constructed for various geographic sectors. The HCAI is defined as a percentage ratio of 280×280 km2 cells for which the high-level cloud amounts exceeded a given threshold; typical HCAI values range between 20-40% at mid latitudes. Time series of HCAI are used in superposed epoch analysis keyed by the arrival time of co-rotating solar wind streams from coronal holes. A statistically significant decrease of the mean HCAI around the arrival of stream-interaction regions at the leading edge of high-speed solar wind followed by an increase in HCAI to a maximum a few days later is found. The observed mean amplitude (< 3.0% in HCAI units) of the HCAI response to solar wind forcing depends on season, geographic latitude and longitude, and on the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of the zonal winds in the tropical stratosphere. It is known that the QBO affects the global atmospheric circulation dynamics which in turn has an impact on propagation of atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs). It is suggested that solar- wind-generated auroral AGWs seeding convective instabilities in the mid-latitude troposphere contribute to formation of deep convective clouds and growth of extratropical cyclones and, if ducted to low latitudes, may influence the development of tropical cyclones. Although small in amplitude, the auroral gravity wave induced vertical lift combined with a horizontal or upward tilting flow in the warm frontal zone may release the moist symmetric instability, thus initiating slantwise convection. Mesoscale cloud/rain bands are observed in infrared satellite images of extratropical cyclones a few hours after the auroral AGWs are launched. Latent heat release associated with the mesoscale slantwise convection has been linked to explosive

  10. Staff meeting

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    I would like to invite all members of the CERN Personnel to a meeting on Wednesday 16 January 2008 at 3:00 p.m. Main Auditorium (bldg 500) to convey my best wishes for the new year, to review CERN’s activities during 2007 and to present the perspectives for 2008, the year of the LHC start-up. Closed-circuit transmission of the meeting will be available in the Council Chamber and in the AB Auditorium (Meyrin), the AB Auditorium (Prévessin), the IT Auditorium (Bldg. 31) and the AT Auditorium (Bldg. 30). Simultaneous translation into English will be available in the main Auditorium. Best wishes for the festive season! Robert AYMAR

  11. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1: Global and zonal mean cloud amounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    Global high-level clouds identified in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements for January and July in the period 1985 to 1990 are compared with near-nadir-looking observations from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Global and zonal mean high-level cloud amounts from the two data sets agree very well, if clouds with layer extinction coefficients of less than 0.008/km at 1.02 micrometers wavelength are removed from the SAGE II results and all detected clouds are interpreted to have an average horizontal size of about 75 km along the 200 km transimission path length of the SAGE II observations. The SAGE II results are much more sensitive to variations of assumed cloud size than to variations of detection threshold. The geographical distribution of cloud fractions shows good agreement, but systematic regional differences also indicate that the average cloud size varies somewhat among different climate regimes. The more sensitive SAGE II results show that about one third of all high-level clouds are missed by ISCCP but that these clouds have very low optical thicknesses (less than 0.1 at 0.6 micrometers wavelength). SAGE II sampling error in monthly zonal cloud fraction is shown to produce no bias, to be less than the intraseasonal natural variability, but to be comparable with the natural variability at longer time scales.

  12. Comparison between SAGE II and ISCCP high-level clouds. 1: Global and zonal mean cloud amounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Xiaohan; Rossow, William B.; Rind, David

    1995-01-01

    Global high-level clouds identified in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) occultation measurements for January and July in the period 1985 to 1990 are compared with near-nadir-looking observations from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Global and zonal mean high-level cloud amounts from the two data sets agree very well, if clouds with layer extinction coefficients of less than 0.008/km at 1.02 micrometers wavelength are removed from the SAGE II results and all detected clouds are interpreted to have an average horizontal size of about 75 km along the 200 km transimission path length of the SAGE II observations. The SAGE II results are much more sensitive to variations of assumed cloud size than to variations of detection threshold. The geographical distribution of cloud fractions shows good agreement, but systematic regional differences also indicate that the average cloud size varies somewhat among different climate regimes. The more sensitive SAGE II results show that about one third of all high-level clouds are missed by ISCCP but that these clouds have very low optical thicknesses (less than 0.1 at 0.6 micrometers wavelength). SAGE II sampling error in monthly zonal cloud fraction is shown to produce no bias, to be less than the intraseasonal natural variability, but to be comparable with the natural variability at longer time scales.

  13. Meeting information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 1986 Ocean Sciences Meeting of the American Geophysical Union and the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) will be held January 13-17, 1986, in New Orleans, La., at the Fairmont Hotel. Co-sponsoring societies are the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), the American Meteorological Society (AMS), the Marine Technology Society (MTS), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Oceanic Engineering Society (OES).

  14. Contributions of low- and high-level properties to neural processing of visual scenes in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Groen, Iris I A; Silson, Edward H; Baker, Chris I

    2017-02-19

    Visual scene analysis in humans has been characterized by the presence of regions in extrastriate cortex that are selectively responsive to scenes compared with objects or faces. While these regions have often been interpreted as representing high-level properties of scenes (e.g. category), they also exhibit substantial sensitivity to low-level (e.g. spatial frequency) and mid-level (e.g. spatial layout) properties, and it is unclear how these disparate findings can be united in a single framework. In this opinion piece, we suggest that this problem can be resolved by questioning the utility of the classical low- to high-level framework of visual perception for scene processing, and discuss why low- and mid-level properties may be particularly diagnostic for the behavioural goals specific to scene perception as compared to object recognition. In particular, we highlight the contributions of low-level vision to scene representation by reviewing (i) retinotopic biases and receptive field properties of scene-selective regions and (ii) the temporal dynamics of scene perception that demonstrate overlap of low- and mid-level feature representations with those of scene category. We discuss the relevance of these findings for scene perception and suggest a more expansive framework for visual scene analysis.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.

  15. Comments on a paper tilted `The sea transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes: Unresolved safety issues`

    SciTech Connect

    Sprung, J.L.; McConnell, P.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1997-05-01

    The cited paper estimates the consequences that might occur should a purpose-built ship transporting Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) be involved in a severe collision that causes the VHLW canisters in one Type-B package to spill onto the floor of a major ocean fishing region. Release of radioactivity from VHLW glass logs, failure of elastomer cask seals, failure of VHLW canisters due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and the probabilities of the hypothesized accident scenario, of catastrophic cask failure, and of cask recovery from the sea are all discussed.

  16. Ontological Problem-Solving Framework for Assigning Sensor Systems and Algorithms to High-Level Missions

    PubMed Central

    Qualls, Joseph; Russomanno, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The lack of knowledge models to represent sensor systems, algorithms, and missions makes opportunistically discovering a synthesis of systems and algorithms that can satisfy high-level mission specifications impractical. A novel ontological problem-solving framework has been designed that leverages knowledge models describing sensors, algorithms, and high-level missions to facilitate automated inference of assigning systems to subtasks that may satisfy a given mission specification. To demonstrate the efficacy of the ontological problem-solving architecture, a family of persistence surveillance sensor systems and algorithms has been instantiated in a prototype environment to demonstrate the assignment of systems to subtasks of high-level missions. PMID:22164081

  17. Property/composition relationships for Hanford high-level waste glasses melting at 115{degrees}C volume 1: Chapters 1-11

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, P.R.; Piepel, G.F.

    1994-12-01

    A Composition Variation study (CVS) is being performed within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project in support of a future high-level nuclear waste vitrification plant at the Hanford site in Washington. From 1989 to 1994, over 120 nonradioactive glasses were melted and properties measured in five statistically-designed experimental phases. Glass composition is represented by the 10 components SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, and Others (all remaining components). The properties measured include viscosity ({eta}), electrical conductivity ({epsilon}), glass transition temperature (T{sub g} ), thermal expansion of solid glass ({alpha}{sub s}) and molten glass ({alpha}{sub m}), crystallinity (quenched and canister centerline cooled glasses), liquidus temperature (T{sub L}), durability based on normalized elemental releases from the Materials Characterization Center-1 28-day dissolution test (MCC-1, r{sub mi}) and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT, r{sub pi}), and solution pHs from MCC-1 and PCT. Amorphous phase separation was also evaluated. Empirical first- and second-order mixture models were fit using the CVS data to relate the various properties to glass composition. Equations for calculating the uncertainty associated with property values predicted by the models were also developed. The models were validated using both internal and external data. Other modeling approaches (e.g., non-bridging oxygen, free energy of hydration, phase-equilibria T{sub L}) were investigated for specific properties. A preliminary Qualified Composition Region was developed to identify glass compositions with high confidence of being processable in a melter and meeting waste form acceptance criteria.

  18. Property/composition relationships for Hanford high-level waste glasses melting at 1150{degrees}C volume 2: Chapters 12-16 and appendices A-K

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, P.R.; Piepel, G.F.

    1994-12-01

    A Composition Variation Study (CVS) is being performed within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) project in support of a future high-level nuclear waste vitrification plant at the Hanford site in Washington. From 1989 to 1994, over 120 nonradioactive glasses were melted and properties measured in five statistically-designed experimental phases. Glass composition is represented by the 10 components SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, and Others (all remaining components). The properties measured include viscosity ({eta}), electrical conductivity ({epsilon}), glass transition temperature (T{sub g}), thermal expansion of solid glass ({alpha}{sub s}) and molten glass ({alpha}{sub m}), crystallinity (quenched and canister centerline cooled glasses), liquidus temperature (T{sub L}), durability based on normalized elemental releases from the Materials Characterization Center-1 28-day dissolution test (MCC-1, r{sub mi}) and the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT, r{sub pi}), and solution pHs from MCC-1 and PCT. Amorphous phase separation was also evaluated. Empirical first- and second-order mixture models were fit using the CVS data to relate the various properties to glass composition. Equations for calculating the uncertainty associated with property values predicted by the models were also developed. The models were validated using both internal and external data. Other modeling approaches (e.g., non-bridging oxygen, free energy of hydration, phase-equilibria T{sub L}) were investigated for specific properties. A preliminary Qualified Composition Region was developed to identify glass compositions with high confidence of being processable in a melter and meeting waste form acceptance criteria.

  19. Undergraduate Education in Cancer in the European Region. Report on a UICC/WHO Meeting (Geneva, Switzerland, April 6-8, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    The progress of undergraduate education in cancer in European countries was assessed, and recommendations were offered for further development according to the EURO program. Based on a survey of undergraduate education in medical schools of the European region, the following areas were evaluated: goals and objectives of teaching, tasks a general…

  20. Development and application of a spatial IBM to forecast greater prairie-chicken population responses to land use in the Flint Hills region of Kansas - SCB meeting

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greater prairie-chicken (Tympanachus cupido) populations have been on the decline for decades. Recent efforts to reverse this trend are focusing on two specific disturbance regimes, cattle grazing and field burning, both prevalent in the Flint Hill region of Kansas -- an area of...

  1. Development and application of a spatial IBM to forecast greater prairie-chicken population responses to land use in the Flint Hills region of Kansas - SCB meeting

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greater prairie-chicken (Tympanachus cupido) populations have been on the decline for decades. Recent efforts to reverse this trend are focusing on two specific disturbance regimes, cattle grazing and field burning, both prevalent in the Flint Hill region of Kansas -- an area of...

  2. Undergraduate Education in Cancer in the European Region. Report on a UICC/WHO Meeting (Geneva, Switzerland, April 6-8, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    The progress of undergraduate education in cancer in European countries was assessed, and recommendations were offered for further development according to the EURO program. Based on a survey of undergraduate education in medical schools of the European region, the following areas were evaluated: goals and objectives of teaching, tasks a general…

  3. Research To Improve Teaching-Learning Practices. Report of a UNESCO Regional Meeting (Inchon, Republic of Korea, October 10-18, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Centre of Educational Innovation for Development, Bangkok (Thailand).

    Eleven participants from six countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, and the Republic of Korea) participated in the UNESCO regional workshop which is the subject of this report. The four objectives of the workshop were to: (1) review and exchange experiences on research and pilot studies to improve teaching/learning…

  4. Analysis of the lack of scientific and technological talents of high-level women in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wang

    2017-08-01

    The growth and development of high-level female scientific and technological talents has become a global problem, facing severe challenges. The lack of high-level women in science and technology has become a global problem. How to recruit and help female scientists and technological talents grow raises awareness from the industry. To find out the main reasons for the lack of high-level female scientific and technological talent. This paper analyses the impact of gender discrimination on the lack of high-level female scientific and technological talents, the impact of disciplinary differences on female roles. The main reasons are: women’s natural disadvantage of mathematical thinking; female birth, the traditional culture on the role of women and the impact of values.

  5. Estimation of Failure Frequency for Type I and II High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K.H.

    2001-05-15

    The failure frequency of Type I and Type II High Level Waste tanks was calculated. The degradation mechanism that could lead to large break failure and the credits taken for steps taken to prevent large break failure were considered.

  6. OCCURRENCE OF HIGH-LEVEL AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES OF ENTEROCOCCI

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-level resistance fo aminoglycosides was observed in environmental isolates of enterococci. Various aquatic habitats, including agricultural runoff, creeks, rivers, wastewater, and wells, were analyzed. Strains of Enterococcus faecalis, e.faecium, E. gallinarum, and other Ent...

  7. OCCURRENCE OF HIGH-LEVEL AMINOGLYCOSIDE RESISTANCE IN ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES OF ENTEROCOCCI

    EPA Science Inventory

    High-level resistance fo aminoglycosides was observed in environmental isolates of enterococci. Various aquatic habitats, including agricultural runoff, creeks, rivers, wastewater, and wells, were analyzed. Strains of Enterococcus faecalis, e.faecium, E. gallinarum, and other Ent...

  8. Retrieved waste properties and high-level waste critical component ratios for privatization waste feed delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-03-04

    The purpose for this document is to provide the basis for the retrieved waste properties and high-level waste critical component ratios specified in the System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System.

  9. ISKAF2010 Science Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Joeri

    science issues that will be fully explored by the new generation of radio telescopes. The meeting is part of a week-long series of events organised around the opening of LOFAR and the International SKA Forum 2010. The LOFAR opening will take place on Saturday 12 June, while the Forum is scheduled on Tuesday 15 June. The (somewhat unusual) schedule of the "A new golden age for radio astronomy" meeting has been made in order to give the participants an opportunity to attend all of these events. On Monday June 14th science funding agencies from around the globe will meet to discuss how they will accommodate the SKA (Agencies SKA Group). On the same day industrial partners will join in a workshop to discuss the opportunities of the SKA, not only for science and industry but also for the society as a whole in the Connect Industry Science and Society Workshop (CISS). The venue for all of the above meetings will be the luxury resort "Hof van Saksen" located south of the city of Assen. The absolute climax of the week will be the International SKA Forum on June 15th at the TT-hal in Assen where high level politicians, top scientists, major industries, policy makers and candidate sites for the SKA will meet on `SKA beyond Astronomy'.

  10. Immobilized high-level waste interim storage alternatives generation and analysis and decision report

    SciTech Connect

    CALMUS, R.B.

    1999-05-18

    This report presents a study of alternative system architectures to provide onsite interim storage for the immobilized high-level waste produced by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) privatization vendor. It examines the contract and program changes that have occurred and evaluates their impacts on the baseline immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) interim storage strategy. In addition, this report documents the recommended initial interim storage architecture and implementation path forward.

  11. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Zheng; Muhlbauer, Andreas; Ackerman, Thomas

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, we evaluate high-level clouds in a cloud resolving model during two convective cases, ARM9707 and KWAJEX. The simulated joint histograms of cloud occurrence and radar reflectivity compare well with cloud radar and satellite observations when using a two-moment microphysics scheme. However, simulations performed with a single moment microphysical scheme exhibit low biases of approximately 20 dB. During convective events, two-moment microphysical overestimate the amount of high-level cloud and one-moment microphysics precipitate too readily and underestimate the amount and height of high-level cloud. For ARM9707, persistent large positive biases in high-level cloud are found, which are not sensitivemore » to changes in ice particle fall velocity and ice nuclei number concentration in the two-moment microphysics. These biases are caused by biases in large-scale forcing and maintained by the periodic lateral boundary conditions. The combined effects include significant biases in high-level cloud amount, radiation, and high sensitivity of cloud amount to nudging time scale in both convective cases. The high sensitivity of high-level cloud amount to the thermodynamic nudging time scale suggests that thermodynamic nudging can be a powerful ‘‘tuning’’ parameter for the simulated cloud and radiation but should be applied with caution. The role of the periodic lateral boundary conditions in reinforcing the biases in cloud and radiation suggests that reducing the uncertainty in the large-scale forcing in high levels is important for similar convective cases and has far reaching implications for simulating high-level clouds in super-parameterized global climate models such as the multiscale modeling framework.« less

  12. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Muhlbauer, Andreas; Ackerman, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluate high-level clouds in a cloud resolving model during two convective cases, ARM9707 and KWAJEX. The simulated joint histograms of cloud occurrence and radar reflectivity compare well with cloud radar and satellite observations when using a two-moment microphysics scheme. However, simulations performed with a single moment microphysical scheme exhibit low biases of approximately 20 dB. During convective events, two-moment microphysical overestimate the amount of high-level cloud and one-moment microphysics precipitate too readily and underestimate the amount and height of high-level cloud. For ARM9707, persistent large positive biases in high-level cloud are found, which are not sensitive to changes in ice particle fall velocity and ice nuclei number concentration in the two-moment microphysics. These biases are caused by biases in large-scale forcing and maintained by the periodic lateral boundary conditions. The combined effects include significant biases in high-level cloud amount, radiation, and high sensitivity of cloud amount to nudging time scale in both convective cases. The high sensitivity of high-level cloud amount to the thermodynamic nudging time scale suggests that thermodynamic nudging can be a powerful "tuning" parameter for the simulated cloud and radiation but should be applied with caution. The role of the periodic lateral boundary conditions in reinforcing the biases in cloud and radiation suggests that reducing the uncertainty in the large-scale forcing in high levels is important for similar convective cases and has far reaching implications for simulating high-level clouds in super-parameterized global climate models such as the multiscale modeling framework.

  13. Application of Quantitative NDE Techniques to High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, R. B.; Rehbein, D. K.; Bastiaans, G.; Terry, M.; Alers, R.

    2002-02-25

    As various issues make the continued usage of high-level waste storage tanks attractive, there is an increasing need to sharpen the assessment of their structural integrity. One aspect of a structural integrity program, nondestructive evaluation, is the focus of this paper. In September 2000, a program to support the sites was initiated jointly by Tanks Focus Area and Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technologies Crosscutting Program of the Office of Environmental Management, Department of Energy (DOE). The vehicle was the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, one of the National Science Foundation's Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers that is operated in close collaboration with the Ames Laboratory, USDOE. The support activities that have been provided by the center will be reviewed. Included are the organization of a series of annual workshops to allow the sites to share experiences and develop coordinated approaches to common problems, the development of an electronic source of relevant information, and assistance of the sites on particular technical problems. Directions and early results on some of these technical assistance projects are emphasized. Included are the discussion of theoretical analysis of ultrasonic wave propagation in curved plates to support the interpretation of tandem synthetic aperture focusing data to detect flaws in the knuckle region of double shell tanks; the evaluation of guided ultrasonic waves, excited by couplant free, electromagnetic acoustic transducers, to rapidly screen for inner wall corrosion in tanks; the use of spread spectrum techniques to gain information about the structural integrity of concrete domes; and the use of magnetic techniques to identify the alloys used in the construction of tanks.

  14. Evaluation of an automated high-level disinfection technology for ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Karen; Gorgis, Vivian Zaiya; Burdach, Jon; Patel, Dipika

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound transducer reprocessing is required to prevent the transmission of infections between patients. In some regions, reprocessing practices are not sufficient to achieve high-level disinfection (HLD), which can result in contaminated probes. Furthermore, current manual HLD methods use toxic chemicals and are prone to operator error/variability. The development of automated, non-toxic HLD disinfection devices may reduce the risk of transmission and reduce safety risks for operators and patients. This study investigated the disinfection efficacy of a hydrogen peroxide-based, automated HLD device, the Trophon(®) EPR, against a range of international standards. Disinfection efficacy was assessed in carrier and simulated use tests against 21 different species of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Carrier tests were performed by placing carriers throughout the disinfection chamber and measuring the log reduction in viable organisms following disinfection. These tests were performed according to Association of Analytical Communities International Official Methods and European and ASTM International Standards for bactericidal, fungicidal, mycobactericidal, sporicidal and virucidal disinfection. Simulated use tests involving the disinfection of six widely used ultrasound probe models were conducted according to ASTM-E1837-96 using Mycobacterium terrae as a test organism. The device satisfied criteria for HLD and sporicidal disinfection efficacy under all standards tested. Automated, hydrogen peroxide-based disinfection devices offer an alternative to manual ultrasound probe disinfection technologies. Such devices reduce the risks of operator error and can improve patient and operator safety by preventing exposure to toxic chemicals. The adoption of next-generation disinfection devices may help to decrease infection risk and improve patient safety. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 625 in Simulated Nuclear High-Level Waste Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girija, S.; Nandakumar, T.; Mudali, U. Kamachi

    2015-11-01

    The present investigation aims to study the effect of various ions present in nuclear high-level waste (HLW) (acidic) medium on the corrosion resistance of Alloy 625, with solution-annealed and sensitized microstructure. The heat-affected zones are prone to sensitization during welding of components and subsequent exposure to acidic waste during service could result in intergranular corrosion in these regions and hence it was attempted to study the corrosion behavior of the alloy under sensitized conditions. Double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test was carried out to obtain the extent of chromium depletion. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization and electrochemical noise investigations were carried out on Alloy 625 in 3 M nitric acid and simulated nuclear HLW medium (prepared in 3 M nitric acid) at 298 K and 323 K. The study showed that the alloy possess good corrosion resistance in 3 M nitric acid and simulated HLW medium. However, a marginal decrease in the corrosion resistance occurred in simulated HLW when compared to the plain acid, as observed from an increase in passivation current density, decrease in transpassive potentials, and decrease in electrochemical noise resistance. Increase in temperature of the medium and change in microstructure from solution-annealed to sensitized state further decreased the corrosion resistance of Alloy 625. Electrochemical noise time records obtained at open circuit conditions showed a stable passive film for 22 h of immersion of the alloy in 3 M nitric acid and simulated HLW. However, the amplitude of current fluctuations was higher for the sensitized microstructure when compared to the solution-annealed microstructure.

  16. Whole genome resequencing of Botrytis cinerea isolates identifies high levels of standing diversity.

    PubMed

    Atwell, Susanna; Corwin, Jason A; Soltis, Nicole E; Subedy, Anushryia; Denby, Katherine J; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    How standing genetic variation within a pathogen contributes to diversity in host/pathogen interactions is poorly understood, partly because most studied pathogens are host-specific, clonally reproducing organisms which complicates genetic analysis. In contrast, Botrytis cinerea is a sexually reproducing, true haploid ascomycete that can infect a wide range of diverse plant hosts. While previous work had shown significant genomic variation between two isolates, we proceeded to assess the level and frequency of standing variation in a population of B. cinerea. To begin measuring standing genetic variation in B. cinerea, we re-sequenced the genomes of 13 different isolates and aligned them to the previously sequenced T4 reference genome. In addition one of these isolates was resequenced from four independently repeated cultures. A high level of genetic diversity was found within the 13 isolates. Within this variation, we could identify clusters of genes with major effect polymorphisms, i.e., polymorphisms that lead to a predicted functional knockout, that surrounded genes involved in controlling vegetative incompatibility. The genotype at these loci was able to partially predict the interaction of these isolates in vegetative fusion assays showing that these loci control vegetative incompatibility. This suggests that the vegetative incompatibility loci within B. cinerea are associated with regions of increased genetic diversity. The genome re-sequencing of four clones from the one isolate (Grape) that had been independently propagated over 10 years showed no detectable spontaneous mutation. This suggests that B. cinerea does not display an elevated spontaneous mutation rate. Future work will allow us to test if, and how, this diversity may be contributing to the pathogen's broad host range.

  17. Whole genome resequencing of Botrytis cinerea isolates identifies high levels of standing diversity

    PubMed Central

    Atwell, Susanna; Corwin, Jason A.; Soltis, Nicole E.; Subedy, Anushryia; Denby, Katherine J.; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    How standing genetic variation within a pathogen contributes to diversity in host/pathogen interactions is poorly understood, partly because most studied pathogens are host-specific, clonally reproducing organisms which complicates genetic analysis. In contrast, Botrytis cinerea is a sexually reproducing, true haploid ascomycete that can infect a wide range of diverse plant hosts. While previous work had shown significant genomic variation between two isolates, we proceeded to assess the level and frequency of standing variation in a population of B. cinerea. To begin measuring standing genetic variation in B. cinerea, we re-sequenced the genomes of 13 different isolates and aligned them to the previously sequenced T4 reference genome. In addition one of these isolates was resequenced from four independently repeated cultures. A high level of genetic diversity was found within the 13 isolates. Within this variation, we could identify clusters of genes with major effect polymorphisms, i.e., polymorphisms that lead to a predicted functional knockout, that surrounded genes involved in controlling vegetative incompatibility. The genotype at these loci was able to partially predict the interaction of these isolates in vegetative fusion assays showing that these loci control vegetative incompatibility. This suggests that the vegetative incompatibility loci within B. cinerea are associated with regions of increased genetic diversity. The genome re-sequencing of four clones from the one isolate (Grape) that had been independently propagated over 10 years showed no detectable spontaneous mutation. This suggests that B. cinerea does not display an elevated spontaneous mutation rate. Future work will allow us to test if, and how, this diversity may be contributing to the pathogen's broad host range. PMID:26441923

  18. High-level construal benefits, meaning making, and posttraumatic growth in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Gan, Yiqun; Miao, Miao; Ke, Qin; Li, Wenju; Zhang, Zijin; Cheng, Gang

    2016-10-01

    The present study sought to explore the role of meaning making and high-level construal in the relationship between meaning discrepancy and posttraumatic growth among Chinese cancer patients. The participants were 193 individuals diagnosed with cancer. Meaning discrepancy, meaning making, high-level construal in meaning making, and posttraumatic growth were measured. Bootstrapping and structural equation modeling were performed to test the mediation effects of high-level construal on the meaning-making process. Mediation analysis revealed that perceived discrepancies were associated with individuals' meaning-making efforts. Meaning-making efforts prompted participants to adopt a high-level construal orientation, which in turn enhanced posttraumatic growth. Our study empirically tested construal level theory in a population suffering from severe chronic trauma. The results demonstrate the important role of high-level construal in the meaning-making process of cancer patients, suggesting a specific effective strategy to foster posttraumatic growth. It seems encouraging to indicate that adopting such high-level construal may be included as part of psychological interventions for cancer patients.

  19. Development of high-level streptomycin resistance affected by a plasmid in lactic streptococci.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R P

    1986-08-01

    Some lactose-negative (Lac-) mutants of Streptococcus lactis C2 and ML3 exhibited development of very high level streptomycin resistance after incubation with subinhibitory concentrations of the drug for 18 to 22 h. These drug-resistant mutants showed no loss of resistance even after 6 months of subculturing in broth without any drug. The parental Lac+ strains did not show mutation to high-level streptomycin resistance. The Lac+ characteristic of the parental strain was conjugally transferred to Lac- derivatives of C2 and ML3, showing the ability to mutate to high-level resistance. When transconjugants were analyzed for this characteristic, they showed both mutable and nonmutable Lac+ types. The results suggested that genetic information for mutation to high-level streptomycin resistance in lactic streptococci resides on the chromosome, and its expression is affected by a plasmid. The plasmid profiles of strains C2, ML3, C2 Lac-, ML3 Lac-, and two kinds of transconjugants confirmed the presence of a plasmid of approximately 5.5 megadaltons in strains showing no mutation to high-level streptomycin resistance, while strains missing such a plasmid exhibited high-level streptomycin resistance after incubation with subinhibitory concentrations of the drug.

  20. Meeting Abstracts - Annual Meeting 2016.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The AMCP Abstracts program provides a forum through which authors can share their insights and outcomes of advanced managed care practice through publication in AMCP's Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy (JMCP). Most of the reviewed and unreviewed abstracts are presented as posters so that interested AMCP meeting attendees can review findings and query authors. The Student/Resident/ Fellow poster presentation (unreviewed) is Wednesday, April 20, 2016, and the Professional poster presentation (reviewed) is Thursday, April 21. The Professional posters will also be displayed on Friday, April 22. The reviewed abstracts are published in the JMCP Meeting Abstracts supplement. The AMCP Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2016 in San Francisco, California, is expected to attract more than 3,500 managed care pharmacists and other health care professionals who manage and evaluate drug therapies, develop and manage networks, and work with medical managers and information specialists to improve the care of all individuals enrolled in managed care programs. Abstracts were submitted in the following categories: Research Report: describe completed original research on managed care pharmacy services or health care interventions. Examples include (but are not limited to) observational studies using administrative claims, reports of the impact of unique benefit design strategies, and analyses of the effects of innovative administrative or clinical programs. Economic Model: describe models that predict the effect of various benefit design or clinical decisions on a population. For example, an economic model could be used to predict the budget impact of a new pharmaceutical product on a health care system. Solving Problems in Managed Care: describe the specific steps taken to introduce a needed change, develop and implement a new system or program, plan and organize an administrative function, or solve other types of problems in managed care settings. These