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Sample records for high-quality long-term-storage secondary

  1. The design, fabrication, and testing of WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Kane J. Fisher

    2000-03-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) requires secondary containment vessels to store primary tritium containment vessels. The primary containment vessel provides the first boundary for tritium containment. The primary containment vessel is stored within a secondary containment vessel that provides the secondary boundary for tritium containment. WETF requires high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary tritium containment vessels that fit within a Mound-designed calorimeter. In order to qualify the WETF high-quality, long-term-storage, secondary containment vessels for use at WETF, steps have been taken to ensure the appropriate design, adequate testing, quality in fabrication, and acceptable documentation.

  2. Long-term storage of bionanodevices by freezing and lyophilization.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, Raviraja; Wada, Yuuko; Ramachandran, Sujatha; Hess, Henry; Satir, Peter

    2006-09-01

    Successful long-term storage of a "smart dust" device integrating biomolecular motors and complex protein assemblies has been demonstrated using freezing or lyophilization, which implies that fabrication and application can be separated even for complex bionanodevices.

  3. Long-term storage of Phytophthora cultures in water

    Treesearch

    Wendy Sutton; Paul Reeser; Everett Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Long-term storage of cultures of Phytophthora species is a challenge for any lab managing a working collection of isolates. Storage in liquid nitrogen is generally considered to be optimal for archival storage, and successful recovery of most species is regularly achieved after many years. Nitrogen storage has its drawbacks, however, especially for...

  4. Long-term storage of surface-adsorbed protein machines.

    PubMed

    Albet-Torres, Nuria; Månsson, Alf

    2011-06-07

    The effective and simple long-term storage of complex functional proteins is critical in achieving commercially viable biosensors. This issue is particularly challenging in recently proposed types of nanobiosensors, where molecular-motor-driven transportation substitutes microfluidics and forms the basis for novel detection schemes. Importantly, therefore, we here describe that delicate heavy meromyosin (HMM)-based nanodevices (HMM motor fragments adsorbed to silanized surfaces and actin bound to HMM) fully maintain their function when stored at -20 °C for more than a month. The mechanisms for the excellent preservation of acto-HMM motor function upon repeated freeze-thaw cycles are discussed. The results are important to the future commercial implementation of motor-based nanodevices and are of more general value to the long-term storage of any protein-based bionanodevice.

  5. Characterization of aluminum nanopowders after long-term storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, O. B.; Amelkovich, Yu. A.; Sechin, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    The characteristics of aluminum nanopowders obtained by electrical explosion of wires, passivated by air and stored for a long time under natural conditions are analyzed. The aluminum nanopowder produced in hydrogen had been stored for 27 years; the nanopowders produced in argon and nitrogen had been stored for 10 years. The powders were studied using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The influence of the obtaining conditions and storage period of nanopowders on their thermal stability under heating in air is shown. The aluminum nanopowders after long-term storage in air under ambient conditions are found to be extremely active.

  6. [Transformation of free radicals of gamma-irradiated enzymes during long-term storage].

    PubMed

    Ryl'tsev, V V; Virnik, R B; Dovbiĭ, E V; Filatov, V N

    1988-01-01

    The ESR method was used to study free radical processes occurring in gamma-irradiated enzymes upon their long-term storage (up to 4 years) both at room temperature and at 4 degrees C. Simultaneously, studied was the biological activity of gamma-irradiated enzymes subjected to a long-term storage. The immobilization of enzymes on dialdehyde cellulose or polycaproamine was shown to preserve their biological activity during the postirradiation storage.

  7. Blood DNA Yield but Not Integrity or Methylation Is Impacted After Long-Term Storage.

    PubMed

    Bulla, Alexandre; De Witt, Brian; Ammerlaan, Wim; Betsou, Fay; Lescuyer, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    Collection of human whole blood for genomic DNA extraction is part of numerous clinical studies. Since DNA extraction cannot always be performed at the time of sample collection, whole blood samples may be stored for years before being processed. The use of appropriate storage conditions is then critical to obtain DNA in sufficient quantity and of adequate quality in order to obtain reliable results from the subsequent molecular biological analyses. In this study, EDTA whole blood samples were collected from 8 healthy volunteers, and different durations (up to 1 year) and temperatures (room temperature, 4°C, -20°C, and -80°C) of storage were compared. The effect of the addition of a DNA preservative agent was also assessed before and after storage. DNA concentrations measured by UV spectrophotometry and spectrofluorometry were used to calculate DNA extraction yields and double-strand DNA ratios. DNA integrity was controlled by agarose gel electrophoresis and long-range polymerase chain reaction. The impact of storage conditions on DNA methylation was also evaluated. Results showed that certain storage conditions have a significant impact on the DNA extraction yield but little or no effect on DNA integrity and methylation. Storage of EDTA blood at -80°C guarantees high-quality DNA with a good yield. Higher DNA extraction yields were obtained with the addition of a DNA preservative agent before thawing EDTA blood stored at -20°C or -80°C. Long-term storage at room temperature in the presence of a DNA preservative agent also appeared to be a reliable procedure.

  8. A Survey of Current Literature on Sampling, Sample Handling, and Long Term Storage for Environmental Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maienthal, E. J.; Becker, D. A.

    This report presents the results of an extensive literature survey undertaken to establish optimum sampling, sample handling and long-term storage techniques for a wide variety of environmental samples to retain sample integrity. The components of interest are trace elements, organics, pesticides, radionuclides and microbiologicals. A bibliography…

  9. Medium- and long-term storage of the Pycnanthemum (Mountain mint) germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The US collection of mountain mint (Pycnanthemum Michx.) is held at the USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, OR as seed, potted plants and tissue cultures and a long-term storage collection is preserved at the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation ...

  10. A Survey of Current Literature on Sampling, Sample Handling, and Long Term Storage for Environmental Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maienthal, E. J.; Becker, D. A.

    This report presents the results of an extensive literature survey undertaken to establish optimum sampling, sample handling and long-term storage techniques for a wide variety of environmental samples to retain sample integrity. The components of interest are trace elements, organics, pesticides, radionuclides and microbiologicals. A bibliography…

  11. Influence of long-term storage on fire hazard properties of metal nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrmakova, O. S.; Sechin, A. I.; Nazarenko, O. B.

    2017-08-01

    The production and application of nanomaterials is rapidly expanding. Therefore the problem of their properties change during long-term storage becomes essential. The properties of metal nanopowders after long-term storage under ambient conditions were studied and the results are presented in this work. The aluminum, iron, zinc, and copper nanopowders produced by the method of electrical explosion of wires were investigated in this work. The investigation was carried out by X-ray and thermal analysis. The estimation of the flame propagation velocity in the bulk layer of nanopowders was carried out. The characteristics of the nanopowders of nanometals studied are given in terms of their fire hazard. The results can be used for diagnostic of fire hazard of nanomaterials and protection of the enterprises against fire and explosion.

  12. Investigation of long term storage effects on aerospace nickel-cadmium cell performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, T. Y.

    1986-01-01

    A study on evaluation of the long term storage effects on aerospace nickel-cadmium cells currently being performed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is described. A number of cells of 6 Ah and 12 Ah capacities which were stored in shorted condition for 8 to 9 years at the GSFC were selected for this study. These cells will undergo electrical acceptance testing the the GSFC, and life cycling at the NASA Battery Test Facility at the Naval Weapons Facility at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC) in Crane, Indiana; in addition, some cells from the study will undergo destructive analyses.

  13. CANE FIBERBOARD DEGRADATION WITHIN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE DURING LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.

    2013-06-19

    The 9975 shipping package is used as part of the configuration for long-term storage of special nuclear materials in the K Area Complex at the Savannah River Site. The cane fiberboard overpack in the 9975 package provides thermal insulation, impact absorption and criticality control functions relevant to this application. The Savannah River National Laboratory has conducted physical, mechanical and thermal tests on aged fiberboard samples to identify degradation rates and support the development of aging models and service life predictions in a storage environment. This paper reviews the data generated to date, and preliminary models describing degradation rates of cane fiberboard in elevated temperature – elevated humidity environments.

  14. The dead seed coat functions as a long-term storage for active hydrolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Raviv, Buzi; Aghajanyan, Lusine; Granot, Gila; Makover, Vardit; Frenkel, Omer; Gutterman, Yitzchak; Grafi, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    Seed development culminates in programmed cell death (PCD) and hardening of organs enclosing the embryo (e.g., pericarp, seed coat) providing essentially a physical shield for protection during storage in the soil. We examined the proposal that dead organs enclosing embryos are unique entities that store and release upon hydration active proteins that might increase seed persistence in soil, germination and seedling establishment. Proteome analyses of dead seed coats of Brassicaceae species revealed hundreds of proteins being stored in the seed coat and released upon hydration, many are stress-associated proteins such as nucleases, proteases and chitinases. Functional analysis revealed that dead seed coats function as long-term storage for multiple active hydrolytic enzymes (e.g., nucleases) that can persist in active forms for decades. Substances released from the dead seed coat of the annual desert plant Anastatica hierochuntica displayed strong antimicrobial activity. Our data highlighted a previously unrecognized feature of dead organs enclosing embryos (e.g., seed coat) functioning not only as a physical shield for embryo protection but also as a long-term storage for active proteins and other substances that are released upon hydration to the "seedsphere" and could contribute to seed persistence in the soil, germination and seedling establishment.

  15. The long term storage of radioactive waste and spent fuel: safety and policy considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Rowat, J.; Metcalf, P.

    2007-07-01

    Storage is a necessary step in the overall management of radioactive waste. In recent years, due to the unavailability of disposal facilities, storage facilities intended originally as temporary, have had their lifetimes extended and consideration has been given, in some countries, to the use of long term storage (LTS) as a management option. In 2003, the IAEA published a position paper titled 'The Long Term Storage of Radioactive Waste: Safety and Sustainability'. The position paper, which written for a non-specialist audience, focused on seven key factors for safety and sustainability of LTS, namely: safety, maintenance/institutional control, retrieval, security, costs, community attitudes and retention of information. The Agency is preparing a follow-up report to the position paper that elaborates in a more technical manner upon the issues raised in the position paper and issues important for implementation of LTS. It also provides some discussion of the reasons for implementing a LTS option and contrasts LTS with aspects of other management options. The present paper provides an overview of the draft follow-up report. (authors)

  16. The dead seed coat functions as a long-term storage for active hydrolytic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Raviv, Buzi; Aghajanyan, Lusine; Granot, Gila; Makover, Vardit; Frenkel, Omer; Gutterman, Yitzchak

    2017-01-01

    Seed development culminates in programmed cell death (PCD) and hardening of organs enclosing the embryo (e.g., pericarp, seed coat) providing essentially a physical shield for protection during storage in the soil. We examined the proposal that dead organs enclosing embryos are unique entities that store and release upon hydration active proteins that might increase seed persistence in soil, germination and seedling establishment. Proteome analyses of dead seed coats of Brassicaceae species revealed hundreds of proteins being stored in the seed coat and released upon hydration, many are stress-associated proteins such as nucleases, proteases and chitinases. Functional analysis revealed that dead seed coats function as long-term storage for multiple active hydrolytic enzymes (e.g., nucleases) that can persist in active forms for decades. Substances released from the dead seed coat of the annual desert plant Anastatica hierochuntica displayed strong antimicrobial activity. Our data highlighted a previously unrecognized feature of dead organs enclosing embryos (e.g., seed coat) functioning not only as a physical shield for embryo protection but also as a long-term storage for active proteins and other substances that are released upon hydration to the “seedsphere” and could contribute to seed persistence in the soil, germination and seedling establishment. PMID:28700755

  17. Lessons Learned During the Refurbishment and Testing of an Observatory After Long-Term Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, John; Peabody, Sharon; Stavely, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS) 2015, Silver Spring, MD NCTS 21070-15. This paper addresses the lessons learned during the refurbishment and testing of the thermal control system for a spacecraft which was placed into long-term storage. The DSCOVR (Deep Space Climate Observatory) Observatory (formerly known as Triana) was originally scheduled to launch on the Space Shuttle in 2002. With the Triana spacecraft nearly complete, the mission was canceled and the satellite was abruptly put into storage in 2001. In 2008 the observatory was removed from storage to begin refurbishment and testing. Problems arose associated with hardware that was not currently manufactured, coatings degradation, and a significant lack of documentation. Also addressed is the conversion of the thermal and geometric math models for use with updated thermal analysis software tools.

  18. Investigation on polyetheretherketone composite for long term storage of nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajeesh, G.; Bhowmik, Shantanu; Sivakumar, Venugopal; Varshney, Lalit; Kumar, Virendra; Abraham, Mathew

    2015-12-01

    This investigation highlights the effect of radiation, chemical and thermal environments on mechanical and thermal properties of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites, which could prove to be an alternative material for long term storage of nuclear wastes. The tests are conducted on specimens made from PEEK and PEEK reinforced with carbon short fiber. The specimens are subjected to radiation doses, equivalent to the cumulative dosage for 500 years followed by exposure under highly corrosive and thermal environments. Studies under optical microscopy reveal that the dispersion of carbon short fiber in the PEEK Composites is significantly uniform. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that there are no significant changes in thermal properties of PEEK composite when exposed to aggressive environments. It is further observed that there are no significant changes in mechanical properties of the composite after exposure to radiation and thermo-chemical environment.

  19. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATE MATERIALS FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, E.; Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2010-02-24

    The Model 9975 shipping package specifies the materials of construction for its various components. With the loss of availability of material for two components (cane fiberboard overpack and Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings), alternate materials of construction were identified and approved for use for transport (softwood fiberboard and Viton{reg_sign} GLT-S O-rings). As these shipping packages are part of a long-term storage configuration at the Savannah River Site, additional testing is in progress to verify satisfactory long-term performance of the alternate materials under storage conditions. The test results to date can be compared to comparable results on the original materials of construction to draw preliminary conclusions on the performance of the replacement materials.

  20. Medium- and long-term storage of the Pycnanthemum (mountain mint) germplasm collection.

    PubMed

    Jenderek, Maria M; Holman, Gregory E; DeNoma, Jeanine; Reed, Barbara M

    2013-01-01

    The United States of America collection of mountain mint (Pycnanthemum Michx.) is held at the USDA-ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) in Corvallis, Oregon as seed, potted plants and tissue cultures and a long-term storage collection is preserved at the USDA-ARS National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation (NCGRP) in Fort Collins, Colorado. The clonal collection is comprised of 34 accessions as potted plants that are duplicated with 31 accessions stored as in vitro cultures at 4 degrees C in tissue culture bags for medium-term storage at NCGR and as cryopreserved shoot tips in liquid nitrogen at NCGRP for long-term storage. This study reports on these two models of preservation of mountain mint at the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. In vitro plants required 2 to 7 months for propagation on MS medium without growth regulators before storage at 4 degrees C. Plants remained in storage with good vigour in bags on 1/2x nitrogen MS medium without growth regulators for a mean of 2.08 y. An encapsulation-dehydration protocol was successful for cryopreservation of shoot tips from cold acclimated in vitro plants. Post-cryo viability, indicated by shoot tips with developed leaves and roots, ranged from 60 to 100 % for 27 accessions and 40 to 50 % for the other four. The encapsulation-dehydration cryopreservation method proved suitable for long-term preservation of the 31 Pycnanthemum accessions. These alternative storage forms allow for active use of the collection as well as base storage for clonally propagated accessions.

  1. Influence of vacuum packaging and long term storage on quality of whole chilli (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Chetti, Mahadev B; Deepa, G T; Antony, Roshny T; Khetagoudar, Mahadev C; Uppar, Dodappa S; Navalgatti, Channappa M

    2014-10-01

    Investigations were carried out to study the influence of vacuum packaging and long term storage on quality in red chilli. Chilli fruits were stored in vacuum packed and jute bags at two moisture levels (10 % and 12 %) in room and cold environments under both light and dark conditions for a period of 24 months. During storage period, average room and cool chamber temperatures were 25 ± 2 °C and 4 ± 1 °C, respectively. Changes of moisture (Halogen moisture analyzer), capsaicin (HPLC-UV), oleoresin and total extractable colour (spectrophotometer) were analyzed at 3 months interval up to 12 months and 6 months interval from 12 to 24 months. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) and Duncan's test were applied to the analytical data to evaluate the effect of treatments applied. It was observed that the vacuum packed chillies under cold storage were found to have the least per cent decline in various quality parameters. Chillies with 12 % moisture and stored in vacuum packaged bags recorded better quality parameters over 10 % moisture.

  2. Diesel fuel long term storage and treatment- recommended tests and practices (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, R.

    2009-06-05

    The Clean Air Act (1970) is the comprehensive federal law that regulates air emissions from stationary and mobile sources. Among other things, this law authorized the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards to protect public health and public welfare and to regulate emissions of hazardous air pollutants. In recent years, EPA regulations have forced oil refineries into producing a very low sulfur diesel fuel and incentives for adding up to 5% bio-diesel. These changes to the fuel oil formulation are beneficial to air quality and to energy conservation, but adversely impact heat content, long term storage stability, engine power, and injection system reliability. Diesel engines typically have a high incidence of injector failure resulting from poor diesel fuel quality. Since standby diesel engines do not run continuously it is necessary to implement periodic surveillance's to ensure the quality of diesel fuel is acceptable for reliable operation when a loss of power occurs. The information contained in this document is a compilation of best practices to be used as a guide for maintenance of a reliable diesel fuel system.

  3. Cerasomal doxorubicin with long-term storage stability and controllable sustained release.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yushen; Yue, Xiuli; Zhang, Qingyuan; Wu, Xiaoyi; Cao, Zhong; Dai, Zhifei

    2012-09-01

    Liposomal nanohybrid cerasomes display a remarkable ability to maintain their size and retain encapsulated doxorubicin (DOX) over a period of 90days under storage conditions in solution compared with liposomes and liposils. Cerasomes retained 92.1±2.9% of the drug payload after 90days storage, much more than liposomes (35.2±2.5%) and liposils (53.2±5.5%). Under physiologically relevant conditions cerasomes exhibit a low initial burst in the first 5h and subsequent sustained release of DOX over the next 150h. Moreover, the magnitude of the initial burst and the rate of sustained release of DOX from cerasomes can be modulated by incorporating dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) in the cerasome structure and altering the ratios of the cerasome-forming lipid and phospholipids. Consequently, a wide range of release profiles can be achieved by altering the vesicle composition. Finally, human ovarian cancer cells are effectively killed by DOX released from cerasomes. Together these results suggest that cerasomes may be a promising drug delivery system for the long-term storage and controllable sustained release of the anticancer drug DOX.

  4. Long-term storage and safe retrieval of human papillomavirus DNA using FTA elute cards.

    PubMed

    Barth, Heidi; Morel, Adrien; Mougin, Christiane; Averous, Gerlinde; Legrain, Michèle; Fender, Muriel; Risch, Simone; Fafi-Kremer, Samira; Velten, Michel; Oudet, Pierre; Baldauf, Jean-Jacques; Stoll-Keller, Françoise

    2016-03-01

    Biobanking or collection and storage of specimens for future research purposes have become an essential tool in many fields of biomedical research and aims to provide a better understanding of disease mechanisms as well as the identification of disease-specific biomarkers that can navigate in complex diseases. In this study, we assessed the use of Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards as a long-term storage device for cervical specimens with suspected human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. HPV detection and genotyping results in liquid-based transport media were compared to HPV results from FTA cards. The overall agreement for the presence of any HPV infection between liquid-based medium and FTA cards stored for 1 year at ambient temperature was 100%. Reproducibility analysis of HPV detection and genotyping from FTA cards demonstrated that FTA cards are a reliable medium to store and preserve viral nucleic acids. Biobanking of cervical cells on FTA cards may provide a key resource for epidemiological and retrospective HPV studies.

  5. Quality testing of autoclaved rodent drinking water during short-term and long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Peveler, Jessica L; Crisler, Robin; Hickman, Deb

    2015-06-01

    All animals need clean water to drink. At the authors' animal facility, drinking water for immunocompromised rodents is filtered by reverse osmosis, acidified during bottling and sterilized in an autoclave. Autoclaved water bottles can be stored in unopened autoclave bags for 7 d or in opened bags for 2 d; if not used during that time, they are emptied, cleaned, refilled and sterilized again. The authors wished to determine whether the storage period of 2-7 d was adequate and necessary to ensure the quality of drinking water. They tested water bottles for pH levels and for the presence of adenosine triphosphate as a measure of organic contamination during short-term and long-term storage. The pH of autoclaved drinking water generally remained stable during storage. Furthermore, no instances of organic contamination were detected in autoclaved water bottles stored for up to 22 d in unopened bags and only one instance was detected in bottles stored for up to 119 d in opened bags in a room with individually ventilated cages. On the basis of these findings, the acceptable storage period for autoclaved water bottles in opened bags at the authors' facility was extended to 21 d.

  6. Geological conditions of safe long-term storage and disposal of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverov, N. P.; Velichkin, V. I.; Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Tagirov, B. R.

    2010-08-01

    The production of enriched uranium used in nuclear weapons and fuel for atomic power plants is accompanied by the formation of depleted uranium (DU), the amount of which annually increases by 35-40 kt. To date, more than 1.6 Mt DU has accumulated in the world. The main DU mass is stored as environ-mentally hazardous uranium hexafluoride (UF6), which is highly volatile and soluble in water with the formation of hydrofluoric acid. To ensure safe UF6 storage, it is necessary to convert this compound in chemically stable phases. The industrial reprocessing of UF6 into U3O8 and HF implemented in France is highly expensive. We substantiate the expediency of long-term storage of depleted uranium hexafluoride in underground repositories localized in limestone. On the basis of geochemical data and thermodynamic calculations, we show that interaction in the steel container-UF6-limestone-groundwater system gives rise to the development of a slightly alkaline reductive medium favorable for chemical reaction with formation of uraninite (UO2) and fluorite (CaF2). The proposed engineering solution not only ensures safe DU storage but also makes it possible to produce uraninite, which can be utilized, if necessary, in fast-neutron reactors. In the course of further investigations aimed at safe maintenance of DU, it is necessary to study the kinetics of conversion of UF6 into stable phases, involving laboratory and field experiments.

  7. Long-term storage of aerobic granules in liquid media: viable but non-culturable status.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunli; Zhang, Qinlan; Lee, Duu-Jong; Wang, Yayi; Li, Jieni

    2014-08-01

    Long-term storage and successful reactivation after storage are essential for practical applications of aerobic granules on wastewater treatment. This study cultivated aerobic granules (SI) in sequencing batch reactors and then stored the granules at 4 °C in five liquid media (DI water (SW), acetone (SA), acetone/isoamyl acetate mix (SAA), saline water (SS), and formaldehyde (SF)) for over 1 year. The first four granules were then successfully reactivated in 24h cultivation. The specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR) of the granules followed SI>SS>SA>SAA>SW>SF; and the corresponding granular strengths (10 min ultrasound) followed SI>SA=SS>SAA>SW>SF. During storage the granular cells secreted excess quantities of cyclic-diguanylate (c-di-GMP) and pentaphosphate (ppGpp) as responses to the stringent challenges. We proposed that to force cells in granules (Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Sphingobacteria, and Clostridia) entering viable but non-culturable (VBNC) status is the key of success for extended period storage of granules. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Stability of Cry1Ab protein during long-term storage for standardization of insect bioassays.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hang Thu; Jehle, Johannes A

    2009-01-01

    The reliable use of purified Cry1Ab protein standards is a prerequisite for ecological studies and resistance monitoring programs of Cry1Ab-expressing transgenic corn. In this study the stability and activity of different Cry1Ab protein batches expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli were determined during two-year storage at different temperature conditions (4 degrees C, -20 degrees C, and -80 degrees C). SDS-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed degradation of the protein stored at 4 degrees C over four months, whereas no difference in the band intensity of the Cry1Ab proteins stored at -20 degrees C and -80 degrees C was observed. Bioassays with neonate larvae of Ostrinia nubilalis indicated that the biological activity of Cry1Ab varied from batch to batch, depending on the production process. Cry1Ab protein stored at 4 degrees C for four months showed a significantly decreasing activity measured as median lethal concentration (LC(50)), whereas the protein activity declined less than 11-fold after two years storage at -20 degrees C. When stored at -80 degrees C the toxin activity remained relatively stable for at least 30 months, as indicated by low LC(50) values of 7-10 ng Cry1Ab per cm(2) diet. These experiments demonstrate that appropriate long-term storage conditions of Cry1Ab protein standards are crucial for resistance monitoring programs of Bt corn, and storage at -80 degrees C is recommended.

  9. Optimization of phytoplankton preservative concentrations to reduce damage during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Abhishek; Das, Subhajit; Bhattacharya, Tanima; De, Minati; Maiti, Tusharkanti; Kumar De, Tarun

    2014-04-01

    A study was performed to establish the optimal concentration of traditional preservatives or fixatives such as formaldehyde and acidic Lugol's iodine, in order to preserve phytoplankton samples for long-term storage without the introduction of artifacts or other physical aberrations. The goal of the study was to avoid any visible morphological changes to the preserved cells, minimizing the errors induced by traditional preservative concentrations, and ensuring better accuracy of ecological analyses. We found that both formaldehyde and acidic Lugol's iodine have adverse effects on the preservation of samples. Trichodesmium erythraeum was found to be most susceptible to the effects of acidic Lugol's iodine, since it displayed the highest degree of chain fragmentation when this preservative was used. However, we found that 2.0% (v/v) formaldehyde, 2.5% (v/v) acidic Lugol's iodine, and 2.0% (v/v) formaldehyde+2.5%(v/v) acidic Lugol's iodine combined were most promising, with the latter the most effective even after 3 weeks of preservation. This study also revealed that, in general, the centric diatom species were more sensitive to long-term preservation than their pennate counterparts. The present study is significant as it sheds light on the damage endured by phytoplankton cells during long-term preservation, which can lead to erroneous and biased results upon analyses. The optimal concentration of preservative established experimentally from a wide variety of concentrations caused comparatively moderate changes to the cell dimensions as well as effectively prevented microbial contamination.

  10. Super chilling enhances preservation of the freshness of salted egg yolk during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, T; Watanuki, C; Ariizumi, M; Shigematsu, Y; Kobayashi, H; Hasegawa, M; Watanabe, K

    2009-03-01

    Pasteurized egg yolk with 10% (w/w) salt was stored at 5, -5, -15, -20, and -30 degrees C for 1 to 6 mo, respectively. Changes in generation of volatiles of the stored samples (5 and -5 degrees C for 6 mo) were analyzed by SPME-GC-MS. Emulsifying properties of egg yolk stored at -5, -15, -20, and -30 degrees C for 1 mo, respectively, were also evaluated by measurement of emulsion particle diameters in model emulsions prepared with the yolk samples. In addition, structural changes in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the egg yolks dependent on storage conditions for 6 mo were evaluated by (31)P-NMR. Volatile compounds such as hexanal, 2-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutanal increased in egg yolk during storage at 5 degrees C; however, volatile compounds hardly increased in any samples stored at -5 degrees C (super chilling). The mean emulsion particle diameter in super chilled egg yolk was significantly smaller than that in egg yolk stored at the other lower temperatures. In addition, the results of (31)P-NMR evaluation suggested that prevention of structural changes of LDL resulted in maintenance of emulsifying properties of egg yolk. Thus, these results indicate that super chilling is an effective means of preserving salted egg yolk during long-term storage.

  11. Fast stack activation procedure and effective long-term storage for high-performance polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seung Yong; Seo, Dong-Jun; Kim, Myeong-Ri; Seo, Min Ho; Hwang, Sun-Mi; Jung, Yong-Min; Kim, Beom-Jun; Yoon, Young-Gi; Han, Byungchan; Kim, Tae-Young

    2016-10-01

    Time-saving stack activation and effective long-term storage are one of most important issues that must be resolved for the commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Herein, we developed the cost-effective stack activation method to finish the whole activation within 30 min and the long-term storage method by using humidified N2 without any significant decrease in cell's performance for 30 days. Specifically, the pre-activation step with the direct injection of DI water into the stack and storage at 65 or 80 °C for 2 h increases the distinctive phase separation between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in Nafion membrane, which significantly reduces the total activation time within 30 min. Additionally, the long-term storage with humidified N2 has no effect on the Pt oxidation and drying of Nafion membrane for 30 days due to its exergonic reaction in the cell. As a result, the high water content in Nafion membrane and the decrease of Pt oxidation are the critical factors that have a strong influence on the activation and long-term storage for high-performance PEMFC.

  12. Alpine Russet: A potato cultivar having long tuber dormancy making it suitable for processing from long-term storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alpine Russet is a later maturing, oblong-long, lightly russeted potato cultivar, notable for having tuber dormancy comparable to Russet Burbank. Processing quality of Alpine Russet from long-term storage is superior to Russet Burbank, with low percent reducing sugars and uniform fry color due to a...

  13. Exploring the Potential for Long-term Storage of Depleted Peridotite in the Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, M. J.; Parman, S.

    2006-12-01

    There is an increasingly powerful body of evidence indicating early, episodic extraction of material from the mantle during the Pre-Cambrian [e.g. 1,2]. These melt extraction events would inevitably have led to large- scale formation of depleted lithospheric mantle. Recent data from Helium and Osmium isotopic systems indicate an important role for ancient, depleted components in the mantle source regions of modern oceanic basalts [3,4]. The implication is that discrete fragments of ancient depleted lithosphere are stored in the mantle over long timescales, presumably through the mechanism of subduction. Melt extraction from fertile peridotite in the upper mantle yields a solid residue that ranges from depleted lherzolite to harzburgite or dunite. In the upper mantle the mineralogy of depleted peridotite is dominated by olivine and opx, and in the transition zone olivine undergoes polymorphic transitions and pyroxene converts to majorite. Depleted peridotite then transforms into an assemblage of Mg-perovskite and ferropericlase at about 670 km. For any given isotherm, depleted peridotite is less dense than fertile mantle throughout the upper mantle, and negative buoyancy can only occur in cold slabs. In the lower mantle depleted peridotite is enriched in ferropericlase relative to fertile mantle and recent experimental results indicate that KD (Pv/FP) may be a factor of 3 to 5 greater in fertile compositions than in depleted compositions, causing an increase in the Fe content of ferropericlase in depleted compositions. Whether or not discrete fragments of depleted peridotite can remain negatively buoyant in the deep mantle depends on many factors including temperature, the modal abundance of minerals and their relative compressibilities, and the amount of iron and its spin state in depleted and fertile lithologies. Here we present petrologic, geochemical and mineral physical modeling to investigate the potential for long-term storage of depleted peridotite as a

  14. The TDR: A Repository for Long Term Storage of Geophysical Data and Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.; Baltzer, T.; Caron, J.

    2006-12-01

    support storage of many large data products, the LEAD implementation of the TDR will provide a variety of data movement options, including gridftp. It will have a web service interface and will be callable programmatically as well as via interactive user requests. Future plans include the use of a mass storage device to provide robust long term storage. This talk will present the current state of the TDR effort.

  15. Long-term storage and transport length scale of fine sediment: Analysis of a mercury release into a river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzuto, J. E.

    2014-08-01

    Excessive suspended sediment concentrations create important water quality problems, but scientists disagree on how to predict its movement through watersheds. Most models assume that fine-grained sediment moves rapidly far downstream, without recognizing the importance of episodic, long-term storage. Here a historic industrial release of mercury is interpreted as a decadal sediment tracer experiment, releasing sediment particles "tagged" with mercury that are deposited on floodplains. As expected, floodplain mercury inventories decrease exponentially downstream, with a characteristic decay length of 10 km (95% confidence interval: 5-25 km) that defines the distance suspended particles typically move downstream before entering storage. Floodplain mercury inventories are not significantly different above and below three colonial age mill dams (present at the time of mercury release but now breached), suggesting that these results reflect ongoing processes. Suspended sediment routing models that neglect long-term storage, and the watershed management plans based on them, may need revision.

  16. Use of information-retrieval languages in automated retrieval of experimental data from long-term storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khovanskiy, Y. D.; Kremneva, N. I.

    1975-01-01

    Problems and methods are discussed of automating information retrieval operations in a data bank used for long term storage and retrieval of data from scientific experiments. Existing information retrieval languages are analyzed along with those being developed. The results of studies discussing the application of the descriptive 'Kristall' language used in the 'ASIOR' automated information retrieval system are presented. The development and use of a specialized language of the classification-descriptive type, using universal decimal classification indices as the main descriptors, is described.

  17. Use of information-retrieval languages in automated retrieval of experimental data from long-term storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khovanskiy, Y. D.; Kremneva, N. I.

    1975-01-01

    Problems and methods are discussed of automating information retrieval operations in a data bank used for long term storage and retrieval of data from scientific experiments. Existing information retrieval languages are analyzed along with those being developed. The results of studies discussing the application of the descriptive 'Kristall' language used in the 'ASIOR' automated information retrieval system are presented. The development and use of a specialized language of the classification-descriptive type, using universal decimal classification indices as the main descriptors, is described.

  18. Preparation of Radium and Other Spent Sealed Sources Containing Long-Lived Radonuclides to Long-Term Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Arustamov, A. E.; Ojovan, M. I.; Semenov, K. N.; Sobolev, I. A.

    2003-02-26

    At present time management of radioactive waste containing long-lived a radionuclides, is one of the most serious problems. The complexity of the management this kind of waste is due to extended half-life of these radionuclides. Hence it is difficult to predict not only long-term behavior of packages with waste, but also conditions of containing geological medium. The spent sources containing long-lived radionuclides are not suitable for disposal in shallow ground repositories. They must be temporary stored in special engineered structures. Long terms storage of these sources require application of additional measures for diminishing of risk of incidents with them.

  19. Published and perished? The influence of the searched protein database on the long-term storage of proteomics data.

    PubMed

    Griss, Johannes; Côté, Richard G; Gerner, Christopher; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2011-09-01

    In proteomics, protein identifications are reported and stored using an unstable reference system: protein identifiers. These proprietary identifiers are created individually by every protein database and can change or may even be deleted over time. To estimate the effect of the searched protein sequence database on the long-term storage of proteomics data we analyzed the changes of reported protein identifiers from all public experiments in the Proteomics Identifications (PRIDE) database by November 2010. To map the submitted protein identifier to a currently active entry, two distinct approaches were used. The first approach used the Protein Identifier Cross Referencing (PICR) service at the EBI, which maps protein identifiers based on 100% sequence identity. The second one (called logical mapping algorithm) accessed the source databases and retrieved the current status of the reported identifier. Our analysis showed the differences between the main protein databases (International Protein Index (IPI), UniProt Knowledgebase (UniProtKB), National Center for Biotechnological Information nr database (NCBI nr), and Ensembl) in respect to identifier stability. For example, whereas 20% of submitted IPI entries were deleted after two years, virtually all UniProtKB entries remained either active or replaced. Furthermore, the two mapping algorithms produced markedly different results. For example, the PICR service reported 10% more IPI entries deleted compared with the logical mapping algorithm. We found several cases where experiments contained more than 10% deleted identifiers already at the time of publication. We also assessed the proportion of peptide identifications in these data sets that still fitted the originally identified protein sequences. Finally, we performed the same overall analysis on all records from IPI, Ensembl, and UniProtKB: two releases per year were used, from 2005. This analysis showed for the first time the true effect of changing protein

  20. Characterization of Representative Materials in Support of Safe, Long Term Storage of Surplus Plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Narlesky, Joshua E.; Stroud, Mary Ann; Smith, Paul Herrick; Wayne, David M.; Mason, Richard E.; Worl, Laura A.

    2013-02-15

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program is a joint Los Alamos National Laboratory/Savannah River Site effort funded by the Department of Energy-Environmental Management to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5,000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on 54 samples of plutonium, with 53 chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper summarizes the characterization data, moisture analysis, particle size, surface area, density, wattage, actinide composition, trace element impurity analysis, and shelf life surveillance data and includes origin and process history information. Limited characterization data on fourteen nonrepresentative samples is also presented.

  1. Decay heat power of spent nuclear fuel of power reactors with high burnup at long-term storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternovykh, Mikhail; Tikhomirov, Georgy; Saldikov, Ivan; Gerasimov, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Decay heat power of actinides and fission products from spent nuclear fuel of power VVER-1000 type reactors at long-term storage is calculated. Two modes of storage are considered: mode in which single portion of actinides or fission products is loaded in storage facility, and mode in which actinides or fission products from spent fuel of one VVER reactor are added every year in storage facility during 30 years and then accumulated nuclides are stored without addition new nuclides. Two values of fuel burnup 40 and 70 MW·d/kg are considered for the mode of storage of single fuel unloading. For the mode of accumulation of spent fuel with subsequent storage, one value of burnup of 70 MW·d/kg is considered. Very long time of storage 105 years accepted in calculations allows to simulate final geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Heat power of fission products decreases quickly after 50-100 years of storage. The power of actinides decreases very slow. In passing from 40 to 70 MW·d/kg, power of actinides increases due to accumulation of higher fraction of 244Cm. These data are important in the back end of fuel cycle when improved cooling system of the storage facility will be required along with stronger radiation protection during storage, transportation and processing.

  2. Development of a protocol to solidify native and artificial oil bodies for long-term storage at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming-Tsung; Chen, Chun-Ren; Liu, Ting-Hang; Lee, Chin-Pei; Tzen, Jason T C

    2013-04-01

    Oil bodies isolated from sesame seeds coalesced to form large oil drops when they were solidified in a drying process commonly used for food products. The aim of this study was to develop a protocol to solidify oil bodies for long-term storage at room temperature. On the basis of testing several excipients, the coalescence of oil bodies could be effectively prevented when they were combined with mannitol. Sizes of oil bodies appeared similar under a light microscope before and after powderisation in combination with 70% or more mannitol. Artificial oil bodies were successfully generated with sesame oil, phospholipid and recombinant sesame caleosin. Following the developed protocol, native and artificial oil bodies were stably solidified in tablets. Both native and artificial oil bodies dissolved from the tablets remained stable after an accelerated stress test under a condition of 75% humidity at 40 °C for 4 months. A protocol was successfully developed for the solidification of native and artificial oil bodies in stable powder and tablet forms. This successful protocol is very likely to expedite the utilisation of artificial oil bodies in their potential applications. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Characterization of representative materials in support of safe, long term storage of surplus plutonium in DOE-STD-3013 containers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Paul H; Narlesky, Joshua E; Worl, Laura A; Gillispie, Obie W

    2010-01-01

    The Surveillance and Monitoring Program (SMP) is a joint LANL/SRS effort funded by DOE/EM to provide the technical basis for the safe, long-term storage (up to 50 years) of over 6 metric tons of plutonium stored in over 5000 DOE-STD-3013 containers at various facilities around the DOE complex. The majority of this material is plutonium that is surplus to the nuclear weapons program, and much of it is destined for conversion to mixed oxide fuel for use in US nuclear power plants. The form of the plutonium ranges from relatively pure metal and oxide to very impure oxide. The performance of the 3013 containers has been shown to depend on moisture content and on the levels, types and chemical forms of the impurities. The oxide materials that present the greatest challenge to the storage container are those that contain chloride salts. The chlorides (NaCl, KCl, CaCl{sub 2}, and MgCl{sub 2}) range from less than half of the impurities present to nearly all the impurities. Other common impurities include oxides and other compounds of calcium, magnesium, iron, and nickel. Over the past 15 years the program has collected a large body of experimental data on over 60 samples of plutonium chosen to represent the broader population of materials in storage. This paper will summarize the characterization data, including the origin and process history, particle size, surface area, density, calorimetry, chemical analysis, moisture analysis, prompt gamma, gas generation and corrosion behavior.

  4. NDE of copper canisters for long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel from the Swedish nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepinski, Tadeusz

    2003-07-01

    Sweden has been intensively developing methods for long term storage of spent fuel from the nuclear power plants for twenty-five years. A dedicated research program has been initiated and conducted by the Swedish company SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuels and Waste Management Co.). After the interim storage SKB plans to encapsulate spent nuclear fuel in copper canisters that will be placed at a deep repository located in bedrock. The canisters filled with fuel rods will be sealed by an electron beam weld. This paper presents three complementary NDE techniques used for assessing the sealing weld in copper canisters, radiography, ultrasound, and eddy current. A powerful X-ray source and a digital detector are used for the radiography. An ultrasonic array system consisting of a phased ultrasonic array and a multi-channel electronics is used for the ultrasonic examination. The array system enables electronic focusing and rapid electronic scanning eliminating the use of a complicated mechanical scanner. A specially designed eddy current probe capable of detecting small voids at the depth up to 4 mm in copper is used for the eddy current inspection. Presently, all the NDE techniques are verified in SKB's Canister Laboratory where full scale canisters are welded and examined.

  5. Effects of Long-Term Storage on the Detection of Proteins, DNA, and mRNA in Tissue Microarray Slides

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Mats G.

    2011-01-01

    Storage of tissue slides has been claimed to induce dramatically reduced antigen detection particularly for immunohistochemistry (IHC). With tissue microarrays, the necessity to serially cut blocks in order to obtain as much material as possible is obvious. The presumed adverse effect of storage might hamper such an approach. The authors designed an experimental setting consisting of four different storage conditions with storage time of tissue slides of up to 1 year. Detection of proteins, DNA, and mRNA was performed using IHC and in situ hybridization techniques. Slight but significant changes in IHC occurred over time. The most important factor is the primary antibody used: four showed no significant changes, whereas limited decreases in 8 antibodies could be detected by image analysis. Whether the antigen was nuclear or cytoplasmic/membranous did not matter. No major differences between different storage conditions could be shown, but storage at 4C was overall the best procedure. Furthermore, gene copy number aberrations, chromosomal translocations, and the presence of mRNA could be detected on slides stored up to 1 year. In conclusion, in tissues optimally formalin fixed and using modern histological techniques, only minute changes in tissue antigenicity are induced by long-term storage. PMID:22147608

  6. Evaluation of the Universal Viral Transport system for long-term storage of virus specimens for microbial forensics.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa-Muto, Junji; Fujinami, Yoshihito; Mizuno, Natsuko

    2015-08-01

    Forensic microbial specimens, including bacteria and viruses, are collected at biocrime and bioterrorism scenes. Although it is preferable that the pathogens in these samples are alive and kept in a steady state, the samples may be stored for prolonged periods before analysis. Therefore, it is important to understand the effects of storage conditions on the pathogens contained within such samples. To evaluate the capacity to preserve viable virus and the viral genome, influenza virus was added to the transport medium of the Universal Viral Transport system and stored for over 3 months at various temperatures, after which virus titrations and quantitative analysis of the influenza hemagglutinin gene were performed. Although viable viruses became undetectable 29 days after the medium was stored at room temperature, viruses in the medium stored at 4°C were viable even after 99 days. A quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the hemagglutinin gene was maintained for 99 days at both 4°C and room temperature. Therefore, long-term storage at 4°C has little effect on viable virus and viral genes, so the Universal Viral Transport system can be useful for microbial forensics. This study provides important information for the handling of forensic virus specimens.

  7. Development of a model system for the study of spoilage associated secondary cucumber fermentation during long term storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calcium chloride fermentations represent an alternative to reduce chloride concentrations in the wastewaters generated from commercial cucumber fermentations, currently performed in cover brine solutions containing 6% to 12% sodium chloride. However, preliminary attempts to commercially ferment the ...

  8. Stability of selected serum hormones and lipids after long-term storage in the Janus Serum Bank.

    PubMed

    Gislefoss, Randi E; Grimsrud, Tom K; Mørkrid, Lars

    2015-04-01

    The potential value of a biobank depends on the quality of the samples, i.e. how well they reflect the biological or biochemical state of the donors at the time of sampling. Documentation of sample quality has become a particularly important issue for researchers and users of biobank studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term stability of selected components: cholesterol, high density cholesterol (HDLC), low density cholesterol (LDLC), apolipoprotein A1 (apo-A1), apolipoprotein B (apo B), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxin (FT4). Samples, stored at -25°C, from 520 men aged 40-49 years at blood sampling distributed in equally sized groups (n=130) according to length of storage, 0, 4, 17 and 29 years, respectively, were used in a cross sectional design. The freshly collected serum samples were used as a reference group to calculate storage related changes. The differences between fresh samples and samples stored for 29 years were substantial for apo-A1 (+12%), apo-B (+22.3%), HDLC (-69.2%), LDLC (+31.3%), and PRL (-33.5%), while total cholesterol, FSH, LH, TSH and FT4 did not show any significant difference. The study showed large differences in serum level of the selected components. The lipids and apolipoproteins were all changed except for total cholesterol. Most hormones investigated (FSH, LH, TSH and FT4) proved to be stable after 29 years of storage while PRL showed sign of degradation. The observed differences are probably due to long-term storage effects and/or external factors (i.e. diet and smoking). Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Materials Assessment of Insulating Foam in the 9977 Shipping Package for Long-Term Storage - Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, A. J.

    2016-08-01

    The 9977 shipping package is being evaluated for long-term storage applications in the K-Area Complex (KAC) with specific focus on the packaging foam material. A rigid closed cell polyurethane foam, LAST-A-FOAM® FR-3716, produced by General Plastics Manufacturing Company is sprayed and expands to fill the void between the inner container and the outer shell of the package. The foam is sealed in this annular space and is not accessible. During shipping and storage, the foam experiences higher than ambient temperatures from the heat generated by nuclear material within the package creating the potential for degradation of the foam. A series of experiments is underway to determine the extent of foam degradation. Foam samples of three densities have been aging at elevated temperatures 160 °F, 160 °F + 50% relative humidity (RH), 185 °F, 215 °F, and 250 °F since 2014. Samples were periodically removed and tested. After approximately 80 weeks, samples conditioned at 160 °F, 160 °F + 50% RH, and 185 °F have retained initial property values while samples conditioned at 215 °F have reduced intumescence. Samples conditioned at 250 °F have shown the most degradation, loss of volume, mass, absorbed energy under compression, intumescence, and increased flammability. Based on the initial data, temperatures up to 185 °F have not yet shown an adverse effect on the foam properties and it is recommended that exposure of FR-3716 foam to temperatures in excess of 250 °F be avoided or minimized. Testing will continue beyond the 96 week mark. This will provide additional data to help define the long-term behavior for the lower temperature conditions. Additional testing will be pursued in an attempt to identify transition points (threshold times and temperatures) at the higher temperatures of interest, as well as possible benefits of aging within the relatively oxygen-free environment the foam experiences inside the 9977 shipping package.

  10. Long-term storage facility for reactor compartments in Sayda Bay - German support for utilization of nuclear submarines in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Dietmar; Voelzke, Holger; Weber, Wolfgang; Noack, Volker; Baeuerle, Guenther

    2007-07-01

    The German-Russian project that is part of the G8 initiative on Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction focuses on the speedy construction of a land-based interim storage facility for nuclear submarine reactor compartments at Sayda Bay near Murmansk. This project includes the required infrastructure facilities for long-term storage of about 150 reactor compartments for a period of about 70 years. The interim storage facility is a precondition for effective activities of decommissioning and dismantlement of almost all nuclear-powered submarines of the Russian Northern Fleet. The project also includes the establishment of a computer-assisted waste monitoring system. In addition, the project involves clearing Sayda Bay of other shipwrecks of the Russian navy. On the German side the project is carried out by the Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN) on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour (BMWi). On the Russian side the Kurchatov Institute holds the project management of the long-term interim storage facility in Sayda Bay, whilst the Nerpa Shipyard, which is about 25 km away from the storage facility, is dismantling the submarines and preparing the reactor compartments for long-term interim storage. The technical monitoring of the German part of this project, being implemented by BMWi, is the responsibility of the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM). This paper gives an overview of the German-Russian project and a brief description of solutions for nuclear submarine disposal in other countries. At Nerpa shipyard, being refurbished with logistic and technical support from Germany, the reactor compartments are sealed by welding, provided with biological shielding, subjected to surface treatment and conservation measures. Using floating docks, a tugboat tows the reactor compartments from Nerpa shipyard to the interim storage facility at Sayda Bay where they will be left on the on-shore concrete

  11. Application of Polymers for the Long-Term Storage and Disposal of Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bonin, Hugues W.; Walker, Michael W.; Bui, Van Tam

    2004-01-15

    differences in chemical transition temperatures characteristic of radiation damage. All the changes in these properties are characteristic of the cross-linking phenomenon. For the glass-fiber-reinforced polymers, the results of the tests evidenced minor radiation degradation at the fiber/matrix interfaces. Based on these results, any of the investigated polymers could potentially be used for disposal containers due to their abilities to adequately resist radiation. This allowed proceeding one step further into determining a potential design framework for containers for the long-term storage and disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste.

  12. Summary report of the screening process to determine reasonable alternatives for long-term storage and disposition of weapons-usable fissile materials

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-29

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials (primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium) have become surplus to national defense needs both in the US and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety and health consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. As announced in the Notice of Intent (NOI) to prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS), the Department of Energy is currently conducting an evaluation process for disposition of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials determined surplus to National Security needs, and long-term storage of national security and programmatic inventories, and surplus weapons-usable fissile materials that are not able to go directly from interim storage to disposition. An extensive set of long-term storage and disposition options was compiled. Five broad long-term storage options were identified; thirty-seven options were considered for plutonium disposition; nine options were considered for HEU disposition; and eight options were identified for Uranium-233 disposition. Section 2 discusses the criteria used in the screening process. Section 3 describes the options considered, and Section 4 provides a detailed summary discussions of the screening results.

  13. Effect of postharvest pretreatments on organic Early Superior Seedless "Sugraone" table grapes assigned to long term storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Admane, Naouel; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Di Gennaro, Domenico; Genovese, Francesco; Altieri, Giuseppe; Carlo Di Renzo, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    titratable acidity decreased, while, pH increased in all samples in comparison with their initial value. Also, the SSC increased in samples treated with O3 at 20 ppm, CO2 at 70% and dipping. Finally, the sensory evaluation scores gave the decisive data for the selection of the best combination treatments in order to validate their efficiency and that of the film packaging on late season organic table grape "Scarlotta/Sugraninteen". The highest scores for crunchiness, firmness, sweetness and sourness were given to samples pretreated by dipping. In conclusion, the efficiency of both film packaging and MAP inhibited the occurrence of berries decay in all samples including the control. These preliminary results represent the first step to design a treatment approach and develop a postharvest protocol for organic table grapes assigned to long term storage or shipping.

  14. Weathering of granodioritic crust, long-term storage of elements in weathering profiles, and petrogenesis of siliciclastic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesbitt, H. Wayne; Markovics, G.

    1997-04-01

    The bulk composition and mineralogy of the Toorongo Granodiorite, Australia, are similar to average upper continental crust (AUCC). Weathering characteristics of the Toorongo profile consequently provide insight into large-scale chemical weathering of the upper crust. In situ weathered materials of the profile do not reflect parent granodiorite composition in quartz-plagioclase-K-feldspar (Q-P-K) or in quartz-feldspar-rock fragment (Q-F-L) compositional space. Intensive in situ weathering precludes sands, derived from mature weathering profiles through erosion, from reflecting their provenance. Where intensive chemical weathering has occurred, clay minerals and oxyhydroxides of the profile, and by inference muds derived therefrom, contain much more chemical information about provenance than do associated sands. Actinides, rare earth elements (REEs), many transition metals, and metalloids have accumulated in deep parts of the weathering profile at concentrations much greater than observed in the fresh granodiorite. Mass balance considerations require the bulk of these elements to have been derived from previously weathered, and now eroded, granodiorite. These elements were, and are, continually cycled from the intensely weathered uppermost soil zone to deeper, less weathered, zones of the profile where they accumulate. The profile therefore represents a large, continental elemental storage reservoir, the storage capacity of which has increased over time. Wherever erosion is sufficiently slow and chemical weathering sufficiently rapid, mature weathering profiles may become large, long-term storage reservoirs for actinides, REEs, and many other elements. The total REE contents of extremely weathered soil material are somewhat less than in the parent granodiorite, but they are enriched twofold to threefold in the zone of intermediate weathering relative to parent. Similar variations in total REEs are observed in some muds when normalized to their source (AUCC). These

  15. Key Performance Criteria Affecting the Most the Safety of a Nuclear Waste Long Term Storage : A Case Study Commissioned by CEA

    SciTech Connect

    Marvy, A.; Lioure, A; Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Schneider, T.; Schieber, C.

    2003-02-24

    As part of the work scope set in the French law on high level long lived waste R&D passed in 1991, CEA is conducting a research program to establish the scientific basis and assess the feasibility of long term storage as an option for the safe management of nuclear waste for periods as long as centuries. This goal is a significant departure from the current industrial practice where storage facilities are usually built to last only a few decades. From a technical viewpoint such an extension in time seems feasible provided care and maintenance is exercised. Considering such long periods of time, the risk for Society of loosing oversight and control of such a facility is real, which triggers the question of whether and how long term storage safety can be actually achieved. Therefore CEA commissioned a study (1) in which MUTADIS Consultants (2) and CEPN (3) were both involved. The case study looks into several past and actual human enterprises conducted over significant periods o f time, one of them dating back to the end of the 18th century, and all identified out of the nuclear field. Then-prevailing societal behavior and organizational structures are screened out to show how they were or are still able to cope with similar oversight and control goals. As a result, the study group formulated a set of performance criteria relating to issues like responsibility, securing funds, legal and legislative implications, economic sustainable development, all being areas which are not traditionally considered as far as technical studies are concerned. These criteria can be most useful from the design stage onward, first in an attempt to define the facility construction and operating guiding principles, and thereafter to substantiate the safety case for long term storage and get geared to the public dialogue on that undertaking should it become a reality.

  16. Retention of mosquito larvicidal activity of lyophilized cells and WDP formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Manonmani, A M; Prabakaran, G; Hoti, S L

    2008-02-01

    Lyophilized cells (sealed and unsealed) and water dispersible powders (WDPs) of two indigenous isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis var.israelensis were stored at -10, 4, 30 and 40 degrees C for up to 4 years and checked for activity. Lyophilized cells stored in sealed condition at -10, 4 and 30 degrees C and WDPs stored at -10 and 4 degrees C were found to maintain the activity fairly well. The lyophilized cells stored at 30 degrees C and WDPs stored at 4 degrees C maintained their larvicidal property for up to 20 years. Hence, lyophilization and WDP formulations are reliable methods for long-term storage of B. t. var. israelensis.

  17. Vacuum-packed ripened sausages: evolution of oxidative and hydrolytic degradation of lipid fraction during long-term storage and influence on the sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Summo, Carmine; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella; Gomes, Tommaso

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out with the aim to understand the oxidative and hydrolytic phenomena involving the lipid fraction of vacuum-packed sausages during long-term storage (5 months) and to verify their influence on the sensory characteristics. The data obtained pointed out that the oxidation was more pronounced in the initial stages of storage than in the further period, while the hydrolysis of lipid fraction significantly advanced during the whole storage time, supported by the high moisture level of the product. Both these phenomena resulted to be correlated with the sensory decay of the product. In particular, in the first stage of vacuum storage overall acceptability was found to be negatively correlated (p<0.05) with rancid taste, acid value, and oxidized triacylglycerols. In the further stage the oxidative processes slowed down and affected in a lesser extent the sensory properties, which were more distinctly characterized by the onset of pungent perception attributed to compounds arising from multiple origins such as carbohydrate fermentation. This investigation confirmed the unreliability of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances test and the usefulness of high performance size exclusion chromatography analysis of the polar compounds of the lipid fraction to correctly determine the levels of the oxidative and hydrolytic degradation of the lipid fraction of vacuum-packed ripened sausages during long-term storage.

  18. Insights into the molecular basis of long-term storage and survival of sperm in the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Paynter, Ellen; Millar, A Harvey; Welch, Mat; Baer-Imhoof, Barbara; Cao, Danyang; Baer, Boris

    2017-01-16

    Honeybee males produce ejaculates consisting of large numbers of high quality sperm. Because queens never re-mate after a single mating episode early in life, sperm are stored in a specialised organ for years but the proximate mechanisms underlying this key physiological adaptation are unknown. We quantified energy metabolism in honeybee sperm and show that the glycolytic metabolite glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GA3P) is a key substrate for honeybee sperm survival and energy production. This reliance on non-aerobic energy metabolism in stored sperm was further supported by our findings of very low levels of oxygen inside the spermatheca. Expression of GA3P dehydrogenase (GAPDH), the enzyme involved in catabolism of GA3P, was significantly higher in stored compared to ejaculated sperm. Therefore, long-term sperm storage seems facilitated by the maintenance of non-aerobic energy production, the need for only the ATP-producing steps of glycolysis and by avoiding sperm damage resulting from ROS production. We also confirm that honeybee sperm is capable of aerobic metabolism, which predominates in ejaculated sperm while they compete for access to the spermatheca, but is suppressed during storage. Consequently, the remarkable reproductive traits of honeybees are proximately achieved by differential usage of energy production pathways to maximise competitiveness and minimise damage of sperm.

  19. Insights into the molecular basis of long-term storage and survival of sperm in the honeybee (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Paynter, Ellen; Millar, A. Harvey; Welch, Mat; Baer-Imhoof, Barbara; Cao, Danyang; Baer, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Honeybee males produce ejaculates consisting of large numbers of high quality sperm. Because queens never re-mate after a single mating episode early in life, sperm are stored in a specialised organ for years but the proximate mechanisms underlying this key physiological adaptation are unknown. We quantified energy metabolism in honeybee sperm and show that the glycolytic metabolite glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GA3P) is a key substrate for honeybee sperm survival and energy production. This reliance on non-aerobic energy metabolism in stored sperm was further supported by our findings of very low levels of oxygen inside the spermatheca. Expression of GA3P dehydrogenase (GAPDH), the enzyme involved in catabolism of GA3P, was significantly higher in stored compared to ejaculated sperm. Therefore, long-term sperm storage seems facilitated by the maintenance of non-aerobic energy production, the need for only the ATP-producing steps of glycolysis and by avoiding sperm damage resulting from ROS production. We also confirm that honeybee sperm is capable of aerobic metabolism, which predominates in ejaculated sperm while they compete for access to the spermatheca, but is suppressed during storage. Consequently, the remarkable reproductive traits of honeybees are proximately achieved by differential usage of energy production pathways to maximise competitiveness and minimise damage of sperm. PMID:28091518

  20. Suitability of cryopreservation for the long-term storage of rare and endangered plant species: a case history for Cosmos atrosanguineus.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Tom; Wetten, Andrew; Prychid, Chrissie; Fay, Michael F

    2003-01-01

    The suitability of cryopreservation for the secure, long-term storage of the rare and endangered species Cosmos atrosanguineus was investigated. Using encapsulation/dehydration of shoot tips in alginate strips, survival rates of up to 100 % and shoot regeneration of up to 35 % were achieved. Light and electron microscopy studies indicated that cellular damage to some regions of the shoot tip during the freeze/thaw procedure was high, although cell survival in and around the meristematic region allowed shoot tip regeneration. The genetic fingerprinting technique, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), showed that no detectable genetic variation was present between material of C. atrosanguineus at the time of initiation into tissue culture and that which had been cryopreserved, stored in liquid nitrogen for 12 months and regenerated. Weaned plantlets that were grown under glasshouse conditions exhibited no morphological variation from non-frozen controls. Copyright 2003 Annals of Botany Company

  1. Disorders in the Morphology and Nanostructure of Erythrocyte Membranes after Long-term Storage of Erythrocyte Suspension: Atomic Force Microscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Moroz, V V; Chernysh, A M; Kozlova, E K; Sergunova, V A; Gudkova, O E; Khoroshilov, S E; Onufrievich, A D; Kostin, A I

    2015-07-01

    Disorders in the erythrocyte morphology and structure of their membranes during long-term storage of erythrocyte suspension (30 days at 4°C) were studied by atomic force microscopy. The morphology and nanostructure of erythrocyte membranes, biochemical parameters, ion exchange parameters, and hemoglobin spectra were recorded. The transformation of erythrocyte morphology and destruction of their membranes were observed throughout the storage period. Irreversible forms of spheroechinocytes and their fragments formed by the end of storage. The concentrations of potassium ions and lactate in solution of the blood preservatiive increased, while pH value decreased. Hemolysis detected by the erythrocyte "leakage" effect was observed starting from days 16-23 of storage.

  2. Utilization of agro-wastes to inhibit aflatoxins synthesis by Aspergillus parasiticus: A biotreatment of three cereals for safe long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Sultana, B; Naseer, R; Nigam, Poonam

    2015-12-01

    The growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and aflatoxins production were inhibited during storage of three important cereals (wheat, maize and rice) using leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica) and kikar (Acacia nilotica). Cereals were inoculated with mould spores and stabilized by neem and kikar leaves-powder. Test samples with moisture levels of 21% were stored at 30°C for a period of 9months. Aflatoxins were quantified at different time intervals in stored cereals. Neem leaves fully inhibited all types of aflatoxins synthesis for 4months in wheat and for 2months in maize while in rice inhibited synthesis of only B2, G1 and G2 aflatoxin for 3months. Kikar leaves fully inhibited aflatoxin B2, G1 and G2 for 3months in wheat, and for 2months in maize. Among two investigated plants, neem leaves were found more effective for preventing the production of all types of aflatoxins in cereals' long-term storage.

  3. Vertically integrated approaches to large scale CO2 storage: Evaluating long-term storage security of CO2 injection in saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasda, S. E.; Nordbotten, J.; Celia, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Storage security of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. During the injection and early post-injection periods, CO2 leakage may occur along faults and leaky wells, but this risk may be partly managed by proper site selection and sensible deployment of monitoring and remediation technologies. On the other hand, long-term storage security is an entirely different risk management problem—one that is dominated by a mobile CO2 plume that may travel over very large spatial and temporal scales before it is trapped by different physical and chemical processes. The primary trapping mechanisms are capillary and solubility trapping, which evolve over thousands to tens of thousands of years and can immobilize a significant portion of the mobile, free-phase CO2 plume. However, these processes are complex, involving a combination of small and large spatial scales over varying time scales. Solubility trapping is a prime example of this complexity, where small-scale density instabilities in the dissolved CO2 region leads to convective mixing that has that has a significant effect on the large-scale dissolution process over very long time scales. Using appropriate models that can capture both large and small-scale effects is essential for understanding the role of dissolution and convective mixing on the long-term storage security of CO2 sequestration operations. There are several approaches to modeling long-term CO2 trapping mechanisms. One modeling option is the use of traditional numerical methods, which are often highly sophisticated models that can handle multiple complex phenomena with high levels of accuracy. However, these complex models quickly become prohibitively expensive for the type of large-scale, long-term modeling that is necessary for risk assessment applications such as the late post-injection period. We present an alternative modeling option, the VESA model, that combines

  4. Stability of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds during Long-Term Storage (18 Months) at Temperatures of 5-50 °C.

    PubMed

    Krichene, Dhouha; Salvador, María Desamparados; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2015-08-05

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolic compounds have high nutritional and biological properties. The purpose of this research was to study the stability of VOO phenolic compounds during long-term storage (18 months) at different temperatures (5, 15, 25, and 50 °C) and to verify the advantage of storing VOO at a temperature lower than the usual commercial conditions (20-25 °C). Four monovarietal VOOs that differed in their fatty acid profile and content of natural antioxidants were used in this study. The degradation of secoiridoid phenolics during storage displayed pseudo-first-order kinetics and depended on the initial content of phenolics related to olive oil variety. The initial degradation rate was similar at 5 and 15 °C but increased considerably at 25 °C and was even faster at 50 °C. Tyrosol derivatives were more stable than hydroxytyrosol compounds, especially in closed bottles with limited oxygen availability. The increase in the content of simple phenolics, the decrease of their secoiridoid derivatives, or the ratio of simple to secoiridoid phenolics could be used as indices of the oxidative and hydrolytic degradation of VOO phenolics. The shelf life of the studied VOO was considerably extended at reduced storage temperature (15 vs 25 °C). Moreover, storage conditions affected VOO phenolic content and therefore the expiration date of the health claim that olive oil polyphenols contribute to the protection of blood lipids from oxidative stress.

  5. Rapid fabrication of superhydrophobic Al/Fe2O3 nanothermite film with excellent energy-release characteristics and long-term storage stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xiang; Zhou, Xiang; Hao, Gaozi; Xiao, Lei; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Wei

    2017-06-01

    One of the challenges for the application of energetic materials is their energy-retaining capabilities after long-term storage. In this study, we report a facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic Al/Fe2O3 nanothermite film by combining electrophoretic deposition and surface modification technologies. Different concentrations of dispersion solvents and additives are investigated to optimize the deposition parameters. Meanwhile, the dependence of deposition rates on nanoparticle concentrations is also studied. The surface morphology and chemical composition are characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A static contact angles as high as 156° shows the superhydrophobicity of the nanothermite film. Natural and accelerated aging tests are performed and the thermal behavior is analyzed. Thermal analysis shows that the surface modification contributes to significantly improved energy-release characteristics for both fresh and aged samples, which is supposed to be attributed to the preignition reaction between Al2O3 shell and FAS-17. Superhydrophobic Al/Fe2O3 nanothermite film exhibits excellent long-time storage stability with 83.4% of energy left in natural aging test and 60.5% in accelerated aging test. This study is instructive to the practical applications of nanothermites, especially in highly humid environment.

  6. Development of a separate tank with an electrolysis-dependent bacteria controlling system for the long term storage of potable water.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Akinori; Tanji, Masataka; Hayashi, Nobuatsu; Wakabayashi, Akihiro; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Hotta, Kunimoto

    2006-12-01

    For the long term storage of tap water, we developed a separate type of tank (5 m3) equipped with an electrolysis system to control bacterial growth. The electrolysis conditions using 20A direct current and a water flow rate of 10 L/min were capable of producing available chlorine (AC) at the rate of 5-8mg/min and raising the AC level of the stored tap water by about 0.2 mg/kg within 20-30 min The electrolyzed tap water with 0.2 mg/kg AC showed a capability per ml of killing 10(5)-10(6) cfu of bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa within 15 sec. A 6-month trial operation of the storage system with an automatic electrolysis control to keep AC level ranging 0.2-0.4 mg/kg demonstrated that the system worked well for the stored tap water in suppressing bacterial growth as well as in keeping good potable quality with reference to the 46 parameters specified for Japanese tap water. Actually, the electrolysis treatment was administered intermittently with an interval of about two weeks. Thus we believe the developed system has good potential to secure a potable water supply not only in the occasion of emergencies but also in countries having problems in the supply of safe drinking water.

  7. A systematic study on lyophilization process of polymersomes for long-term storage using doxorubicin-loaded (PEG)₃-PLA nanopolymersomes.

    PubMed

    Ayen, Wubeante Yenet; Kumar, Neeraj

    2012-08-15

    This study is focused on lyophilization process, physicochemical characterization and long-term storage stability studies of lyophilized doxorubicin-loaded (PEG)(3)-PLA nanopolymersomes. Nanopolymersomes were prepared by nanoprecipitation method using (PEG)(3)-PLA copolymer and lyophilized in the presence of different lyoprotectants and evaluated for physicochemical properties. The lyophilized product was studied for long-term stability at 2-8 °C, 25 °C/65% RH and 40 °C/75% RH over predetermined periods and evaluated for changes in physicochemical properties. In the absence of lyoprotectants, product was collapsed with no cake formation. In the presence of inulin, mannitol, gelatin, polyvinyl alcohol and glycine, nanopolymersome formulations demonstrated an intact cake occupying same volume as original frozen mass. The residual moisture content was below 2.5% w/w. The time of reconstitution was instantaneous following addition of water without any manual shaking. However, inulin found to be superior to the rest of lyoprotectants for overall lyophilizate physicochemical properties. Drug loaded nanopolymersome were physically stable and no effect was observed in terms of physicochemical properties following one year at 2-8 °C. In conclusion, the results suggest that doxorubicin loaded nanopolymersomes could be lyophilized using inulin 5% w/v without losing its physicochemical properties and can be stored at 2-8 °C with a provisional shelf life of more than a year.

  8. Prestorage oxalic acid treatment maintained visual quality, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant potential of pomegranate after long-term storage at 2 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Sayyari, Mohammad; Valero, Daniel; Babalar, Mesbah; Kalantari, Siamak; Zapata, Pedro J; Serrano, María

    2010-06-09

    Oxalic acid at three concentrations (2, 4, and 6 mM) was applied by dipping to pomegranate fruits of cv. Mollar de Elche, which were then stored for 84 days at 2 degrees C. Pomegranate is a chilling-sensitive fruit and, thus, control fruits exhibited chilling injury (CI) symptoms after long-term storage at 2 degrees C that were accompanied by increased respiration rate, weight loss, and electrolyte leakage (EL). The CI symptoms were significantly reduced by oxalic acid treatment, especially for the 6 mM concentration. In addition, control pomegranates showed significant reduction in the content of total phenolics and ascorbic acid as well as in total antioxidant activity (TAA), in both hydrophilic (H-TAA) and lipophilic (L-TAA) fractions. The application of oxalic acid led to lower losses of total phenolics and significant increase in both ascorbic acid content and H-TAA, whereas L-TAA remained unaffected. Thus, oxalic acid could be a promising postharvest treatment to alleviate CI and increase antioxidant potential.

  9. Physical stability and resistance to peroxidation of a range of liquid-fill hard gelatin capsule products on extreme long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Bowtle, William; Kanyowa, Lionel; Mackenzie, Mark; Higgins, Paul

    2011-06-01

    The industrial take-up of liquid-fill hard capsule technology is limited in part by lack of published long-term physical and chemical stability data which demonstrate the robustness of the system. To assess the effects of extreme long-term storage on liquid-fill capsule product quality and integrity, with respect to both the capsules per se and a standard blister-pack type (foil-film blister). Fourteen sets of stored peroxidation-sensitive liquid-fill hard gelatin capsule product samples, originating ~20 years from the current study, were examined with respect to physical and selected chemical properties, together with microbiological evaluation. All sets retained physical integrity of capsules and blister-packs. Capsules were free of leaks, gelatin cross-linking, and microbiological growth. Eight samples met a limit (anisidine value, 20) commonly used as an index of peroxidation for lipid-based products with shelf lives of 2-3 years. Foil-film blister-packs using PVC or PVC-PVdC as the thermoforming film were well-suited packaging components for the liquid-fill capsule format. The study confirms the long-term physical robustness of the liquid-fill hard capsule format, together with its manufacturing and banding processes. It also indicates that various peroxidation-sensitive products using the capsule format may be maintained satisfactorily over very prolonged storage periods.

  10. The effect of microwave pretreatment of seeds on the stability and degradation kinetics of phenolic compounds in rapeseed oil during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Rękas, Agnieszka; Ścibisz, Iwona; Siger, Aleksander; Wroniak, Małgorzata

    2017-05-01

    Storage stability and degradation kinetics of phenolic compounds in rapeseed oil pressed from microwave treated seeds (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10min, 800W) during long-term storage (12months) at a temperature of 20°C was discussed in the current study. The dominant phenolic compound detected in rapeseed oil was canolol, followed by minor amounts of free phenolic acids and sinapine. The most pronounced effect of seeds microwaving was noted for canolol formation - after 10-min exposure the quantity of this compound was approximately 63-fold higher than in control oil. The degradation of phenolics during storage displayed pseudo first-order kinetics. Differences in the initial degradation rate (r0) demonstrated significant impact of the period of seeds microwave exposure on the degradation rates of phenolic compounds. Results of the half-life calculation (t1/2) showed that the storage stability of phenolic compounds was higher in oils produced from microwave treated rapeseeds than in control oil.

  11. Assessing antibody microarrays for space missions: effect of long-term storage, gamma radiation, and temperature shifts on printed and fluorescently labeled antibodies.

    PubMed

    de Diego-Castilla, Graciela; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Mateo-Martí, Eva; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Rivas, Luis A; Parro, Víctor

    2011-10-01

    Antibody microarrays are becoming frequently used tools for analytical purposes. A key factor for optimal performance is the stability of the immobilized (capturing) antibodies as well as those that have been fluorescently labeled to achieve the immunological test (tracers). This is especially critical for long-distance transport, field testing, or planetary exploration. A number of different environmental stresses may affect the antibody integrity, such as dryness, sudden temperature shift cycles, or, as in the case of space science, exposure to large quantities of the highly penetrating gamma radiation. Here, we report on the effect of certain stabilizing solutions for long-term storage of printed antibody microarrays under different conditions. We tested the effect of gamma radiation on printed and freeze- or vacuum-dried fluorescent antibodies at working concentrations (tracer antibodies), as well as the effect of multiple cycles of sudden and prolonged temperature shifts on the stability of fluorescently labeled tracer antibody cocktails. Our results show that (i) antibody microarrays are stable at room temperature when printed on stabilizing spotting solutions for at least 6 months, (ii) lyophilized and vacuum-dried fluorescently labeled tracer antibodies are stable for more than 9 months of sudden temperature shift cycles (-20°C to 25°C and 50°C), and (iii) both printed and freeze- or vacuum-dried fluorescent tracer antibodies are stable after several-fold excess of the dose of gamma radiation expected during a mission to Mars. Although different antibodies may exhibit different susceptibilities, we conclude that, in general, antibodies are suitable for use in planetary exploration purposes if they are properly treated and stored with the use of stabilizing substances.

  12. Effect of freezing, long-term storage and microwave thawing on the stability of a mixture of diclofenac and sodium bicarbonate in glucose 5% polyolefin bags.

    PubMed

    François, J-H; Hecq, J-D; Vanbeckbergen, D; Jamart, J; Galanti, L

    2009-11-01

    Preparation in advance of intravenous solution could be efficient to improve quality assurance, security, time management and cost saving of drug delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the stability of a mixture of diclofenac 75 mg/100 ml and sodium bicarbonate 42 mg/100 ml in 5% glucose polyolefin bags after freezing, long-term storage, and microwave thawing. The stability of five polyolefin bags containing approximately 75 mg/100ml of diclofenac and 42 mg/100ml of sodium bicarbonate in 5% glucose prepared under aseptic conditions was studied after freezing for 2 months at -20 degrees C, thawing in a microwave oven with a validated cycle, and stored at 5 + or - 3 degrees C. Diclofenac concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography using a reversed-phase column, a mobile phase consisting of 40% of acetonitrile (v/v) in KH(2)PO(4) buffer 0.02 M, pH 8.40 + or - 0.05, and UV detection at 276.0 nm. Visual inspection, microscope observation, spectrophotometric measurements and pH measurement were also performed. No colour change or precipitation occurred in the preparations. No microaggregate was observed with optical microscopy or revealed by a change of absorbance. Based on a shelf-life of 90% residual potency, diclofenac was stable for at least 30 days after freezing and microwave thawing, period where 95% lower confidence limit of the concentration-time profile remained superior to 90% of the initial concentration. During this period, the pH values of drug solutions have not been altered. Within these limits, diclofenac in 5% glucose infusion may be prepared and frozen in advance by a centralized intravenous admixture service, then thawed before use in clinical units.

  13. Managing aging effects on dry cask storage systems for extended long-term storage and transportation of used fuel - rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Diercks, D.; Fabian, R.; Ma, D.; Shah, V.; Tam, S.W.; Liu, Y.

    2012-07-06

    The cancellation of the Yucca Mountain repository program in the United States raises the prospect of extended long-term storage (i.e., >120 years) and deferred transportation of used fuel at operating and decommissioned nuclear power plant sites. Under U.S. federal regulations contained in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 72.42, the initial license term for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) must not exceed 40 years from the date of issuance. Licenses may be renewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the expiration of the license term upon application by the licensee for a period not to exceed 40 years. Application for ISFSI license renewals must include the following: (1) Time-limited aging analyses (TLAAs) that demonstrate that structures, systems, and components (SSCs) important to safety will continue to perform their intended function for the requested period of extended operation; and (2) a description of the aging management program (AMP) for management of issues associated with aging that could adversely affect SSCs important to safety. In addition, the application must also include design bases information as documented in the most recent updated final safety analysis report as required by 10 CFR 72.70. Information contained in previous applications, statements, or reports filed with the Commission under the license may be incorporated by reference provided that those references are clear and specific. The NRC has recently issued the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for renewal of used-fuel dry cask storage system (DCSS) licenses and Certificates of Compliance (CoCs), NUREG-1927, under which NRC may renew a specific license or a CoC for a term not to exceed 40 years. Both the license and the CoC renewal applications must contain revised technical requirements and operating conditions (fuel storage, surveillance and maintenance, and other requirements) for the ISFSI and DCSS that address aging effects that

  14. Origin of Long-Term Storage Stability and Nitric Oxide Release Behavior of CarboSil Polymer Doped with S-Nitroso-N-acetyl-d-penicillamine

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The prolonged and localized delivery of nitric oxide (NO), a potent antithrombotic and antimicrobial agent, has many potential biomedical applications. In this work, the origin of the long-term storage stability and sustained NO release mechanism of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d-penicillamine (SNAP)-doped CarboSil 20 80A polymer, a biomedical thermoplastic silicone-polycarbonate-urethane, is explored. Long-term (22 days) localized NO release is achieved by utilizing a cross-linked silicone rubber as topcoats, which can greatly reduce the amount of SNAP, NAP, and NAP disulfide leaching from the SNAP-doped CarboSil films, as measured by LC–MS. Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction characterization of SNAP-doped CarboSil films demonstrate that a polymer–crystal composite is formed during the solvent evaporation process when SNAP exceeds its solubility in CarboSil (ca. 3.4–4.0 wt %). Further, when exceeding this solubility threshold, SNAP exists in an orthorhombic crystal form within the bulk of the polymer. The proposed mechanism of sustained NO release in SNAP-doped CarboSil is that the solubilized SNAP in the polymer matrix decomposes and releases NO, primarily in the water-rich regions near the polymer/solution interface, and the dissolved SNAP in the bulk polymeric phase becomes unsaturated, resulting in the dissolution of crystalline SNAP within the bulk of the polymer. This is a very slow process that ultimately leads to NO release at the physiological flux levels for >3 weeks. The increased stability of SNAP within CarboSil is attributed to the intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the SNAP molecules that crystallize. This crystallization also plays a key role in maintaining RSNO stability within the CarboSil polymer for >8 months at 37 °C (88.5% remains). Further, intravascular catheters fabricated with this new material are demonstrated to significantly decrease the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm (a leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream

  15. Origin of Long-Term Storage Stability and Nitric Oxide Release Behavior of CarboSil Polymer Doped with S-Nitroso-N-acetyl-D-penicillamine.

    PubMed

    Wo, Yaqi; Li, Zi; Brisbois, Elizabeth J; Colletta, Alessandro; Wu, Jianfeng; Major, Terry C; Xi, Chuanwu; Bartlett, Robert H; Matzger, Adam J; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2015-10-14

    The prolonged and localized delivery of nitric oxide (NO), a potent antithrombotic and antimicrobial agent, has many potential biomedical applications. In this work, the origin of the long-term storage stability and sustained NO release mechanism of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D-penicillamine (SNAP)-doped CarboSil 20 80A polymer, a biomedical thermoplastic silicone-polycarbonate-urethane, is explored. Long-term (22 days) localized NO release is achieved by utilizing a cross-linked silicone rubber as topcoats, which can greatly reduce the amount of SNAP, NAP, and NAP disulfide leaching from the SNAP-doped CarboSil films, as measured by LC-MS. Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction characterization of SNAP-doped CarboSil films demonstrate that a polymer-crystal composite is formed during the solvent evaporation process when SNAP exceeds its solubility in CarboSil (ca. 3.4-4.0 wt %). Further, when exceeding this solubility threshold, SNAP exists in an orthorhombic crystal form within the bulk of the polymer. The proposed mechanism of sustained NO release in SNAP-doped CarboSil is that the solubilized SNAP in the polymer matrix decomposes and releases NO, primarily in the water-rich regions near the polymer/solution interface, and the dissolved SNAP in the bulk polymeric phase becomes unsaturated, resulting in the dissolution of crystalline SNAP within the bulk of the polymer. This is a very slow process that ultimately leads to NO release at the physiological flux levels for >3 weeks. The increased stability of SNAP within CarboSil is attributed to the intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the SNAP molecules that crystallize. This crystallization also plays a key role in maintaining RSNO stability within the CarboSil polymer for >8 months at 37 °C (88.5% remains). Further, intravascular catheters fabricated with this new material are demonstrated to significantly decrease the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm (a leading cause of nosocomial bloodstream

  16. Factors affecting the sporulation capacity during long-term storage of the aphid-pathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis grown on broomcorn millet.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ming-Guang; Hua, Li

    2005-04-15

    Aphid-pathogenic fungus, Pandora neoaphidis, grown on broomcorn millet possesses greater sporulation capacity (C(s)) than aphid cadavers. The most sporulating cultures (32.0x10(4) spores millet(-1) grain) with water content (C(w)) of 48.7% were prepared by incubation at 20 degrees C for 15 days and used to study the effect of temperature and humidity on C(s) during long-term storage. Cultures were sealed with paper to retain ambient humidity, with parafilm for saturated humidity, or kept in 85% and 98% RH chambers. The C(w) and C(s) were monitored during 200-day storage at 5-20 degrees C. The paper-sealed cultures at 5 degrees C, associated with 21-25% of C(w), were best preserved and their 120-day C(s) was similar to that of the fresh cadavers. Consistently or variably high RH at 5 degrees C resulted in significantly higher C(w) and lower C(s) despite longer viability. The regimes at 10 degrees C preserved the cultures for 40 days. The observations fit well to the logistic model C(s)=35.28/{1+exp[-2.36+(-0.003C(w)+0.001C(w)T)t]} (r(2)=0.95) for all regimes of temperature (T) or C(s)=35.55/[1+exp(-2.33+0.001C(w)t)] (r(2)=0.93) at 5 degrees C only. The rate of decline of C(s) of -0.003C(w)+0.001C(w)T or 0.001 C(w) over days (t) highlights the primary effect of C(w). The daily C(s)-decline rates obtained for the best-stored cultures and air-dried cadavers stored at 5 degrees C were surprisingly identical. The results suggest a possible cheap method for preparing and storing large quantities of P. neoaphiodis inocula.

  17. A Tissue Retrieval and Postharvest Processing Regimen for Rodent Reproductive Tissues Compatible with Long-Term Storage on the International Space Station and Postflight Biospecimen Sharing Program

    PubMed Central

    Holets-Bondar, Lesya; Roby, Katherine F.; Enders, George; Tash, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Collection and processing of tissues to preserve space flight effects from animals after return to Earth is challenging. Specimens must be harvested with minimal time after landing to minimize postflight readaptation alterations in protein expression/translation, posttranslational modifications, and expression, as well as changes in gene expression and tissue histological degradation after euthanasia. We report the development of a widely applicable strategy for determining the window of optimal species-specific and tissue-specific posteuthanasia harvest that can be utilized to integrate into multi-investigator Biospecimen Sharing Programs. We also determined methods for ISS-compatible long-term tissue storage (10 months at −80°C) that yield recovery of high quality mRNA and protein for western analysis after sample return. Our focus was reproductive tissues. The time following euthanasia where tissues could be collected and histological integrity was maintained varied with tissue and species ranging between 1 and 3 hours. RNA quality was preserved in key reproductive tissues fixed in RNAlater up to 40 min after euthanasia. Postfixation processing was also standardized for safe shipment back to our laboratory. Our strategy can be adapted for other tissues under NASA's Biospecimen Sharing Program or similar multi-investigator tissue sharing opportunities. PMID:25654107

  18. A tissue retrieval and postharvest processing regimen for rodent reproductive tissues compatible with long-term storage on the international space station and postflight biospecimen sharing program.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijayalaxmi; Holets-Bondar, Lesya; Roby, Katherine F; Enders, George; Tash, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    Collection and processing of tissues to preserve space flight effects from animals after return to Earth is challenging. Specimens must be harvested with minimal time after landing to minimize postflight readaptation alterations in protein expression/translation, posttranslational modifications, and expression, as well as changes in gene expression and tissue histological degradation after euthanasia. We report the development of a widely applicable strategy for determining the window of optimal species-specific and tissue-specific posteuthanasia harvest that can be utilized to integrate into multi-investigator Biospecimen Sharing Programs. We also determined methods for ISS-compatible long-term tissue storage (10 months at -80°C) that yield recovery of high quality mRNA and protein for western analysis after sample return. Our focus was reproductive tissues. The time following euthanasia where tissues could be collected and histological integrity was maintained varied with tissue and species ranging between 1 and 3 hours. RNA quality was preserved in key reproductive tissues fixed in RNAlater up to 40 min after euthanasia. Postfixation processing was also standardized for safe shipment back to our laboratory. Our strategy can be adapted for other tissues under NASA's Biospecimen Sharing Program or similar multi-investigator tissue sharing opportunities.

  19. Teaching the Content in Context: Preparing "Highly Qualified" and "High Quality" Teachers for Instruction in Underserved Secondary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolbert, Sara E.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation research project presents the results of a longitudinal study that investigates the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 13 preservice secondary science teachers participating in a science teacher credentialing/Masters program designed to integrate issues of equity and diversity throughout coursework and seminars. Results are…

  20. Isolation of high quality RNA from pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) and other woody plants high in secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Moazzam Jazi, Maryam; Rajaei, Saideh; Seyedi, Seyed Mahdi

    2015-10-01

    The quality and quantity of RNA are critical for successful downstream transcriptome-based studies such as microarrays and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). RNA isolation from woody plants, such as Pistacia vera, with very high amounts of polyphenols and polysaccharides is an enormous challenge. Here, we describe a highly efficient protocol that overcomes the limitations posed by poor quality and low yield of isolated RNA from pistachio and various recalcitrant woody plants. The key factors that resulted in a yield of 150 μg of high quality RNA per 200 mg of plant tissue include the elimination of phenol from the extraction buffer, raising the concentration of β-mercaptoethanol, long time incubation at 65 °C, and nucleic acid precipitation with optimized volume of NaCl and isopropyl alcohol. Also, the A260/A280 and A260/A230 of extracted RNA were about 1.9-2.1and 2.2-2.3, respectively, revealing the high purity. Since the isolated RNA passed highly stringent quality control standards for sensitive reactions, including RNA sequencing and real-time PCR, it can be considered as a reliable and cost-effective method for RNA extraction from woody plants.

  1. Teaching the content in context: Preparing "highly qualified" and "high quality" teachers for instruction in underserved secondary science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolbert, Sara E.

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation research project presents the results of a longitudinal study that investigates the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 13 preservice secondary science teachers participating in a science teacher credentialing/Masters program designed to integrate issues of equity and diversity throughout coursework and seminars. Results are presented in the form of three papers: The first paper describes changes in preservice teacher knowledge about contextualization in science instruction, where contextualization is defined as facilitating authentic connections between science learning and relevant personal, social, cultural, ecological, and political contexts of students in diverse secondary classrooms; the second paper relates changes in the self-efficacy and content-specific beliefs about science, science teaching, diversity, and diversity in science instruction; and the final paper communicates the experiences and abilities of four "social justice advocates" learning to contextualize science instruction in underserved secondary placement classrooms. Results indicate that secondary student teachers developed more sophisticated understandings of how to contextualize science instruction with a focus on promoting community engagement and social/environmental activism in underserved classrooms and how to integrate science content and diversity instruction through student-centered inquiry activities. Although most of the science teacher candidates developed more positive beliefs about teaching science in underrepresented classrooms, many teacher candidates still attributed their minority students' underperformance and a (perceived) lack of interest in school to family and cultural values. The "social justice advocates" in this study were able to successfully contextualize science instruction to varying degrees in underserved placement classrooms, though the most significant limitations on their practice were the contextual factors of their student teaching

  2. Long term storage of cryogens in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fester, D. A.; Eberhardt, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental design procedures leading to the configuration of a space-based cryogenic fluids test system are reported. Large quantities of cryogenic fluids are expected to be required in space for cooling systems, chemical and electrical OTVs, and resupply tankers. The design was guided by the necessity for representative storage and supply systems to be compatible with the Shuttle. Consideration was given to liquid hydrogen, oxygen, methane, and argon containers and concommitant fluid dynamics, thermal, and structural analyses. A 5% initial ullage was included for the liquids, except for methane, which was calculated at 8.9%. The Ar, CH4, and O2 tanks were set at 12.5 cu m, while the H2 tank was 37.4 cu m. The orbital experiment is required to provide actual thermal stabilization lags in a zero-g environment. Details of the Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility test module for flight on board the Shuttle are presented.

  3. Charge variants characterization of a monoclonal antibody by ion exchange chromatography coupled on-line to native mass spectrometry: Case study after a long-term storage at +5°C.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Y; Ramon, C; Bihoreau, N; Chevreux, G

    2017-03-24

    Numerous putative post-translational modifications may induce variations of monoclonal antibodies charge distribution that can potentially affect their biological activity. The characterization and the monitoring of these charge variants are critical quality requirements to ensure stability and process consistency. Charge variants are usually characterized by preparative ion exchange chromatography, collection of fractions and subsequent reverse-phase liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis. While this process can be automatized by on-line two-dimensional chromatography, it remains often complex and time consuming. For this reason, a straightforward on-line charge variant analysis method is highly desirable and analytical laboratories are actively pursuing efforts to overcome this challenge. In this study, a mixed mode ion exchange chromatographic method using volatile salts and coupled on-line to native mass spectrometry was developed in association with a middle-up approach for a detailed characterization of monoclonal antibodies charge variants. An aged monoclonal antibody, presenting a complex charge variant profile was successfully investigated by this methodology as a case study. Results demonstrate that deamidation of the heavy chain was the major degradation pathway after long-term storage at 5°C while oxidation was rather low. The method was also very useful to identify all the clipped forms of the antibody. Copyright © 2017 LFB Biotechnologies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors affecting the formation of disinfection by-products during chlorination and chloramination of secondary effluent for the production of high quality recycled water.

    PubMed

    Doederer, Katrin; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Weinberg, Howard S; Farré, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    During the production of high quality recycled water by reverse osmosis membrane filtration secondary effluent must be disinfected to limit biofouling on the membrane surface. Advanced Water Treatment Plants in South East Queensland, Australia use disinfectant contact times ranging from 30 min up to 24 h. Disinfectants such as chlorine and chloramines react with effluent organic matter to generate disinfection by-products (DBPs) which could be potentially hazardous to human health if the water is destined for supplementing public water supplies. In this context, secondary effluents are of concern because of their high total organic carbon content which can act as DBP precursors. Also, effluent organic matter may form different DBPs to those formed from natural organic matter during conventional drinking water treatment, either in quantity, identity or simply in the abundance of different DBPs relative to each other. It cannot be assumed per se with certainty that DBP formation will be affected in the same way by operational changes as in drinking water production. Response surface modelling has been employed in this study at the bench scale to investigate the effect of reaction time (0-24 h), pH (5.5-8.5), temperature (23-35 °C), disinfection strategy (chlorine vs chloramines used prior to membrane treatment) and the interaction between these different parameters on DBP formation during disinfection of secondary effluent. The concentration of halogenated DBPs formed during the first 24 h of reaction with the different disinfectants followed the order chlorination > in line-formed monochloramine > pre-formed monochloramine. Contact time with chlorine was the major influencing factor on DBP formation during chlorination, except for the bromine-containing trihalomethanes and dibromoacetonitrile for which pH was more significant. Chlorination at high pH led to an increased formation of chloral hydrate, trichloronitromethane, dibromoacetonitrile and the four

  5. High-quality imaging in environmental scanning electron microscopy--optimizing the pressure limiting system and the secondary electron detection of a commercially available ESEM.

    PubMed

    Fitzek, H; Schroettner, H; Wagner, J; Hofer, F; Rattenberger, J

    2016-04-01

    In environmental scanning electron microscopy applications in the kPa regime are of increasing interest for the investigation of wet and biological samples, because neither sample preparation nor extensive cooling are necessary. Unfortunately, the applications are limited by poor image quality. In this work the image quality at high pressures of a FEI Quanta 600 (field emission gun) and a FEI Quanta 200 (thermionic gun) is greatly improved by optimizing the pressure limiting system and the secondary electron (SE) detection system. The scattering of the primary electron beam strongly increases with pressure and thus the image quality vanishes. The key to high-image quality at high pressures is to reduce scattering as far as possible while maintaining ideal operation conditions for the SE-detector. The amount of scattering is reduced by reducing both the additional stagnation gas thickness (aSGT) and the environmental distance (ED). A new aperture holder is presented that significantly reduces the aSGT while maintaining the same field-of-view (FOV) as the original design. With this aperture holder it is also possible to make the aSGT even smaller at the expense of a smaller FOV. A new blade-shaped SE-detector is presented yielding better image quality than usual flat SE-detectors. The electrode of the new SE detector is positioned on the sample table, which allows the SE-detector to operate at ideal conditions regardless of pressure and ED.

  6. Use of a Real-Time Training Software (Laerdal QCPR®) Compared to Instructor-Based Feedback for High-Quality Chest Compressions Acquisition in Secondary School Students: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Cortegiani, Andrea; Russotto, Vincenzo; Montalto, Francesca; Iozzo, Pasquale; Meschis, Roberta; Pugliesi, Marinella; Mariano, Dario; Benenati, Vincenzo; Raineri, Santi Maurizio; Gregoretti, Cesare; Giarratano, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    High-quality chest compressions are pivotal to improve survival from cardiac arrest. Basic life support training of school students is an international priority. The aim of this trial was to assess the effectiveness of a real-time training software (Laerdal QCPR®) compared to a standard instructor-based feedback for chest compressions acquisition in secondary school students. After an interactive frontal lesson about basic life support and high quality chest compressions, 144 students were randomized to two types of chest compressions training: 1) using Laerdal QCPR® (QCPR group- 72 students) for real-time feedback during chest compressions with the guide of an instructor who considered software data for students' correction 2) based on standard instructor-based feedback (SF group- 72 students). Both groups had a minimum of a 2-minute chest compressions training session. Students were required to reach a minimum technical skill level before the evaluation. We evaluated all students at 7 days from the training with a 2-minute chest compressions session. The primary outcome was the compression score, which is an overall measure of chest compressions quality calculated by the software expressed as percentage. 125 students were present at the evaluation session (60 from QCPR group and 65 from SF group). Students in QCPR group had a significantly higher compression score (median 90%, IQR 81.9-96.0) compared to SF group (median 67%, IQR 27.7-87.5), p = 0.0003. Students in QCPR group performed significantly higher percentage of fully released chest compressions (71% [IQR 24.5-99.0] vs 24% [IQR 2.5-88.2]; p = 0.005) and better chest compression rate (117.5/min [IQR 106-123.5] vs 125/min [115-135.2]; p = 0.001). In secondary school students, a training for chest compressions based on a real-time feedback software (Laerdal QCPR®) guided by an instructor is superior to instructor-based feedback training in terms of chest compression technical skill acquisition. Australian

  7. Use of a Real-Time Training Software (Laerdal QCPR®) Compared to Instructor-Based Feedback for High-Quality Chest Compressions Acquisition in Secondary School Students: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Russotto, Vincenzo; Montalto, Francesca; Iozzo, Pasquale; Meschis, Roberta; Pugliesi, Marinella; Mariano, Dario; Benenati, Vincenzo; Raineri, Santi Maurizio; Gregoretti, Cesare; Giarratano, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    High-quality chest compressions are pivotal to improve survival from cardiac arrest. Basic life support training of school students is an international priority. The aim of this trial was to assess the effectiveness of a real-time training software (Laerdal QCPR®) compared to a standard instructor-based feedback for chest compressions acquisition in secondary school students. After an interactive frontal lesson about basic life support and high quality chest compressions, 144 students were randomized to two types of chest compressions training: 1) using Laerdal QCPR® (QCPR group– 72 students) for real-time feedback during chest compressions with the guide of an instructor who considered software data for students’ correction 2) based on standard instructor-based feedback (SF group– 72 students). Both groups had a minimum of a 2-minute chest compressions training session. Students were required to reach a minimum technical skill level before the evaluation. We evaluated all students at 7 days from the training with a 2-minute chest compressions session. The primary outcome was the compression score, which is an overall measure of chest compressions quality calculated by the software expressed as percentage. 125 students were present at the evaluation session (60 from QCPR group and 65 from SF group). Students in QCPR group had a significantly higher compression score (median 90%, IQR 81.9–96.0) compared to SF group (median 67%, IQR 27.7–87.5), p = 0.0003. Students in QCPR group performed significantly higher percentage of fully released chest compressions (71% [IQR 24.5–99.0] vs 24% [IQR 2.5–88.2]; p = 0.005) and better chest compression rate (117.5/min [IQR 106–123.5] vs 125/min [115–135.2]; p = 0.001). In secondary school students, a training for chest compressions based on a real-time feedback software (Laerdal QCPR®) guided by an instructor is superior to instructor-based feedback training in terms of chest compression technical skill

  8. Long-term storage effects-up-date

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    The long-term effects of storing batteries over a period of years prior to their use in a synchronous orbit application are discussed. A previous experiment is discussed where life testing was performed on cells after having stored the battery for a period of three years with the cell shorted and at a temperature on the order of 5-10 C. The test consisted of performing a sequence of 10 simulated eclipse seasons (equivalent in cycling of five years in synchronous orbit). Results of this test indicated very little degradation and change in the physical and chemical conditions of the cell. The program was extended for an additional year (battery was stored for four years) under the same conditions and testing. The results of the four year storage (one exception) indicate that no further change occurred that is significant from the three year test.

  9. Long-term storage of tissues by cryopreservation: critical issues.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, J O; Toner, M

    1996-02-01

    The technique of cryopreservation (maintenance of biological samples in a state of 'suspended animation' at cryogenic temperatures), its potential use in tissue engineering applications and current obstacles to the development of effective cryopreservation methods for tissues are reviewed. A didactic overview of the principles of cryobiology and the methodology of cryopreservation is given, with emphasis on the processes of injury to cells during freezing and thawing, and how these are related to the physicochemical and biophysical changes occurring during cryopreservation. Critical issues relevant to the application of cryopreservation methods to tissues are then addressed, including heat and mass transfer limitations in these bulk systems, intrinsic differences between isolated and cultured cells, and mechanisms of freezing injury unique to tissue systems.

  10. Long-Term Storage of Yellow and Paper Birch Seed

    Treesearch

    Knud E. Clausen

    1975-01-01

    Storage of yellow and paper birch seeds for 12 years does not appear practical but seed visibility can usually be maintained for at least 8 years, if the seeds are kept in closed containers at 36? to 40?F.

  11. Stability of Schmallenberg virus during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Wernike, Kerstin; Beer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a novel insect-transmitted orthobunyavirus that infects ruminants, caused a large epidemic in European livestock since its emergence in 2011. For the in vitro characterization of this hitherto unknown virus as well as for antibody detection tests like indirect immunofluorescence and neutralization test infectious virus is necessary. To determine the most suitable storage temperature, culture-grown SBV was kept at 37°C, 28°C, 4°C, -20°C and -70°C for up to one year. A storage at 37°C led to a complete loss of infectivity within days and at 28°C within a few weeks. When stored at 4°C the infectious titer decreased dependent on the starting quantity, whereas the viral titer was almost constant for a month at -20°C and remained constant for the study period when stored at -70°C. Consequently, SBV should be kept at -70°C, if retention of infectivity is required.

  12. Cryopreservation of pecan pollen for long-term storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] breeding and conservation programs benefit from having reliable pollen preservation protocols. Air-dried pollen harvested in 2007 and 2008 from the USDA-ARS Pecan Genetics and Breeding Program in Somerville, TX was sent to the USDA-ARS National Center f...

  13. Pecan pollen: cryopreservation for long-term storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A reliable protocol for pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] pollen preservation is beneficial for both breeding and conservation programs. This project used pollen harvested in 2007 and 2008 from the USDA-ARS Pecan Genetics and Breeding Program in Somerville, TX. Pollen were air dried and...

  14. Long-term storage stability of diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, B.; Bocard, C.; Durand, J.P.; Bigeard, P.H.; Denis, J.; Dorbon, M.; Bernasconi, C.

    1990-01-01

    Storage stability of different diesel fuels containing cat-cracked stocks was examined using various aging conditions. The degradation of fuel during storage was monitored through insoluble formation but also through reaction of nitrogen compounds known to be involved in the fuel degradation process. The influence of aging in injector fouling tendency was also investigated on an IDI engine on test bench. Various stabilizer additives (tertiary amines, dispersant...) were tested. Best results were obtained with dispersant which prevent sediment agglomeration making them able to cross the filter mesh. Additives limit indole evolution without inhibiting completely sediment formation, proving that other reactions take place. This paper shows that fuel oxidability is no modified by additives. None of the tested formulations is effective on fuel darkening. After aging, surfactants remain effective on injector fouling. Another way of improving the storage stability of Diesel fuel is hydrotreatment. A fuel was hydrotreated at different severity levels and the effect on stabilization was shown. It was demonstrated that hydrotreating makes it possible to achieve more complete stabilization than using additives. Particularly color stability is considerably improved after hydrotreatment. Stabilization was achieved for mild operating conditions for which hydrodenitrification is not complete, only indoles are transformed. To inhibit fuel degradation, hydrotreatment should reduce other sediment precursors than nitrogen compounds. The authors demonstrated that hydrotreating renders fuels more sensitive to oxidation.

  15. Long-term storage of nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari

    1987-01-01

    Representative samples of nickel hydrogen cells for the INTELSAT program were used to evaluate the effects of prolonged storage under passive conditions such as open circuit discharged at 0 C, room temperature, and -20 C, and under quasidynamic conditions such as top-off charge and trickle charge. Cell capacity declines when cells are stored open-circuit discharged at room temperature, and a second plateau occurs in the discharge curve. Capacity loss was 47 percent for a cell with hydrogen precharge and 24.5 percent for one with no hydrogen precharge. Capacity recovery was observed following top-off charge storage of cells which had exhibited faded capacity as a result of passive storage at room temperature. Cells stored either at -20 C or on trickle charge maintained their capacity. At 0 C storage, the capacity of all three cells under tests was greater than 55 Ah (which exceeds the required minimum of 44 Ah) after 7 months.

  16. Storability Investigations of Water Long-Term Storage Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    of 17 - 4PH H-1025 Stainless Steel Containers after 19 Storage in Oxygen Free Water, Magnification 3/5X 11 Interior of 17 - 4PH 1-1025 Stainless Steel...Stainless Steel Containers 21 Adherent Metallic Granular Material Found in 17 - 4PH Staluiess 35 Steel Containers. Lower Photo Is Bright Area Shown in Figure...material. Hence, the selected materials are: 304L stainless steel, A-286, 17 - 4PH stainless steel, Inconel 718 and 6A1-4V titanium. During fabrication, some

  17. The effect of long-term storage on nanoleakage.

    PubMed

    Li, H P; Burrow, M F; Tyas, M J

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the durability of dentin bonding over time, the nanoleakage of four dentin bonding systems (Single Bond, Stae, Clearfil SE Bond and PermaQuik) over 24 hours, three months, six months and 12 months, was investigated. Flat occlusal dentin surfaces from extracted human molars were finished with wet 600-grit silicon carbide paper and bonded with one of the dentin bonding systems following manufacturers' instructions. The bonded surface was covered with < 1 mm thick layer of Silux Plus resin composite and light cured for 40 seconds. The specimens in each dentin-bonding group were randomly assigned to four sub-groups and kept in phosphate buffered saline solution (pH 7.4) containing 0.01% sodium azide at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, three, six or 12 months. The margins of all specimens were finished and polished with Sof-Lex disks after initial 24-hour storage. At the end of each storage time, the surrounding tooth surfaces except for 1 mm adjacent to the restoration were coated with nail varnish. The samples were immersed in a 50% w/v solution of silver nitrate for 24 hours, placed in photodeveloping solution and exposed to fluorescent light for eight hours. The samples were cut longitudinally and buccoligually, polished, mounted on stubs, carbon coated and observed in a Field Emission-SEM using backscattered electron mode. The results showed that systems using phosphoric acid as the etchant had a line of silver deposition at the base of the hybrid layer. Silver deposition increased in all systems over 12-months storage, with PermaQuik changing the least. Nanoleakage of the dentin bonding systems increased slightly during the 12-month storage period, indicating that they may be subject to hydrolytic attack over time.

  18. Long term storage of finished gasolines in large salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.W.J.

    1995-05-01

    Strategic oil stocking requires large low cost storage facilities. Crude oil has been held in very large salt mines and/or artificially made salt caverns for many years, notably in Europe and the USA. Following crude oil, gasoils and refinery light feed stocks have been tried also. Military organisations tried jet fuel and early cases of underground aviation gasoline storage in steel tanks have been reported.

  19. High-quality plant DNA extraction for PCR: an easy approach.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, I; Islam, M; Arshad, W; Mannan, A; Ahmad, W; Mirza, B

    2009-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction has found wide applications in modern research involving transformations and other genomic studies. For reproducible PCR results, however, the quantity and quality of template DNA is of considerable importance. A simple and efficient plant DNA extraction procedure for isolation of high-quality DNA from plant tissues is presented here. It requires maceration of plant tissue of about 1.0 cm(2) (e.g. of a leaf blade) in DNA extraction buffer (100 mM Tris-HCl, 100 mM EDTA, 250 mM NaCl) using 1.5-mL microfuge tubes, followed by cell lysis with 20% SDS, and DNA extraction with phenol: chloroform: iso-amyl alcohol (25:24:1). Hydrated ether is then used to remove polysaccharides and other contaminants from the DNA preparation. Average DNA yield is 20-30 microg cm(-2) for fresh tissues, and ratio of absorbance at 260 nm to absorbance at 280 nm is 1.5-1.8. The DNA is quite suitable for PCR using microsatellites, RAPD and specific markers for recombinant selection. Amplifications have been obtained for these markers by using template DNA extracted from fresh as well as frozen leaf tissues of various plants, including barley, oat, potato and tomato. DNA stored for more than 2 years has been successfully amplified with microsatellite markers, which shows suitability of this method after long-term storage of DNA. Besides, the ease of use and cost-effectiveness make the procedure attractive.

  20. What Is High-Quality Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Iris R.; Pasley, Joan D.

    2004-01-01

    Schools of United States fall short of providing high quality mathematics and science education to all the students. The factors distinguishing the most effective lessons from the least effective ones are stated.

  1. Excellence through High-Quality Individualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Richard W.; Klingstedt, Joe Lars

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a strategy employing challenge, functionalism, high-order learning, and originality to achieve high-quality individualization in course work. Asserts that individualized instruction better prepares students to solve problems, make decisions, and produce original ideas. (MM)

  2. Producing high-quality slash pine seeds

    Treesearch

    James Barnett; Sue Varela

    2003-01-01

    Slash pine is a desirable species. It serves many purposes and is well adapted to poorly drained flatwoods and seasonally flooded areas along the lower Coastal Plain of the Southeastern US. The use of high-quality seeds has been shown to produce uniform seedlings for outplanting, which is key to silvicultural success along the Coastal Plain and elsewhere. We present...

  3. Additives to Prevent Deleterious Effects Associated with Long-Term Storage of Petroleum Products,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH LONG-T--9TC(U) SEP80 R J LARSON, P SALONE UNCLASSIFIED HNDTR-50-50-SP3lll******fl EIEEE/EEEEEEE Elln.EE-llllll /EEIIEIIII/IEE...Harm- ful if swallowed or inhaled. Do not get in eyes, on skin or clothing. Keep away from heat and open flame. Avoid breathing vapor. Keep container...difficult, give oxygen. Call a physician. If swallowed , induce vomiting until vomit is clear. caii a . give anything by mouth to an unconscious person

  4. Effect of Long-Term Storage in TRIzol on Microarray-Based Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wencai; Wang, Michael; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Luhong; Graber, David; Matthews, Jairo; Champlin, Richard; Yi, Qing; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Kwak, Larry W.; Weber, Donna M.; Thomas, Sheeba K.; Shah, Jatin; Kornblau, Steven; Davis, R. Eric

    2010-01-01

    Background Although TRIzol is widely used for preservation and isolation of RNA, there is suspicion that prolonged sample storage in TRIzol may affect array-based gene expression profiling (GEP), via premature termination during reverse transcription (RT). Methods GEP on Illumina arrays compared paired aliquots (cryopreserved or stored in TRIzol) of primary samples of multiple myeloma (MM) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Data were analyzed at the “probe level” (a single consensus value) or “bead level” (multiple measurements provided by individual beads). Results TRIzol storage does not affect standard probe-level comparisons between sample groups: different preservation methods did not generate differentially-expressed probes (DEPs) within MM or AML sample groups, or substantially affect the many DEPs distinguishing between these groups. Differences were found by gene set enrichment analysis, but were dismissible because of instability with permutation of sample labels, unbalanced restriction to TRIzol aliquots, inconsistency between MM and AML groups, and lack of biological plausibility. Bead-level comparisons found many DEPs within sample pairs, but most (73%) were <2-fold changed. There was no consistent evidence that TRIzol causes premature RT termination. Instead, a subset of DEPs were systematically due to increased signals in TRIzol-preserved samples from probes near the 5’ end of transcripts, suggesting better mRNA preservation with TRIzol. Conclusions TRIzol preserves RNA quality well, without a deleterious effect on GEP. Samples stored frozen with and without TRIzol may be compared by GEP with only minor concern for systematic artifacts. Impact The standard practice of prolonged sample storage in TRIzol is suitable for GEP. PMID:20805315

  5. Nanodefects of membranes cause destruction of packed red blood cells during long-term storage

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlova, Elena; Chernysh, Aleksandr; Moroz, Victor; Sergunova, Victoria; Gudkova, Olga; Kuzovlev, Artem

    2015-10-01

    Packed red blood cells (PRBC) are used for blood transfusion. PRBC were stored for 30 days under 4 °C in hermetic blood bags with CPD anticoagulant-preservative solution. Hematocrit was 50–55%. The distortions of PRBC membranes nanostructure and cells morphology during storage were studied by atomic force microscopy. Basic measurements were performed at the day 2, 6, 9, 16, 23 and 30 of storage and additionally 2–3 days after it. Topological defects occurred on RBC membranes by day 9. They appeared as domains with grain-like structures (“grains”) sized up to 200 nm. These domains were appeared in almost all cells. Later these domains merged and formed large defects on cells. It was the formation of domains with the “grains” which was onset process leading eventually to destruction of PRBC. Possible mechanisms of transformation of PRBC and their membrane are related to the alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. During this storage period potassium ions and lactat concentrations increased, pH decreased, intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione diminished in the preservative solution. Changes of PRBC morphology were detected within the entire period of PRBC storage. Discocytes predominated at the days 1 and 2. By day 30 PRBC transformed into irreversible echinocytes and spheroechinocytes. Study of defects of membranes nanostructure may form the basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC. This method may allow to work out the best recommendations for blood transfusion. - Highlights: • Domains with “grains” are formed on membranes surface on 9–16 days of PRBC storage. • The development of domains is the reason of irreversible changes of PRBC structure. • The origin of domains is the consequence of alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. • Study of nanostructure may form basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC.

  6. Long-term storage of salivary cortisol samples at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yu-Ming; Cintron, Nitza M.; Whitson, Peggy A.

    1992-01-01

    Collection of saliva samples for the measurement of cortisol during space flights provides a simple technique for studying changes in adrenal function due microgravity. In the present work, several methods for preserving saliva cortisol at room temperature were investigated using radioimmunoassays for determining cortisol in saliva samples collected on a saliva-collection device called Salivettes. It was found that a pretreatment of Salivettes with citric acid resulted in preserving more than 85 percent of the salivary cortisol for as long as six weeks. The results correlated well with those for a sample stored in a freezer on an untreated Salivette.

  7. Long-Term Storage Studies on Dehydrated Ration Items and Food Packets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    but not by packing in vacuum, carbon dioxide, or nitrogen. Rice and Robinson (1946) found no loss of niacin , riboflavin, or pantothenic acid after...definite losses at 80°F. All samples had decreased in niacin . Patron (1955) reported loss of about 702 of vitamin C after five years at room temperature...30% in evaporated milk and Army spread at the end of 18 months at 90° and 100°F. Carotene, vitamin A, and niacin retention was 85 to 100% at all

  8. The effects of freezing on long-term storage of canine erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Aktaran Bala, D; Özcan, M

    2016-01-01

    Human medicine studies have so far demonstrated that erythrocytes may be preserved and stored at low temperatures for decades retaining their metabolic and biochemical properties. However, detailed studies regarding this problem are not yet available in veterinary medicine. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to investigate time-dependent effects of long-term frozen storage of canine red blood cells. Twelve healthy adult dogs meeting the criteria for blood transfusion were used in the study. Whole blood samples (450 ± 45 ml) collected from each dog were centrifuged by a cryogenic microcentrifuge and packed RBC suspensions were obtained. The samples were prewashed three times in 0.9% NaCl solution and were allocated into three groups to be evaluated at three different time points (day 0 and month 4 and 6). The samples to be frozen were subjected to glycerolization and then stored at -80°C for 4 and 6-month periods. At the end of this period the packed RBC samples were thawed, centrifuged and then washed in a consecutive series of dextrose solutions. 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), Adenosin triphosphate (ATP), supernatant hemoglobin (SupHb), sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) levels, residual glycerol concentrations and hemograms were evaluated and compared. Sterility tests were performed on all samples for bacterial contamination. A statistically significant decrease was noted in potassium levels, which was the natural outcome of deglycerolization process. No significant change was observed in terms of other parameters due based on different time points. In conclusion, long-term frozen storage had no negative effect on the quality parameters of canine erythrocytes.

  9. Effect of temperature on long-term storage of codling moth granulovirus formulations.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Lawrence A; Headrick, Heather L; Arthurs, Steven P

    2008-04-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is the major pest of apple (Malus spp.) in the western United States and many other regions of the world. The codling moth granulovirus (CpGV) provides a selective and safe means of its control. We assessed the long-term stability and storage potential of two commercial formulations of CpGV, Cyd-X, and Virosoft. All assays were performed with individual C. pomonella neonate larvae in 2-ml vials on 1 ml of artificial larval diet that was surface inoculated with 10 microl of the test virus suspension. Baseline quantitative assays for the two formulations revealed that the LC50 and LC95 values (occlusion bodies per vial) did not differ significantly between the formulations. For year-long studies on Cyd-X stability, the product was stored at -20, 2, 25, and 35 degrees C, and quantitative bioassays were conducted after 0, 3, 6, and 12 mo of storage. Cyd-X retained good larvicidal activity from -20 to 25 degrees C, and it was the least negatively affected at the lowest temperature. Storage of Cyd-X at 35 degrees C was detrimental to its larvicidal activity within 3 mo of storage. For longer term storage studies, Cyd-X and Virosoft formulations were stored at 2, 25, and 35 degrees C, and assayed for larvicidal activity over a 3-yr period. For recently produced product, a 10-microl sample of a 10(-5) dilution of both formulations resulted in 95-100% mortality in neonate larvae. Larvicidal activity for the Cyd-X formulation remained essentially unaffected for 156 wk when stored at 2 and 25 degrees C, but it began to decline significantly after 20 wk of storage at 35 degrees C. The Virosoft formulation stored at 2 degrees C also remained active throughout the 3-yr study, but it began to decline in larvicidal activity after 144 wk at 25 degrees C and 40 wk at 35 degrees C. The information reported in this study should be useful to growers and commercial suppliers for avoiding decreases in CpGV potency due to improper storage conditions.

  10. Cryogenic Propellant Long-Term Storage With Zero Boil-Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedayat, Ali; Hastings, L. J.; Bryant, C.; Plachta, D. W.; Cruit, Wendy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Significant boil-off losses from cryogenic propellant storage systems in long-duration space mission applications result in additional propellant and larger tanks. The potential propellant mass loss reductions with the Zero Boil-off (ZBO) concept are substantial; therefore, further exploration through technology programs has been initiated within NASA. A large-scale demonstration of the ZBO concept has been devised utilizing the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) along with a cryo-cooler unit. The ZBO concept consists of an active cryo-cooling system integrated with traditional passive thermal insulation. The cryo-cooler is interfaced with the MHTB and spraybar recirculation/mixer system in a manner that enables thermal energy removal at a rate that equals the total tank heat leak. The liquid hydrogen (LH2) is withdrawn from the tank, passed through a heat exchanger, and then the chilled liquid is sprayed back into the tank through a spraybar. The test series will be performed over a 20-30 day period. Tests will be conducted at multiple fill levels to demonstrate concept viability and to provide benchmark data to be used in analytical model development. In this paper the test set-up and test procedures are presented.

  11. Literature Survey on Long-Term Storage of Petroleum Products, Artillery Storage Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1946-05-31

    Carl VT.: Inst. Spokesman 7. No. 5, 1, 4-7; No. 6, 2, 4-7 (1943); C, L81 4782 (1944).- ,°11 Q I APPENDIX II Pertinent References Not Specifically...Tear 4, 215-7 (1928)j CA 22, 246o (1928). 1205. Frank, Fr., and Solberg , H.: Petroleum Z. 24, 641-4 (1928); CA 23, 271, 1929. 1206. Hebler, F.: Erdbl

  12. Relationship between reading and long-term storage and retrieval (Glr) in college students.

    PubMed

    Avitia, Maria Jesus; Kaufman, Alan S; Bray, Melissa; Kaufman, James C

    2017-09-21

    The purpose of this study was to (a) identify the relationship between specific types of reading ability, different forms of learning, and long-term memory and retrieval (Glr); and then (b) to determine the degree to which self-assessed reading ability and a Glr measure could predict objective reading ability. College students were administered three different reading assessments from the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement, Second Edition (KTEA-II): word reading, reading comprehension, and nonsense word decoding. They were also given two pairs of Glr subtests that consisted of immediate and delayed versions from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II). One set was embedded within context, whereas the other was not. Results showed that although overall reading ability and reading comprehension correlated the highest with Glr measures that were embedded in context, word reading, and nonsense word decoding were correlated the highest with delayed measures of Glr. Second, the self-assessment accounted for 23% of the variability in overall reading ability. Not only do these results show the strength of the relationship between Glr and reading, but also the ability to use these measures along with self-assessment to screen for reading disabilities.

  13. The effects of long-term storage on the solderability of immersion silver coatings.

    SciTech Connect

    Buttry, R. Wayne; Lopez, Edwin Paul; Martin, Joseph; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Lucero, Samuel J.; Rejent, Jerome Andrew

    2006-04-01

    The solderability of an immersion Ag finish was evaluated after the exposure of test specimens to a Battelle Class II environment, which accelerates the storage conditions of light industrial surroundings. The solderability metric was the contact angle, (?C), as determined by the meniscometer/wetting balance technique. Auger surface and depth profile analyses were utilized to identify changes in the coating chemistry. The solderability test results indicate that there was no appreciable loss in solderability when the immersion Ag coated coupons were packaged in vapor phase corrosion (VPC) inhibitor bags and/or inhibitor bags with VPC inhibitor paper and aged for 8 hours, 1 week or 2 weeks in the Battelle Class II environment. An increase in surface carbon concentration after aging did not appear to significantly affect solderability.

  14. Nanodefects of membranes cause destruction of packed red blood cells during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Kozlova, Еlena; Chernysh, Аleksandr; Moroz, Victor; Sergunova, Victoria; Gudkova, Оlga; Kuzovlev, Аrtem

    2015-10-01

    Packed red blood cells (PRBC) are used for blood transfusion. PRBC were stored for 30 days under 4 °С in hermetic blood bags with CPD anticoagulant-preservative solution. Hematocrit was 50-55%. The distortions of PRBC membranes nanostructure and cells morphology during storage were studied by atomic force microscopy. Basic measurements were performed at the day 2, 6, 9, 16, 23 and 30 of storage and additionally 2-3 days after it. Topological defects occurred on RBC membranes by day 9. They appeared as domains with grain-like structures ("grains") sized up to 200 nm. These domains were appeared in almost all cells. Later these domains merged and formed large defects on cells. It was the formation of domains with the "grains" which was onset process leading eventually to destruction of PRBC. Possible mechanisms of transformation of PRBC and their membrane are related to the alterations of spectrin cytoskeleton. During this storage period potassium ions and lactat concentrations increased, pH decreased, intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione diminished in the preservative solution. Changes of PRBC morphology were detected within the entire period of PRBC storage. Discocytes predominated at the days 1 and 2. By day 30 PRBC transformed into irreversible echinocytes and spheroechinocytes. Study of defects of membranes nanostructure may form the basis of assessing the quality of the stored PRBC. This method may allow to work out the best recommendations for blood transfusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term storage of salivary cortisol samples at room temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yu-Ming; Cintron, Nitza M.; Whitson, Peggy A.

    1992-01-01

    Collection of saliva samples for the measurement of cortisol during space flights provides a simple technique for studying changes in adrenal function due microgravity. In the present work, several methods for preserving saliva cortisol at room temperature were investigated using radioimmunoassays for determining cortisol in saliva samples collected on a saliva-collection device called Salivettes. It was found that a pretreatment of Salivettes with citric acid resulted in preserving more than 85 percent of the salivary cortisol for as long as six weeks. The results correlated well with those for a sample stored in a freezer on an untreated Salivette.

  16. Impact of Potato virus Y on long term storage of potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, Potato virus Y has reemerged as a serious disease problem in many potato production areas in the northern United States and eastern Canada. In Wisconsin, two widely grown cultivars, Russet Norkotah and Silverton, express mild or no symptoms when infected with PVY. The lack of sympto...

  17. Long term storage of explosively erupted magma at Nevado de Toluca volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, J. L.; Gardner, J.; Macias, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    Dacitic magmas production is common in subduction-related volcanoes, occurring in those with a long period of activity as a result of the magmatic evolution. However, in this evolution many factors (i.e. crystal fractionation, assimilation, magma mixing) can interact to produce dacites. Nevado de Toluca volcano (4,680 masl; 19°09'N; 99°45'W) Central Mexico has recorded a long period of time producing dacites explosively, at least during 42 ka of activity, involving several km3 of magma, with two important Plinian-type eruptions occurred at ~21.7 ka (Lower Toluca Pumice) and ~10.5 ka (Upper Toluca Pumice). Questions like, what was the mechanism responsible to produce voluminous dacitic magma and how the volatiles and pressure changed in the Nevado de Toluca system, remain without answers. Dacites from the Lower Toluca Pumice (LTP) contain plagioclase, amphibole, iron-titanium oxides, and minor resorbed biotite, set in a glassy-vesicular matrix and the Upper Toluca Pumice (UTP) dacites contain the same mineral phases plus orthopyroxene. Ilmenite- ulvospinel geothermometry yielded a temperature of ~860°C for the LTP dacite, a little hotter than the UTP (~ 840°C). Based on hydrothermal experiments data, amphibole is stable above 100 MPa under 900°C, while plagioclase crystallizes up to 250-100 MPa at temperatures of 850-900°C. Pyroxene occurs only at pressures of 200-100 MPa with its respective temperatures of 825-900°C. Water contents in the LTP magma (2-3.5 wt %) are similar to that calculated for the UTP magma (1.3-3.6 wt %). So, there are only small changes in temperature and pressure from ~21.7 ka to 10.5 ka. It is noteworthy that orthopyroxene is absent in the LTP, however reaction-rimmed biotite (probably xenocrystic) is commonly observed in all dacites. Hence, almost all dacitic magmas seem to be stored at relatively similar pressures, water contents, and temperatures. All of these data could suggest repetitive basic magma injections producing the melting of biotite- bearing silicic country rocks, through the 42 ka deposits of Nevado de Toluca volcano

  18. Dakota Diamond: An exceptionally high yielding, cold chipping potato cultivar with long-term storage potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dakota Diamond (ND5822C-7) is a medium to late maturing cultivar with uniformly sized tubers and very high yield potential. It resulted from the cross of ND4103-2 and “Dakota Pearl”. Dakota Diamond is comprised of approximately 23.3% wild potato species germplasm. It combines the characteristics ...

  19. Analysis of GHB and 4-methyl-GHB in postmortem matrices after long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, Laureen J; Isenschmid, Daniel S; Hepler, Bradford R; Kanluen, Sawait

    2005-01-01

    Postmortem heart blood, peripheral blood, vitreous humor, urine, and bile specimens from 26 autopsy cases were analyzed for the presence of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and gamma-methyl gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (4-Me-GHB) after long-term freezer storage. Cases were selected for which exogenous GHB, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), gamma valerolactone (GVL), or 1,4-butanediol use was not suspected. One documented positive GHB case subjected to the same storage conditions was also evaluated for comparison. Specimens did not contain any preservatives or additives except heart blood, which contained sodium fluoride (2% w/v). The results of the analysis for GHB in vitreous humor (n = 26) demonstrated, with one exception, concentrations below the limit of detection for the method (5 mg/L). In the exception case, the value was determined to be 7 mg/L. Documented cases of GHB positive fatalities showed vitreous humor concentrations (n = 6) that exceeded this range by a factor of 12 or more. There was no apparent relationship between storage times and GHB concentrations. The data developed in this study demonstrate a postmortem endogenous range for GHB in vitreous humor that is less than or equal to 7 mg/L. Studies of the stored GHB-positive case demonstrated no significant change in concentration over the time period studied. None of the specimens analyzed in this study contained detectable amounts of 4-Me-GHB. This would support the contention that when 4-Me-GHB is detected, it is most likely due to the exogenous consumption of GVL.

  20. The Effect of Temperature on the Long Term Storage of Codling Moth Granulovirus Formulations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We assessed the long-term stability and storage potential of two commercial formulations of the codling moth granulovirus (CpGV), ‘Cyd-X’ and ‘Virosoft’. All assays were performed with individual neonate larvae in 2 ml vials on 1 ml of artificial larval diet that was surface inoculated with 10 'l of...

  1. Long term storage test of titanium material with liquid fluorine propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denson, J. R.; English, W. D.; Roth, J.; Toy, A.

    1979-01-01

    The compatibility of 6AL-4V Ti with propellant grade GF2 and LF2 at 77 K for up to 3 years was investigated. Titanium double coupons, annealed or heat treated, with 16 or 64 RMS finishes, were immersed in F2 in individual Pyrex capsules and stored under LN2 for 29 and 39 months. Pre and post immersion tests were performed on the propellant and coupons. Chemical analysis of the propellant did not reveal any significant changes due to titanium corrosion. Gravimetric, visual, microscopic, and metallurgical examination with pitting analysis did not reveal gross corrosion of the titanium although pitting appears to be greater after 39 months exposure. The increase in pit size and number raises the possibility of unpredictable crack propagation instability. Fracture toughness tests are necessary to define this possibility.

  2. Effects of Long-Term Storage Time and Original Sampling Month on Biobank Plasma Protein Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Enroth, Stefan; Hallmans, Göran; Grankvist, Kjell; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2016-10-01

    The quality of clinical biobank samples is crucial to their value for life sciences research. A number of factors related to the collection and storage of samples may affect the biomolecular composition. We have studied the effect of long-time freezer storage, chronological age at sampling, season and month of the year and on the abundance levels of 108 proteins in 380 plasma samples collected from 106 Swedish women. Storage time affected 18 proteins and explained 4.8-34.9% of the observed variance. Chronological age at sample collection after adjustment for storage-time affected 70 proteins and explained 1.1-33.5% of the variance. Seasonal variation had an effect on 15 proteins and month (number of sun hours) affected 36 proteins and explained up to 4.5% of the variance after adjustment for storage-time and age. The results show that freezer storage time and collection date (month and season) exerted similar effect sizes as age on the protein abundance levels. This implies that information on the sample handling history, in particular storage time, should be regarded as equally prominent covariates as age or gender and need to be included in epidemiological studies involving protein levels.

  3. Long term storage of dilute acid pretreated corn stover feedstock and ethanol fermentability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Shao, Shuai; Bao, Jie

    2016-02-01

    This study reported a new solution of lignocellulose feedstock storage based on the distributed pretreatment concept. The dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment (DDAP) was conducted on corn stover feedstock, instead of ammonia fiber explosion pretreatment. Then the dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover was stored for three months during summer season with high temperature and humidity. No negative aspects were found on the physical property, composition, hydrolysis yield and ethanol fermentability of the long term stored pretreated corn stover, plus the additional merits including no chemicals recovery operation, anti-microbial contaminant environment from stronger acid and inhibitor contents, as well as the mild and slow hydrolysis in the storage. The new pretreatment method expanded the distributed pretreatment concept of feedstock storage with potential for practical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fixation and long-term storage of human lymphocytes for surface marker analysis by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Lal, R B; Edison, L J; Chused, T M

    1988-05-01

    A method to preserve stained human lymphocytes for subsequent cell surface analysis by flow cytometry (FCM) is described. Cells stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and phycoerythrin (PE)-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and then fixed in 1% paraformaldehyde, followed by extensive washing and resuspension in 1% BSA medium, could be stored at 4 degrees C for at least 2 weeks prior to FCM analysis without significant alteration in the light scatter or fluorescence properties of the cells. Furthermore, the method was also suitable for analyzing lymphocytes that express T-cell activation markers in certain disease conditions. In addition, we have identified monoclonal antibody combinations that discriminate different lymphocyte subsets that are satisfactory for multiparameter analysis after 2 weeks of storage. This method should prove useful for enumerating lymphocyte subsets in field study sites remote from flow cytometry laboratories.

  5. Stabilization of Neem Oil Biodiesel with Corn Silk Extract during Long-term Storage.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rehab Farouk M; El-Anany, Ayman M

    2017-02-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of different extracts of corn silk. In addition, the impact of corn silk extract on oxidative stability of neem biodiesel during storage was studied. The highest phenolics, DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities were recorded for methanol-water extract. The longest oxidation stability (10 h) was observed for biodiesel samples blended with 1000 ppm of corn silk extract (CSE). At the end of storage period the induction time of biodiesel samples mixed with 1000 ppm of CSE or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were about 6.72 and 5.63 times as high as in biodiesel samples without antioxidants. Biodiesel samples blended with 1000 ppm of CSE had the lowest acidity at the end of storage period. Peroxide value of biodiesel samples containing 1000 ppm of CSE was about 4.28 times as low as in control sample without antioxidants.

  6. The effect of long term storage on bacterial soft rot resistance in potato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial soft rot is a serious disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), causing rapid tuber tissue maceration and, consequently, marketable yield loss. Soft rot bacteria, especially Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pbc), are favored by moist conditions, which are prevalent in large p...

  7. Changes in microbial populations of WPC34 and WPC80 whey protein during long term storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of whey protein (WPC34 and WPC80) as a food ingredient and as a base for making biodegradable products is increasing. The need to alleviate world hunger in arid and semi-arid regions demands that we investigate the behavior of native bacteria in these products, especially during long term st...

  8. Oxidative and nutrient stability of a standard rodent spaceflight diet during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gwo-Shing; Tou, Janet C; Reiss-Bubenheim, Debra A; Hill, Esther L; Liittschwager, Kurt W; Girten, Beverly E; Pena-Yewkukhiw, Eugenia

    2012-09-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's standard spaceflight diet for rodents is the nutrient-upgraded rodent food bar (NuRFB). The shelf life of the NuRFB needs to be determined in order to avoid malnutrition of rodents and confounding of research results resulting from nutritional deficiency. The authors compared the oxidative and nutrient stability of NuRFBs stored at either ambient temperature (26 °C) or at refrigeration temperature (4 °C) for use in long-term rodent feeding experiments. After 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months (mo) of storage, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition and amounts of specific vitamins and amino acids in NuRFBs were analyzed. No oxidative rancidity developed in NuRFBs stored at 4 °C for up to 12 mo, but NuRFBs stored at 26 °C for 6 mo developed oxidative rancidity and had reduced amounts of γ-linolenic acid (18:3n-6). Despite loss of vitamin E, vitamin A and thiamin after storage at 26 °C for 12 mo, vitamin levels in NuRFBs remained at or above the levels recommended for optimal rodent health. The amino acid profile of NuRFBs was unaffected by storage at 4 °C or 26 °C for 12 mo. The results suggest that NuRFBs stored at 4 °C for up to 12 mo and NuRFBs stored at 26 °C for up to 6 mo provide suitable nutrition for rodents in long-term experiments.

  9. Short-term and long-term storage stability of heparin plasma ammonia.

    PubMed

    Dukic, Lora; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2015-04-01

    Ammonia is an extremely unstable analyte and requires special attention during sampling, transport and storage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of ammonia in lithium-heparin plasma during short-term (at +4°C) and long-term (at -20°C) storage. Twenty plasma samples were used for short-term stability assessment. Each sample was divided into five aliquots and stored in stoppered tubes at +4°C, for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 h from initial testing. Fifteen plasma samples were used for long-term stability assessment. Each sample was divided into eight aliquots and stored in stoppered tubes at -20°C for 3, 24, 48 h and 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks from initial testing. Ammonia concentration was determined on a Beckman Coulter AU2700 chemistry analyser using Randox ammonia enzymatic UV method. Bias was calculated from initial value for each time point and compared with quality specifications defined by Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. The average bias exceeded the total allowable error after storage of samples for 1 h at +4°C and 3 h at -20°C. Ammonia is not stable during storage at +4°C and -20°C in lithium-heparinised plasma and should therefore be analysed immediately. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Improvement of cryopreservation technique for long-term storage of shoot tips of Ipomoea batatas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Roots of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatis) are an important food crop in sub-tropical and tropical regions. Being a vegetatively propagated crop, its genetic resources are predominantly preserved as field plantings and/or as tissue cultures. Cryopreservation is the most economic and reliable preservati...

  11. Effects of long term storage on aerospace nickel cadmium cell performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Thomas Y.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluation of the long term effects on aerospace nickel cadmium cells is described. A number of 6Ah and 12Ah capacity cells which were stored in shorted condition for 9 to 11 years at the Goddard Space Flight Center were selected for the study. Of the three tests which were initiated (initial and final destruction analyses of the test cells, electrical characterization tests, and life cycling tests) only the electrical characterization tests are completed; the other tests are scheduled to be completed by February 1987. The preliminary electrial performance data from the life cycling test and chemical composition data from the destructive testing indicate no anomalous behavior.

  12. The effect of long-term storage on the quality of sterilized processed cheese.

    PubMed

    Bubelová, Zuzana; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Buňková, Leona; Pospiech, Matej; Vítová, Eva; Buňka, František

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect three different storage temperatures (6, 23 and 40 °C) on the sterilized processed cheese quality during 24-month storage. Sterilized processed cheese (SPC) is a product with extended shelf life (up to 2 years). The samples of SPC were subjected to basic chemical analyses, i.e. pH-values, dry matter, fat, crude protein and ammonia content, and microbiological analyses, i.e. total number of microorganisms, number of coliforms, colony forming units of yeasts and/or moulds and spore-forming microorganisms. Furthermore, amino acid content (ion-exchange chromatography), protein profile (SDS-PAGE) and fat globules size (image analysis of microscopic technique) were monitored and sensory analysis (scale test and pair comparative test) was implemented, too. Increasing storage temperature and length evoked decrease of total amino acid content and protein nutrition value, increase of ammonia amount, protein changes, enlargement of fat globule size and deterioration of sensory properties of SPC. All the changes grew expressive with increasing storage temperature and time.

  13. Viability of Blackbrush seed (Coleogyne ramosissima Torr. [Rosaceae]) following long-term storage

    Treesearch

    Rosemary Pendleton; Burton K. Pendleton; Susan E. Meyer; Stephanie Carlson; Elizabeth Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima Torr. [Rosaceae]) is a landscape- dominant shrub that occurs in an ecotonal band between warm and cold deserts of the western US. This vegetation type is at considerable risk from stand-replacing wildfires due to the introduction of exotic annual grasses. Because blackbrush does not form a persistent seedbank, restoration following...

  14. Cryopreservation of Raspberry Cultivars: Testing Techniques for Long-Term Storage of Kazakhstan's Plant Germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic resources of vegetatively propagated plants are usually maintained in field genebanks. In vitro methods play an important role as backup collections for these irreplaceable plants. Medium-term backups can be held as in vitro cultures in cold storage for several years, but also remain at ...

  15. Effect of long-term storage on sterile status of devices in surgical packs.

    PubMed

    Klapes, N A; Greene, V W; Langholz, A C; Hunstiger, C

    1987-07-01

    We investigated the effect of the following on the sterile integrity of surgical packs: four wrapping materials (two-ply reusable, nonbarrier wovens, both new and previously used; disposable, barrier nonwovens; and polypropylene peel pouches), dustcovers, two storage locations, and storage times ranging from 2 to 50 weeks. Two hundred sixty-three packs containing stainless steel coupons were prepared, wrapped, sterilized, and stored. Half of the packs were dustcovered prior to storage. At monthly intervals for a year, packs of each type were opened in a laminar flow hood, and the coupons inoculated into trypticase soy broth. The coupon contamination probabilities were 0.019 for reusable, woven packs; 0.017 for disposable, nonwoven packs; and 0.016 for peel pouches. These differences were not significant. The probability of finding a contaminated coupon in any pack after 50 weeks was 0.018. No trend toward increased probability of contamination over time was observed for any of the pack types studied.

  16. Conditioning and long-term storage of spent radium sources in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2006-06-30

    Conditioning of radium sources is required before long-term interim storage to avoid the release of radioactive material and to limit radiation exposure. In this study, containment of the radium sources was achieved by high integrity encapsulation designed to control the radon emanation problem. The capsules were made of Type 316 austenitic stainless steel with dimensions of 22mm diameter and 160mm height. The gas pressures which was caused by encapsulation of different amounts of (226)Ra were determined. The maximum gas pressure found 10atm for 900mCi of (226)Ra in one capsule at 20 degrees C. A lead shielding device was designed to limit radiation exposure. A 200l drum was used as a conditioned waste package for the radium sources and represents a Type A package under the IAEA transport regulations.

  17. New Software for Long-Term Storage and Analysis of Seismic Wave Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervelli, D. P.; Cervelli, P. F.; Murray, T. L.

    2004-12-01

    Large seismic networks generate a substantial quantity of data that must be first archived, and then disseminated, visualized, and analyzed, in real-time, in the office or from afar. To achieve these goals for the Alaska Volcano Observatory we developed two software packages: Winston, a database for storing seismic wave data, and Swarm, an application for analyzing and browsing the data. We also modified an existing package, Valve, an internet web-browser based interface to various data sets developed at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, to communicate with Winston. These programs provide users with the tools necessary to monitor many commonly used geophysical parameters. Winston, Wave Information Storage Network, uses a vendor-neutral SQL database to store seismic wave data. Winston's primary design goal was simple: develop a more robust, scalable, long-term replacement for the Earthworm waveserver. Access to data within the Winston database is through a scalable internet based server application, an Earthworm waveserver emulator, or directly via SQL queries. Some benefits of using an SQL database are easy backups and exports, speed, and reliability. Swarm, Seismic Wave Analysis and Real-time Monitor, is a stand-alone application that was designed to replace the traditional drum helicorder and computer wave viewer with an intuitive and interactive interface for rapidly assessing volcanic hazard, browsing through past data, and analyzing waveforms. Users can easily view waves in traditional analytic ways, such as frequency spectra or spectrograms, and employ standard analytic tools like filtering. Swarm allows efficient dissemination of data and breaks cross-disciplinary barriers by creating an accessible interface to seismic data for non-seismologists. Swarm currently operates with many seismic data sources including Earthworm waveservers and SEED files. Lastly, Swarm can be a valuable education and outreach tool by using its Kiosk Mode: a full-screen mode that displays an interactive real-time helicorder ideal for a visitor center-like environment. All of these packages were developed using open-source and/or free software and are themselves open-source. Only software available on a wide range of architectures and operating systems were used to ensure computer platform independence and portability.

  18. CONCRETE CONTAINERS FOR LONG TERM STORAGE AND FINAL DISPOSAL OF TRU WASTE AND LONG LIVED ILW

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, H.; Asano, H.; Tunaboylu, K.; Mayer, G.; Klubertanz, G.; Kobayashi, S.; Komuro, T.; Wagner, E.

    2003-02-27

    Transuranic (TRU) waste packaging development has been conducted since 1998 by the Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Centre (RWMC) to support the TRU waste disposal concept in Japan. In this paper, the overview of development status of the reinforced concrete package is introduced. This package has been developed in order to satisfy the Japanese TRU waste disposal concept based on current technology and to provide a low cost package. Since 1998, the basic design work (safety evaluation, manufacturing and handling procedure, economic evaluation, elemental tests etc.) have been carried out. As a result, the basic specification of the package was decided. This report presents the concept as well as the results of basic design, focused on safety analysis and handling procedure of the package. Two types of the packages exist: - Package-A: for non-heat generating TRU waste from reprocessing in 200 l drums and - Package-B: for heat generating TRU-waste from reprocessing.

  19. Drought-induced recharge promotes long-term storage of salinity beneath a prairie wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Z. F.; Moucha, R.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Mushet, D. M.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Siegel, D. I.

    2016-12-01

    Millions of prairie wetlands occur in topographic depressions throughout the Great Plains of North America, and provide critical habitat for amphibians and migratory waterfowl. In order to better understand the mechanisms controlling the distribution of salinity between wetland ponds and underlying sediment porewaters, we used underwater, DC resistivity to survey a closed-basin prairie wetland (P1) in the Cottonwood Lake Study Area (Stutsman County, ND). We imaged electrically conductive "saline lenses" (bulk EC from 2.5 to 3.5 mS/cm) at 3 m depths below the bathymetric low point of the wetland and near its perimeter within the currently ponded area. The locations of these saline lenses correspond to the shoreline of the wetland pond during a lower stand (1979 - 1988) and extreme drought (1988 - 1992), before record deluge expanded the wetland pond area (1993 to present). Analyses of long-term groundwater well data show that wetlands functioning as groundwater discharge areas during wet times can become groundwater recharge areas during drought; the water table drops below the basin surface and the vertical permeability of wetland sediments is enhanced by desiccation fractures and terrestrial plant roots. The process of "drought-induced recharge" identified here explains how some closed-basin wetlands and lakes maintain moderate surface water salinities under semi-arid climate.

  20. Feasibility of high pressure freezing with freeze substitution after long-term storage in chemical fixatives.

    PubMed

    Venter, Chantelle; Van Der Merwe, Christiaan Frederick; Oberholzer, Hester Magdalena; Bester, Megan Jean; Taute, Helena

    2013-09-01

    Fixation of biological samples is an important process especially related to histological and ultrastructural studies. Chemical fixation was the primary method of fixing tissue for transmission electron microscopy for many years, as it provides adequate preservation of the morphology of cells and organelles. High pressure freezing (HPF) and freeze substitution (FS) is a newer alternative method that rapidly freezes non-cryoprotected samples that are then slowly heated in the FS medium, allowing penetration of the tissue to insure adequate fixation. This study addresses several issues related to tissue preservation for electron microscopy. Using mice liver tissue as model the difference between samples fixed chemically or with HPF immediately after excision, or stored before chemical or HPF fixation were tested with specific focus on the nuclear membrane. Findings are that immediate HPF is the method of choice compared to chemical fixation. Of the chemical fixatives, immediate fixation with 2.5% glutaraldehyde (GA)/formaldehyde (FA) is the best in preserving membrane morphology, 2.5% GA can be used as alternative for stored and then chemically processed samples, with 10% formalin being suitable as a storage medium only if followed by HPF fixation. Overall, storage leads to lower ultrastructural preservation, but HPF with FS can minimize these artifacts relative to other processing protocols.

  1. DEMONSTRATION OF LONG-TERM STORAGE CAPABILITY FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL IN L BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.; Deible, R.

    2011-04-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy decisions for the ultimate disposition of its inventory of used nuclear fuel presently in, and to be received and stored in, the L Basin at the Savannah River Site, and schedule for project execution have not been established. A logical decision timeframe for the DOE is following the review of the overall options for fuel management and disposition by the Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC). The focus of the BRC review is commercial fuel; however, the BRC has included the DOE fuel inventory in their review. Even though the final report by the BRC to the U.S. Department of Energy is expected in January 2012, no timetable has been established for decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy on alternatives selection. Furthermore, with the imminent lay-up and potential closure of H-canyon, no ready path for fuel disposition would be available, and new technologies and/or facilities would need to be established. The fuel inventory in wet storage in the 3.375 million gallon L Basin is primarily aluminum-clad, aluminum-based fuel of the Materials Test Reactor equivalent design. An inventory of non-aluminum-clad fuel of various designs is also stored in L Basin. Safe storage of fuel in wet storage mandates several high-level 'safety functions' that would be provided by the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) of the storage system. A large inventory of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel, and other nonaluminum fuel owned by the U.S. Department of Energy is in wet storage in L Basin at the Savannah River Site. An evaluation of the present condition of the fuel, and the Structures, Systems, or Components (SSCs) necessary for its wet storage, and the present programs and storage practices for fuel management have been performed. Activities necessary to validate the technical bases for, and verify the condition of the fuel and the SSCs under long-term wet storage have also been identified. The overall conclusion is that the fuel can be stored in L Basin, meeting general safety functions for fuel storage, for an additional 50 years and possibly beyond contingent upon continuation of existing fuel management activities and several augmented program activities. It is concluded that the technical bases and well-founded technologies have been established to store spent nuclear fuel in the L Basin. Methodologies to evaluate the fuel condition and characteristics, and systems to prepare fuel, isolate damaged fuel, and maintain water quality storage conditions have been established. Basin structural analyses have been performed against present NPH criteria. The aluminum fuel storage experience to date, supported by the understanding of the effects of environmental variables on materials performance, demonstrates that storage systems that minimize degradation and provide full retrievability of the fuel up to and greater than 50 additional years will require maintaining the present management programs, and with the recommended augmented/additional activities in this report.

  2. Potential long-term storage of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing the ability to store mass-reared natural enemies during periods or seasons of low demand is a critical need of the biocontrol industry. We tested the hypothesis that cryoprotectant or carbohydrate molecules can enhance long-term cold storage of a predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis At...

  3. Long-term storage and preservation of tissue engineered articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Nover, Adam B; Stefani, Robert M; Lee, Stephanie L; Ateshian, Gerard A; Stoker, Aaron M; Cook, James L; Hung, Clark T

    2016-01-01

    With limited availability of osteochondral allografts, tissue engineered cartilage grafts may provide an alternative treatment for large cartilage defects. An effective storage protocol will be critical for translating this technology to clinical use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Missouri Osteochondral Allograft Preservation System (MOPS) for room temperature storage of mature tissue engineered grafts, focusing on tissue property maintenance during the current allograft storage window (28 days). Additional research compares MOPS to continued culture, investigates temperature influence, and examines longer-term storage. Articular cartilage constructs were cultured to maturity using adult canine chondrocytes, then preserved with MOPS at room temperature, in refrigeration, or kept in culture for an additional 56 days. MOPS storage maintained desired chondrocyte viability for 28 days of room temperature storage, retaining 75% of the maturity point Young's modulus without significant decline in biochemical content. Properties dropped past this time point. Refrigeration maintained properties similar to room temperature at 28 days, but proved better at 56 days. For engineered grafts, MOPS maintained the majority of tissue properties for the 28-day window without clearly extending that period as it had for native grafts. These results are the first evaluating engineered cartilage storage.

  4. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, Raviraja N; Szuchmacher Blum, Amy; Soto, Carissa M; Whitley, Jessica L; Sapsford, Kim E; Chatterji, Anju; Lin, Tianwei; Johnson, John E; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter; Ratna, Banahalli R

    2008-03-12

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications.

  5. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seetharam, Raviraja N.; Szuchmacher Blum, Amy; Soto, Carissa M.; Whitley, Jessica L.; Sapsford, Kim E.; Chatterji, Anju; Lin, Tianwei; Johnson, John E.; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter; Ratna, Banahalli R.

    2008-03-01

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications.

  6. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average. individual particle sizes of approximately 40 manometers.

  7. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1995-03-07

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers. 2 figs.

  8. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    1995-01-01

    A liquid--liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers.

  9. Keeping Nanoparticles Fully Functional: Long-Term Storage and Alteration of Magnetite

    PubMed Central

    Widdrat, Marc; Kumari, Monika; Tompa, Éva; Pósfai, Mihály; Hirt, Ann M; Faivre, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Magnetite is an iron oxide found in rocks. Its magnetic properties are used for paleoclimatic reconstructions. It can also be synthesized in the laboratory to exploit its magnetic properties for bio- and nanotechnological applications. However, although the magnetic properties depend on particle size in a well-understood manner, they also depend on the structure of the oxide, because magnetite oxidizes to maghemite under environmental conditions. The dynamics of this process have not been well described. Here, a study of the alteration of magnetite particles of different sizes as a function of their storage conditions is presented. Smaller nanoparticles are shown to oxidize more rapidly than larger ones, and that the lower the storage temperature, the lower the measured oxidation. In addition, the magnetic properties of the altered particles are not decreased dramatically, thus suggesting that this alteration will not impact the use of such nanoparticles as medical carriers. PMID:26366334

  10. Effects on the long term storage container by thermal cycling alpha plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Flamm, B.F.; Prenger, F.C.; Veirs, D.K.; Hill, D.D.; Isom, G.M.

    1998-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the validity of the steady state temperature limit of 100 C established by the DOE-STD-3013-96 for storing alpha plutonium metal. Studies with an alpha plutonium ingot combined with strain gauge measurements indicate that the stainless steel storage container, yields very little (0.005 in.) to the expanding plutonium metal as it undergoes alpha beta phase transformation at temperatures above 112 C. Another experiment using an alpha plutonium rod for point loading of the container wall showed no measured deformation of the container. The results of strain measurements for alpha beta and beta alpha transformations for twenty five thermal cycles are reported. Finite element modeling using the measured data predicts that the compressive yield strength is 3,500 psi versus the literature value of 13,000 psi.

  11. Long-term storage of low-invertase Katahdin at different temperature set points

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Successful storage of processing potatoes balances the risk of crop loss caused by pathogen-dependent spoilage with the need to maintain the low tuber reducing sugar contents that are required to produce light-colored fried products. Potato varieties with very low expression of the vacuolar acid inv...

  12. Evaluation of hybrid treatments to produce high quality reuse water.

    PubMed

    Luiz, D B; Silva, G S; Vaz, E A C; José, H J; Moreira, R F P M

    2011-01-01

    Four tertiary hybrid treatments to produce high quality reused water, fulfilling Brazilian drinking water regulations, from a slaughterhouse's secondary treated effluent were evaluated. The pilot plant with a capacity of 500 L h(-1) was set up and consisted of these stages: pre-filtration system (cartridge filter 50 micron, activated carbon filter, cartridge filter 10 micron), oxidation (H2O2) or second filtration (ceramic filter, UF) followed by UV radiation (90 L h(-1)). The best combination was T4: pre-filtration followed by H2O2 addition and UV radiation (AOP H2O2/UV). Disinfection kinetics by T4 followed pseudo first-order kinetics: k(T4) = 0.00943 s(-1) or 0.00101 cm2 mJ(-1). Three different zones (A, B, C) were observed in the UV254 degradation kinetics (pseudo-first order kinetics): k' decreased over time (k'(A) > k'(B) > k'(C)).

  13. Teacher Resilience in High-Poverty Schools: How Do High-Quality Teachers Become Resilient?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Kate Mansi

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to understand how high-quality teachers who began their career through Teach For America (TFA) became resilient while teaching in challenging, high-poverty schools. A secondary purpose of this study was to ascertain how, if at all, the teaching experiences of TFA teachers who stayed in the profession differed…

  14. Teacher Resilience in High-Poverty Schools: How Do High-Quality Teachers Become Resilient?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Kate Mansi

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to understand how high-quality teachers who began their career through Teach For America (TFA) became resilient while teaching in challenging, high-poverty schools. A secondary purpose of this study was to ascertain how, if at all, the teaching experiences of TFA teachers who stayed in the profession differed…

  15. High Quality Teaching Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Davis, Susan A. [D-CA-53

    2009-06-08

    House - 07/23/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. High Quality Teaching Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Davis, Susan A. [D-CA-53

    2009-06-08

    07/23/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. High Quality Teaching Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Davis, Susan A. [D-CA-53

    2009-06-08

    07/23/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. High quality factor indium oxide mechanical microresonators

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolomé, Javier Cremades, Ana; Piqueras, Javier

    2015-11-09

    The mechanical resonance behavior of as-grown In{sub 2}O{sub 3} microrods has been studied in this work by in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) electrically induced mechanical oscillations. Indium oxide microrods grown by a vapor–solid method are naturally clamped to an aluminum oxide ceramic substrate, showing a high quality factor due to reduced energy losses during mechanical vibrations. Quality factors of more than 10{sup 5} and minimum detectable forces of the order of 10{sup −16} N/Hz{sup 1/2} demonstrate their potential as mechanical microresonators for real applications. Measurements at low-vacuum using the SEM environmental operation mode were performed to study the effect of extrinsic damping on the resonators behavior. The damping coefficient has been determined as a function of pressure.

  19. Method for synthesis of high quality graphene

    DOEpatents

    Lanzara, Alessandra [Piedmont, CA; Schmid, Andreas K [Berkeley, CA; Yu, Xiaozhu [Berkeley, CA; Hwang, Choonkyu [Albany, CA; Kohl, Annemarie [Beneditkbeuern, DE; Jozwiak, Chris M [Oakland, CA

    2012-03-27

    A method is described herein for the providing of high quality graphene layers on silicon carbide wafers in a thermal process. With two wafers facing each other in close proximity, in a first vacuum heating stage, while maintained at a vacuum of around 10.sup.-6 Torr, the wafer temperature is raised to about 1500.degree. C., whereby silicon evaporates from the wafer leaving a carbon rich surface, the evaporated silicon trapped in the gap between the wafers, such that the higher vapor pressure of silicon above each of the wafers suppresses further silicon evaporation. As the temperature of the wafers is raised to about 1530.degree. C. or more, the carbon atoms self assemble themselves into graphene.

  20. Production of high quality hydrographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charo, M.; Piola, A. R.

    2016-02-01

    The ocean is the dominant reservoir of heat and carbon in the climate system on time scales from years to centuries. Thus, historical ocean observations are essential to understand the processes that control the variability in environmental conditions and climate on these time scales. High quality observations are essential to address both regional and global problems. Because environmental changes involve a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and given the high cost of oceanographic surveys, calibration protocols and widely documented procedures are necessary to ensure the highest possible data quality and to preserve the information for future use. Vertical quasi-continuous conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profiles have become the backbone of ocean hydrographic observations. Factory CTD sensor calibrations are not always easy to carry out. Especially in these cases, in situ discrete bottle data are of crucial importance as complementary information of the water column for the analysis of vertical changes in highly variable temperature-salinity structures. This work will address CTD data processing steps and describe the laboratory and field calibrations and the associated documentation required for future users.

  1. The Economics of Education: Public Benefits of High-Quality Preschool Education for Low-Income Children. Building Communities for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, Jerrold; MacGregor, Theo

    Noting that high-quality preschool increases the ability of low-income children to profit from elementary and secondary education, thereby increasing their high school graduation rate and generating economic and other returns for taxpayers, this report articulates and analyzes the economic benefits of providing a high-quality preschool education…

  2. Toward automatic recognition of high quality clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2008-11-06

    Automatic methods for recognizing topically relevant documents supported by high quality research can assist clinicians in practicing evidence-based medicine. We approach the challenge of identifying articles with high quality clinical evidence as a binary classification problem. Combining predictions from supervised machine learning methods and using deep semantic features, we achieve 73.5% precision and 67% recall.

  3. Extraction of high-quality RNA from human articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Le Bleu, Heather K; Kamal, Fadia A; Kelly, Meghan; Ketz, John P; Zuscik, Michael J; Elbarbary, Reyad A

    2017-02-01

    Extracting high-quality RNA from articular cartilage is challenging due to low cellularity and high proteoglycan content. This problem hinders efficient application of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis in studying cartilage homeostasis. Here we developed a method that purifies high-quality RNA directly from cartilage. Our method optimized the collection and homogenization steps so as to minimize RNA degradation, and modified the conventional TRIzol protocol to enhance RNA purity. Cartilage RNA purified using our method has appropriate quality for RNA-seq experiments including an RNA integrity number of ∼8. Our method also proved efficient in extracting high-quality RNA from subchondral bone.

  4. Isolation of high quality RNA from Phyllanthus emblica and its evaluation by downstream applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Avneesh; Singh, Kashmir

    2012-11-01

    Next generation sequencing is a high-throughput technique widely used for transcriptome profiling. Isolation of high quality RNA is a prerequisite for such large scale transcriptome analysis. Phyllanthus emblica is an important medicinal plant having high amount of metabolites like vitamin C, flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds, tannins, which are responsible for its wondered medicinal properties. High concentration of secondary metabolites like polysaccharides and polyphenols proved to be an obstacle in isolating RNA of good quality. Any compromise with quality of RNA affects the downstream applications and requires extra cleaning steps that further reduce RNA quantity. We have developed a protocol for isolation of high quality RNA from P. embilca. RNA was successfully assessed for downstream applications like reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, rapid amplification of cDNA ends, mRNA library preparation, and sequencing using HiSeq(™) 2000 sequencing technology. The protocol is simple and can be completed in 4-5 h.

  5. Analysis of high-quality modes in open chaotic microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, W.; Yamilov, A.; Cao, H.

    2005-08-15

    We present a numerical study of the high-quality modes in two-dimensional dielectric stadium microcavities. Although the classical ray mechanics is fully chaotic in a stadium billiard, all of the high-quality modes show a 'strong scar' around unstable periodic orbits. When the deformation (ratio of the length of the straight segments over the diameter of the half circles) is small, the high-quality modes correspond to whispering-gallery-type trajectories and their quality factors decrease monotonically with increasing deformation. At large deformation, each high-quality mode is associated with multiple unstable periodic orbits. Its quality factor changes nonmonotonically with the deformation, and there exists an optimal deformation for each mode at which its quality factor reaches a local maximum. This unusual behavior is attributed to the interference of waves propagating along different constituent orbits that could minimize light leakage out of the cavity.

  6. High-quality learning: harder to achieve than we think?

    PubMed

    Mattick, Karen; Knight, Lynn

    2007-07-01

    High-quality learning in the context of medical education can be defined by current conceptions of a deep approach to learning and studying, in combination with metacognitive skills such as personal organisation and reflection on learning. Modern undergraduate education aims to provide an environment that will promote high-quality learning, but this is not as easy to achieve as it might at first seem. Part of the difficulty arises because it is student perceptions of the learning and assessment environment that determine the adopted approach to studying and these are notoriously hard to predict. To generate a detailed understanding of aspects that facilitate and inhibit high-quality learning within an innovative, undergraduate medical programme. We carried out semi-structured interviews with Year 2 undergraduate students. Self-directed, problem-based and vocationally relevant activities appeared to promote high-quality learning. Unanticipated barriers to high-quality learning in this setting included a perceived lack of useful feedback on learning, the assessment of applied medical knowledge for a subset of underperforming students, anatomy as a curricular topic and the quantity of information to be assimilated in medicine. Only by understanding the barriers as they are perceived by students can we design evidence-based modifications to curricula that are likely to be successful in promoting high-quality learning.

  7. Survival, growth and pathogenicity of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis with different methods of long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Elliott, M L

    2005-01-01

    The fungal plant pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis was preserved with 12 different storage methods. Five strains, each with unique morphological and pathological characteristics, were used for comparison of the methods. The storage treatments included potato-dextrose agar slants, with or without mineral oil, stored at either 4 C, 28 C or ambient temperature; colonized agar plugs placed in glycerol solution at either -75 C or -20 C; colonized agar plugs placed in sterile deionized water at either 4 C or ambient temperature; and mycelial growth on intact or precut pieces of filter paper, desiccated and stored at ambient temperature. Survival was evaluated at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 120 mo. The three best treatments for survival were PDA slants, with or without mineral oil, and colonized agar plugs stored in water, all at ambient temperature. All five fungal strains were recovered from all four replicates at each sampling date for agar plugs stored in water at ambient temperature. The worst treatments were agar slants and agar plugs in water stored at 4 C and agar plugs stored in glycerol at -20 C. Morphological characteristics were not affected by storage treatments. In general, there were minimal or no effects on growth and pathogenicity for all strains for all storage treatments with survival. Colonized agar plugs stored in water at ambient temperature provides an economical storage method (materials and labor) that does not need an electrical power for long-term maintenance.

  8. The effect of long term storage on tobacco smoke particulate matter in in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity assays.

    PubMed

    Crooks, I; Dillon, D M; Scott, J K; Ballantyne, M; Meredith, C

    2013-03-01

    Particulate matter (PM) collected from mainstream tobacco smoke is a test article commonly used for in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity testing of combustible tobacco products. However, little published data exists concerning the stability of PM. We completed a 2 year study to quantify the effect of PM storage at -80 °C, on the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of PM generated from 3R4F and M4A reference cigarettes. The Ames test, Micronucleus assay (MNvit), Mouse Lymphoma assay (MLA) and the Neutral Red Uptake assay (NRU) were used. The majority of M4A and 3R4F PMs were genotoxic and cytotoxic at the timepoints tested. Some minor but statistically significant differences were observed for stored versus freshly prepared PM, but the magnitude of changes were within the variability observed for repeat testing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Final Report on Assessment of Crude Oil and Refined Petroleum Product Quality During Long-Term Storage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    from biological activity, although the only such activity noted was reported to be anaerobic (a process that produces hydrogen sulfide). However, no...detection of hydrogen sulfide was noted. The bitumen sediment and water inherently present in crude may contribute to this layer by settling out during...as: (1) hydrotreated catalytic cracker feedstock, (2) first stage product from hydrocracking, and (3) hydrotreated lube oil basestocks. The aggregate

  10. Investigation on the long-term storage and fate of arsenic obtained as a treatment residual: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debabrata; Sarkar, Sudipta; Sengupta, Arup K; Gupta, Anirban

    2014-04-30

    In several places in India, activated alumina is used for effective removal of arsenic from contaminated ground water used for drinking purposes. Once exhausted, activated alumina is regenerated and reused for number of cycles. Regeneration of activated alumina generates treatment residuals containing arsenic, disposal of which needs care so as to avoid further pollution of the neighbouring environment. In the present study, a suitable stabilization and disposal method for the treatment residuals inside a well aerated coarse sand filter bed has been developed. Standard leaching tests carried out with the stabilized treatment residual indicated that the leaching of arsenic from the stabilized treatment residual was minimum, and was within the regulatory limit. Water quality data of all the wells located within 100 m from the sand filter were monitored for nearly four years and no adverse impact of disposal of arsenic-laden treatment residuals in the sand filter was observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiotoxicity and decay heat power of spent nuclear fuel of VVER type reactors at long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Radiotoxicity and decay heat power of the spent nuclear fuel of VVER-1000 type reactors are calculated during storage time up to 300,000 y. Decay heat power of radioactive waste (radwaste) determines parameters of the heat removal system for the safe storage of spent nuclear fuel. Radiotoxicity determines the radiological hazard of radwaste after its leakage and penetration into the environment.

  12. Geoscience data: Defining policies and workflow tools for long-term storage of continuously and temporarily collected data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebauer, P.; Kirchner, I.; Peters-Kottig, W.; Klump, J.; Bertelmann, R.; Rusch, B.; Ulbricht, D.; Wattenbach, M.

    2012-04-01

    The intention of the project EWIG (Developing workflow components for long-term archiving of research data in geosciences) is to support geoscientists in transferring their data in a standardized way for storage in digital long-term archives. In the pilot phase test data are provided by two participating research institutions, both producing large amounts of data. One of them - Institut für Meteorologie, Freie Universität Berlin - provides continuously meteorological data, these data are measured every minute at several stations throughout Berlin. The other - Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam - conducts geophysical field experiments and thus produces data temporarily. The digital long-term archive test system is provided by an infrastructure facility - Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Informationstechnik Berlin. Both use cases require definite ways for the digital preservation workflows. Policies for the workflow independent from the working area will be defined. At the beginning of the project the actual state of the art in science data preservation policies has to be identified, gaps should be detected and analyzed, so that missing workflow components can be designed. Contact to other institutions, having already policies for their data lifecycle, is necessary to get an overview of existing operating procedures and data management software tools. Assuring the usability of the archived data is necessary during all stages of the project. All information essential for interpreting the data has to be available in a simple way. Usability tests of the archive will be performed together with domain scientists as well as students (bachelor, master, graduate). Questions about the quality of data access, documentation, metadata, etc. should be answered. User feedback and the knowledge of the consortium will be used to compose a university lecture or seminar series on digital data curation, so that future generations of scientists become familiar with the handling of their data without any difficulty. Data curation should be self-evident for scientifically working people. Developing policies, documentations and a lecture concept is intended to advance the re-use of archived research data by the scientific community.

  13. Long term storage of bee semen – A six month assessment of cryopreserved semen quality using motility as an index

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bee (Apis mellifera Linn.) spermatozoa is known for its ability to remain viable for at the least two years within the spermatheca as attested to by the queens’ continued laying of fertile eggs without remating over two to three (Woyke 1960; Winston 1987). However, the semen collected from the dron...

  14. Thermal performance of an integrated thermal protection system for long-term storage of cryogenic propellants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, R. L.; Boyle, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    It was demonstrated that cryogenic propellants can be stored unvented in space long enough to accomplish a Saturn orbiter mission after 1,200-day coast. The thermal design of a hydrogen-fluorine rocket stage was carried out, and the hydrogen tank, its support structure, and thermal protection system were tested in a vacuum chamber. Heat transfer rates of approximately 23 W were measured in tests to simulate the near-Earth portion of the mission. Tests to simulate the majority of the time the vehicle would be in deep space and sun-oriented resulted in a heat transfer rate of 0.11 W.

  15. Long-term storage of polyethylene film wrapped cotton bales and effects on fiber and textile quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton bales are stored for various lengths of time after ginning in any given year depending on crop size as well as market demand. Storage of cotton bales in covered warehouses is the general industry practice for most of the U.S. cotton belt. However, some cotton bales are stored in outside hol...

  16. Coccidian oöcysts as type-specimens: long-term storage in aqueous potassium dichromate solution preserves DNA.

    PubMed

    Williams, R B; Thebo, P; Marshall, R N; Marshall, J A

    2010-05-01

    Preservation of the exogenous oöcyst stage of coccidian parasites (phylum Apicomplexa N.D. Levine, 1970) as type-specimens of newly described species has long been problematical. Conventional fixatives have proved unsatisfactory, and compromises such as embedding oöcysts in resin or photographing them are not entirely appropriate for various reasons. As an alternative, chilled potassium dichromate solution (normally used in the laboratory to prevent putrefaction of temporary preparations of live oöcysts) has been tested as a long-term preservative of sporulated oöcysts of Eimeria brunetti P.P. Levine, 1942, E. maxima Tyzzer, 1929, E. mitis Tyzzer, 1929, E. necatrix Johnson, 1930, E. praecox Johnson, 1930 and E. tenella (Railliet & Lucet, 1891) (suborder Eimeriorina Léger, 1911; family Eimeriidae Minchin, 1903). Oöcysts from faeces of chickens Gallus gallus (Linnaeus) were placed in 2.5% w/v aqueous potassium dichromate solution (PDS) and stored in the dark at 4 +/- 2 degrees C. After 23 years in storage, oöcysts of each species were administered orally to chickens and failed to initiate infections, indicating that the oöcysts were dead. Nevertheless, after about 24 years, DNA was still recoverable from the oöcysts, and the original species identifications made by classic parasitological methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assays. Furthermore, after almost 25 years, microscopical examination revealed that the walls and internal structures remained well preserved in 83-98% of the oöcysts of the six species investigated. Hence, PDS is potentially suitable for the long-term preservation of sporulated coccidian oöcysts as type-specimens for taxonomic purposes. The samples used in this study are now in the care of the Natural History Museum, London, UK. It is recommended that they be monitored in like manner, by suitably qualified scientists, at intervals of about 5 years to assess their state of preservation and the recoverability of DNA. Enough material is available to monitor it until it is at least 100 years old.

  17. Artificial-enzyme gel membrane-based biosurveillance sensor with high reproducibility and long-term storage stability.

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Shinya; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Haruyama, Tetsuya

    2009-02-01

    We propose that the most sophisticated strategy for primary biosurveillance is to exploit structural commonality through the detection of biologically relevant phosphoric substances. A novel assay, an artificial-enzyme membrane was designed and synthesized for sensor fabrication. This artificial-enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of the diphosphoric acid anhydride structure. This structure-selective, albeit not molecule-selective, catalytic hydrolysis was successfully coupled with amperometric detection. Since the catalytic reaction produces a dephosphorylation product (PO(4)(3-)), it can be reduced by an electrode potential of -250 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. Owing to the structural selectivity of the artificial-enzyme membrane, the sensor can detect biological phosphoric substances comprehensively that have the diphosphoric acid anhydride structure. The sensor successfully determined various biological phosphoric substances at concentrations in the micromolar (microM) to millimolar (mM) range, and it showed good functional stability and reproducibility in terms of sensor responses. This sensor was used to detect Escherichia coli lysed by heat treatment, and the response increased with increasing bacterial numbers. This unique technique for analyzing molecular commonality can be applied to the surveillance of biocontaminants, e.g. microorganisms, spores and viruses. Artificial-enzyme-based detection is a novel strategy for practical biosurveillance in the front line.

  18. Effects of long-term storage and thermocycling on bond strength of two self-etching primer adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Toshihiro; Iijima, Masahiro; Ito, Shuichi; Muguruma, Takeshi; Saito, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2010-06-01

    The effects of 2 years of storage and 6000 thermocycles on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two self-etching adhesive systems were studied. Two self-etching primer (SEP) systems (Transbond Plus and Beauty Ortho Bond) and one etch and rinse system (Transbond XT) were used to bond brackets to 126 human premolars that were then stored in artificial saliva for 24 hours or 2 years and thermocycled in distilled water before SBS testing with a universal testing machine. The adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores were calculated. Data were compared by two-way analysis of variance and chi-square analysis. Enamel/adhesive interfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy. There was no significant difference in the mean SBS for the bonding materials among the three conditions. ARI scores showed that Transbond XT and Beauty Ortho Bond had less adhesive remaining on the teeth after ageing compared with storage for 24 hours. Specimens bonded with Beauty Ortho Bond showed leakage between the resin adhesive and enamel after ageing. Both SEP systems produced adequate SBS even after 2 years or 6000 times thermocycling. Thermocycling is an appropriate technique for determining the durability of orthodontic bracket bonding materials.

  19. The Effect of Long-Term Storage on the Physiochemical and Bactericidal Properties of Electrochemically Activated Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Gareth; Thorn, Robin; Reynolds, Darren

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemically activated solutions (ECAS) are generated by electrolysis of NaCl solutions, and demonstrate broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and high environmental compatibility. The biocidal efficacy of ECAS at the point of production is widely reported in the literature, as are its credentials as a “green biocide.” Acidic ECAS are considered most effective as biocides at the point of production and ill suited for extended storage. Acidic ECAS samples were stored at 4 °C and 20 °C in glass and polystyrene containers for 398 days, and tested for free chlorine, pH, ORP and bactericidal activity throughout. ORP and free chlorine (mg/L) in stored ECAS declined over time, declining at the fastest rate when stored at 20 °C in polystyrene and at the slowest rate when stored at 4 °C in glass. Bactericidal efficacy was also affected by storage and ECAS failed to produce a 5 log10 reduction on five occasions when stored at 20 °C. pH remained stable throughout the storage period. This study represents the longest storage evaluation of the physiochemical parameters and bactericidal efficacy of acidic ECAS within the published literature and reveals that acidic ECAS retain useful bactericidal activity for in excess of 12 months, widening potential applications. PMID:23263673

  20. Hindered submicron mobility and long-term storage of presynaptic dense-core granules revealed by single-particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Scalettar, B A; Jacobs, C; Fulwiler, A; Prahl, L; Simon, A; Hilken, L; Lochner, J E

    2012-09-01

    Dense-core granules (DCGs) are organelles found in neuroendocrine cells and neurons that house, transport, and release a number of important peptides and proteins. In neurons, DCG cargo can include the secreted neuromodulatory proteins tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which play a key role in modulating synaptic efficacy in the hippocampus. This function has spurred interest in DCGs that localize to synaptic contacts between hippocampal neurons, and several studies recently have established that DCGs localize to, and undergo regulated exocytosis from, postsynaptic sites. To complement this work, we have studied presynaptically localized DCGs in hippocampal neurons, which are much more poorly understood than their postsynaptic analogs. Moreover, to enhance relevance, we visualized DCGs via fluorescence labeling of exogenous and endogenous tPA and BDNF. Using single-particle tracking, we determined trajectories of more than 150 presynaptically localized DCGs. These trajectories reveal that mobility of DCGs in presynaptic boutons is highly hindered and that storage is long-lived. We also computed mean-squared displacement curves, which can be used to elucidate mechanisms of transport. Over shorter time windows, most curves are linear, demonstrating that DCG transport in boutons is driven predominantly by diffusion. The remaining curves plateau with time, consistent with motion constrained by a submicron-sized corral. These results have relevance to recent models of presynaptic organization and to recent hypotheses about DCG cargo function. The results also provide estimates for transit times to the presynaptic plasma membrane that are consistent with measured times for onset of neurotrophin release from synaptically localized DCGs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Hindered submicron mobility and long-term storage of presynaptic dense-core granules revealed by single-particle tracking

    PubMed Central

    Scalettar, B. A.; Jacobs, C.; Fulwiler, A.; Prahl, L.; Simon, A.; Hilken, L.; Lochner, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Dense-core granules (DCGs) are organelles found in neuroendocrine cells and neurons that house, transport, and release a number of important peptides and proteins. In neurons, DCG cargo can include the secreted neuromodulatory proteins tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which play a key role in modulating synaptic efficacy in the hippocampus. This function has spurred interest in DCGs that localize to synaptic contacts between hippocampal neurons, and several studies recently have established that DCGs localize to, and undergo regulated exocytosis from, postsynaptic sites. To complement this work, we have studied presynaptically-localized DCGs in hippocampal neurons, which are much more poorly understood than their postsynaptic analogs. Moreover, to enhance relevance, we visualized DCGs via fluorescence labeling of exogenous and endogenous tPA and BDNF. Using single-particle tracking, we determined trajectories of more than 150 presynaptically-localized DCGs. These trajectories reveal that mobility of DCGs in presynaptic boutons is highly hindered and that storage is long-lived. We also computed mean-squared displacement curves, which can be used to elucidate mechanisms of transport. Over shorter time windows, most curves are linear, demonstrating that DCG transport in boutons is driven predominantly by diffusion. The remaining curves plateau with time, consistent with motion constrained by a submicron-sized corral. These results have relevance to recent models of presynaptic organization and to recent hypotheses about DCG cargo function. The results also provide estimates for transit times to the presynaptic plasma membrane that are consistent with measured times for onset of neurotrophin release from synaptically-localized DCGs. PMID:21976424

  2. Bivalent response to long-term storage in liquid-preserved boar semen: a flow cytometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Henning, Heiko; Petrunkina, Anna M; Harrison, Robin A P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2012-07-01

    The fertility of liquid-preserved boar semen declines during storage at 17°C, insemination trials even indicating early losses in fertilizing ability within the first 24-48 h of storage. Standard semen parameters barely reflect these changes in semen quality, and new approaches for assessment of functional changes in stored spermatozoa are needed. Capacitation, the essential prefertilization step for spermatozoa in the female genital tract, is specifically induced in vitro by bicarbonate. Therefore, we have investigated changes in responsiveness of boar spermatozoa to bicarbonate during storage. Ejaculates of 14 boars were diluted in Beltsville thawing solution, cooled to 17°C and stored for 12, 24, 72, 120, and 168 h before investigation. At each time, basic semen quality was characterized by sperm motility and viability. Subsequently, washed subsamples were incubated in variants of an in vitro fertilization (IVF) medium and assessed for kinetic changes of viability (plasma membrane integrity) and intracellular calcium concentration using flow cytometry in combination with propidium iodide and Fluo-3. By this means, it was possible to determine specific effects of bicarbonate and calcium on sperm subpopulations over incubation time. During storage, standard semen parameters remained on a high level. However, flow cytometric analysis of sperm responses to capacitating and control media revealed two opposing effects of storage. There was a loss of response to bicarbonate in part of the live sperm population but an increasing degree of instability in the rest. Assessment of response to capacitating media by flow cytometry appears a markedly more sensitive way of monitoring sperm functionality during storage than the standard semen parameters of motility and viability.

  3. Safe and effective cryopreservation methods for long-term storage of human-amniotic-fluid-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hennes, Aurélie; Gucciardo, Léonardo; Zia, Silvia; Lesage, Flore; Lefèvre, Nicolas; Lewi, Liesbeth; Vorsselmans, Annick; Cos, Teresa; Lories, Rik; Deprest, Jan; Toelen, Jaan

    2015-05-01

    Stem cells (SCs) can be isolated from amniotic fluid (AF) for a variety of perinatal applications. In view of this, we compared different cryopreservation protocols for these AFSCs. We screened seven freezing and thawing protocols using two well-established human AFSC lines: freezing protocol 1 (FP1), 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO); FP2, 2.5% DMSO, caspase inhibitor, and catalase; FP3, 5% glycerol, caspase inhibitor, and catalase; FP4, sperm freezing medium; FP5, slow-freezing solution; FP6, ethylene glycol, sucrose, and Ficoll 70; and FP7, vitrification solution. Outcome measures were post-thawing cell viability, recovery, doubling time and mesenchymal SC markers. The three best performing protocols were subsequently tested on cells isolated from clinical consecutive freshly harvested AF samples from two fetal medicine units. Protocols 1, 5, and 6 performed significantly better on well-characterized cell lines. They performed equally well on cell pellets from freshly harvested AF (n = 28). We identified three suitable cryopreservation protocols because of high cell recovery and unchanged SC characteristics. Given one of these, the slow-freezing solution, is compatible with current good manufacturing practice legislation, it may be ultimately clinically used. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Comparison of Long-Term Storage in Chemical Fixatives on Morphology and Anatomy of Super-Dwarf Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Campbell, W. F.; Salisbury, F. B.; Hole, P. S.; Gillespie, L.; Levbinskikh, M.; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super-Dwarf) are grown in the microgravity of space and harvested for morphological and anatomical comparison with those exposed to gravity on earth. Such plants are subjected to relatively long periods of storage in chemical fixatives. Examination, evaluation and verification that the integrity of the vascular system is maintained for extended periods of storage in fixatives are required. McDowell and Trump's [4% Formaldehyde -- 1 % Glutaraldehyde (4F: 1 G)] or Variant I [(Russian Fixative): Formalin: Acetic Acid: Alcohol] fixatives, adjusted to pH 7.2, were placed in Aclam(TM), FilmORap(TM), or FilmOSun(TM) plastic bags on April 4, 1994. Wheat seedlings were harvested on days 9, 28, and 68 and preserved in these fixatives. Subsamples of leaves and/or seeds were taken from these stocks after various times in storage, dehydrated, and embedded in Spurr's, LR White's or Unicryl resin. Semithin (1 mm) and thin (50-70 nm) sections were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. In a few sections, we have observed a slight plasmolysis of the cytostol in leaf tissue fixed with the Variant I, but overall there seem to be no major artifacts in the anatomical structure. The plasmalemma and other organelles appeared normal in the McDowell and Trump fixative. Use of differential chromophores suggests that LR White or Unicryl resins may give greater flexibility for enzyme localizations at both the light and electron microscopical levels.

  5. Scheduling viability tests for seeds in long-term storage based on a Bayesian Multi-Level Model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genebank managers conduct viability tests on stored seeds so they can replace lots that have viability near a critical threshold, such as 50 or 85% germination. Currently, these tests are typically scheduled at uniform intervals; testing every 5 years is common. A manager needs to balance the cost...

  6. Sensory descriptive quantitative analysis of unpasteurized and pasteurized juçara pulp (Euterpe edulis) during long-term storage

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira; Casemiro, Renata Cristina; Zillo, Rafaela Rebessi; de Camargo, Adriano Costa; Prospero, Evanilda Teresinha Perissinotto; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of pasteurization followed by storage under different conditions on the sensory attributes of frozen juçara pulp using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Pasteurization of packed frozen pulp was performed by its immersion in stainless steel tank containing water (80°C) for 5 min, followed by storage under refrigerated and frozen conditions. A trained sensory panel evaluated the samples (6°C) on day 1, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90. Sensory attributes were separated as follows: appearance (foamy, heterogeneous, purple, brown, oily, and creamy), aroma (sweet and fermented), taste (astringent, bitter, and sweet), and texture (oily and consistent), and compared to a reference material. In general, unpasteurized frozen pulp showed the highest score for foamy appearance, and pasteurized samples showed highest scores to creamy appearance. Pasteurized samples remained stable regarding brown color development while unpasteurized counterparts presented increase. Color is an important attribute related to the product identity. All attributes related to taste and texture remained constant during storage for all samples. Pasteurization followed by storage under frozen conditions has shown to be the best conservation method as samples submitted to such process received the best sensory evaluation, described as foamy, slightly heterogeneous, slightly bitter, and slightly astringent. PMID:25473489

  7. Silicone Oil Microdroplets and Protein Aggregates in Repackaged Bevacizumab and Ranibizumab: Effects of Long-term Storage and Product Mishandling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Ammar, David A.; Ross, Lindsey A.; Mandava, Naresh; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify levels of subvisible particles and protein aggregates in repackaged bevacizumab obtained from compounding pharmacies, as well as in samples of bevacizumab and ranibizumab tested in controlled laboratory experiments. Methods. Repackaged bevacizumab was purchased from four external compounding pharmacies. For controlled laboratory studies, bevacizumab and placebo were drawn into plastic syringes and incubated at −20°C, 4°C, and room temperature (with and without exposure to light) for 12 weeks. In addition, mechanical shock occurring during shipping was mimicked with syringes containing bevacizumab. Particle counts and size distributions were quantified by particle characterization technology. Levels of monomer and soluble aggregates of bevacizumab were determined with size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC). Results. Repackaged bevacizumab from the compounding pharmacies had a wide range of particle counts (89,006 ± 56,406 to 602,062 ± 18,349/mL). Bevacizumab sampled directly from the original glass vial had particle counts of 63,839 ± 349/mL. There was up to a 10% monomer loss in the repackaged bevacizumab. Laboratory samples of repackaged bevacizumab and placebo had initial particle counts, respectively, of 283,675 ± 60,494/mL and 492,314 ± 389,361/mL. Freeze-thawing of both bevacizumab and placebo samples led to >1.2 million particles/mL. In all repackaged samples, most of the particles were due to silicone oil. SE-HPLC showed no significant differences for repackaged samples incubated in the laboratory under various conditions, compared with bevacizumab directly from vial. However, repeated freeze-thawing caused a more than 10% monomer loss. Conclusions. Bevacizumab repackaged in plastic syringes could contain protein aggregates and is contaminated by silicone oil microdroplets. Freeze-thawing or other mishandling can further increase levels of particle contaminants. PMID:21051703

  8. Comparison of Long-Term Storage in Chemical Fixatives on Morphology and Anatomy of Super-Dwarf Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Campbell, W. F.; Salisbury, F. B.; Hole, P. S.; Gillespie, L.; Levbinskikh, M.; Kliss, Mark H. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super-Dwarf) are grown in the microgravity of space and harvested for morphological and anatomical comparison with those exposed to gravity on earth. Such plants are subjected to relatively long periods of storage in chemical fixatives. Examination, evaluation and verification that the integrity of the vascular system is maintained for extended periods of storage in fixatives are required. McDowell and Trump's [4% Formaldehyde -- 1 % Glutaraldehyde (4F: 1 G)] or Variant I [(Russian Fixative): Formalin: Acetic Acid: Alcohol] fixatives, adjusted to pH 7.2, were placed in Aclam(TM), FilmORap(TM), or FilmOSun(TM) plastic bags on April 4, 1994. Wheat seedlings were harvested on days 9, 28, and 68 and preserved in these fixatives. Subsamples of leaves and/or seeds were taken from these stocks after various times in storage, dehydrated, and embedded in Spurr's, LR White's or Unicryl resin. Semithin (1 mm) and thin (50-70 nm) sections were examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. In a few sections, we have observed a slight plasmolysis of the cytostol in leaf tissue fixed with the Variant I, but overall there seem to be no major artifacts in the anatomical structure. The plasmalemma and other organelles appeared normal in the McDowell and Trump fixative. Use of differential chromophores suggests that LR White or Unicryl resins may give greater flexibility for enzyme localizations at both the light and electron microscopical levels.

  9. Changes in the physiological and agricultural characteristics of peat-based Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculants after long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Revellin, C; Meunier, G; Giraud, J J; Sommer, G; Wadoux, P; Catroux, G

    2000-08-01

    Commercial soybean inoculants processed with sterilised peat and stored at 20 degrees C for 1-8 years were used as experimental materials to assess the changes in the physiological activity of Bradyrhizobium japonicum after storage. Viable counts decreased and physiological characteristics of the bacterium changed during storage, with an increase in the time taken for colony appearance on a medium without yeast extract, an increase in the lag time for nodule appearance on soybean grown in glass tubes and a decrease in survival on seeds. All the inoculants produced a significant increase in grain yield in a field experiment. The percentage of efficient cells in the field (relative to the plate counts) decreased as the length of storage increased. These results suggest that the physiological activity of B. japonicum cells changes after storage. Practical implications for inoculant quality control are discussed.

  10. Polyamine Metabolism of Potato Seed-Tubers During Long-Term Storage and Early Sprout Development 1

    PubMed Central

    Mikitzel, Loretta J.; Knowles, N. Richard

    1989-01-01

    Growth potential of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants is influenced by seed-tuber age. After 24 days of growth, single-eye seedcores from 7-month-old seed-tubers produced 64% more foliar dry matter than those from 19-month-old seed-tubers, reflecting a higher growth rate. This study was initiated to determine if differences in polyamine (PA) metabolism are associated with aging and age-reduced vigor of potato seed-tubers. As tubers aged in storage, putrescine (Put) increased 2.2-fold, while spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) decreased 33% and 38%, respectively. Ethylene content of the tuber tissue also increased with advancing age, suggesting that during the aging process S-adenosylmethionine was directed toward ethylene biosynthesis at the expense of the PAs. Single-eye cores from 7- and 19-month-old tubers were sown and PA levels in core and shoot tissues were monitored during plant development. Put titer of younger cores increased 8.8-fold by 12 days. In contrast, the increase in Put over the initial titer in older cores was 2.9-fold. The reduced ability of older cores to synthesize Put during plant establishment is probably due to a 45% decline in ornithine decarboxylase activity between 12 and 16 days after planting. Lack of available Put substrate limited the biosynthesis of Spd and Spm, and thus their concentrations remained lower in older cores than in younger cores. Lower PA titer in older cores during plant establishment is thus coincident with reduced growth potential. Concentrations of Put and Spd were higher in shoots developing from older cores throughout the study, but there was no age-related difference in Spm content. In contrast, activities of arginine and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylases were higher in shoots from younger cores during establishment. The results indicate that aging affects PA metabolism in both tuber and developing plant tissues, and this may relate to loss of growth potential with advancing seed-tuber age. PMID:16666993

  11. Chemical and proteolysis-derived changes during long-term storage of lactose-hydrolyzed ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) milk.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Therese; Jensen, Hanne B; Sundekilde, Ulrik K; Clausen, Morten R; Eggers, Nina; Larsen, Lotte B; Ray, Colin; Andersen, Henrik J; Bertram, Hanne C

    2014-11-19

    Proteolytic activity in milk may release bitter-tasting peptides and generate free amino terminals that react with carbohydrates, which initiate Maillard reaction. Ultrahigh temperature (UHT) heat treatment inactivates the majority of proteolytic enzymes in milk. In lactose-hydrolyzed milk a β-galactosidase preparation is applied to the milk after heat treatment, which has proteolytic side activities that may induce quality deterioration of long-term-stored milk. In the present study proteolysis, glycation, and volatile compound formation were investigated in conventional (100% lactose), filtered (60% lactose), and lactose-hydrolyzed (<1% lactose) UHT milk using reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Proteolysis was observed in all milk types. However, the degree of proteolysis was significantly higher in the lactose-hydrolyzed milk compared to the conventional and filtered milk. The proteins most prone to proteolysis were β-CN and αs1-CN, which were clearly hydrolyzed after approximately 90 days of storage in the lactose-hydrolyzed milk.

  12. Long term storage of Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor isolates using different cryopreservation techniques and its impact on laccase activity.

    PubMed

    Eichlerová, Ivana; Homolka, Ladislav; Tomšovský, Michal; Lisá, Ludmila

    2015-12-01

    The strain Pleurotus ostreatus Florida f6, its 45 basidiospore-derived isolates (both monokaryons and dikaryons prepared in our laboratory), Trametes versicolor strain CCBAS 614 and 22 other T. versicolor isolates obtained from the sporocarps collected in distant localities were successfully preserved for 12 y using perlite and straw cryopreservation protocols. All tested isolates survived a 12-year storage in liquid nitrogen (LN) and their laccase production and Poly B411 decolorization capacity was preserved. Also mycelium extension rate and the types of colony appearance of individual isolates remained unchanged. Different cryopreservation techniques were also tested for the short time (24 h) and the long time (6 m) storage of the culture liquid with extracellular laccase produced by T. versicolor strain CCBAS 614. The results showed that 10 % glycerol was the most suitable cryopreservant. The absence of the cryopreservant did not cause high loss of laccase activity in the samples; the presence of DMSO (5 or 10 %) in LN-stored samples caused mostly a decrease of laccase activity. For the preservation of laccase activity in the liquid culture the storage in the freezer at -80 °C is more convenient than the storage in liquid nitrogen.

  13. Influence of processing factors on the stability of model mayonnaise with whole egg during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Ariizumi, Masahiro; Kubo, Megumi; Handa, Akihiro; Hayakawa, Takashi; Matsumiya, Kentaro; Matsumura, Yasuki

    2017-04-01

    Mayonnaise-like oil-in-water emulsions with different stabilities-evaluated from the degree of macroscopic defects, e.g., syneresis-were prepared by different formulations and processing conditions (egg yolk weight, homogenizer speed, and vegetable oil temperature). Emulsions prepared with lower egg yolk content were destabilized for shorter periods. The long-term stability of emulsions was weakly related to initial properties, e.g., oil droplet distribution and protein coverage at the interface. Protein aggregation between oil droplets was observed and would be responsible for the instability of emulsions exhibited by the appearance defects. SDS-PAGE results for adsorbed and unadsorbed proteins at the O/W interface suggested that predominant constituents adsorbed onto the interface were egg white proteins as compared with egg yolk components when the amount of added egg yolk was low. In present condition, egg white proteins adsorbed at the O/W interface could be a bridge of neighboring oil droplets thereby causing flocculation in emulsions.

  14. Long-term storage effect on chemical composition, nutritional value and quality of Greek onion landrace "Vatikiotiko".

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, S A; Ntatsi, G; Fernandes, Â; Barros, L; Barreira, J C M; Ferreira, I C F R; Antoniadis, V

    2016-06-15

    The effect of storage at two temperatures (5±1 and 25±1 °C and 60-70±5% RH for both temperatures) on marketability and quality features of dry bulbs of local landrace "Vatikiotiko", "Sivan F1", "Red Cross F1" and "Creamgold" was examined. During storage measurements for fresh and dry weight of bulbs, tunic and flesh color, bulb firmness, nutritional value and mineral composition were taken at regular intervals. Storage concluded when either bulbs lost marketable quality or sprouting occurred. "Vatikiotiko" onion can be stored for at least 7months at 25±1 °C, whereas at 5±1 °C storage could be prolonged without significant marketability and quality loss. The fact that "Vatikiotiko" landrace can be considered a "storage" onion has to be capitalized in order to increase total production and yield, since storage could cover the market needs that arise throughout the year.

  15. Ultrafast formation of air-processable and high-quality polymer films on an aqueous substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Jonghyeon; Jeong, Seonju; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-08-01

    Polymer solar cells are attracting attention as next-generation energy sources. Scalable deposition techniques of high-quality organic films should be guaranteed to realize highly efficient polymer solar cells in large areas for commercial viability. Herein, we introduce an ultrafast, scalable, and versatile process for forming high-quality organic films on an aqueous substrate by utilizing the spontaneous spreading phenomenon. This approach provides easy control over the thickness of the films by tuning the spreading conditions, and the films can be transferred to a variety of secondary substrates. Moreover, the controlled Marangoni flow and ultrafast removal of solvent during the process cause the films to have a uniform, high-quality nanomorphology with finely separated phase domains. Polymer solar cells were fabricated from a mixture of polymer and fullerene derivatives on an aqueous substrate by using the proposed technique, and the device exhibited an excellent power conversion efficiency of 8.44 %. Furthermore, a roll-to-roll production system was proposed as an air-processable and scalable commercial process for fabricating organic devices.

  16. Ultrafast formation of air-processable and high-quality polymer films on an aqueous substrate

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jonghyeon; Jeong, Seonju; Lee, Jung-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Polymer solar cells are attracting attention as next-generation energy sources. Scalable deposition techniques of high-quality organic films should be guaranteed to realize highly efficient polymer solar cells in large areas for commercial viability. Herein, we introduce an ultrafast, scalable, and versatile process for forming high-quality organic films on an aqueous substrate by utilizing the spontaneous spreading phenomenon. This approach provides easy control over the thickness of the films by tuning the spreading conditions, and the films can be transferred to a variety of secondary substrates. Moreover, the controlled Marangoni flow and ultrafast removal of solvent during the process cause the films to have a uniform, high-quality nanomorphology with finely separated phase domains. Polymer solar cells were fabricated from a mixture of polymer and fullerene derivatives on an aqueous substrate by using the proposed technique, and the device exhibited an excellent power conversion efficiency of 8.44 %. Furthermore, a roll-to-roll production system was proposed as an air-processable and scalable commercial process for fabricating organic devices. PMID:27507624

  17. Extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from Ectocarpus.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Susana M; Scornet, Delphine; Rousvoal, Sylvie; Peters, Nick; Dartevelle, Laurence; Peters, Akira F; Cock, J Mark

    2012-03-01

    For some applications, such as genome sequencing and high-throughput genotyping with multiple markers, it is necessary to use high-quality genomic DNA. This article describes how to obtain several micrograms of high-quality, cesium chloride-purified DNA from 1 g of Ectocarpus filaments. We also recommend using DNA of this quality for quantitative RT-PCR control reactions. However, simpler, more rapid, kit-based methods are preferable for experiments that involve the treatment of large numbers of individuals, such as genotyping large populations with a small number of markers or PCR screening of large populations.

  18. Concrete Waste Recycling Process for High Quality Aggregate

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Fujii, Shin-ichi

    2008-01-15

    Large amount of concrete waste generates during nuclear power plant (NPP) dismantling. Non-contaminated concrete waste is assumed to be disposed in a landfill site, but that will not be the solution especially in the future, because of decreasing tendency of the site availability and natural resources. Concerning concrete recycling, demand for roadbeds and backfill tends to be less than the amount of dismantled concrete generated in a single rural site, and conventional recycled aggregate is limited of its use to non-structural concrete, because of its inferior quality to ordinary natural aggregate. Therefore, it is vital to develop high quality recycled aggregate for general uses of dismantled concrete. If recycled aggregate is available for high structural concrete, the dismantling concrete is recyclable as aggregate for industry including nuclear field. Authors developed techniques on high quality aggregate reclamation for large amount of concrete generated during NPP decommissioning. Concrete of NPP buildings has good features for recycling aggregate; large quantity of high quality aggregate from same origin, record keeping of the aggregate origin, and little impurities in dismantled concrete such as wood and plastics. The target of recycled aggregate in this development is to meet the quality criteria for NPP concrete as prescribed in JASS 5N 'Specification for Nuclear Power Facility Reinforced Concrete' and JASS 5 'Specification for Reinforced Concrete Work'. The target of recycled aggregate concrete is to be comparable performance with ordinary aggregate concrete. The high quality recycled aggregate production techniques are assumed to apply for recycling for large amount of non-contaminated concrete. These techniques can also be applied for slightly contaminated concrete dismantled from radiological control area (RCA), together with free release survey. In conclusion: a technology on dismantled concrete recycling for high quality aggregate was developed

  19. [Strategies on the construction of high-quality microbial natural product library--a review].

    PubMed

    Bian, Jiang; Song, Fuhang; Zhang, Lixin

    2008-08-01

    The microbial secondary metabolites are always the main source of the natural drugs. The historical paradigm of the deep ocean as a biological 'desert' has shifted to one of a 'rainforest' owing to the isolation of many novel microbes and their associated bioactive compounds. A high quality microbial and its natural product library are crucial for successful drug and other screenings. However, how to build up the library efficiently is still faced with many bottlenecks. To overcome the difficulties and limitations, we reviewed the following strategies: (1) diversifying microbial sources and dereplication; (2) diversifying gene sources and dereplication; (3) diversifying microbial metabolite sources and dereplication; (4) novel methods and technologies for bioactive secondary metabolites, especially the high-throughput synergy screening for multi-target drugs. Bioactive compounds isolated using the above chemical microbiology strategies have not only shown importance in biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications but also increased our understanding of the diversity of microbe, ecosystem functions and the exploitable biology.

  20. Physician-targeted financial incentives and primary care physicians' self-reported ability to provide high-quality primary care.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jong-Deuk; Xirasagar, Sudha; Stoskopf, Carleen H; Seidman, Robert L

    2013-07-01

    High-quality primary care is envisaged as the centerpiece of the emerging health care delivery system under the Affordable Care Act. Reengineering the US health care system into a primary care-driven model will require widespread, rapid changes in the management and organization of primary care physicians (PCPs). Financial incentives to influence physician behavior have been attempted with various approaches, without empirical evidence of their effectiveness in improving care quality. This study examines the above research question adjusting for the patient-centeredness of the practice climate, a major contextual factor affecting PCPs' ability to provide high-quality care. Secondary data on a sample of salaried PCPs (n = 1733) from the nation-wide Community Tracking Study Physician Survey 2004-2005 were subject to generalized multinomial logit modeling to examine associations between financial incentives and PCPs' self-reported ability to provide quality care. After adjusting for patient-centered medical home (PCMH)-consistent practice environment, financial incentive aligned with care quality/care content is positively associated with PCPs' ability to provide high-quality care. An encouraging finding was that financial incentives aligned with clinic productivity/profitability do not to impede high-quality care in a PCMH practice environment. Financial incentives targeted to care quality or content indicators may facilitate rapid transformation of the health system to a primary care-driven system. The study provides empirical evidence of the utility of practically deployable financial incentives to facilitate high-quality primary care.

  1. Developing Visions of High-Quality Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munter, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces an interview-based instrument that was created for the purposes of characterizing the visions of high-quality mathematics instruction of teachers, principals, mathematics coaches, and district leaders and tracking changes in those visions over time. The instrument models trajectories of perceptions of high-quality…

  2. The Equitable Distribution of High-Quality Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumgardner, Stan

    2010-01-01

    A new report by the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality (TQ Center) highlights efforts across the nation to address a key point in the No Child Left Behind law and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)--the equitable distribution of high-quality teachers across all schools. Research consistently has pointed to effective…

  3. Attracting and Retaining High-Quality Professionals in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weld, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    To attract and retain high-quality teachers, the education system must address science teachers' sense of professional isolation, administrators' lack of receptivity to thoughtful teachers' ideas, egalitarian salary compensation schemes, and lack of professional recognition. An outstanding chemistry teacher-turned-pharmaceutical saleswoman is…

  4. Work environment characteristics of high-quality home health agencies.

    PubMed

    Tullai-McGuinness, Susan; Riggs, Jennifer S; Farag, Amany A

    2011-10-01

    This concurrent mixed-method study examines the nurse work environment of high-quality Medicare-certified home health agencies. High-quality (n=6) and low-quality (n=6) home health agencies were recruited using agency-level publicly reported patient outcomes. Direct care registered nurses (RNs) from each agency participated in a focus group and completed the Practice Environment Scale of the Nurse Work Index (PES-NWI). No significant differences were found in the PES-NWI results between nurses working in high- and low-quality agencies, though nurses in high-quality agencies scored higher on all subscales. Nurses working in all the high-quality agencies identified themes of adequate staffing, supportive managers, and team work. These themes were not consistently identified in low-quality agencies. Themes of supportive managers and team work are reflective of effective leadership at the manager level. Agencies struggling to improve quality of care might consider developing their managers' leadership skills.

  5. Can high quality cane be delivered to the mill economically

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cane quality is becoming increasingly important to the Louisiana sugarcane industry, with some processors offering premiums for high quality cane. Using a Cameco® 3500, we tested ground speeds of 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 mph and fan speeds of 650, 850, and 1050 rpm. Ground speed had no effect on can...

  6. Developing Visions of High-Quality Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munter, Charles

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces an interview-based instrument that was created for the purposes of characterizing the visions of high-quality mathematics instruction of teachers, principals, mathematics coaches, and district leaders and tracking changes in those visions over time. The instrument models trajectories of perceptions of high-quality…

  7. Measuring the Impact of High Quality Instant Feedback on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutbrown, Stephen; Higgins, Colin; Beesley, Su

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of a novel assessment technique that has been used to improve the feedback given to second year Computer Science students at the University of Nottingham. Criteria for effective, high quality feedback are discussed. An automated marking system (The Marker's Apprentice--TMA) produces instant feedback in synergy with…

  8. The Nature of Spontaneity in High Quality Mathematics Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gaye

    2004-01-01

    Spontaneity has been linked to high quality learning experiences in mathematics (Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1992; Williams, 2002).This paper shows how spontaneity can be identified by attending to the nature of social elements in the process of abstracting (Dreyfus, Hershkowitz, & Schwarz, 2001). This process is elaborated…

  9. Improved electrode gives high-quality biological recordings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, J. L.; Lippitt, M. W.

    1964-01-01

    To obtain high quality waveforms from a subject engaged in physical activity, an improved electrode assembly has been devised. This consists of a cup containing an electrically conductive paste and a silver electrode. The paste maintains contact between the skin and the plate.

  10. Learning Disabilities and Achieving High-Quality Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…

  11. Two open access, high-quality datasets from anesthetic records.

    PubMed

    Cumin, David; Newton-Wade, Vanessa; Harrison, Michael J; Merry, Alan F

    2013-01-01

    To provide a set of high-quality time-series physiologic and event data from anesthetic cases formatted in an easy-to-use structure. With ethics committee approval, data from surgical operations under general anesthesia were collected, including physiologic data, drug administrations, events, and clinicians' comments. These data were de-identified, formatted in a combined CSV/XML structure and made publicly available. Two separate datasets were collected containing physiologic time-series data and time-stamped events for 34 patients. For 20 patients, the data included 400 physiologic signals collected over 20 h, 274 events, and 597 drug administrations. For 14 patients, the data included 23 physiologic signals collected over 69 h, with 286 time stamped comments. Data reuse potentially saves significant time and financial costs. However, there are few high-quality repositories for accessible physiologic data and clinical interventions from surgical cases. De-identifying records assists with overcoming problems of privacy and storing the data in a format which is easily manipulated with computing resources facilitates access by the wider research community. It is hoped that additional high-quality data will be added. Future work includes developing tools to explore and visualize the data more efficiently, and establishing quality control measures. An approach to collecting and storing high-quality datasets from surgical operations under anesthesia such that they can be easily accessed by others for use in research has been demonstrated.

  12. Cultivating High-Quality Teaching through Induction and Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Carol A.

    2004-01-01

    The first few years of teaching are the most challenging. During these years, teachers are most likely to become discouraged and disillusioned. Yet these early years are also the time when teachers establish practices that last throughout their careers. This book focuses on new teachers' needs while emphasizing high-quality teaching through the…

  13. High-quality Health Information Provision for Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hong-Sheng; Ma, Jing-Jian; Li, Mu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: High-quality information provision can allow stroke patients to effectively participate in healthcare decision-making, better manage the stroke, and make a good recovery. In this study, we reviewed information needs of stroke patients, methods for providing information to patients, and considerations needed by the information providers. Data Sources: The literature concerning or including information provision for patients with stroke in English was collected from PubMed published from 1990 to 2015. Study Selection: We included all the relevant articles on information provision for stroke patients in English, with no limitation of study design. Results: Stroke is a major public health concern worldwide. High-quality and effective health information provision plays an essential role in helping patients to actively take part in decision-making and healthcare, and empowering them to effectively self-manage their long-standing chronic conditions. Different methods for providing information to patients have their relative merits and suitability, and as a result, the effective strategies taken by health professionals may include providing high-quality information, meeting patients’ individual needs, using suitable methods in providing information, and maintaining active involvement of patients. Conclusions: It is suggested that to enable stroke patients to access high-quality health information, greater efforts need to be made to ensure patients to receive accurate and current evidence-based information which meets their individual needs. Health professionals should use suitable information delivery methods, and actively involve stroke patients in information provision. PMID:27569241

  14. Why America Needs High-Quality Early Care and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Roundtable, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Business Roundtable (BRT) and Corporate Voices for Working Families (CVWF) believe federal and state efforts to develop early care and education systems for children birth through age five must be based on a set of guiding Principles that define the components of a successful system and high-quality programs. These Principles draw on current early…

  15. Attracting and Retaining High-Quality Professionals in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weld, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    To attract and retain high-quality teachers, the education system must address science teachers' sense of professional isolation, administrators' lack of receptivity to thoughtful teachers' ideas, egalitarian salary compensation schemes, and lack of professional recognition. An outstanding chemistry teacher-turned-pharmaceutical saleswoman is…

  16. Providing high-quality care in primary care settings

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Geneau, Robert; Grande, Claudio Del; Denis, Jean-Louis; Hudon, Éveline; Haggerty, Jeannie L.; Bonin, Lucie; Duplain, Réjean; Goudreau, Johanne; Hogg, William

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To gain a deeper understanding of how primary care (PC) practices belonging to different models manage resources to provide high-quality care. Design Multiple-case study embedded in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 37 practices. Setting Three regions of Quebec. Participants Health care professionals and staff of 5 PC practices. Methods Five cases showing above-average results on quality-of-care indicators were purposefully selected to contrast on region, practice size, and PC model. Data were collected using an organizational questionnaire; the Team Climate Inventory, which was completed by health care professionals and staff; and 33 individual interviews. Detailed case histories were written and thematic analysis was performed. Main findings The core common feature of these practices was their ongoing effort to make trade-offs to deliver services that met their vision of high-quality care. These compromises involved the same 3 areas, but to varying degrees depending on clinic characteristics: developing a shared vision of high-quality care; aligning resource use with that vision; and balancing professional aspirations and population needs. The leadership of the physician lead was crucial. The external environment was perceived as a source of pressure and dilemmas rather than as a source of support in these matters. Conclusion Irrespective of their models, PC practices’ pursuit of high-quality care is based on a vision in which accessibility is a key component, balanced by appropriate management of available resources and of external environment expectations. Current PC reforms often create tensions rather than support PC practices in their pursuit of high-quality care. PMID:24829023

  17. High quality factor, fully switchable terahertz superconducting metasurface

    SciTech Connect

    Scalari, G. Maissen, C.; Faist, J.; Cibella, S.; Leoni, R.

    2014-12-29

    We present a complementary THz metasurface realised with Niobium thin film which displays a quality factor Q = 54 and a fully switchable behaviour as a function of the temperature. The switching behaviour and the high quality factor are due to a careful design of the metasurface aimed at maximising the ohmic losses when the Nb is above the critical temperature and minimising the radiative coupling. The superconductor allows the operation of the cavity with high Q and the use of inductive elements with a high aspect ratio. Comparison with three dimensional finite element simulations highlights the crucial role of the inductive elements and of the kinetic inductance of the Cooper pairs in achieving the high quality factor and the high field enhancement.

  18. High quality videoconferencing system for wide area IP networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ruibiao; Kuhns, Fred; Cox, Jerome R., Jr.; Horn, Craig

    2002-12-01

    High quality video conferencing is an efficient tool for interactive scientific collaboration in the research community, especially for researchers separated by substantial distance. With the wide deployment of broadband wide area IP networks such as the Internet2, there is an increasing demand for improved remote collaboration with these networks. In order to make the high quality video-conferencing toolkits for local high-speed networks available over wide area IP networks, issues that are usually insignificant on local area networks must be considered. To this end, we have developed called Adaptation Layer Translator (ALX) in order to address these issues and solve the problems associated with real-time video and audio transmission over wide area IP networks. A conference control protocol is developed to coordinate the participants in an ALX-based conference. The ALX is also designed to be able to adapt to heterogeneous network environments at different deployment sites.

  19. Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates

    DOEpatents

    Strongin, Myron; Ruckman, Mark; Strongin, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate.

  20. Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates

    DOEpatents

    Strongin, M.; Ruckman, M.; Strongin, D.

    1994-04-26

    A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate. 4 figures.

  1. High-quality microcutting in silicon by advanced laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallus, E.; Castelli, Paolo

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the potentialities of innovative lasers in microcutting of silicon, one of the most important materials in the field of microelectronics. In recent years, novel laser based micromachining methods have played an increasingly important role in the ongoing miniaturization of consumer electronics. Here, high-quality microcutting in silicon using a "green" laser, whose wavelength is readily absorbed by silicon, is presented.

  2. Extraction of high-quality RNA from rubber tree leaves.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liu-Hong; Luo, Ming-Wu; Zhang, Chun-Fa; Zeng, Hui-Cai

    2012-01-01

    A specific technique capable of producing high-quality RNA for rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was established for challenging tissues: leaves of the rubber tree. Total RNA was extracted by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-LiCl combined with TRIzol reagent. The isolated RNA was highly intact. With RNA as template, full-length cDNA was obtained (NCBI, AY461413) by RACE.

  3. Process to Continuously Melt, Refine and Cast High Quality Steel

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to conduct research and development targeted at designing a revolutionary steelmaking process. This process will deliver high quality steel from scrap to the casting mold in one continuous process and will be safer, more productive, and less capital intensive to build and operate than conventional steelmaking. The new process will produce higher quality steel faster than traditional batch processes while consuming less energy and other resources.

  4. High quality fuel gas from biomass pyrolysis with calcium oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baofeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Sun, Laizhi; Si, Hongyu; Chen, Guanyi

    2014-03-01

    The removal of CO2 and tar in fuel gas produced by biomass thermal conversion has aroused more attention due to their adverse effects on the subsequent fuel gas application. High quality fuel gas production from sawdust pyrolysis with CaO was studied in this paper. The results of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) experiments indicate that the mass ratio of CaO to sawdust (Ca/S) remarkably affects the behavior of sawdust pyrolysis. On the basis of Py-GC/MS results, one system of a moving bed pyrolyzer coupled with a fluid bed combustor has been developed to produce high quality fuel gas. The lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel gas was above 16MJ/Nm(3) and the content of tar was under 50mg/Nm(3), which is suitable for gas turbine application to generate electricity and heat. Therefore, this technology may be a promising route to achieve high quality fuel gas for biomass utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. High quality digital holographic reconstruction on analog film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelsen, B.; Hartmann, P.

    2017-05-01

    High quality real-time digital holographic reconstruction, i.e. at 30 Hz frame rates, has been at the forefront of research and has been hailed as the holy grail of display systems. While these efforts have produced a fascinating array of computer algorithms and technology, many applications of reconstructing high quality digital holograms do not require such high frame rates. In fact, applications such as 3D holographic lithography even require a stationary mask. Typical devices used for digital hologram reconstruction are based on spatial-light-modulator technology and this technology is great for reconstructing arbitrary holograms on the fly; however, it lacks the high spatial resolution achievable by its analog counterpart, holographic film. Analog holographic film is therefore the method of choice for reconstructing highquality static holograms. The challenge lies in taking a static, high-quality digitally calculated hologram and effectively writing it to holographic film. We have developed a theoretical system based on a tunable phase plate, an intensity adjustable high-coherence laser and a slip-stick based piezo rotation stage to effectively produce a digitally calculated hologram on analog film. The configuration reproduces the individual components, both the amplitude and phase, of the hologram in the Fourier domain. These Fourier components are then individually written on the holographic film after interfering with a reference beam. The system is analogous to writing angularly multiplexed plane waves with individual component phase control.

  6. Radar Backscatter and Coherence Information Supporting High Quality Urban Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, P.; Perski, Z.; Wannemacher, S.

    2004-06-01

    The potential of a synergetic use of different data sources for a high quality mapping of urban features is described in this paper. In the urban application domain, beside the different EO-sensors and products there are a lot of high resolution and high quality GIS- and digital map databases available (e.g. ATKIS in Germany), provided by public authorities but also by private industry. Fusing this ground-based data with remotely sensed information is resulting in high quality thematic datasets. Using ATKIS Geodata, IKONOS multispectral- and ERS-SAR / ENVISAT-ASAR data as input, in the research described we implemented a GIS-based expert system to derive in a first step the degree of sealing in the regions of interest (ROI). Joining the reclassified ATKIS-data with a vegetation index, the backscatter- and the coherence information, the output of the processing chain is a vector data layer dividing the ROI in different classes of sealing. Adding the SAR-/ASAR derived backscatter and coherence data into the spatial analysis results in a partial improvement of the classification process, especially in rural areas.

  7. High-quality genome assembly of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohui; Zhong, Liqiang; Bian, Chao; Xu, Pao; Qiu, Ying; You, Xinxin; Zhang, Shiyong; Huang, Yu; Li, Jia; Wang, Minghua; Qin, Qin; Zhu, Xiaohua; Peng, Chao; Wong, Alex; Zhu, Zhifei; Wang, Min; Gu, Ruobo; Xu, Junmin; Shi, Qiong; Bian, Wenji

    2016-08-22

    The channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), a species native to North America, is one of the most important commercial freshwater fish in the world, especially in the United States' aquaculture industry. Since its introduction into China in 1984, both cultivation area and yield of this species have been dramatically increased such that China is now the leading producer of channel catfish. To aid genomic research in this species, data sets such as genetic linkage groups, long-insert libraries, physical maps, bacterial artificial clones (BAC) end sequences (BES), transcriptome assemblies, and reference genome sequences have been generated. Here, using diverse assembly methods, we provide a comparable high-quality genome assembly for a channel catfish from a breeding stock inbred in China for more than three generations, which was originally imported to China from North America. Approximately 201.6 gigabases (Gb) of genome reads were sequenced by the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Subsequently, we generated high quality, cost-effective and easily assembled sequences of the channel catfish genome with a scaffold N50 of 7.2 Mb and 95.6 % completeness. We also predicted that the channel catfish genome contains 21,556 protein-coding genes and 275.3 Mb (megabase pairs) of repetitive sequences. We report a high-quality genome assembly of the channel catfish, which is comparable to a recent report of the "Coco" channel catfish. These generated genome data could be used as an initial platform for molecular breeding to obtain novel catfish varieties using genomic approaches.

  8. Family Perspectives on High-Quality Pediatric Subspecialty Referrals.

    PubMed

    Ray, Kristin N; Ashcraft, Laura Ellen; Kahn, Jeremy M; Mehrotra, Ateev; Miller, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Although children are frequently referred to subspecialist physicians, many inadequacies in referral processes have been identified from physician and system perspectives. Little is known, however, about how to comprehensively measure or improve the quality of the referral systems from a family-centered perspective. To foster family-centered improvements to pediatric subspecialty referrals, we sought to develop a framework for high-quality, patient-centered referrals from the perspectives of patients and their families. We used stakeholder-informed qualitative analysis of parent, caregiver, and patient interviews to identify outcomes, processes, and structures of high-quality pediatric subspecialty referrals as perceived by patients and their family members. We interviewed 21 informants. Informants identified 5 desired outcomes of subspecialty referrals: improved functional status or symptoms; improved long-term outcomes; improved knowledge of their disease; informed expectations; and reduced anxiety about the child's health status. Processes that informants identified as supporting these outcomes centered around 6 key steps in subspecialty referrals, including the referral decision, previsit information transfer, appointment scheduling, subspecialist visit, postvisit information transfer, and ongoing care integration and communication. Health care delivery structures identified by informants as supporting these processes included physical infrastructure, human resources, and information technology systems. We identified family-centered outcomes, processes, and structures of high-quality pediatric subspecialty referrals. These domains can be used not only to improve measurement of the quality of existing referral systems but also to inform future interventions to improve patient-centered outcomes for children in need of specialty care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Video Snapshots: Creating High-Quality Images from Video Clips.

    PubMed

    Sunkavalli, Kalyan; Joshi, Neel; Kang, Sing Bing; Cohen, Michael F; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2012-11-01

    We describe a unified framework for generating a single high-quality still image ("snapshot") from a short video clip. Our system allows the user to specify the desired operations for creating the output image, such as super resolution, noise and blur reduction, and selection of best focus. It also provides a visual summary of activity in the video by incorporating saliency-based objectives in the snapshot formation process. We show examples on a number of different video clips to illustrate the utility and flexibility of our system.

  10. Comparative performance of wavelets and JPEG coders at high quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algazi, V. Ralph; Estes, Robert R., Jr.

    1997-04-01

    In recent work, we have examined the performance of wavelet coders using a perceptually relevant image quality metric, the picture quality scale (PQS). In that study, we considered some of the design options available with respect to choice of wavelet basis, quantizer, and method for error- free encoding of the quantized coefficients, including the EZW methodology. A specific combination of these design options provides the best trade off between performance and PQS quality. Here, we extend this comparison by evaluating the performance of JPEG and the previously chosen optimal wavelet scheme, focusing principally on the high quality range.

  11. High-Quality Broadband BVRI Photometry of Benchmark Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, Michael D.

    Photometric techniques are often used to observe stars and it can be demonstrated that fundamental stellar properties can be observationally determined using calibrated sets of photometric data. Many of the most powerful techniques utilized to calibrate stellar photometry employ the use of stars in clusters since the individual stars are believed to have many common properties such as age, composition, and approximate distance. Broadband photometric Johnson/Cousins BVRI observations are presented for several nearby open clusters. The new photometry has been tested for consistency relative to archival work and shown to be both accurate and precise. The careful use of a regular routine when making photometric observations, along with the monitoring of instrumental systems and the use of various quality control techniques when making observations or performing data reductions, will enhance an observer's ability to produce high-quality photometric measurements. This work contains a condensed review of the history of photometry, along with a brief description of several popular photometric systems that are often utilized in the field of stellar astrophysics. Publications written by Taylor or produced during the early Taylor and Joner collaboration are deemed especially relevant to the current work. A synopsis of seven archival publications is offered, along with a review of notable reports of VRI photometric observations for the nearby Hyades open star cluster. The body of this present work consists of four publications that appeared between the years 2005 and 2008, along with a soon to be submitted manuscript for a fifth publication. Each of these papers deals specifically with high-quality broadband photometry of open clusters with new data being presented for the Hyades, Coma, NGC 752, Praesepe, and M67. It is concluded that the VRI photometry produced during the Taylor and Joner collaborative investigations forms a high-quality data set that has been: (1) stable for

  12. Compact pulley-type microring resonator with high quality factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Dong-Po; Lu, Jyun-Hong; Chen, Chii-Chang; Lee, Chien-Chieh; Lin, Chu-En; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2014-11-01

    A pulley-type microring resonator with ultra-small dimensions and ultra-high quality factor on a silicon-on-insulator wafer is fabricated and characterized. Simulation results show that the bending loss of the pulley-type microring resonator can be diminished by wrapping the curved waveguide around the microring, and that the energy loss from the output port can be decreased by tuning the width of the bus waveguide to achieve destructive interference. A quality factor of 1.73 × 105 is obtained in this experiment. The compact size of the pulley-type microring resonator with low bending loss is suitable for an integrated optical circuit.

  13. High quality factor etchless silicon photonic ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lian-Wee; Wiederhecker, Gustavo S; Cardenas, Jaime; Poitras, Carl; Lipson, Michal

    2011-03-28

    We demonstrate high quality factor etchless silicon photonic ring resonators fabricated by selective thermal oxidation of silicon without the silicon layer being exposed to any plasma etching throughout the fabrication process. We achieve a high intrinsic quality factor of 510,000 in 50 µm-radius ring resonators, corresponding to a ring loss of 0.8 dB/cm. The device has a total chip insertion loss of 2.5 dB, achieved by designing etchless silicon inverse nanotapers at both the input and output of the chip.

  14. Isolation of high-quality RNA from stented blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Christophe J; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Fransen, Erik; Vrints, Christiaan J; Hoymans, Vicky Y

    2013-09-01

    Stents have become a standard of care for the treatment of coronary artery disease. A series of cellular and molecular processes contribute to the vascular response following stent placement. For the purpose of local gene expression studies, metallic stent struts are usually removed from the vessel wall with forceps under a dissection microscope prior to RNA extraction. Main drawbacks of the manual dissection are that it may cause additional tissue damage and compromise the quality of RNA through prolonged tissue handling. In this technical note, we report the recovery of high-quality RNA from atherosclerotic vessels with stent struts left in situ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Light wavelength-dependent E. coli survival changes after simulated solar disinfection of secondary effluent.

    PubMed

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Rtimi, Sami; Darakas, Efthymios; Escalas-Cañellas, Antoni; Pulgarin, César

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the photoreactivation and the modification of dark repair of E. coli in a simulated secondary effluent were investigated after initial irradiation under different conditions. The simulated solar exposure of the secondary wastewater was followed by exposure to six different low-intensity fluorescent lamps (blacklight blue, actinic blacklight, blue, green, yellow and indoor light) for up to 8 h. When photoreactivation was monitored, blue and green colored fluorescent light led to increased bacterial regrowth. Blacklight lamps further inactivated the remaining bacteria, while yellow and indoor light led to accelerated growth of healthy cells. Exposure to fluorescent lamps was followed by long term storage in darkness, to monitor the bacterial repair in the dark. The response was correlated with the pre-exposure dose of applied solar irradiation, and to a lesser extent with the fluorescent light dose. Bacteria which had undergone extensive exposure showed no response under fluorescent light or during storage in the dark. Finally, the statistical treatment of the data allowed us to suggest a linear model, which is non-selective in terms of the fluorescent light applied. The estimation of the final bacterial population was predicted well (R-sq ∼ 75%) and the photoreactivation risk was found to be more important for cultivable cells.

  16. Broken symmetry dielectric resonators for high quality factor Fano metasurfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Campione, Salvatore; Liu, Sheng; Basilio, Lorena I.; ...

    2016-10-25

    We present a new approach to dielectric metasurface design that relies on a single resonator per unit cell and produces robust, high quality factor Fano resonances. Our approach utilizes symmetry breaking of highly symmetric resonator geometries, such as cubes, to induce couplings between the otherwise orthogonal resonator modes. In particular, we design perturbations that couple “bright” dipole modes to “dark” dipole modes whose radiative decay is suppressed by local field effects in the array. Our approach is widely scalable from the near-infrared to radio frequencies. We first unravel the Fano resonance behavior through numerical simulations of a germanium resonator-based metasurfacemore » that achieves a quality factor of ~1300 at ~10.8 μm. Then, we present two experimental demonstrations operating in the near-infrared (~1 μm): a silicon-based implementation that achieves a quality factor of ~350; and a gallium arsenide-based structure that achieves a quality factor of ~600, the highest near-infrared quality factor experimentally demonstrated to date with this kind of metasurface. Importantly, large electromagnetic field enhancements appear within the resonators at the Fano resonant frequencies. Here, we envision that combining high quality factor, high field enhancement resonances with nonlinear and active/gain materials such as gallium arsenide will lead to new classes of active optical devices.« less

  17. Broken symmetry dielectric resonators for high quality factor Fano metasurfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Campione, Salvatore; Liu, Sheng; Basilio, Lorena I.; Warne, Larry K.; Langston, William L.; Luk, Ting S.; Wendt, Joel R.; Reno, John L.; Keeler, Gordon A.; Brener, Igal; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2016-10-25

    We present a new approach to dielectric metasurface design that relies on a single resonator per unit cell and produces robust, high quality factor Fano resonances. Our approach utilizes symmetry breaking of highly symmetric resonator geometries, such as cubes, to induce couplings between the otherwise orthogonal resonator modes. In particular, we design perturbations that couple “bright” dipole modes to “dark” dipole modes whose radiative decay is suppressed by local field effects in the array. Our approach is widely scalable from the near-infrared to radio frequencies. We first unravel the Fano resonance behavior through numerical simulations of a germanium resonator-based metasurface that achieves a quality factor of ~1300 at ~10.8 μm. Then, we present two experimental demonstrations operating in the near-infrared (~1 μm): a silicon-based implementation that achieves a quality factor of ~350; and a gallium arsenide-based structure that achieves a quality factor of ~600, the highest near-infrared quality factor experimentally demonstrated to date with this kind of metasurface. Importantly, large electromagnetic field enhancements appear within the resonators at the Fano resonant frequencies. Here, we envision that combining high quality factor, high field enhancement resonances with nonlinear and active/gain materials such as gallium arsenide will lead to new classes of active optical devices.

  18. Calculating and scoring high quality multiple flexible protein structure alignments.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, David W

    2016-09-01

    Calculating multiple protein structure alignments (MSAs) is important for understanding functional and evolutionary relationships between protein families, and for modeling protein structures by homology. While incorporating backbone flexibility promises to circumvent many of the limitations of rigid MSA algorithms, very few flexible MSA algorithms exist today. This article describes several novel improvements to the Kpax algorithm which allow high quality flexible MSAs to be calculated. This article also introduces a new Gaussian-based MSA quality measure called 'M-score', which circumvents the pitfalls of RMSD-based quality measures. As well as calculating flexible MSAs, the new version of Kpax can also score MSAs from other aligners and from previously aligned reference datasets. Results are presented for a large-scale evaluation of the Homstrad, SABmark and SISY benchmark sets using Kpax and Matt as examples of state-of-the-art flexible aligners and 3DCOMB as an example of a state-of-the-art rigid aligner. These results demonstrate the utility of the M-score as a measure of MSA quality and show that high quality MSAs may be achieved when structural flexibility is properly taken into account. Kpax 5.0 may be downloaded for academic use at http://kpax.loria.fr/ dave.ritchie@inria.fr Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Components Necessary for High-Quality Lung Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Charles A.; Arenberg, Douglas; Detterbeck, Frank; Gould, Michael K.; Jaklitsch, Michael T.; Jett, James; Naidich, David; Vachani, Anil; Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Silvestri, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer screening with a low-dose chest CT scan can result in more benefit than harm when performed in settings committed to developing and maintaining high-quality programs. This project aimed to identify the components of screening that should be a part of all lung cancer screening programs. To do so, committees with expertise in lung cancer screening were assembled by the Thoracic Oncology Network of the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) and the Thoracic Oncology Assembly of the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Lung cancer program components were derived from evidence-based reviews of lung cancer screening and supplemented by expert opinion. This statement was developed and modified based on iterative feedback of the committees. Nine essential components of a lung cancer screening program were identified. Within these components 21 Policy Statements were developed and translated into criteria that could be used to assess the qualification of a program as a screening facility. Two additional Policy Statements related to the need for multisociety governance of lung cancer screening were developed. High-quality lung cancer screening programs can be developed within the presented framework of nine essential program components outlined by our committees. The statement was developed, reviewed, and formally approved by the leadership of CHEST and the ATS. It was subsequently endorsed by the American Association of Throacic Surgery, American Cancer Society, and the American Society of Preventive Oncology. PMID:25356819

  20. Percutaneous vertebroplasty with a high-quality rotational angiographic unit.

    PubMed

    Pedicelli, Alessandro; Rollo, Massimo; Piano, Mariangela; Re, Thomas J; Cipriani, Maria C; Colosimo, Cesare; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2009-02-01

    We evaluated the reliability of a rotational angiographic unit (RA) with flat-panel detector as a single technique to guide percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and for post-procedure assessment by 2D and 3D reformatted images. Fifty-five consecutive patients (104 vertebral bodies) were treated under RA fluoroscopy. Rotational acquisitions with 2D and 3D reconstruction were obtained in all patients for immediate post-procedure assessment. In complex cases, this technique was also used to evaluate the needle position during the procedure. All patients underwent CT scan after the procedure. RA and CT findings were compared. In all cases, a safe trans-pedicular access and an accurate control of the bone-cement injection were successfully performed with high-quality fluoroscopy, even at the thoracic levels and in case of vertebra plana. 2D and 3D rotational reconstructions permitted CT-like images that clearly showed needle position and were similar to CT findings in depicting intrasomatic implant-distribution. RA detected 40 cement leakages compared to 42 demonstrated by CT and showed overall 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity compared to CT for final post-procedure assessment. Our preliminary results suggest that high-quality RA is reliable and safe as a single technique for PVP guidance, control and post-procedure assessment. It permits fast and cost-effective procedures avoiding multi-modality imaging.

  1. A simple and rapid method for isolation of high quality genomic DNA from fruit trees and conifers using PVP.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C S; Lee, C H; Shin, J S; Chung, Y S; Hyung, N I

    1997-01-01

    Because DNA degradation is mediated by secondary plant products such as phenolic terpenoids, the isolation of high quality DNA from plants containing a high content of polyphenolics has been a difficult problem. We demonstrate an easy extraction process by modifying several existing ones. Using this process we have found it possible to isolate DNAs from four fruit trees, grape (Vitis spp.), apple (Malus spp.), pear (Pyrus spp.) and persimmon (Diospyros spp.) and four species of conifer, Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis,Taxus cuspidata and Juniperus chinensis within a few hours. Compared with the existing method, we have isolated high quality intact DNAs (260/280 = 1.8-2.0) routinely yielding 250-500 ng/microl (total 7.5-15 microg DNA from four to five tissue discs). PMID:9023124

  2. (Collection of high quality acoustical records for honeybees)

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, H.T.; Buchanan, M.E.

    1987-02-19

    High quality acoustical data records were collected for both European and Africanized honeybees under various field conditions. This data base was needed for more rigorous evaluation of a honeybee identification technique previously developed by the travelers from preliminary data sets. Laboratory-grade recording equipment was used to record sounds made by honeybees in and near their nests and during foraging flights. Recordings were obtained from European and Africanized honeybees in the same general environment. Preliminary analyses of the acoustical data base clearly support the general identification algorithm: Africanized honeybee noise has significantly higher frequency content than does European honeybee noise. As this algorithm is refined, it may result in the development of a simple field-portable device for identifying subspecies of honeybees. Further, the honeybee's acoustical signals appear to be correlated with specific colony conditions. Understanding these variations may have enormous benefit for entomologists and for the beekeeping industry.

  3. High quality optically polished aluminum mirror and process for producing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, III, James J. (Inventor); Zaniewski, John J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A new technical advancement in the field of precision aluminum optics permits high quality optical polishing of aluminum monolith, which, in the field of optics, offers numerous benefits because of its machinability, lightweight, and low cost. This invention combines diamond turning and conventional polishing along with india ink, a newly adopted material, for the polishing to accomplish a significant improvement in surface precision of aluminum monolith for optical purposes. This invention guarantees the precise optical polishing of typical bare aluminum monolith to surface roughness of less than about 30 angstroms rms and preferably about 5 angstroms rms while maintaining a surface figure accuracy in terms of surface figure error of not more than one-fifteenth of wave peak-to-valley.

  4. High quality optically polished aluminum mirror and process for producing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, III, James J. (Inventor); Zaniewski, John J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A new technical advancement in the field of precision aluminum optics permits high quality optical polishing of aluminum monolith, which, in the field of optics, offers numerous benefits because of its machinability, lightweight, and low cost. This invention combines diamond turning and conventional polishing along with india ink, a newly adopted material, for the polishing to accomplish a significant improvement in surface precision of aluminum monolith for optical purposes. This invention guarantees the precise optical polishing of typical bare aluminum monolith to surface roughness of less than about 30 angstroms rms and preferably about 5 angstroms rms while maintaining a surface figure accuracy in terms of surface figure error of not more than one-fifteenth of wave peak-to-valley.

  5. Sequential interactive evolution for finding high-quality topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avigad, Gideon; Salomon, Shaul; Knopf, George

    2015-10-01

    Finding a diverse set of high-quality (HQ) topologies for a single-objective optimization problem using an evolutionary computation algorithm can be difficult without a reliable measure that adequately describes the dissimilarity between competing topologies. In this article, a new approach for enhancing diversity among HQ topologies for engineering design applications is proposed. The technique initially selects one HQ solution and then searches for alternative HQ solutions by performing an optimization of the original objective and its dissimilarity with respect to the previously found solution. The proposed multi-objective optimization approach interactively amalgamates user articulated preferences with an evolutionary search so as sequentially to produce a set of diverse HQ solutions to a single-objective problem. For enhancing diversity, a new measure is suggested and an approach to reducing its computational time is studied and implemented. To illustrate the technique, a series of studies involving different topologies represented as bitmaps is presented.

  6. Auto Spell Suggestion for High Quality Speech Synthesis in Hindi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabra, Shikha; Agarwal, Ritika

    2014-02-01

    The goal of Text-to-Speech (TTS) synthesis in a particular language is to convert arbitrary input text to intelligible and natural sounding speech. However, for a particular language like Hindi, which is a highly confusing language (due to very close spellings), it is not an easy task to identify errors/mistakes in input text and an incorrect text degrade the quality of output speech hence this paper is a contribution to the development of high quality speech synthesis with the involvement of Spellchecker which generates spell suggestions for misspelled words automatically. Involvement of spellchecker would increase the efficiency of speech synthesis by providing spell suggestions for incorrect input text. Furthermore, we have provided the comparative study for evaluating the resultant effect on to phonetic text by adding spellchecker on to input text.

  7. Towards organizational development for sustainable high-quality medical teaching.

    PubMed

    Engbers, Rik; de Caluwé, Léon I A; Stuyt, Paul M J; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; Bolhuis, Sanneke

    2013-02-01

    Literature shows that faculty development programmes are not organizationally embedded in academic hospitals. This leaves medical teaching a low and informal status. The purpose of this article is to explore how organizational literature can strengthen our understanding of embedding faculty development in organizational development, and to provide a useful example of organizational development with regards to medical teaching and faculty development. Constructing a framework for organizational development from the literature, based on expert brainstorming. This framework is applied to a case study. A framework for organizational development is described. Applied in a context of medical teaching, these organizational insights show the process (and progress) of embedding faculty development in organizational development. Organizational development is a necessary condition for assuring sustainable faculty development for high-quality medical teaching. Organizational policies can only work in an organization that is developing. Recommendations for further development and future research are discussed.

  8. High Quality Transferable AlN Thin Film by PLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Heng; Lu, Xiaoli; Li, Xin; Zhang, JinCheng; Hao, Yue

    2017-06-01

    AlN thin film was epitaxial grown on c-plane sapphire substrate by pulsed laser deposition. To reduce structural defects from largely lattice mismatched substrate, MgO or ZnO buffer layer was inserted between AlN and sapphire. Crystal structure and surface morphology of as prepared AlN were characterized by XRD, AFM, and SEM. It was found that buffer layers significantly improve crystalline quality of AlN, especially using ZnO. Furthermore, a general and steady wet chemical process was developed to selectively etch away ZnO layer, so that high quality free-standing AlN thin film was obtained. This film could be transferred onto any other host substrates such as Si, quartz, etc. Moreover, with no clamping effect from the substrate, the as-prepared free-standing AlN thin films may find potential applications in high sensitivity piezoelectric devices, flexible wearable detectors and so on.

  9. High quality genomic DNA extraction from postmortem fetal tissue.

    PubMed

    Addison, S; Sebire, N J; Taylor, A M; Abrams, D; Peebles, D; Mein, C; Munroe, P B; Thayyil, S

    2012-11-01

    We examined the yield and quality of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from various postmortem fetal tissues. Fetal tissues were collected at the time of autopsy, and DNA was subsequently extracted. The yield and DNA quality was assessed using ultraviolet spectrometry and agarose gel electrophoresis. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess the DNA extracted for genomic testing. The median (range) gestation of the fetuses was 22 (16-41) weeks and the postmortem interval was 5.5 (2-10) days. Non-degraded genomic DNA was successfully extracted from all fetal tissues. Liver tissue had the lowest quality and muscle the highest quality. DNA yield or purity was not influenced by the postmortem interval. High quality genomic DNA can be extracted from fetal muscle, despite postmortem intervals of several days.

  10. The synthesis of high-quality diamond in combustion flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Yoichi; Amanuma, Shuji; Komaki, Kunio

    1990-12-01

    High-quality diamond with good crystallinity has been successfully synthesized on a substrate using an oxy-acetylene combustion flame in the atmosphere. The crystal grains under some conditions have good optical transparency. The deposition rate of transparent diamond depended strongly on substrate temperatures and the O2/C2H2 ratio and averaged ˜30 μm/h. The substrate temperature for the growth of optically transparent crystals was 500-750 °C, which is relatively low compared with other chemical vapor deposition methods. The optical transparency is attributed to the low defect densities in the crystals, as determined by transmission electron microscope, which results from the low substrate temperatures and moderate growth rates. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction data on the synthesized crystals were comparable with that of natural diamond. The synthesis conditions and corresponding diamond quality as well as emission spectrum analysis of the combustion flame during diamond synthesis are described.

  11. Principles for high-quality, high-value testing.

    PubMed

    Power, Michael; Fell, Greg; Wright, Michael

    2013-02-01

    A survey of doctors working in two large NHS hospitals identified over 120 laboratory tests, imaging investigations and investigational procedures that they considered not to be overused. A common suggestion in this survey was that more training was required. And, this prompted the development of a list of core principles for high-quality, high-value testing. The list can be used as a framework for training and as a reference source. The core principles are: (1) Base testing practices on the best available evidence. (2) Apply the evidence on test performance with careful judgement. (3) Test efficiently. (4) Consider the value (and affordability) of a test before requesting it. (5) Be aware of the downsides and drivers of overdiagnosis. (6) Confront uncertainties. (7) Be patient-centred in your approach. (8) Consider ethical issues. (9) Be aware of normal cognitive limitations and biases when testing. (10) Follow the 'knowledge journey' when teaching and learning these core principles.

  12. High quality flame deposited diamond films for infrared optical windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzeng, Y.; Phillips, R.

    1991-01-01

    The IR absorption in polycrystalline diamond films deposited in oxygen-acetylene flames is characterized using FTIR. The one-phonon absorption coefficient in the region from 7 to 12 microns that is related to extrinsic defects in the diamond films shows a strong dependence on the flame conditions as well as the substrate temperature. A high degree of diamond crystalline perfection, as judged from the undetectable one-phonon absorption, is achieved under the optimized deposition conditions for our flame setup. This is further supported by the sharp Raman peak at 1332/cm as well as the high purity in crystal orientation according to the X-ray diffraction pattern measured for the high quality diamond films.

  13. Automated Theorem Proving in High-Quality Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The amount and complexity of software developed during the last few years has increased tremendously. In particular, programs are being used more and more in embedded systems (from car-brakes to plant-control). Many of these applications are safety-relevant, i.e. a malfunction of hardware or software can cause severe damage or loss. Tremendous risks are typically present in the area of aviation, (nuclear) power plants or (chemical) plant control. Here, even small problems can lead to thousands of casualties and huge financial losses. Large financial risks also exist when computer systems are used in the area of telecommunication (telephone, electronic commerce) or space exploration. Computer applications in this area are not only subject to safety considerations, but also security issues are important. All these systems must be designed and developed to guarantee high quality with respect to safety and security. Even in an industrial setting which is (or at least should be) aware of the high requirements in Software Engineering, many incidents occur. For example, the Warshaw Airbus crash, was caused by an incomplete requirements specification. Uncontrolled reuse of an Ariane 4 software module was the reason for the Ariane 5 disaster. Some recent incidents in the telecommunication area, like illegal "cloning" of smart-cards of D2GSM handies, or the extraction of (secret) passwords from German T-online users show that also in this area serious flaws can happen. Due to the inherent complexity of computer systems, most authors claim that only a rigorous application of formal methods in all stages of the software life cycle can ensure high quality of the software and lead to real safe and secure systems. In this paper, we will have a look, in how far automated theorem proving can contribute to a more widespread application of formal methods and their tools, and what automated theorem provers (ATPs) must provide in order to be useful.

  14. Guide for Developing High-Quality School Emergency Operations Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Safe and Healthy Students, US Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Each school day, our nation's schools are entrusted to provide a safe and healthy learning environment for approximately 55 million elementary and secondary school students in public and nonpublic schools. In collaboration with their local government and community partners, schools can take steps to plan for these potential emergencies through the…

  15. Isolation of high quality RNA from cereal seeds containing high levels of starch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guifeng; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wang, Fang; Song, Rentao

    2012-01-01

    Cereals are an important source of food, feed and fuel with a rapidly increasing global demand. However, cereal seeds contain high levels of starch and polysaccharides, making the isolation of high quality RNA extremely difficult. To develop a novel method for extracting high quality total RNA from various starch- and polysaccharides-rich cereal seeds, such as maize, rice, sorghum and wheat. We developed a modified sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)/TRIzol method. The combined use of a Tris buffer (pH 9.0) and SDS before TRIzol extraction effectively resolved the problem of seed homogenate solidification in such a buffer. A high concentration of SDS was used separately, not only to promote cell lysis but also to effectively dissolve seed sample containing high levels of starch. Moreover, acid phenol saturated with 0.1  M citrate buffer (pH 4.3) was used to separate RNA from DNAs, proteins and high levels of starch. This rapid protocol was compared with other RNA isolation methods preferentially used for plants rich in polysaccharides and secondary metabolites. Gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that the extracted total RNA had good integrity without apparent DNA contamination. Furthermore, an A₂₆₀/₂₈₀ ratio of approximately 2.0, an A₂₆₀/₂₃₀ ratio of more than 2.0 and RIN values of more than 8.6 indicated that the isolated RNA was of high purity. The isolated RNA was suitable for subsequent molecular manipulations, such as reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and real-time PCR. The study has described an easy, efficient and highly reproducible method for RNA isolation from various cereal seeds. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. High Quality Factor Mechanical Resonators Based on WSe2 Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Morell, Nicolas; Reserbat-Plantey, Antoine; Tsioutsios, Ioannis; Schädler, Kevin G; Dubin, François; Koppens, Frank H L; Bachtold, Adrian

    2016-08-10

    Suspended monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) are membranes that combine ultralow mass and exceptional optical properties, making them intriguing materials for opto-mechanical applications. However, the low measured quality factor of TMD resonators has been a roadblock so far. Here, we report an ultrasensitive optical readout of monolayer TMD resonators that allows us to reveal their mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. We find that the quality factor of monolayer WSe2 resonators greatly increases below room temperature, reaching values as high as 1.6 × 10(4) at liquid nitrogen temperature and 4.7 × 10(4) at liquid helium temperature. This surpasses the quality factor of monolayer graphene resonators with similar surface areas. Upon cooling the resonator, the resonant frequency increases significantly due to the thermal contraction of the WSe2 lattice. These measurements allow us to experimentally study the thermal expansion coefficient of WSe2 monolayers for the first time. High Q-factors are also found in resonators based on MoS2 and MoSe2 monolayers. The high quality-factor found in this work opens new possibilities for coupling mechanical vibrational states to two-dimensional excitons, valley pseudospins, and single quantum emitters and for quantum opto-mechanical experiments based on the Casimir interaction.

  17. High-Quality Seismic Observations of Sonic Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurman, Gilead; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Price, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The SonicBREWS project (Sonic Boom Resistant Earthquake Warning Systems) is a collaborative effort between Seismic Warning Systems, Inc. and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. This project aims to evaluate the effects of sonic booms on Earthquake Warning Systems in order to prevent such systems from experiencing false alarms due to sonic booms. The airspace above the Antelope Valley, California includes the High Altitude Supersonic Corridor and the Black Mountain Supersonic Corridor. These corridors are among the few places in the US where supersonic flight is permitted, and sonic booms are commonplace in the Antelope Valley. One result of this project is a rich dataset of high-quality accelerometer records of sonic booms which can shed light on the interaction between these atmospheric phenomena and the solid earth. Nearly 100 sonic booms were recorded with low-noise triaxial MEMS accelerometers recording 1000 samples per second. The sonic booms had peak overpressures ranging up to approximately 10 psf and were recorded in three flight series in 2010 and 2011. Each boom was recorded with up to four accelerometers in various array configurations up to 100 meter baseline lengths, both in the built environment and the free field. All sonic booms were also recorded by nearby microphones. We present the results of the project in terms of the potential for sonic-boom-induced false alarms in Earthquake Warning Systems, and highlight some of the interesting features of the dataset.

  18. High Quality Acquisition of Surface Electromyography - Conditioning Circuit Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Khan, Sheroz; Nurashikin, Anis; Haider, Samnan; Larbani, Sofiane; Arshad, Atika; Tasnim, Rumana

    2013-12-01

    The acquisition of Surface Electromyography (SEMG) signals is used for many applications including the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases, and prosthesis control. The diagnostic quality of the SEMG signal is highly dependent on the conditioning circuit of the SEMG acquisition system. This paper presents the design of an SEMG conditioning circuit that can guarantee to collect high quality signal with high SNR such that it is immune to environmental noise. The conditioning circuit consists of four stages; consisting of an instrumentation amplifier that is used with a gain of around 250; 4th order band pass filter in the 20-500Hz frequency range as the two initial stages. The third stage is an amplifier with adjustable gain using a variable resistance; the gain could be changed from 1000 to 50000. In the final stage the signal is translated to meet the input requirements of data acquisition device or the ADC. Acquisition of accurate signals allows it to be analyzed for extracting the required characteristic features for medical and clinical applications. According to the experimental results, the value of SNR for collected signal is 52.4 dB which is higher than the commercial system, the power spectrum density (PSD) graph is also presented and it shows that the filter has eliminated the noise below 20 Hz.

  19. Plasmonic CROWs for Tunable Dispersion and High Quality Cavity Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, John J.; Lafone, Lucas; Hamm, Joachim M.; Hess, Ortwin; Oulton, Rupert F.

    2015-12-01

    Coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) have the potential to revolutionise integrated optics, to slow-light and enhance linear and non-linear optical phenomena. Here we exploit the broad resonances and subwavelength nature of localized surface plasmons in a compact CROW design where plasmonic nanoparticles are side coupled to a dielectric waveguide. The plasmonic CROW features a low loss central mode with a highly tunable dispersion, that avoids coupling to the plasmonic nanoparticles close to the band-edge. We show that this low loss character is preserved in finite plasmonic CROWs giving rise to Fabry-Perot type resonances that have high quality factors of many thousands, limited only by the CROW length. Furthermore we demonstrate that the proposed CROW design is surprisingly robust to disorder. By varying the geometric parameters one can not only reduce the losses into dissipative or radiative channels but also control the outcoupling of energy to the waveguide. The ability to minimise loss in plasmonic CROWs while maintaining dispersion provides an effective cavity design for chip-integrated laser devices and applications in linear and non-linear nano-photonics.

  20. High quality (In)GaN films on homoepitaxial substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Yong; Yin, Yian

    2017-02-01

    High quality GaN and InGaN epitaxial thin films were deposited by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Two sets of thin film samples were prepared by varying the substrates and temperatures under a proper condition for achieving better optical properties. The morphological, crystalline quality and optical property of epitaxial layers were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectra, respectively. It was found that the epitaxial layers grown on GaN homoepitaxial substrate have higher quality than those grown on sapphire substrate. The root mean square (RMS) of GaN film and InGaN film in AFM morphological were 0.5 nm, 2.7 nm respectively. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of (102) in GaN film on GaN substrate was 33arcsec and the FWHM of (002) in InGaN film on GaN substrate was 50.58arcsec by XRD. The PL peaks of GaN film and InGaN film were 361 nm, 458 nm respectively. The E2 (high) of GaN film and InGaN film in Raman were both 567.08 cm-1.

  1. Channelling optics for high quality imaging of sensory hair.

    PubMed

    Skupsch, C; Klotz, T; Chaves, H; Brücker, C

    2012-04-01

    A long distance microscope (LDM) is extended by a lens and aperture array. This newly formed channelling LDM is superior in high quality, high-speed imaging of large field of views (FOV). It allows imaging the same FOV like a conventional LDM, but at improved magnification. The optical design is evaluated by calculations with the ray tracing code ZEMAX. High-speed imaging of a 2 × 2 mm(2) FOV is realized at 3.000 frames per second and 1 μm per pixel image resolution. In combination with flow sensitive hair the optics forms a wall shear stress sensor. The optics images the direct vicinity of twenty-one flow sensitive hair distributed in a quadratic array. The hair consists of identical micro-pillars that are 20 μm in diameter, 390 μm in length and made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Sensor validation is conducted in the transition region of a wall jet in air. The wall shear stress is calculated from optically measured micro-pillar tip deflections. 2D wall shear stress distributions are obtained with currently highest spatiotemporal resolution. The footprint of coherent vortical structures far away from the wall is recovered in the Fourier spectrum of wall shear stress fluctuations. High energetic patterns of 2D wall shear stress distributions are identified by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  2. High quality thick epitaxial films for power semiconductor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsueh-Rong; Temple, V. A. K.

    1986-01-01

    High quality epitaxial layers with low defect levels are the key to fabrication of high voltage power devices. Growth of 100 μm thick epitaxial layers has been performed using a thermally driven chemical vapor deposition process. Three important parameters that have significant influence on epitaxy quality have been identified: substrate surface condition, reactor system cleanliness, and deposition process. The prerequisite p- n- p structure of a 6 kV thyristor was fabricated using 100 μm thick epitaxial layers to form the p-base. Defect density (hillocks and dislocations) in epitaxial layers has been correlated with the breakdown voltage of the p- n- p structure. It was found that an order of magnitude improvement of the defect level was obtained using well polished substrates instead of poorly polished substrates. Further improvement was achieved with the use of an etched reactor system before epitaxial growth, resulting in the reduction of defect density by another order of magnitude. A new cycled process, consisting of successive H 2 purges and deposition steps, is proposed that effectively reduces the defect level by an additional factor of 4, as compared with the conventional continuous deposition process. Specular epitaxial layers without spikes were obtained. Experimental results showed that for thick epitaxial films (100 μm), a susceptor with round-bottomed depressions provides higher dislocation density than one with flat-bottomed depressions, leading to a lower breakdown voltage of test devices.

  3. High Quality Factor Mechanical Resonators Based on WSe2 Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Suspended monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) are membranes that combine ultralow mass and exceptional optical properties, making them intriguing materials for opto-mechanical applications. However, the low measured quality factor of TMD resonators has been a roadblock so far. Here, we report an ultrasensitive optical readout of monolayer TMD resonators that allows us to reveal their mechanical properties at cryogenic temperatures. We find that the quality factor of monolayer WSe2 resonators greatly increases below room temperature, reaching values as high as 1.6 × 104 at liquid nitrogen temperature and 4.7 × 104 at liquid helium temperature. This surpasses the quality factor of monolayer graphene resonators with similar surface areas. Upon cooling the resonator, the resonant frequency increases significantly due to the thermal contraction of the WSe2 lattice. These measurements allow us to experimentally study the thermal expansion coefficient of WSe2 monolayers for the first time. High Q-factors are also found in resonators based on MoS2 and MoSe2 monolayers. The high quality-factor found in this work opens new possibilities for coupling mechanical vibrational states to two-dimensional excitons, valley pseudospins, and single quantum emitters and for quantum opto-mechanical experiments based on the Casimir interaction. PMID:27459399

  4. A Novel Process to Synthesize High-Quality Ferrovanadium Nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue-Dong; Zhang, Guo-Hua; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, high-quality ferrovanadium nitride, which has a relative high nitrogen content and a low carbon content, has been prepared by roasting the mixture of vanadium pentoxide, carbon, and ferric oxide under N2 atmosphere in the temperature range from 1673 K to 1873 K (1400 °C to 1600 °C). The effects of carbon addition, reaction temperature, and heat treatment process were discussed. It was found that the carbon addition had a great effect on the nitrogen content and residual carbon, and the optimum carbon content was established to obtain the maximum nitrogen content and low carbon content. The reaction temperature in the range from 1673 K to 1873 K (1400 °C to 1600 °C) has a smaller effect on the final nitrogen content, and it also affects the degree of agglomeration of particles, which were observed by scanning electron microscope. From the results of thermodynamic calculation, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), it was deduced that the reaction sequence of V2O5 with N2 from 1673 K to 1873 K (1400 °C to 1600 °C) was V2O5 → VO2 → V2O3 → V(N, C, O) → V(N, C). There is a little solid solubility of carbon in the final product VN.

  5. Strategies for High-Quality Nutrition Therapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Waitzberg, Dan L; Correia, Maria Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Strategies for improving nutrition therapy (NT) are of utmost importance in any healthcare system. The identification and treatment of malnourished patients improves clinical outcome and reduces the length of hospital length of stay and the associated costs. In particular, federal policy regulating the use of NT in Brazil and reimbursement of enteral nutrition (EN) treatment were 2 powerful mechanisms that stimulated the development of nutrition care. Basic and clinical research have also contributed to best practices in NT, thereby highlighting the need for nutrition therapy teams, quality indicators, and nutrition education for the delivery of high-quality NT. It is clear that the availability of training and continuing education programs in clinical nutrition is key to improving nutrition awareness and care, as well as patient outcome. On the basis of our experience, we recommend the Brazilian model as a strategy for improving nutrition care, with appropriate and necessary adaptations made to accommodate different settings. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  6. Plasmonic CROWs for Tunable Dispersion and High Quality Cavity Modes

    PubMed Central

    Wood, John J.; Lafone, Lucas; Hamm, Joachim M.; Hess, Ortwin; Oulton, Rupert F.

    2015-01-01

    Coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROWs) have the potential to revolutionise integrated optics, to slow-light and enhance linear and non-linear optical phenomena. Here we exploit the broad resonances and subwavelength nature of localized surface plasmons in a compact CROW design where plasmonic nanoparticles are side coupled to a dielectric waveguide. The plasmonic CROW features a low loss central mode with a highly tunable dispersion, that avoids coupling to the plasmonic nanoparticles close to the band-edge. We show that this low loss character is preserved in finite plasmonic CROWs giving rise to Fabry-Perot type resonances that have high quality factors of many thousands, limited only by the CROW length. Furthermore we demonstrate that the proposed CROW design is surprisingly robust to disorder. By varying the geometric parameters one can not only reduce the losses into dissipative or radiative channels but also control the outcoupling of energy to the waveguide. The ability to minimise loss in plasmonic CROWs while maintaining dispersion provides an effective cavity design for chip-integrated laser devices and applications in linear and non-linear nano-photonics. PMID:26631579

  7. Recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Monk, David H

    2007-01-01

    In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize labor costs. Many, though not all, rural areas, he says, are seriously impoverished. Classes in rural schools are relatively small, and teachers tend to report satisfaction with their work environments and relatively few problems with discipline. But teacher turnover is often high, and hiring can be difficult. Monk observes that rural schools have a below-average share of highly trained teachers. Compensation in rural schools tends to be low, perhaps because of a lower fiscal capacity in rural areas, thus complicating efforts to attract and retain teachers. Several student characteristics, including relatively large shares of students with special needs and with limited English skills and lower shares of students attending college, can also make it difficult to recruit and retain high-quality teachers. Other challenges include meeting the needs of highly mobile children of low-income migrant farm workers. With respect to public policy, Monk asserts a need to focus on a subcategory of what might be called hard-to-staff rural schools rather than to develop a blanket set of policies for all rural schools. In particular, he recommends a focus on such indicators as low teacher qualifications, teaching in fields far removed from the area of training, difficulty in hiring, high turnover, a lack of diversity among teachers in the school, and the presence of migrant farm workers' children. Successful efforts to stimulate economic growth in these areas would be highly beneficial. He also calls attention to the potential for modern telecommunication and computing technologies to offset some of the drawbacks associated with teaching

  8. Detection of High Quality Rainfall Data to Improve Flood Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, T. C.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D. J.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-12-01

    European flood management systems require reliable rainfall statistics, e.g. the Intensity-duration-Frequency curves for shorter and shorter durations and for a larger and larger range of return periods. Preliminary studies showed that the number of floods depends on the quality of available data, e.g. the time resolution quality. These facts suggest that a particular attention should be paid to the rainfall data quality in order to adequately investigate flood risk aiming to achieve flood resilience. The potential consequences of changes in measuring and recording techniques have been somewhat discussed in the literature with respect to a possible introduction of artificial inhomogeneities in time series. In this direction, we developed a first version of a SERQUAL procedure to automatically detect the effective time resolution of highly mixed data. We show that most of the rainfall time series have a lower recording frequency than that is assumed. This question is particularly important for operational hydrology, because an error on the effective recording high frequency introduces biases in the corresponding statistics. It is therefore essential to quantify the quality of the rainfall time series before their use. Due to the fact that the multiple scales and possible scaling behaviour of hydrological data are particularly important for many applications, including flood resilience research, this paper first investigates the sensitivity of the scaling estimates and methods to the deficit of short duration rainfall data, and consequently propose a few simple criteria for a reliable evaluation of the data quality. The SERQUAL procedure enable us to extract high quality sub-series from longer time series that will be much more reliable to calibrate and/or validate short duration quantiles and hydrological models.

  9. Rapid and efficient isolation of high-quality small RNAs from recalcitrant plant species rich in polyphenols and polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun; Xia, Zihao; Chen, Ling; Shi, Minjing; Pu, Jinji; Guo, Jianrong; Fan, Zaifeng

    2014-01-01

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are important regulators of plant development and gene expression. The acquisition of high-quality small RNAs is the first step in the study of its expression and function analysis, yet the extraction method of small RNAs in recalcitrant plant tissues with various secondary metabolites is not well established, especially for tropical and subtropical plant species rich in polysaccharides and polyphenols. Here, we developed a simple and efficient method for high quality small RNAs extraction from recalcitrant plant species. Prior to RNA isolation, a precursory step with a CTAB-PVPP buffer system could efficiently remove compounds and secondary metabolites interfering with RNAs from homogenized lysates. Then, total RNAs were extracted by Trizol reagents followed by a differential precipitation of high-molecular-weight (HMW) RNAs using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000. Finally, small RNAs could be easily recovered from supernatant by ethanol precipitation without extra elimination steps. The isolated small RNAs from papaya showed high quality through a clear background on gel and a distinct northern blotting signal with miR159a probe, compared with other published protocols. Additionally, the small RNAs extracted from papaya were successfully used for validation of both predicted miRNAs and the putative conserved tasiARFs. Furthermore, the extraction method described here was also tested with several other subtropical and tropical plant tissues. The purity of the isolated small RNAs was sufficient for such applications as end-point stem-loop RT-PCR and northern blotting analysis, respectively. The simple and feasible extraction method reported here is expected to have excellent potential for isolation of small RNAs from recalcitrant plant tissues rich in polyphenols and polysaccharides.

  10. Rapid and Efficient Isolation of High-Quality Small RNAs from Recalcitrant Plant Species Rich in Polyphenols and Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jinji; Guo, Jianrong; Fan, Zaifeng

    2014-01-01

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are important regulators of plant development and gene expression. The acquisition of high-quality small RNAs is the first step in the study of its expression and function analysis, yet the extraction method of small RNAs in recalcitrant plant tissues with various secondary metabolites is not well established, especially for tropical and subtropical plant species rich in polysaccharides and polyphenols. Here, we developed a simple and efficient method for high quality small RNAs extraction from recalcitrant plant species. Prior to RNA isolation, a precursory step with a CTAB-PVPP buffer system could efficiently remove compounds and secondary metabolites interfering with RNAs from homogenized lysates. Then, total RNAs were extracted by Trizol reagents followed by a differential precipitation of high-molecular-weight (HMW) RNAs using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 8000. Finally, small RNAs could be easily recovered from supernatant by ethanol precipitation without extra elimination steps. The isolated small RNAs from papaya showed high quality through a clear background on gel and a distinct northern blotting signal with miR159a probe, compared with other published protocols. Additionally, the small RNAs extracted from papaya were successfully used for validation of both predicted miRNAs and the putative conserved tasiARFs. Furthermore, the extraction method described here was also tested with several other subtropical and tropical plant tissues. The purity of the isolated small RNAs was sufficient for such applications as end-point stem-loop RT-PCR and northern blotting analysis, respectively. The simple and feasible extraction method reported here is expected to have excellent potential for isolation of small RNAs from recalcitrant plant tissues rich in polyphenols and polysaccharides. PMID:24787387

  11. Secondary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions that affect your kidneys, arteries, heart or endocrine system. Secondary hypertension can also occur during pregnancy. Secondary ... blood pressure, such as kidney, artery, heart or endocrine system problems. Complications Secondary hypertension can worsen the underlying ...

  12. High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Keehwan; Grose, Carissa; Pieper, Rembert; Pandya, Gagan A; Fleischmann, Robert D; Peterson, Scott N

    2009-01-01

    Background In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays. Results Two slide surfaces were examined, chelated Cu2+ slides suspended on a polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating and chelated Ni2+ slides immobilized on a support without PEG coating. Using PEG-coated chelated Cu2+ slides, consistently higher purities of recombinant proteins were measured. An optimized wash buffer (PBST) composed of 10 mM phosphate buffer, 2.7 mM KCl, 140 mM NaCl and 0.05% Tween 20, pH 7.4, further improved protein purity levels. Using Escherichia coli cell lysates expressing 90 recombinant Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, 73 proteins were successfully immobilized, and 66 proteins were in situ purified with greater than 90% purity. We identified several antigens among the in situ-purified proteins via assays with anti-S. pneumoniae rabbit antibodies and a human patient antiserum, as a demonstration project of large scale microarray-based immunoproteomics profiling. The methodology is compatible with higher throughput formats of in vivo protein expression, eliminates the need for resin-based purification and circumvents protein solubility and

  13. High-quality weather data for grid integration studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draxl, C.

    2016-12-01

    As variable renewable power penetration levels increase in power systems worldwide, renewable integration studies are crucial to ensure continued economic and reliable operation of the power grid. In this talk we will shed light on requirements for grid integration studies as far as wind and solar energy are concerned. Because wind and solar plants are strongly impacted by weather, high-resolution and high-quality weather data are required to drive power system simulations. Future data sets will have to push limits of numerical weather prediction to yield these high-resolution data sets, and wind data will have to be time-synchronized with solar data. Current wind and solar integration data sets will be presented. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit is the largest and most complete grid integration data set publicly available to date. A meteorological data set, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts created using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model run on a 2-km grid over the continental United States at a 5-min resolution is now publicly available for more than 126,000 land-based and offshore wind power production sites. The Solar Integration National Dataset (SIND) is available as time synchronized with the WIND Toolkit, and will allow for combined wind-solar grid integration studies. The National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) is a similar high temporal- and spatial resolution database of 18 years of solar resource data for North America and India. Grid integration studies are also carried out in various countries, which aim at increasing their wind and solar penetration through combined wind and solar integration data sets. We will present a multi-year effort to directly support India's 24x7 energy access goal through a suite of activities aimed at enabling large-scale deployment of clean energy and energy efficiency. Another current effort is the North-American-Renewable-Integration-Study, with the aim of providing

  14. High quality mask storage in an advanced Logic-Fab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jähnert, Carmen; Fritsche, Silvio

    2012-02-01

    High efficient mask logistics as well as safe and high quality mask storage are essential requirements within an advanced lithography area of a modern logic waferfab. Fast operational availability of the required masks at the exposure tool with excellent mask condition requires a safe mask handling, safeguarding of high mask quality over the whole mask usage time without any quality degradation and an intelligent mask logistics. One big challenge is the prevention of haze on high advanced phase shift masks used in a high volume production line for some thousands of 248nm or 193nm exposures. In 2008 Infineon Dresden qualified a customer specific developed semi-bare mask storage system from DMSDynamic Micro Systems in combination with a high advanced mask handling and an interconnected complex logistic system. This high-capacity mask storage system DMS M1900.22 for more than 3000 masks with fully automated mask and box handling as well as full-blown XCDA purge has been developed and adapted to the Infineon Lithotoollandscape using Nikon and SMIF reticle cases. Advanced features for ESD safety and mask security, mask tracking via RFID and interactions with the exposure tools were developed and implemented. The stocker is remote controlled by the iCADA-RSM system, ordering of the requested mask directly from the affected exposure tool allows fast access. This paper discusses the advantages and challenges for this approach as well as the practical experience gained during the implementation of the new system which improves the fab performance with respect to mask quality, security and throughput. Especially the realization of an extremely low and stable humidity level in addition with a well controlled air flow at each mask surface, preventing masks from haze degradation and particle contamination, turns out to be a notable technical achievement. The longterm stability of haze critical masks has been improved significantly. Relevant environmental parameters like

  15. Drug discovery from Nature: automated high-quality sample preparation

    PubMed Central

    Thiericke, Ralf

    2000-01-01

    Secondary metabolites from plants, animals and microorganisms have been proven to be an outstanding source for new and innovative drugs and show a striking structural diversity that supplements chemically synthesized compounds or libraries in drug discovery programs. Unfortunately, extracts from natural sources are usually complex mixtures of compounds:: often generated in time consuming and for the most part manual processes. As quality and quantity of the provided samples play a pivotal role in the success of high-throughput screening programs this poses serious problems. In order to make samples of natural origin competitive with synthetic compound libraries, we devised a novel, automated sample preparation procedure based on solid-phase extraction (SPE). By making use of a modified Zymark RapidTrace® SPE workstation an easy-to-handle and effective fractionation method has been developed which allows the generation of highquality samples from natural origin, fulfilling the requirements of an integration into high-throughput screening programs. PMID:18924703

  16. An Analysis of Departure Behaviors of High-Quality Career Designated First-Term Marine Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    and through the ORB, serves as the key explanatory variable in the final model of this research. We will focus on the career choices of high-quality...DEPARTURE BEHAVIORS OF HIGH-QUALITY CAREER DESIGNATED FIRST-TERM MARINE OFFICERS by Jonathan C. Scarfe March 2016 Thesis Advisor: Ryan S...March 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AN ANALYSIS OF DEPARTURE BEHAVIORS OF HIGH-QUALITY CAREER

  17. High-quality frame-synchronization for satellite video signal transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shuji; Morikura, Masahiro; Kato, Shuzo

    1995-01-01

    A high-quality frame-synchronizer for video signal switching and freezing is proposed. In order to realize high-quality frame-synchronization, a novel high-speed and high-definition 11 bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converter which achieves the quite high unweighted S/N ratio performance of 63 dB is developed. It provides synchronized video signal switching by field freezing for high-quality video signal transmission.

  18. Manufacturing High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes at Lower Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Lidecker, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A modified electric-arc welding process has been developed for manufacturing high-quality batches of carbon nanotubes at relatively low cost. Unlike in some other processes for making carbon nanotubes, metal catalysts are not used and, consequently, it is not necessary to perform extensive cleaning and purification. Also, unlike some other processes, this process is carried out at atmospheric pressure under a hood instead of in a closed, pressurized chamber; as a result, the present process can be implemented more easily. Although the present welding-based process includes an electric arc, it differs from a prior electric-arc nanotube-production process. The welding equipment used in this process includes an AC/DC welding power source with an integral helium-gas delivery system and circulating water for cooling an assembly that holds one of the welding electrodes (in this case, the anode). The cathode is a hollow carbon (optionally, graphite) rod having an outside diameter of 2 in. (approximately equal to 5.1 cm) and an inside diameter of 5/8 in. (approximately equal to 1.6 cm). The cathode is partly immersed in a water bath, such that it protrudes about 2 in. (about 5.1 cm) above the surface of the water. The bottom end of the cathode is held underwater by a clamp, to which is connected the grounding cable of the welding power source. The anode is a carbon rod 1/8 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) in diameter. The assembly that holds the anode includes a thumbknob- driven mechanism for controlling the height of the anode. A small hood is placed over the anode to direct a flow of helium downward from the anode to the cathode during the welding process. A bell-shaped exhaust hood collects the helium and other gases from the process. During the process, as the anode is consumed, the height of the anode is adjusted to maintain an anode-to-cathode gap of 1 mm. The arc-welding process is continued until the upper end of the anode has been lowered to a specified height

  19. Publishing high-quality climate data on the semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Andrew; Haller, Armin; Lefort, Laurent; Taylor, Kerry

    2013-04-01

    The effort over more than a decade to establish the semantic web [Berners-Lee et. al., 2001] has received a major boost in recent years through the Open Government movement. Governments around the world are seeking technical solutions to enable more open and transparent access to Public Sector Information (PSI) they hold. Existing technical protocols and data standards tend to be domain specific, and so limit the ability to publish and integrate data across domains (health, environment, statistics, education, etc.). The web provides a domain-neutral platform for information publishing, and has proven itself beyond expectations for publishing and linking human-readable electronic documents. Extending the web pattern to data (often called Web 3.0) offers enormous potential. The semantic web applies the basic web principles to data [Berners-Lee, 2006]: using URIs as identifiers (for data objects and real-world 'things', instead of documents) making the URIs actionable by providing useful information via HTTP using a common exchange standard (serialised RDF for data instead of HTML for documents) establishing typed links between information objects to enable linking and integration Leading examples of 'linked data' for publishing PSI may be found in both the UK (http://data.gov.uk/linked-data) and US (http://www.data.gov/page/semantic-web). The Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) is Australia's national meteorological agency, and has a new mandate to establish a national environmental information infrastructure (under the National Plan for Environmental Information, NPEI [BoM, 2012a]). While the initial approach is based on the existing best practice Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) architecture, linked-data is being explored as a technological alternative that shows great promise for the future. We report here the first trial of government linked-data in Australia under data.gov.au. In this initial pilot study, we have taken BoM's new high-quality reference surface

  20. Field Performance of High-Quality and Standard Northern Red Oak Seedlings in Tennessee

    Treesearch

    David S. Buckley

    2002-01-01

    First-year performance of high-quality (HQ), high-quality cull (HQC) and standard (ST) northern red oak (Quercus rubra) nursery seedlings was compared in a study established in a recent clearcut in mid-March, 2000. Objectives were to test effects of 1) seedling type, 2) planting treatment, and 3) control of competitors on the growth, browsing, and...

  1. Select Novice Elementary Teachers' Perceived Knowledge and Implementation of High-Quality Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumstead, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine select novice teachers' perceived knowledge of high-quality reading instruction, explore the extent that select novice teachers implemented high-quality reading instruction into their own classrooms, and to investigate any factors that explain the similarities and differences between…

  2. Implementing 15 Essential Elements for High Quality: A State and Local Policy Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, W. Steven; Weisenfeld, G. G.; Brown, Kirsty; Squires, Jim; Horowitz, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This report explores the extent to which states (and several large cities) are positioned to provide high quality preschool education on a large scale. States and cities that are already doing so or that could do so with modest improvements offer opportunities for advocacy to advance access to high quality early education as well as for rigorous…

  3. Inequality in Preschool Quality? Community-Level Disparities in Access to High-Quality Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Daphna; Galdo, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, unequal access to high-quality preschool has emerged as a growing public policy concern. Because of data limitations, it is notoriously difficult to measure disparities in access to early learning opportunities across communities and particularly challenging to quantify gaps in access to "high-quality" programs. Research…

  4. Implementing 15 Essential Elements for High Quality: A State and Local Policy Scan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, W. Steven; Weisenfeld, G. G.; Brown, Kirsty; Squires, Jim; Horowitz, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This report explores the extent to which states (and several large cities) are positioned to provide high quality preschool education on a large scale. States and cities that are already doing so or that could do so with modest improvements offer opportunities for advocacy to advance access to high quality early education as well as for rigorous…

  5. Inequality in Preschool Quality? Community-Level Disparities in Access to High-Quality Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassok, Daphna; Galdo, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, unequal access to high-quality preschool has emerged as a growing public policy concern. Because of data limitations, it is notoriously difficult to measure disparities in access to early learning opportunities across communities and particularly challenging to quantify gaps in access to "high-quality" programs. Research…

  6. A High Quality Draft Consensus Sequence of the Genome of a Heterozygous Grapevine Variety

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Dustin A.; Cestaro, Alessandro; Pruss, Dmitry; Pindo, Massimo; FitzGerald, Lisa M.; Vezzulli, Silvia; Reid, Julia; Malacarne, Giulia; Iliev, Diana; Coppola, Giuseppina; Wardell, Bryan; Micheletti, Diego; Macalma, Teresita; Facci, Marco; Mitchell, Jeff T.; Perazzolli, Michele; Eldredge, Glenn; Gatto, Pamela; Oyzerski, Rozan; Moretto, Marco; Gutin, Natalia; Stefanini, Marco; Chen, Yang; Segala, Cinzia; Davenport, Christine; Demattè, Lorenzo; Mraz, Amy; Battilana, Juri; Stormo, Keith; Costa, Fabrizio; Tao, Quanzhou; Si-Ammour, Azeddine; Harkins, Tim; Lackey, Angie; Perbost, Clotilde; Taillon, Bruce; Stella, Alessandra; Solovyev, Victor; Fawcett, Jeffrey A.; Sterck, Lieven; Vandepoele, Klaas; Grando, Stella M.; Toppo, Stefano; Moser, Claudio; Lanchbury, Jerry; Bogden, Robert; Skolnick, Mark; Sgaramella, Vittorio; Bhatnagar, Satish K.; Fontana, Paolo; Gutin, Alexander; Van de Peer, Yves; Salamini, Francesco; Viola, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Background Worldwide, grapes and their derived products have a large market. The cultivated grape species Vitis vinifera has potential to become a model for fruit trees genetics. Like many plant species, it is highly heterozygous, which is an additional challenge to modern whole genome shotgun sequencing. In this paper a high quality draft genome sequence of a cultivated clone of V. vinifera Pinot Noir is presented. Principal Findings We estimate the genome size of V. vinifera to be 504.6 Mb. Genomic sequences corresponding to 477.1 Mb were assembled in 2,093 metacontigs and 435.1 Mb were anchored to the 19 linkage groups (LGs). The number of predicted genes is 29,585, of which 96.1% were assigned to LGs. This assembly of the grape genome provides candidate genes implicated in traits relevant to grapevine cultivation, such as those influencing wine quality, via secondary metabolites, and those connected with the extreme susceptibility of grape to pathogens. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distribution was consistent with a diffuse haplotype structure across the genome. Of around 2,000,000 SNPs, 1,751,176 were mapped to chromosomes and one or more of them were identified in 86.7% of anchored genes. The relative age of grape duplicated genes was estimated and this made possible to reveal a relatively recent Vitis-specific large scale duplication event concerning at least 10 chromosomes (duplication not reported before). Conclusions Sanger shotgun sequencing and highly efficient sequencing by synthesis (SBS), together with dedicated assembly programs, resolved a complex heterozygous genome. A consensus sequence of the genome and a set of mapped marker loci were generated. Homologous chromosomes of Pinot Noir differ by 11.2% of their DNA (hemizygous DNA plus chromosomal gaps). SNP markers are offered as a tool with the potential of introducing a new era in the molecular breeding of grape. PMID:18094749

  7. Isolation of high quality and yield of RNA from Agaricus bisporus with a simple, inexpensive and reliable method.

    PubMed

    Meng, De-Mei; Shen, Lin; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Sheng, Ji-Ping

    2012-07-01

    A method for isolating high purity and quantity RNA from Agaricus bisporus which is rich in proteins, carbohydrate, fiber and secondary metabolites, is described. RNA was extracted from mycelium, primordia, sporophores at two development stages and two post-harvest storage stages as well as from pileipellis, inner cap, gill and stipe of the mature sporophore. The A(260)/A(230) and A(260)/A(280) ratios of isolated RNA from fruiting bodies were both ~2 and the yield was about 200 μg/g fresh wt (FW). The yield of RNA from mycelium was approx. 100 μg/g FW. High quality RNA was also extracted from fruiting body tissues of Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus eryngii with yields from 130 to 225 μg/g FW. RNA extracted from all samples was intact, as demonstrated by gel electrophoresis and was suitable for downstream molecular applications, including RT-PCR and qPCR.

  8. [Mental and physical development of children living in the area of monitoring pollution from a plant for processing and long-term storage of radioactive waste].

    PubMed

    Kirillov, V F; Popova, O L; Mikhaĭlov, A I; Bobrishcheva-Pushkina, N D; Kuznetsova, L Iu; Silaev, A A

    2010-01-01

    Environmental conditions in the area hosting a plant for processing and long storage of low- to moderately-active radioactive waste are described as reasonably safe. Residence in the area does not exert negative influence on the physical and mental development of children. Several indicators of physical development give better estimates than at the control territory. The difference can be accounted for by a better social situation in the study area (housing conditions, financial standing, food patterns, general lifestyle).

  9. Quercetin and isorhamnetin glycosides in onion (Allium cepa L.): varietal comparison, physical distribution, coproduct evaluation, and long-term storage stability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jihyun; Mitchell, Alyson E

    2011-02-09

    During onion processing, the outer dried protective layer (outer paper layer) and first two fleshy leaf layers are removed. This coproduct material is a potential commercial source of flavonoids especially quercetin. In the following study, the flavonoid composition was determined in coproduct materials and the press cake (material generated after juice extraction) in several commercially important onion varieties grown in California. Flavonoids were characterized and quantified using LC-(ESI)MS/MS and HPLC. The long-term stability of quercetin glycosides was assessed in dried coproduct materials stored at 4 and 22 °C over a 12 month period. In all varieties, the predominant forms of quercetin were the quercetin 3,4'-O-glucoside and 4'-O-glucoside. The first layer had significantly higher levels of flavonoids than the outer paper, second, and inner flesh layers on a DW basis (p < 0.05). Allium cepa "Milestone" contained the highest levels (p < 0.05) of flavonoids (1703 mg/100 g on a dry weight basis (DW). Onion press cake had significantly higher levels of total quercetin as compared with fresh onions (p < 0.05). The levels of 4'-O-glucoside significantly decreased during the first month of storage and remained stable for 12 months of storage at either 4 or 22 °C (p < 0.05).

  10. Functional assessment of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) after long-term storage at -20 °C without any preservation agent.

    PubMed

    Hosnuter, Mubin; Aslan, Cem; Isik, Daghan; Caliskan, Gorkem; Arslan, Banu; Durgun, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is increasingly being used in the treatment of chronic wounds, pathologies of the musculoskeletal system, and in cosmetic medicine; however, the preparation of platelet-rich plasma is both time-consuming and requires invasive intervention. Additional costs are introduced if special equipment is used during preparation. The aim of the present study is to test whether autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preserves the feature of growth factor release when stored at -20 °C after preparation. Autologous PRP concentrates were prepared using whole blood samples obtained from 20 healthy subjects and divided into three parts to form three groups. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and P-Selectin levels were immediately analysed in the control group. The other groups were defined as the experimental groups and were stored at -20 °C and analysed on the 7th and the 14th days. The same growth factors were tested in the experimental groups. The growth factors (EGF, VEGF, PDGF-AB, IGF-1, TGF-β) and P-selectin levels were significantly decreased in the autologous PRP samples stored at -20 °C compared to the control group. The growth factor levels on days 7 and 14 suggest that autologous PRP can be stored at -20 °C without preservative agents, although in vivo studies are required in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the detected growth factor levels.

  11. Long-term storage and impedance-based water toxicity testing capabilities of fluidic biochips seeded with RTgill-W1 cells.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Linda M; Widder, Mark W; Lee, Lucy E J; van der Schalie, William H

    2012-08-01

    Rainbow trout gill epithelial cells (RTgill-W1) are used in a cell-based biosensor that can respond within one hour to toxic chemicals that have the potential to contaminate drinking water supplies. RTgill-W1 cells seeded on enclosed fluidic biochips and monitored using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) technology responded to 18 out of the 18 toxic chemicals tested within one hour of exposure. Nine of these chemical responses were within established concentration ranges specified by the U.S. Army for comparison of toxicity sensors for field application. The RTgill-W1 cells remain viable on the biochips at ambient carbon dioxide levels at 6°C for 78weeks without media changes. RTgill-W1 biochips stored in this manner were challenged with 9.4μM sodium pentachlorophenate (PCP), a benchmark toxicant, and impedance responses were significant (p<0.001) for all storage times tested. This poikilothermic cell line has toxicant sensitivity comparable to a mammalian cell line (bovine lung microvessel endothelial cells (BLMVECs)) that was tested on fluidic biochips with the same chemicals. In order to remain viable, the BLMVEC biochips required media replenishments 3 times per week while being maintained at 37°C. The ability of RTgill-W1 biochips to maintain monolayer integrity without media replenishments for 78weeks, combined with their chemical sensitivity and rapid response time, make them excellent candidates for use in low cost, maintenance-free field-portable biosensors.

  12. Efficacy of the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala during long-term storage of moist feed grain under different oxygen and carbon dioxide regimens.

    PubMed

    Druvefors, Ulrika; Jonsson, Nils; Boysen, Marianne E; Schnürer, Johan

    2002-08-01

    The yeast Pichia anomala inhibits the spoilage mold Penicillium roqueforti in laboratory experiments with high-moisture wheat in malfunctioning airtight storage. The ability of P. anomala to prevent mold growth during 14 months of grain storage was evaluated in outdoor silos with different air permeabilities. Freshly harvested wheat in 160-kg portions was inoculated with 10(2) colony-forming units (cfu) g(-1) P. roqueforti, alone or together with 10(4) cfu g(-1) P. anomala. During the first month P. anomala increased to about 10(6) cfu g(-1) in the treated silos to reach 10(7) cfu g (-1) after 9 months. Naturally occurring P. anomala in the untreated silos increased from 10(2) to about 10(3) cfu g(-1) during the first month and reached the same level as the treated silos after 9 months. Oxygen levels were reduced below the detection limit within 1 day, while carbon dioxide levels increased to 80-90% during the first month. P. roqueforti did not grow in wheat treated with P. anomala, regardless of silo permeability, but had increased to 10(5) cfu g(-1) in the untreated silos after 14 months of storage.

  13. Effects of dynamic controlled atmosphere by respiratory quotient on some quality parameters and volatile profile of 'Royal Gala' apple after long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Both, Vanderlei; Thewes, Fabio Rodrigo; Brackmann, Auri; de Oliveira Anese, Rogerio; de Freitas Ferreira, Daniele; Wagner, Roger

    2017-01-15

    The effects of dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA) storage based on chlorophyll fluorescence (DCA-CF) and respiratory quotient (DCA-RQ) on the quality and volatile profile of 'Royal Gala' apple were evaluated. DCA storage reduces ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) oxidase activity, ethylene production and respiration rate of apples stored for 9months at 1.0°C plus 7days at 20°C, resulting in higher flesh firmness, titratable acidity and lesser physiological disorders, and provided a higher proportion of healthy fruit. Storage in a regular controlled atmosphere gave higher levels of key volatiles (butyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate and hexyl acetate), as compared to fruit stored under DCA-CF, but fruit stored under DCA-RQ 1.5 and RQ 2.0 also showed higher amounts of key volatile compounds, with increment in ethanol and ethyl acetate, but far below the odour threshold. Storage in DCA-CF reduces fruit ester production, especially 2-methylbutyl acetate, which is the most important component of 'Royal Gala' apple flavour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of Brine Chemistry and Sorption in Potential Long-Term Storage of Radioactive Waste in Geologic Salt Formations: Experimental Evaluation of Sorption Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Emerson, H. P.; Michael, D. P.; Reed, D. T.

    2016-12-01

    Bedded geologic salt formations have been shown to have many favorable properties for the disposal of radioactive waste (i.e., reducing conditions, fracture healing). Performance assessment (PA) modeling for a 10,000 year period for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM have predicted an extremely low risk of radioactive material reaching the surrounding environment after the 100 year period required for creep to seal the waste panels and access shafts. Human intrusion caused by drilling operations for oil and gas exploration is the main pathway of concern for environmental release of radioactive material due to pressurized brine pockets located within the salt formation below the repository. Our work focuses on the long-term capability of salt repositories and the associated geologic media to safely isolate stored radioactive waste from the surrounding environment, even in the event of a human intrusion scenario such as a direct brine release (DBR) due to a drilling operation intersecting a brine pocket. In particular, we are revisiting the degree of conservatism in the estimated sorption partition coefficients (Kds) used in the PA model based on complementary batch and column experimental methods (Dittrich and Reimus, 2016). The main focus of this work is to investigate the role of ionic strength, solution chemistry, and oxidation state (III-VI) in actinide sorption to dolomite rock. Based on redox conditions and solution chemistry expected in the WIPP, possible actinide species include Pu(III), Pu(IV), U(IV), U(VI), Np(IV), Np(V), Am(III), and Th(IV). We will present (1) a conceptual overview of Kd use in the PA model, (2) background and evolution of the Kd ranges used, and (3) results from batch and column experiments and model predictions for Kds with WIPP-relevant geologic media. We will also briefly discuss the challenges of upscaling from lab experiments to field scale predictions, the presence of ligands (e.g., acetate, citrate, EDTA), the role of colloids and microbes, and the effect of engineered barrier materials (e.g., MgO) on sorption and transport conditions. References: Dittrich, T.M., Reimus, P.W. 2016. Reactive transport of uranium in fractured crystalline rock: Upscaling in time and distance. J Environ Manage 165, 124-132.

  15. Radiolysis of Salts and Long-Term Storage Issues for Both Pure and Impure PuO{sub 2} Materials in Plutonium Storage Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Lav Tandon

    2000-05-01

    The Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) project sponsored a literature search on the effects of radiation on salts, with focus on alkali chlorides. The goal of the survey was to provide a basis for estimating the magnitude of {alpha} radiation effects on alkali chlorides that can accompany plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) into storage. Chloride radiolysis can yield potentially corrosive gases in plutonium storage containers that can adversely affect long-term stability. This literature search was primarily done to provide a tutorial on this topic, especially for personnel with nonradiation chemistry backgrounds.

  16. Antifungal activity of Meyerozyma guilliermondii: identification of active compounds synthesized during dough fermentation and their effect on long-term storage of wheat bread.

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo G; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Trani, Antonio; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Gobbetti, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Preliminarily, 146 strains of yeasts were screened for the antifungal activity toward the indicator Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The strain Meyerozyma guilliermondii LCF1353 was selected and used for dough fermentation. The water/salt soluble extract of the dough was analyzed by HPLC and GC/MS-SPME. The synthesis of the extracellular cell wall-degrading enzyme β-1,3-glucanase and ethyl-acetate was shown. The effect on conidia germination mainly suggested a fungistatic activity. M. guilliermondii LCF1353 was used as starter for dough fermentation in combination with Wickeramomyces anomalus 1695 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1A7, which were previously selected for antifungal activity. The growth of the strains was monitored by plate count and molecular techniques, and competitive or antagonistic interactions among them were excluded. Bread started with the combination of M. guilliermondii LCF1353, W. anomalus LCF1695 and L. plantarum 1A7 showed a more prolonged shelf life compared to the other breads. Fungal growth was delayed at least until 14 days of storage, under conditions of high artificial inoculum. The bread manufactured with the above combination showed good chemical and textural characteristics and, as shown by sensory analysis, it was appreciated for elasticity, color and taste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gamma Irradiation of in-Shell and Blanched Peanuts Protects against Mycotoxic Fungi and Retains Their Nutraceutical Components during Long-Term Storage

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-d’Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut samples were irradiated (0.0, 5.2, 7.2 or 10.0 kGy), stored for a year (room temperature) and examined every three months. Mycotoxic fungi (MF) were detected in non-irradiated blanched peanuts. A dose of 5.2 kGy was found suitable to prevent MF growth in blanched samples. No MF was detected in in-shell peanuts, with or without irradiation. The colors of the control in-shell and blanched samples were, respectively, 44.72 and 60.21 (L *); 25.20 and 20.38 (Chroma); 53.05 and 86.46 (°Hue). The water activities (Aw) were 0.673 and 0.425. The corresponding fatty acids were 13.33% and 12.14% (C16:0), 44.94% and 44.92% (C18:1, ω9) and 37.10% and 37.63% (C18:2, ω6). The total phenolics (TP) were 4.62 and 2.52 mg GAE/g, with antioxidant activities (AA) of 16.97 and 10.36 μmol TEAC/g. Storage time negatively correlated with Aw (in-shell peanuts) or L *, linoleic acid, TP and AA (in-shell and blanched peanuts) but positively correlated with Aw (blanched peanuts), and with oleic acid (in-shell and blanched peanuts). Irradiation positively correlated with antioxidant activity (blanched peanuts). No correlation was found between irradiation and AA (in-shell samples) or fatty acids and TP (in-shell and blanched peanuts). Irradiation protected against MF and retained both the polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols in the samples. PMID:23109830

  18. Gamma irradiation of in-shell and blanched peanuts protects against mycotoxic fungi and retains their nutraceutical components during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Adriano Costa; de Souza Vieira, Thais Maria Ferreira; Regitano-d'Arce, Marisa Aparecida Bismara; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Calori-Domingues, Maria Antonia; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2012-01-01

    Peanut samples were irradiated (0.0, 5.2, 7.2 or 10.0 kGy), stored for a year (room temperature) and examined every three months. Mycotoxic fungi (MF) were detected in non-irradiated blanched peanuts. A dose of 5.2 kGy was found suitable to prevent MF growth in blanched samples. No MF was detected in in-shell peanuts, with or without irradiation. The colors of the control in-shell and blanched samples were, respectively, 44.72 and 60.21 (L *); 25.20 and 20.38 (Chroma); 53.05 and 86.46 (°Hue). The water activities (Aw) were 0.673 and 0.425. The corresponding fatty acids were 13.33% and 12.14% (C16:0), 44.94% and 44.92% (C18:1, ω9) and 37.10% and 37.63% (C18:2, ω6). The total phenolics (TP) were 4.62 and 2.52 mg GAE/g, with antioxidant activities (AA) of 16.97 and 10.36 μmol TEAC/g. Storage time negatively correlated with Aw (in-shell peanuts) or L *, linoleic acid, TP and AA (in-shell and blanched peanuts) but positively correlated with Aw (blanched peanuts), and with oleic acid (in-shell and blanched peanuts). Irradiation positively correlated with antioxidant activity (blanched peanuts). No correlation was found between irradiation and AA (in-shell samples) or fatty acids and TP (in-shell and blanched peanuts). Irradiation protected against MF and retained both the polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols in the samples.

  19. Efficient recovery of proteins from multiple source samples after TRIzol(®) or TRIzol(®)LS RNA extraction and long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Simões, André E S; Pereira, Diane M; Amaral, Joana D; Nunes, Ana F; Gomes, Sofia E; Rodrigues, Pedro M; Lo, Adrian C; D'Hooge, Rudi; Steer, Clifford J; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Borralho, Pedro M; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2013-03-15

    Simultaneous isolation of nucleic acids and proteins from a single biological sample facilitates meaningful data interpretation and reduces time, cost and sampling errors. This is particularly relevant for rare human and animal specimens, often scarce, and/or irreplaceable. TRIzol(®) and TRIzol(®)LS are suitable for simultaneous isolation of RNA, DNA and proteins from the same biological sample. These reagents are widely used for RNA and/or DNA isolation, while reports on their use for protein extraction are limited, attributable to technical difficulties in protein solubilisation. TRIzol(®)LS was used for RNA isolation from 284 human colon cancer samples, including normal colon mucosa, tubulovillous adenomas, and colon carcinomas with proficient and deficient mismatch repair system. TRIzol(®) was used for RNA isolation from human colon cancer cells, from brains of transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice model, and from cultured mouse cortical neurons. Following RNA extraction, the TRIzol(®)-chloroform fractions from human colon cancer samples and from mouse hippocampus and frontal cortex were stored for 2 years and 3 months, respectively, at -80°C until used for protein isolation.Simple modifications to the TRIzol(®) manufacturer's protocol, including Urea:SDS solubilization and sonication, allowed improved protein recovery yield compared to the TRIzol(®) manufacturer's protocol. Following SDS-PAGE and Ponceau and Coomassie staining, recovered proteins displayed wide molecular weight range and staining pattern comparable to those obtainable with commonly used protein extraction protocols. We also show that nuclear and cytosolic proteins can be easily extracted and detected by immunoblotting, and that posttranslational modifications, such as protein phosphorylation, are detectable in proteins recovered from TRIzol(®)-chloroform fractions stored for up to 2 years at -80°C. We provide a novel approach to improve protein recovery from samples processed for nucleic acid extraction with TRIzol(®) and TRIzol(®)LS compared to the manufacturer`s protocol, allowing downstream immunoblotting and evaluation of steady-state relative protein expression levels. The method was validated in large sets of samples from multiple sources, including human colon cancer and brains of transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice model, stored in TRIzol(®)-chloroform for up to two years. Collectively, we provide a faster and cheaper alternative to the TRIzol(®) manufacturer`s protein extraction protocol, illustrating the high relevance, and wide applicability, of the present protein isolation method for the immunoblot evaluation of steady-state relative protein expression levels in samples from multiple sources, and following prolonged storage.

  20. Main principles used for building up a data bank for the long-term storage and retrieval of scientific space data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zlotin, G. N.; Bykov, A. B.; Roy, L. V.; Khovanskiy, Y. D.

    1975-01-01

    Methodological, technical, and practical organizational problems are considered of constructing a long term data bank. Data processing flowcharts are presented which are based on an analysis of the tasks which the data bank must fulfill, an estimate of the existing and predicted data flows in the processing center, and the selection of the data storage media and the forms in which the data are presented. Questions related to the use of standard and special hardware and software in the data bank are discussed. Reasons are presented for the adopted structure of the document-fact type information retrieval system which permits the mechanization and automation of various stages in the retrieval and selection of the data.

  1. Impact of different cryoprotectants on the survival of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei/paracasei during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Jofré, A; Aymerich, T; Garriga, M

    2015-01-01

    The production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried probiotic/starter cultures is of paramount importance for the food industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of glucose, lactose, trehalose, and skim milk applied alone or combined upon the survival of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677 and L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 during freeze-drying and after 39 weeks of storage at 4 and 22 °C. Immediately after freeze-drying, the percentage of survivors was very high (≥ 94%) and only slight differences were observed among strains and cryoprotectants. In contrast, during storage, survival in the dried state depended on the cryoprotectant, temperature and strain. For all the protectants assayed, the stability of the cultures was remarkably higher when stored under refrigeration (4 °C). Under these conditions, skim milk alone or supplemented with trehalose or lactose showed the best performance (reductions ≤ 0.9 log units after 39 weeks of storage). The lowest survival was observed during non-refrigerated storage and with glucose and glucose plus milk; no viable cells left at the end of the storage period. Thus, freeze-drying in the presence of appropriate cryoprotectants allows the production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried cultures ready for incorporation in high numbers into food products as starter/potential probiotic cultures.

  2. Nutritional value of cold-pressed rapeseed oil during long term storage as influenced by the type of packaging material, exposure to light & oxygen and storage temperature.

    PubMed

    Wroniak, Małgorzata; Rękas, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    The effect of various conditions (storage temperature, exposure to light, access of oxygen) and different packaging material (amber glass, amber polyethylene terephthalate) on the nutritional value of cold-pressed rapeseed oil during 12 months of storage was investigated. Quantified quality parameters included: acidity, peroxide value, spectrophotometric indices (K 232 , K 268 ), fatty acid composition, tocopherols and sterols. Storage of oil at 4 °C was found to be most appropriate for maintaining the quality of cold-pressed rapeseed oil. Exposure of oil samples stored at room temperature to light in combination with the access of oxygen caused the most pronounced losses in the total tocopherols (ca. 90-91 % of α-T, and ca. 80-81 % of γ-T), total phytosterols (ca. 15-16 %) and substantial deterioration in oil qualitative properties. Although storage at room temperature is common for use in households, storage of at low temperatures (4 °C) significantly increases the possibility of prolonged shelf life of cold-pressed rapeseed oil.

  3. Effect of high relative humidity on dried Plantago lanceolata L. leaves during long-term storage: effects on chemical composition, colour and microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    Gonda, Sándor; Tóth, László; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Braun, Mihály; Emri, Tamás; Vasas, Gábor

    2012-01-01

    Modern phytotherapy and quality assurance requires stability data on bioactive metabolites to identify and minimise decomposing factors during processing and storage. A compound's stability in a complex matrix can be different from the stability of the purified compound. To test the stability of iridoids and acteoside and quantify changes in colour and microbiological quality in a common herbal tea, dried P. lanceolata leaves during exposure to high-humidity air. To test the contribution of fungi to metabolite decomposition. Dried P. lanceolata leaves were exposed to atmospheres of different relative humidity (75, 45 and 0%) for 24 weeks. Changes in aucubin and catalpol concentration were determined by CE-MEKC, and those in acteoside on TLC. Colour and chlorophyll-like pigments were measured by different spectrophotometric methods. The number of fungi was monitored; 10 strains were isolated from the plant drug, and their ability to decompose the analytes of interest was tested. During incubation at 75% relative humidity (RH), aucubin, catalpol and acteoside concentrations decreased by 95.7, 97.0 and 70.5%, respectively. Strong shifts were detected in CIELAB parameters a* and b* (browning) as a result of conversion of chlorophyll to pheophytin. Intensive microbial proliferation was also observed. Changes at 45 or 0% RH were typically insignificant. Seven of the 10 isolated fungal strains could decompose both iridoids, and five could decompose acteoside in vitro. It was shown that exposure to water results in loss of bioactive molecules of P. lanceolata dried leaves, and that colonising fungi are the key contributors to this loss. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Changes in the Bioactive Compounds Content of Soybean as a Function of Grain Moisture Content and Temperature during Long-Term Storage.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Valmor; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Paraginski, Ricardo Tadeu; Monks, Jander Luis Fernandes; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2016-03-01

    Soybean is a rich source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, isoflavones, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The amount of bioactive compounds in freshly harvested soybeans and their derived products has been determined; however, when they are used in the food industry, soybeans are generally stored prior to being processed. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of soybean moisture content (12%, 15%, and 18%) and storage temperature (11, 18, 25, and 32 °C) on the free phenolic, total flavonoid, vanillic acid, total carotenoid, and δ- and γ-tocopherol content of soybeans stored for 12 mo. Moreover, the ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities of phenolic extracts were determined. There was an increase in free phenolics and total flavonoids in the stored grains compared with the grains on the 1st d of storage. Vanillic acid showed a decrease in soybeans stored at 15% and 18% moisture content and 25 or 32 °C, which indicated some degradation into other metabolites. Total carotenoid content decreased as a function of storage temperature and showed some temperature-dependent degradation. The δ- and γ-tocopherol content also tended to decrease in grains stored at 15% or 18% moisture content or 25 or 32 °C, regardless of the moisture content studied.

  5. Influence of oxygen and long term storage on the profile of volatile compounds released from polymeric multilayer food contact materials sterilized by gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Salafranca, Jesús; Clemente, Isabel; Isella, Francesca; Nerín, Cristina; Bosetti, Osvaldo

    2015-06-09

    The profile of volatile compounds released from 13 different multilayer polymeric materials for food use, before and after their exposure to gamma radiation, has been assessed by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thermosealed bags of different materials were filled with either air or nitrogen to evaluate the oxygen influence. One-third of the samples were analyzed without irradiation, whereas the rest were irradiated at 15 and 25 kGy. Half of the samples were processed just after preparation and the other half was stored for 8 months at room temperature prior to analysis. Very significant differences between unirradiated and irradiated bags were found. About 60-80 compounds were released and identified per sample. A huge peak of 1,3-ditertbutylbenzene was present in most of the irradiated samples. An outstanding reproducibility in all the variables evaluated (chromatograms, oxygen percentage, volume of bags) was noticed. Independently of filling gas, the results of unirradiated materials were almost identical. In contrast, the chromatographic profile and the odor of irradiated bags filled with nitrogen were completely different to those filled with air. Principal component analysis was performed and 86.9% of the accumulated variance was explained with the first two components. The migration of compounds from irradiated materials to the vapor phase was much lower than the limits established in the Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2011.

  6. Tenacity of human norovirus and the surrogates feline calicivirus and murine norovirus during long-term storage on common nonporous food contact surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mormann, Sascha; Heißenberg, Cathrin; Pfannebecker, Jens; Becker, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The transfer of human norovirus (hNV) to food via contaminated surfaces is highly probable during food production, processing, and preparation. In this study, the tenacity of hNV and its cultivable surrogates feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV) on two common nonporous surface materials at two storage temperatures was directly compared. Virus titer reduction on artificially inoculated stainless steel and plastic carriers was monitored for 70 days at room temperature and at 7°C. Viruses were recovered at various time points by elution. Genomes from intact capsids (hNV, FCV, and MNV) were quantified with real-time reverse transcription (RT) PCR, and infectivity (FCV and MNV) was assessed with plaque assay. RNase treatment before RNA extraction was used to eliminate exposed RNA and to assess capsid integrity. No significant differences in titer reduction were found between materials (stainless steel or plastic) with the plaque assay or the real-time quantitative RT-PCR. At room temperature, infectious FCV and MNV were detected for 7 days. Titers of intact hNV, FCV, and MNV capsids dropped gradually and were still detectable after 70 days with a loss of 3 to 4 log units. At 7°C, the viruses were considerably more stable than they were at room temperature. Although only MNV infectivity was unchanged after 70 days, the numbers of intact capsids (hNV, FCV, and MNV) were stable with less than a 1-log reduction. The results indicate that hNV persists on food contact surfaces and seems to remain infective for weeks. MNV appears to be more stable than FCV at 7°C, and thus is the most suitable surrogate for hNV under dry conditions. Although a perfect quantitative correlation between intact capsids and infective particles was not obtained, real-time quantitative RT-PCR provided qualitative data about hNV inactivation characteristics. The results of this comparative study might support future efforts in assessment of foodborne virus risk and food safety.

  7. Combination of super chilling and high carbon dioxide concentration techniques most effectively to preserve freshness of shell eggs during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, T; Ariizumi, M; Shigematsu, Y; Kobayashi, H; Hasegawa, M; Watanabe, K

    2010-01-01

    This study was made to examine the combined effects of stored temperature and carbon dioxide atmosphere on shell egg quality. The shell eggs were packed into polyethylene terephthalate/polyethylene (PET/PE) pouches and stored at 0 degrees C (super chilling), 10 degrees C, and 20 degrees C, respectively for 90 d. The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration was controlled to obtain the 3 concentration levels of high (about 2.0%), medium (about 0.5%), and low (below 0.01%). Changes in Haugh unit (HU) values, weakening of vitelline membranes, and generation of volatiles were analyzed to evaluate the freshness of shell eggs. Results showed that, compared with the other combinations, the technique of super chilling and high carbon dioxide concentration enabled shell eggs to be most effectively stored for 90 d, based on estimations of the statistical significances of differences in HU values, and on maintaining the initial HU values during storage. In addition, the storage of shell eggs using this combination technique was found to significantly prevent the weakening of the vitelline membrane based on the estimations of numbers of eggs without vitelline membrane breakage when eggs broke, and significantly lowered the incidence of hexanal in the yolk from exposure to the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses of volatiles. Thus, these results confirmed that the combination of super chilling and high carbon dioxide concentration was the most effective technique for preserving shell eggs during a long term of 90 d compared with other combination techniques.

  8. To require a plan approved by the Surface Transportation Board for the long-term storage of rail cars on certain railroad tracks.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Kline, John [R-MN-2

    2014-05-20

    House - 05/21/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Railroads, Pipelines, and Hazardous Materials. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Exploitation of FTA cartridges for the sampling, long-term storage, and DNA-based analyses of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Marek, Martin; Zouhar, Miloslav; Douda, Ondřej; Maňasová, Marie; Ryšánek, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    The use of DNA-based analyses in molecular plant nematology research has dramatically increased over recent decades. Therefore, the development and adaptation of simple, robust, and cost-effective DNA purification procedures are required to address these contemporary challenges. The solid-phase-based approach developed by Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) has been shown to be a powerful technology for the preparation of DNA from different biological materials, including blood, saliva, plant tissues, and various human and plant microbial pathogens. In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, that this FTA-based technology is a valuable, low-cost, and time-saving approach for the sampling, long-term archiving, and molecular analysis of plant-parasitic nematodes. Despite the complex structure and anatomical organization of the multicellular bodies of nematodes, we report the successful and reliable DNA-based analysis of nematode high-copy and low-copy genes using the FTA technology. This was achieved by applying nematodes to the FTA cards either in the form of a suspension of individuals, as intact or pestle-crushed nematodes, or by the direct mechanical printing of nematode-infested plant tissues. We further demonstrate that the FTA method is also suitable for the so-called "one-nematode-assay", in which the target DNA is typically analyzed from a single individual nematode. More surprisingly, a time-course experiment showed that nematode DNA can be detected specifically in the FTA-captured samples many years after initial sampling occurs. Collectively, our data clearly demonstrate the applicability and the robustness of this FTA-based approach for molecular research and diagnostics concerning phytonematodes; this research includes economically important species such as the stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci), the sugar beet nematode (Heterodera schachtii), and the Northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla).

  10. Effect of nitrogen content and additional straw on changes in chemical composition, volatile losses, and ammonia emissions from dairy manure during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A; Hunt, T; Lobos, N E

    2012-06-01

    Twelve 200-L barrels were used to determine the effects of N content and straw addition on changes in chemical composition and volatile losses measured by mass balance of dairy manure during a 136-d storage period. In addition, on d 0, 3, 6, 12, 28, 56, and 136, rate of NH₃-N emission was measured, and core samples were collected to characterize fermentation pattern. High N (3.06% N, HN) and low N (2.75% N, LN) manures were obtained from cows fed diets with 17.2 and 15.2% crude protein (dry matter basis), respectively. On d 0, manure scraped from a freestall barn floor was diluted with water to 10% dry matter and loaded in barrels with (+S) or without (-S) mixing 22g of chopped wheat straw per kilogram of undiluted manure. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments and 3 replications. We observed no interaction between treatments for the reported measurements, but several day-of-storage by treatment interactions were found. Throughout storage, total NH₃-N (TAN, NH₃-N + NH₄⁺-N; 71.9 vs. 104.3 mg/dL), pH (6.40 vs. 6.74), and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA, starting on d 12) were lower for LN relative to HN manure. In the presence of straw, crust formation occurred between d 12 and 28, and pH became lower and TVFA became higher starting on d 56, compared with no straw. Treatments did not influence loss of organic matter, organic N, organic C, or N, which averaged 31, 29, 26, and 20%, respectively. However, neutral detergent fiber loss was 44% higher for +S relative to -S manure. Consistent reductions in the C:N ratio indicated proportionally higher volatile C loss than volatile N loss during storage. Overall rate of NH₃-N emission was 36% lower for LN than for HN manure. In the presence of straw, rate of NH₃-N emission did not differ until after crust formation, but was 67% lower on d 56 and 95% lower on d 136, when it was barely detectable, compared with manure with no straw. Manure pH was highly correlated with TVFA:TAN ratio (r=-0.78), and rate of NH₃-N emission was correlated with pH, TVFA:TAN, TVFA, and TAN (r=0.47, -0.44, -0.23, and 0.28, respectively). In this trial, both microbial fermentation and crust formation influenced NH₃-N emission rate and other measured responses, highlighting the importance of long-term sampling to evaluate treatment effects in manure storage studies.

  11. Long-Term Storage and Impedance-Based Water Toxicity Testing Capabilities of Fluidic Biochips Seeded with RTgill-W1 Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-24

    as basal L-15, but no vitamins or amino acids. For ECIS testing purposes, a 2 solu- tion of L-15ex was prepared with Millipore water. This was used...cell line, CHSE-sp, a subline of Chi- nook salmon embryo cells, was also shown to maintain viability and retain the ability to support viral growth at

  12. A fast and reliable procedure for spore collection from anaerobic fungi: Application for RNA uptake and long-term storage of isolates.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Shelby; Elledge, Nicole C; Hanafy, Radwa A; Elshahed, Mostafa S; Youssef, Noha

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic gut fungi (AGF) represent a basal fungal lineage (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) that resides in the rumen and alimentary tracts of herbivores. The AGF reproduce asexually, with a life cycle that involves flagellated zoospores released from zoosporangia followed by encystment, germination and the subsequent development of rhizomycelia. A fast and reliable approach for AGF spore collection is critical not only for developmental biology studies, but also for molecular biological (e.g. AMT-transformation and RNAi) approaches. Here, we developed and optimized a simple and reliable procedure for the collection of viable, competent, and developmentally synchronized AGF spores under strict anaerobic conditions. The approach involves growing AGF on agar medium in serum bottles under anaerobic conditions, and flooding the observed aerial growth to promote spore release from sporangia into the flooding suspension. The released spores are gently collected using a wide bore sterile needle. Process optimization resulted in the recovery of up to 7×10(9) spores per serum bottle. Further, the released spores exhibited synchronized development from flagellated spores to encysted spores and finally to germinating spores within 90min from the onset of flooding. At the germinating spore stage, the obtained spores were competent, and readily uptook small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides. Finally, using multiple monocentric and polycentric AGF isolates, we demonstrate that AGF grown on agar surface could retain viability for up to 16weeks at 39°C, and hence this solid surface growth procedure represents a simple, cryopreservative- and freezing temperature-free approach for AGF storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rate of Recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Frozen Acid-Fast-Bacillus Smear-Positive Sputum Samples Subjected to Long-Term Storage in Northwest Ethiopia ▿

    PubMed Central

    Tessema, Belay; Beer, Joerg; Emmrich, Frank; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C.

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The diagnosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis remain a challenge in the country. This study aimed to assess whether single morning sputum samples could be stored at −20°C for extended periods of time at remote settings and then transported and successfully cultured for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Single morning sputum samples were collected from all smear-positive tuberculosis patients diagnosed at Gondar Hospital, Gondar Health Center, Metemma Hospital, Bahir Dar Hospital, and Debre Markos Hospital in Northwest Ethiopia between March and July 2009. Specimens were stored at the study sites and sent to the mycobacteriology laboratory at the University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany, where specimens were processed and inoculated into the BacT/Alert 3D system and Lowenstein-Jensen and Gottsacker media. Ice packs were added in the package of the specimens during transport. A total of 319 patients were enrolled in this study. The median specimen storage time was 132 days (range, 16 to 180 days). Of all specimens, 283 (88.7%) were culture positive by any of the three culturing systems. M. tuberculosis isolates from four contaminated specimens in all culturing systems were successfully isolated on Middlebrook 7H10 agar; thereby, the recovery rate increased to 287 (90.0%). The length of time of sputum storage had no significant effect on the rate of recovery of M. tuberculosis in all culturing systems. In conclusion, single morning sputum specimens collected at remote settings stored at −20°C for long periods of time without the addition of preservatives can yield a high recovery rate. These findings suggest a simple and cost-effective alternative method of sputum storage for epidemiological and drug resistance studies in low-resource countries. PMID:21562105

  14. Surface structures of high-quality diamond crystals synthesized by the oxy-acetylene flame method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, Keiji; Amanuma, Shuji; Hirose, Yoichi

    1992-02-01

    The microstructures of the {111} surfaces of high-quality diamond crystals deposited by the oxy-acetylene flame method have been studied using a high-resolution scanning electron microscope to clear the mechanism of the crystal growth. On the {111} surfaces of the high-quality diamond crystals, the two-dimensional nucleation rate is suppressed and the two-dimensional crystal growth rate is promoted. The suppression of the two-dimensional nucleation rate and the promotion of the two-dimensional crystal growth rate reduce the number of faults, dislocations, and defects and result in the formation of high-quality diamond crystals.

  15. The use of ion beam cleaning to obtain high quality cold welds with minimal deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sater, B. L.; Moore, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    A variation of cold welding is described which utilizes an ion beam to clean mating surfaces prior to joining in a vacuum environment. High quality solid state welds were produced with minimal deformation.

  16. Identifying suitable substrates for high-quality graphene-based heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banszerus, L.; Janssen, H.; Otto, M.; Epping, A.; Taniguchi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Beschoten, B.; Neumaier, D.; Stampfer, C.

    2017-06-01

    We report on a scanning confocal Raman spectroscopy study investigating the strain-uniformity and the overall strain and doping of high-quality chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene-based heterostuctures on a large number of different substrate materials, including hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), transition metal dichalcogenides, silicon, different oxides and nitrides, as well as polymers. By applying a hBN-assisted, contamination free, dry transfer process for CVD graphene, high-quality heterostructures with low doping densities and low strain variations are assembled. The Raman spectra of these pristine heterostructures are sensitive to substrate-induced doping and strain variations and are thus used to probe the suitability of the substrate material for potential high-quality graphene devices. We find that the flatness of the substrate material is a key figure for gaining, or preserving high-quality graphene.

  17. [Quality management is associated with high quality services in health care].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tenna Hassert; Riis, Allan; Mainz, Jan; Jensen, Anne-Louise Degn

    2013-12-09

    In these years, quality management has been the focus in order to meet high quality services for the patients in Danish health care. This article provides information on quality management and quality improvement and it evaluates its effectiveness in achieving better organizational structures, processes and results in Danish health-care organizations. Our findings generally support that quality management is associated with high quality services in health care.

  18. What Makes a High-Quality Preschool? Similarities and Differences between Chinese Immigrant and European American Parents' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamamoto, Yoko; Li, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Even though scholars have attempted to identify features determining high-quality preschools, little is known about parents' views about high-quality preschools. Particularly important is the understanding of immigrant parents' views about high-quality preschools in relation to their cultural and socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds. The present study…

  19. 75 FR 70201 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China and Indonesia, USITC... sheets suitable for high quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses; coated on one or both sides with... Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the People's Republic of...

  20. 75 FR 75663 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed... coated paper from the People's Republic of China. See Certain Coated Paper Suitable for High-Quality... and CVD Order''). In the Amended Final and CVD Order, certain coated paper suitable for high-quality...

  1. A high-throughput, high-quality plant genomic DNA extraction protocol.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Li, J; Cong, X H; Duan, Y B; Li, L; Wei, P C; Lu, X Z; Yang, J B

    2013-10-15

    The isolation of high-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) is a crucial technique in plant molecular biology. The quality of gDNA determines the reliability of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. In this paper, we reported a high-quality gDNA extraction protocol optimized for real-time PCR in a variety of plant species. Performed in a 96-well block, our protocol provides high throughput. Without the need for phenol-chloroform and liquid nitrogen or dry ice, our protocol is safer and more cost-efficient than traditional DNA extraction methods. The method takes 10 mg leaf tissue to yield 5-10 µg high-quality gDNA. Spectral measurement and electrophoresis were used to demonstrate gDNA purity. The extracted DNA was qualified in a restriction enzyme digestion assay and conventional PCR. The real-time PCR amplification was sufficiently sensitive to detect gDNA at very low concentrations (3 pg/µL). The standard curve of gDNA dilutions from our phenol-chloroform-free protocol showed better linearity (R(2) = 0.9967) than the phenol-chloroform protocol (R(2) = 0.9876). The results indicate that the gDNA was of high quality and fit for real-time PCR. This safe, high-throughput plant gDNA extraction protocol could be used to isolate high-quality gDNA for real-time PCR and other downstream molecular applications.

  2. Elements of a high-quality inpatient consultation in the intensive care unit. A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jennifer P; Johansson, Anna C; Schonberg, Mara A; Howell, Michael D

    2013-06-01

    Inpatient consultation by specialists is one of the most common medical interventions in the modern intensive care unit (ICU), but few data exist on components of high-quality consultation. Our objective was to use qualitative methods to develop a conceptual framework of consultative quality in critically ill patients. We conducted a qualitative study of medical ICU physicians at a single institution using a novel, semistructured interview guide. We elicited physicians' attitudes toward processes of obtaining specialty consultation, identified perceived elements of high-quality consults, and identified barriers to obtaining high-quality consults. We used grounded theory to identify themes. ICU physicians described four common reasons for involving a consulting physician: the need for clinical or procedural expertise, an explicit or implicit protocol of the institution mandating the consult, an opportunity to provide education to the primary or consulting team, and/or at the family's request. Participants identified seven components of a high-quality consult, including the consulting teams' (1) decisiveness, (2) thoroughness, (3) level of interest, (4) professionalism, (5) expertise, (6) timeliness, and (7) involvement with the family of the patient. The intensive care team, the consult team, the health system, and the temporal context in which the consultation takes place may influence the quality of the consultation. Several key factors are necessary for a consult to be judged high quality. An opportunity exists to develop an instrument to assess and to improve specialty consultations in the ICU based on these findings.

  3. Simple and efficient isolation of high-quality total RNA from Hibiscus tiliaceus, a mangrove associate and its relatives.

    PubMed

    Yang, G; Zhou, R; Tang, T; Shi, S

    2008-01-01

    Hibiscus tiliaceus, one of the mangrove associates, is an ideal plant for the study of ecological adaptation and salt tolerance as it may give clues to the evolutionary pathway by which the highly specialized adaptive syndrome of mangrove has been achieved. This species has extremely high contents of polysaccharides, secondary metabolites and especially polyphenolics in its various tissues, such as leaves and roots. So it is extremely difficult for RNA extraction from its various tissues, which prevents following molecular operations and expression-level studies like microarray and RT-PCR. Traditional methods based on CTAB can produce high-quality RNA from specific species or tissue, but they don't work well in H. tiliaceus. We describe here a modified CTAB-based method using PVP and PVPP with sequential extraction of chlorophorm and acid phenol and then selective salt precipitation, which can constantly isolate high-quality RNA from various tissues of H. tiliaceus within short time. RNA quality was assessed through reverse transcription and RT-PCR experiments, indicating that it could be suitable for a number of downstream purposes. We have already constructed a full-length cDNA library with total RNA isolated through the modified method and successfully used it in the following microarray experiments, which is aimed to unravel ecological adaptation and salt tolerance of H. tiliaceus. Moreover, we showed that this method could also be successfully applied to other plants in Malvaceae sensu lato (including Sida, Pachira, Sterculia, Urena, and Abelmoschus) with very abundant polyphenols and polysaccharides.

  4. [Secondary rhinoplasty].

    PubMed

    Duron, J-B; Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Aiach, G

    2014-12-01

    Secondary rhinoplasty is very usual. Some patients are not satisfied by the previous surgery because the result is poor with obvious defaults but, sometimes, the result is good but the patient expects perfection. These two different situations will not lead to the same answer from the surgeon. Techniques of secondary rhinoplasty are the same than primary, but are often more difficult to perform because of scar tissue, retraction and loss of lining. The authors analyse the more frequent deformities in secondary rhinoplasty and the way they fix them.

  5. Outpatient management of oral vitamin K antagonist therapy: defining and measuring high-quality management.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Katherine W; Ansell, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Oral anticoagulation therapy with warfarin is the mainstay of prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disease. However, it remains one of the leading causes of harmful medication errors and medication-related adverse events. The beneficial outcomes of oral anticoagulation therapy are directly dependent upon the quality of dose and anticoagulation management, but the literature is not robust with regards to what constitutes such management. This review focuses on, and attempts to define, the parameters of high-quality anticoagulation management and identifies the appropriate outcome measures constituting high-quality management. Elements discussed include the most fundamental measure, time in therapeutic range, along with other parameters including therapy initiation, time to therapeutic range, dosing management when patients are not in therapeutic range, perioperative dosing management, patient education, and other important outcome measures. Healthcare providers who manage oral anticoagulation therapy should utilize these parameters as a measure of their performance in an effort to achieve high-quality anticoagulation management.

  6. Text categorization models for retrieval of high quality articles in internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Aphinyanaphongs, Y; Aliferis, C F

    2003-01-01

    The discipline of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) studies formal and quasi-formal methods for identifying high quality medical information and abstracting it in useful forms so that patients receive the best customized care possible [1]. Current computer-based methods for finding high quality information in PubMed and similar bibliographic resources utilize search tools that employ preconstructed Boolean queries. These clinical queries are derived from a combined application of (a) user interviews, (b) ad-hoc manual document quality review, and (c) search over a constrained space of disjunctive Boolean queries. The present research explores the use of powerful text categorization (machine learning) methods to identify content-specific and high-quality PubMed articles. Our results show that models built with the proposed approach outperform the Boolean based PubMed clinical query filters in discriminatory power.

  7. Local extinction of dragonfly and damselfly populations in low- and high-quality habitat patches.

    PubMed

    Suhonen, Jukka; Hilli-Lukkarinen, Milla; Korkeamäki, Esa; Kuitunen, Markku; Kullas, Johanna; Penttinen, Jouni; Salmela, Jukka

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the risk of extinction of a single population is an important problem in both theoretical and applied ecology. Local extinction risk depends on several factors, including population size, demographic or environmental stochasticity, natural catastrophe, or the loss of genetic diversity. The probability of local extinction may also be higher in low-quality sink habitats than in high-quality source habitats. We tested this hypothesis by comparing local extinction rates of 15 species of Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) between 1930-1975 and 1995-2003 in central Finland. Local extinction rates were higher in low-quality than in high-quality habitats. Nevertheless, for the three most common species there were no differences in extinction rates between low- and high-quality habitats. Our results suggest that a good understanding of habitat quality is crucial for the conservation of species in heterogeneous landscapes.

  8. Large-scale high quality glass microlens arrays fabricated by laser enhanced wet etching.

    PubMed

    Tong, Siyu; Bian, Hao; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Deng, Zefang; Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2014-11-17

    Large-scale high quality microlens arrays (MLAs) play an important role in enhancing the imaging quality of CCD and CMOS as well as the light extraction efficiency of LEDs and OLEDs. To meet the requirement in MLAs' wide application areas, a rapid fabrication method to fabricate large-scale MLAs with high quality, high fill factor and high uniformity is needed, especially on the glass substrate. In this paper, we present a simple and cost-efficient approach to the development of both concave and convex large-scale microlens arrays (MLAs) by using femtosecond laser wet etching method and replication technique. A large-scale high quality square-shaped microlens array with 512 × 512 units was fabricated.The unit size is 20 × 20 μm² on the whole scale of 1 × 1 cm². Its perfect uniformity and optical performance are demonstrated.

  9. High quality 2D crystals made by anodic bonding: a general technique for layered materials.

    PubMed

    Gacem, Karim; Boukhicha, Mohamed; Chen, Zhesheng; Shukla, Abhay

    2012-12-21

    Anodic bonding of nanolayers is an easy technique based on a simple apparatus, which has already proven successful in application in the fabrication of high quality graphene. Here we demonstrate its extension to the fabrication of high quality nanolayers from several layered materials. The strengths of this technique are its high throughput rate and ease of application. All fabrication parameters are controllable and need to be determined carefully. We report optimal parameters found for nine layered materials. In general, using optimal parameters results in high quality 2D layers, in most cases much larger than those obtained by 'Scotch tape' microcleavage, with higher yields and which are easily transferable to other substrates. Moreover the samples obtained are clean and the good optical contrast of these layers on the glass substrate makes their identification very easy. This is thus the technique of choice for making nanolayers in the laboratory from any layered material.

  10. High quality 2D crystals made by anodic bonding: a general technique for layered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gacem, Karim; Boukhicha, Mohamed; Chen, Zhesheng; Shukla, Abhay

    2012-12-01

    Anodic bonding of nanolayers is an easy technique based on a simple apparatus, which has already proven successful in application in the fabrication of high quality graphene. Here we demonstrate its extension to the fabrication of high quality nanolayers from several layered materials. The strengths of this technique are its high throughput rate and ease of application. All fabrication parameters are controllable and need to be determined carefully. We report optimal parameters found for nine layered materials. In general, using optimal parameters results in high quality 2D layers, in most cases much larger than those obtained by ‘Scotch tape’ microcleavage, with higher yields and which are easily transferable to other substrates. Moreover the samples obtained are clean and the good optical contrast of these layers on the glass substrate makes their identification very easy. This is thus the technique of choice for making nanolayers in the laboratory from any layered material.

  11. JAXA protein crystallization in space: ongoing improvements for growing high-quality crystals.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sachiko; Ohta, Kazunori; Furubayashi, Naoki; Yan, Bin; Koga, Misako; Wada, Yoshio; Yamada, Mitsugu; Inaka, Koji; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tomoyuki; Kamigaichi, Shigeki

    2013-11-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) started a high-quality protein crystal growth project, now called JAXA PCG, on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2002. Using the counter-diffusion technique, 14 sessions of experiments have been performed as of 2012 with 580 proteins crystallized in total. Over the course of these experiments, a user-friendly interface framework for high accessibility has been constructed and crystallization techniques improved; devices to maximize the use of the microgravity environment have been designed, resulting in some high-resolution crystal growth. If crystallization conditions were carefully fixed in ground-based experiments, high-quality protein crystals grew in microgravity in many experiments on the ISS, especially when a highly homogeneous protein sample and a viscous crystallization solution were employed. In this article, the current status of JAXA PCG is discussed, and a rational approach to high-quality protein crystal growth in microgravity based on numerical analyses is explained.

  12. JAXA protein crystallization in space: ongoing improvements for growing high-quality crystals

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Sachiko; Ohta, Kazunori; Furubayashi, Naoki; Yan, Bin; Koga, Misako; Wada, Yoshio; Yamada, Mitsugu; Inaka, Koji; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Tomoyuki; Kamigaichi, Shigeki

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) started a high-quality protein crystal growth project, now called JAXA PCG, on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2002. Using the counter-diffusion technique, 14 sessions of experiments have been performed as of 2012 with 580 proteins crystallized in total. Over the course of these experiments, a user-friendly interface framework for high accessibility has been constructed and crystallization techniques improved; devices to maximize the use of the microgravity environment have been designed, resulting in some high-resolution crystal growth. If crystallization conditions were carefully fixed in ground-based experiments, high-quality protein crystals grew in microgravity in many experiments on the ISS, especially when a highly homogeneous protein sample and a viscous crystallization solution were employed. In this article, the current status of JAXA PCG is discussed, and a rational approach to high-quality protein crystal growth in microgravity based on numerical analyses is explained. PMID:24121350

  13. Natural Fatigue Crack Initiation and Detection in High Quality Spur Gears

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Natural Fatigue Crack Initiation and Detection in High Quality Spur Gears by David “Blake” Stringer, Ph.D., Kelsen E. LaBerge, Ph.D., Cory...0383 June 2012 Natural Fatigue Crack Initiation and Detection in High Quality Spur Gears David “Blake” Stringer and Ph.D., Kelsen E. LaBerge...Quality Spur Gears 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David “Blake” Stringer, Ph.D., Kelsen E

  14. Secondary Craters

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-21

    This image of a southern mid-latitude crater was intended to investigate the lineated material on the crater floor. At the higher resolution of HiRISE, the image reveals a landscape peppered by small impact craters. These craters range from about 30 meters in diameter down to the resolution limit (about 2 meter diameter in this image acquired by averaging 2x2 picture elements). Such dense clusters of small craters are frequently formed by secondary craters, caused by the impact of material that was excavated and ejected from the surface of Mars during the creation of a larger nearby crater by the impact of a comet or an asteroid. Secondary impact craters are both interesting and vexing. They are interesting because they show the trajectories of the material that was ejected from the primary impact with the greatest speeds, typically material from near the surface of the blast zone. Secondary craters are often found along the traces of crater rays, linear features that extend radially from fresh impact craters and can reach many crater diameters in length. Secondary craters can be useful when crater rays are visible and the small craters can be associated with a particular primary impact crater. They can be used to constrain the age of the surface where they fell, since the surface must be older than the impact event. The age of the crater can be approximately estimated from the probability of an impact that produced a crater of such a size within a given area of Mars over a given time period. But these secondary craters can also be perplexing when no crater rays are preserved and a source crater is not easily identifiable, as is the case here. The impact that formed these secondary craters took place long enough ago that their association with a particular crater has been erased. They do not appear along the trace of a crater ray that is still apparent in visible or thermal infrared observations. These secondary craters complicate the task of estimating the age of

  15. Emotional Experience, Expression, and Regulation of High-Quality Japanese Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosotani, Rika; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the emotional experience, expression, and regulation processes of high-quality Japanese elementary school teachers while they interact with children, in terms of teachers' emotional competence. Qualitative analysis of interview data demonstrated that teachers had various emotional experiences including self-elicited…

  16. The role of young, recently disturbed upland hardwood forest as high quality food patches

    Treesearch

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Roger W. Perry; Craig A. Harper; Douglas J. Levey; John M. McCord

    2011-01-01

    Young (1-10 year post-disturbance) upland hardwood forests function as high-quality food patches by providing abundant fruit, and nutritious foliage and flowers that attract pollinating and foliar arthropods and support high populations of small mammals that, in turn, are prey for numerous vertebrate predators. Reductions in basal area increase light penetration to the...

  17. Taking a Measure of Impact: 2 Colorado Districts Calibrate the Effects of High Quality Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Snapshots of two Colorado districts in the Redesign PD Community of Practice: Denver Public Schools' professional learning partners help subject-matter experts and others provide educators with a high-quality learning experience. In Jefferson County, Learning Forward's Standards for Professional Learning guide educators to make teacher…

  18. What Constitutes High-Quality Discussion in Science? Research from the Perspectives on Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Ralph; Hand, Michael; Amos, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Perspectives on Science (POS) is a unique research-based post-16 course that addresses the history, philosophy and ethical aspects of science. Our central research question was to what extent is POS successful in promoting high-quality discussion in class and what factors influence this. Through questionnaires, interviews and observations of…

  19. Vendors Future: Northern Light--Delivering High-Quality Content to a Large Internet Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Describes a Web-based information service, Northern Light, which demonstrates a new paradigm for serving large populations of users and delivering high-quality content on topics both general and narrow. Discusses performance of the search engine, search syntax, Northern Light's special collection, and pricing. (AEF)

  20. Study on the Introduction of High-Quality Educational Resources for Sino-Foreign Cooperative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinhui, Lin

    2016-01-01

    In Sino-foreign cooperative education, high-quality introduced educational resources must benefit the growth and development of students, facilitate the school's capacity building and the improvement of overall educational standards, and promote national socioeconomic development. It is necessary to establish and perfect the various working…

  1. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Candida apicola NRRL Y-50540.

    PubMed

    Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; Gómez-Angulo, Jorge; Escalante-García, Zazil; Grande, Ricardo; Gschaedler-Mathis, Anne; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Arrizon, Javier

    2015-06-11

    Candida apicola, a highly osmotolerant ascomycetes yeast, produces sophorolipids (biosurfactants), membrane fatty acids, and enzymes of biotechnological interest. The genome obtained has a high-quality draft for this species and can be used as a reference to perform further analyses, such as differential gene expression in yeast from Candida genera.

  2. High-Quality College and Career Ready Assessments. re:VISION

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Assessments matter in education. Testing is nothing new; tests have been around as long as school itself. However, over the last 15 years, state assessments have grown to be an increasingly central, and often controversial, part of schooling. As states raise their standards, it is more important than ever to ask: What is a high-quality assessment?…

  3. Feasibility Study on Fully Automatic High Quality Translation: Volume II. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Winifred P.; Stachowitz, Rolf

    This second volume of a two-volume report on a fully automatic high quality translation (FAHQT) contains relevant papers contributed by specialists on the topic of machine translation. The papers presented here cover such topics as syntactical analysis in transformational grammar and in machine translation, lexical features in translation and…

  4. Tapping the Potential: Retaining and Developing High-Quality New Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    There is growing consensus that the single most important factor in determining student performance is the quality of the teacher. Therefore, if the national goal of providing an equitable education to children across this nation is to be met, it is critical that efforts be concentrated on developing and retaining high-quality teachers in every…

  5. What Constitutes High-Quality Discussion in Science? Research from the Perspectives on Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Ralph; Hand, Michael; Amos, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Perspectives on Science (POS) is a unique research-based post-16 course that addresses the history, philosophy and ethical aspects of science. Our central research question was to what extent is POS successful in promoting high-quality discussion in class and what factors influence this. Through questionnaires, interviews and observations of…

  6. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Candida apicola NRRL Y-50540

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Alvarado, Leticia; Gómez-Angulo, Jorge; Escalante-García, Zazil; Grande, Ricardo; Gschaedler-Mathis, Anne; Amaya-Delgado, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Candida apicola, a highly osmotolerant ascomycetes yeast, produces sophorolipids (biosurfactants), membrane fatty acids, and enzymes of biotechnological interest. The genome obtained has a high-quality draft for this species and can be used as a reference to perform further analyses, such as differential gene expression in yeast from Candida genera. PMID:26067948

  7. A Project to Enhance Superintendents' Knowledge and Application of Characteristics of High Quality Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pummill, Bret L.; Edson, Jerry C.; Loftin, Michelle M.; Robinson, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a problem based learning project focusing on superintendents' knowledge of the characteristics of high quality teachers. Current research findings offer evidence teacher quality is an important school variable related to student achievement. School district leaders are faced with the problem of identifying the characteristics…

  8. High-Quality Professional Development in Physical Education: The Role of a Subject Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keay, Jeanne; Lloyd, Christine

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we report on a longitudinal action research project undertaken to explore the role that a subject association in the United Kingdom has chosen to play in ensuring that continuing professional development (CPD) provided for its members is of high quality. The Professional Development Board for Physical Education, which functions…

  9. Benefits of High Quality Childcare for Low-Income Mothers: The Abecedarian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pungello, Elizabeth; Campbell, Frances A.; Miller-Johnson, Shari

    This follow-up study examined the long-term effects of providing 5 years of high-quality childcare for low-income mothers participating in the Abecedarian study, a randomized trial of early childhood educational intervention for children from low-income families. Participating in the age-21 follow-up were 100 of the original 109 biological…

  10. Vendors Future: Northern Light--Delivering High-Quality Content to a Large Internet Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Describes a Web-based information service, Northern Light, which demonstrates a new paradigm for serving large populations of users and delivering high-quality content on topics both general and narrow. Discusses performance of the search engine, search syntax, Northern Light's special collection, and pricing. (AEF)

  11. Study on the Introduction of High-Quality Educational Resources for Sino-Foreign Cooperative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinhui, Lin

    2016-01-01

    In Sino-foreign cooperative education, high-quality introduced educational resources must benefit the growth and development of students, facilitate the school's capacity building and the improvement of overall educational standards, and promote national socioeconomic development. It is necessary to establish and perfect the various working…

  12. Emotional Experience, Expression, and Regulation of High-Quality Japanese Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosotani, Rika; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the emotional experience, expression, and regulation processes of high-quality Japanese elementary school teachers while they interact with children, in terms of teachers' emotional competence. Qualitative analysis of interview data demonstrated that teachers had various emotional experiences including self-elicited…

  13. Representations of a High-Quality System of Undergraduate Education in English Higher Education Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwin, Paul; Abbas, Andrea; McLean, Monica

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which a high-quality system of undergraduate education is represented in recent policy documents from a range of actors interested in higher education. Drawing on Basil Bernstein's ideas, the authors conceptualise the policy documents as reflecting a struggle over competing views of quality that are expressed…

  14. Promoting High-Quality Family Child Care: A Policy Perspective for Quality 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modigliani, Kathy

    Although family child care has the potential to offer young children individual attention and customized, educational programs to help them thrive, the quality of these programs is dependent upon a workforce that is at the bottom of the occupational status and pay hierarchy. This report examines ways to promote high quality in family child care…

  15. Does Access to High Quality Early Education Vary by State Policy Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Maia C.; Morris, Pamela A.; Friedman-Krauss, Allison H.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that attending high quality, formal early childhood education (ECE) is associated with stronger cognitive and social-emotional skills, especially for low-income children. Yet at current funding levels, federally-funded programs like Head Start cannot serve all eligible children. Thus, state-level policies governing the…

  16. Guiding Principles for Providing High-Quality Education in Juvenile Justice Secure Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Providing high-quality education in juvenile justice secure care settings presents unique challenges for the administrators, teachers, and staff who are responsible for the education, rehabilitation, and welfare of youths committed to their care. The United States departments of Education (ED) and Justice (DOJ) recognize that while these…

  17. Forming a Team to Ensure High-Quality Measurement in Education Studies. REL 2014-052

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Boller, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides tips for forming a team of staff and consultants with the needed expertise to make key measurement decisions that will ensure high-quality data for answering the study's research questions. The brief outlines the main responsibilities of measurement team members. It also describes typical measurement tasks and discusses…

  18. Animated Cell Biology: A Quick and Easy Method for Making Effective, High-Quality Teaching Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Day, Danton H.

    2006-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that animations aid learning of dynamic concepts in cell biology. However, existing animation packages are expensive and difficult to learn, and the subsequent production of even short animations can take weeks to months. Here I outline the principles and sequence of steps for producing high-quality PowerPoint…

  19. The Role of Central Level Staff in Supporting High Quality Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Matthew Tanner

    2013-01-01

    The central office manages and directs a school system. In the wake of district and school reforms, the impact of the central office on schools and quality instruction has not been fully dissected. This study explores the role of the central office in the support of high quality instruction. Further, it analyzes the perceptions of those central…

  20. Provision of High-Quality Orientation and Mobility Services to Older Persons with Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, M.-M.

    1991-01-01

    The provision of high quality orientation and mobility (O&M) services to older persons with visual impairments requires consideration of problems in attitudes, client characteristics, financial resources, inservice training, and the availability of age-appropriate assessment instruments. This paper discusses research on O&M interventions and…

  1. Performance analysis of high quality parallel preconditioners applied to 3D finite element structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kolotilina, L.; Nikishin, A.; Yeremin, A.

    1994-12-31

    The solution of large systems of linear equations is a crucial bottleneck when performing 3D finite element analysis of structures. Also, in many cases the reliability and robustness of iterative solution strategies, and their efficiency when exploiting hardware resources, fully determine the scope of industrial applications which can be solved on a particular computer platform. This is especially true for modern vector/parallel supercomputers with large vector length and for modern massively parallel supercomputers. Preconditioned iterative methods have been successfully applied to industrial class finite element analysis of structures. The construction and application of high quality preconditioners constitutes a high percentage of the total solution time. Parallel implementation of high quality preconditioners on such architectures is a formidable challenge. Two common types of existing preconditioners are the implicit preconditioners and the explicit preconditioners. The implicit preconditioners (e.g. incomplete factorizations of several types) are generally high quality but require solution of lower and upper triangular systems of equations per iteration which are difficult to parallelize without deteriorating the convergence rate. The explicit type of preconditionings (e.g. polynomial preconditioners or Jacobi-like preconditioners) require sparse matrix-vector multiplications and can be parallelized but their preconditioning qualities are less than desirable. The authors present results of numerical experiments with Factorized Sparse Approximate Inverses (FSAI) for symmetric positive definite linear systems. These are high quality preconditioners that possess a large resource of parallelism by construction without increasing the serial complexity.

  2. Framework for High-Quality English Language Proficiency Standards and Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assessment and Accountability Comprehensive Center, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Framework for High-Quality English Language Proficiency Standards and Assessments" (Framework) was conceived as a critical tool in states' efforts to ensure that their English learner (EL) students achieve English language proficiency (ELP) and, also, achieve at high levels academically. Building on the best knowledge from relevant research…

  3. Creating High-Quality Preschool: Ideas for Supporting Early Learning Programs. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Recognizing that a quality preschool program is key to children's high achievement, this videotape presents a U.S. Department of Education teleconference on creating high quality preschool programs and federal funding available for such programs. Panelists from the Department include the director of the Early Childhood Institute in the Office of…

  4. Taking a Measure of Impact: 2 Colorado Districts Calibrate the Effects of High Quality Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Snapshots of two Colorado districts in the Redesign PD Community of Practice: Denver Public Schools' professional learning partners help subject-matter experts and others provide educators with a high-quality learning experience. In Jefferson County, Learning Forward's Standards for Professional Learning guide educators to make teacher…

  5. Producing high-quality negatives from ERTS black-and-white transparancies

    Treesearch

    Richard J. Myhre

    1973-01-01

    A method has been devised for producing high-quality black-and-white negatives quickly and efficiently from dense transparencies orgininating from Earth Resources Technology Satellite imagery. Transparencies are evaluated on a standard light source to determine exposure and processing information needed for making negatives. A “System ASA Rating” was developed by...

  6. Access to a High Quality Education for English Language Learners. Information Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Atlantic Equity Center, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Research on teaching and learning indicates that all students should be provided with programs, services, and teachers that engage them in rigorous academic work and promote deep disciplinary knowledge and higher order thinking skills (Walqui, 2006; Sanders & Rivers, 1996). Despite research findings on the importance of high quality teachers…

  7. Preservice and Inservice Mathematics Teachers' Perspectives of High-Quality Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clooney, Sarah; Cunningham, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the perspectives of what high-quality mathematics instruction looks like. Written responses from preservice (n = 20) and inservice (n = 16) mathematics teachers were collected and categorized according to the Ten Principles developed by Anthony & Walshaw (2009). The responses of preservice teachers more often than inservice…

  8. Advancing High-Quality Preschool Inclusion: A Discussion and Recommendations for the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Smith, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been achieved regarding the research and laws supporting preschool inclusion, access to inclusive preschool environments remains intangible for many children with disabilities in the United States. The purpose of this article is to discuss current challenges and solutions to high-quality preschool inclusion. We…

  9. Access, Participation, and Supports: The Defining Features of High-Quality Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buysse, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes current knowledge about early childhood inclusion, summarizing research and the DEC/NAEYC joint position statement on inclusion. The article also describes effective or promising educational practices that promote access, participation, and supports--the defining features of high-quality inclusion. Future efforts to improve…

  10. Creating and Sustaining High-Quality Charter School Governing Boards. A Guide for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    This guide for state policymakers examines the laws, policies, and programs that states are using to create and sustain high-quality charter school governing boards. In particular, the guide focuses on the two aspects of governing boards that interviews with state administrators revealed are most critical for a board's success: board composition…

  11. The Role of Central Level Staff in Supporting High Quality Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Matthew Tanner

    2013-01-01

    The central office manages and directs a school system. In the wake of district and school reforms, the impact of the central office on schools and quality instruction has not been fully dissected. This study explores the role of the central office in the support of high quality instruction. Further, it analyzes the perceptions of those central…

  12. Selecting white oaks as parent stock for growing high-quality logs

    Treesearch

    Stephen G. Boyce

    1963-01-01

    One of the major objectives of the tree-improvement program of the Central States Forest Experiment Station of the U.S. Forest Service is to select and breed hardwood trees that are inherently capable of producing wood of high quality. To begin this program we must select from natural stands and plantations the best possible parent trees. In recent years we have...

  13. A Model for Developing High-Quality Online Courses: Integrating a Systems Approach with Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puzziferro, Maria; Shelton, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    As the demand for online education continues to increase, institutions are faced with developing process models for efficient, high-quality online course development. This paper describes a systems, team-based, approach that centers on an online instructional design theory ("Active Mastery Learning") implemented at Colorado State…

  14. Baishideng’s century goal: Editing and publishing high-quality articles

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lian-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Baishideng’s goal over the next few years is to edit and publish high-quality articles through the open-access model, to maximize the benefits to members of the editorial board, authors and readers, as well as achieving social and economic benefits. PMID:19701962

  15. Emblems of Quality in Higher Education. Developing and Sustaining High-Quality Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, Jennifer Grant; Conrad, Clifton F.

    This book proposes an "engagement" theory of program quality to evaluate and improve higher education programs at all degree levels. Based on interviews with 781 participants in a national study of Masters degree programs, it focuses on the interactive roles of students, faculty, and administrators in developing high-quality programs…

  16. Child Care and Mothers' Mental Health: Is High-Quality Care Associated with Fewer Depressive Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Usdansky, Margaret L.; Wang, Xue; Gluzman, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Finding high-quality child care may pose financial and logistical challenges and create ongoing emotional strains for some mothers. We use the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to ask (a) are child-care settings that mothers select on the basis of their own perceptions of quality rated more highly by independent observers (and more…

  17. Designing High Quality Evaluation Systems for High School Teachers: Challenges and Potential Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, John H.

    2011-01-01

    A central part of education reform today is the wide-ranging and unprecedented effort to either revamp existing teacher evaluation systems or develop and implement entirely new systems. High-quality teacher evaluation systems are seen as one lever for improving the teacher workforce and hence the outcomes of students, including high school…

  18. Representations of a High-Quality System of Undergraduate Education in English Higher Education Policy Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwin, Paul; Abbas, Andrea; McLean, Monica

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which a high-quality system of undergraduate education is represented in recent policy documents from a range of actors interested in higher education. Drawing on Basil Bernstein's ideas, the authors conceptualise the policy documents as reflecting a struggle over competing views of quality that are expressed…

  19. Advancing High-Quality Preschool Inclusion: A Discussion and Recommendations for the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Erin E.; Smith, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been achieved regarding the research and laws supporting preschool inclusion, access to inclusive preschool environments remains intangible for many children with disabilities in the United States. The purpose of this article is to discuss current challenges and solutions to high-quality preschool inclusion. We…

  20. Access, Participation, and Supports: The Defining Features of High-Quality Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buysse, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes current knowledge about early childhood inclusion, summarizing research and the DEC/NAEYC joint position statement on inclusion. The article also describes effective or promising educational practices that promote access, participation, and supports--the defining features of high-quality inclusion. Future efforts to improve…

  1. Requirements of High-Quality Kindergarten Programs According to Jordanian Parents: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore what Jordanian parents of children attending "traditional" kindergartens recognize as high-quality education programs. The sample consisted of 509 families ("N"?=?509) of kindergarten-age children. Data were collected using a three-part questionnaire: curriculum domains, teacher…

  2. Publishing in High Quality Journals: Perspectives from Overworked and Unpaid Reviewers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bol, Linda; Hacker, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose for this article is to provide suggestions on how to get your high quality research published from the perspectives of reviewers. First, good writing is good thinking, and you are much more likely to succeed when you combine good writing with sound research. We then offer an eight-step method of reviewing that may help the author…

  3. Requirements of High-Quality Kindergarten Programs According to Jordanian Parents: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu Taleb, Tagreed Fathi

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore what Jordanian parents of children attending "traditional" kindergartens recognize as high-quality education programs. The sample consisted of 509 families ("N"?=?509) of kindergarten-age children. Data were collected using a three-part questionnaire: curriculum domains, teacher…

  4. Animated Cell Biology: A Quick and Easy Method for Making Effective, High-Quality Teaching Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Day, Danton H.

    2006-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that animations aid learning of dynamic concepts in cell biology. However, existing animation packages are expensive and difficult to learn, and the subsequent production of even short animations can take weeks to months. Here I outline the principles and sequence of steps for producing high-quality PowerPoint…

  5. Publishing in High Quality Journals: Perspectives from Overworked and Unpaid Reviewers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bol, Linda; Hacker, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    Our purpose for this article is to provide suggestions on how to get your high quality research published from the perspectives of reviewers. First, good writing is good thinking, and you are much more likely to succeed when you combine good writing with sound research. We then offer an eight-step method of reviewing that may help the author…

  6. Challenges Faced by Maine School Districts in Providing High Quality Public Education. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Linet, Sarah R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to: (1) identify challenges faced by Maine school districts in providing high quality public education; (2) describe the magnitude of the challenges; and (3) identify areas where school districts were experiencing some success in meeting these challenges. The School Districts Challenge Survey was distributed online to…

  7. Isolation of high-quality total RNA from leaves of Myrciaria dubia "CAMU CAMU".

    PubMed

    Gómez, Juan Carlos Castro; Reátegui, Alina Del Carmen Egoavil; Flores, Julián Torres; Saavedra, Roberson Ramírez; Ruiz, Marianela Cobos; Correa, Sixto Alfredo Imán

    2013-01-01

    Myrciaria dubia is a main source of vitamin C for people in the Amazon region. Molecular studies of M. dubia require high-quality total RNA from different tissues. So far, no protocols have been reported for total RNA isolation from leaves of this species. The objective of this research was to develop protocols for extracting high-quality total RNA from leaves of M. dubia. Total RNA was purified following two modified protocols developed for leaves of other species (by Zeng and Yang, and by Reid et al.) and one modified protocol developed for fruits of the studied species (by Silva). Quantity and quality of purified total RNA were assessed by spectrophotometric and electrophoretic analysis. Additionally, quality of total RNA was evaluated with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With these three modified protocols we were able to isolate high-quality RNA (A260nm/A280nm >1.9 and A260nm/A230nm >2.0). Highest yield was produced with the Zeng and Yang modified protocol (384±46µg ARN/g fresh weight). Furthermore, electrophoretic analysis showed the integrity of isolated RNA and the absence of DNA. Another proof of the high quality of our purified RNA was the successful cDNA synthesis and amplification of a segment of the M. dubia actin 1 gene. We report three modified protocols for isolation total RNA from leaves of M. dubia. The modified protocols are easy, rapid, low in cost, and effective for high-quality and quantity total RNA isolation suitable for cDNA synthesis and polymerase chain reaction.

  8. Analysis of 4,664 high-quality sequence-finished poplar full-length

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, S.; Gunter, Lee E; Tuskan, Gerald A; Douglas, Carl; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven; Marra, Marco; Bohlmann, J.

    2008-01-01

    poplar leaves attacked by forest tent caterpillars. This study has generated a high-quality FLcDNA resource for poplar and the third largest FLcDNA collection published to date for any plant species. We successfully used the FLcDNA sequences to reassess gene prediction in the poplar genome sequence, perform comparative sequence annotation, and identify differentially expressed transcripts associated with defense against insects. The FLcDNA sequences will be essential to the ongoing curation and annotation of the poplar genome, in particular for targeting gaps in the current genome assembly and further improvement of gene predictions. The physical FLcDNA clones will serve as useful reagents for functional genomics research in areas such as analysis of gene functions in defense against insects and perennial growth. Sequences from this study have been deposited in NCBI GenBank under the accession numbers EF144175 to EF148838.

  9. Science: Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This article reviews and compares five recent secondary science texts: Addison-Wesley Life Science (Gr. 7-9); Prentice-Hall Life Science (Gr. 7-9); Scott Foresman Biology (Gr. 9-12); Biology: Living Systems (Gr. 10-12); and Biology: The Science of Life (Gr. 10-12). (SJL)

  10. No nutritional benefits of egg cannibalism for Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on a high-quality diet.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, A H; Michaud, J P; Bayoumy, M H; Awadalla, S S; El-Gendy, M

    2017-09-11

    Egg cannibalism serves various functions in the Coccinellidae. Here we examined the fitness consequences of egg cannibalism by neonates, fourth instar larvae, and prereproductive adults of Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer, with beetles fed a diet of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller eggs. Cannibalism of two eggs by neonates had no effect on development, and cannibalism of five eggs by fourth instars did not benefit any aspect of reproduction, but delayed pupation slightly. Cannibalism of eggs by pre-reproductive adults had no effect on reproductive success in any combination of reciprocal crosses of cannibals and non-cannibals. Females did not recognize, nor avoid consuming, their own clutches, and cannibalism propensity did not change following mating and onset of oviposition in either sex. These results contrast with those for more strictly aphidophagous species in which larvae gain developmental benefits, and females may recognize and avoid filial egg clusters while using cannibalism to interfere with conspecific females, whereas males reduce egg cannibalism after mating because they cannot recognize filial clusters. Egg cannibalism may confer developmental benefits to C. maculata when diet is suboptimal, as previously shown, but no such benefits were evident on the high-quality E. kuehniella egg diet. Female C. maculata do not require aphids to reproduce and distribute their eggs broadly in the environment, given that larvae can develop on pollen and non-aphid prey. Thus, C. maculata is not subject to the intraspecific competition that selects for cannibalism in more aphidophagous species, and also lacks many secondary adaptations associated with the behaviour.

  11. Delivering high quality hip fracture rehabilitation: the perspective of occupational and physical therapy practitioners.

    PubMed

    Leland, Natalie E; Lepore, Michael; Wong, Carin; Chang, Sun Hwa; Freeman, Lynn; Crum, Karen; Gillies, Heather; Nash, Paul

    2017-01-23

    The majority of post-acute hip fracture rehabilitation in the US is delivered in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). Currently, there are limited guidelines that equip occupational and physical therapy practitioners with a summary of what constitutes evidence-based high quality rehabilitation. Thus, this study aimed to identify rehabilitation practitioners' perspectives on the practices that constitute high quality hip fracture rehabilitation. Focus groups were conducted with 99 occupational and physical therapy practitioners working in SNFs in southern California. Purposive sampling of facilities was conducted to capture variation in key characteristics known to impact care delivery for this patient population (e.g., financial resources, staffing, and patient case-mix). Questions aimed to elicit practitioners' perspectives on high quality hip fracture rehabilitation practices. Each session was audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were systematically analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Seven themes emerged: objectives of care; first 72 h; positioning, pain, and precautions; use of standardized assessments; episode of care practices; facilitating insight into progress; and interdisciplinary collaboration. Clinical guidelines are critical tools to facilitate clinical decision-making and achieve desired patient outcomes. The findings of this study highlight the practitioners' perspective on what constitutes high quality hip fracture rehabilitation. This work provides critical information to advance the development of stakeholder-driven rehabilitation clinical guidelines. Future research is needed to verify the findings from other stakeholders (e.g., patients), ensure the alignment of our findings with current evidence, and develop measures for evaluating their delivery and relationship to desired outcomes. Implications for Rehabilitation This study highlights occupational and physiotherapy therapy practitioners' perspectives on the cumulative best

  12. Secondary osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Secondary osteoporosis is less common than primary osteoporosis. It may be suspected in patients who present with a fragility fracture despite having no risk factors for osteoporosis. In addition, secondary osteoporosis should be considered if the bone density Z-score is –2.5 or less. Consider the fracture site and presence of other clinical clues to guide investigations for an underlying cause. The tests to use are those that are indicated for the suspected cause. Baseline investigations include tests for bone and mineral metabolism (calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone), liver and kidney function, full blood count and thyroid-stimulating hormone. More detailed testing may be required in patients with severe osteoporosis. PMID:27346916

  13. Absent menstrual periods - secondary

    MedlinePlus

    Amenorrhea - secondary; No periods - secondary; Absent periods - secondary; Absent menses - secondary; Absence of periods - secondary ... bleeding. When they stop taking these hormones, their periods may not return for more than 6 months. ...

  14. Fabrication of high quality and low cost microlenses on a glass substrate by direct printing technique.

    PubMed

    Zang, Zhigang; Tang, Xiaosheng; Liu, Xianming; Lei, Xiaohua; Chen, Weiming

    2014-11-20

    The fabrication of high quality and low cost microlenses on a glass substrate using a simple, rapid, and precise direct microplotting technique is shown in this paper. The fabrication method is based on the use of a microplotter system, which is significantly different from the existing inkjet, roll-to-roll printing, and reactive ion etching technology and could work with higher viscosity materials. By optimizing the parameters of voltage, dispense time, and concentration of the polymer solution, high quality microlenses with a diameter of 20 μm could be obtained. The geometrical and optical characteristics of the microlenses are analyzed by measurement of the surface profile and the imaging properties in the near-field and far-field zones as well as the diffraction pattern. We think that the fabricated microlenses could be attractive for enhancing the light extraction efficiency of light emitting diodes.

  15. Fast, scalable generation of high-quality protein multiple sequence alignments using Clustal Omega

    PubMed Central

    Sievers, Fabian; Wilm, Andreas; Dineen, David; Gibson, Toby J; Karplus, Kevin; Li, Weizhong; Lopez, Rodrigo; McWilliam, Hamish; Remmert, Michael; Söding, Johannes; Thompson, Julie D; Higgins, Desmond G

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignments are fundamental to many sequence analysis methods. Most alignments are computed using the progressive alignment heuristic. These methods are starting to become a bottleneck in some analysis pipelines when faced with data sets of the size of many thousands of sequences. Some methods allow computation of larger data sets while sacrificing quality, and others produce high-quality alignments, but scale badly with the number of sequences. In this paper, we describe a new program called Clustal Omega, which can align virtually any number of protein sequences quickly and that delivers accurate alignments. The accuracy of the package on smaller test cases is similar to that of the high-quality aligners. On larger data sets, Clustal Omega outperforms other packages in terms of execution time and quality. Clustal Omega also has powerful features for adding sequences to and exploiting information in existing alignments, making use of the vast amount of precomputed information in public databases like Pfam. PMID:21988835

  16. Fast, scalable generation of high-quality protein multiple sequence alignments using Clustal Omega.

    PubMed

    Sievers, Fabian; Wilm, Andreas; Dineen, David; Gibson, Toby J; Karplus, Kevin; Li, Weizhong; Lopez, Rodrigo; McWilliam, Hamish; Remmert, Michael; Söding, Johannes; Thompson, Julie D; Higgins, Desmond G

    2011-10-11

    Multiple sequence alignments are fundamental to many sequence analysis methods. Most alignments are computed using the progressive alignment heuristic. These methods are starting to become a bottleneck in some analysis pipelines when faced with data sets of the size of many thousands of sequences. Some methods allow computation of larger data sets while sacrificing quality, and others produce high-quality alignments, but scale badly with the number of sequences. In this paper, we describe a new program called Clustal Omega, which can align virtually any number of protein sequences quickly and that delivers accurate alignments. The accuracy of the package on smaller test cases is similar to that of the high-quality aligners. On larger data sets, Clustal Omega outperforms other packages in terms of execution time and quality. Clustal Omega also has powerful features for adding sequences to and exploiting information in existing alignments, making use of the vast amount of precomputed information in public databases like Pfam.

  17. A Novel Approach to High-Quality Postmortem Tissue Procurement: The GTEx Project

    PubMed Central

    Carithers, Latarsha J.; Ardlie, Kristin; Barcus, Mary; Branton, Philip A.; Britton, Angela; Buia, Stephen A.; Compton, Carolyn C.; DeLuca, David S.; Peter-Demchok, Joanne; Gelfand, Ellen T.; Guan, Ping; Korzeniewski, Greg E.; Lockhart, Nicole C.; Rabiner, Chana A.; Rao, Abhi K.; Robinson, Karna L.; Roche, Nancy V.; Sawyer, Sherilyn J.; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Shive, Charles E.; Smith, Anna M.; Sobin, Leslie H.; Undale, Anita H.; Valentino, Kimberly M.; Vaught, Jim; Young, Taylor R.

    2015-01-01

    The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project, sponsored by the NIH Common Fund, was established to study the correlation between human genetic variation and tissue-specific gene expression in non-diseased individuals. A significant challenge was the collection of high-quality biospecimens for extensive genomic analyses. Here we describe how a successful infrastructure for biospecimen procurement was developed and implemented by multiple research partners to support the prospective collection, annotation, and distribution of blood, tissues, and cell lines for the GTEx project. Other research projects can follow this model and form beneficial partnerships with rapid autopsy and organ procurement organizations to collect high quality biospecimens and associated clinical data for genomic studies. Biospecimens, clinical and genomic data, and Standard Operating Procedures guiding biospecimen collection for the GTEx project are available to the research community. PMID:26484571

  18. (-201) β-Gallium oxide substrate for high quality GaN materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roqan, I. S.; Muhammed, M. M.

    2014-03-01

    (-201) oriented β-Ga2O3 has the potential to be used as a transparent and conductive substrate for GaN-growth. The key advantages of Ga2O3 are its small lattice mismatches (4.7%), appropriate structural, thermal and electrical properties and a competitive price compared to other substrates. Optical characterization show that GaN layers grown on (-201) oriented β-Ga2O3 are dominated by intense bandedge emission with a high luminescence efficiency. Atomic force microscopy studies show a modest threading dislocation density of ~108 cm-2, while complementary Raman spectroscopy indicates that the GaN epilayer is of high quality with slight compressive strain. Room temperature time-findings suggest that the limitation of the photoluminescence lifetime (~500 ps) is due to nonradiative recombination arising from threading dislocation. Therefore, by optimizing the growth conditions, high quality material with significant optical efficiency can be obtained.

  19. 2020 vision for a high-quality, high-value maternity care system.

    PubMed

    Carter, Martha Cook; Corry, Maureen; Delbanco, Suzanne; Foster, Tina Clark-Samazan; Friedland, Robert; Gabel, Robyn; Gipson, Teresa; Jolivet, R Rima; Main, Elliott; Sakala, Carol; Simkin, Penny; Simpson, Kathleen Rice

    2010-01-01

    A concrete and useful way to create an action plan for improving the quality of maternity care in the United States is to start with a view of the desired result, a common definition and a shared vision for a high-quality, high-value maternity care system. In this paper, we present a long-term vision for the future of maternity care in the United States. We present overarching values and principles and specific attributes of a high-performing maternity care system. We put forth the "2020 Vision for a High-Quality, High-Value Maternity Care System" to serve as a positive starting place for a fruitful collaborative process to develop specific action steps for broad-based maternity care system improvement.

  20. Recent trends and observations in the design of high-quality screening collections.

    PubMed

    Renner, Steffen; Popov, Maxim; Schuffenhauer, Ansgar; Roth, Hans-Joerg; Breitenstein, Werner; Marzinzik, Andreas; Lewis, Ian; Krastel, Philipp; Nigsch, Florian; Jenkins, Jeremy; Jacoby, Edgar

    2011-04-01

    The design of a high-quality screening collection is of utmost importance for the early drug-discovery process and provides, in combination with high-quality assay systems, the foundation of future discoveries. Herein, we review recent trends and observations to successfully expand the access to bioactive chemical space, including the feedback from hit assessment interviews of high-throughput screening campaigns; recent successes with chemogenomics target family approaches, the identification of new relevant target/domain families, diversity-oriented synthesis and new emerging compound classes, and non-classical approaches, such as fragment-based screening and DNA-encoded chemical libraries. The role of in silico library design approaches are emphasized.

  1. Simultaneous extraction of high-quality RNA and DNA from small tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Triant, Deborah A; Whitehead, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Purification of high-quality DNA and RNA from a single sample is becoming increasingly important for studies seeking both genomic and transcriptomic data. We compare different methods for isolating DNA and RNA from fish embryos (Gulf killifish; Fundulus grandis) and describe an optimal technique to extract high-quality DNA and RNA from a single embryo. The optimal method utilizes a chaotropic buffer and spin column technology. From embryos weighing approximately 4 mg, we were able to isolate an average of 6.1 microg of DNA and 1.1 microg of RNA per sample. Relative amounts of DNA and RNA can be adjusted as needed per study. Although these extraction trials were conducted on fish embryos, they can be potentially applied to small samples that typically do not yield high concentrations of nucleic acids.

  2. A novel MOCVD reactor for growth of high-quality GaN-related LED layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaolin; Liu, Sheng; Zhang, Zhi; Yan, Han; Gan, Zhiyin; Fang, Haisheng

    2015-04-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN), a direct bandgap semiconductor widely used in bright light-emitting diodes (LEDs), is mostly grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. A good reactor design is critical for the production of high-quality GaN thin films. In this paper, we presented a novel buffered distributed spray (BDS) MOCVD reactor with vertical gas sprayers and horizontal gas inlets. Experiments based on a 36×2″ BDS reactor were conducted to examine influence of the process parameters, such as the operating pressure and the gas flow rate, on the growth efficiency and on the layer thickness uniformity. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) are further conducted to evaluate quality of the epitaxial layers and to check performance of the reactor. Results show that the proposed novel reactor is of high performance in growing high-quality thin films, including InGaN/GaN multiquantum wells (MQWs) structures.

  3. High-quality chalcogenide glass waveguide fabrication by hot melt smoothing and micro-trench filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yanfen; Qi, Renduo; Yuan, Chenzhi; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2016-05-01

    We propose a fabrication method for chalcogenide glass (ChG) waveguides based on hot melt smoothing and micro-trench filling. ChGs has low melting points and good flowability. Experiments show that this method can realize high quality As2S7 glass waveguides with reverse ridge structures. The attenuations of the fundamental quasi-TE mode and quasi-TM mode are 0.1 and 0.9 dB/cm, respectively. This method avoids fabrication processes, such as photolithography, lift-off, and dry or wet etching that are directly applied to the ChG films. It provides a simple way to fabricate high quality ChG waveguides, which have great potential for applications in integrated nonlinear optical devices.

  4. High-Quality Real-Time Video Inpaintingwith PixMix.

    PubMed

    Herling, Jan; Broll, Wolfgang

    2014-06-01

    While image inpainting has recently become widely available in image manipulation tools, existing approaches to video inpainting typically do not even achieve interactive frame rates yet as they are highly computationally expensive. Further, they either apply severe restrictions on the movement of the camera or do not provide a high-quality coherent video stream. In this paper we will present our approach to high-quality real-time capable image and video inpainting. Our PixMix approach even allows for the manipulation of live video streams, providing the basis for real Diminished Reality (DR) applications. We will show how our approach generates coherent video streams dealing with quite heterogeneous background environments and non-trivial camera movements, even applying constraints in real-time.

  5. Recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Huizhi; Mujumdar, Arun S; Tang, Juming; Miao, Song; Wang, Yuchuan

    2017-04-13

    Fresh foods like vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products have high water activity and they are highly heat-sensitive and easily degradable. Dehydration is one of the most common methods used to improve food shelf-life. However, drying methods used for food dehydration must not only be efficient and economic but also yield high-quality products based on flavor, nutrients, color, rehydration, uniformity, appearance, and texture. This paper reviews some new drying technologies developed for dehydration of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products. These include: infrared drying, microwave drying, radio frequency drying, electrohydrodynamic drying, etc., as well as hybrid drying methods combining two or more different drying techniques. A comprehensive review of recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits and aquatic products is presented and recommendations are made for future research.

  6. Gain high-quality colloidal quantum dots directly from natural minerals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Tian; Liu, Hui; Dong, Chao; Zheng, Wen-Jing; Han, Li-Li; Li, Lan; Qiao, Shi-Zhang; Yang, Jing; Du, Xi-Wen

    2015-03-03

    Green and simple synthesis of high-quality colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is of great importance and highly anticipated yet not fully implemented. Herein, we achieve the direct conversion of natural minerals to highly uniform, crystalline lead sulfide CQDs based on laser irradiation in liquid. The trivial fragmentation of mineral particles by an intense nanosecond laser was found to create a localized high degree of monomer supersaturation in oleic acid, initiating the LaMer growth of uniform CQDs. The photoconductive device made of these CQDs exhibits a competitive temporal response of photocurrent with those highly sensitive photodetectors based on PbS CQDs reported in the literature. Our synthesis strategy paves the way for the most environmentally friendly and convenient mass production of high-quality uniform CQDs.

  7. Sequencing strategy for the whole mitochondrial genome resulting in high quality sequences

    PubMed Central

    Fendt, Liane; Zimmermann, Bettina; Daniaux, Martin; Parson, Walther

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that a reliable and fail-safe sequencing strategy is mandatory for high-quality analysis of mitochondrial (mt) DNA, as the sequencing and base-calling process is prone to error. Here, we present a high quality, reliable and easy handling manual procedure for the sequencing of full mt genomes that is also appropriate for laboratories where fully automated processes are not available. Results We amplified whole mitochondrial genomes as two overlapping PCR-fragments comprising each about 8500 bases in length. We developed a set of 96 primers that can be applied to a (manual) 96 well-based technology, which resulted in at least double strand sequence coverage of the entire coding region (codR). Conclusion This elaborated sequencing strategy is straightforward and allows for an unambiguous sequence analysis and interpretation including sometimes challenging phenomena such as point and length heteroplasmy that are relevant for the investigation of forensic and clinical samples. PMID:19331681

  8. Large, high quality single-crystals of the new Topological Kondo Insulator, SmB6

    PubMed Central

    Hatnean, M. Ciomaga; Lees, M. R.; Paul, D. M. K.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2013-01-01

    SmB6 has recently been predicted to be a Topological Kondo Insulator, the first strongly correlated heavy fermion material to exhibit topological surface states. High quality crystals are necessary to investigate the topological properties of this material. Single crystal growth of the rare earth hexaboride, SmB6, has been carried out by the floating zone technique using a high power xenon arc lamp image furnace. Large, high quality single-crystals are obtained by this technique. The crystals produced by the floating zone technique are free of contamination from flux materials and have been characterised by resistivity and magnetisation measurements. These crystals are ideally suited for the investigation of both the surface and bulk properties of SmB6. PMID:24166216

  9. Attempt at cloning high-quality goldfish breed 'Ranchu' by fin-cultured cell nuclear transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Daisuke; Takahashi, Akito; Takai, Akinori; Ohta, Hiromi; Ueno, Koichi

    2012-02-01

    The viability of ornamental fish culture relies on the maintenance of high-quality breeds. To improve the profitability of culture operations we attempted to produce cloned fish from the somatic nucleus of the high-quality Japanese goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) breed 'Ranchu'. We transplanted the nucleus of a cultured fin-cell from an adult Ranchu into the non-enucleated egg of the original goldfish breed 'Wakin'. Of the 2323 eggs we treated, 802 underwent cleavage, 321 reached the blastula stage, and 51 reached the gastrula stage. Two of the gastrulas developed until the hatching stage. A considerable number of nuclear transplants retained only the donor nucleus. Some of these had only a 2n nucleus derived from the same donor fish. Our results provide insights into the process of somatic cell nuclear transplantation in teleosts, and the cloning of Ranchu.

  10. Universal and rapid salt-extraction of high quality genomic DNA for PCR-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Aljanabi, S M; Martinez, I

    1997-11-15

    A very simple, fast, universally applicable and reproducible method to extract high quality megabase genomic DNA from different organisms is described. We applied the same method to extract high quality complex genomic DNA from different tissues (wheat, barley, potato, beans, pear and almond leaves as well as fungi, insects and shrimps' fresh tissue) without any modification. The method does not require expensive and environmentally hazardous reagents and equipment. It can be performed even in low technology laboratories. The amount of tissue required by this method is approximately 50-100 mg. The quantity and the quality of the DNA extracted by this method is high enough to perform hundreds of PCR-based reactions and also to be used in other DNA manipulation techniques such as restriction digestion, Southern blot and cloning.

  11. How to conduct clinical research studies using high quality-clinical databases in the critical care.

    PubMed

    Francais, Adrien; Vesin, Aurélien; Timsit, Jean-François

    2008-09-01

    The sources of intensive care-related information and the means of communication increase rapidly. We presented here an overview of what should be done to collect high quality database. In a second part, the principle of the choice of the research question, the outcome, the explanatory variables and the statistical methods to address the question are overviewed, emphasizing major and frequent pitfalls which should be avoided.

  12. Longitudinal Splitting of Boron Nitride Nanotubes for the Facile Synthesis of High Quality Boron Nitride Nanoribbons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-24

    Boron Nitride Nanotubes for the Facile Synthesis of High Quality Boron Nitride Nanoribbons Kris J. Erickson,†,‡,§ Ashley...We report the synthesis of BNNRs through the potassium-intercalation-induced longitudinal splitting of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). This facile...COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Longitudinal Splitting of Boron Nitride Nanotubes for the Facile Synthesis of High

  13. Fully automated high-quality NMR structure determination of small (2)H-enriched proteins.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuefeng; Schneider, William M; Shen, Yang; Raman, Srivatsan; Inouye, Masayori; Baker, David; Roth, Monica J; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2010-12-01

    Determination of high-quality small protein structures by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods generally requires acquisition and analysis of an extensive set of structural constraints. The process generally demands extensive backbone and sidechain resonance assignments, and weeks or even months of data collection and interpretation. Here we demonstrate rapid and high-quality protein NMR structure generation using CS-Rosetta with a perdeuterated protein sample made at a significantly reduced cost using new bacterial culture condensation methods. Our strategy provides the basis for a high-throughput approach for routine, rapid, high-quality structure determination of small proteins. As an example, we demonstrate the determination of a high-quality 3D structure of a small 8 kDa protein, E. coli cold shock protein A (CspA), using <4 days of data collection and fully automated data analysis methods together with CS-Rosetta. The resulting CspA structure is highly converged and in excellent agreement with the published crystal structure, with a backbone RMSD value of 0.5 Å, an all atom RMSD value of 1.2 Å to the crystal structure for well-defined regions, and RMSD value of 1.1 Å to crystal structure for core, non-solvent exposed sidechain atoms. Cross validation of the structure with (15)N- and (13)C-edited NOESY data obtained with a perdeuterated (15)N, (13)C-enriched (13)CH(3) methyl protonated CspA sample confirms that essentially all of these independently-interpreted NOE-based constraints are already satisfied in each of the 10 CS-Rosetta structures. By these criteria, the CS-Rosetta structure generated by fully automated analysis of data for a perdeuterated sample provides an accurate structure of CspA. This represents a general approach for rapid, automated structure determination of small proteins by NMR.

  14. Fabrication of precision high quality facets on molecular beam epitaxy material

    DOEpatents

    Petersen, Holly E.; Goward, William D.; Dijaili, Sol P.

    2001-01-01

    Fabricating mirrored vertical surfaces on semiconductor layered material grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Low energy chemically assisted ion beam etching (CAIBE) is employed to prepare mirrored vertical surfaces on MBE-grown III-V materials under unusually low concentrations of oxygen in evacuated etching atmospheres of chlorine and xenon ion beams. UV-stabilized smooth-surfaced photoresist materials contribute to highly vertical, high quality mirrored surfaces during the etching.

  15. High quality planar silicon nitride microdisk resonators for integrated photonics in the visible wavelength range.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Ehsan Shah; Yegnanarayanan, Siva; Atabaki, Amir Hossein; Soltani, Mohammad; Adibi, Ali

    2009-08-17

    High quality factor (Q approximately 3.4 x 10(6)) microdisk resonators are demonstrated in a Si(3)N(4) on SiO(2) platform at 652-660 nm with integrated in-plane coupling waveguides. Critical coupling to several radial modes is demonstrated using a rib-like structure with a thin Si(3)N(4) layer at the air-substrate interface to improve the coupling.

  16. Delivery of high quality stroke and vision care: experiences of UK services.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Fiona; Walker, Marion; Rockliffe, Janet; Pollock, Alex; Noonan, Carmel; Howard, Claire; Currie, Jim

    2015-07-02

    We sought to identify exemplars of high quality care provision from established stroke vision services. We identified areas of high quality services across the UK, judged as having integrated stroke/vision care provision for stroke survivors. Healthcare professionals were selected to participate in 1:1 interviews or focus groups. A strengths-weaknesses-opportunities-threats (SWOT) framework was used to lead the discussion in a semi-structured format. Thematic analysis was undertaken. Interviewees (n = 24) from 14 NHS Trusts included eye clinic managers, nurses, orthoptists, occupational therapists and physiotherapists. Identified strengths of their services included established communication, training provision for stroke team staff, "open access" for referrals, use of standardised screening/referral forms, provision of lay summaries and information sheets, patients assessed on the stroke unit with continued follow-up and initial visual assessments made within 1 week of stroke onset. Weaknesses included lack of funding, insufficient orthoptic cover, and time consuming retraining of stroke staff because of staff rotation and changes. Opportunities included increasing the number (or length) of orthoptic sessions and training of stroke staff. Perceived threats related to funding and increased appointment waiting times. Practical elements for improved stroke and vision care provision are highlighted which can be implemented with relatively little financial inputs. Implications for Rehabilitation Integrated vision services within stroke units can improve the detection of visual problems in stroke survivors leading to earlier visual rehabilitation. Orthoptists within core stroke teams are beneficial to the delivery of a high quality service. This study illustrates clear practical elements to support the provision of high quality integrated stroke and vision services. Relatively little financial inputs are required to fund such services but with larger potential to

  17. Large-Area and High-Quality 2D Transition Metal Telluride

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Jiadong; Liu, Fucai; Lin, Junhao; ...

    2016-11-17

    Large-area and high-quality 2D transition metal tellurides are synthesized in this paper by the chemical vapor deposition method. The as-grown WTe2 maintains two different stacking sequences in the bilayer, where the atomic structure of the stacking boundary is revealed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the low-temperature transport measurements reveal a novel semimetal-to-insulator transition in WTe2 layers and an enhanced superconductivity in few-layer MoTe2.

  18. Teaching Surgical Procedures with Movies: Tips for High-quality Video Clips

    PubMed Central

    Jacquemart, Mathieu; Bouletreau, Pierre; Breton, Pierre; Mojallal, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Video must now be considered as a precious tool for learning surgery. However, the medium does present production challenges, and currently, quality movies are not always accessible. We developed a series of 7 surgical videos and made them available on a publicly accessible internet website. Our videos have been viewed by thousands of people worldwide. High-quality educational movies must respect strategic and technical points to be reliable. PMID:27757342

  19. ISHTAR: an architecture for a high-quality electronic catalog on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sabbata, Piero; Zuffi, Silvia; Correia, Ana Isabel; Benatti, Gianpaolo; Fantin, Sergio

    1999-12-01

    This paper present the results of the activities concerning the architecture of a high quality catalogue for made-to- measure garments undertaken in the ISHTAR project. The syste is based upon servers and standard Internet browsers. The main issues faced in this paper are the definition of an architecture to obtain the best trade off between performance and representation of apparel/textile goods and the introduction of a color management system that can benefit also generic internet users.

  20. An improved, high-quality draft genome sequence of the Germination-Arrest Factor-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens WH6.

    PubMed

    Kimbrel, Jeffrey A; Givan, Scott A; Halgren, Anne B; Creason, Allison L; Mills, Dallice I; Banowetz, Gary M; Armstrong, Donald J; Chang, Jeff H

    2010-09-28

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a genetically and physiologically diverse species of bacteria present in many habitats and in association with plants. This species of bacteria produces a large array of secondary metabolites with potential as natural products. P. fluorescens isolate WH6 produces Germination-Arrest Factor (GAF), a predicted small peptide or amino acid analog with herbicidal activity that specifically inhibits germination of seeds of graminaceous species. We used a hybrid next-generation sequencing approach to develop a high-quality draft genome sequence for P. fluorescens WH6. We employed automated, manual, and experimental methods to further improve the draft genome sequence. From this assembly of 6.27 megabases, we predicted 5876 genes, of which 3115 were core to P. fluorescens and 1567 were unique to WH6. Comparative genomic studies of WH6 revealed high similarity in synteny and orthology of genes with P. fluorescens SBW25. A phylogenomic study also placed WH6 in the same lineage as SBW25. In a previous non-saturating mutagenesis screen we identified two genes necessary for GAF activity in WH6. Mapping of their flanking sequences revealed genes that encode a candidate anti-sigma factor and an aminotransferase. Finally, we discovered several candidate virulence and host-association mechanisms, one of which appears to be a complete type III secretion system. The improved high-quality draft genome sequence of WH6 contributes towards resolving the P. fluorescens species, providing additional impetus for establishing two separate lineages in P. fluorescens. Despite the high levels of orthology and synteny to SBW25, WH6 still had a substantial number of unique genes and represents another source for the discovery of genes with implications in affecting plant growth and health. Two genes are demonstrably necessary for GAF and further characterization of their proteins is important for developing natural products as control measure against grassy weeds

  1. Efficient isolation of high-quality RNA from lotus Nelumbo nucifera ssp nucifera tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y J; Hao, X Y; Liang, Z S; Ke, W D; Guo, H B

    2013-01-24

    Nelumbo nucifera is widely used as food, as an ornamental, in medicine, and as packing material; it is also reported to have anti-HIV effects and antioxidant capacity. We sought an improved method for extracting high-quality total RNA from different tissues of N. nucifera. Four methods for RNA extraction were assessed for their ability to recover high-quality RNA applicable for evaluation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene expression profiles. The recovery and quality of the RNA obtained from five different tissues by the best CTAB-LiCl method were evaluated through UV light absorbance. Both A(260)/A(280) and A(260)/A(230) absorbance ratios were more than 2.0; the yield ranged from 59.87 to 163.75 μg/g fresh weight. The brightness of the 28S band was approximately twice that of 18S; the latter was also considered as high-quality RNA. The PPO gene fragment (606 bp) was successfully amplified by RT-PCR, demonstrating the integrity of the isolated RNA. The relative expression levels of the PPO gene based on RT-PCR in five tissues of lotus were: rhizome buds (2.66), young leaves (2.42), fresh cut rhizome (2.02), petals (1.80), and petiole (1.65), using housekeeping gene β-actin as an internal control. We concluded that the total RNA isolated by this protocol is of sufficient quality for molecular applications.

  2. High-quality embryos retain their implantation capability in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Farhi, Jacob; Ben-Haroush, Avi; Sapir, Onit; Fisch, Benjamin; Ashkenazi, Jacob

    2010-11-01

    To assess the effect of obesity on implantation rate, pregnancy rate and course of pregnancy in young women undergoing IVF in whom only high-quality embryos were transferred, a cohort study included women attending the IVF unit in 2006-2007 with favourable parameters to achieve pregnancy (<38years, fewer than three IVF cycles, transfer of two high-quality embryos), grouped by body mass index (BMI). Of 230 women, 160 had a BMI ⩽25kg/m(2) (mean 21.6±2.2) and 73 had BMI >25kg/m(2) (mean 29.5±3.7). The overweight group had a higher consumption of gonadotrophins during stimulation. There were no between-group differences in treatment protocols, duration of gonadotrophin stimulation, maximal oestradiol concentrations, endometrial thickness and number of oocytes retrieved/fertilized, or in rates of pregnancy (51.3%, 52.1%), implantation (34.5%, 37.5%), multiple pregnancy, and abortion. Rate of gestational diabetes or pregnancy-induced hypertension was higher in the overweight group (23.3%, 8.2%; P=0.045). Within the overweight group, those with multiple pregnancies were at highest risk (31.3%, 6.9%; P=0.031). In conclusion, implantation and pregnancy rates are not compromised in overweight women when high-quality embryos are transferred. However, in overweight women, pregnancy complications remain high, mainly in those with multiple pregnancies.

  3. Large-area high-quality 2D ultrathin Mo2C superconducting crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chuan; Wang, Libin; Liu, Zhibo; Chen, Long; Guo, Jingkun; Kang, Ning; Ma, Xiu-Liang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Ren, Wencai

    2015-11-01

    Transition metal carbides (TMCs) are a large family of materials with many intriguing properties and applications, and high-quality 2D TMCs are essential for investigating new physics and properties in the 2D limit. However, the 2D TMCs obtained so far are chemically functionalized, defective nanosheets having maximum lateral dimensions of ~10 μm. Here we report the fabrication of large-area high-quality 2D ultrathin α-Mo2C crystals by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The crystals are a few nanometres thick, over 100 μm in size, and very stable under ambient conditions. They show 2D characteristics of superconducting transitions that are consistent with Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless behaviour and show strong anisotropy with magnetic field orientation; moreover, the superconductivity is also strongly dependent on the crystal thickness. Our versatile CVD process allows the fabrication of other high-quality 2D TMC crystals, such as ultrathin WC and TaC crystals, which further expand the large family of 2D materials.

  4. Designing a Broadband Pump for High-Quality Micro-Lasers via Modified Net Radiation Method.

    PubMed

    Nechayev, Sergey; Reusswig, Philip D; Baldo, Marc A; Rotschild, Carmel

    2016-12-07

    High-quality micro-lasers are key ingredients in non-linear optics, communication, sensing and low-threshold solar-pumped lasers. However, such micro-lasers exhibit negligible absorption of free-space broadband pump light. Recently, this limitation was lifted by cascade energy transfer, in which the absorption and quality factor are modulated with wavelength, enabling non-resonant pumping of high-quality micro-lasers and solar-pumped laser to operate at record low solar concentration. Here, we present a generic theoretical framework for modeling the absorption, emission and energy transfer of incoherent radiation between cascade sensitizer and laser gain media. Our model is based on linear equations of the modified net radiation method and is therefore robust, fast converging and has low complexity. We apply this formalism to compute the optimal parameters of low-threshold solar-pumped lasers. It is revealed that the interplay between the absorption and self-absorption of such lasers defines the optimal pump absorption below the maximal value, which is in contrast to conventional lasers for which full pump absorption is desired. Numerical results are compared to experimental data on a sensitized Nd(3+):YAG cavity, and quantitative agreement with theoretical models is found. Our work modularizes the gain and sensitizing components and paves the way for the optimal design of broadband-pumped high-quality micro-lasers and efficient solar-pumped lasers.

  5. Fabrication of high quality copper indium disulphide absorbers by bell-like wave modulated electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ke; Wang, Xiaoyun; Liu, Jingjing; Huang, Yuqian; Xue, Ming; Kuang, Zhongcheng; Wan, Shaoming; Du, Zuliang

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Cu/In bilayer was fabricated by BMSMW deposition technique. • High quality CIS film was successfully fabricated. • A preferable ratio of Cu:In:S close to 1:1:2 was approached. • The SPV response as high as 6 mV was achieved. - Abstract: High-quality CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) thin films have been fabricated by sulfurization of electrodeposited copper–indium bilayer. A novel bell-like wave modulated square wave (BWMSW) electrodeposition technique is employed for the deposition of copper thin film. Three independent parameters (current or potential, frequency, duty cycle) are available for the BWMSW electrodeposition, which is different from the traditional electrodeposition technique with only one adjustable parameter (current or potential). The influences of deposition parameters such as frequency, duty cycle and the concentration of complexing agent are investigated. Benefited from the high quality copper film obtained by the BWMSW technique, the indium film is electrodeposited successfully on the copper layer to form a compact copper–indium alloy bilayer. After sulfurized at 600 °C for 60 min, the phase pure CIS film is obtained with better crystallinity. The structures, morphologies and optoelectronic properties of the CIS film are also characterized.

  6. Large-area high-quality 2D ultrathin Mo2C superconducting crystals.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuan; Wang, Libin; Liu, Zhibo; Chen, Long; Guo, Jingkun; Kang, Ning; Ma, Xiu-Liang; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Ren, Wencai

    2015-11-01

    Transition metal carbides (TMCs) are a large family of materials with many intriguing properties and applications, and high-quality 2D TMCs are essential for investigating new physics and properties in the 2D limit. However, the 2D TMCs obtained so far are chemically functionalized, defective nanosheets having maximum lateral dimensions of ∼10 μm. Here we report the fabrication of large-area high-quality 2D ultrathin α-Mo2C crystals by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The crystals are a few nanometres thick, over 100 μm in size, and very stable under ambient conditions. They show 2D characteristics of superconducting transitions that are consistent with Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless behaviour and show strong anisotropy with magnetic field orientation; moreover, the superconductivity is also strongly dependent on the crystal thickness. Our versatile CVD process allows the fabrication of other high-quality 2D TMC crystals, such as ultrathin WC and TaC crystals, which further expand the large family of 2D materials.

  7. Tele-intensivists can instruct non-physicians to acquire high-quality ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Levine, Andrea R; McCurdy, Michael T; Zubrow, Marc T; Papali, Alfred; Mallemat, Haney A; Verceles, Avelino C

    2015-10-01

    Intensive care unit telemedicine (tele-ICU) uses audiovisual systems to remotely monitor and manage patients. Intensive care unit ultrasound can augment an otherwise limited bedside evaluation. To date, no studies have utilized tele-ICU technology to assess the quality and clinical use of real-time ultrasound images. We assessed whether tele-intensivists can instruct nonphysicians to obtain high-quality, clinically useful ultrasound images. This prospective pilot evaluated the effectiveness of a brief educational session of nonphysician "ultrasonographers" on their ability to obtain ultrasound images (right internal jugular vein, bilateral lung apices and bases, cardiac subxiphoid view, bladder) with real-time tele-intensivist guidance. All ultrasound screen images were simultaneously photographed with a 2-way camera and saved on the ultrasound machine. The tele-intensivist assessed image quality, and an independent ultrasound expert rated their use in guiding clinical decisions. The intensivist rated the tele-ICU camera images as high quality (70/77, 91%) and suitable for guiding clinical decisions (74/77, 96%). Only bilateral lung apices demonstrated differences in quality and clinical use. All other images were rated noninferior and clinically useful. Tele-intensivists can guide minimally trained nonphysicians to obtain high-quality, clinically useful ultrasound images. For most anatomic sites, tele-ICU images are of similar quality to those acquired directly by ultrasound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Designing a Broadband Pump for High-Quality Micro-Lasers via Modified Net Radiation Method

    PubMed Central

    Nechayev, Sergey; Reusswig, Philip D.; Baldo, Marc A.; Rotschild, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    High-quality micro-lasers are key ingredients in non-linear optics, communication, sensing and low-threshold solar-pumped lasers. However, such micro-lasers exhibit negligible absorption of free-space broadband pump light. Recently, this limitation was lifted by cascade energy transfer, in which the absorption and quality factor are modulated with wavelength, enabling non-resonant pumping of high-quality micro-lasers and solar-pumped laser to operate at record low solar concentration. Here, we present a generic theoretical framework for modeling the absorption, emission and energy transfer of incoherent radiation between cascade sensitizer and laser gain media. Our model is based on linear equations of the modified net radiation method and is therefore robust, fast converging and has low complexity. We apply this formalism to compute the optimal parameters of low-threshold solar-pumped lasers. It is revealed that the interplay between the absorption and self-absorption of such lasers defines the optimal pump absorption below the maximal value, which is in contrast to conventional lasers for which full pump absorption is desired. Numerical results are compared to experimental data on a sensitized Nd3+:YAG cavity, and quantitative agreement with theoretical models is found. Our work modularizes the gain and sensitizing components and paves the way for the optimal design of broadband-pumped high-quality micro-lasers and efficient solar-pumped lasers. PMID:27924844

  9. Simple, inexpensive technique for high-quality smartphone fundus photography in human and animal eyes.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Luis J; Kim, David Y; Mukai, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We describe in detail a relatively simple technique of fundus photography in human and rabbit eyes using a smartphone, an inexpensive app for the smartphone, and instruments that are readily available in an ophthalmic practice. Methods. Fundus images were captured with a smartphone and a 20D lens with or without a Koeppe lens. By using the coaxial light source of the phone, this system works as an indirect ophthalmoscope that creates a digital image of the fundus. The application whose software allows for independent control of focus, exposure, and light intensity during video filming was used. With this app, we recorded high-definition videos of the fundus and subsequently extracted high-quality, still images from the video clip. Results. The described technique of smartphone fundus photography was able to capture excellent high-quality fundus images in both children under anesthesia and in awake adults. Excellent images were acquired with the 20D lens alone in the clinic, and the addition of the Koeppe lens in the operating room resulted in the best quality images. Successful photodocumentation of rabbit fundus was achieved in control and experimental eyes. Conclusion. The currently described system was able to take consistently high-quality fundus photographs in patients and in animals using readily available instruments that are portable with simple power sources. It is relatively simple to master, is relatively inexpensive, and can take advantage of the expanding mobile-telephone networks for telemedicine.

  10. Simple, Inexpensive Technique for High-Quality Smartphone Fundus Photography in Human and Animal Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Haddock, Luis J.; Kim, David Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We describe in detail a relatively simple technique of fundus photography in human and rabbit eyes using a smartphone, an inexpensive app for the smartphone, and instruments that are readily available in an ophthalmic practice. Methods. Fundus images were captured with a smartphone and a 20D lens with or without a Koeppe lens. By using the coaxial light source of the phone, this system works as an indirect ophthalmoscope that creates a digital image of the fundus. The application whose software allows for independent control of focus, exposure, and light intensity during video filming was used. With this app, we recorded high-definition videos of the fundus and subsequently extracted high-quality, still images from the video clip. Results. The described technique of smartphone fundus photography was able to capture excellent high-quality fundus images in both children under anesthesia and in awake adults. Excellent images were acquired with the 20D lens alone in the clinic, and the addition of the Koeppe lens in the operating room resulted in the best quality images. Successful photodocumentation of rabbit fundus was achieved in control and experimental eyes. Conclusion. The currently described system was able to take consistently high-quality fundus photographs in patients and in animals using readily available instruments that are portable with simple power sources. It is relatively simple to master, is relatively inexpensive, and can take advantage of the expanding mobile-telephone networks for telemedicine. PMID:24171108

  11. Fast Batch Production of High-Quality Graphene Films in a Sealed Thermal Molecular Movement System.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianbao; Hu, Junxiong; Li, Qi; Wang, Rubing; Li, Weiwei; Guo, Yufen; Zhu, Yongbo; Liu, Fengkui; Ullah, Zaka; Dong, Guocai; Zeng, Zhongming; Liu, Liwei

    2017-07-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of high-quality graphene has emerged as the most promising technique in terms of its integrated manufacturing. However, there lacks a controllable growth method for producing high-quality and a large-quantity graphene films, simultaneously, at a fast growth rate, regardless of roll-to-roll (R2R) or batch-to-batch (B2B) methods. Here, a stationary-atmospheric-pressure CVD (SAPCVD) system based on thermal molecular movement, which enables fast B2B growth of continuous and uniform graphene films on tens of stacked Cu(111) foils, with a growth rate of 1.5 µm s(-1) , is demonstrated. The monolayer graphene of batch production is found to nucleate from arrays of well-aligned domains, and the films possess few defects and exhibit high carrier mobility up to 6944 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room temperature. The results indicate that the SAPCVD system combined with single-domain Cu(111) substrates makes it possible to realize fast batch-growth of high-quality graphene films, which opens up enormous opportunities to use this unique 2D material for industrial device applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. High Quality Binary Protein Interaction Map of the Yeast Interactome Network

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiyuan; Braun, Pascal; Yildirim, Muhammed A.; Lemmens, Irma; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Sahalie, Julie; Hirozane-Kishikawa, Tomoko; Gebreab, Fana; Li, Na; Simonis, Nicolas; Hao, Tong; Rual, Jean-Franćois; Dricot, Amélie; Vazquez, Alexei; Murray, Ryan R.; Simon, Christophe; Tardivo, Leah; Tam, Stanley; Svrzikapa, Nenad; Fan, Changyu; de Smet, Anne-Sophie; Motyl, Adriana; Hudson, Michael E.; Park, Juyong; Xin, Xiaofeng; Cusick, Michael E.; Moore, Troy; Boone, Charlie; Snyder, Michael; Roth, Frederick P.; Barabási, Albert-László; Tavernier, Jan; Hill, David E.; Vidal, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Current yeast interactome network maps contain several hundred molecular complexes with limited and somewhat controversial representation of direct binary interactions. We carried out a comparative quality assessment of current yeast interactome datasets, demonstrating that high-throughput yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) provides high-quality binary interaction information. As a large fraction of the yeast binary interactome remains to be mapped, we developed an empirically-controlled mapping framework to produce a “second-generation” high-quality high-throughput Y2H dataset covering ~20% of all yeast binary interactions. Both Y2H and affinity-purification followed by mass spectrometry (AP/MS) data are of equally high quality but of a fundamentally different and complementary nature resulting in networks with different topological and biological properties. Compared to co-complex interactome models, this binary map is enriched for transient signaling interactions and inter-complex connections with a highly significant clustering between essential proteins. Rather than correlating with essentiality, protein connectivity correlates with genetic pleiotropy. PMID:18719252

  13. Designing a Broadband Pump for High-Quality Micro-Lasers via Modified Net Radiation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechayev, Sergey; Reusswig, Philip D.; Baldo, Marc A.; Rotschild, Carmel

    2016-12-01

    High-quality micro-lasers are key ingredients in non-linear optics, communication, sensing and low-threshold solar-pumped lasers. However, such micro-lasers exhibit negligible absorption of free-space broadband pump light. Recently, this limitation was lifted by cascade energy transfer, in which the absorption and quality factor are modulated with wavelength, enabling non-resonant pumping of high-quality micro-lasers and solar-pumped laser to operate at record low solar concentration. Here, we present a generic theoretical framework for modeling the absorption, emission and energy transfer of incoherent radiation between cascade sensitizer and laser gain media. Our model is based on linear equations of the modified net radiation method and is therefore robust, fast converging and has low complexity. We apply this formalism to compute the optimal parameters of low-threshold solar-pumped lasers. It is revealed that the interplay between the absorption and self-absorption of such lasers defines the optimal pump absorption below the maximal value, which is in contrast to conventional lasers for which full pump absorption is desired. Numerical results are compared to experimental data on a sensitized Nd3+:YAG cavity, and quantitative agreement with theoretical models is found. Our work modularizes the gain and sensitizing components and paves the way for the optimal design of broadband-pumped high-quality micro-lasers and efficient solar-pumped lasers.

  14. Cultivating Medical Education Research Mentorship as a Pathway Towards High Quality Medical Education Research.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Rebecca D; Visintainer, Paul F; La Rochelle, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    The lack of effective and consistent research mentorship and research mentor training in both undergraduate medical education (UME) and graduate medical education (GME) is a critical constraint on the development of innovative and high quality medical education research. Clinical research mentors are often not familiar with the nuances and context of conducting education research. Clinician-educators, meanwhile, often lack the skills in developing and conducting rigorous research. Mentors who are not prepared to articulate potential scholarship pathways for their mentees risk limiting the mentee's progress in early stages of their career. In fact, the relative paucity of experienced medical education research mentors arguably contributes to the perpetuation of a cycle leading to fewer well-trained researchers in medical education, a lack of high quality medical education research, and relative stagnation in medical education innovation. There is a path forward, however. Integration of doctoral-level educators, structured inter-departmental efforts, and external mentorship provide opportunities for faculty to gain traction in their medical education research efforts. An investment in medical education research mentors will ensure rigorous research for high quality innovation in medical education and patient care.

  15. 75 FR 39220 - Charter Schools Program (CSP) Grants for Replication and Expansion of High-Quality Charter Schools

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Charter Schools Program (CSP) Grants for Replication and Expansion of High-Quality Charter Schools AGENCY... for new awards for FY 2010 for the Charter Schools Program Grants for Replication and Expansion of High-Quality Charter Schools. That notice specified that applications must be submitted by July 7, 2010...

  16. 75 FR 70289 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... COMMISSION Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China... coated paper suitable for high-quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses (``certain coated paper... Tariff Schedule of the United States, that the U.S. Department of Commerce has determined...

  17. From Research to Practice: Which Research Strategy Contributes More to Clinical Excellence? Comparing High-Volume versus High-Quality Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Tchetchik, Anat; Grinstein, Amir; Manes, Eran; Shapira, Daniel; Durst, Ronen

    2015-01-01

    The question when and to what extent academic research can benefit society is of great interest to policy-makers and the academic community. Physicians in university hospitals represent a highly relevant test-group for studying the link between research and practice because they engage in biomedical academic research while also providing medical care of measurable quality. Physicians’ research contribution to medical practice can be driven by either high-volume or high-quality research productivity, as often pursuing one productivity strategy excludes the other. To empirically examine the differential contribution to medical practice of the two strategies, we collected secondary data on departments across three specializations (Cardiology, Oncology and Orthopedics) in 50 U.S.-based university hospitals served by 4,330 physicians. Data on volume and quality of biomedical research at each department was correlated with publicly available ratings of departments’ quality of care, demonstrating that high-quality research has significantly greater contribution to quality of care than high-volume research. PMID:26107296

  18. Text categorization models for high-quality article retrieval in internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Aphinyanaphongs, Yindalon; Tsamardinos, Ioannis; Statnikov, Alexander; Hardin, Douglas; Aliferis, Constantin F

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Finding the best scientific evidence that applies to a patient problem is becoming exceedingly difficult due to the exponential growth of medical publications. The objective of this study was to apply machine learning techniques to automatically identify high-quality, content-specific articles for one time period in internal medicine and compare their performance with previous Boolean-based PubMed clinical query filters of Haynes et al. DESIGN The selection criteria of the ACP Journal Club for articles in internal medicine were the basis for identifying high-quality articles in the areas of etiology, prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment. Naive Bayes, a specialized AdaBoost algorithm, and linear and polynomial support vector machines were applied to identify these articles. MEASUREMENTS The machine learning models were compared in each category with each other and with the clinical query filters using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, 11-point average recall precision, and a sensitivity/specificity match method. RESULTS In most categories, the data-induced models have better or comparable sensitivity, specificity, and precision than the clinical query filters. The polynomial support vector machine models perform the best among all learning methods in ranking the articles as evaluated by area under the receiver operating curve and 11-point average recall precision. CONCLUSION This research shows that, using machine learning methods, it is possible to automatically build models for retrieving high-quality, content-specific articles using inclusion or citation by the ACP Journal Club as a gold standard in a given time period in internal medicine that perform better than the 1994 PubMed clinical query filters.

  19. High quality copy number and genotype data from FFPE samples using Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) microarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuker; Carlton, Victoria E.H.; Karlin-Neumann, George; Sapolsky, Ronald; Zhang, Li; Moorhead, Martin; Wang, Zhigang C.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Warren, Robert; Walther, Axel; Bondy, Melissa; Sahin, Aysegul; Krahe, Ralf; Tuna, Musaffe; Thompson, Patricia A.; Spellman, Paul T.; Gray, Joe W.; Mills, Gordon B.; Faham, Malek

    2009-02-24

    A major challenge facing DNA copy number (CN) studies of tumors is that most banked samples with extensive clinical follow-up information are Formalin-Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE). DNA from FFPE samples generally underperforms or suffers high failure rates compared to fresh frozen samples because of DNA degradation and cross-linking during FFPE fixation and processing. As FFPE protocols may vary widely between labs and samples may be stored for decades at room temperature, an ideal FFPE CN technology should work on diverse sample sets. Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) technology has been applied successfully to obtain high quality CN and genotype data from cell line and frozen tumor DNA. Since the MIP probes require only a small ({approx}40 bp) target binding site, we reasoned they may be well suited to assess degraded FFPE DNA. We assessed CN with a MIP panel of 50,000 markers in 93 FFPE tumor samples from 7 diverse collections. For 38 FFPE samples from three collections we were also able to asses CN in matched fresh frozen tumor tissue. Using an input of 37 ng genomic DNA, we generated high quality CN data with MIP technology in 88% of FFPE samples from seven diverse collections. When matched fresh frozen tissue was available, the performance of FFPE DNA was comparable to that of DNA obtained from matched frozen tumor (genotype concordance averaged 99.9%), with only a modest loss in performance in FFPE. MIP technology can be used to generate high quality CN and genotype data in FFPE as well as fresh frozen samples.

  20. Text Categorization Models for High-Quality Article Retrieval in Internal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Aphinyanaphongs, Yindalon; Tsamardinos, Ioannis; Statnikov, Alexander; Hardin, Douglas; Aliferis, Constantin F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective Finding the best scientific evidence that applies to a patient problem is becoming exceedingly difficult due to the exponential growth of medical publications. The objective of this study was to apply machine learning techniques to automatically identify high-quality, content-specific articles for one time period in internal medicine and compare their performance with previous Boolean-based PubMed clinical query filters of Haynes et al. Design The selection criteria of the ACP Journal Club for articles in internal medicine were the basis for identifying high-quality articles in the areas of etiology, prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment. Naïve Bayes, a specialized AdaBoost algorithm, and linear and polynomial support vector machines were applied to identify these articles. Measurements The machine learning models were compared in each category with each other and with the clinical query filters using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, 11-point average recall precision, and a sensitivity/specificity match method. Results In most categories, the data-induced models have better or comparable sensitivity, specificity, and precision than the clinical query filters. The polynomial support vector machine models perform the best among all learning methods in ranking the articles as evaluated by area under the receiver operating curve and 11-point average recall precision. Conclusion This research shows that, using machine learning methods, it is possible to automatically build models for retrieving high-quality, content-specific articles using inclusion or citation by the ACP Journal Club as a gold standard in a given time period in internal medicine that perform better than the 1994 PubMed clinical query filters. PMID:15561789

  1. Optimum conditions for high-quality 3D reconstruction in confocal scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taehoon; Kim, Taejoong; Lee, SeungWoo; Gweon, Dae-Gab; Seo, Jungwoo

    2006-02-01

    Confocal Scanning Microscopy (CSM) is very useful to reconstruct 3D image of Bio-cells and the objects that have specification shape in higher axial and lateral resolution and widely used as measurement instrument. A 3D reconstruction is used to visualize confocal images and consists of following processes. The First process is to get 3D data by collecting a series of images at regular focus intervals (Optical Sectioning). The Second process is to fit a curve to a series of 3D data points each pixel. The Third process is to search height information that has maximum value from curve-fitting. However, because of various systematic errors (NOISE) occurred when collecting the information of images through Optical Sectioning and large peak deviation occurred from curve-fitting error, high quality 3D reconstruction is not expected. Also, it takes much time to 3d Reconstruction by using many 3D data in order to acquire high quality and much cost to improve signal-to-noise (SNR) using a higher power laser. So, we are going to define SNR, peak deviation and the order of curve-fitting as important factors and simulate the relation between the factors in order to find a optimum condition for high quality 3D reconstruction in Confoal Scanning Microscopy. If we use optimum condition obtained by this simulation, using a suitable SNR and the suitable number of data and the suitable n-th order curve-fitting, small peak deviation is expected and then, 3D reconstruction of little better quality is expected. Also, it is expected to save.

  2. High Quality RNA in Semen and Sperm: Isolation, Analysis and Potential Application in Clinical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadis, Andrew P.; Kishore, Archana; Zorrilla, Michelle; Jaffe, Thomas M.; Sanfilippo, Joseph S.; Volk, Etta; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Yatsenko, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Male infertility is a complex health condition. To our knowledge there are no molecular biomarkers of male infertility. Sperm RNA is a potential biomarker for detecting sperm abnormalities and viability at infertility clinics. However, RNA use is hindered by its inconsistent quantity, quality, multiple cell types in semen and condensed sperm structure. Materials and Methods We tested the usefulness of high quality RNA isolated from mature sperm and whole semen by our protocol, which reduces RNA degradation by maintaining semen and protocol components at 37C and decreasing processing time. We isolated RNA from 83 whole semen samples, 18 samples of motile sperm prepared by the swim-up protocol and 18 of sperm prepared by the standard Percoll gradient method. Results Electrophoretic and spectral analysis of RNA revealed high quality 18S and 28S rRNAs in 71 of 83 whole semen samples (86%) and 15 of 18 mature sperm swim-up samples (83%). However, high quality RNA was isolated from only 7 of 18 Percoll gradient sperm samples (39%). Interestingly quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of 4 somatic and 10 germ cell markers showed that whole semen and swim-up samples had similar RNA profiles. RNA sequencing revealed that most encoded proteins were involved in mature sperm function, regulation of DNA replication, transcription, translation, cell cycle and embryo development. Conclusions We believe that semen and sperm specific RNAs are highly informative biomarkers for germ cell stages and somatic cell contribution. Therefore, these RNAs could be valuable diagnostic indicators of sperm survival, fertilization and early embryogenesis, and could serve as a predictor of the in vitro fertilization prognosis. PMID:25088949

  3. Growth of high quality bulk size single crystals of inverted solubility lithium sulphate monohydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Silambarasan, A.; Rajesh, P. Ramasamy, P.

    2015-06-24

    The paper summarizes the processes of growing large lithium sulfate monohydrate (LSMH) single crystals. We have established a procedure to grow high quality bulk size single crystals of inverted solubility LSMH by a newly developed unidirectional crystallization technique called the Sankeranarayenan - Ramasamy (SR) method. The convective flow of crystal growth processes from solution and the conditions of growing crystals of various aspects were discussed. Good quality LSMH single crystal is grown of the size 20 mmX80 mm without cracks, localized-defects and inclusions. The as-grown crystals are suitable for piezoelectric and nonlinear optical applications.

  4. High-quality optical vortex-beam generation by using a multilevel vortex-producing lens.

    PubMed

    Rueda, E; Muñetón, D; Gómez, J A; Lencina, A

    2013-10-01

    In the present work, we propose a method to generate high-quality optical vortices with a reduced number of phase levels by using multilevel vortex-producing lenses (VPLs). The VPL is implemented in a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator with limited capacity to project phase levels. The proposed method significantly improves the quality of the optical vortex obtained by employing spiral phase plates with the same number of phase levels. Simulations and experimental results confirming the effectiveness of the method are presented.

  5. Large-Area and High-Quality 2D Transition Metal Telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jiadong; Liu, Fucai; Lin, Junhao; Huang, Xiangwei; Xia, Juan; Zhang, Bowei; Zeng, Qingsheng; Wang, Hong; Zhu, Chao; Niu, Lin; Wang, Xuewen; Fu, Wei; Yu, Peng; Chang, Tay-Rong; Hsu, Chuang-Han; Wu, Di; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Huang, Yizhong; Lin, Hsin; Shen, Zexiang; Yang, Changli; Lu, Li; Suenaga, Kazu; Zhou, Wu; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Liu, Guangtong; Liu, Zheng

    2016-11-17

    Large-area and high-quality 2D transition metal tellurides are synthesized in this paper by the chemical vapor deposition method. The as-grown WTe2 maintains two different stacking sequences in the bilayer, where the atomic structure of the stacking boundary is revealed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the low-temperature transport measurements reveal a novel semimetal-to-insulator transition in WTe2 layers and an enhanced superconductivity in few-layer MoTe2.

  6. Optimization of femtosecond Yb-doped fiber amplifiers for high-quality pulse compression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Wen; Lim, JinKang; Huang, Shu-Wei; Schimpf, Damian N; Kärtner, Franz X; Chang, Guoqing

    2012-12-17

    We both theoretically and experimentally investigate the optimization of femtosecond Yb-doped fiber amplifiers (YDFAs) to achieve high-quality, high-power, compressed pulses. Ultrashort pulses amplified inside YDFAs are modeled by the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation coupled to the steady-state propagation-rate equations. We use this model to study the dependence of compressed-pulse quality on the YDFA parameters, such as the gain fiber's doping concentration and length, and input pulse pre-chirp, duration, and power. The modeling results confirmed by experiments show that an optimum negative pre-chirp for the input pulse exists to achieve the best compression.

  7. Aluminum nitride piezo-acousto-photonic crystal nanocavity with high quality factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Linran; Sun, Xiankai; Xiong, Chi; Schuck, Carsten; Tang, Hong X.

    2013-04-01

    We develop a piezoelectrically actuated, one-dimensional acoustic and photonic crystal nanocavity fabricated from aluminum nitride (AlN). Through simultaneous band structure engineering in both photonic and acoustic domains, we obtain high-quality piezo-acousto-photonic crystal nanocavities with intrinsic optical Q of 1.2 × 105. The piezoelectric actuation of the confined mechanical mode at 3.18 GHz is demonstrated with mechanical Q exceeding 10 000. Such piezo-acousto-photonic crystal nanocavities will find important applications in cavity optomechanics that desire effective coupling to the electrical degree of freedom.

  8. Is high-quality trauma care "business as usual" in New Zealand?

    PubMed

    Civil, Ian; Isles, Siobhan

    2017-05-12

    New Zealand is on the cusp of establishing a world-class trauma system. Many of the building blocks are in place with national and regional guidelines in both the pre-hospital and hospital phases of care established. A dedicated clinical workforce is available in all DHBs and national data available through the Major Trauma Registry. The greatest threat to achieving high-quality trauma care in New Zealand at this point is governance stability rather than clinical variability. Now is the time to lock the trauma system into a framework not subject to political or bureaucratic whims.

  9. Methodology: a modified method for high-quality DNA extraction for molecular analysis in cereal plants.

    PubMed

    Pervaiz, Z H; Turi, N A; Khaliq, I; Rabbani, M A; Malik, S A

    2011-01-01

    Cereal crops that have rigid non-cellulose components in the cell wall tissues of leaves and high starch and protein content in grains face limitations in DNA extraction. Advanced molecular genetic techniques such as mapping and marker-assisted selection programs require pure and quick DNA extraction. In this study, we developed methods for isolating high-quality genomic DNA from leaves and seeds of major cereal crops with minor modifications. DNA yields ranged from 300 to 1800 ng for 0.01 g seed or leaf tissue.

  10. Fabrication of high-quality superconductor-insulator-superconductor junctions on thin SiN membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Edouard; Jacobson, Brian R.; Hu, Qing

    1993-01-01

    We have successfully fabricated high-quality and high-current density superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junctions on freestanding thin silicon nitride (SIN) membranes. These devices can be used in a novel millimeter-wave and THz receiver system which is made using micromachining. The SIS junctions with planar antennas were fabricated first on a silicon wafer covered with a SiN membrane, the Si wafer underneath was then etched away using an anisotropic KOH etchant. The current-voltage characteristics of the SIS junctions remained unchanged after the whole process, and the junctions and the membrane survived thermal cycling.

  11. Telehealth: Increasing Access to High Quality Care by Expanding the Role of Technology in Correctional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jeremy D.; Badowski, Melissa E.

    2017-01-01

    The United States (US) has a large correctional population. However, many incarcerated persons lack access to evidence-based, up-to-date medical care, particularly by subspecialty providers, due to limitations of geography, travel, cost and other resources. The use of telehealth technologies can remove these barriers, increasing access to high quality, multidisciplinary care. Studies have shown that, with telemedicine, timely triage and medical management can be provided across many disciplines, which may lead to improved clinical outcomes and significant cost savings. PMID:28208807

  12. Fabrication of high quality nanocrystalline Cd(1-x)ZnxS thin films for optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Urvashi; Thakur, Vikas; Rajaram, P.; Shrivastava, A. K.

    2013-02-01

    Nanocrystalline Cd(1-x)ZnxS thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. XRD studies showed that the films are polycrystalline and possess the hexagonal structure. The preferred crystallographic orientation of crystallites changes gradually from (002) to (101) with the increase in Zn composition. The AFM studies showed that the surface of the film is highly smooth and uniformly covered with the CdZnS nanoparticles. UV-VIS studies confirm the high quality of films. The band edge of these films is blue-shifted with the increase in Zn composition.

  13. Observation of weak antilocalization effect in high-quality ScNiBi single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, L.; Liu, Z. H.; Ma, X. Q.; Hou, Z. P.; Liu, E. K.; Xi, X. K.; Wang, W. H.; Wu, G. H.; Zhang, X. X.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we have successfully grown the high-quality ScNiBi single crystals by a Bi flux method and investigated their electronic-transport properties. It was found that the ScNiBi single crystal is a gapless semiconductor with positive linear magnetoresistance (MR). Moreover, the field-dependent MR in the low-field region has demonstrated obvious weak antilocalization (WAL) effect below 50 K. The extremely large prefactor α and angle-dependent magnetoconductance ΔGxx suggest that the WAL effect originates from the contribution of a strong bulk spin-orbital coupling.

  14. Identifying the Molecular Structures of Intermediates for Optimizing the Fabrication of High-Quality Perovskite Films.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jing; Jing, Xiaojing; Yan, Juanzhu; Hu, Chengyi; Chen, Ruihao; Yin, Jun; Li, Jing; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-08-10

    During the past two years, the introduction of DMSO has revolutionized the fabrication of high-quality pervoskite MAPbI3 (MA = CH3NH3) films for solar cell applications. In the developed DMSO process, the formation of (MA)2Pb3I8·2DMSO (shorted as Pb3I8) has well recognized as a critical factor to prepare high-quality pervoskite films and thus accomplish excellent performances in perovskite solar cells. However, Pb3I8 is an I-deficient intermediate and must further react with methylammonium iodide (MAI) to be fully converted into MAPbI3. By capturing and solving the molecular structures of several intermediates involved in the fabrication of perovskite films, we report in this work that the importance of DMSO is NOT due to the formation of Pb3I8. The use of different PbI2-DMSO ratios leads to two different structures of PbI2-DMSO precursors (PbI2·DMSO and PbI2·2DMSO), thus dramatically influencing the quality of fabricated perovskite films. However, such an influence can be minimized when the PbI2-DMSO precursor films are thermally treated to create mesoporous PbI2 films before reacting with MAI. Such a development makes the fabrication of high-quality pervoskite films highly reproducible without the need to precisely control the PbI2:DMSO ratio. Moreover, the formation of ionic compound (MA)4PbI6 is observed when excess MAI is used in the preparation of perovskite film. This I-rich phase heavily induces the hysteresis in PSCs, but is readily removed by isopropanol treatment. On the basis of all these findings, we develop a new effective protocol to fabricate high-performance PSCs. In the new protocol, high-quality perovskite films are prepared by simply treating the mesoporous PbI2 films (made from PbI2-DMSO precursors) with an isopropanol solution of MAI, followed by isopropanol washing. The best efficiency of fabricated MAPbI3 PSCs is up to 19.0%. As compared to the previously reported DMSO method, the devices fabricated by the method reported in this work

  15. Drought associated poisoning of cattle in South Texas by the high quality forage legume Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, T J; Nisbet, D J; Kibbe, A S; Elrod, D; Wilkinson, G

    2001-04-01

    Approximately 80 head of yearling cattle grazing on 680 acres exhibited signs of Leucaena leucocephala toxicosis, which was confirmed in 3 animals by detection of 3-hydroxy-4 (IH)-pyridone, the metabolite of the poisonous principle mimosine, in their urine. The animals had grazed leucaena almost exclusively due to lack of alternative forage resulting from drought conditions. Toxicosis from this otherwise high quality forage would likely not have occurred had animals consumed lower amounts of leucaena and could probably have been prevented, as it has been elsewhere, had the animals been colonized with Synergistes jonesii, a beneficial ruminal bacterium capable of degrading the toxic metabolites.

  16. High quality-factor fano metasurface comprising a single resonator unit cell

    DOEpatents

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Campione, Salvatore; Brener, Igal; Liu, Sheng

    2017-06-20

    A new monolithic resonator metasurface design achieves ultra-high Q-factors while using only one resonator per unit cell. The metasurface relies on breaking the symmetry of otherwise highly symmetric resonators to induce intra-resonator mixing of bright and dark modes (rather than inter-resonator couplings), and is scalable from the near-infrared to radio frequencies and can be easily implemented in dielectric materials. The resulting high-quality-factor Fano metasurface can be used in many sensing, spectral filtering, and modulation applications.

  17. High-quality correspondence imaging based on sorting and compressive sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Heng; Zhang, Xianmin; Gan, Jinqiang; Luo, Chunling; Ge, Peng

    2016-11-01

    We propose a high-quality imaging method based on correspondence imaging (CI) using a sorting and compressive sensing (CS) technique. Unlike the traditional CI, the positive and negative (PN) subsets are created by a sorting method, and the image of an object is then recovered from the PN subsets using a CS technique. We compare the performance of the proposed method with different ghost imaging (GI) algorithms using the data from a single-detector computational GI system. The results demonstrate that our method enjoys excellent imaging and anti-interference capabilities, and can further reduce the measurement numbers compared with the direct use of CS in GI.

  18. Convenient preparation of high-quality specimens for annealing experiments in the transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Duchamp, Martial; Xu, Qiang; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E

    2014-12-01

    A procedure based on focused ion beam milling and in situ lift-out is introduced for the preparation of high-quality specimens for in situ annealing experiments in the transmission electron microscope. The procedure allows an electron-transparent lamella to be cleaned directly on a heating chip using a low ion energy and back-side milling in order to minimize redeposition and damage. The approach is illustrated through the preparation of an Al-Mn-Fe complex metallic alloy specimen.

  19. 352 nm ultraviolet emission from high-quality crystalline AlN whiskers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baodan; Bando, Yoshio; Wu, Aimin; Jiang, Xin; Dierre, Benjamin; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Tang, Chengchun; Mitome, Masanori; Golberg, Dmitri

    2010-02-01

    High-quality, crystalline AlN whiskers with large yield have been synthesized through the direct nitridation of Al vapor at high temperature. The AlN whiskers exhibited a strong and uniform ultraviolet emission at ~352 nm, which is notably shorter compared with the wavelength of previously reported one-dimensional AlN nanostructures. Energy filtered transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses indicated that nitrogen deficiency and rather lower oxygen content in the AlN lattice might be responsible for the strong 352 nm ultraviolet emission.

  20. Multiple-image encryption based on triple interferences for flexibly decrypting high-quality images.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Na; Phan, Anh-Hoang; Piao, Mei-Lan; Kim, Nam

    2015-04-10

    We propose a multiple-image encryption (MIE) scheme based on triple interferences for flexibly decrypting high-quality images. Each image is discretionarily deciphered without decrypting a series of other images earlier. Since it does not involve any cascaded encryption orders, the image can be decrypted flexibly by using the novel method. Computer simulation demonstrated that the proposed method's running time is less than approximately 1/4 that of the previous similar MIE method. Moreover, the decrypted image is perfectly correlated with the original image, and due to many phase functions serving as decryption keys, this method is more secure and robust.

  1. Review: Pediatric nursing status and its application analysis based on high quality nursing theory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junling; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Yufang; Shang, Xin'ai; Shi, Zhen; Ma, Xiang'an

    2015-03-01

    children's health concerns the revitalization and future of countries and nations. Pediatric nursing management is always the research hotspot of the international nursing field, and also the weak step in nursing management of China. China is now in a severe situation, i.e., shortage and loss of pediatric nursing staffs. In addition, a huge gap lies in the subject development between China and developed countries. This paper discussed the problems existing in the development of pediatric nursing as well as the application effect of high quality nursing in pediatric nursing, in order to promote the development of pediatric nursing and provide reference for nursing managers.

  2. Asymmetric spline surfaces - Characteristics and applications. [in high quality optical systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Asymmetric spline surfaces appear useful for the design of high-quality general optical systems (systems without symmetries). A spline influence function defined as the actual surface resulting from a simple perturbation in the spline definition array shows that a subarea is independent of others four or more points away. Optimization methods presented in this paper are used to vary a reflective spline surface near the focal plane of a decentered Schmidt-Cassegrain to reduce rms spot radii by a factor of 3 across the field.

  3. Scalable fabrication of high-quality, ultra-thin single crystal diamond membrane windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piracha, Afaq Habib; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Lau, Desmond W. M.; Stacey, Alastair; McGuinness, Liam P.; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Prawer, Steven

    2016-03-01

    High quality, ultra-thin single crystal diamond (SCD) membranes that have a thickness in the sub-micron range are of extreme importance as a materials platform for photonics, quantum sensing, nano/micro electro-mechanical systems (N/MEMS) and other diverse applications. However, the scalable fabrication of such thin SCD membranes is a challenging process. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method which enables high quality, large size (~4 × 4 mm) and low surface roughness, low strain, ultra-thin SCD membranes which can be fabricated without deformations such as breakage, bowing or bending. These membranes are easy to handle making them particularly suitable for fabrication of optical and mechanical devices. We demonstrate arrays of single crystal diamond membrane windows (SCDMW), each up to 1 × 1 mm in dimension and as thin as ~300 nm, supported by a diamond frame as thick as ~150 μm. The fabrication method is robust, reproducible, scalable and cost effective. Microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition is used for in situ creation of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers into the thin SCDMW. We have also developed SCD drum head mechanical resonator composed of our fully clamped and freely suspended membranes.High quality, ultra-thin single crystal diamond (SCD) membranes that have a thickness in the sub-micron range are of extreme importance as a materials platform for photonics, quantum sensing, nano/micro electro-mechanical systems (N/MEMS) and other diverse applications. However, the scalable fabrication of such thin SCD membranes is a challenging process. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method which enables high quality, large size (~4 × 4 mm) and low surface roughness, low strain, ultra-thin SCD membranes which can be fabricated without deformations such as breakage, bowing or bending. These membranes are easy to handle making them particularly suitable for fabrication of optical and mechanical devices. We demonstrate arrays of single crystal diamond

  4. Shear dependent nonlinear vibration in a high quality factor single crystal silicon micromechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H.; Shan, G. C.; Shek, C. H.; Lee, J. E.-Y.

    2012-07-01

    The frequency response of a single crystal silicon resonator under nonlinear vibration is investigated and related to the shear property of the material. The shear stress-strain relation of bulk silicon is studied using a first-principles approach. By incorporating the calculated shear property into a device-level model, our simulation closely predicts the frequency response of the device obtained by experiments and further captures the nonlinear features. These results indicate that the observed nonlinearity stems from the material's mechanical property. Given the high quality factor (Q) of the device reported here (˜2 × 106), this makes it highly susceptible to such mechanical nonlinear effects.

  5. Facilitating the openEHR approach - organizational structures for defining high-quality archetypes.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Christian Dominik; Garde, Sebastian; Knaup, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Using openEHR archetypes to establish an electronic patient record promises rapid development and system interoperability by using or adopting existing archetypes. However, internationally accepted, high quality archetypes which enable a comprehensive semantic interoperability require adequate development and maintenance processes. Therefore, structures have to be created involving different health professions. In the following we present a model which facilitates and governs distributed but cooperative development and adoption of archetypes by different professionals including peer reviews. Our model consists of a hierarchical structure of professional committees and descriptions of the archetype development process considering these different committees.

  6. High-quality colloidal photonic crystals obtained by optimizing growth parameters in a vertical deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuai, Su-Lan; Hu, Xing-Fang; Haché, Alain; Truong, Vo-Van

    2004-06-01

    High-quality polystyrene colloidal crystals were fabricated from aqueous solutions with a vertical deposition technique. The role of sphere size, volume fraction, relative humidity (RH), evaporation temperature and the final drying conditions on the film quality were investigated. We found that all those parameters must be taken into account in order to achieve highest quality for a given particle size. With particles of 300 nm in diameter, the optimal conditions were found to be a 0.1-0.2% volume fraction, an RH between 80% and 90%, an evaporation temperature near 60°C and a quasi-equilibrium drying process.

  7. Joining forces: Collaborating internationally to deliver high-quality, online postgraduate education in pain management

    PubMed Central

    Devonshire, Elizabeth; Siddall, Philip J

    2011-01-01

    The effective management of pain is a complex and costly global issue, requiring a range of innovative educational strategies to enable culturally appropriate and high-quality health care provision. In response to this issue, the Pain Management Research Institute at the University of Sydney (Sydney, Australia) has established several strategic alliances with other overseas universities to deliver online postgraduate education in pain management. The present article discusses the rationale for joining forces, and the approach adopted in creating and maintaining these alliances. It also provides insights into the benefits, challenges and opportunities associated with collaborative educational initiatives of this nature, from institutional, academic and student perspectives. PMID:22184549

  8. Chemical and biotechnological processing of collagen-containing raw materials into functional components of feed suitable for production of high-quality meat from farm animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baburina, M. I.; Ivankin, A. N.; Stanovova, I. A.

    2017-09-01

    The process of chemical biotechnological processing of collagen-containing raw materials into functional components of feeds for effective pig rearing was studied. Protein components of feeds were obtained as a result of hydrolysis in the presence of lactic acid of the animal collagen from secondary raw materials, which comprised subcutaneous collagen (cuticle), skin and veined mass with tendons from cattle. For comparison, a method is described for preparing protein components of feeds by cultivating Lactobacillus plantarum. Analysis of the kinetic data of the conversion of a high-molecular collagen protein to an aminolyte polypeptide mixture showed the advantage of microbiological synthesis in obtaining a protein for feeds. Feed formulations have been developed to include the components obtained, and which result in high quality pork suitable for the production of quality meat products.

  9. High-quality epitaxial graphene devices with low carrier density for resistance metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yanfei; Huang, Lung-I.; Newell, David; Real, Mariano; Elmquist, Randolph

    2014-03-01

    Epitaxially grown graphene on silicon carbide (SiC) is a promising material for both quantum resistance metrology and wafer-scale electronics. However, monolayers are typically found to be heavily n-doped due to the charge exchange between the graphene and the non-conducting buffer layer beneath that is covalently bonded to the SiC substrate. Carrier densities are usually in the range of 1012 ~ 1013 cm-2, where heavy doping shifts the quantized Hall resistance plateau to high magnetic field values. Various gating methods have been developed to reduce the carrier density, but require lithography processes that increase the probability of contamination that degrades the performance of the devices. Recently, we fabricated high-quality Hall devices on diced semi-insulating SiC wafers, obtaining carrier densities in the range of 1010 ~ 1011 cm-2 and mobility above 104 cm2V-1s-1 without gating. Graphene is grown on the Si face of SiC(0001) substrates and devices are fabricated using a metal layer subtractive process without organic chemical contamination of the graphene. We measure well-developed quantum Hall plateaus with filling factor ν = 2, the fingerprint for monolayer graphene, at magnetic fields below 2 T at liquid helium temperature. A variety of quantum phenomena are observed in these clean, high quality graphene devices. NIST and Georgetown University.

  10. High-quality collection and disposal of WEEE: Environmental impacts and resultant issues.

    PubMed

    Baxter, John; Lyng, Kari-Anne; Askham, Cecilia; Hanssen, Ole Jørgen

    2016-11-01

    Life cycle assessment of the collection, transport and recycling of various types of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in Norway shows that small amounts of critical materials (refrigerants, precious/trace metals) are vital for the overall environmental accounts of the value chains. High-quality recycling ensures that materials and energy are effectively recovered from WEEE. This recovery means that responsible waste handling confers net environmental benefits in terms of global warming potential (GWP), for all types of WEEE analysed. For refrigeration equipment, the potential reduction of GWP by high-quality recycling is so large as to be of national significance. For all waste types, the magnitude of the net benefit from recovering materials and energy exceeds the negative consequences of irresponsible disposal. One outcome of this may be widespread misunderstanding of the need for recycling. Furthermore, framing public communication on recycling in terms of avoiding negative consequences, as is essentially universal, may not convey an appropriate message. The issue is particularly important where the consumer regards products as relatively disposable and environmentally benign, and/or where the "null option" of retaining the product at end-of-life is especially prevalent. The paper highlights the implications of all these issues for policy-makers, waste collectors and recyclers, and consumers.

  11. Electrical behavior of atomic layer deposited high quality SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, Sangram K.; Tanyi, Ekembu K.; Skuza, Jonathan R.; Xiao, Bo; Pradhan, Aswini K.

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive and systematic electrical studies were performed on fabrication of high quality SiO{sub 2} thin films MOS capacitor using the robust, novel, and simple atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using highly reactive ozone and tris (dimethylamino) silane (TDMAS) precursors. Ideal capacitance–voltage curve exhibits a very small frequency dispersion and hysteresis behavior of the SiO{sub 2} MOS capacitor grown at 1 s TDMAS pulse, suggesting excellent interfacial quality and purity of the film as probed using x-ray photoelectron studies. The flat-band voltage of the device shifted from negative toward positive voltage axis with increase of TDMAS pulses from 0.2 to 2 s. Based on an equivalent oxide thickness point of view, all SiO{sub 2} films have gate leakage current density of (5.18 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}) as well as high dielectric break down fields of more than (∼10 MV/cm), which is better and comparable to that of thermally grown SiO{sub 2} at temperatures above 800 °C. These appealing electrical properties of ALD grown SiO{sub 2} thin films enable its potential applications such as high-quality gate insulators for thin film MOS transistors, as well as insulators for sensor and nanostructures on nonsilicon substrates.

  12. A Modified SDS-Based DNA Extraction Method for High Quality Environmental DNA from Seafloor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Vengadesh Perumal; Zhang, Xinxu; Morono, Yuki; Inagaki, Fumio; Wang, Fengping

    2016-01-01

    Recovering high quality genomic DNA from environmental samples is a crucial primary step to understand the genetic, metabolic, and evolutionary characteristics of microbial communities through molecular ecological approaches. However, it is often challenging because of the difficulty of effective cell lysis without fragmenting the genomic DNA. This work aims to improve the previous SDS-based DNA extraction methods for high-biomass seafloor samples, such as pelagic sediments and metal sulfide chimney, to obtain high quality and high molecular weight of the genomic DNA applicable for the subsequent molecular ecological analyses. In this regard, we standardized a modified SDS-based DNA extraction method (M-SDS), and its performance was then compared to those extracted by a recently developed hot-alkaline DNA extraction method (HA) and a commercial DNA extraction kit. Consequently, the M-SDS method resulted in higher DNA yield and cell lysis efficiency, lower DNA shearing, and higher diversity scores than other two methods, providing a comprehensive DNA assemblage of the microbial community on the seafloor depositional environment. PMID:27446026

  13. The perspective awareness model - Eliciting multiple perspectives to formulate high quality decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Boucher, Laurel

    2013-07-01

    A great deal of attention is given to the importance of communication in environmental remediation and radioactive waste management. However, very little attention is given to eliciting multiple perspectives so as to formulate high quality decisions. Plans that are based on a limited number of perspectives tend to be narrowly focused whereas those that are based on a wide variety of perspectives tend to be comprehensive, higher quality, and more apt to be put into application. In addition, existing methods of dialogue have built-in limitations in that they typically draw from the predominant thinking patterns which focus in some areas but ignore others. This can result in clarity but a lack of comprehensiveness. This paper presents a Perspective Awareness Model which helps groups such as partnering teams, interagency teams, steering committees, and working groups elicit a wide net of perspectives and viewpoints. The paper begins by describing five factors that makes cooperation among such groups challenging. Next, a Perspective Awareness Model that makes it possible to manage these five factors is presented. The two primary components of this model --- the eight 'Thinking Directions' and the 'Shared Documentation' --- are described in detail. Several examples are given to illustrate how the Perspective Awareness Model can be used to elicit multiple perspectives to formulate high quality decisions in the area of environmental remediation and radioactive waste management. (authors)

  14. Blueprint for action: steps toward a high-quality, high-value maternity care system.

    PubMed

    Angood, Peter B; Armstrong, Elizabeth Mitchell; Ashton, Diane; Burstin, Helen; Corry, Maureen P; Delbanco, Suzanne F; Fildes, Barbara; Fox, Daniel M; Gluck, Paul A; Gullo, Sue Leavitt; Howes, Joanne; Jolivet, R Rima; Laube, Douglas W; Lynne, Donna; Main, Elliott; Markus, Anne Rossier; Mayberry, Linda; Mitchell, Lynn V; Ness, Debra L; Nuzum, Rachel; Quinlan, Jeffrey D; Sakala, Carol; Salganicoff, Alina

    2010-01-01

    Childbirth Connection hosted a 90th Anniversary national policy symposium, Transforming Maternity Care: A High Value Proposition, on April 3, 2009, in Washington, DC. Over 100 leaders from across the range of stakeholder perspectives were actively engaged in the symposium work to improve the quality and value of U.S. maternity care through broad system improvement. A multi-disciplinary symposium steering committee guided the strategy from its inception and contributed to every phase of the project. The "Blueprint for Action: Steps Toward a High Quality, High Value Maternity Care System", issued by the Transforming Maternity Care Symposium Steering Committee, answers the fundamental question, "Who needs to do what, to, for, and with whom to improve the quality of maternity care over the next five years?" Five stakeholder workgroups collaborated to propose actionable strategies in 11 critical focus areas for moving expeditiously toward the realization of the long term "2020 Vision for a High Quality, High Value Maternity Care System", also published in this issue. Following the symposium these workgroup reports and recommendations were synthesized into the current blueprint. For each critical focus area, the "Blueprint for Action" presents a brief problem statement, a set of system goals for improvement in that area, and major recommendations with proposed action steps to achieve them. This process created a clear sightline to action that if enacted could improve the structure, process, experiences of care, and outcomes of the maternity care system in ways that when anchored in the culture can indeed transform maternity care.

  15. High-quality multispectral bio-sensing with asymmetric all-dielectric meta-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengqi; Fu, Guolan; Liu, Xiaoshan; Liu, Yi; Tang, Li; Liu, Zhongmin; Liu, Guiqiang

    2017-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a strategy for achieving high-quality bio-sensing in an asymmetric all-dielectric meta-material (α-ADM), which can provide multispectral narrowband optical extinction with enhanced electromagnetic field and eventually paves a novel efficient sensing platform. High performance optical sensing with figure of merit (FoM) reaching 353 and spectral intensity change related FoM* exceeding 4700 is achieved in this lossless α-ADM platform, which is orders of magnitude larger than that of the metallic plasmonic sensors. In particular, due to the high sensitivity and complete extinction existed in the sharp spectrum, a remarkable spectral intensity change from a ‘dark’ state to a ‘bright’ state is obtained when the surrounding refractive index value is only varied slightly. Moreover, ultra-low detection limitation of the protein layer down to sub-nanometer thickness can be achieved. The sensing contrast ratio exceeding 34 dB is obtained for the sensor adsorbed with protein films, which suggests an ultra-high signal-to-noise ratio detection for this ultra-thin bio-molecule layer. In contrast to the traditional plasmonic sensors, these features lay a foundation for new sensing schemes based on the all-dielectric structures. The sensing performance including the spectral sensitivity and the detecting signal-to-noise ratio can hold the proposed α-ADM with applications in high-quality refractive index sensing and optical bio-sensing.

  16. Isolation of High-Quality Total RNA from Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhihui; Huang, Binlong; Xu, Shanshan; Chen, Yu; Li, Shubin; Lin, Sizu

    2015-01-01

    RNA isolation with RNA in a high quantity is a basic analytical method in plant genetics, molecular biology and related physiological investigations. To understand the genetic and molecular biology of Chinese fir, sufficient high-quality total RNA must be obtained for cDNA library construction and other downstream molecular applications. However, extracting RNA from Chinese fir is difficult and often requires the modification of existing protocols. Chinese fir tissues containing large amounts of polysaccharides and polyphenol compounds and are one of the most difficult plant tissues for RNA isolation. Therefore, we developed a simple method for extracting high-quality RNA from Chinese fir tissues. RNA isolations were performed within two hours, RNA quality was measured for yield and purity. Total RNA obtained from this procedure was successfully used for cDNA library construction, RT-PCR and transcriptome sequencing. It was proven that extracted RNA was intact and suitable for downstream molecular applications, including RT-PCR and qPCR, and other downstream molecular applications. Thus, this protocol represents a simple, efficient, and low-cost method. PMID:26083257

  17. FlexSAR, a high-quality, flexible, cost-effective, prototype SAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Mark; Knight, Chad; Haslem, Brent

    2015-05-01

    The FlexSAR radar system was designed to be a high quality, low-cost, flexible prototype instrument. Many radar researchers and practitioners desire the ability to efficiently prototype novel configurations. However, the cost and time required to modify existing radar systems is a challenging hurdle that can be prohibitive. The FlexSAR system couples an RF design that leverages connectorized components with digital commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) cards. This design allows for a scalable system that supports software defined radio (SDR) capabilities. This paper focuses on the RF and digital system design, discussing the advantages and disadvantages. The FlexSAR system design objective was to support diverse configurations with minimal non-recurring engineering (NRE) costs. Multiple diverse applications are examined, demonstrating the flexible system nature. The configurations discussed utilize different system parameters (e.g., number of phase-centers, transmit configurations, etc.). The resultant products are examined, illustrating that high-quality data products are still attained.

  18. Growth and optical characteristics of high-quality ZnO thin films on graphene layers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Suk In; Tchoe, Youngbin; Baek, Hyeonjun; Hyun, Jerome K.; Yi, Gyu-Chul E-mail: gcyi@snu.ac.kr; Heo, Jaehyuk; Jo, Janghyun; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Nam-Jung E-mail: gcyi@snu.ac.kr

    2015-01-01

    We report the growth of high-quality, smooth, and flat ZnO thin films on graphene layers and their photoluminescence (PL) characteristics. For the growth of high-quality ZnO thin films on graphene layers, ZnO nanowalls were grown using metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy on oxygen-plasma treated graphene layers as an intermediate layer. PL measurements were conducted at low temperatures to examine strong near-band-edge emission peaks. The full-width-at-half-maximum value of the dominant PL emission peak was as narrow as 4 meV at T = 11 K, comparable to that of the best-quality films reported previously. Furthermore, the stimulated emission of ZnO thin films on the graphene layers was observed at the low excitation energy of 180 kW/cm{sup 2} at room temperature. Their structural and optical characteristics were investigated using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and PL spectroscopy.

  19. Fabrication of high-quality single-crystal Cu thin films using radio-frequency sputtering

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seunghun; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Tae-Woo; Kim, Won-Kyung; Kim, Bum-Su; Park, Ji Hun; Bae, Jong-Seong; Cho, Yong Chan; Kim, Jungdae; Oh, Min-Wook; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Jeong, Se-Young

    2014-01-01

    Copper (Cu) thin films have been widely used as electrodes and interconnection wires in integrated electronic circuits, and more recently as substrates for the synthesis of graphene. However, the ultra-high vacuum processes required for high-quality Cu film fabrication, such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), restricts mass production with low cost. In this work, we demonstrated high-quality Cu thin films using a single-crystal Cu target and radio-frequency (RF) sputtering technique; the resulting film quality was comparable to that produced using MBE, even under unfavorable conditions for pure Cu film growth. The Cu thin film was epitaxially grown on an Al2O3 (sapphire) (0001) substrate, and had high crystalline orientation along the (111) direction. Despite the 10−3 Pa vacuum conditions, the resulting thin film was oxygen free due to the high chemical stability of the sputtered specimen from a single-crystal target; moreover, the deposited film had >5× higher adhesion force than that produced using a polycrystalline target. This fabrication method enabled Cu films to be obtained using a simple, manufacturing-friendly process on a large-area substrate, making our findings relevant for industrial applications. PMID:25169804

  20. Scalable fabrication of high-quality, ultra-thin single crystal diamond membrane windows.

    PubMed

    Piracha, Afaq Habib; Ganesan, Kumaravelu; Lau, Desmond W M; Stacey, Alastair; McGuinness, Liam P; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Prawer, Steven

    2016-03-28

    High quality, ultra-thin single crystal diamond (SCD) membranes that have a thickness in the sub-micron range are of extreme importance as a materials platform for photonics, quantum sensing, nano/micro electro-mechanical systems (N/MEMS) and other diverse applications. However, the scalable fabrication of such thin SCD membranes is a challenging process. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method which enables high quality, large size (∼4 × 4 mm) and low surface roughness, low strain, ultra-thin SCD membranes which can be fabricated without deformations such as breakage, bowing or bending. These membranes are easy to handle making them particularly suitable for fabrication of optical and mechanical devices. We demonstrate arrays of single crystal diamond membrane windows (SCDMW), each up to 1 × 1 mm in dimension and as thin as ∼300 nm, supported by a diamond frame as thick as ∼150 μm. The fabrication method is robust, reproducible, scalable and cost effective. Microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition is used for in situ creation of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers into the thin SCDMW. We have also developed SCD drum head mechanical resonator composed of our fully clamped and freely suspended membranes.

  1. Why India should become a global leader in high-quality, affordable TB diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Small, Peter

    2012-05-01

    The scale up of DOTS in India is one of the greatest public health accomplishments, and yet undiagnosed and poorly managed TB continues to fuel the epidemic such that India continues to have the highest number of TB cases in the world. Recognizing these challenges, the Government of India has set an ambitious goal of providing universal access to quality diagnosis and treatment for all TB patients in the country. Innovative tools and delivery systems in both the public and private sectors are essential for reaching this goal. Fortunately, India has the potential to solve its TB problem with "home-grown" solutions. Just as Indian pharmaceutical companies revolutionized access to high-quality, affordable AIDS drugs through generic production, Indian diagnostic companies could also become the world's hub for high-quality generic diagnostics. In the long term, India has the potential to lead the world in developing innovative TB diagnostics. For this to happen, Indian industry must move from the import and imitation approach to genuine innovation in both product development as well as delivery. This must be supported by permissive policies and enhanced funding by the Indian government and the private sector. Strict regulation of diagnostics, increased attention to quality assurance in laboratories, and greater engagement of the private health care providers are also needed to effectively deliver innovative products and approaches.

  2. High-Quality, Ultraconformal Aluminum-Doped Zinc Oxide Nanoplasmonic and Hyperbolic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Riley, Conor T; Smalley, Joseph S T; Post, Kirk W; Basov, Dimitri N; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Wang, Deli; Liu, Zhaowei; Sirbuly, Donald J

    2016-02-17

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) is a tunable low-loss plasmonic material capable of supporting dopant concentrations high enough to operate at telecommunication wavelengths. Due to its ultrahigh conformality and compatibility with semiconductor processing, atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful tool for many plasmonic applications. However, despite many attempts, high-quality AZO with a plasma frequency below 1550 nm has not yet been realized by ALD. Here a simple procedure is devised to tune the optical constants of AZO and enable plasmonic activity at 1550 nm with low loss. The highly conformal nature of ALD is also exploited to coat silicon nanopillars to create localized surface plasmon resonances that are tunable by adjusting the aluminum concentration, thermal conditions, and the use of a ZnO buffer layer. The high-quality AZO is then used to make a layered AZO/ZnO structure that displays negative refraction in the telecommunication wavelength region due to hyperbolic dispersion. Finally, a novel synthetic scheme is demonstrated to create AZO embedded nanowires in ZnO, which also exhibits hyperbolic dispersion.

  3. An improved multi-exposure approach for high quality holographic femtosecond laser patterning

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chenchu; Hu, Yanlei E-mail: jwl@ustc.edu.cn; Li, Jiawen E-mail: jwl@ustc.edu.cn; Lao, Zhaoxin; Ni, Jincheng; Chu, Jiaru; Huang, Wenhao; Wu, Dong

    2014-12-01

    High efficiency two photon polymerization through single exposure via spatial light modulator (SLM) has been used to decrease the fabrication time and rapidly realize various micro/nanostructures, but the surface quality remains a big problem due to the speckle noise of optical intensity distribution at the defocused plane. Here, a multi-exposure approach which used tens of computer generate holograms successively loaded on SLM is presented to significantly improve the optical uniformity without losing efficiency. By applying multi-exposure, we found that the uniformity at the defocused plane was increased from ∼0.02 to ∼0.6 according to our simulation. The fabricated two series of letters “HELLO” and “USTC” under single-and multi-exposure in our experiment also verified that the surface quality was greatly improved. Moreover, by this method, several kinds of beam splitters with high quality, e.g., 2 × 2, 5 × 5 Daman, and complex nonseperate 5 × 5, gratings were fabricated with both of high quality and short time (<1 min, 95% time-saving). This multi-exposure SLM-two-photon polymerization method showed the promising prospect in rapidly fabricating and integrating various binary optical devices and their systems.

  4. Fabrication of high quality cDNA microarray using a small amount of cDNA.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Hee; Jeong, Ha Jin; Jung, Jae Jun; Lee, Gui Yeon; Kim, Sang-Chul; Kim, Tae Soo; Yang, Sang Hwa; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Rha, Sun Young

    2004-05-01

    DNA microarray technology has become an essential part of biological research. It enables the genome-scale analysis of gene expression in various types of model systems. Manufacturing high quality cDNA microarrays of microdeposition type depends on some key factors including a printing device, spotting pins, glass slides, spotting solution, and humidity during spotting. UsingEthe Microgrid II TAS model printing device, this study defined the optimal conditions for producing high density, high quality cDNA microarrays with the least amount of cDNA product. It was observed that aminosilane-modified slides were superior to other types of surface modified-slides. A humidity of 30+/-3% in a closed environment and the overnight drying of the spotted slides gave the best conditions for arraying. In addition, the cDNA dissolved in 30% DMSO gave the optimal conditions for spotting compared to the 1X ArrayIt, 3X SSC and 50% DMSO. Lastly, cDNA in the concentration range of 100-300 ng/ micro l was determined to be best for arraying and post-processing. Currently, the printing system in this study yields reproducible 9000 spots with a spot size 150 mm diameter, and a 200 nm spot spacing.

  5. Evaluation of methods for the isolation of high quality RNA from bovine and cervine hide biopsies.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Jaime L; Holman, Patricia J; Olafson, Pia U; Pruett, John H; Riggs, Penny K

    2013-02-01

    Molecular investigations of the ruminant response to ectoparasites at the parasite-host interface are critically dependent upon the quality of RNA. The complexity of ruminant skin decreases the capacity to obtain high quality RNA from biopsy samples, which directly affects the reliability of data produced by gene expression experiments. Two methods for isolating total RNA from skin were compared and the use of 4M guanidinium isothiocyanate (GITC) during frozen storage of the specimens was evaluated. In addition, the best procedure for RNA isolation from bovine skin punch biopsies was also tested on white-tailed deer skin biopsies. Skin biopsy punches were collected and frozen prior to pulverization for RNA isolation. Total RNA quantity and integrity were determined by spectrophotometry and capillary electrophoresis technology, respectively. Significantly increased total RNA yield (P < 0.05) and higher integrity (P < 0.05) were obtained with a TRI Reagent® isolation method. Freezing and subsequent storage of bovine skin punch biopsies in 4 M GITC did not affect the amount or integrity of total RNA recovered by either RNA isolation method. However, quantity and integrity of total RNA extracted with the TRI Reagent method were again significantly higher than with the alternate technique, confirming it as the superior method. The TRI Reagent isolation method also yielded high quality total RNA from white-tailed deer skin punch biopsies, suggesting the usefulness of this method for obtaining RNA of a quality suitable for gene expression studies in other ruminant species.

  6. Key elements of high-quality practice organisation in primary health care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Lisa; Janamian, Tina; Jackson, Claire L

    2014-08-04

    To identify elements that are integral to high-quality practice and determine considerations relating to high-quality practice organisation in primary care. A narrative systematic review of published and grey literature. Electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Emerald Insight, PsycInfo, the Primary Health Care Research and Information Service website, Google Scholar) were searched in November 2013 and used to identify articles published in English from 2002 to 2013. Reference lists of included articles were searched for relevant unpublished articles and reports. Data were configured at the study level to allow for the inclusion of findings from a broad range of study types. Ten elements were most often included in the existing organisational assessment tools. A further three elements were identified from an inductive thematic analysis of descriptive articles, and were noted as important considerations in effective quality improvement in primary care settings. Although there are some validated tools available to primary care that identify and build quality, most are single-strategy approaches developed outside health care settings. There are currently no validated organisational improvement tools, designed specifically for primary health care, which combine all elements of practice improvement and whose use does not require extensive external facilitation.

  7. Issues with implementing a high-quality lung cancer screening program.

    PubMed

    Mulshine, James L; D'Amico, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    After a comprehensive review of the evidence, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recently endorsed screening with low-dose computed tomography as an early detection approach that has the potential to significantly reduce deaths due to lung cancer. Prudent implementation of lung cancer screening as a high-quality preventive health service is a complex challenge. The clinical evaluation and management of high-risk cohorts in the absence of symptoms mandates an approach that differs significantly from that of symptom-detected lung cancer. As with other cancer screenings, it is essential to provide to informed at-risk individuals a safe, high-quality, cost-effective, and accessible service. In this review, the components of a successful screening program are discussed as we begin to disseminate lung cancer screening as a national resource to improve outcomes with this lethal cancer. This information about lung cancer screening will assist clinicians with communications about the potential benefits and harms of this service for high-risk individuals considering participation in the screening process.

  8. Endoscopist Specialty Is Associated with High-Quality Endoscopy in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Myung; Lee, Hang Lack; Kim, Young Ho; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Hyun Soo; Moon, Jeong Seop; Cho, Yu Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The present study was aimed to determine whether endoscopist specialty is associated with high-quality endoscopy. Materials and Methods We prospectively collected endoscopy quality related data based on the Endoscopy Quality Rating Scale (EQRS) of 277 endoscopy units in a hospital setting from the National Cancer Screening Program of Korea in 2009. Gastroenterology medical professors (n=154) from university hospitals visited each endoscopy unit and graded the unit according to the EQRS. The scores from the EQRS were analyzed and compared in relation to endoscopy training during residency and endoscopy subspecialist certification. Results After excluding data from 3 endoscopy units, EQRS data from 274 endoscopy units were analyzed: 263 esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) screening units and 90 colonoscopy screening units. There were no significant differences in the scores of EQRS with respect to endoscopy training during residency (p=no significance), except for scores of EGDs for "Facility and Equipment" (p=0.030). However, EQRS scores were significantly higher in the endoscopy units where endoscopy subspecialists performed the endoscopies than those where Endoscopy Subspecialists did not perform the endoscopies (p<0.05, except p=0.08 for the "Process" criteria of EGD). Conclusion Endoscopist specialty is an important determinant of high-quality endoscopy in Korea. PMID:22318818

  9. Public library computer training for older adults to access high-quality Internet health information

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Bugg, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    An innovative experiment to develop and evaluate a public library computer training program to teach older adults to access and use high-quality Internet health information involved a productive collaboration among public libraries, the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and a Library and Information Science (LIS) academic program at a state university. One hundred and thirty-one older adults aged 54–89 participated in the study between September 2007 and July 2008. Key findings include: a) participants had overwhelmingly positive perceptions of the training program; b) after learning about two NIH websites (http://nihseniorhealth.gov and http://medlineplus.gov) from the training, many participants started using these online resources to find high quality health and medical information and, further, to guide their decision-making regarding a health- or medically-related matter; and c) computer anxiety significantly decreased (p < .001) while computer interest and efficacy significantly increased (p = .001 and p < .001, respectively) from pre- to post-training, suggesting statistically significant improvements in computer attitudes between pre- and post-training. The findings have implications for public libraries, LIS academic programs, and other organizations interested in providing similar programs in their communities. PMID:20161649

  10. New CVD-based method for the growth of high-quality crystalline zinc oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Florian; Madel, Manfred; Reiser, Anton; Bauer, Sebastian; Thonke, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    High-quality zinc oxide (ZnO) layers were grown using a new chemical vapour deposition (CVD)-based low-cost growth method. The process is characterized by total simplicity, high growth rates, and cheap, less hazardous precursors. To produce elementary zinc vapour, methane (CH4) is used to reduce a ZnO powder. By re-oxidizing the zinc with pure oxygen, highly crystalline ZnO layers were grown on gallium nitride (GaN) layers and on sapphire substrates with an aluminum nitride (AlN) nucleation layer. Using simple CH4 as precursor has the big advantage of good controllability and the avoidance of highly toxic gases like nitrogen oxides. In photoluminescence (PL) measurements the samples show a strong near-band-edge emission and a sharp line width at 5 K. The good crystal quality has been confirmed in high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements. This new growth method has great potential for industrial large-scale production of high-quality single crystal ZnO layers.

  11. High-quality PVD graphene growth by fullerene decomposition on Cu foils

    PubMed Central

    Azpeitia, J.; Otero-Irurueta, G.; Palacio, I.; Martinez, J. I.; del Árbol, N. Ruiz; Santoro, G.; Gutiérrez, A.; Aballe, L.; Foerster, M.; Kalbac, M.; Vales, V.; Mompeán, F. J.; García-Hernández, M.; Martín-Gago, J. A.; Munuera, C.; López, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new protocol to grow large-area, high-quality single-layer graphene on Cu foils at relatively low temperatures. We use C60 molecules evaporated in ultra high vacuum conditions as carbon source. This clean environment results in a strong reduction of oxygen-containing groups as depicted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Unzipping of C60 is thermally promoted by annealing the substrate at 800ºC during evaporation. The graphene layer extends over areas larger than the Cu crystallite size, although it is changing its orientation with respect to the surface in the wrinkles and grain boundaries, producing a modulated ring in the low energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern. This protocol is a self-limiting process leading exclusively to one single graphene layer. Raman spectroscopy confirms the high quality of the grown graphene. This layer exhibits an unperturbed Dirac-cone with a clear n-doping of 0.77 eV, which is caused by the interaction between graphene and substrate. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that this interaction can be induced by a coupling between graphene and substrate at specific points of the structure leading to a local sp3 configuration, which also contribute to the D-band in the Raman spectra. PMID:28507390

  12. High quality RNA extraction from Maqui berry for its application in next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Carolina; Villacreses, Javier; Blanc, Noelle; Espinoza, Loreto; Martinez, Camila; Pastor, Gabriela; Manque, Patricio; Undurraga, Soledad F; Polanco, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a native Chilean species that produces berries that are exceptionally rich in anthocyanins and natural antioxidants. These natural compounds provide an array of health benefits for humans, making them very desirable in a fruit. At the same time, these substances also interfere with nucleic acid preparations, making RNA extraction from Maqui berry a major challenge. Our group established a method for RNA extraction of Maqui berry with a high quality RNA (good purity, good integrity and higher yield). This procedure is based on the adapted CTAB method using high concentrations of PVP (4 %) and β-mercaptoethanol (4 %) and spermidine in the extraction buffer. These reagents help to remove contaminants such as polysaccharides, proteins, phenols and also prevent the oxidation of phenolic compounds. The high quality of RNA isolated through this method allowed its uses with success in molecular applications for this endemic Chilean fruit, such as differential expression analysis of RNA-Seq data using next generation sequencing (NGS). Furthermore, we consider that our method could potentially be used for other plant species with extremely high levels of antioxidants and anthocyanins.

  13. Comparison of reduced sugar high quality chocolates sweetened with stevioside and crude stevia 'green' extract.

    PubMed

    Torri, Luisa; Frati, Alessandra; Ninfali, Paolino; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Morini, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    The demand for zero and reduced-sugar food products containing cocoa is expanding continuously. The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of producing high-quality chocolate sweetened with a crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) prepared by a green microwave-assisted water-steam extraction procedure. Seven approximately isosweet chocolate formulations were developed, mixing cocoa paste, sucrose, commercial stevioside, crude green extract and maltitol in different proportions. All samples were analyzed for the determination of polyphenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and sensory acceptability. The use of a crude stevia extract allowed low-sugar, high-quality chocolates to be obtained that were also acceptable by consumers and had a significant increased antioxidant activity. Moreover, consumers' segmentation revealed a cluster of consumers showing the same overall liking for the sample with 50% sucrose replaced by the stevia crude extract as that obtained with the commercial stevioside and the control sample (without sucrose replacement). The results provide information that can contribute to promoting the development of sweet food products, with advantages in terms of an improved nutritional value (reduced sugar content and increased antioxidant activity) and a reduced impact of the production process on the environment. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. High-quality PVD graphene growth by fullerene decomposition on Cu foils.

    PubMed

    Azpeitia, J; Otero-Irurueta, G; Palacio, I; Martinez, J I; Del Árbol, N Ruiz; Santoro, G; Gutiérrez, A; Aballe, L; Foerster, M; Kalbac, M; Vales, V; Mompeán, F J; García-Hernández, M; Martín-Gago, J A; Munuera, C; López, M F

    2017-08-01

    We present a new protocol to grow large-area, high-quality single-layer graphene on Cu foils at relatively low temperatures. We use C60 molecules evaporated in ultra high vacuum conditions as carbon source. This clean environment results in a strong reduction of oxygen-containing groups as depicted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Unzipping of C60 is thermally promoted by annealing the substrate at 800ºC during evaporation. The graphene layer extends over areas larger than the Cu crystallite size, although it is changing its orientation with respect to the surface in the wrinkles and grain boundaries, producing a modulated ring in the low energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern. This protocol is a self-limiting process leading exclusively to one single graphene layer. Raman spectroscopy confirms the high quality of the grown graphene. This layer exhibits an unperturbed Dirac-cone with a clear n-doping of 0.77 eV, which is caused by the interaction between graphene and substrate. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that this interaction can be induced by a coupling between graphene and substrate at specific points of the structure leading to a local sp(3) configuration, which also contribute to the D-band in the Raman spectra.

  15. High-quality electron bunch production for high-brilliance Thomson Scattering sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassini, Paolo; Labate, Luca; Londrillo, Pasquale; Fedele, Renato; Terzani, Davide; Gizzi, Leonida A.

    2017-05-01

    Laser Wake Field accelerated electrons need to exhibit a good beam-quality to comply with requirements of FEL or high brilliance Thomson Scattering sources, or to be post-accelerated in a further LWFA stage towards TeV energy scale. Controlling electron injection, plasma density profile and laser pulse evolution are therefore crucial tasks for high-quality e-bunch production. A new bunch injection scheme, the Resonant Multi-Pulse Ionization Injection (RMPII), is based on a single, ultrashort Ti:Sa laser system. In the RMPII the main portion of the pulse is temporally shaped as a sequence of resonant sub-pulses, while a minor portion acts as an ionizing pulse. Simulations show that high-quality electron bunches with energies in the range 265MeV -1.15GeV , normalized emittance as low as 0.08 mm·mrad and 0.65% energy spread can be obtained with a single 250 TW Ti:Sa laser system. Applications of the e-beam in high-brilliance Thomson Scattering source, including 1.5 - 26.4 MeV γ sources with peak brilliance up to 1 · 1028ph/(s · mm2 • mrad2 • 0.1%bw), are reported.

  16. Public library computer training for older adults to access high-quality Internet health information.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bo; Bugg, Julie M

    2009-09-01

    An innovative experiment to develop and evaluate a public library computer training program to teach older adults to access and use high-quality Internet health information involved a productive collaboration among public libraries, the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and a Library and Information Science (LIS) academic program at a state university. One hundred and thirty-one older adults aged 54-89 participated in the study between September 2007 and July 2008. Key findings include: a) participants had overwhelmingly positive perceptions of the training program; b) after learning about two NIH websites (http://nihseniorhealth.gov and http://medlineplus.gov) from the training, many participants started using these online resources to find high quality health and medical information and, further, to guide their decision-making regarding a health- or medically-related matter; and c) computer anxiety significantly decreased (p < .001) while computer interest and efficacy significantly increased (p = .001 and p < .001, respectively) from pre- to post-training, suggesting statistically significant improvements in computer attitudes between pre- and post-training. The findings have implications for public libraries, LIS academic programs, and other organizations interested in providing similar programs in their communities.

  17. [Manufacturing process of high quality phytopreparation on example of herbal sedative].

    PubMed

    Dordević, Sofija; Dickov, Aleksandra; Pavkov, Sava; Tadić, Vanja; Arsić, Ivana; Zugić, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Rational phytotherapy is a modern concept of using plant-originated drugs which has emerged from the need to improve phytotherapy in order to make the use of herbal remedies more efficient and safer. The aim of this study was to give the health-care workers more information on the manufacturing process of high quality phytopreparation following principles of Good Manufacturing Practice and Good Laboratory Practice on the example of herbal sedative, Odoval S capsules. This study was designed to reflect the production process of a high-quality and safe herbal remedy, starting from defining the formulation and the production procedure to the quality control of raw materials, characterization of the final product, and testing stability of active ingredients in the capsules. Formulation of the phytopreparation, validation of the production process, quality control and stability testing, all together have resulted in the production of capsules with defined valeric acid content (1 mg valeric acid per capsule). The preparation is recommended to relieve the symptoms caused by chronic stress (anxiety, irritability, fatigue, lack of concentration, heart palpitations) and for mild insomnia. This paper presents the complete cycle of the production of a phytopreparation on the example of a new herbal sedative--Odoval S capsules.

  18. One-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil to produce high quality diesel-range alkanes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congxin; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Lei; Xu, Renshun; Liu, Qianhe; Qu, Wei; Ma, Huaijun; Wang, Bingchun

    2012-10-01

    A one-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil combining deoxygenation and isomerization to directly produce low cloud point, high quality diesel is devised. The Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalysts prepared by using SAPO-11 and ZSM-22 zeolites as supports are used in this process. Catalytic reactions are conducted in a fixed-bed reactor under a hydrogen atmosphere. Over the bifunctional catalyst, 100 % conversion of soybean oil is obtained at 357 °C, 4 MPa, and 1 h(-1), and 80 % organic liquid yield is achieved, which is close to the maximum theoretical liquid yield. In the organic products, the alkanes selectivity is 100 % with an i-alkanes selectivity above 63 %. NH(3)-temperature programmed desorption (TPD), pyridine IR spectroscopy, and other characterization techniques are used to study the effect of the support acidity on the reaction pathway. Over the Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalyst with less strong Lewis acid sites, the reaction proceeds via the decarboxylation plus decarbonylation pathway. This one-step method provides a new strategy to produce low cloud point, high quality diesel from biomass feedstock in a more economic and attractive way.

  19. Long-term High-quality Survival with Single-agent Mifepristone Treatment Despite Advanced Cancer.

    PubMed

    Check, Jerome H; Check, Diane; Wilson, Carrie; Lofberg, Patrice

    2016-12-01

    We show long-term high-quality survival following single-agent treatment with a progesterone receptor antagonist in two cases of advanced metastatic cancer. Because no biopsy was performed (patient refused) the exact type of lung cancer was not determined but the majority of oncologists who evaluated the patient thought that the rapid onset and syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone was more consistent with small-cell lung cancer. The US Food and Drug Association granted a compassionate-use investigational new drug approval for use of single-agent 200 mg mifepristone orally/day to a moribund woman with never-treated metastatic lung cancer and a male with bilateral renal cell carcinoma who had undergone only a unilateral hemi-nephrectomy. Both had long-term high-quality survival (5 years for the patient with lung cancer with complete remission of all lung lesions, and 12 years for the male patient with kidney cancer). Neither patient had any side-effects from mifepristone therapy. These cases helped influence the US Food and Drug Association in granting an investigator-initiated investigational new drug study on advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. High-quality ZnO growth, doping, and polarization effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Tang; Shulin, Gu; Jiandong, Ye; Shunming, Zhu; Rong, Zhang; Youdou, Zheng

    2016-03-01

    The authors have reported their recent progress in the research field of ZnO materials as well as the corresponding global advance. Recent results regarding (1) the development of high-quality epitaxy techniques, (2) the defect physics and the Te/N co-doping mechanism for p-type conduction, and (3) the design, realization, and properties of the ZnMgO/ZnO hetero-structures have been shown and discussed. A complete technology of the growth of high-quality ZnO epi-films and nano-crystals has been developed. The co-doping of N plus an iso-valent element to oxygen has been found to be the most hopeful path to overcome the notorious p-type hurdle. High mobility electrons have been observed in low-dimensional structures utilizing the polarization of ZnMgO and ZnO. Very different properties as well as new physics of the electrons in 2DEG and 3DES have been found as compared to the electrons in the bulk. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61025020, 61274058, 61322403, 61504057, 61574075), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BK2011437, BK20130013, BK20150585), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.