Science.gov

Sample records for high-resolution electron spectroscopy

  1. High-resolution threshold photoelectron spectroscopy by electron attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, J. M.; Chutjian, A.

    1976-01-01

    A new technique for measuring high-resolution threshold photoelectron spectra of atoms, molecules, and radicals is described. It involves photoionization of a gaseous species, attachment of the threshold, or nearly zero electron to some trapping molecule (here SF6 or CFCl3), and mass detection of the attachment product (SF6/-/ or Cl/-/ respectively). This technique of threshold photoelectron spectroscopy by electron attachment was used to measure the spectra of argon and xenon at 11 meV (FWHM) resolution, and was also applied to CFCl3.

  2. High resolution threshold photoelectron spectroscopy by electron attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Ajello, J. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A system is provided for determining the stable energy levels of a species ion, of an atomic, molecular, or radical type, by application of ionizing energy of a predetermined level, such as through photoionization. The system adds a trapping gas to the gaseous species to provide a technique for detection of the energy levels. The electrons emitted from ionized species are captured by the trapping gas, only if the electrons have substantially zero kinetic energy. If the electrons have nearly zero energy, they are absorbed by the trapping gas to produce negative ions of the trapping gas that can be detected by a mass spectrometer. The applied energies (i.e. light frequencies) at which large quantities of trapping gas ions are detected, are the stable energy levels of the positive ion of the species. SF6 and CFCl3 have the narrowest acceptance bands, so that when they are used as the trapping gas, they bind electrons only when the electrons have very close to zero kinetic energy.

  3. High resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    F. Garibaldi

    2005-02-01

    Hypernuclear spectroscopy provides fundamental information for understanding the effective ?-Nucleon interaction. Jefferson Laboratory experiment E94-107 was designed to perform high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy by electroproduction of strangeness in four 1p-shell nuclei: 12C, 9Be, 16O, and 7Li. The first part of the experiment on 12C and 9Be has been performed in January and April-May 2004 in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. Significant modifications were made to the standard Hall A apparatus for this challenging experiment: two septum magnets and a RICH detector have been added to get reasonable counting rates and excellent particle identification, as required for the experiment. A description of the apparatus and the preliminary analysis results are presented here.

  4. High-resolution electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy of giant palladium clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleshko, V.; Volkov, V.; Gijbels, R.; Jacob, W.; Vargaftik, M.; Moiseev, I.; van Tendeloo, G.

    1995-12-01

    Combined structural and chemical characterization of cationic polynuclear palladium coordination compounds Pd561L60(OAc)180, where L=1,10-phenantroline or 2,2'-bipyridine has been carried out by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) and analytical electron microscopy methods including electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), zero-loss electron spectroscopic imaging, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The cell structure of the cluster matter with almost completely uniform metal core size distributions centered around 2.3 ±0.5 nm was observed. Zero-loss energy filtering allowed to improve the image contrast and resolution. HREM images showed that most of the palladium clusters had a cubo-octahedral shape. Some of them had a distorted icosahedron structure exhibiting multiple twinning. The selected-area electron diffraction patterns confirmed the face centered cubic structure with lattice parameter close to that of metallic palladium. The energy-loss spectra of the populations of clusters contained several bands, which could be assigned to the delayed Pd M4, 5-edge at 362 eV, the Pd M3-edge at 533 eV and the Pd M2-edge at 561 eV, the NK-edge at about 400 eV, the O K-edge at 532 eV overlapping with the Pd M3-edge and the carbon C K-edge at 284 eV. Background subtraction was applied to reveal the exact positions and fine structure of low intensity elemental peaks. EELS evaluations have been confirmed by EDX. The recorded series of the Pd M-edges and the N K-edge in the spectra of the giant palladium clusters obviously were related to Pd-Pd- and Pd-ligand bonding.

  5. High-Resolution Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) Using a Monochromated TEM/STEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sai, Z. R.; Bradley, J. P.; Erni, R.; Browning, N.

    2005-01-01

    A 200 keV FEI TF20 XT monochromated (scanning) transmission electron microscope funded by NASA's SRLIDAP program is undergoing installation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Instrument specifications in STEM mode are Cs =1.0 mm, Cc =1.2 mm, image resolution =0.18 nm, and in TEM mode Cs =1.3 mm, Cc =1.3 mm, information limit =0.14 nm. Key features of the instrument are a voltage-stabilized high tension (HT) supply, a monochromator, a high-resolution electron energy-loss spectrometer/energy filter, a high-resolution annular darkfield detector, and a solid-state x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometer. The high-tension tank contains additional sections for 60Hz and high frequency filtering, resulting in an operating voltage of 200 kV plus or minus 0.005V, a greater than 10-fold improvement over earlier systems. The monochromator is a single Wien filter design. The energy filter is a Gatan model 866 Tridiem-ERS high resolution GIF spec d for less than or equal to 0.15 eV energy resolution with 29 pA of current in a 2 nm diameter probe. 0.13 eV has already been achieved during early installation. The x-ray detector (EDAX/Genesis 4000) has a take-off angle of 20 degrees, an active area of 30 square millimeters, and a solid angle of 0.3 steradians. The higher solid angle is possible because the objective pole-piece allows the detector to be positioned as close as 9.47 mm from the specimen. The voltage-stabilized HT supply, monochromator and GIF enable high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS) with energy resolution comparable to synchrotron XANES, but with approximately 100X better spatial resolution. The region between 0 and 100 eV is called the low-loss or valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) region where features due to collective plasma oscillations and single electron transitions of valence electrons are observed. Most of the low-loss VEELS features we are detecting are being observed for the first time in IDPs. A major focus of

  6. High-resolution electron spectroscopy of different adsorption states of ethylene on Pd(1 1 1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sock, M.; Eichler, A.; Surnev, S.; Andersen, J. N.; Klötzer, B.; Hayek, K.; Ramsey, M. G.; Netzer, F. P.

    2003-11-01

    The adsorption of ethylene at 100 K on clean and oxygen precovered Pd(1 1 1) surfaces and the thermal evolution of the ethylene adsorbate layers have been investigated experimentally by high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, thermal desorption spectroscopy and theoretically by ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. On the clean Pd(1 1 1) surface at 100 K ethylene is adsorbed in a di-σ bonding state, whereas on the oxygen precovered Pd(1 1 1)2 × 2-O surface the π-bonded configuration is more stable; this has been established both experimentally and theoretically. Upon adsorption at room temperature ethylidyne adspecies are formed on both surfaces, but neither di-σ nor π-bonded ethylene transform into ethylidyne on heating from low temperature up to 450 K. Complete molecular desorption of ethylene is observed in both cases, with no signs of dehydrogenation. The spectroscopic data recorded during the thermal evolution of the low temperature adsorbate phase have been analysed with the help of DFT and indicate that π-bonded ethylene adsorption states may become populated upon heating the low temperature adlayer to 350 K.

  7. High resolution EUV spectroscopy of xenon ions with a compact electron beam ion trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Safdar; Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-01

    We performed high resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy measurements of highly charged xenon ions with a compact electron beam ion trap. The spectra were recorded with a flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer while varying the electron beam energy between 200 and 890 eV. We measured the wavelengths for several lines of Rh-like Xe9+ - Cd-like Xe6+ and Cu-like Xe25+- Se-like Xe20+ in the range of 150-200 Å with an uncertainty of 0.05 Å. Previously, most of these lines have been reported from EBITs with a wavelength uncertainty of 0.2 Å. Additionally, based on the electron beam energy dependence of the observed spectra we tentatively identified three new lines, which were reported as unidentified lines in the previous studies.

  8. Panoramic High Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2008-10-01

    Stellar populations in galaxies are vast repositories of fossil information. In recent years it has become possible to consider high resolution spectroscopic surveys of millions of stars. New high resolution multi-object spectrographs on 4-8m class telescopes (HERMES, WFMOS) will allow us for the first time to make large and detailed chemical abundance surveys of stars in the Galactic disk, bulge and halo, and apply the techniques of chemical tagging to recovering the fossil information left over from galaxy assembly. These instruments will have strong synergies with the GAIA astrometric satellite due to launch in 2011. The level of detail made possible by these future facilities will be necessary if we are to fully understand the physical processes involved in galaxy formation.

  9. High resolution electron microscopy and spectroscopy of ferritin in thin window liquid cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Canhui; Qiao, Qiao; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Klie, Robert

    2014-03-01

    In-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has seen a dramatic increase in interest in recent years with the commercial development of liquid and gas stages. High-resolution TEM characterization of samples in a liquid environment remains limited by radiation damage and loss of resolution due to the thick window-layers required by the in-situ stages. We introduce thin-window static-liquid cells that enable sample imaging with atomic resolution and electron energy-loss (EEL) spectroscopy with 1.3 nm resolution. Using this approach, atomic and electronic structures of biological samples such as ferritin is studied via in-situ transmission electron microscopy experiments. Ferritin in solution is encapsulated using the static liquid cells with reduced window thickness. The integrity of the thin window liquid cell is maintained by controlling the electron dose rate. Radiation damage of samples, such as liquid water and protein, is quantitatively studied to allow precision control of radiation damage level within the liquid cells. Biochemical reactions, such as valence change of the iron in a functioning ferritin, is observed and will be quantified. Relevant biochemical activity: the release and uptake of Fe atoms through the channels of ferritin protein shell is also imaged at atomic resolution. This work is funded by Michigan Technological University. The UIC JEOL JEM-ARM200CF is supported by an MRI-R2 grant from the National Science Foundation (Grant No. DMR-0959470).

  10. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E W; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-08-01

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ). The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.

  11. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E. W.; Guo, Jiandong

    2015-08-15

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.

  12. High-resolution monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy of organic photovoltaic materials.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jessica A; Scheltens, Frank J; Drummy, Lawrence F; Durstock, Michael F; Hage, Fredrik S; Ramasse, Quentin M; McComb, David W

    2017-09-01

    Advances in electron monochromator technology are providing opportunities for high energy resolution (10 - 200meV) electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to be performed in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The energy-loss near-edge structure in core-loss spectroscopy is often limited by core-hole lifetimes rather than the energy spread of the incident illumination. However, in the valence-loss region, the reduced width of the zero loss peak makes it possible to resolve clearly and unambiguously spectral features at very low energy-losses (<3eV). In this contribution, high-resolution EELS was used to investigate four materials commonly used in organic photovoltaics (OPVs): poly(3-hexlythiophene) (P3HT), [6,6] phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), and fullerene (C60). Data was collected on two different monochromated instruments - a Nion UltraSTEM 100 MC 'HERMES' and a FEI Titan(3) 60-300 Image-Corrected S/TEM - using energy resolutions (as defined by the zero loss peak full-width at half-maximum) of 35meV and 175meV, respectively. The data was acquired to allow deconvolution of plural scattering, and Kramers-Kronig analysis was utilized to extract the complex dielectric functions. The real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric functions obtained from the two instruments were compared to evaluate if the enhanced resolution in the Nion provides new opto-electronic information for these organic materials. The differences between the spectra are discussed, and the implications for STEM-EELS studies of advanced materials are considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of an Apparatus for High-Resolution Auger Photoelectron Coincidence Spectroscopy (APECS) and Electron Ion Coincidence (EICO) Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakiuchi, Takuhiro; Hashimoto, Shogo; Fujita, Narihiko; Mase, Kazuhiko; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Okusawa, Makoto

    We have developed an electron electron ion coincidence (EEICO) apparatus for high-resolution Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS) and electron ion coincidence (EICO) spectroscopy. It consists of a coaxially symmetric mirror electron energy analyzer (ASMA), a miniature double-pass cylindrical mirror electron energy analyzer (DP-CMA), a miniature time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), a magnetic shield, an xyz stage, a tilt-adjustment mechanism, and a conflat flange with an outer diameter of 203 mm. A sample surface was irradiated by synchrotron radiation, and emitted electrons were energy-analyzed and detected by the ASMA and the DP-CMA, while desorbed ions were mass-analyzed and detected by the TOF-MS. The performance of the new EEICO analyzer was evaluated by measuring Si 2p photoelectron spectra of clean Si(001)-2×1 and Si(111)-7×7, and by measuring Si-L23VV-Si-2p Auger photoelectron coincidence spectra (Si-L23VV-Si-2p APECS) of clean Si(001)-2×1.

  14. High Resolution UV Emission Spectroscopy of Molecules Excited by Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, G. K.; Ajello, J. M.; Beegle, L.; Ciocca, M.; Dziczek, D.; Kanik, I.; Noren, C.; Jonin, C.; Hansen, D.

    1999-01-01

    Photodissociation via discrete line absorption into predissociating Rydberg and valence states is the dominant destruction mechanism of CO and other molecules in the interstellar medium and molecular clouds. Accurate values for the rovibronic oscillator strengths of these transitions and predissociation yields of the excited states are required for input into the photochemical models that attempt to reproduce observed abundances. We report here on our latest experimental results of the electron collisional properties of CO and N2 obtained using the 3-meter high resolution single-scattering spectroscopic facility at JPL.

  15. Experimentally characterizing the electronic structures of f-electron systems using advanced high resolution Fourier transform microwave spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Stephen, A

    2013-02-03

    We aim to (i) provide data that directly addresses the fundamental roles of actinide valence electrons in chemical bonding, and (ii) serve to provide prototypical data for the heavy element computational chemistry community. These goals will be achieved through the first pure rotational spectroscopic measurements on prototypical systems at ultra-high resolution. These systems encompass low oxidation state uranium and thorium compounds including, but not limited to, UX and ThX, X = F, Cl, Br, I, and UY and ThY, Y = O, S, and other simple U and Th-containing compounds. Our primary experimental tools involve time-domain rotational spectroscopy achieving line widths and resolutions of a few kHz.

  16. Magnetic dynamics studied by high-resolution electron spectroscopy and time-resolved electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaraman, Rajeswari

    Future information technology requires an increased magnetically encoded data density and novel electromagnetic modes of data transfer. While to date magnetic properties are observed and characterized mostly statically, the need emerges to monitor and capture their fast dynamics. In this talk, I will focus on the spin dynamics i.e. spin wave excitations and the dynamics of a new topological distribution of spins termed ``skyrmions''. Wave packets of spin waves offer the unique capability to transport a quantum bit, the spin, without the transport of charge or mass. Here, large wave-vector spin waves are of particular interest as they admit spin localization within a few nanometers. By using our recently developed electron energy loss spectrometer, we could study such spin waves in ultrathin films with an unprecedented energy resolution of 4 meV. By virtue of the finite penetration depth of low energy electrons, spin waves localized at interfaces between a substrate and a thin capping layer can be been studied yielding information about the exchange coupling between atoms at the interface. The quantization of spin waves with wave vectors perpendicular to the film gives rise to standing modes to which EELS has likewise access. Such studies when carried out as function of the film thickness again yield information on the layer dependence of the exchange coupling. Magnetic skyrmions are promising candidates as information carriers in logic or storage devices. Currently, little is known about the influence of disorder, defects, or external stimuli on the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the skyrmion lattice. In this talk, I will describe the dynamical role of disorder in a large and flat thin film of Cu2OSeO3, exhibiting a skyrmion phase in an insulating material. We image up to 70,000 skyrmions by means of cryo-Lorentz Transmission Electron Microscopy as a function of the applied magnetic field. In the skyrmion phase, dislocations are shown to cause the

  17. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, F; Lange, E; Limão-Vieira, P; Jones, N C; Hoffmann, S V; Hubin-Franskin, M-J; Delwiche, J; Brunger, M J; Neves, R F C; Lopes, M C A; de Oliveira, E M; da Costa, R F; Varella, M T do N; Bettega, M H F; Blanco, F; García, G; Lima, M A P; Jones, D B

    2015-10-14

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  18. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P. E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J. E-mail: michael.brunger@flinders.edu.au; and others

    2015-10-14

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5–10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  19. Electronic excitation of furfural as probed by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Lange, E.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Brunger, M. J.; Neves, R. F. C.; Lopes, M. C. A.; de Oliveira, E. M.; da Costa, R. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Lima, M. A. P.; Jones, D. B.

    2015-10-01

    The electronic spectroscopy of isolated furfural (2-furaldehyde) in the gas phase has been investigated using high-resolution photoabsorption spectroscopy in the 3.5-10.8 eV energy-range, with absolute cross section measurements derived. Electron energy loss spectra are also measured over a range of kinematical conditions. Those energy loss spectra are used to derive differential cross sections and in turn generalised oscillator strengths. These experiments are supported by ab initio calculations in order to assign the excited states of the neutral molecule. The good agreement between the theoretical results and the measurements allows us to provide the first quantitative assignment of the electronic state spectroscopy of furfural over an extended energy range.

  20. High-Resolution Two-Dimensional Optical Spectroscopy of Electron Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salewski, M.; Poltavtsev, S. V.; Yugova, I. A.; Karczewski, G.; Wiater, M.; Wojtowicz, T.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Akimov, I. A.; Meier, T.; Bayer, M.

    2017-07-01

    Multidimensional coherent optical spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools for investigating complex quantum mechanical systems. While it was conceived decades ago in magnetic resonance spectroscopy using microwaves and radio waves, it has recently been extended into the visible and UV spectral range. However, resolving MHz energy splittings with ultrashort laser pulses still remains a challenge. Here, we analyze two-dimensional Fourier spectra for resonant optical excitation of resident electrons to localized trions or donor-bound excitons in semiconductor nanostructures subject to a transverse magnetic field. Particular attention is devoted to Raman coherence spectra, which allow one to accurately evaluate tiny splittings of the electron ground state and to determine the relaxation times in the electron spin ensemble. A stimulated steplike Raman process induced by a sequence of two laser pulses creates a coherent superposition of the ground-state doublet which can be retrieved only optically because of selective excitation of the same subensemble with a third pulse. This provides the unique opportunity to distinguish between different complexes that are closely spaced in energy in an ensemble. The related experimental demonstration is based on photon-echo measurements in an n -type CdTe /(Cd ,Mg )Te quantum-well structure detected by a heterodyne technique. The difference in the sub-μ eV range between the Zeeman splittings of donor-bound electrons and electrons localized at potential fluctuations can be resolved even though the homogeneous linewidth of the optical transitions is larger by 2 orders of magnitude.

  1. High-resolution electron momentum spectroscopy of valence satellites of carbon disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chengwu; Shan, Xu; Zhang, Zhe; Wang, Enliang; Li, Zhongjun; Chen, XiangJun

    2010-09-01

    The binding energy spectrum of carbon disulphide (CS2) in the energy range of 9-23 eV has been measured by a high-resolution (e,2e) spectrometer employing asymmetric noncoplanar kinematics at an impact energy of 2500 eV plus the binding energy. Taking the advantage of the high energy resolution of 0.54 eV, four main peaks and five satellites in the outer-valence region are resolved. The assignments and pole strengths for these satellite states are achieved by comparing the experimental electron momentum profiles with the corresponding theoretical ones calculated using Hartree-Fock and density functional theory methods. The results are also compared in detail with the recent SAC-CI general-R calculations. General agreement is satisfactory, while the present experiment suggests cooperative contributions from Π2u, Σg+2 states to satellite 2 and Σg+2, Π2g states to satellite 3. Besides, relatively low pole strength for X Π2g state is obtained which contradicts all the theoretical calculations [2ph-TDA, ADC(3), SAC-CI general-R, ADC(4)] so far.

  2. High-resolution electron spin resonance spectroscopy of ethyl radicals in solid parahydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumada, Takayuki; Kumagai, Jun; Miyazaki, Tetsuo

    2001-06-01

    High-resolution electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum of ethyl radicals isolated in solid parahydrogen (>99.5 mol %) has been measured in the temperature range between 3.1 and 6.7 K. This study was carried out by UV photolysis of ethyl iodide doped in solid parahydrogen. Although ESR linewidth of the spectrum is broadened due to anisotropic terms of hyperfine interactions, the linewidth measured in parahydrogen remains comparable to that of the isotropic spectrum measured in liquid ethane [R. W. Fessenden, J. Chem. Phys. 37, 747 (1962)]. Small splittings were found in the resolved ESR signals and assigned as ethyl radicals with A(A',A″) and E(E',E″) symmetries, respectively. The ratio in the ESR intensities is not proportional to that of the degeneracy of each symmetry but varies as a function of temperature. We measured the signal intensities as a function of temperature and determined the rotational energy level splitting of methyl groups between the lowest with the A(A',A″) symmetry and the second-lowest with the E(E',E″) symmetry in solid parahydrogen to be 5.3±0.7 K. The level splitting is close to that measured by infrared-absorption study in gas phase and theoretical calculation, whereas the splitting measured in conventional matrices have been much smaller. Intermolecular interaction between guest radicals and surroundings in solid parahydrogen are found to be much smaller than those in other conventional matrices giving less shifted spectral parameters.

  3. Recent Developments of an Opto-Electronic THz Spectrometer for High-Resolution Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hindle, Francis; Yang, Chun; Mouret, Gael; Cuisset, Arnaud; Bocquet, Robin; Lampin, Jean-François; Blary, Karine; Peytavit, Emilien; Akalin, Tahsin; Ducournau, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    A review is provided of sources and detectors that can be employed in the THz range before the description of an opto-electronic source of monochromatic THz radiation. The realized spectrometer has been applied to gas phase spectroscopy. Air-broadening coefficients of HCN are determined and the insensitivity of this technique to aerosols is demonstrated by the analysis of cigarette smoke. A multiple pass sample cell has been used to obtain a sensitivity improvement allowing transitions of the volatile organic compounds to be observed. A solution to the frequency metrology is presented and promises to yield accurate molecular line center measurements. PMID:22291552

  4. High-resolution electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1977-01-01

    Employing scanning transmission electron microscope as interferometer, relative phases of diffraction maximums can be determined by analysis of dark field images. Synthetic aperture technique and Fourier-transform computer processing of amplitude and phase information provide high resolution images at approximately one angstrom.

  5. Excited electronic states of thiophene: high resolution photoabsorption Fourier transform spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Holland, D M P; Trofimov, A B; Seddon, E A; Gromov, E V; Korona, T; de Oliveira, N; Archer, L E; Joyeux, D; Nahon, L

    2014-10-21

    The recently introduced synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform spectroscopy has been employed to study the excited electronic states of thiophene. A highly resolved photoabsorption spectrum has been measured between ∼5 and 12.5 eV, providing a wealth of new data. High-level ab initio computations have been performed using the second-order algebraic-diagrammatic construction (ADC(2)) polarization propagator approach, and the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (EOM-CC) method at the CCSD and CC3 levels, to guide the assignment of the spectrum. The adiabatic energy corrections have been evaluated, thereby extending the theoretical study beyond the vertical excitation picture and leading to a significantly improved understanding of the spectrum. The low-lying π→π* and π→σ* transitions result in prominent broad absorption bands. Two strong Rydberg series converging onto the X(~)(2)A2 state limit have been assigned to the 1a2→npb1(1)B2 and the 1a2→nda2(1)A1 transitions. A second, and much weaker, d-type series has been assigned to the 1a2→ndb1(1)B2 transitions. Excitation into some of the Rydberg states belonging to the two strong series gives rise to vibrational structure, most of which has been interpreted in terms of excitations of the totally symmetric ν4 and ν8 modes. One Rydberg series, assigned to the 3b1→nsa1(1)B1 transitions, has been identified converging onto the Ã(2)B1 state limit, and at higher energies Rydberg states converging onto the B(~)(2)A1 state limit could be identified. The present spectra reveal highly irregular vibrational structure in certain low energy absorption bands, and thus provide a new source of information for the rapidly developing studies of excited state non-adiabatic dynamics and photochemistry.

  6. Electronic transitions in α-oligothiophene thin films. Comparison of ultraviolet/visible absorption spectroscopy and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oeter, D.; Egelhaaf, H.-J.; Ziegler, Ch.; Oelkrug, D.; Göpel, W.

    1994-10-01

    Vapor deposited thin films of a series of α-oligothiophenes are investigated comparatively with polarized ultraviolet/visible absorption spectroscopy (UV/VIS) and by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) in specular reflection geometry. The complementary selection rules of these methods allow an assignment of the observed absorption and loss bands according to a Hückel molecular orbital model. By plotting the transition energies of corresponding bands of different members of the homologous series vs the reciprocal of the number of rings, the development of the one-dimensional ``π-band-structure'' with an increasing number of rings could be followed. The extrapolation to infinite chain length leads to the electronic properties of an ideal (defect free) polythiophene. Furthermore, characteristic differences were observed in the results obtained from the two methods. The orientation of the molecules in thin films is only detectable with UV/VIS spectroscopy. It is most pronounced for α-quinquethiophene. On the other hand, HREELS gives information about the position of optical parity forbidden electronic transitions.

  7. High-Resolution Photoelectron and Photoionization Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkt, F.

    2012-06-01

    Since its development in the late 1950s and early 1960s, photoelectron spectroscopy has established itself as an important method to study the electronic structure of molecules, their photoionization dynamics, and the structure and dynamics of molecular cations. In recent years, and particularly since the development of pulsed-field-ionization zero-kinetic-energy (PFI-ZEKE) photoelectron spectroscopy, considerable progress has been made in the resolution that can be achieved by photoelectron spectroscopy. This progress relies on the systematic exploitation of the unusual physical properties of high Rydberg states and enables one today to resolve the rotational structure in the photoelectron spectra of even large molecules and the hyperfine structure in the photoelectron spectra of small molecules. This talk will begin with a brief historical review of photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, the relationship between photoelectron spectroscopy, photoionization spectroscopy and the spectroscopy of high Rydberg states will be discussed. It will be explained how this relationship is currently exploited to improve the resolution achievable by PFI-ZEKE photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, the physical principles that are at the heart of the latest methods related to high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy will be described together with their fundamental limitations. Depending on the resolution and the spectral range needed to address a specific scientific problem, a choice can be made between several different methods with spectral resolutions ranging from 30 GHz to better than 1 MHz. The talk will summarize the current state of the art in gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy and be illustrated by several examples, primarily taken from the research in my group, in which photoelectron spectroscopy has contributed to answer questions concerning the structure and dynamics of small-sized molecular cations. F. I. Vilesov, B. C. Kurbatov, and N. Terrenin, Soviet Phys. (Doklady) 6

  8. High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Studies of Chemisorbed Species on Metal Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-31

    vibrational modes at crystal surfaces, the first detection of projected bulk phonon modes by surface electron scattering and elucidation of novel properties associated with hydrogen interaction at Niobium surfaces. (jg)

  9. High Resolution VUV Spectroscopy of Electron Impact Induced Emissions from Molecular Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, C. P.; Johnson, P. V.; Liu, X.; Ajello, J. M.; Shemansky, D. E.; Kanik, I.

    2006-12-01

    Emissions in the VUV have been probed for transitions from the Rydberg states (c4^{'} ^{1}Σu+ and b^{'} ^{1}Σu+) to the ground state (X ^{1}Σg+) in molecular nitrogen. The experimental setup consists of a 3m spectrometer and an electron collision chamber. The electron beam (with energy spread of ~0.5eV) was magnetically collimated with an axially symmetric magnetic field of ~100G and accelerated to a given kinetic energy. A Faraday cup was used to monitor the beam current and to minimize the back-scattered electrons. Photons emitted by electron impact excited target molecules (i.e., N2 and H2) were dispersed by the spectrometer and detected at the rotationally-resolved level with a channel electron multiplier coated with CsI. Measured c4^{'} ^{1}Σu+ → X ^{1}Σg+ transition moment and predissociation yield of the c4^{'}(v^{'}=0) will be presented. Acknowledgement: This work was carried out at JPL, Caltech, and SET under contracts with NASA and NSF. This research was performed while CPM held a NASA Postdoctoral Fellowship at JPL.

  10. High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy of Free Radicals in Nearly Degenerate Electronic States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinjun

    2017-06-01

    Rovibronic structure of molecules in orbitally degenerate electronic states including Renner-Teller (RT) and Jahn-Teller (JT) active molecules has been extensively studied. Less is known about rotational structure of polyatomic molecules in nearly degenerate states, especially those with low (e.g., C_s) symmetry that are subject to the pseudo-Jahn-Teller (pJT) effect. In the case of free radicals, the unpaired electron further complicates energy levels by inducing spin-orbit (SO) and spin-rotation (SR) splittings. Asymmetric deuteration or methyl substitution of C_{3v} free radicals such as CH_3O, CaCH_3, and CaOCH_3 lowers the molecular symmetry, lifts the vibronic degeneracy, and reduces the JT effect to the pJT effect. New spectroscopic models are required to reproduce the rovibronic structure and simulate the experimentally obtained spectra of pJT-active free radicals. It has been found that rotational and fine-structure analysis of spectra involving nearly degenerate states may aid in vibronic analysis and interpretation of effective molecular constants. Especially, SO and Coriolis interactions that couple the two states can be determined accurately from fitting the experimental spectra. Coupling between the two electronic states also affects the intensities of rotational and vibronic transitions. The study on free radicals in nearly degenerate states provides a promising avenue of research which may bridge the gap between symmetry-induced degenerate states and the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) limit of unperturbed electronic states.

  11. High-Resolution {alpha} and Electron Spectroscopy of {sup 249}{sub 98}Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Greene, J. P.; Kondev, F. G.; Zhu, S.

    2015-04-13

    alpha-particle spectra of Cf-249 have been measured with a double-focusing magnetic spectrometer and with passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detectors. The conversion-electron spectra of Cf-249 have been measured with a cooled Si(Li) detector and with a room-temperature PIPS detector. Precise energies of a groups in the decay of Cf-249 have been measured with respect to the known energy of Cf-250. In addition, alpha-electron, alpha-gamma, and gamma-gamma coincidence measurements were also performed to determine the spin-parity of the previously known 643.64-keV level. From electron intensities, conversion coefficients of transitions in the daughter Cm-245 have been determined. The measured L-3 conversion coefficients of the 333.4- and 388.2-keV transitions are found to be in agreement with the theoretical conversion coefficients for pure E1 multipolarity. On the other hand, the K, L-1 + L-2, M, and N conversion coefficients are approximately twice the theoretical values for pure E1 transitions. These measurements indicate anomalous E1 conversion coefficients for the 333.4- and 388.2-keV transitions, as has been pointed out in earlier measurements. The measured conversion coefficient of the 255.5-keV transition gives an M1 multipolarity for this transition which establishes a spin-parity of 7/2(-) and the 7/2(-)[743] single-particle assignment to the 643.64-keV level.

  12. High-resolution electronic spectroscopy of the BODIPY chromophore in supersonic beam and superfluid helium droplets.

    PubMed

    Stromeck-Faderl, Anja; Pentlehner, Dominik; Kensy, Uwe; Dick, Bernhard

    2011-07-11

    We present the fluorescence excitation and dispersed emission spectra of the parent compound of the boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye class measured in a supersonic beam and isolated in superfluid helium nanodroplets. The gas-phase spectrum of the isolated molecules displays many low-frequency transitions that are assigned to a symmetry-breaking mode with a strongly nonharmonic potential, presumably the out-of-plane wagging mode of the BF(2) group. The data are in good agreement with transition energies and Franck-Condon factors calculated for a double minimum potential in the upper electronic state. The corresponding transitions do not appear in the helium droplet. This is explained with the quasi-rigid first layer of helium atoms attached to the dopant molecule by van der Waals forces. The spectral characteristics are those of a cyanine dye rather than that of an aromatic chromophore. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. High resolution electronic spectroscopy of three n-alkylbenzenes: ethyl-, propyl-, and butylbenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borst, David R.; Joireman, Paul W.; Pratt, David W.; Robertson, Evan G.; Simons, John P.

    2002-04-01

    Rotationally resolved S1-S0 fluorescence excitation spectra of ethylbenzene, two conformers of n-propylbenzene, and two conformers of n-butylbenzene have been observed and assigned. The data obtained provide information about the equilibrium properties of each molecule, including their geometries in the S1-S0 states, their electronic distributions, and their dynamical behavior following the absorption of light. Trans structures are found to have S1 states that are 1Lb in character with relatively long fluorescence lifetimes. Gauche structures are found to have S1 states that are mixed (1Lb/1La) in character with relatively short fluorescence lifetimes. Possible reasons for these differences in properties are discussed.

  14. Limonene: electronic state spectroscopy by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption, electron scattering, He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Śmiałek, M A; Hubin-Franskin, M-J; Delwiche, J; Duflot, D; Mason, N J; Vrønning-Hoffmann, S; de Souza, G G B; Ferreira Rodrigues, A M; Rodrigues, F N; Limão-Vieira, P

    2012-02-14

    Electronic state spectroscopy of limonene has been investigated using vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy in the energy range 5.0-10.8 eV. The availability of a high resolution photon beam (~0.075 nm) enabled detailed analysis of the vibrational progressions and allowed us to propose, for the first time, new assignments for several Rydberg series. Excited states located in the 7.5-8.4 eV region have been studied for the first time. A He(I) photoelectron spectrum has also been recorded from 8.2 to 9.5 eV and compared to previous low resolution works. A new value of 8.521 ± 0.002 eV for the ground ionic state adiabatic ionisation energy is proposed. Absolute photoabsorption cross sections were derived in the 10-26 eV range from electron scattering data. All spectra presented in this paper represent the highest resolution data yet reported for limonene. These experiments are complemented by new ab initio calculations performed for the three most abundant conformational isomers of limonene, which we then used in the assignment of the spectral bands.

  15. Perfluorocyclobutane electronic state spectroscopy by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption, electron impact, He I photoelectron spectroscopy, and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Limao-Vieira, P.; Vasekova, E.; Mason, N. J.; Giuliani, A.; Lourenco, J. M. C.; Santos, P. M.; Duflot, D.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Delwiche, J.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.

    2007-09-15

    The electronic state spectroscopy of perfluorocyclobutane (c-C{sub 4}F{sub 8}) has been investigated using high resolution vacuum ultraviolet (vuv) photoabsorption spectroscopy in the energy range 6.0-11 eV. The electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) was also recorded in the nonelectric dipolar interaction mode (100 eV incident energy, 10 deg. scattering angle) over the 8-14 eV energy-loss range and the excited states in the 11-14 eV spectral region have been observed. An He I photoelectron spectrum recorded between 11.0 and 19.8 eV is compared with earlier lower resolution results. This has allowed us to derive a more precise value of 12.291{+-}0.002 eV for the ground neutral state vertical ionization energy. All spectra presented in this paper represent the highest resolution data yet reported for perfluorocyclobutane, to the best of our knowledge. Ab initio calculations have been performed for helping in the assignment of the spectral bands for both neutral excited states and ionic states.

  16. High-Resolution Spectroscopy with a Free-Electron Laser: Vibrational Lifetimes of Hydrogen-related Defects in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luepke, Gunter

    2009-03-01

    Gunter Luepke, Department of Applied Science, The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 Vibrational lifetimes of hydrogen- and deuterium-related bending and stretching modes in crystalline silicon are measured by high-resolution infrared absorption spectroscopy and pump-probe transient bleaching technique using the Jefferson Lab. Free-Electron Laser. We find that the vibrational lifetimes of the bending modes follow a universal frequency-gap law, i.e., the decay time increases exponentially with increasing decay order, with values ranging from 1 ps for a one-phonon process to 265 ps for a four-phonon process. The temperature dependence of the lifetime shows that the bending mode decays by lowest-order multi-phonon process. In contrast, the lifetimes of the stretching modes are found to be extremely dependent on the defect structure, ranging from 2 to 295 ps. Against conventional wisdom, we find that lifetimes of Si-D stretch modes typically are longer than for the corresponding Si-H modes. Our results provide new insights into vibrational decay and the giant isotope effect of hydrogen in semiconductor systems. The potential implications of the results on the physics of electronic device degradation are discussed.

  17. Specular and off-specular high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy of acetylene and ethylene on tungsten (100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, J. C.; Swanson, N.; Waclawski, B. J.; Celotta, R. J.

    1981-04-01

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in both specular and off-specular directions has been used to identify the vibrational modes of acetylene and ethylene on tungsten (100). The off-specular data were essential to this study since, at low coverages, some of the vibrational modes were detectable only for off-specular scattering. In addition, analysis of the relative intensities of the specular and off-specular loss peaks allows us to infer orientations of molecular dipole derivatives and bond directions for the adsorbed species. We find at 135 K that ethylene on tungsten (100) dissociates to acetylene and hydrogen for exposures less than 1 L. At saturation coverage molecular ethylene is also adsorbed. Warming of this adsorbed ethylene to 300 K causes dissociation to acetylene. Analysis of specular and off-specular loss intensities suggests a geometry with the C-H bonds lying parallel to the surface. Previous UPS data for this adsorption system can be reinterpreted giving a C-C bond length of 1.35 Å and a C-C-H bond angle of 180 °: This reinterpretation is consistent with the geometry suggested by our EELS measurements. We also present data for acetylene adsorption at room temperature and for ethylene physisorption at 82 K. Physisorbed ethylene shows vibrational losses identical to those seen in gas phase IR.

  18. Hydrogenated graphene on Ir(111): A high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy study of the vibrational spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyhl, Line; Balog, Richard; Angot, Thierry; Hornekær, Liv; Bisson, Régis

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen atom adsorption on high-quality graphene on Ir(111) [gr/Ir(111)] is investigated using high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. The evolution of the vibrational spectrum, up to 400 meV, of gr/Ir(111) upon increasing hydrogen atom exposures is measured. The two dominant binding configurations of atomic hydrogen are identified as (1) graphanelike hydrogen clusters on the parts of the graphene more strongly interacting with the Ir(111) surface and (2) dimers bound more weakly to the freestanding parts of the graphene. The graphanelike surface structures lead to increased corrugation of the graphene sheet, yielding graphane-related phonon components. Additionally, a recent theoretical prediction of the existence of a bending character for a LO/TO graphane chair phonon mode is experimentally verified. No clear evidence was found for hydrogen bound on both sides of a high-quality graphene sheet and phonon features strongly suggest interactions between graphanelike hydrogen clusters and Ir atoms in the substrate.

  19. Binding sites and electronic states of group 3 metal-aniline complexes probed by high-resolution electron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Sudesh; Sohnlein, Bradford R.; Hewage, Dilrukshi; Roudjane, Mourad; Sup Lee, Jung; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2013-06-01

    Group 3 metal-aniline complexes, M(aniline) (M = Sc, Y, and La), are produced in a pulsed laser-vaporization molecular beam source, identified by photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and investigated by pulsed-field ionization zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Adiabatic ionization energies and several low-frequency vibrational modes are measured for the first time from the ZEKE spectra. Metal binding sites and electronic states are determined by combining the ZEKE measurements with the theoretical calculations. The ionization energies of the complexes decrease down the metal group. An out-of-plane ring deformation mode coupled with an asymmetric metal-carbon stretch is considerably anharmonic. Although aniline has various possible sites for metal coordination, the preferred site is the phenyl ring. The metal binding with the phenyl ring yields syn and anti conformers with the metal atom and amino hydrogens on the same and opposite sides of the ring, respectively. The anti conformer is determined to be the spectral carrier. The ground electronic state of the anti conformer of each neutral complex is a doublet with a metal-based electron configuration of nd2(n + 1)s1, and the ground electronic state of each ion is a singlet with a metal-based electron configuration of nd2. The formation of the neutral complexes requires the nd2(n + 1)s1 ← nd1(n + 1)s2 electron excitation in the metal atoms.

  20. Neutron irradiation damage of nuclear graphite studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, R.; Jones, A. N.; McDermott, L.; Marsden, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear graphite components are produced from polycrystalline artificial graphite manufacture from a binder and filler coke with approximately 20% porosity. During the operational lifetime, nuclear graphite moderator components are subjected to fast neutron irradiation which contributes to the change of material and physical properties such as thermal expansion co-efficient, young's modulus and dimensional change. These changes are directly driven by irradiation-induced changes to the crystal structure as reflected through the bulk microstructure. It is therefore of critical importance that these irradiation changes and there implication on component property changes are fully understood. This work examines a range of irradiated graphite samples removed from the British Experimental Pile Zero (BEPO) reactor; a low temperature, low fluence, air-cooled Materials Test Reactor which operated in the UK. Raman spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) have been employed to characterise the effect of increased irradiation fluence on graphite microstructure and understand low temperature irradiation damage processes. HRTEM confirms the structural damage of the crystal lattice caused by irradiation attributed to a high number of defects generation with the accumulation of dislocation interactions at nano-scale range. Irradiation-induced crystal defects, lattice parameters and crystallite size compared to virgin nuclear graphite are characterised using selected area diffraction (SAD) patterns in TEM and Raman Spectroscopy. The consolidated 'D'peak in the Raman spectra confirms the formation of in-plane point defects and reflected as disordered regions in the lattice. The reduced intensity and broadened peaks of 'G' and 'D' in the Raman and HRTEM results confirm the appearance of turbulence and disordering of the basal planes whilst maintaining their coherent layered graphite structure.

  1. Analysis of Multilayer Devices for Superconducting Electronics by High-Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Missert, Nancy; Kotula, Paul G.; Rye, Michael; ...

    2017-02-15

    We used a focused ion beam to obtain cross-sectional specimens from both magnetic multilayer and Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb Josephson junction devices for characterization by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). An automated multivariate statistical analysis of the EDX spectral images produced chemically unique component images of individual layers within the multilayer structures. STEM imaging elucidated distinct variations in film morphology, interface quality, and/or etch artifacts that could be correlated to magnetic and/or electrical properties measured on the same devices.

  2. High-resolution electron spectroscopy of lanthanide (Ce, Pr, and Nd) complexes of cyclooctatetraene: the role of 4f electrons.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sudesh; Roudjane, Mourad; Hewage, Dilrukshi; Liu, Yang; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2013-04-28

    Cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium complexes of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene (COT) complexes were produced in a laser-vaporization metal cluster source and studied by pulsed-field ionization zero electron kinetic energy spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. The computations included the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, the coupled cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations, and the state-average complete active space self-consistent field method. The spectrum of each complex exhibits multiple band systems and is assigned to ionization of several low-energy electronic states of the neutral complex. This observation is different from previous studies of M(COT) (M = Sc, Y, La, and Gd), for which a single band system was observed. The presence of the multiple low-energy electronic states is caused by the splitting of the partially filled lanthanide 4f orbitals in the ligand field, and the number of the low-energy states increases rapidly with increasing number of the metal 4f electrons. On the other hand, the 4f electrons have a small effect on the geometries and vibrational frequencies of these lanthanide complexes.

  3. High-resolution electron spectroscopy of lanthanide (Ce, Pr, and Nd) complexes of cyclooctatetraene: The role of 4f electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kumari, Sudesh; Roudjane, Mourad; Hewage, Dilrukshi; Yang Dongsheng; Liu Yang

    2013-04-28

    Cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium complexes of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene (COT) complexes were produced in a laser-vaporization metal cluster source and studied by pulsed-field ionization zero electron kinetic energy spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. The computations included the second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory, the coupled cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations, and the state-average complete active space self-consistent field method. The spectrum of each complex exhibits multiple band systems and is assigned to ionization of several low-energy electronic states of the neutral complex. This observation is different from previous studies of M(COT) (M = Sc, Y, La, and Gd), for which a single band system was observed. The presence of the multiple low-energy electronic states is caused by the splitting of the partially filled lanthanide 4f orbitals in the ligand field, and the number of the low-energy states increases rapidly with increasing number of the metal 4f electrons. On the other hand, the 4f electrons have a small effect on the geometries and vibrational frequencies of these lanthanide complexes.

  4. Surface electronic structure of Bi2Te3(111) studied by high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Koji; Azuma, Junpei; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Kamada, Masao; Sasaki, Minoru; Ohnishi, Akimasa; Kitaura, Mamoru; Kim, Heon-Jung

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the surface electronic structure on vacuum-cleaved n- and p-type Bi2Te3(111) at 10 K by high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface sensitivity was maximized by tuning photon energy using synchrotron radiation as an excitation source, probing the topmost two quintuple layers (QLs). The Bi 5d and Te 4d core levels are also observed in high energy resolution. The absence of surface core-level shift of Bi 5d clearly demonstrates that the topmost layer of the cleaved Bi2Te3(111) is composed of a Te layer. In the angle-resolved photoelectron spectra, the gapless surface-state bands (SSBs) as well as the bulk conduction and valence bands (BVBs) are clearly observed, ensuring the topological nature. The k∥ dispersion of most of the BVBs along the Γ¯-M¯ line in the surface Brillouin zone is highly symmetrical around the Γ¯ against the threefold symmetry of the crystal structure, where k∥ is the wave vector parallel to the surface. The topmost Te layer of sixfold structure must dominantly contribute to the symmetrical k∥ dispersion. Moreover, the BVBs show almost flat k⊥ dispersion, where k⊥ is the wave vector perpendicular to the surface. These observations are the direct experimental evidence of a strong modification of the valence bands within the topmost two QLs into strongly two-dimensional states by the advent of the surface. In conclusion, the surface electronic structure within the two QLs is composed of the SSBs and modified two-dimensional valence bands.

  5. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy of manganese oxides: Application to Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Laffont, L.; Gibot, P.

    2010-11-15

    Manganese oxides particularly Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} Hausmannite are currently used in many industrial applications such as catalysis, magnetism, electrochemistry or air contamination. The downsizing of the particle size of such material permits an improvement of its intrinsic properties and a consequent increase in its performances compared to a classical micron-sized material. Here, we report a novel synthesis of hydrophilic nano-sized Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, a bivalent oxide, for which a precise characterization is necessary and for which the determination of the valency proves to be essential. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and particularly High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (HREELS) allow us to perform these measurements on the nanometer scale. Well crystallized 10-20 nm sized Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles with sphere-shaped morphology were thus successfully synthesized. Meticulous EELS investigations allowed the determination of a Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 2+} ratio of 1.5, i.e. slightly lower than the theoretical value of 2 for the bulk Hausmannite manganese oxide. This result emphasizes the presence of vacancies on the tetrahedral sites in the structure of the as-synthesized nanomaterial. - Research Highlights: {yields}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} bulk and nano were studied by XRD, TEM and EELS. {yields}XRD and TEM determine the degree of crystallinity and the narrow grain size. {yields}HREELS gave access to the Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 2+} ratio. {yields}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nano have vacancies on the tetrahedral sites.

  6. High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy of clean and hydrogen covered Si(001) surfaces: first principles calculations.

    PubMed

    Patterson, C H

    2012-09-07

    Surface phonons, conductivities, and loss functions are calculated for reconstructed (2×1), p(2×2) and c(4×2) clean Si(001) surfaces, and (2×1) H and D covered Si(001) surfaces. Surface conductivities perpendicular to the surface are significantly smaller than conductivities parallel to the surface. The surface loss function is compared to high resolution electron energy loss measurements. There is good agreement between calculated loss functions and experiment for H and D covered surfaces. However, agreement between experimental data from different groups and between theory and experiment is poor for clean Si(001) surfaces. Formalisms for calculating electron energy loss spectra are reviewed and the mechanism of electron energy losses to surface vibrations is discussed.

  7. Hot-Electron Tunneling sensors for high-resolution x-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mears, C.A.; Labov, S.E.; Frank, M.; Netel, H.

    1997-02-07

    Over the past 2 years, we have been studying the use of Hot Electron Tunneling sensors for use in high-energy-resolution x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers. These sensors promise several advantages over existing cryogenic sensors, including simultaneous high count rate and high resolution capability, and relative ease of use. Using simple shadow mask lithography, we verified the basic principles of operation of these devices and discovered new physics in their thermal behavior as a function applied voltage bias. We also began to develop ways to use this new sensor in practical x-ray and gamma-ray detectors based on superconducting absorbers. This requires the use of quasiparticle trapping to concentrate the signal in the sensing elements.

  8. The use of high resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy for refining the infrared optical constants of GaS, GaSe, and InSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li-Ming; Thiry, P. A.; Degiovanni, A.; Conard, Th.; Leclerc, G.; Caudano, R.; Lambin, Ph.; Debever, J.-M.

    1994-06-01

    Cleaved surfaces of III-VI lamellar semiconducting compounds GaS, GaSe, and InSe have been studied by high resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The infrared optical constants of the materials were retrieved by using the dielectric theory taking account of the resonance frequencies published from infrared reflectivity (IRS) data. The limitations of the HREELS and IRS measurements in the case of these materials are discussed in detail. However, it is shown that, by combining the informations from both spectroscopies, it is possible to refine some of the oscillator strengths of these materials.

  9. High-resolution electron microscopy and spectroscopy of ferritin in biocompatible graphene liquid cells and graphene sandwiches.

    PubMed

    Wang, Canhui; Qiao, Qiao; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Klie, Robert F

    2014-06-04

    Atomic and electronic structures of hydrated ferritin are characterized using electron microscopy and spectroscopy through encapsulation in single layer graphene in a biocompatible manner. Graphene's ability to reduce radiation damage levels to hydrogen bond breakage is demonstrated. A reduction of iron valence from 3+ to 2+ is measured at nanometer-resolution in ferritin, showing initial stages of iron release by ferritin. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. High-Resolution Imaging and Spectroscopy at High Pressure: A Novel Liquid Cell for the Transmission Electron Microscope.

    PubMed

    Tanase, Mihaela; Winterstein, Jonathan; Sharma, Renu; Aksyuk, Vladimir; Holland, Glenn; Liddle, James A

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate quantitative core-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy of iron oxide nanoparticles and imaging resolution of Ag nanoparticles in liquid down to 0.24 nm, in both transmission and scanning transmission modes, in a novel, monolithic liquid cell developed for the transmission electron microscope (TEM). At typical SiN membrane thicknesses of 50 nm the liquid-layer thickness has a maximum change of only 30 nm for the entire TEM viewing area of 200×200 µm.

  11. Electronic band structure of ReS2 by high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, James L.; Hart, Lewis S.; Wolverson, Daniel; Chen, Chaoyu; Avila, Jose; Asensio, Maria C.

    2017-09-01

    The rhenium-based transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are atypical of the TMD family due to their highly anisotropic crystalline structure and are recognized as promising materials for two-dimensional heterostructure devices. The nature of the band gap (direct or indirect) for bulk, few-, and single-layer forms of ReS2 is of particular interest, due to its comparatively weak interplanar interaction. However, the degree of interlayer interaction and the question of whether a transition from indirect to direct gap is observed on reducing thickness (as in other TMDs) are controversial. We present a direct determination of the valence band structure of bulk ReS2 using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. We find a clear in-plane anisotropy due to the presence of chains of Re atoms, with a strongly directional effective mass which is larger in the direction orthogonal to the Re chains (2.2 me ) than along them (1.6 me ). An appreciable interplane interaction results in an experimentally measured difference of ≈100 -200 meV between the valence band maxima at the Z point (0,0,1/2 ) and the Γ point (0,0,0) of the three-dimensional Brillouin zone. This leads to a direct gap at Z and a close-lying but larger gap at Γ , implying that bulk ReS2 is marginally indirect. This may account for recent conflicting transport and photoluminescence measurements and the resulting uncertainty about the nature of the band gap in this material.

  12. High-resolution spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation for surface structure determination and the study of correlated electron systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moler, Jr., Edward John

    1996-05-01

    The surface structure of three molecular adsorbate systems on transition metal surfaces, (√3 x √3)R30° and (1.5 x 1.5)R18° CO adsorbed on Cu(111), and c(2x2) N2/Ni(100), have been determined using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS). The adsorption site and bond lengths are reported for the adsorbate-metal bond and the first two substrate layers. The ARPEFS diffraction pattern of the shake-up peak for c(2x2) N2/Ni(100) is also discussed. A unique method of experimentally determining the angular momentum and intrinsic/extrinsic origin of core-level satellites is presented. We show for the first time that satellite peaks not associated with chemically differentiated atomic species display an ARPEFS intensity oscillation. Specifically, we present data for the C 1s from (√3x√3)R30 CO/Cu(111) and p2mg(2x1)CO/Ni(110), N is from c(2x2) N2/Ni(100), and Ni 3p from clean nickel(111). The satellite peaks in all cases exhibit ARPEFS curves which indicate an angular momentum identical to the main peak and are of an intrinsic nature. A Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FF-SX) has been designed and is under construction for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The spectrometer is designed for ultra-high resolution theoretical resolving power E/ΔE≈-106 in the photon energy region of 60-120 eV. This instrument is expected to provide experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic and molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  13. High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy of Rhenium Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Allan G.; Hall, Ryan M.; Linton, Colan; Tokaryk, Dennis

    2014-06-01

    The first spectroscopic study of rhenium carbide, ReC, has been performed using both low and high resolution techniques to collect rotationally resolved electronic spectra from 420 to 500nm. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and dispersed fluorescence (DF) techniques were employed. ReC was formed in our laser ablation molecular jet apparatus by ablating a rhenium target rod in the presence of 1% methane in helium. The low resolution spectrum identified four bands of an electronic system belonging to ReC, three of which have been studied so far. Extensive hyperfine structure composed of six hyperfine components was observed in the high resolution spectrum, as well as a clear distinction between the 187ReC and 185ReC isotopologues. The data seems consistent with a ^4Π - ^4Σ- transition, as was predicted before experimentation. Dispersed fluorescence spectra allowed us to determine the ground state vibrational frequency (ωe"=994.4 ± 0.3 wn), and to identify a low-lying electronically excited state at Te"=1118.4 ± 0.4 wn with a vibrational frequency of ωe"=984 ± 2 wn. Personal communication, F. Grein, University of New Brunswick

  14. Identification of local phase of nanoscale BaTiO₃ powders by high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sun-Min; Wang, Xiaohui; Cho, Nam-Hee

    2013-08-01

    The electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) technique was applied to investigate the local variation in the phase of barium titanate (BaTiO₃) ceramics. It was found that the fine structure of the titanium L₂,₃ edge and their satellite peaks were sensitively varied with the tetragonal-cubic phase transition. The peak splitting of Ti-L₃ edge of tetragonal-phased BaTiO₃ ceramics was widened because of the increased crystal field effect compared with that of cubic-phased BaTiO₃. In case of nanoscale BaTiO₃ powders, the L₃ edge splitting of the core region was found to be smaller than that of the shell region. The energy gap between peaks t₂g and eg varied from 2.36 to 1.94 eV with changing the probe position from 1 to 20 nm from the surface. These results suggest that the EELS technique can be used to identify the local phase of sintered BaTiO₃ ceramics.

  15. High-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy and photoelectron-diffraction studies of the geometric structure of adsorbates on single-crystal metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1982-11-01

    Two techniques which have made important contributions to the understanding of surface phenomena are high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and photoelectron diffraction (PD). EELS is capable of directly measuring the vibrational modes of clean and adsorbate covered metal surfaces. In this work, the design, construction, and performance of a new EELS spectrometer are described. These results are discussed in terms of possible structures of the O-Cu(001) system. Recommendations for improvements in this EELS spectrometer and guidelines for future spectrometers are given. PD experiments provide accurate quantitative information about the geometry of atoms and molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. The technique has advantages when used to study disordered overlayers, molecular overlayers, multiple site systems, and adsorbates which are weak electron scatterers. Four experiments were carried out which exploit these advantages.

  16. Intraligand Charge Transfer in Pt(qol)(2). Characterization of Electronic States by High-Resolution Shpol'skii Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Donges, Dirk; Nagle, Jeffrey K.; Yersin, Hartmut

    1997-07-02

    Pt(qol)(2) (qol(-) = 8-quinolinolato-O,N) is investigated in the Shpol'skii matrices n-heptane, n-octane-h(18), n-octane-d(18), n-nonane, and n-decane, respectively. For the first time, highly resolved triplet phosphorescence as well as triplet and singlet excitation spectra are obtained at T = 1.2 K by site-selective spectroscopy. This permits the detailed characterization of the low-lying singlet and triplet states which are assigned to result mainly from intraligand charge transfer (ILCT) transitions. The electronic origin corresponding to the (3)ILCT lies at 15 426 cm(-)(1) (FWHM approximately 3 cm(-)(1)) exhibiting a zero-field splitting smaller than 1 cm(-)(1), which shows that the metal d-orbital contribution to the (3)ILCT is small. At T = 1.2 K, the three triplet sublevels emit independently due to slow spin-lattice relaxation (slr) processes. Therefore, the phosphorescence decays triexponentially with components of 4.5, 13, and 60 &mgr;s. Interestingly, two of the sublevels can be excited selectively, which leads to a distinct spin polarization manifested by a biexponential decay. At T = 20 K, the decay becomes monoexponential with tau = 10 &mgr;s due to a fast slr between the triplet sublevels. From the Zeeman splitting of the (3)ILCT the g-factor is determined to be 2.0 as expected for a relatively pure spin triplet. The (1)ILCT has its electronic origin at 18 767 cm(-)(1) and exhibits a homogeneous line width of about 12 cm(-)(1). This feature allows us to estimate a singlet-triplet intersystem crossing rate of about 2 x 10(12) s(-)(1). This relatively large rate compared to values found for closed shell metal M(qol)(n)() compounds displays the importance of spin-orbit coupling induced by the heavy metal ion. Moreover, this small admixture leads to the relatively short emission decay times. All spectra show highly resolved vibrational satellite structures. These patterns provide information about vibrational energies (which are in good accordance with

  17. Opto-mechano-electrical tripling in ZnO nanowires probed by photocurrent spectroscopy in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C.; Golberg, D. E-mail: golberg.dmitri@nims.go.jp; Xu, Z. E-mail: golberg.dmitri@nims.go.jp; Kvashnin, D. G.; Tang, D.-M.; Xue, Y. M.; Bando, Y.; Sorokin, P. B.

    2015-08-31

    Photocurrent spectroscopy of individual free-standing ZnO nanowires inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) is reported. By using specially designed optical in situ TEM system capable of scanning tunneling microscopy probing paired with light illumination, opto-mechano-electrical tripling phenomenon in ZnO nanowires is demonstrated. Splitting of photocurrent spectra at around 3.3 eV under in situ TEM bending of ZnO nanowires directly corresponds to nanowire deformation and appearance of expanded and compressed nanowire sides. Theoretical simulation of a bent ZnO nanowire has an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The splitting effect could be explained by a change in the valence band structure of ZnO nanowires due to a lattice strain. The strain-induced splitting provides important clues for future flexible piezo-phototronics.

  18. Opto-mechano-electrical tripling in ZnO nanowires probed by photocurrent spectroscopy in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Xu, Z.; Kvashnin, D. G.; Tang, D.-M.; Xue, Y. M.; Bando, Y.; Sorokin, P. B.; Golberg, D.

    2015-08-01

    Photocurrent spectroscopy of individual free-standing ZnO nanowires inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) is reported. By using specially designed optical in situ TEM system capable of scanning tunneling microscopy probing paired with light illumination, opto-mechano-electrical tripling phenomenon in ZnO nanowires is demonstrated. Splitting of photocurrent spectra at around 3.3 eV under in situ TEM bending of ZnO nanowires directly corresponds to nanowire deformation and appearance of expanded and compressed nanowire sides. Theoretical simulation of a bent ZnO nanowire has an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The splitting effect could be explained by a change in the valence band structure of ZnO nanowires due to a lattice strain. The strain-induced splitting provides important clues for future flexible piezo-phototronics.

  19. Acetylene adsorption on the Si(111)-(7×7) surface: Ultraviolet photoemission and high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Renzi, V.; Biagi, R.; del Pennino, U.

    2001-10-01

    The room temperature adsorption and the thermal reaction of acetylene on the Si(111)-(7×7) surface has been investigated by means of ultraviolet-photoemission spectroscopy and high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). In the first stage of the adsorption process, the evolution of the restatom- and adatom-related electronic states as a function of acetylene exposure is well described by a modified di-σ-bonding model, in which the metallic character of the (7×7) surface plays a fundamental role. For higher exposure, all the restatom dangling bonds are saturated and the adsorption process continues through saturation of the remaining adatoms. In this phase, a molecular tilting is observed, possibly accompanied by a surface atom rearrangement. Upon annealing to 600 °C, acetylene dehydrogenation and partial desorption occur, as demonstrated by the disappearance of the C-H modes in HREELS and the reappearance of the adatom and restatom dangling-bond states in valence-band spectra. At 700 °C the formation of a Si-C compound is observed. Atomic-force-microscopy topographic images taken ex situ after annealing to 800 °C show that the Si-C interface is constituted by islands with lateral dimension of ~300 Å, while the overall surface roughness is 10-20 Å.

  20. High Resolution Coherent 3d Spectroscopy of Bromine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strangfeld, Benjamin R.; Wells, Thresa A.; House, Zuri R.; Chen, Peter C.

    2013-06-01

    The high resolution gas phase electronic spectrum of bromine is rather congested due to many overlapping vibrational and rotational transitions with similar transition frequencies, and also due to isotopomeric effects. Expansion into the second dimension will remove some of this congestion; however through the implementation of High Resolution Coherent 3D Spectroscopy, the density of peaks is further reduced by at least two orders of magnitude. This allows for the selective examination of a small number of spatially resolved multidimensional bands, separated by vibrational quantum number and by isotopomer, which facilitates the fitting of many rovibrational peaks in bromine. The ability to derive information about the molecular constants for the electronic states involved will be discussed.

  1. Computer synthesis of high resolution electron micrographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1976-01-01

    Specimen damage, spherical aberration, low contrast and noisy sensors combine to prevent direct atomic viewing in a conventional electron microscope. The paper describes two methods for obtaining ultra-high resolution in biological specimens under the electron microscope. The first method assumes the physical limits of the electron objective lens and uses a series of dark field images of biological crystals to obtain direct information on the phases of the Fourier diffraction maxima; this information is used in an appropriate computer to synthesize a large aperture lens for a 1-A resolution. The second method assumes there is sufficient amplitude scatter from images recorded in focus which can be utilized with a sensitive densitometer and computer contrast stretching to yield fine structure image details. Cancer virus characterization is discussed as an illustrative example. Numerous photographs supplement the text.

  2. The extraction of gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using sodium citrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Armendariz, Veronica; Parsons, Jason G; Lopez, Martha L; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2009-03-11

    Gold (Au) nanoparticles can be produced through the interaction of Au(III) ions with oat and wheat biomasses. This paper describes a procedure to recover gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or sodium citrate. Extracts were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The HRTEM data demonstrated that smaller nanoparticles are extracted first, followed by larger nanoparticles. In the fourth extraction, coating of chelating agents is visible on the extracted nanoparticles.

  3. Quantum electrodynamics, high-resolution spectroscopy and fundamental constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karshenboim, Savely G.; Ivanov, Vladimir G.

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in high-resolution spectroscopy has delivered us a variety of accurate optical results, which can be used for the determination of the atomic fundamental constants and for constraining their possible time variation. We present a brief overview of the results discussing in particular, the determination of the Rydberg constant, the relative atomic weight of the electron and proton, their mass ratio and the fine structure constant. Many individual results on those constants are obtained with use of quantum electrodynamics, and we discuss which sectors of QED are involved. We derive constraints on a possible time variation of the fine structure constants and me/mp.

  4. High resolution electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of septet pyridyl-2,4,6-trinitrene in solid argon: Fine-structure parameters of six electron-spin cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misochko, E. Ya.; Akimov, A. V.; Chapyshev, S. V.

    2008-11-01

    The high resolution 9GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of septet pyridyl-2,4,6-trinitrene was recorded after the photolysis of 2,4,6-triazido-3,5-dichloropyridine in solid argon matrix at 15K. Owing to the high resolution of the experimental EPR spectrum, the zero-field splitting parameters of the septet trinitrene were determined with a high accuracy: Ds=-0.1019±0.0004cm-1 and Es=0.00325±0.00015cm-1. All EPR transitions of the septet trinitrene were, for the first, unambiguously assigned based on the eigenfield calculations of the Zeeman energy levels. The spectrum of the septet trinitrene represents a new type of EPR spectra of septet spin states with nonzero zero-field splitting parameter Es. The nonvanishing parameter Es of the septet trinitrene arises due to magnetic nonequivalence of three triplet centers in the molecule and is manifested in the appearance in the spectrum of separate x and y transitions. The septet spin states of this type display at very low magnetic fields two intense z transitions since the ∣3Ds∣ energy gap between zero-field energy levels W±1 and W±2 fits the quantum of microwave irradiation of a 9GHz EPR spectrometer. Analysis of the magnetic parameters shows that semiempirical description of the fine-structure tensor for six electron-spin cluster in the septet trinitrene is appropriate for precise estimations of the parameter Ds but it is too crude to estimate small value of the parameter Es.

  5. Hydrogen bonding configuration and thermal stability of ambient exposed and in situ hydrogenated polycrystalline diamond surfaces studied by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Michaelson, Sh; Akhvlediani, R; Hoffman, A

    2011-06-28

    In this work we report on an investigation of hydrogen bonding and thermal stability on the surface of poly-crystalline diamond by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HR-EELS). Diamond films were grown on silicon substrates from CH(4)/H(2) as well as from CD(4)/D(2) gas mixtures by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HF-CVD). The impact of ex situ ambient exposure on hydrogen bonding and its thermal stability was examined for: (i) as deposited films from a CH(4)/H(2) gas mixture; (ii) the same sample treated ex situ in micro-wave activated hydrogen plasma; and (iii) as deposited films from a CD(4)/D(2) gas mixture. In order to clarify the changes in the hydrogen bonding configuration detected on the different surfaces as a function of thermal annealing in situ hydrogenation by thermally activated atomic hydrogen was performed and examined. This study provides direct evidence that the exposure to ambient conditions and low temperature vacuum annealing have a pronounced effect on the hydrogen-carbon bonding configuration onto the poly-crystalline diamond surfaces.

  6. Two bonding configurations of acetylene on Si(001)-(2 x 1): a combined high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy and density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Mineva, T; Nathaniel, R; Kostov, K L; Widdra, W

    2006-11-21

    Two coexisting adsorption states of molecularly adsorbed acetylene on the Si(001)-(2 x 1) surface have been identified by a combined study based on the high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy and density functional computations. Seven possible adsorbate-substrate structures are considered theoretically including their full vibrational analysis. Based on a significantly enhanced experimental resolution, the assignment of 15 C2H2- and C2D2-derived vibrational modes identifies a dominant di-sigma bonded molecule adsorbed on top of a single Si-Si dimer. Additionally there is clear evidence for a second minority species which is di-sigma bonded between two Si-Si dimers within the same dimer row (end-bridge geometry). The possible symmetries of the adsorbate complexes are discussed based on the specular and off-specular vibrational measurements. They suggest lower than ideal C(2v) and C(s) symmetries for on-top and end-bridge species, respectively. At low coverages the symmetry reductions might be lifted.

  7. Probing optical band gaps at the nanoscale in NiFe₂O₄ and CoFe₂O₄ epitaxial films by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dileep, K.; Loukya, B.; Datta, R.; Pachauri, N.; Gupta, A.

    2014-09-14

    Nanoscale optical band gap variations in epitaxial thin films of two different spinel ferrites, i.e., NiFe₂O₄ (NFO) and CoFe₂O₄ (CFO), have been investigated by spatially resolved high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. Experimentally, both NFO and CFO show indirect/direct band gaps around 1.52 eV/2.74 and 2.3 eV, and 1.3 eV/2.31 eV, respectively, for the ideal inverse spinel configuration with considerable standard deviation in the band gap values for CFO due to various levels of deviation from the ideal inverse spinel structure. Direct probing of the regions in both the systems with tetrahedral A site cation vacancy, which is distinct from the ideal inverse spinel configuration, shows significantly smaller band gap values. The experimental results are supported by the density functional theory based modified Becke-Johnson exchange correlation potential calculated band gap values for the different cation configurations.

  8. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2000-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone, methane, and carbon monoxide, to name a few. Measurements were made using the NASA Langley Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer System (TDL) and several Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems (FTS) around the globe. The results from these studies made remarkable improvements in the line positions and intensities for several molecules, particularly ozone and carbon dioxide in the 2 to 17-micrometer spectral region. Measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients for infrared transitions of ozone, methane, and water vapor were also performed. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon-and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields.

  9. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2000-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone, methane, and carbon monoxide, to name a few. Measurements were made using the NASA Langley Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer System (TDL) and several Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems (FTS) around the globe. The results from these studies made remarkable improvements in the line positions and intensities for several molecules, particularly ozone and carbon dioxide in the 2 to 17-micrometer spectral region. Measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients for infrared transitions of ozone, methane, and water vapor were also performed. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon- and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields.

  10. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2003-01-01

    Spectroscopic parameters (such as line position, intensity, broadening and shifting coefficients and their temperature dependences, line mixing coefficients etc.) for various molecular species of atmospheric interest are determined. In order to achieve these results, infrared spectra of several molecular bands are obtained using high-resolution recording instruments such as tunable diode laser spectrometer and Fourier transform spectrometers. Using sophisticated analysis routines (Multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique) these high-resolution infrared spectra are processed to determine the various spectral line parameters that are cited above. Spectra were taken using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona as well as the Bruker FTS at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at Richland, Washington. Most of the spectra are acquired not only at room temperature, but also at several different cold temperatures. This procedure is necessary to study the variation of the spectral line parameters as a function of temperature in order to simulate the Earth's and other planetary atmospheric environments. Depending upon the strength or weakness of the various bands recorded and analyzed, the length(s) of the absorption cells in which the gas samples under study are kept varied from a few centimeters up to several meters and the sample temperatures varied from approximately +30 C to -63 C. Research on several infrared bands of various molecular species and their isotopomers are undertaken. Those studies are briefly described.

  11. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C44H90 paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol.

  13. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2006-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as H2O (water vapor), O3 (ozone), HCN (hydrogen cyanide), CH4 (methane), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) and CO (carbon monoxide). The data required for the analyses were obtained from two different Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS); one of which is located at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak, Arizona and the other instrument is located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) at Richland, Washington. The data were analyzed using a modified multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm developed by Dr. D. Chris Benner of the College of William and Mary. The results from these studies made significant improvements in the line positons and intensities for these molecules. The measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced shift coefficients for hundreds of infrared transitions of HCN, CO3 CH4 and H2O were also performed during this period. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon- and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields. The research conducted during the period 2003-2006 has resulted in publications given in this paper. In addition to Journal publications, several oral and poster presentations were given at various Scientific conferences within the United States

  14. Temperature-Induced Electronic Structure Evolution of ZrTe5 Revealed by High resolution & Laser Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chenlu; Liu, Guodong; Chen, Genfu; Yu, Li; He, Shaolong; Zhao, Lin; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Zhou, Xingjiang

    The transition metal pentatellurides ZrTe5 have attracted consideration attention since the 70s, due to the unusual transport properties like resistivity peak at ~140K and the sign change of the Hall coefficient and thermopower. The origin of the most peculiar resistivity peak remains controversial. In this talk we will present high resolution angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) study on the Fermi surface and band structure of ZrTe5, by using our high resolution ARPES system equipped with the VUV laser and the time-of-flight (TOF) electron energy analyzer. Upon cooling down, we found a gradual transition from hole-like band into electron-like band around the Brillouin zone center. Such an electron state transition forms the underlying physics for the abnormal transport properties. We will also comment on the possibility of a Dirac semimetal in ZrTe5.

  15. High resolution, temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rémi, Sebastian; Metzger, Constanze; Hubbard, Billy; Thomas, Claire; Goldberg, Bennett B.; Swan, Anna

    2008-03-01

    Single and bi-layer graphene are studied with high resolution, temperature dependent Raman scattering. The electron-phonon coupling in graphene depends sensitively on both the concentration of charge carriers and the temperature. Raman spectroscopy directly probes electron-phonon coupling, and has been used to examine the stiffening of the G-band, phonon damping [1] and spatial inhomogeneities in the carrier density [2]. Our measurements are performed between room temperature and 4K in a confocal scanning Raman system. The samples are back-gated, allowing us to tune the carrier density and spectroscopically map the Raman response. We will discuss our recent measurements. [1] J. Yan, Y. Zhang, P. Kim, and A. Pinczuk, Phys. Rev. Lett, 98, 166802 (2007) [2] C. Stampfer, et al. Arxiv, cond-mat 0709.4156v1

  16. Surface spin canting in F e3O4 and CoF e2O4 nanoparticles probed by high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negi, D. S.; Sharona, H.; Bhat, U.; Palchoudhury, S.; Gupta, A.; Datta, R.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HR-EELS) is utilized to probe the surface spin canting in nanoparticles of two technologically important magnetic materials, i.e. F e3O4 and CoF e2O4 (CFO). A soft experimental technique has been developed that is capable of extracting EELS spectra with single atomic plane resolution recorded in a single frame. The technique yields information at different depths of the nanoparticle from the surface to the core regions with high signal-to-noise ratio and without beam damage. This enables comparing the fine structures between the surface and core regions of the nanoparticles. The results confirm earlier observations of uniformly oriented spin canting structure for CFO and provide additional information regarding atom site-selective spin canting information. In the case of F e3O4 , preferred canting orientation forming core and shell structure is deduced. Unlike earlier reports based on polarized spin-flip neutron scattering measurement, it is possible from the experimental spectra combined with the first principle-based calculations considering noncollinear magnetism to narrow down the canting angles for F e3O4 (Td,Oh tilts 40°, 40°) and CFO (Td,Oh tilts 17°, 17°). In addition, the role of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in stabilizing the spin canting at the nanoparticle surface is discussed. The results demonstrate that HR-EELS can be a powerful technique to probe the magnetic structure in nanodimensional systems and has advantages over neutron-based techniques in terms of superior spatial resolution, site-specific information, and ease of sample preparation.

  17. High-resolution flurescence spectroscopy in immunoanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Grubor, Nenad M.

    2005-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation combines highly sensitive and selective fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy (FLNS) detection with various modes of immunoanalytical techniques. It has been shown that FLNS is capable of directly probing molecules immunocomplexed with antibodies, eliminating analytical ambiguities that may arise from interferences that accompany traditional immunochemical techniques. Moreover, the utilization of highly cross-reactive antibodies for highly specific analyte determination has been demonstrated. Finally, they demonstrate the first example of the spectral resolution of diastereomeric analytes based on their interaction with a cross-reactive antibody.

  18. Evolution of titania nanotubes-supported WO{sub x} species by in situ thermo-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cortes-Jacome, M.A.; Angeles-Chavez, C.; Morales, M.; Lopez-Salinas, E.; Toledo-Antonio, J.A.

    2007-10-15

    Structural evolution of WO{sub x} species on the surface of titania nanotubes was followed by in situ thermo-Raman spectroscopy. A total of 15 wt% of W atoms were loaded on the surface of a hydroxylated titania nanotubes by impregnation with ammonium metatungstate solution and then, the sample was thermally treated in a Linkam cell at different temperatures in nitrogen flow. The band characteristic of the W=O bond was observed at 962 cm{sup -1} in the dried sample, which vanished between 300 and 700 deg. C, and reappear again after annealing at 800 deg. C, along with a broad band centered at 935 cm{sup -1}, attributed to the v{sub 1} vibration of W=O in tetrahedral coordination. At 900 and 1000 deg. C, the broad band decomposed into four bands at 923, 934, 940 and 950 cm{sup -1}, corresponding to the symmetric and asymmetric vibration of W=O bonds in Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}W{sub 2}O{sub 7} phases as determined by X-ray diffraction and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The structure of the nanotubular support was kept at temperatures below 450 deg. C, thereafter, it transformed into anatase being stabilized at temperatures as high as 900 deg. C. At 1000 deg. C, anatase phase partially converted into rutile. After annealing at 1000 deg. C, a core-shell model material was obtained, with a shell of ca. 5 nm thickness, composed of sodium tungstate nanoclusters, and a core composed mainly of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase. - Graphical abstract: Titania nanotubes loaded with 15 wt% W atoms were characterized from room temperature (rt) to 1000 deg. C by thermo-Raman spectroscopy in N{sub 2}. At 1000 deg. C, a core-shell model material was obtained, with a shell thickness of ca. 5 nm composed by nanoclusters of sodium tungstate, and a core composed mainly of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase.

  19. High resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, J.R.; Dooley, K.J.

    1997-05-01

    A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. The absolute counting efficiencies of the GSLS detectors were determined using cylindrical reference sources. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software and correction factors were developed based on relative gamma-ray fluence rates. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, and as the formation saturation ratio decreases, relative gamma-ray fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Correction factors for iron and water cylindrical shields were found to agree well with correction factors determined during previous studies allowing for the development of correction factors for type-304 stainless steel and low-carbon steel casings. Regression analyses of correction factor data produced equations for determining correction factors applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs acquired under non-standard borehole conditions.

  20. High Resolution Emission Spectroscopy of the Alpha Pi-1 - Chi Sigma-1(+) Fourth Positive Band System of CO from Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beegle, Luther W.; Ajello, Joseph M.; James, Geoffrey K.; Alvarez, Marcos; Dziczek, Dariusz

    2000-01-01

    We report electron-impact induced fluorescence spectra [300 mA full width at half maximum (FWHM)] of CO for 20 and 100 eV impact energies of the spectral region of 1300 to 2050 A and high resolution spectra (FWHM) of the v'=5 to v"=l and the v'=3 to v"=O bands showing that the rotational structure of the band system are modeled accurately. The excitation function of the (0,1) band (1597 A) was measured from electron impact in the energy range from threshold to 750 eV and placed on an absolute scale from modem calibration standards.

  1. Component analyses of urinary nanocrystallites of uric acid stone formers by combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, fast Fourier transformation, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Xue, Jun-Fa; Xia, Zhi-Yue; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to analyse the components of nanocrystallites in urines of patients with uric acid (UA) stones. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), fast Fourier transformation (FFT) of HRTEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were performed to analyse the components of these nanocrystallites. XRD and FFT showed that the main component of urinary nanocrystallites was UA, which contains a small amount of calcium oxalate monohydrate and phosphates. EDS showed the characteristic absorption peaks of C, O, Ca and P. The formation of UA stones was closely related to a large number of UA nanocrystallites in urine. A combination of HRTEM, FFT, EDS and XRD analyses could be performed accurately to analyse the components of urinary nanocrystallites.

  2. Isobutyl acetate: electronic state spectroscopy by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption, He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śmiałek, Malgorzata A.; Łabuda, Marta; Hubin-Franskin, Marie-Jeanne; Delwiche, Jacques; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Jones, Nykola C.; Mason, Nigel J.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2017-05-01

    The high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectrum of isobutyl acetate, C6H12O2, is presented here and was measured over the energy range 4.3-10.8 eV (290-115 nm). Valence and Rydberg transitions with their associated vibronic series have been observed in the photoabsorption spectrum and are assigned in accordance with new ab initio calculations of the vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths. The measured photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of this ester in the Earth's upper atmosphere (20-50 km). Calculations have also been carried out to determine the ionization energies and fine structure of the lowest ionic state of isobutyl acetate and are compared with a photoelectron spectrum (from 9.5 to 16.7 eV), recorded for the first time. Vibrational structure is observed in the first photoelectron band of this molecule. Contribution to the Topical Issue: "Dynamics of Systems at the Nanoscale", edited by Andrey Solov'yov and Andrei Korol.

  3. Electronic excitation of carbonyl sulphide (COS) by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and electron-impact spectroscopy in the energy region from 4 to 11 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Limão-Vieira, P.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Almeida, D.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.; Mogi, D.; Tanioka, T.; Mason, N. J.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.

    2015-02-14

    The electronic state spectroscopy of carbonyl sulphide, COS, has been investigated using high resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy in the energy range of 4.0–10.8 eV. The spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature. Vibronic structure has been observed, notably in the low energy absorption dipole forbidden band assigned to the (4π←3π) ({sup 1}Δ←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) transition, with a new weak transition assigned to ({sup 1}Σ{sup −}←{sup 1}Σ{sup +}) reported here for the first time. The absolute optical oscillator strengths are determined for ground state to {sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π transitions. Based on our recent measurements of differential cross sections for the optically allowed ({sup 1}Σ{sup +} and {sup 1}Π) transitions of COS by electron impact, the optical oscillator strength f{sub 0} value and integral cross sections (ICSs) are derived by applying a generalized oscillator strength analysis. Subsequently, ICSs predicted by the scaling are confirmed down to 60 eV in the intermediate energy region. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of carbonyl sulphide in the upper stratosphere (20–50 km)

  4. Electronic excitation of carbonyl sulphide (COS) by high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption and electron-impact spectroscopy in the energy region from 4 to 11 eV.

    PubMed

    Limão-Vieira, P; Ferreira da Silva, F; Almeida, D; Hoshino, M; Tanaka, H; Mogi, D; Tanioka, T; Mason, N J; Hoffmann, S V; Hubin-Franskin, M-J; Delwiche, J

    2015-02-14

    The electronic state spectroscopy of carbonyl sulphide, COS, has been investigated using high resolution vacuum ultraviolet photoabsorption spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy in the energy range of 4.0-10.8 eV. The spectrum reveals several new features not previously reported in the literature. Vibronic structure has been observed, notably in the low energy absorption dipole forbidden band assigned to the (4π←3π) ((1)Δ←(1)Σ(+)) transition, with a new weak transition assigned to ((1)Σ(-)←(1)Σ(+)) reported here for the first time. The absolute optical oscillator strengths are determined for ground state to (1)Σ(+) and (1)Π transitions. Based on our recent measurements of differential cross sections for the optically allowed ((1)Σ(+) and (1)Π) transitions of COS by electron impact, the optical oscillator strength f0 value and integral cross sections (ICSs) are derived by applying a generalized oscillator strength analysis. Subsequently, ICSs predicted by the scaling are confirmed down to 60 eV in the intermediate energy region. The measured absolute photoabsorption cross sections have been used to calculate the photolysis lifetime of carbonyl sulphide in the upper stratosphere (20-50 km).

  5. The Torsion-Inversion Energy Levels in the S1( n, π*) Electronic State of Acetaldehyde from High-Resolution Jet-Cooled Fluorescence Excitation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Lim, E. C.; Muñoz-Caro, C.; Niño, A.; Judge, R. H.; Moule, D. C.

    1996-01-01

    The laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectrum (LIF) of acetaldehyde that results from the emission from theS1(n, π*) electronic state has been observed under very high resolution with a CW pulse-amplified laser under jet-cooled conditions. The origins of seven bands were determined by rotational analyses with a rigid-rotor Hamiltonian. The origins were fitted to a set of levels that were obtained from a Hamiltonian that employed flexible torsion-wagging large amplitude coordinates. The potential surface derived from the fitting procedure yielded barriers to torsion and inversion of 721.43 and 585.13 cm-1, respectively. Minima in the potential hypersurface at θ = 58.6° and α = 35.7° defined the corresponding equilibrium positions for the torsion and wagging coordinates.

  6. Application of spectral phase shaping to high resolution CARS spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Postma, S; van Rhijn, A C W; Korterik, J P; Gross, P; Herek, J L; Offerhaus, H L

    2008-05-26

    By spectral phase shaping of both the pump and probe pulses in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy we demonstrate the extraction of the frequencies, bandwidths and relative cross sections of vibrational lines. We employ a tunable broadband Ti:Sapphire laser synchronized to a ps-Nd:YVO mode locked laser. A high resolution spectral phase shaper allows for spectroscopy with a precision better than 1 cm(-1) in the high frequency region around 3000 cm(-1). We also demonstrate how new spectral phase shaping strategies can amplify the resonant features of isolated vibrations to such an extent that spectroscopy and microscopy can be done at high resolution, on the integrated spectral response without the need for a spectrograph.

  7. Multipathway dissociation dynamics of core-excited methyl chloride probed by high resolution electron spectroscopy and Auger-electron-ion coincidences.

    PubMed

    Miron, Catalin; Morin, Paul; Céolin, Denis; Journel, Loïc; Simon, Marc

    2008-04-21

    Core excitation triggers nuclear dynamics on the femtosecond time scale. A multiparametric electron/ion coincidence approach has been used to disentangle complex decay processes occurring at short (molecular) or long (atomic) time scales. Methyl chloride has been excited by scanning along the dissociative Cl2p-->sigma* resonance. The detailed chronology of the competing decay processes, leading to either the rearrangement product HCl(+), or an ultrafast dissociation leading to Cl(+), has been investigated. The observed Auger-Doppler shift has been analyzed for various orientations of the electron and fragment ion.

  8. Evidence for anisotropic dielectric properties of monoclinic hafnia using valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and ab initio time-dependent density-functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedj, C.; Hung, L.; Zobelli, A.; Blaise, P.; Sottile, F.; Olevano, V.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of nanocrystal orientation on the energy loss spectra of monoclinic hafnia (m-HfO2) is measured by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and valence energy loss spectroscopy (VEELS) on high quality samples. For the same momentum-transfer directions, the dielectric properties are also calculated ab initio by time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). Experiments and simulations evidence anisotropy in the dielectric properties of m-HfO2, most notably with the direction-dependent oscillator strength of the main bulk plasmon. The anisotropic nature of m-HfO2 may contribute to the differences among VEELS spectra reported in literature. The good agreement between the complex dielectric permittivity extracted from VEELS with nanometer spatial resolution, TDDFT modeling, and past literature demonstrates that the present HRTEM-VEELS device-oriented methodology is a possible solution to the difficult nanocharacterization challenges given in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.

  9. Evidence for anisotropic dielectric properties of monoclinic hafnia using valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and ab initio time-dependent density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Guedj, C.; Hung, L.; Sottile, F.; Zobelli, A.; Blaise, P.; Olevano, V.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of nanocrystal orientation on the energy loss spectra of monoclinic hafnia (m-HfO{sub 2}) is measured by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and valence energy loss spectroscopy (VEELS) on high quality samples. For the same momentum-transfer directions, the dielectric properties are also calculated ab initio by time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT). Experiments and simulations evidence anisotropy in the dielectric properties of m-HfO{sub 2}, most notably with the direction-dependent oscillator strength of the main bulk plasmon. The anisotropic nature of m-HfO{sub 2} may contribute to the differences among VEELS spectra reported in literature. The good agreement between the complex dielectric permittivity extracted from VEELS with nanometer spatial resolution, TDDFT modeling, and past literature demonstrates that the present HRTEM-VEELS device-oriented methodology is a possible solution to the difficult nanocharacterization challenges given in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.

  10. Direct band gap measurement of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin films using high-resolution reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Heo, Sung; Lee, Hyung-Ik; Park, Jong-Bong; Ko, Dong-Su; Chung, JaeGwan; Kim, KiHong; Kim, Seong Heon; Yun, Dong-Jin; Ham, YongNam; Park, Gyeong Su; Song, Taewon; Lee, Dongho Nam, Junggyu; Kang, Hee Jae; Choi, Pyung-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Deog

    2015-06-29

    To investigate the band gap profile of Cu(In{sub 1−x},Ga{sub x})(Se{sub 1−y}S{sub y}){sub 2} of various compositions, we measured the band gap profile directly as a function of in-depth using high-resolution reflection energy loss spectroscopy (HR-REELS), which was compared with the band gap profile calculated based on the auger depth profile. The band gap profile is a double-graded band gap as a function of in-depth. The calculated band gap obtained from the auger depth profile seems to be larger than that by HR-REELS. Calculated band gaps are to measure the average band gap of the spatially different varying compositions with respect to considering its void fraction. But, the results obtained using HR-REELS are to be affected by the low band gap (i.e., out of void) rather than large one (i.e., near void). Our findings suggest an analytical method to directly determine the band gap profile as function of in-depth.

  11. Improvement of sensitivity in high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, H.; Nakajima, K.; Suzuki, M.; Kimura, K.; Sasakawa, K.

    2011-06-15

    The sensitivity (limit of detection) of high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HRBS) is mainly determined by the background noise of the spectrometer. There are two major origins of the background noise in HRBS, one is the stray ions scattered from the inner wall of the vacuum chamber of the spectrometer and the other is the dark noise of the microchannel plate (MCP) detector which is commonly used as a focal plane detector of the spectrometer in HRBS. In order to reject the stray ions, several barriers are installed inside the spectrometer and a thin Mylar foil is mounted in front of the detector. The dark noise of the MCP detector is rejected by the coincidence measurement with the secondary electrons emitted from the Mylar foil upon the ion passage. After these improvements, the background noise is reduced by a factor of 200 at a maximum. The detection limit can be improved down to 10 ppm for As in Si at a measurement time of 1 h under ideal conditions.

  12. An Introduction to High Resolution Coherent Multidimensional Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Wells, Thresa A.; House, Zuri R.; Strangfeld, Benjamin R.

    2013-06-01

    High resolution coherent multidimensional spectroscopy is a technique that can be used to analyze and assign peaks for molecules that have resisted spectral analysis. Molecules that yield heavily congested and seemingly patternless spectra using conventional methods can yield 2D spectra that have recognizable patterns. The off-diagonal region of the coherent 2D plot shows only cross-peaks that are related by rotational selection rules. The resulting patterns facilitate peak assignment if they are sufficiently resolved. For systems that are not well-resolved, coherent 3D spectra may be generated to further improve resolution and provide selectivity. This presentation will provide an introduction to high resolution coherent 2D and 3D spectroscopies.

  13. High resolution spectroscopy in the microwave and far infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    High resolution rotational spectroscopy has long been central to remote sensing techniques in atmospheric sciences and astronomy. As such, laboratory measurements must supply the required data to make direct interpretation of data for instruments which sense atmospheres using rotational spectra. Spectral measurements in the microwave and far infrared regions are also very powerful tools when combined with infrared measurements for characterizing the rotational structure of vibrational spectra. In the past decade new techniques were developed which have pushed high resolution spectroscopy into the wavelength region between 25 micrometers and 2 mm. Techniques to be described include: (1) harmonic generation of microwave sources, (2) infrared laser difference frequency generation, (3) laser sideband generation, and (4) ultrahigh resolution interferometers.

  14. Single-sided sensor for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlo, J.; Casanova, F.; Blümich, B.

    2006-06-01

    The unavoidable spatial inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field generated by open sensors has precluded their use for high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. In fact, this application was deemed impossible because these field variations are usually orders of magnitude larger than those created by the microscopic structure of the molecules to be detected. Recently, chemical shift resolved NMR spectra were observed for the first time outside a portable single-sided magnet by implementing a method that exploits inhomogeneities in the rf field designed to reproduce variations of the static magnetic field [J. Perlo, V. Demas, F. Casanova, C.A. Meriles, J. Reimer, A. Pines, B. Blümich, High-resolution spectroscopy with a portable single-sided sensor, Science 308 (2005) 1279]. In this communication, we describe in detail the magnet system built from permanent magnets as well as the rf coil geometry used to compensate the static field variations.

  15. Phase contrast in high resolution electron microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Rose, H.H.

    1975-09-23

    This patent relates to a device for developing a phase contrast signal for a scanning transmission electron microscope. The lens system of the microscope is operated in a condition of defocus so that predictable alternate concentric regions of high and low electron density exist in the cone of illumination. Two phase detectors are placed beneath the object inside the cone of illumination, with the first detector having the form of a zone plate, each of its rings covering alternate regions of either higher or lower electron density. The second detector is so configured that it covers the regions of electron density not covered by the first detector. Each detector measures the number of electrons incident thereon and the signal developed by the first detector is subtracted from the signal developed by the record detector to provide a phase contrast signal. (auth)

  16. Adaptive optics high resolution spectroscopy: present status and future direction

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C; Angel, R; Ciarlo, D; Fugate, R O; Ge, J; Kuzmenko, P; Lloyd-Hart, M; Macintosh, B; Najita, J; Woolf, N

    1999-07-27

    High resolution spectroscopy experiments with visible adaptive optics (AO) telescopes at Starfire Optical Range and Mt. Wilson have demonstrated that spectral resolution can be routinely improved by a factor of - 10 over the seeing-limited case with no extra light losses at visible wavelengths. With large CCDs now available, a very wide wavelength range can be covered in a single exposure. In the near future, most large ground-based telescopes will be equipped with powerful A0 systems. Most of these systems are aimed primarily at diffraction-limited operation in the near IR. An exciting new opportunity will thus open up for high resolution IR spectroscopy. Immersion echelle gratings with much coarser grooves being developed by us at LLNL will play a critical role in achieving high spectral resolution with a compact and low cost IR cryogenically cooled spectrograph and simultaneous large wavelength coverage on relatively small IR detectors. We have constructed a new A0 optimized spectrograph at Steward Observatory to provide R = 200,000 in the optical, which is being commissioned at the Starfire Optical Range 3.5m telescope. We have completed the optical design of the LLNL IR Immersion Spectrograph (LISPEC) to take advantage of improved silicon etching technology. Key words: adaptive optics, spectroscopy, high resolution, immersion gratings

  17. High resolution near edge x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Haemaelaeinen, K.; Siddons, D.P.; Berman, L.E.; Kao, C.C.; Hastings, J.B.

    1992-12-01

    A technique to suppress the core-hole lifetime broadening in near- edge x-ray spectroscopy is presented. A simple theoretical explanation based on total energy conservation in the fluorescence process is given to explain the improved resolution. The experimental arrangement is shown together with an application to the L{sub III} edge of dysprosium. Furthermore, the application of high-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy in the study of magnetism is presented. The spin-resolved absorption spectra from MnF{sub 2} are shown as an example.

  18. High resolution near edge x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Haemaelaeinen, K.; Siddons, D.P.; Berman, L.E.; Kao, C.C.; Hastings, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    A technique to suppress the core-hole lifetime broadening in near- edge x-ray spectroscopy is presented. A simple theoretical explanation based on total energy conservation in the fluorescence process is given to explain the improved resolution. The experimental arrangement is shown together with an application to the L[sub III] edge of dysprosium. Furthermore, the application of high-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy in the study of magnetism is presented. The spin-resolved absorption spectra from MnF[sub 2] are shown as an example.

  19. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy at High Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Wall, J.; Langmore, J.; Isaacson, M.; Crewe, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    We have shown that a scanning transmission electron microscope with a high brightness field emission source is capable of obtaining better than 3 Å resolution using 30 to 40 keV electrons. Elastic dark field images of single atoms of uranium and mercury are shown which demonstrate this fact as determined by a modified Rayleigh criterion. Point-to-point micrograph resolution between 2.5 and 3.0 Å is found in dark field images of micro-crystallites of uranium and thorium compounds. Furthermore, adequate contrast is available to observe single atoms as light as silver. Images PMID:4521050

  20. High resolution electronic spectroscopy of the A {sup 2}Σ{sup −} − X {sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} transition of PtN

    SciTech Connect

    Womack, Kaitlin; O’Brien, Leah C.; Whittemore, Sean; O’Brien, James J.; Le, Anh; Steimle, Timothy C.

    2014-08-28

    The (2,0) vibrational band of the A {sup 2}Σ{sup −} − X {sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} transition of platinum nitride, PtN, was recorded at Doppler-limited resolution using intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy (ILS) and at sub-Doppler resolution using molecular beam laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy. Isotopologue structure for {sup 194}PtN, {sup 195}PtN, and {sup 196}PtN, magnetic hyperfine splitting due to {sup 195}Pt (I = ½), and nuclear quadrupole splitting due to {sup 14}N (I = 1) were observed in the spectrum. Molecular constants for the ground and excited states are derived. The hyperfine interactions are used to illuminate the nature of the A {sup 2}Σ{sup −} excited electronic state.

  1. Toward high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of microscopic liquid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Mark C.; Mehta, Hardeep S.; Chen, Ying; Reardon, Patrick N.; Renslow, Ryan S.; Khbeis, Michael; Irish, Duane; Mueller, Karl T.

    2017-01-01

    A longstanding limitation of high-resolution NMR spectroscopy is the requirement for samples to have macroscopic dimensions. Commercial probes, for example, are designed for volumes of at least 5 mL, in spite of decades of work directed toward the goal of miniaturization. Progress in miniaturizing inductive detectors has been limited by a perceived need to meet two technical requirements: (1) minimal separation between the sample and the detector, which is essential for sensitivity, and (2) near-perfect magnetic-field homogeneity at the sample, which is typically needed for spectral resolution. The first of these requirements is real, but the second can be relaxed, as we demonstrate here. By using pulse sequences that yield high-resolution spectra in an inhomogeneous field, we eliminate the need for near-perfect field homogeneity and the accompanying requirement for susceptibility matching of microfabricated detector components. With this requirement removed, typical imperfections in microfabricated components can be tolerated, and detector dimensions can be matched to those of the sample, even for samples of volume << 5 uL. Pulse sequences that are robust to field inhomogeneity thus enable small-volume detection with optimal sensitivity. We illustrate the potential of this approach to miniaturization by presenting spectra acquired with a flat-wire detector that can easily be scaled to subnanoliter volumes. In particular, we report high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of an alanine sample of volume 500 pL.

  2. Ultra-high resolution electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Oxley, Mark P; Lupini, Andrew R; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    The last two decades have seen dramatic advances in the resolution of the electron microscope brought about by the successful correction of lens aberrations that previously limited resolution for most of its history. We briefly review these advances, the achievement of sub-Ångstrom resolution and the ability to identify individual atoms, their bonding configurations and even their dynamics and diffusion pathways. We then present a review of the basic physics of electron scattering, lens aberrations and their correction, and an approximate imaging theory for thin crystals which provides physical insight into the various different imaging modes. Then we proceed to describe a more exact imaging theory starting from Yoshioka's formulation and covering full image simulation methods using Bloch waves, the multislice formulation and the frozen phonon/quantum excitation of phonons models. Delocalization of inelastic scattering has become an important limiting factor at atomic resolution. We therefore discuss this issue extensively, showing how the full-width-half-maximum is the appropriate measure for predicting image contrast, but the diameter containing 50% of the excitation is an important measure of the range of the interaction. These two measures can differ by a factor of 5, are not a simple function of binding energy, and full image simulations are required to match to experiment. The Z-dependence of annular dark field images is also discussed extensively, both for single atoms and for crystals, and we show that temporal incoherence must be included accurately if atomic species are to be identified through matching experimental intensities to simulations. Finally we mention a few promising directions for future investigation.

  3. Ultra-high resolution electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxley, Mark P.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2017-02-01

    The last two decades have seen dramatic advances in the resolution of the electron microscope brought about by the successful correction of lens aberrations that previously limited resolution for most of its history. We briefly review these advances, the achievement of sub-Ångstrom resolution and the ability to identify individual atoms, their bonding configurations and even their dynamics and diffusion pathways. We then present a review of the basic physics of electron scattering, lens aberrations and their correction, and an approximate imaging theory for thin crystals which provides physical insight into the various different imaging modes. Then we proceed to describe a more exact imaging theory starting from Yoshioka’s formulation and covering full image simulation methods using Bloch waves, the multislice formulation and the frozen phonon/quantum excitation of phonons models. Delocalization of inelastic scattering has become an important limiting factor at atomic resolution. We therefore discuss this issue extensively, showing how the full-width-half-maximum is the appropriate measure for predicting image contrast, but the diameter containing 50% of the excitation is an important measure of the range of the interaction. These two measures can differ by a factor of 5, are not a simple function of binding energy, and full image simulations are required to match to experiment. The Z-dependence of annular dark field images is also discussed extensively, both for single atoms and for crystals, and we show that temporal incoherence must be included accurately if atomic species are to be identified through matching experimental intensities to simulations. Finally we mention a few promising directions for future investigation.

  4. Ultra-high resolution electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Oxley, Mark P.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2016-12-23

    The last two decades have seen dramatic advances in the resolution of the electron microscope brought about by the successful correction of lens aberrations that previously limited resolution for most of its history. Here we briefly review these advances, the achievement of sub-Ångstrom resolution and the ability to identify individual atoms, their bonding configurations and even their dynamics and diffusion pathways. We then present a review of the basic physics of electron scattering, lens aberrations and their correction, and an approximate imaging theory for thin crystals which provides physical insight into the various different imaging modes. Then we proceed tomore » describe a more exact imaging theory starting from Yoshioka’s formulation and covering full image simulation methods using Bloch waves, the multislice formulation and the frozen phonon/quantum excitation of phonons models. Delocalization of inelastic scattering has become an important limiting factor at atomic resolution. We therefore discuss this issue extensively, showing how the full-width-half-maximum is the appropriate measure for predicting image contrast, but the diameter containing 50% of the excitation is an important measure of the range of the interaction. These two measures can differ by a factor of 5, are not a simple function of binding energy, and full image simulations are required to match to experiment. The Z-dependence of annular dark field images is also discussed extensively, both for single atoms and for crystals, and we show that temporal incoherence must be included accurately if atomic species are to be identified through matching experimental intensities to simulations. Finally we mention a few promising directions for future investigation.« less

  5. Ultra-high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, Mark P.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2016-12-23

    The last two decades have seen dramatic advances in the resolution of the electron microscope brought about by the successful correction of lens aberrations that previously limited resolution for most of its history. Here we briefly review these advances, the achievement of sub-Ångstrom resolution and the ability to identify individual atoms, their bonding configurations and even their dynamics and diffusion pathways. We then present a review of the basic physics of electron scattering, lens aberrations and their correction, and an approximate imaging theory for thin crystals which provides physical insight into the various different imaging modes. Then we proceed to describe a more exact imaging theory starting from Yoshioka’s formulation and covering full image simulation methods using Bloch waves, the multislice formulation and the frozen phonon/quantum excitation of phonons models. Delocalization of inelastic scattering has become an important limiting factor at atomic resolution. We therefore discuss this issue extensively, showing how the full-width-half-maximum is the appropriate measure for predicting image contrast, but the diameter containing 50% of the excitation is an important measure of the range of the interaction. These two measures can differ by a factor of 5, are not a simple function of binding energy, and full image simulations are required to match to experiment. The Z-dependence of annular dark field images is also discussed extensively, both for single atoms and for crystals, and we show that temporal incoherence must be included accurately if atomic species are to be identified through matching experimental intensities to simulations. Finally we mention a few promising directions for future investigation.

  6. Characterisation of the electron self-exchange rates in hexametaphosphate-cytochrome-c aggregates measured using high-resolution 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Concar, D W; Whitford, D; Williams, R J

    1991-08-01

    1H-NMR spectroscopy has been used to measure the rate of unimolecular electron exchange between cytochrome c molecules in protein aggregates stabilised by the addition of sodium hexametaphosphate. The average intracomplex electron exchange rate is measured from line broadening of hyperfine-shifted resonances of ferricytochrome c in an equimolar mixture of reduced and oxidised protein. The line-broadening due to electron exchange is significantly greater than that due to protein aggregation and reaches a maximum value between 1-2 mol hexametaphosphate/mol protein. Significantly the exchange-induced broadening is a first-order process and is directly proportional to the size of the cytochrome c oligomer. From the temperature dependence of exchange broadening the activation enthalpy was estimated to be 75.8 kJ mol-1 whereas the activation entropy was 295 J mol-1 K-1 for a dimer of cytochrome c at a hexametaphosphate/protein molar ratio of 1. Both activation parameters decrease in magnitude as the order of the cytochrome c oligomer increases. The rates of intracomplex electron exchange in Saccharomyces cerevisiae iso-2 and Candida krusei cytochromes c are lower than that of the horse protein, implying that primary sequence plays a fundamental part in determining the rate of exchange. The relevance of these observations is discussed in terms of the function of cytochrome c.

  7. Reconfigurable Pointing Control for High Resolution Space Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Kia, Tooraj; Van Cleve, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a pointing control performance criteria is established to suppport high resolution space spectroscopy. Results indicate that these pointing control requirements are very stringent, and would typically be difficult to meet using standard 3-axis spacecraft control. To resolve this difficulty, it is shown that performance can be significantly improved using a reconfigurable control architecture that switches among a small bankof detuned Kalman filters. The effectiveness of the control reconfiguration approach is demonstrated by example on the Space Infra-Red Telescope Facility (SIRTF) pointing system, in support of the InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) payload.

  8. Reconfigurable Pointing Control for High Resolution Space Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Kia, Tooraj; vanCleve, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a pointing control performance criteria is established to support high resolution space spectroscopy. Results indicate that these pointing requirements are very stringent, and would typically be difficult to meet using standard 3-axis spacecraft control. To resolve this difficulty, it is shown that performance can be significantly improved using a reconfigurable control architecture that switches among a small bank of detuned Kalman filters. The effectiveness of the control reconfiguration approach is demonstrated by example on the Space Infra, Red Telescope Facility (SIRTF) pointing system, in support of the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) payload.

  9. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, Julian H.

    1990-01-01

    After a brief review of the principal problems of AGN research, selected potential high-resolution observations are discussed with a view toward assessing their scientific value and the degree of resolution they will require. Two classes of observations pertaining directly to AGNs are discussed. Fe K-alpha spectroscopy relevant to the dynamical and thermal character of the emission line zones; and measurement of resonance line absorption by highly-ionized species in BL Lac objects, which should provide information about entrainment of interstellar material by relativistic jets. A third class of potentially important observations uses AGNs as background light sources in order to directly measure the distance to clusters of galaxies.

  10. Measuring molecular flows with high-resolution stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    She, C. Y.; Fairbank, W. M., Jr.; Exton, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    It is proposed to use high-resolution stimulated Raman spectroscopy to directly measure high-speed molecular flow velocities in wind tunnels and in combustive chambers. A feasibility study indicates that flow speeds from Mach 0.04 up may be measured with the proposed method using available laser systems. It is pointed out that the success of the proposed technique will make it possible to measure all interesting flow parameters, i.e., species concentration, temperature, and velocity, in a time of less than 1 microsecond at a repetition rate of 10,000/s using a single experimental arrangement.

  11. High resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy system for nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    With increased demand for high resolution ultrasonic evaluation, computer based systems or work stations become essential. The ultrasonic spectroscopy method of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) was used to develop a high resolution ultrasonic inspection system supported by modern signal processing, pattern recognition, and neural network technologies. The basic system which was completed consists of a 386/20 MHz PC (IBM AT compatible), a pulser/receiver, a digital oscilloscope with serial and parallel communications to the computer, an immersion tank with motor control of X-Y axis movement, and the supporting software package, IUNDE, for interactive ultrasonic evaluation. Although the hardware components are commercially available, the software development is entirely original. By integrating signal processing, pattern recognition, maximum entropy spectral analysis, and artificial neural network functions into the system, many NDE tasks can be performed. The high resolution graphics capability provides visualization of complex NDE problems. The phase 3 efforts involve intensive marketing of the software package and collaborative work with industrial sectors.

  12. High Resolution Coherent Three-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Zuri R.; Wells, Thresa A.; Chen, Peter C.; Strangfeld, Benjamin R.

    2013-06-01

    The heavy congestion found in many one-dimensional spectra can make it difficult to study many transitions. A new coherent three-dimensional spectroscopic technique has been developed to eliminate the kind of congestion commonly seen in high resolution electronic spectra. The molecule used for this test was Iodine. A well-characterized transition (X to B) was used to determine which four wave mixing process or processes were responsible for the peaks in the resulting multidimensional spectrum. The resolution of several peaks that overlap in a coherent 2D spectrum can be accomplished by using a higher dimensional (3D) spectroscopic method. This talk will discuss strategies for finding spectroscopic constants using this high resolution coherent 3D spectroscopic method.

  13. Metallicity determination of M dwarfs. High-resolution infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Sara; Heiter, Ulrike; Seifahrt, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Context. Several new techniques to determine the metallicity of M dwarfs with better precision have been developed over the last decades. However, most of these studies were based on empirical methods. In order to enable detailed abundance analysis, standard methods established for warmer solar-like stars, i.e. model-dependent methods using fitting of synthetic spectra, still need to be used. Aims: In this work we continue the reliability confirmation and development of metallicity determinations of M dwarfs using high-resolution infrared spectra. The reliability was confirmed through analysis of M dwarfs in four binary systems with FGK dwarf companions and by comparison with previous optical studies of the FGK dwarfs. Methods: The metallicity determination was based on spectra taken in the J band (1.1-1.4 μm) with the CRIRES spectrograph. In this part of the infrared, the density of stellar molecular lines is limited, reducing the amount of blends with atomic lines enabling an accurate continuum placement. Lines of several atomic species were used to determine the stellar metallicity. Results: All binaries show excellent agreement between the derived metallicity of the M dwarf and its binary companion. Our results are also in good agreement with values found in the literature. Furthermore, we propose an alternative way to determine the effective temperature of M dwarfs of spectral types later than M2 through synthetic spectral fitting of the FeH lines in our observed spectra. Conclusions: We have confirmed that a reliable metallicity determination of M dwarfs can be achieved using high-resolution infrared spectroscopy. We also note that metallicites obtained with photometric metallicity calibrations available for M dwarfs only partly agree with the results we obtain from high-resolution spectroscopy. Based on data obtained at ESO-VLT, Paranal Observatory, Chile, Program ID 082.D-0838(A) and 084.D-1042(A).

  14. High-resolution low-dose scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Buban, James P; Ramasse, Quentin; Gipson, Bryant; Browning, Nigel D; Stahlberg, Henning

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades instrumentation in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has pushed toward higher intensity electron probes to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of recorded images. While this is suitable for robust specimens, biological specimens require a much reduced electron dose for high-resolution imaging. We describe here protocols for low-dose STEM image recording with a conventional field-emission gun STEM, while maintaining the high-resolution capability of the instrument. Our findings show that a combination of reduced pixel dwell time and reduced gun current can achieve radiation doses comparable to low-dose TEM.

  15. Spectroscopy and predissociation of the 3A2 electronic state of ozone 16O3 and 18O3 by high resolution Fourier transform spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, A J; Wannous, G; Churassy, S; Bacis, R; Brion, J; Malicet, J; Judge, R H

    2001-03-01

    A high resolution Fourier transform spectrometry analysis of the rotational structure of the 2(0)1 absorption bands of the 3A2<--X1A1 Wulf transition for the isotopomers 16O3 and 18O3 of the ozone molecule is presented. These bands are very intense compared to the 0(0)0 bands but the predissociation is so strong that the main sub-bands appear as continuous contours. Isolated lines and band contour methods are used together to analyse these two rovibrational bands. The lines corresponding to the F2 component are generally the most intense and isolated. Our data sets for the (0 1 0) level of the 3A2 state are limited to about 102 weakly or unperturbed rotational lines for the 2(0)1 of 16O3 in the range 9620-10,140 cm(-1) and 123 weakly or unperturbed rotational lines for the same band of 18O3. Using for each of them the well-defined ground state parameters, we obtained a standard deviation of about 0.035 cm(-1) in the fit to the lines for 16O3 and 0.027 cm(-1) in the case of 18O3. The rotational constants A, B and C, the three rotational distortion terms deltaK, deltaJK and deltaJ, the spin-rotation constants a0, a and b have been successfully calculated for 16O3 and 18O3 while the spin-spin constants were fixed to their respective values obtained for the origin bands. As is the case for the 0(0)0 band, we have a partial agreement with the isotopic laws for the rotational constants. The geometrical parameters of the (0 1 0) level of 3A2 state for the two isotopomers are close, r = 1.357 A, theta = 100.7 degrees for 18O3 and r = 1.352 A and theta = 100.0 degrees for 16O3. The origin of the 2(0)1 band of 18O3 is red shifted by 7.06(4) cm(-1) with respect to 16O3 2(0)1 band and the two bending mode quanta are, respectively, 528.99(9) and 501.34(7) cm(-1). A preliminary qualitative analysis of the predissociation is given in the particular case of the F2 spin component of 16O3 for 0(0)0 and 2(0)1 bands by the measurement of shifts of positions of some rovibrational

  16. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) of nanophase ferric oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, D. C.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Iron oxide minerals are the prime candidates for Fe(III) signatures in remotely sensed Martian surface spectra. Magnetic, Mossbauer, and reflectance spectroscopy have been carried out in the laboratory in order to understand the mineralogical nature of Martian analog ferric oxide minerals of submicron or nanometer size range. Out of the iron oxide minerals studied, nanometer sized ferric oxides are promising candidates for possible Martian spectral analogs. 'Nanophase ferric oxide (np-Ox)' is a generic term for ferric oxide/oxihydroxide particles having nanoscale (less than 10 nm) particle dimensions. Ferrihydrite, superparamagnetic particles of hematite, maghemite and goethite, and nanometer sized particles of inherently paramagnetic lepidocrocite are all examples of nanophase ferric oxides. np-Ox particles in general do not give X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns with well defined peaks and would often be classified as X-ray amorphous. Therefore, different np-Oxs preparations should be characterized using a more sensitive technique e.g., high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The purpose of this study is to report the particle size, morphology and crystalline order, of five np-Ox samples by HRTEM imaging and electron diffraction (ED).

  17. Probing the electronic and vibrational structure of Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}{sup −} and Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2} using photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution photoelectron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Gary V.; Czekner, Joseph; Jian, Tian; Li, Wei-Li; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-12-14

    The electronic and vibrational structures of Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}{sup −} and Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2} have been investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), high-resolution photoelectron imaging, and theoretical calculations. Photoelectron spectra taken at high photon energies with a magnetic-bottle apparatus reveal numerous detachment transitions and a large energy gap for the neutral Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}. Vibrationally resolved PE spectra are obtained using high-resolution photoelectron imaging for the ground state detachment transition of Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}{sup −} at various photon energies (670.55−843.03 nm). An accurate electron affinity of 1.4438(8) eV is obtained for the Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2} neutral cluster, as well as two vibrational frequencies at 57 ± 8 and 305 ± 13 cm{sup −1}. Hot bands transitions yield two vibrational frequencies for Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}{sup −} at 57 ± 10 and 144 ± 12 cm{sup −1}. The obtained vibrational and electronic structure information is compared with density functional calculations, unequivocally confirming that both Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2}{sup −} and Au{sub 2}Al{sub 2} possess C{sub 2v} tetrahedral structures.

  18. Exploring single and double proton transfer processes in the gas phase: a high resolution electronic spectroscopy study of 5-fluorosalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Young, Justin W; Fleisher, Adam J; Pratt, David W

    2011-02-28

    Two species that possess different absorption and emission properties have been observed in the low resolution fluorescence excitation spectrum of 5-fluorosalicylic acid (FSA) in the gas phase. The two species were identified as monomer and dimer species using high resolution techniques. Studies of these spectra in the presence of an applied electric field, together with ab initio quantum chemistry calculations, show that the monomer is a "closed" form of FSA exhibiting an intramolecular C = O⋅⋅⋅H-O-C hydrogen bond in the ground state. Absorption of light at ∼344 nm transforms this species into the tautomeric form C-O-H⋅⋅⋅O = C via a barrierless proton transfer process. The large charge rearrangement that accompanies this process results in a significantly red-shifted emission spectrum. The (FSA)(2) dimer exhibits two intermolecular C=O⋯H-O-C hydrogen bonds but in this case the double proton transfer leads to a conical intersection with the ground state and rapid nonradiative decay. The onset of this process and the time scale on which it occurs are revealed by a homogeneous broadening of the dimer's high resolution spectrum.

  19. Using High Resolution Force Spectroscopy to Study Haemocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rixman, Monica; Macias, Celia; Dean, Delphine; Ortiz, Christine

    2003-03-01

    A critical determinant of the biocompatibility of implanted blood-contacting devices is the initial noncovalent adsorption of blood plasma proteins onto the biomaterial surface. Using high resolution force spectroscopy, we have measured the intermolecular interaction forces between a probe tip covalently bound with human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant blood plasma protein in the human body, and various chemically modified surfaces that either already are, or may potentially be, used as biomaterial surface coatings. Statistical analysis and theoretical modeling enable us to interpret our experimental results in terms of electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and steric forces. We have expanded our initial studies on surfaces of poly(ethylene oxide) to explore a variety of experimental conditions, and then utilized our results in identifying and studying various oligosaccharides, which we hope may be useful in the discovery of novel materials for future biomaterial applications.

  20. Two simple image slicers for high resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tala, M.; Vanzi, L.; Avila, G.; Guirao, C.; Pecchioli, E.; Zapata, A.; Pieralli, F.

    2017-01-01

    We present the design, manufacturing, test and performance of two image slicers for high resolution spectroscopy. Based on the classical Bowen-Walraven concept, our slicers allow to make two slices of the image of the input fibre. We introduce the idea of a second fibre that can be cropped in half to reach the same width of the science target fibre and that can be used for simultaneous wavelength reference. The slicers presented are mirror and prism based, respectively. Both devices work within expectation, showing differences mainly in their efficiency. The prism based slicer is the solution that was adopted for the FIDEOS spectrograph, an instrument built by the AIUC for the ESO 1m telescope of La Silla. Test spectra obtained with this instrument are included as examples of a real application of the device.

  1. Recent Results in Quantum Chemical Kinetics from High Resolution Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Quack, Martin

    2007-12-26

    We outline the approach of our group to derive intramolecular kinetic primary processes from high resolution spectroscopy. We then review recent results on intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR) and on tunneling processes. Examples are the quantum dynamics of the C-H-chromophore in organic molecules, hydrogen bond dynamics in (HF){sub 2} and stereomutation dynamics in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and related chiral molecules. We finally discuss the time scales for these and further processes which range from 10 fs to more than seconds in terms of successive symmetry breakings, leading to the question of nuclear spin symmetry and parity violation as well as the question of CPT symmetry.

  2. High Resolution Absorption Spectroscopy using Externally Dispersed Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, J; Erskine, D J

    2005-07-06

    We describe the use of Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI) for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy. By adding a small fixed-delay interferometer to a dispersive spectrograph, a precise fiducial grid in wavelength is created over the entire spectrograph bandwidth. The fiducial grid interacts with narrow spectral features in the input spectrum to create a moire pattern. EDI uses the moire pattern to obtain new information about the spectra that is otherwise unavailable, thereby improving spectrograph performance. We describe the theory and practice of EDI instruments and demonstrate improvements in the spectral resolution of conventional spectrographs by a factor of 2 to 6. The improvement of spectral resolution offered by EDI can benefit space instruments by reducing spectrograph size or increasing instantaneous bandwidth.

  3. Two simple image slicers for high resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tala, M.; Vanzi, L.; Avila, G.; Guirao, C.; Pecchioli, E.; Zapata, A.; Pieralli, F.

    2017-04-01

    We present the design, manufacturing, test and performance of two image slicers for high resolution spectroscopy. Based on the classical Bowen-Walraven concept, our slicers allow to make two slices of the image of the input fibre. We introduce the idea of a second fibre that can be cropped in half to reach the same width of the science target fibre and that can be used for simultaneous wavelength reference. The slicers presented are mirror and prism based, respectively. Both devices work within expectation, showing differences mainly in their efficiency. The prism based slicer is the solution that was adopted for the FIDEOS spectrograph, an instrument built by the AIUC for the ESO 1m telescope of La Silla. Test spectra obtained with this instrument are included as examples of a real application of the device.

  4. Human enamel structure studied by high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, S.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Human enamel structural features are characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. The human enamel consists of polycrystals with a structure similar to Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. This article describes the structural features of human enamel crystal at atomic and nanometer level. Besides the structural description, a great number of high resolution images are included. Research into the carious process in human enamel is very important for human beings. This article firstly describes the initiation of caries in enamel crystal at atomic and unit-cell level and secondly describes the further steps of caries with structural and chemical demineralization. The demineralization in fact, is the origin of caries in human enamel. The remineralization of carious areas in human enamel has drawn more and more attention as its potential application is realized. This process has been revealed by high resolution electron microscopy in detail in this article. On the other hand, the radiation effects on the structure of human enamel are also characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. In order to reveal this phenomenon clearly, a great number of electron micrographs have been shown, and a physical mechanism is proposed. 26 references.

  5. High Resolution Rotational Spectroscopy of a Flexible Cyclic Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gámez, F.; Martínez-Haya, B.; Blanco, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2011-06-01

    Crown ethers stand as one cornerstone molecular class inhost-guest Supramolecular Chemistry and constitute building blocks for a broad range of modern materials. We report here the first high resolution rotational study of a crown ether: 1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclopentadecane (15-crown-5 ether,15c5). Molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy has been employed. The liquid sample of 15c5 has been vaporized using heating methods. The considerable size of 15c5 and the broad range of conformations allowed by the flexibility of its backbone pose important challenges to spectroscopy approaches. In fact, the ab-initio computational study for isolated 15c5, yields at least six stable conformers with relative free energies within 2 kJ Mol-1 (167 Cm-1). Nevertheless, in this investigation it has been possible to identify and characterize in detail one stable rotamer of the 15c5 molecule and to challenge different quantum methods for the accurate description of this system. The results pave the ground for an extensive description of the conformational landscape of 15c5 and related cyclic ethers in the near term. J. L. Alonso, F. J. Lorenzo, J. C. López, A. Lesarri, S. Mata and H. Dreizler, Chem. Phys., 218, 267 (1997) S. Blanco, J.C López, J.L. Alonso, P. Ottaviani, W. Caminati, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 880 (2003) S.E. Hill, D. Feller, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 201, 41 (2000)

  6. High-resolution two-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Samuel F; Charlier, Cyril; Kadeřávek, Pavel; Marquardsen, Thorsten; Tyburn, Jean-Max; Bovier, Pierre-Alain; Ulzega, Simone; Speck, Thomas; Wilhelm, Dirk; Engelke, Frank; Maas, Werner; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Pelupessy, Philippe; Ferrage, Fabien

    2016-12-07

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a ubiquitous branch of spectroscopy that can explore matter at the scale of an atom. Significant improvements in sensitivity and resolution have been driven by a steady increase of static magnetic field strengths. However, some properties of nuclei may be more favourable at low magnetic fields. For example, transverse relaxation due to chemical shift anisotropy increases sharply at higher magnetic fields leading to line-broadening and inefficient coherence transfers. Here, we present a two-field NMR spectrometer that permits the application of rf-pulses and acquisition of NMR signals in two magnetic centres. Our prototype operates at 14.1 T and 0.33 T. The main features of this system are demonstrated by novel NMR experiments, in particular a proof-of-concept correlation between zero-quantum coherences at low magnetic field and single quantum coherences at high magnetic field, so that high resolution can be achieved in both dimensions, despite a ca. 10 ppm inhomogeneity of the low-field centre. Two-field NMR spectroscopy offers the possibility to circumvent the limits of high magnetic fields, while benefiting from their exceptional sensitivity and resolution. This approach opens new avenues for NMR above 1 GHz.

  7. The theory and practice of high resolution scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.C. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN )

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in instrumentation have produced the first commercial examples of what can justifiably be called High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopes. The key components of such instruments are a cold field emission gun, a small-gap immersion probe-forming lens, and a clean dry-pumped vacuum. The performance of these microscopes is characterized by several major features including a spatial resolution, in secondary electron mode on solid specimens, which can exceed 1nm on a routine basis; an incident probe current density of the order of 10{sup 6} amps/cm{sup 2}; and the ability to maintain these levels of performance over an accelerating voltage range of from 1 to 30keV. This combination of high resolution, high probe current, low contamination and flexible electron-optical conditions provides many new opportunitites for the application of the SEM to materials science, physics, and the life sciences. 27 refs., 14 figs.

  8. High Resolution Velocity Map Imaging Photoelectron Spectroscopy of the Beryllium Oxide Anion, BeO-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dermer, Amanda Reed; Mascaritolo, Kyle; Heaven, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The photodetachment spectrum of BeO- has been studied using high resolution velocity map imaging photoelectron spectroscopy. The vibrational contours were imaged and compared with Franck-Condon simulations for the ground and excited states of the neutral. The electron affinity of BeO was measured for the first time, and anisotropies of several transitions were determined. Experimental findings are compared to high level ab initio calculations.

  9. Beamline 9.0.1 - a high-resolution undulator beamline for gas-phase spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, J.D.; Heimann, P.A.; Mossessian, D.

    1997-04-01

    Beamline 9.0.1 at the Advanced Light Source is an undulator beamline with a Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) which provides very high resolution and flux over the photon energy range 20-320eV. The beamline has been used primarily by the atomic and molecular science community to conduct spectroscopy experiments using electron, ion and fluorescence photon detection. A description of the beamline and its performance will be provided in this abstract.

  10. Elimination of the Vacuum Pump Requirement for High-Resolution Rotational Spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Jennifer; Daly, Ryan W.; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.

    2015-06-01

    It has been observed that with the advances being driven by the wireless communications industry, the microwave components for submillimeter wave spectrometers and sensors will become almost "free". Moreover, these electronic components will require little power. However, neither of these attributes applies to the vacuum requirements for high-resolution rotational spectroscopy. We will report on the design, construction, and operation of a simple spectroscopic cell that overcomes these problems.

  11. High-resolution observation by double-biprism electron holography

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Ken; Tonomura, Akira; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Akashi, Tetsuya; Togawa, Yoshihiko

    2004-12-01

    High-resolution electron holography has been achieved by using a double-biprism interferometer implemented on a 1 MV field emission electron microscope. The interferometer was installed behind the first magnifying lens to narrow carrier fringes and thus enabled complete separation of sideband Fourier spectrum from center band in reconstruction process. Holograms of Au fine particles and single-crystalline thin films with the finest fringe spacing of 4.2 pm were recorded and reconstructed. The overall holography system including the reconstruction process performed well for holograms in which carrier fringes had a spacing of around 10 pm. High-resolution lattice images of the amplitude and phase were clearly reconstructed without mixing of the center band and sideband information. Additionally, entire holograms were recorded without Fresnel fringes normally generated by the filament electrode of the biprism, and the holograms were thus reconstructed without the artifacts caused by Fresnel fringes.

  12. High-resolution spectroscopy of the lunar sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Oliversen, R. J.; Roesler, F. L.; Lupie, O. L.

    2014-06-01

    We have applied high-resolution Fabry-Perot spectroscopy to the study of the lunar sodium exosphere for the study of exospheric effective temperature and velocity variations. Observing from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce Telescope, we used a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,000 to measure line widths and Doppler shifts of the sodium D2 (5889.95 Å) emission line. Our field of view was 360 km, and measurements were made in equatorial and polar regions from 500 km to 3500 km off the limb. Data were obtained from full moon to 3 days following full moon (waning phase) in March 2009. Measured Doppler line widths within 1100 km of the sunlit east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 and 40° lunar phase imply effective temperatures ranging between 3260 ± 190 and 1000 ± 135 K. Preliminary line center analysis indicates velocity displacements between different locations off the lunar limb ranging between 100 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of ±20 to ±50 m/s depending on brightness. Based on the success of these exploratory observations, an extensive program has been initiated that is expected to constrain lunar atmospheric and surface-process modeling and help quantify source and escape mechanisms.

  13. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of the Lunar Sodium Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Oliversen, R. J.; Roesler, F. L.; Lupie, O. L.

    2014-01-01

    We have applied high-resolution Fabry-Perot spectroscopy to the study of the lunar sodium exosphere for the study of exospheric effective temperature and velocity variations. Observing from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce Telescope, we used a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,000 to measure line widths and Doppler shifts of the sodium D2 (5889.95 Å) emission line. Our field of view was 360 km, and measurements were made in equatorial and polar regions from 500 km to 3500 km off the limb. Data were obtained from full moon to 3 days following full moon (waning phase) in March 2009. Measured Doppler line widths within 1100 km of the sunlit east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 and 40 deg lunar phase imply effective temperatures ranging between 3260 +/- 190 and 1000 +/- 135 K. Preliminary line center analysis indicates velocity displacements between different locations off the lunar limb ranging between 100 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/-20 to +/-50 m/s depending on brightness. Based on the success of these exploratory observations, an extensive program has been initiated that is expected to constrain lunar atmospheric and surface-process modeling and help quantify source and escape mechanisms.

  14. High resolution spectroscopy from ground and space: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, William E.

    In contrast to the broad brush approach often used for the sounding of atmospheric constituents, high resolution spectroscopy is a refined, efficient and often elegant tool which uses small spectral regions to probe specific phenomena. Application areas range from wind and temperature measurements in terrestrial and planetary atmospheres, to magnetic field measurements on the sun. In most cases, subtle changes in line shape or line position are used with a priori information to generate the geophysical information of interest. Use of this technique for space applications started in the 1960's and was a natural extension of the spectroscopic heritage which was started by Fabry and Perot and Michelson over 100 year ago. This field has evolved over the past 50 years in response to refinements in detector technologies, manufacturing techniques and the development of active techniques using lasers. This session will trace the evolution of these techniques over the past half-century and showcase the state-of-the-art today. Within Canada, Gordon Shepherd has played a hand in many of the developments in this technique. This introduction will briefly summarize this field and provide a short historical sketch of Shepherd's contributions as a lead into his keynote review of this topic.

  15. Optical multichannel analyzer techniques for high resolution optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, J.L.

    1980-06-01

    The development of optical multichannel analyzer techniques for UV/VIS spectroscopy is presented. The research focuses on the development of spectroscopic techniques for measuring high resolution spectral lineshape functions from the exciton phosphorescence in H/sub 2/-1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene. It is found that the temperature dependent frequency shifts and widths confirm a theoretical model based on an exchange theory. The exchange of low energy phonon modes which couple with excited state exciton transitions is shown to display the proper temperature dependent behavior. In addition to the techniques for using the optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) to perform low light level target integration, the use of the OMA for capturing spectral information in transient pulsed laser applications is discussed. An OMP data acquisition system developed for real-time signal processng is described. Both hardware and software interfacing considerations for control and data acquisition by a microcomputer are described. The OMA detector is described in terms of the principles behind its photoelectron detection capabilities and its design is compared with other optoelectronic devices.

  16. High-Resolution Rotational Spectroscopy of a Molecular Rotary Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingos, Sergio R.; Cnossen, Arjen; Perez, Cristobal; Buma, Wybren Jan; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.; Schnell, Melanie

    2017-06-01

    To develop synthetic molecular motors and machinery that can mimic their biological counterparts has become a stimulating quest in modern synthetic chemistry. Gas phase studies of these simpler synthetic model systems provide the necessary isolated conditions that facilitate the elucidation of their structural intricacies. We report the first high-resolution rotational study of a synthetic molecular rotary motor based on chiral overcrowded alkenes using chirp-pulsed Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Rotational constants and quartic centrifugal distortion constants were determined based on a fit using more than two hundred rotational transitions spanning 5≤J≤21 in the 2-4 GHz frequency range. Despite the lack of polar groups, the rotor's asymmetry produces strong a- and b-type rotational transitions arising from a single predominant conformer. Evidence for fragmentation of the rotor allows for unambiguous identification of the isolated rotor components. The experimental spectroscopic parameters of the rotor are compared and discussed against current high-level ab initio and density functional theory methods. Vicario et al. Chem. Commun., 5910-5912 (2005) Brown et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 79, 053103 (2008)

  17. Immersion Gratings for Infrared High-resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarugaku, Yuki; Ikeda, Yuji; Kobayashi, Naoto; Kaji, Sayumi; Sukegawa, Takashi; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Nakagawa, Takao; Arasaki, Takayuki; Kondo, Sohei; Nakanishi, Kenshi; Yasui, Chikako; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy in the infrared wavelength range is essential for observations of minor isotopologues, such as HDO for water, and prebiotic organic molecules like hydrocarbons/P-bearing molecules because numerous vibrational molecular bands (including non-polar molecules) are located in this wavelength range. High spectral resolution enables us to detect weak lines without spectral line confusion. This technique has been widely used in planetary sciences, e.g., cometary coma (H2O, CO, and organic molecules), the martian atmosphere (CH4, CO2, H2O and HDO), and the upper atmosphere of gas giants (H3+ and organic molecules such as C2H6). Spectrographs with higher resolution (and higher sensitivity) still have a potential to provide a plenty of findings. However, because the size of spectrographs scales with the spectral resolution, it is difficult to realize it.Immersion grating (IG), which is a diffraction grating wherein the diffraction surface is immersed in a material with a high refractive index (n > 2), provides n times higher spectral resolution compared to a reflective grating of the same size. Because IG reduces the size of spectrograph to 1/n compared to the spectrograph with the same spectral resolution using a conventional reflective grating, it is widely acknowledged as a key optical device to realize compact spectrographs with high spectral resolution.Recently, we succeeded in fabricating a CdZnTe immersion grating with the theoretically predicted diffraction efficiency by machining process using an ultrahigh-precision five-axis processing machine developed by Canon Inc. Using the same technique, we completed a practical germanium (Ge) immersion grating with both a reflection coating on the grating surface and the an AR coating on the entrance surface. It is noteworthy that the wide wavelength range from 2 to 20 um can be covered by the two immersion gratings.In this paper, we present the performances and the applications of the immersion

  18. Spectral restoration in high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy based on iterative semi-blind Lucy-Richardson algorithm applied to rutile surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzari, Rémi Li, Jingfeng Jupille, Jacques

    2015-01-15

    A new spectral restoration algorithm of reflection electron energy loss spectra is proposed. It is based on the maximum likelihood principle as implemented in the iterative Lucy-Richardson approach. Resolution is enhanced and point spread function recovered in a semi-blind way by forcing cyclically the zero loss to converge towards a Dirac peak. Synthetic phonon spectra of TiO{sub 2} are used as a test bed to discuss resolution enhancement, convergence benefit, stability towards noise, and apparatus function recovery. Attention is focused on the interplay between spectral restoration and quasi-elastic broadening due to free carriers. A resolution enhancement by a factor up to 6 on the elastic peak width can be obtained on experimental spectra of TiO{sub 2}(110) and helps revealing mixed phonon/plasmon excitations.

  19. Spectral restoration in high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy based on iterative semi-blind Lucy-Richardson algorithm applied to rutile surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lazzari, Rémi; Li, Jingfeng; Jupille, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    A new spectral restoration algorithm of reflection electron energy loss spectra is proposed. It is based on the maximum likelihood principle as implemented in the iterative Lucy-Richardson approach. Resolution is enhanced and point spread function recovered in a semi-blind way by forcing cyclically the zero loss to converge towards a Dirac peak. Synthetic phonon spectra of TiO2 are used as a test bed to discuss resolution enhancement, convergence benefit, stability towards noise, and apparatus function recovery. Attention is focused on the interplay between spectral restoration and quasi-elastic broadening due to free carriers. A resolution enhancement by a factor up to 6 on the elastic peak width can be obtained on experimental spectra of TiO2(110) and helps revealing mixed phonon/plasmon excitations.

  20. Spectral restoration in high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy based on iterative semi-blind Lucy-Richardson algorithm applied to rutile surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, Rémi; Li, Jingfeng; Jupille, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    A new spectral restoration algorithm of reflection electron energy loss spectra is proposed. It is based on the maximum likelihood principle as implemented in the iterative Lucy-Richardson approach. Resolution is enhanced and point spread function recovered in a semi-blind way by forcing cyclically the zero loss to converge towards a Dirac peak. Synthetic phonon spectra of TiO2 are used as a test bed to discuss resolution enhancement, convergence benefit, stability towards noise, and apparatus function recovery. Attention is focused on the interplay between spectral restoration and quasi-elastic broadening due to free carriers. A resolution enhancement by a factor up to 6 on the elastic peak width can be obtained on experimental spectra of TiO2(110) and helps revealing mixed phonon/plasmon excitations.

  1. High-resolution ground-based spectroscopy: where and how ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, R.

    2002-07-01

    An overview is presented of high-resolution optical spectrographs in operation or under development at large telescopes, with emphasis on those facilities best suited for the study of late-type stars and stellar surface inhomogeneities. Plans for the development of new high-resolution spectroscopic instruments are discussed with emphasis on the ICE spectrograph for the PEPSI spectropolarimeter at the LBT.

  2. An experimental setup for high resolution 10.5 eV laser-based angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using a time-of-flight electron analyzer.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, M H; Götberg, O; Tjernberg, O

    2011-09-01

    We present an experimental setup for laser-based angle-resolved time-of-flight photoemission. Using a picosecond pulsed laser, photons of energy 10.5 eV are generated through higher harmonic generation in xenon. The high repetition rate of the light source, variable between 0.2 and 8 MHz, enables high photoelectron count rates and short acquisition times. By using a time-of-flight analyzer with angle-resolving capabilities, electrons emitted from the sample within a circular cone of up to ±15° can be collected. Hence, simultaneous acquisition of photoemission data for a complete area of the Brillouin zone is possible. The current photon energy enables bulk sensitive measurements, high angular resolution, and the resulting covered momentum space is large enough to enclose the entire Brillouin zone in cuprate high-T(c) superconductors. Fermi edge measurements on polycrystalline Au shows an energy resolution better than 5 meV. Data from a test measurement of the Au(111) surface state are presented along with measurements of the Fermi surface of the high-T(c) superconductor Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8 + δ) (Bi2212).

  3. Layer specific optical band gap measurement at nanoscale in MoS{sub 2} and ReS{sub 2} van der Waals compounds by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dileep, K. E-mail: ranjan@jncasr.ac.in; Sahu, R.; Datta, R. E-mail: ranjan@jncasr.ac.in; Sarkar, Sumanta; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2016-03-21

    Layer specific direct measurement of optical band gaps of two important van der Waals compounds, MoS{sub 2} and ReS{sub 2}, is performed at nanoscale by high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy. For monolayer MoS{sub 2}, the twin excitons (1.8 and 1.95 eV) originating at the K point of the Brillouin zone are observed. An indirect band gap of 1.27 eV is obtained from the multilayer regions. Indirect to direct band gap crossover is observed which is consistent with the previously reported strong photoluminescence from the monolayer MoS{sub 2}. For ReS{sub 2}, the band gap is direct, and a value of 1.52 and 1.42 eV is obtained for the monolayer and multilayer, respectively. The energy loss function is dominated by features due to high density of states at both the valence and conduction band edges, and the difference in analyzing band gap with respect to ZnO is highlighted. Crystalline 1T ReS{sub 2} forms two dimensional chains like superstructure due to the clustering between four Re atoms. The results demonstrate the power of HREELS technique as a nanoscale optical absorption spectroscopy tool.

  4. High-resolution electron microscopy of advanced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, T.E.; Kung, H.H.; Sickafus, K.E.; Gray, G.T. III; Field, R.D.; Smith, J.F.

    1997-11-01

    This final report chronicles a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The High-Resolution Electron Microscopy Facility has doubled in size and tripled in quality since the beginning of the three-year period. The facility now includes a field-emission scanning electron microscope, a 100 kV field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM), a 300 kV field-emission high-resolution transmission electron microscope (FE-HRTEM), and a 300 kV analytical transmission electron microscope. A new orientation imaging microscope is being installed. X-ray energy dispersive spectrometers for chemical analysis are available on all four microscopes; parallel electron energy loss spectrometers are operational on the FE-STEM and FE-HRTEM. These systems enable evaluation of local atomic bonding, as well as chemical composition in nanometer-scale regions. The FE-HRTEM has a point-to-point resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}, but the resolution can be pushed to its information limit of 1 {angstrom} by computer reconstruction of a focal series of images. HRTEM has been used to image the atomic structure of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and interfaces in a variety of materials from superconductors and ferroelectrics to structural ceramics and intermetallics.

  5. High resolution infrared spectroscopy of [1.1.1]propellane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Robynne; Masiello, Tony; Jariyasopit, Narumol; Weber, Alfons; Nibler, Joseph W.; Maki, Arthur; Blake, Thomas A.; Hubler, Timothy

    2008-04-01

    The infrared spectrum of [1.1.1]propellane has been recorded at high resolution (0.002 cm -1) with individual rovibrational lines resolved for the first time. This initial report presents the ground state constants for this molecule determined from the analysis of five of the eight infrared-allowed fundamentals ν9(e'), ν10(e'), ν12(e'), ν14(a2″),ν15(a2″), as well as of several combination bands. In nearly all cases it was found that the upper states of the transitions exhibit some degree of perturbation but, by use of the combination difference method, the assigned frequencies provided over 4000 consistent ground state difference values. Analysis of these gave for the parameters of the ground state the following values, in cm -1: B0 = 0.28755833(14), DJ = 1.1313(5) × 10 -7, DJK = -1.2633(7) × 10 -7, HJ = 0.72(4) × 10 -13, HJK = -2.24(13) × 10 -13, and HKJ = 2.25(15) × 10 -13, where the numbers in parentheses indicate twice the uncertainties in the last quoted digit(s) of the parameters. Gaussian ab initio calculations, especially with the computed anharmonic corrections to some of the spectroscopic parameters, assisted in the assignments of the bands and also provided information on the electron distribution in the bridge-head carbon-carbon bond.

  6. Johann Spectrometer for High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machek, Pavel; Welter, Edmund; Caliebe, Wolfgang; Brüggmann, Ulf; Dräger, Günter; Fröba, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A newly designed vacuum Johann spectrometer with a large focusing analyzer crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and high resolution fluorescence spectroscopy has been installed at the DORIS III storage ring. Spherically bent crystals with a maximum diameter of 125 mm, and cylindrically bent crystals are employed as dispersive optical elements. Standard radius of curvature of the crystals is 1000 mm, however, the design of the mechanical components also facilitates measurements with smaller and larger bending radii. Up to four crystals are mounted on a revolving crystal changer which enables crystal changes without breaking the vacuum. The spectrometer works at fixed Bragg angle. It is preferably designed for the measurements in non-scanning mode with a broad beam spot, and offers a large flexibility to set the sample to the optimum position inside the Rowland circle. A deep depletion CCD camera is employed as a position sensitive detector to collect the energy-analyzed photons on the circumference of the Rowland circle. The vacuum in the spectrometer tank is typically 10-6 mbar. The sample chamber is separated from the tank either by 25 μm thick Kapton windows, which allows samples to be measured under ambient conditions, or by two gate valves. The spectrometer is currently installed at wiggler beamline W1 whose working range is 4-10.5 keV with typical flux at the sample of 5×1010photons/s/mm2. The capabilities of the spectrometer are illustrated by resonant inelastic experiments on 3d transition metals and rare earth compounds, and by chemical shift measurements on chromium compounds.

  7. Characterizing The Nearest Young Moving Groups Through High Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Kyle; Wilhelm, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed method for characterizing the nearest young moving groups via high resolution spectroscopy. This method has three diagnostics which classify a moving group: (1) Chemical Homogeneity, (2) Kinematic Traceback, and (3) Isochrone Fitting. We have applied this technique on 10 F- and G-type stars from the AB Doradus Moving Group (ABD) and found 8 stars share similar metal abundances with an average abundance for ABD of <[M/H]> = -0.03 ± 0.06; of the two outliers, one is metal rich and the other metal poor. Seven stars follow a common traceback and share a common origin around 125 Myr. One of the outlying traceback stars diverges around 90-100 Myr, and is the same star which is metal rich. Eight stars fall along the same isochrone of 100 Myr, which is synonymous with the main sequence. We further evaluated this technique on 5 members of the newly discovered Octans-Near Moving Group (ONMG). Two of these were listed as possible members with the other three being probable members. There is a large spread in the metal abundance with <[M/H]> = -0.17 ± 0.1 and no core group of stars that define the cluster in abundance space. ONMG is also enigmatic because several age indicators (e.g. lithium abundance, surface gravities, activity) indicate a much younger cluster; however, the traceback age shows these stars were closest around 150 Myr (though this age should be taken very lightly) and 4 of the 5 stars fall on the main sequence. We therefore conclude that while these stars do share present day velocities and positions, the group is not well defined in abundance, origin, or age, and should be concidered with caution.

  8. Direct frequency comb spectroscopy and high-resolution coherent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowe, Matthew C.

    We present the first experiments demonstrating absolute frequency measurements of one- and two-photon transitions using direct frequency comb spectroscopy (DFCS). In particular we phase stabilized the inter-pulse period and optical phases of the pulses emitted from a mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser, creating a broad-bandwidth optical frequency comb. By referencing the optical comb directly to the cesium microwave frequency standard, we were able to measure absolute transition frequencies over greater than a 50 nm bandwidth, utilizing the phase coherence between wavelengths spanning from 741 nm to 795 nm. As an initial demonstration of DFCS we studied transitions from the 5S to 5P, 5D, and 7S states in Rb. To reduce Doppler broadening the atoms were laser cooled in a magneto-optical trap. We present an overview of several systematic error sources that perturb the natural transition frequencies, magnitudes, and linewidths. These include radiation pressure from the probe beam, AC-Stark shifts, Zeeman shifts, power-broadening, and incoherent optical pumping. After careful study and suppression of these systematic error sources, we measured transition linewidths as narrow as 1.1 MHz FWHM and 10 kHz linecenter uncertainties. Our measurements of the 5S to 7S two-photon transition frequency demonstrated the ability to determine the comb mode order numbers when the initial transition frequency is not known to better than the comb mode frequency spacing. By modifying the spectral phase of the pulses we demonstrated high-resolution coherent control. Our first coherent control experiment utilized a grating based pulse stretcher/compressor to apply a large chirp to the pulses. We measured the two-photon transition rate as a function of linear frequency chirp. The results illustrate the differences between similar classic coherent experiments done with a single femtosecond pulse and ours conducted with multiple pulses. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to reduce the two

  9. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and femtosecond intramolecular dynamics using supersonic molecular beams

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, B.

    1992-09-01

    High resolution He I[alpha] photoelectron spectroscopy of formaldehyde and ketene and their deuterated compounds, are reported. The combination of a (H2CO) double-pass high-resolution electron-energy analyzer and effective rotational cooling of the sample by supersonic expansion enable the spectroscopy of these molecular cations. The vibrational autocorrelation functions are calculated from the high-resolution photoelectron spectra, shedding light on the ultrafast intramolecular dynamics of the molecular cations. This study reveals much more vibrational structural detail in the first electronic excited state of H2CO cations. The first electronic excited state of H2CO cations may have nonplanar equilibrium geometry. Strong isotope effects on vibronic (vibrational) coupling are observed in the second electronic excited state of H2CO. Vibrational autocorrelation functions are calculated for all four observed electronic states of H2CO. The correlation function of the first electronic excited state of H2CO shows a slow decay rate on the femtosecond time scale. The ultrafast decay of the H2CO cations in the third electronic excited state implies that dissociation and intramolecular processes are the main decay pathways. The present spectra of the ground states of ketene cations have more fine structure than before. The AIEs of the first and fifth excited states are determined unambiguously more accurately. The doublet-like fine structures present in the lint excited state of ketene implies the excitation of a soft'' mode not observed before. The vibrational autocorrelation functions are calculated for 4 of the 6 observed electronic states. The dynamics of the ground states of the cations are characterized by a wave packet oscillating with small amplitude around the minimum on the upper PES. The decay dynamics of the first and the fifth excited states of ketene are characterized by ultra-fast intramolecular processes like predissociation.

  10. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and femtosecond intramolecular dynamics using supersonic molecular beams

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, B.

    1992-09-01

    High resolution He I{alpha} photoelectron spectroscopy of formaldehyde and ketene and their deuterated compounds, are reported. The combination of a (H2CO) double-pass high-resolution electron-energy analyzer and effective rotational cooling of the sample by supersonic expansion enable the spectroscopy of these molecular cations. The vibrational autocorrelation functions are calculated from the high-resolution photoelectron spectra, shedding light on the ultrafast intramolecular dynamics of the molecular cations. This study reveals much more vibrational structural detail in the first electronic excited state of H2CO cations. The first electronic excited state of H2CO cations may have nonplanar equilibrium geometry. Strong isotope effects on vibronic (vibrational) coupling are observed in the second electronic excited state of H2CO. Vibrational autocorrelation functions are calculated for all four observed electronic states of H2CO. The correlation function of the first electronic excited state of H2CO shows a slow decay rate on the femtosecond time scale. The ultrafast decay of the H2CO cations in the third electronic excited state implies that dissociation and intramolecular processes are the main decay pathways. The present spectra of the ground states of ketene cations have more fine structure than before. The AIEs of the first and fifth excited states are determined unambiguously more accurately. The doublet-like fine structures present in the lint excited state of ketene implies the excitation of a ``soft`` mode not observed before. The vibrational autocorrelation functions are calculated for 4 of the 6 observed electronic states. The dynamics of the ground states of the cations are characterized by a wave packet oscillating with small amplitude around the minimum on the upper PES. The decay dynamics of the first and the fifth excited states of ketene are characterized by ultra-fast intramolecular processes like predissociation.

  11. High-resolution AMLCD for the electronic library system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Russel A.; Middo, Kathy; Turner, William D.; Lewis, Alan; Thompson, Malcolm J.; Silverstein, Louis D.

    1994-06-01

    The Electronic Library System (ELS), is a proposed data resource for the cockpit which can provide the aircrew with a vast array of technical information on their aircraft and flight plan. This information includes, but is not limited to, approach plates, Jeppeson Charts, and aircraft technical manuals. Most of these data are appropriate for digitization at high resolution (300 spi). Xerox Corporation has developed a flat panel active matrix liquid crystal display, AMLCD, that is an excellent match to the ELS, due to its innovative and aggressive design.

  12. High resolution electron microscopy study of amorphous calcium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brès, E. F.; Moebus, G.; Kleebe, H.-J.; Pourroy, G.; Werkmann, J.; Ehret, G.

    1993-03-01

    "Amorphous" calcium phosphate (ACP) from human tooth enamel and different synthetic materials has been analysed by high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). All the materials studied showed, in addition to a "truly" amorphous phase, other calcium phosphate phases such as poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite (OHAP), well crystallized OHAP and poorly crystalline CaO type phase. Such structural heterogeneities have not been observed before in ACP, and are only possible to be detected by HREM as this is the only technique able to analyse nanometre size materials in the real space.

  13. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Ultracool M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, I. Neill; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Liebert, James; Gizis, J. E.; Dahn, C. C.; Monet, D. G.

    2002-07-01

    We present high-resolution echelle spectroscopy of 39 dwarfs with spectral types between M6.5 and L0.5. With one exception, those dwarfs were selected from the Two Micron All Sky Survey database using photometric criteria, (J-KS)>=1.1 and KS<=12.0, and therefore should provide a sample free of the kinematic biases that can affect proper-motion-selected samples. Two of the stars, 2MASSI J0253202+271333 and 2MASSW J0952219-192431, are double-lined spectroscopic binaries. We have used our observations to search for Li I 6708 Å absorption, characteristic of substellar mass; estimate the level of chromospheric activity through measurement of Hα emission fluxes; measure rotational velocities via line broadening; and determine radial velocities and Galactic space motions. Two dwarfs have strong lithium absorption, the previously known brown dwarf LP 944-20 and 2MASSI J0335020+234235, which we identify as a probable 0.06 Msolar brown dwarf with an age of ~1 Gyr. We have investigated the prospect of using the observed frequency of lithium absorption among ultracool M dwarfs (M7 to M9.5) as a probe of the initial mass function, comparing the observed frequency against predictions based on recent theoretical models of low-mass dwarfs and an assumed star formation history. Our results show that the conclusions drawn are vulnerable both to systematic differences between the available models and to incomplete local sampling of the most recent star formation events (ages less than 108 yr). The latter consideration stems from the mass-dependent rate of evolution of brown dwarfs. Even given those caveats, however, the available observations are difficult to reconcile with Salpeter-like power-law mass functions (α>=2) for masses below 0.1 Msolar. A comparison between the rotational velocities and Hα fluxes shows no evidence for significant correlation. The mean activity level of the ultracool dwarfs lies almost a factor of 10 below that of early- and mid-type M dwarfs. The

  14. Imaging plasmodesmata with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Barton, Deborah A; Overall, Robyn L

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) is an effective tool to investigate the distribution of plasmodesmata within plant cell walls as well as to probe their complex, three-dimensional architecture. It is a useful alternative to traditional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in which plasmodesmata are sectioned to reveal their internal substructures. Benefits of adopting an HRSEM approach to studies of plasmodesmata are that the specimen preparation methods are less complex and time consuming than for TEM, many plasmodesmata within a large region of tissue can be imaged in a single session, and three-dimensional information is readily available without the need for reconstructing TEM serial sections or employing transmission electron tomography, both of which are lengthy processes. Here we describe methods to prepare plant samples for HRSEM using pre- or postfixation extraction of cellular material in order to visualize plasmodesmata embedded within plant cell walls.

  15. Quantitative high-resolution transmission electron microscopy of single atoms.

    PubMed

    Gamm, Björn; Blank, Holger; Popescu, Radian; Schneider, Reinhard; Beyer, André; Gölzhäuser, Armin; Gerthsen, Dagmar

    2012-02-01

    Single atoms can be considered as the most basic objects for electron microscopy to test the microscope performance and basic concepts for modeling image contrast. In this work high-resolution transmission electron microscopy was applied to image single platinum, molybdenum, and titanium atoms in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. The atoms are deposited on a self-assembled monolayer substrate that induces only negligible contrast. Single-atom contrast simulations were performed on the basis of Weickenmeier-Kohl and Doyle-Turner form factors. Experimental and simulated image intensities are in quantitative agreement on an absolute intensity scale, which is provided by the vacuum image intensity. This demonstrates that direct testing of basic properties such as form factors becomes feasible.

  16. High resolution X-ray CT for advanced electronics packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppermann, M.; Zerna, T.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced electronics packaging is a challenge for non-destructive Testing (NDT). More, smaller and mostly hidden interconnects dominate modern electronics components and systems. To solve the demands of customers to get products with a high functionality by low volume, weight and price (e.g. mobile phones, personal medical monitoring systems) often the designers use System-in-Package solutions (SiP). The non-destructive testing of such devices is a big challenge. So our paper will impart fundamentals and applications for non-destructive evaluation of inner structures of electronics packaging for quality assurance and reliability investigations with a focus on X-ray methods, especially on high resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT).

  17. High Resolution EUV & FUV Spectroscopy of DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Good, S. A.; Bannister, N. P.; Burleigh, M. R.; Holberg, J. B.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Cruddace, R. G.; Kowalski, M. P.

    We report on recent results from a high-resolution spectroscopic survey of hot DA white dwarfs, based on IUE, FUSE and HST observations. For the first time, we address the measurement of element abundances in a completely objective manner with a spectroscopic model fitting technique, which allows us to consider formally the limits that can be placed on abundances in stars where no heavy elements are detected. We also include our latest analysis of the high resolution EUV spectrum of G191-B2B recorded by J-PEX.

  18. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy: the ultimate nanoanalytical technique.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John Meurig; Midgley, Paul A

    2004-06-07

    To be able to determine the elemental composition and morphology of individual nanoparticles consisting of no more than a dozen or so atoms that weigh a few zeptograms (10(-21) g) is but one of the attainments of modern electron microscopy. With slightly larger specimens (embracing a few unit cells of the structure) their symmetry, crystallographic phase, unit-cell dimension, chemical composition and often the valence state (from parallel electron spectroscopic measurements) of the constituent atoms may also be determined using a scanning beam of electrons of ca. 0.5 nm diameter. Nowadays electron crystallography, which treats the digital data of electron diffraction (ED) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images of minute (ca. 10(-18)g) specimens in a quantitatively rigorous manner, solves hitherto unknown structures just as X-ray diffraction does with bulk single crystals. In addition, electron tomography (see cover photograph and its animation) enables a three-dimensional picture of the internal structure of minute objects, such as nanocatalysts in a single pore, as well as structural faults such as micro-fissures, to be constructed with a resolution of 1 nm from an angular series of two-dimensional (projected) images. Very recently (since this article was first written) a new meaning has been given to electron crystallography as a result of the spatio-temporal resolution of surface phenomena achieved on a femtosecond timescale.

  19. Probing the electronic structure and Au–C chemical bonding in AuC{sub 2}{sup −} and AuC{sub 2} using high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    León, Iker; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-02-28

    We report photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and high-resolution PE imaging of AuC{sub 2}{sup −} at a wide range of photon energies. The ground state of AuC{sub 2}{sup −} is found to be linear (C{sub ∞v}, {sup 1}Σ{sup +}) with a …8π{sup 4}4δ{sup 4}17σ{sup 2}9π{sup 4}18σ{sup 2} valence configuration. Detachments from all the five valence orbitals of the ground state of AuC{sub 2}{sup −} are observed at 193 nm. High-resolution PE images are obtained in the energy range from 830 to 330 nm, revealing complicated vibronic structures from electron detachment of the 18σ, 9π, and 17σ orbitals. Detachment from the 18σ orbital results in the {sup 2}Σ{sup +} ground state of neutral AuC{sub 2}, which, however, is bent due to strong vibronic coupling with the nearby {sup 2}Π state from detachment of a 9π electron. The {sup 2}Σ{sup +}–{sup 2}Π vibronic and spin-orbit coupling results in complicated vibronic structures for the {sup 2}Σ{sup +} and {sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} states with extensive bending excitations. The electron affinity of AuC{sub 2} is measured accurately to be 3.2192(7) eV with a ground state bending frequency of 195(6) cm{sup −1}. The first excited state ({sup 2}A′) of AuC{sub 2}, corresponding to the {sup 2}Π{sub 3/2} state at the linear geometry, is only 0.0021 eV above the ground state ({sup 2}A′) and has a bending frequency of 207(6) cm{sup −1}. The {sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} state, 0.2291 eV above the ground state, is linear with little geometry change relative to the anion ground state. The detachment of the 17σ orbital also results in complicated vibronic structures, suggesting again a bent state due to possible vibronic coupling with the lower {sup 2}Π state. The spectrum at 193 nm shows the presence of a minor species with less than 2% intensity relative to the ground state of AuC{sub 2}{sup −}. High-resolution data of the minor species reveal several vibrational progressions in the Au–C stretching mode, which are assigned to

  20. High-resolution electronic imaging system for schlieren recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honour, Joseph

    2001-04-01

    High speed Schlieren photography is a reliable means of visualizing small changes of refractive index resulting from density differences within a transparent media. Schlieren techniques are frequently used for investigating the aerodynamics of high velocity projectiles to confirm the formation of shock waves on leading edge surfaces so that optimum design performance can be achieved. Traditionally this type of investigation would have been undertaken using film cameras, however, improvements in image quality provided by the rapid development of intensified silicon based sensors and associated electronics has offered a reliable alternative, without the inherent difficulties in quantitative data extraction. The development of a high resolution sixteen image electronic camera system provides the researcher with versatile recording system that can be used to capture detailed image sequences at framing rates up to two hundred million pictures per second. The number of information points is maintained, irrespective of framing rate, making it ideal for recording the complexity of detail available from these sensitive Schlieren techniques. The high resolution images, which are displayed within twenty seconds of capture, flexibility of operation, and comprehensive analysis software provide fast reliable access to experimental data.

  1. High-resolution pulsed-field ionization photoelectron spectroscopy using multi-bunch synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.W.; Evans, M.; Ng, C.Y.; Heimann, P.

    1997-04-01

    BL9.0.2.2 is the newly constructed experimental End Station 2 at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline 9.0.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS). It is dedicated to the high resolution photoionization study of molecules of interest to atmospheric and combustion chemistry. This End Station is equipped with a high resolution scanning monochromator, which has been demonstrated to have a world record resolution of E/{delta}E=70,000. Taking the advantage of the high resolution ALS light, the authors have improved the energy resolution in threshold photoelectron spectroscopy (TPES) to 0.8 meV. The TPES is a popular technique for photoionization experiments at all synchrotron radiation facilities due to its high energy resolution as compared to that of traditional photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). TPES achieves higher energy resolution by preferentially detecting near zero kinetic energy photoelectrons resulting from threshold photoionization. However, the spectra obtained from the TPES technique generally are complicated by the simultaneous detection of electrons with nonzero kinetic energy, which are not fully discriminated against. On the other hand, the spectra obtained from pulsed field ionization photoelectron spectroscopy (PFI-PES) are completely free of the contamination from kinetic electrons. The PFI-PE technique basically involves the detection of the photoelectrons from field ionization of the very high-n Rydberg states, a few cm{sup {minus}1} below the ionization energy (IE), by applying a delayed pulsed electric field. Within a delay of a few microseconds, all the prompt electrons formed from direct ionization will escape from the photoionization region and will not be collected. The authors have recently overcome problems with energy resolution of an electron time-of-flight technique, and incorporated the PFI-PE technique with multi-bunch VUV synchrotron radiation.

  2. High resolution λ spectroscopy in Jefferson Laboratory via (e,e'K^+) reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturin, Pavlo

    2010-02-01

    The E01-011* (HKS) experiment was conducted in the Fall 2005 at Jefferson Laboratory, Hall-C. It employed a 1.8 GeV, high intensity, quasi-continuous electron beam to produce high resolution spectroscopy of exotic neutron rich λ hypernuclei via associated K electroproduction mechanism, ^AZ(e,e'K^+)^A(Z-1)λ. The experiment utilized ^6,7Li, ^9Be, ^10B, ^28Si targets for spectroscopy analysis and ^51V, ^89Y, ^208Pb targets for rate studies. The newly introduced tilt method of the electron spectrometer (ENGE) in combination with a brand new high resolution hadron spectrometer (HKS) significantly increased kaon yield and reduced the background rates associated with Bremsstrahlung and Moller scattering. Such kinematics together with the low momentum transfer to λ and a forward angle of recoil electrons, allowed achieving high kaon rates, comparable with mesonic reactions. It also resulted in energy resolution of approximately 400-500 keV (FWHM), an unprecedented value in hypernuclear reaction spectroscopy. This presentation will give a general description of the experiment and will show preliminary results. * This work was in part supported by DoE ER41047 & ER41065 and MEXT, Japan. )

  3. Insights into complexation of dissolved organic matter and Al(III) and nanominerals formation in soils under contrasting fertilizations using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yongli; Li, Huan; Xiao, Jian; Wang, Chang; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; He, Xinhua; Zhou, Quansuo; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the organomineral associations in soils is of great importance. Using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques, this study compared the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils under short-term (3-years) and long-term (22-years) fertilizations. Three fertilization treatments were examined: (i) no fertilization (Control), (ii) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), and (iii) NPK plus swine manure (NPKM). Soil spectra detected by the 2DCOS Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that fertilization modified the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM at both short- and long- term location sites. The CH deformations in aliphatic groups played an important role in binding to Al(III) but with minor differences among the Control, NPK and NPKM at the short-term site. While at the long-term site both C-O stretching of polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances and aliphatic O-H were bound to Al(III) under the Control, whereas only aliphatic O-H, and only polysaccharides and silicates, were bound to Al(III) under NPK and NPKM, respectively. Images from HRTEM demonstrated that crystalline nanominerals, composed of Fe and O, were predominant in soil DOM under NPK, while amorphous nanominerals, predominant in Al, Si, and O, were dominant in soil DOM under Control and NPKM. In conclusion, fertilization strategies, especially under long-term, could affect the binding of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM, which resulted in alterations in the turnover, reactivity, and bioavailability of soil organic matter. Our results demonstrated that the FTIR-2DCOS combined with HRTEM techniques could enhance our understanding in the binding characteristics of DOM to Al(III) and the resulted nanominerals in soils.

  4. High-Resolution Electronics: Spontaneous Patterning of High-Resolution Electronics via Parallel Vacuum Ultraviolet (Adv. Mater. 31/2016).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuying; Kanehara, Masayuki; Liu, Chuan; Sakamoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Takeshi; Takeya, Jun; Minari, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    On page 6568, T. Minari and co-workers describe spontaneous patterning based on the parallel vacuum ultraviolet (PVUV) technique, enabling the homogeneous integration of complex, high-resolution electronic circuits, even on large-scale, flexible, transparent substrates. Irradiation of PVUV to the hydrophobic polymer surface precisely renders the selected surface into highly wettable regions with sharply defined boundaries, which spontaneously guides a metal nanoparticle ink into a series of circuit lines and gaps with the widths down to a resolution of 1 μm. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of FU Orionis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbig, G. H.; Petrov, P. P.; Duemmler, R.

    2003-09-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy was obtained of the FU orionis stars FU Ori and V1057 Cyg between 1995 and 2002 with the SOFIN spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope and with HIRES at Keck I. During these years FU Ori remained about 1 mag (in B) below its 1938-39 maximum brightness, but V1057 Cyg (B~10.5 at peak in 1970-1971) faded from about 13.5 to 14.9 and then recovered slightly. Their photospheric spectra resemble that of a rotationally broadened, slightly veiled supergiant of about type G0 Ib, with veqsini=70 km s-1 for FU Ori, and 55 km s-1 for V1057 Cyg. As V1057 Cyg faded, P Cyg structure in Hα and the IR Ca II lines strengthened and a complex shortward-displaced shell spectrum of low-excitation lines of the neutral metals (including Li I and Rb I) increased in strength, disappeared in 1999, and reappeared in 2001. Several SOFIN runs extended over a number of successive nights so that a search for rapid and cyclic changes in the spectra was possible. These spectra show rapid night-to-night changes in the wind structure of FU Ori at Hα, including clear evidence of sporadic infall. The equivalent width of the P Cyg absorption varied cyclically with a period of 14.8 days, with phase stability maintained over three seasons. This is believed to be the rotation period of FU Ori. The internal structure of its photospheric lines also varies cyclically, but with a period of 3.54 days. A similar variation may be present in V1057 Cyg, but the data are much noisier and that result uncertain. As V1057 Cyg has faded and the continuum level fallen, the emission lines of a preexisting low-excitation chromosphere have emerged. Therefore we believe that the ``line doubling'' in V1057 Cyg is produced by these central emission cores in the absorption lines, not by orbital motion in an inclined Keplerian disk. No convincing dependence of veqsini on wavelength or excitation potential was detected in either FU Ori or V1057 Cyg, again contrary to expectation for a self

  6. Multilayer Patterning of High Resolution Intrinsically Stretchable Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Tybrandt, Klas; Stauffer, Flurin; Vörös, Janos

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable electronics can bridge the gap between hard planar electronic circuits and the curved, soft and elastic objects of nature. This has led to applications like conformal displays, electronic skin and soft neuroprosthetics. A remaining challenge, however, is to match the dimensions of the interfaced systems, as all require feature sizes well below 100 μm. Intrinsically stretchable nanocomposites are attractive in this context as the mechanical deformations occur on the nanoscale, although methods for patterning high performance materials have been lacking. Here we address these issues by reporting on a multilayer additive patterning approach for high resolution fabrication of stretchable electronic devices. The method yields highly conductive 30 μm tracks with similar performance to their macroscopic counterparts. Further, we demonstrate a three layer micropatterned stretchable electroluminescent display with pixel sizes down to 70 μm. These presented findings pave the way towards future developments of high definition displays, electronic skins and dense multielectrode arrays. PMID:27157804

  7. Polystyrene negative resist for high-resolution electron beam lithography

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We studied the exposure behavior of low molecular weight polystyrene as a negative tone electron beam lithography (EBL) resist, with the goal of finding the ultimate achievable resolution. It demonstrated fairly well-defined patterning of a 20-nm period line array and a 15-nm period dot array, which are the densest patterns ever achieved using organic EBL resists. Such dense patterns can be achieved both at 20 and 5 keV beam energies using different developers. In addition to its ultra-high resolution capability, polystyrene is a simple and low-cost resist with easy process control and practically unlimited shelf life. It is also considerably more resistant to dry etching than PMMA. With a low sensitivity, it would find applications where negative resist is desired and throughput is not a major concern. PMID:21749679

  8. High Resolution Thz and FIR Spectroscopy of SOCl_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Cuisset, A.; Sadovskii, D. A.; Mouret, G.; Hindle, F.; Pirali, O.

    2013-06-01

    Thionyl chloride (SOCl_2) is an extremely powerful oxidant widely used in industrial processes and playing a role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. In addition, it has a molecular configuration similar to that of phosgene (COCl_2), and is therefore of particular interest for security and defense applications. Low resolution vibrational spectra of gas phase SOCl_2 as well as high resolution pure rotational transitions up to 25 GHz have previously been investigated. To date no high resolution data are reported at frequencies higher than 25 GHz. We have investigated the THz absorption spectrum of SOCl_2 in the spectral region 70-650 GHz using a frequency multiplier chain coupled to a 1 m long single path cell containing a pressure of about 15 μbar. At the time of the writing, about 8000 pure rotational transitions of SO^{35}Cl_2 with highest J and K_a values of 110 and 50 respectively have been assigned on the spectrum. We have also recorded the high resolution FIR spectra of SOCl_2 in the spectral range 50-700 wn using synchrotron radiation at the AILES beamline of SOLEIL facility. A White-type cell aligned with an absorption path length of 150 m has been used to record, at a resolution of 0.001 wn, two spectra at pressures of 5 and 56 μbar of SOCl_2. On these spectra all FIR modes of SOCl_2 are observed (ν_2 to ν_6) and present a resolved rotational structure. Their analysis is in progress. T. J. Johnson et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 6183 (2003) D. E. Martz and R. T. Lagemann, J. Chem. Phys. 22,1193 (1954) H. S. P. Müller and M. C. L. Gerry, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 3473 (1994)

  9. High resolution spectroscopy of six new extreme helium stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heber, U.; Jones, G.; Drilling, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    High resolution spectra of six newly discovered extreme helium stars are presented. LSS 5121 is shown to be a spectroscopical twin of the hot extreme helium star HD 160641. A preliminary LTE analysis of LSS 3184 yielded an effective temperature of 22,000 K and a surface gravity of log g = 3.2. Four stars form a new subgroup, classified by sharp-lined He I spectra and pronounced O II spectra, and it is conjectured that these lie close to the Eddington limit. The whole group of extreme helium stars apparently is inhomogeneous with respect to luminosity to mass ratio and chemical composition.

  10. Microcoil high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Hans; Brinkmann, Andreas; van Eck, Ernst R H; van Bentum, P Jan M; Kentgens, Arno P M

    2006-07-12

    We report the construction of a dual-channel microcoil nuclear magnetic resonance probehead allowing magic-angle spinning for mass-limited samples. With coils down to 235 mum inner diameter, this allows high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra to be obtained for amounts of materials of a few nanoliters. This is demonstrated by the carbon-13 spectrum of a tripeptide and a single silk rod, prepared from the silk gland of the Bombyx mori silkworm. Furthermore, the microcoil allows for radio frequency field strengths well beyond current probe technology, aiding in getting the highest possible resolution by efficiently decoupling the observed nuclei from the abundantly present proton nuclei.

  11. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Ge_2C_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorwirth, S.; Lutter, V.; Schlemmer, S.; Giesen, T. F.; Gauss, J.

    2013-06-01

    Carbon-rich systems are of great importance in diverse areas of research like material science as well as astro- and structural chemistry. Despite this relevance, our knowledge of smaller cluster units is still fragmentary, particularly with respect to investigations at high-spectral resolution in the gas phase. Unequivocal assignment of spectral features to their molecular carriers is critically dependent on predictions from high-level quantum-chemical calculations. In turn, high-resolution studies provide useful information to assess the predictive power of quantum-chemical methods. This is particularly interesting for cluster systems harboring heavy elements for which so far relatively little is known from experiment. With this contribution, we would like to present a recent gas-phase study of a polyatomic germanium-carbon cluster, linear Ge_2C_3 (Ge=C=C=C=Ge), which was previously studied in an Ar matrix. The cluster was produced through laser ablation of germanium-graphite sample rods and observed in a free jet at wavelengths around 5μm. Additionally, quantum-chemical calculations of Ge_2C_3 were performed at the CCSD(T) level of theory. The production and observation of Ge_2C_3 suggests that many more binary clusters should be amenable to high-resolution spectroscopic techniques not only in the infrared but also in the microwave region. D. L. Robbins, C. M. L. Rittby, and W. R. M. Graham, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 3570 (2001).

  12. High Resolution Studies of Electron Attachment to Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, M.; Ruf, M.-W.; Hotop, H.; Fabrikant, I. I.

    2009-05-02

    In this paper, we survey recent progress in studies of anion formation via (dissociative) electron attachment (DEA) to simple molecules, as measured with the laser photoelectron attachment (LPA) method at high resolution. The limiting (E{yields}0) threshold behavior of the cross sections is elucidated for s-wave and p-wave attachment. Cusps at onsets for vibrational excitation (VE), due to interaction of the DEA channnel with the VE channel, are clearly detected, and vibrational Feshbach resonances just below vibrational onsets are observed for molecules with sufficiently strong long-range attraction between the electron and the molecule. From the LPA anion yields, absolute DEA cross sections (energy range typically E = 0.001-2 eV) are determined with reference to rate coefficients for thermal electron attachment at the appropriate gas temperature (normally T{sub G} = 300 K). The experimental data are compared with theoretical cross sections, calculated within the framework of an R-matrix or an Effective Range theory approach.

  13. CARMENES science preparation. High-resolution spectroscopy of M dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, D.; Caballero, J. A.; Jeffers, S.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Mundt, R.; CARMENES Consortium

    2015-05-01

    To ensure an efficient use of CARMENES observing time, and the highest chances of success, it is necessary first to select the most promising targets. To achieve this, we are observing 500 M dwarfs at high-resolution (R = 30,000-48,000), from which we determine the projected rotational velocity vsin{i} with an accuracy better than 0.5-0.2 km/s and radial-velocity stability better than 0.2-0.1 km/s. Our aim is to have at least two spectra at different epochs of the final 300 CARMENES targets. Our observations with FEROS at ESO/MPG 2.2 m La Silla, CAFE at 2.2 m Calar Alto and HRS at Hobby Eberly Telescope allow us to identify single- and double-line spectroscopic binaries and, especially, fast rotators, which should be discarded from the target list for exoplanet searches. Here we present preliminary results.

  14. Characterising Exoplanet Atmospheres with High-resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkby, J.; de Kok, R.; Brogi, M.; Schwarz, H.; Albrecht, S.; de Mooij, E.; Snellen, I.

    2013-12-01

    The search for signs of life elsewhere in the Universe requires the remote detection of molecules in the atmospheres of exoplanets. Recent progress with high-resolution infrared spectra obtained with CRIRES has led to the first ground-based detections of carbon monoxide and water in the atmospheres of hot giant exoplanets. This avenue of exoplanet characterisation has the potential to identify biomarkers in the atmospheres of Earth analogues with the European Extremely Large Telescope. The current detections not only provide evidence for how the composition of a hot giant planet atmosphere can affect its thermal structure and cloud formation processes, but also have the potential to constrain the universal mechanism for planet formation by pinpointing the birth location of the planet in its protoplanetary disc.

  15. High resolution spectroscopy from low altitude satellites. [gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakano, G. H.; Imhof, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    The P 78 1 satellite to be placed in a synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of 550-660 km will carry two identical high resolution spectrometers each consisting of a single (approximately 85 cc) intrinsic germanium IGE detector. The payload also includes a pair of phoswitch scintillators, an array of CdTe detectors and several particle detectors, all of which are mounted on the wheel of the satellite. The intrinsic high purity IGE detectors receive cooling from two Stirling cycle refrigerators and facilitate the assembly of large and complex detector arrays planned for the next generation of high sensitivity instruments such as those planned for the gamma ray observatory. The major subsystems of the spectrometer are discussed as well as its capabilities.

  16. Quadrature phase interferometer for high resolution force spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Paolino, Pierdomenico; Aguilar Sandoval, Felipe A.; Bellon, Ludovic

    2013-09-15

    In this article, we present a deflection measurement setup for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). It is based on a quadrature phase differential interferometer: we measure the optical path difference between a laser beam reflecting above the cantilever tip and a reference beam reflecting on the static base of the sensor. A design with very low environmental susceptibility and another allowing calibrated measurements on a wide spectral range are described. Both enable a very high resolution (down to 2.5×10{sup −15} m/√(Hz)), illustrated by thermal noise measurements on AFM cantilevers. They present an excellent long-term stability and a constant sensitivity independent of the optical phase of the interferometer. A quick review shows that our precision is equaling or out-performing the best results reported in the literature, but for a much larger deflection range, up to a few μm.

  17. High-resolution spectroscopy of a giant solar filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuckein, Christoph; Denker, Carsten; Verma, Meetu

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of a giant solar quiescent filament were taken with the Echelle spectrograph at the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT; Tenerife, Spain). A mosaic of various spectroheliograms (Hα, Hα+/-0.5 Å and Na D2) were chosen to examine the filament at different heights in the solar atmosphere. In addition, full-disk images (He i 10830 Å and Ca ii K) of the Chromspheric Telescope and full-disk magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager were used to complement the spectra. Preliminary results are shown of this filament, which had extremely large linear dimensions (~740'') and was observed in November 2011 while it traversed the northern solar hemisphere.

  18. HIGH-RESOLUTION ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF THE AMYLOID FIBRIL

    PubMed Central

    Shirahama, Tsuranobu; Cohen, Alan S.

    1967-01-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the fibrous component of amyloid has been analyzed by means of high resolution electron microscopy of negatively stained isolated amyloid fibrils and of positively stained amyloid fibrils in thin tissue sections. It was found that a number of subunits could be resolved according to their dimensions. The following structural organization is proposed. The amyloid fibril, the fibrous component of amyloid as seen in electron microscopy of thin tissue sections, consists of a number of filaments aggregated side-by-side. These amyloid filaments are approximately 75–80 A in diameter and consist of five (or less likely six) subunits (amyloid protofibrils) which are arranged parallel to each other, longitudinal or slightly oblique to the long axis of the filament. The filament has often seemed to disperse into several longitudinal rows. The amyloid protofibril is about 25–35 A wide and appears to consist of two or three subunit strands helically arranged with a 35–50-A repeat (or, less likely, is composed of globular subunits aggregated end-to-end). These amyloid subprotofibrillar strands measure approximately 10–15 A in diameter. PMID:6036530

  19. High-Resolution Absorption Spectroscopy of NO2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-31

    identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Atmospheric propagation, Laser spectroscopy, Nitrogen dioxide , Spectroscopy 19. RACT (Continue on reverse if...pulsed dye laser having a 0.05-A"-bandwidth (FWHM). This represents an improvement of at least a factor of three over the resolution employed in...concise interpretation of the observed features has yet to be made. Actual state-to-state assignments in the visible and near UV have been possible only

  20. Understanding reconstructed Dante spectra using high resolution spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    May, M J; Weaver, J; Widmann, K; Kemp, G E; Thorn, D; Colvin, J D; Schneider, M B; Moore, A; Blue, B E

    2016-11-01

    The Dante is an 18 channel filtered diode array used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux between 50 eV and 20 keV from various targets. The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and a reconstruction algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The reconstructed spectra are very low resolution with features consistent with the instrument response and are not necessarily consistent with the spectral emission features from the plasma. Errors may exist between the reconstructed spectra and the actual emission features due to assumptions in the algorithm. Recently, a high resolution convex crystal spectrometer, VIRGIL, has been installed at NIF with the same line of sight as the Dante. Spectra from L-shell Ag and Xe have been recorded by both VIRGIL and Dante. Comparisons of these two spectroscopic measurements yield insights into the accuracy of the Dante reconstructions.

  1. High Resolution FIR and IR Spectroscopy of Methanol Isotopologues

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, R. M.; Xu, Li-Hong; Appadoo, D. R. T.; Billinghurst, B.

    2010-02-03

    New astronomical facilities such as HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory, the SOFIA airborne IR telescope and the ALMA sub-mm telescope array will yield spectra from interstellar and protostellar sources with vastly increased sensitivity and frequency coverage. This creates the need for major enhancements to laboratory databases for the more prominent interstellar 'weed' species in order to model and account for their lines in observed spectra in the search for new and more exotic interstellar molecular 'flowers'. With its large-amplitude internal torsional motion, methanol has particularly rich spectra throughout the FIR and IR regions and, being very widely distributed throughout the galaxy, is perhaps the most notorious interstellar weed. Thus, we have recorded new spectra for a variety of methanol isotopic species on the high-resolution FTIR spectrometer on the CLS FIR beamline. The aim is to extend quantum number coverage of the data, improve our understanding of the energy level structure, and provide the astronomical community with better databases and models of the spectral patterns with greater predictive power for a range of astrophysical conditions.

  2. High Resolution γ-Ray Spectroscopy: the First 85 Years

    PubMed Central

    Deslattes, Richard D.

    2000-01-01

    This opening review attempts to follow the main trends in crystal diffraction spectrometry of nuclear γ rays from its 1914 beginning in Rutherford’s laboratory to the ultra-high resolution instrumentation realized in the current generation of spectrometers at the Institute Laue Langeven (ILL). My perspective is that of an instrumentalist hoping to convey a sense of our intellectual debt to a number of predecessors, each of whom realized a certain elegance in making the tools that have enabled much good science, including that to which the remainder of this workshop is dedicated. This overview follows some of the main ideas along a trajectory toward higher resolution at higher energies, thereby enabling not only the disentangling of dense spectra, but also allowing detailed study of aspects of spectral profiles sensitive to excited state lifetimes and inter-atomic potentials. The parallel evolution toward increasing efficiency while preserving needed resolution is also an interesting story of artful compromise that should not be neglected. Finally, it is the robustness of the measurement chain connecting γ-ray wavelengths with optical wavelengths associated with the Rydberg constant that only recently has allowed γ-ray data to contribute to determination of particle masses and fundamental constants, as will be described in more detail in other papers from this workshop. PMID:27551582

  3. Understanding reconstructed Dante spectra using high resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, M. J.; Weaver, J.; Widmann, K.; Kemp, G. E.; Thorn, D.; Colvin, J. D.; Schneider, M. B.; Moore, A.; Blue, B. E.

    2016-11-01

    The Dante is an 18 channel filtered diode array used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux between 50 eV and 20 keV from various targets. The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and a reconstruction algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The reconstructed spectra are very low resolution with features consistent with the instrument response and are not necessarily consistent with the spectral emission features from the plasma. Errors may exist between the reconstructed spectra and the actual emission features due to assumptions in the algorithm. Recently, a high resolution convex crystal spectrometer, VIRGIL, has been installed at NIF with the same line of sight as the Dante. Spectra from L-shell Ag and Xe have been recorded by both VIRGIL and Dante. Comparisons of these two spectroscopic measurements yield insights into the accuracy of the Dante reconstructions.

  4. Understanding reconstructed Dante spectra using high resolution spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    May, M. J. Widmann, K.; Kemp, G. E.; Thorn, D.; Colvin, J. D.; Schneider, M. B.; Moore, A.; Blue, B. E.; Weaver, J.

    2016-11-15

    The Dante is an 18 channel filtered diode array used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux between 50 eV and 20 keV from various targets. The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and a reconstruction algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The reconstructed spectra are very low resolution with features consistent with the instrument response and are not necessarily consistent with the spectral emission features from the plasma. Errors may exist between the reconstructed spectra and the actual emission features due to assumptions in the algorithm. Recently, a high resolution convex crystal spectrometer, VIRGIL, has been installed at NIF with the same line of sight as the Dante. Spectra from L-shell Ag and Xe have been recorded by both VIRGIL and Dante. Comparisons of these two spectroscopic measurements yield insights into the accuracy of the Dante reconstructions.

  5. High-Resolution EUV Spectroscopy of White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Michael P.; Wood, K. S.; Barstow, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We compare results of high-resolution EUV spectroscopic measurements of the isolated white dwarf G191-B2B and the binary system Feige 24 obtained with the J-PEX (Joint Plasmadynamic Experiment), which was sponsored jointly by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory and NASA. J-PEX delivers the world's highest resolution in EUV and does so at high effective area (e.g., more effective area in a sounding rocket than is available with Chandra at adjacent energies, but in a waveband Chandra cannot reach). The capability J-PEX represents is applicable to the astrophysics of hot plasmas in stellar coronae, white dwarfs and the ISM. G191-B2B and Feige 24 are quite distinct hot white dwarf systems having in common that they are bright in the portion of the EUV where He emission features and edges occur, hence they can be exploited to probe both the stellar atmosphere and the ISM, separating those components by model-fitting that sums over all relevant (He) spectral features in the band. There is evidence from these fits that atmospheric He is being detected but the result is more conservatively cast as a pair of upper limits. We discuss how longer duration satellite observations with the same instrumentation could increase exposure to detect atmospheric He in these and other nearby hot white dwarfs.

  6. High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Pyrazine and Naphthalene in a Molecular Bean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-26

    Infrared Spectroscopy of Pyrazine and Naphthalene in a Molecular Beamby Kevin B. Hewett, Meihua Shen, Christopher L. Brummel, and Laura A. Philips...public release and sale; its distribution is unlimited. 93-26699 HIGH RESOLUTION INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF PYRAZINE AND NAPHTHALENE IN A MOLECULAR BEAM...Abstract The high resolution infrared spectrum of pyrazine and naphthalene were measured in a molecular beam in the vicinity of the C-H stretching

  7. High-resolution structure of the photosynthetic Mn4Ca catalyst from X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yano, Junko; Kern, Jan; Pushkar, Yulia; Sauer, Kenneth; Glatzel, Pieter; Bergmann, Uwe; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yachandra, Vittal K

    2008-03-27

    The application of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy methods to study the photosynthetic water oxidizing complex, which contains a unique hetero-nuclear catalytic Mn4Ca cluster, is described. Issues of X-ray damage, especially at the metal sites in the Mn4Ca cluster, are discussed. The structure of the Mn4Ca catalyst at high resolution, which has so far eluded attempts of determination by X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and other spectroscopic techniques, has been addressed using polarized EXAFS techniques applied to oriented photosystem II (PSII) membrane preparations and PSII single crystals. A review of how the resolution of traditional EXAFS techniques can be improved, using methods such as range-extended EXAFS, is presented, and the changes that occur in the structure of the cluster as it advances through the catalytic cycle are described. X-ray absorption and emission techniques (XANES and Kbeta emission) have been used earlier to determine the oxidation states of the Mn4Ca cluster, and in this report we review the use of X-ray resonant Raman spectroscopy to understand the electronic structure of the Mn4Ca cluster as it cycles through the intermediate S-states.

  8. High-Resolution Structure of the Photosynthetic Mn4Ca Catalyst from X-ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yachandra, Vittal; Yano, Junko; Kern, Jan; Pushkar, Yulia; Sauer, Kenneth; Glatzel, Pieter; Bergmann, Uwe; Messinger, Johannes; Zouni, Athina; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2007-08-01

    The application of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy methods to study the photosynthetic water oxidizing complex, which contains a unique hetero-nuclear catalytic Mn4Ca cluster, are described. Issues of X-ray damage especially at the metal sites in the Mn4Ca cluster are discussed. The structure of the Mn4Ca catalyst at high-resolution which has so far eluded attempts of determination by X-ray diffraction, EXAFS and other spectroscopic techniques has been addressed using polarized EXAFS techniques applied to oriented PS II membrane preparations and PS II single crystals. A review of how the resolution of traditional EXAFS techniques can be improved, using methods such as range-extended EXAFS is presented, and the changes that occur in the structure of the cluster as it advances through the catalytic cycle are described. X-ray absorption and emission techniques (XANES and K? emission) have been used earlier to determine the oxidation states of the Mn4Ca cluster, and in this report we review the use of X-ray resonant Raman spectroscopy to understand the electronic structure of the Mn4Ca cluster as it cycles through the intermediate S-states.

  9. Introduction to high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Czarnocki-Cieciura, Mariusz; Nowotny, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    For many years two techniques have dominated structural biology - X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. Traditional cryo-electron microscopy of biological macromolecules produced macromolecular reconstructions at resolution limited to 6-10 Å. Recent development of transmission electron microscopes, in particular the development of direct electron detectors, and continuous improvements in the available software, have led to the "resolution revolution" in cryo-EM. It is now possible to routinely obtain near-atomic-resolution 3D maps of intact biological macromolecules as small as ~100 kDa. Thus, cryo-EM is now becoming the method of choice for structural analysis of many complex assemblies that are unsuitable for structure determination by other methods.

  10. High-resolution Josephson spectroscopy with a scanning tunneling microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randeria, Mallika T.; Feldman, Benjamin E.; Drozdov, Ilya K.; Yazdani, Ali

    2015-03-01

    Conventional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements use a normal metal tip to probe local quasi-particle density of states with atomic resolution. Using a superconducting tip to conduct spectroscopy significantly boosts the energy resolution of the measurements, thus expanding the STM capabilities. Moreover, superconducting tips make it possible to probe superconductivity via the Josephson effect, which provides a direct measure of the local superconducting order parameter. Therefore, scanning Josephson spectroscopy measurements have the potential to characterize of a wide variety of superconducting materials on the atomic scale. I will present superconducting Pb tip measurements performed at temperatures below 250mK in a dilution refrigerator STM. By controlling the junction resistance, we are able to explore a wide range of tunneling regimes. Josephson measurements on Pb samples exhibit features including multiple Andreev reflections, and I will discuss the extension of these techniques to study atomic scale variations in Josephson current.

  11. High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy on the Negative Osmium Ion

    SciTech Connect

    Warring, U.; Amoretti, M.; Canali, C.; Fischer, A.; Heyne, R.; Meier, J. O.; Morhard, Ch.; Kellerbauer, A.

    2009-01-30

    We have applied a combination of laser excitation and electric-field detachment to negative atomic ions for the first time, resulting in an enhancement of the excited-state detection efficiency for spectroscopy by at least 2 orders of magnitude. Applying the new method, a measurement of the bound-bound electric-dipole transition frequency in {sup 192}Os{sup -} was performed using collinear spectroscopy with a narrow-bandwidth cw laser. The transition frequency was found to be 257.831 190(35) THz [wavelength 1162.747 06(16) nm, wave number 8600.3227(12) cm{sup -1}], in agreement with the only prior measurement, but with more than 100-fold higher precision.

  12. Giant quiescent solar filament observed with high-resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuckein, C.; Verma, M.; Denker, C.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: An extremely large filament was studied in various layers of the solar atmosphere. The inferred physical parameters and the morphological aspects are compared with smaller quiescent filaments. Methods: A giant quiet-Sun filament was observed with the high-resolution Echelle spectrograph at the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain, on 2011 November 15. A mosaic of spectra (ten maps of 100″ × 182″) was recorded simultaneously in the chromospheric absorption lines Hα and Na i D2. Physical parameters of the filament plasma were derived using cloud model (CM) inversions and line core fits. The spectra were complemented with full-disk filtergrams (He i λ10830 Å, Hα, and Ca ii K) of the Chromospheric Telescope (ChroTel) and full-disk magnetograms of the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Results: The filament had extremely large linear dimensions (~817 arcsec), which corresponds to about 658 Mm along a great circle on the solar surface. A total amount of 175119 Hα contrast profiles were inverted using the CM approach. The inferred mean line-of-sight (LOS) velocity, Doppler width, and source function were similar to previous works of smaller quiescent filaments. However, the derived optical thickness was higher. LOS velocity trends inferred from the Hα line core fits were in accord but weaker than those obtained with CM inversions. Signatures of counter-streaming flows were detected in the filament. The largest brightening conglomerates in the line core of Na i D2 coincided well with small-scale magnetic fields as seen by HMI. Mixed magnetic polarities were detected close to the ends of barbs. The computation of photospheric horizontal flows based on HMI magnetograms revealed flow kernels with a size of 5-8 Mm and velocities of 0.30-0.45 km s-1 at the ends of the filament. Conclusions: The physical properties of extremely large filaments are similar to their smaller counterparts, except for the optical thickness, which in

  13. High-resolution spectroscopy with a femtosecond laser frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Gerginov, V; Tanner, C E; Diddams, S A; Bartels, A; Hollberg, L

    2005-07-01

    The output of a mode-locked femtosecond laser is used for precision single-photon spectroscopy of 133Cs in an atomic beam. By changing the laser's repetition rate, the cesium D1 (6s 2S(1/2)-->6p 2P(1/2)) and D2 (6s 2S(1/2)-->6p 2P(3/2)) transitions are detected and the optical frequencies are measured with accuracy similar to that obtained with a cw laser. Control of the femtosecond laser repetition rate by use of the atomic fluorescence is also implemented, thus realizing a simple cesium optical clock.

  14. Molecular Chirality: Enantiomer Differentiation by High-Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Eizi

    2014-06-01

    I have demonstrated that triple resonance performed on a three-rotational-level system of a chiral molecule of C1 symmetry exhibits signals opposite in phase for different enantiomers, thereby making enantiomer differentiation possible by microwave spectroscopy This prediction was realized by Patterson et al. on 1,2-propanediol and 1,3-butanediol. We thus now add a powerful method: microwave spectroscopy to the study of chiral molecules, for which hitherto only the measurement of optical rotation has been employed. Although microwave spectroscopy is applied to molecules in the gaseous phase, it is unprecedentedly superior to the traditional method: polarimeter in resolution, accuracy, sensitivity, and so on, and I anticipate a new fascinating research area to be opened in the field of molecular chirality. More versatile and efficient systems should be invented and developed for microwave spectroscopy, in order to cope well with new applications expected for this method For C2 and Cn (n ≥ 3)chiral molecules, the three-rotational-level systems treated above for C1 molecules are no more available within one vibronic state. It should, however, be pointed out that, if we take into account an excited vibronic state in addition to the ground state, for example, we may encounter many three-level systems. Namely, either one rotational transition in the ground state is combined with two vibronic transitions, or such a rotational transition in an excited state may be connected through two vibronic transitions to a rotational level in the ground state manifold. The racemization obviously plays a crucial role in the study of molecular chirality. However, like many other terms employed in chemistry, this important process has been "defined" only in a vague way, in other words, it includes many kinds of processes, which are not well classified on a molecular basis. I shall mention an attempt to obviate these shortcomings in the definition of racemization and also to clarify the

  15. Structural and Physicochemical Characterization of Spirulina (Arthrospira maxima) Nanoparticles by High-Resolution Electron Microscopic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Neri-Torres, Elier Ekberg; Chanona-Pérez, Jorge J; Calderón, Hector A; Torres-Figueredo, Neil; Chamorro-Cevallos, German; Calderón-Domínguez, Georgina; Velasco-Bedrán, Hugo

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain Spirulina (Arthrospira maxima) nanoparticles (SNPs) by using high-impact mechanical milling and to characterize them by electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques. The milling products were analyzed after various processing times (1-4 h), and particle size distribution and number mean size (NMS) were determined by analysis of high-resolution scanning electron microscopic images. The smallest particles are synthesized after 3 h of milling, had an NMS of 55.6±3.6 nm, with 95% of the particles being smaller than 100 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed lattice spacing of ~0.27±0.015 nm for SNPs. The corresponding chemical composition was obtained by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and showed the presence of Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, and Zn. The powder flow properties showed that the powder density was higher when the average nanoparticle size is smaller. They showed free flowability and an increase in their specific surface area (6.89±0.23 m2/g) up to 12-14 times larger than the original material (0.45±0.02 m2/g). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested that chemical damage related to the milling is not significant.

  16. High-resolution waveguide THz spectroscopy of biological molecules.

    PubMed

    Laman, N; Harsha, S Sree; Grischkowsky, D; Melinger, Joseph S

    2008-02-01

    Low-frequency vibrational modes of biological molecules consist of intramolecular modes, which are dependent on the molecule as a whole, as well as intermolecular modes, which arise from hydrogen-bonding interactions and van der Waals forces. Vibrational modes thus contain important information about conformation dynamics of biological molecules, and can also be used for identification purposes. However, conventional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) often result in broad, overlapping features that are difficult to distinguish. The technique of waveguide THz-TDS has been recently developed, resulting in sharper features. For this technique, an ordered polycrystalline film of the molecule is formed on a metal sample plate. This plate is incorporated into a metal parallel-plate waveguide and probed via waveguide THz-TDS. The planar order of the film reduces the inhomogeneous broadening, and cooling of the samples to 77K reduces the homogenous broadening. This combination results in the line-narrowing of THz vibrational modes, in some cases to an unprecedented degree. Here, this technique has been demonstrated with seven small biological molecules, thymine, deoxycytidine, adenosine, D-glucose, tryptophan, glycine, and L-alanine. The successful demonstration of this technique shows the possibilities and promise for future studies of internal vibrational modes of large biological molecules.

  17. High resolution electron microscopy of interfaces in fcc materials

    SciTech Connect

    Merkle, K.L.

    1990-08-01

    Modern high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) instruments, which are capable of a point-to-point resolution of better than 0.2 nm, have allowed atomic-scale observations of a variety of internal interfaces. The application of the HREM technique to fcc model systems for the purpose of addressing a number of interface issues will be examined in this paper. Atomic structure observations for heterophase interfaces of metal/metal and metal/metal-oxide systems as well as HREM studies of grain boundaries in NiO and Au will be discussed with emphasis on generic structural features and the role of the interface plane. Comparisons between observed interface structures and atomistic computer modeling results have shown agreements for some interfaces, as well as certain differences in others. A number of structural features are common to both metal and oxide grain boundaries, as well as certain heterophase boundaries. Of particular importance in close-packed solids appears to be the tendency to preserve, as much as possible, local atomic coordination, giving rise to atomically well-matched regions that alternate along the interface with regions of misfit. It is commonly observed that heterophase interfaces are being preferentially formed on dense-packed planes. Low-index planes are also frequently observed in asymmetric grain boundaries. In addition to the observation of misfit dislocations in heterophase boundaries, misfit-dislocation-like defects have also been found in asymmetric, incommensurate grain boundaries. The tendency for maintaining coherence between dense-packed planes across the interface has resulted in the formation of novel three-dimensional GB structures. HREM observations have brought new insights into the correlations between macroscopic geometry, interfacial energy, and microscopic atomic relaxations.

  18. High resolution charge spectroscopy of heavy ions with FNTD technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartz, J. A.; Kodaira, S.; Kurano, M.; Yasuda, N.; Akselrod, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    This paper is focused on the improvement of the heavy charge particle charge resolution of Fluorescent Nuclear Track Detector (FNTD) technology. Fluorescent intensity of individual heavy charge particle tracks is used to construct the spectrum. Sources of spectroscopic line broadening were investigated and several fluorescent intensity correction procedures were introduced to improve the charge resolution down to δZ = 0.25 c.u. and enable FNTD technology to distinguish between all projectile fragments of 290 MeV carbon ions. The benefits of using FNTD technology for fragmentation study include large dynamic range and wide angular acceptance. While we describe these developments in the context of fragmentation studies, the same techniques are readily extended to FNTD LET spectroscopy in general.

  19. High resolution ion Doppler spectroscopy at Prairie View Rotamak

    SciTech Connect

    Houshmandyar, Saeid; Yang Xiaokang; Magee, Richard

    2012-10-15

    A fast ion Doppler spectroscopy (IDS) diagnostic system is installed on the Prairie View Rotamak to measure ion temperature and plasma flow. The diagnostic employs a single channel photomultiplier tube and a Jarrell-Ash 50 monochromator with a diffraction grating line density of 1180 lines/mm, which allows for first order spectra of 200-600 nm. The motorized gear of the monochromator allows spectral resolution of 0.01 nm. Equal IDS measurements are observed for various impurity emission lines of which carbon lines exhibit stronger intensities. Furthermore, the diagnostics is examined in an experiment where plasma experiences sudden disruption and quick recovery. In this case, the IDS measurements show {approx}130% increase in ion temperature. Flow measurements are shown to be consistent with plasma rotation.

  20. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at GANIL

    SciTech Connect

    France, G. de

    2014-11-11

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy is intensively used at GANIL to measure low lying states in exotic nuclei on the neutron-rich as well as on the neutron-deficient side of the nuclear chart. On the neutron deficient border, gamma-rays have been observed for the first time in {sup 92}Pd. The level scheme which could be established points to the role of isoscalar pairing. On the neutron rich side, the lifetime of excited states in nuclei around {sup 68}Ni have been been measured using the plunger technique. This allows us to study the evolution of collectivity in a broad range of nuclei. In 2014 GANIL will host the AGATA array for a campaign of at least 2 years. This array is based on the gamma-ray tracking technique, which allows an impressive gain in resolving power.

  1. High resolution spectroscopy reveals fibrillation inhibition pathways of insulin

    PubMed Central

    Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Deckert, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Fibril formation implies the conversion of a protein’s native secondary structure and is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. A better understanding of fibrillation inhibition and fibril dissection requires nanoscale molecular characterization of amyloid structures involved. Tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) has already been used to chemically analyze amyloid fibrils on a sub-protein unit basis. Here, TERS in combination with atomic force microscopy (AFM), and conventional Raman spectroscopy characterizes insulin assemblies generated during inhibition and dissection experiments in the presence of benzonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide, quercetin, and β-carotene. The AFM topography indicates formation of filamentous or bead-like insulin self-assemblies. Information on the secondary structure of bulk samples and of single aggregates is obtained from standard Raman and TERS measurements. In particular the high spatial resolution of TERS reveals the surface conformations associated with the specific agents. The insulin aggregates formed under different inhibition and dissection conditions can show a similar morphology but differ in their β-sheet structure content. This suggests different aggregation pathways where the prevention of the β-sheet stacking of the peptide chains plays a major role. The presented approach is not limited to amyloid-related reasearch but can be readily applied to systems requiring extremely surface-sensitive characterization without the need of labels. PMID:28008970

  2. High resolution FTIR spectroscopy of the ClO radical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Valerie; Sander, Stanley P.; Friedl, Randy

    1988-01-01

    The chlorine monoxide radical, ClO, plays a significant role in the catalytic destruction of ozone in the Earth's stratosphere. Because of its atmospheric importance, ClO has been the subject of numerous observational attempts. In order to deduce ClO concentrations from stratospheric infrared measurements, the infrared spectroscopy of ClO must be well characterized. Approximately 830 individual lines were measured form ClO imfrared spectra with the ClO concentration between 1 x 10 to the 13th power and 6 x 10 to the 13th power molecules per cu cu. The lines were then averaged and fit to a function of m (where m = O, -J or J+1 for the Q,P and R branches respectively) to obtain the band strength, S sub v and the first Herman-Wallis coefficient, alpha. The total S sub v for the two main isotopmers was 13.11 plus or minus 1 cm(-2) atm(-1) while alpha was 0.00412 plus or minus .00062.

  3. High resolution spectroscopy reveals fibrillation inhibition pathways of insulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Deckert, Volker

    2016-12-01

    Fibril formation implies the conversion of a protein’s native secondary structure and is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. A better understanding of fibrillation inhibition and fibril dissection requires nanoscale molecular characterization of amyloid structures involved. Tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) has already been used to chemically analyze amyloid fibrils on a sub-protein unit basis. Here, TERS in combination with atomic force microscopy (AFM), and conventional Raman spectroscopy characterizes insulin assemblies generated during inhibition and dissection experiments in the presence of benzonitrile, dimethylsulfoxide, quercetin, and β-carotene. The AFM topography indicates formation of filamentous or bead-like insulin self-assemblies. Information on the secondary structure of bulk samples and of single aggregates is obtained from standard Raman and TERS measurements. In particular the high spatial resolution of TERS reveals the surface conformations associated with the specific agents. The insulin aggregates formed under different inhibition and dissection conditions can show a similar morphology but differ in their β-sheet structure content. This suggests different aggregation pathways where the prevention of the β-sheet stacking of the peptide chains plays a major role. The presented approach is not limited to amyloid-related reasearch but can be readily applied to systems requiring extremely surface-sensitive characterization without the need of labels.

  4. High resolution laser induced fluorescence Doppler velocimetry utilizing saturated absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Ogiwara, Kohei; Etoh, Shuzo; Yoshimura, Shinji; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.

    2009-05-15

    A high resolution laser induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been developed to measure the flow velocity field of neutral particles in an electron-cyclotron-resonance argon plasma. The flow velocity has been determined by the Doppler shift of the LIF spectrum, which is proportional to the velocity distribution function. Very high accuracy in velocity determination has been achieved by installing a saturated absorption spectroscopy unit into the LIF system, where the absolute value and scale of laser wavelength are determined by using the Lamb dip and the fringes of a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The minimum detectable flow velocity of a newly developed LIF system is {+-}2 m/s, and this performance remains unchanged in a long-time experiment. From the radial measurements of LIF spectra of argon metastable atoms, it is found that there exists an inward flow of neutral particles associated with neutral depletion.

  5. Exploring the High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Molecules that can Affect the Quality of your Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Terry A.

    2014-06-01

    Few things affect your quality of life more than the air you breathe and the temperature of your immediate environment. Since more than 80% of the energy used in the industrialized world today is still derived from fossil fuels, these two quantities are not unrelated. Most organic molecules injected into the troposphere are degraded via oxidative processes involving free radical intermediates, and many of these intermediates are the same as the ones involved in the combustion of fossil fuels. Key oxidizing intermediates are hydroxyl, OH (day), and nitrate, NO_3 (night), and early intermediates of oxidized organic compounds include the alkoxy (RO) and peroxy (RO_2) families of radicals. Recently we have explored the spectroscopy of RO, RO_2, and NO_3 radicals both for diagnostic purposes and to characterize their molecular properties and benchmark quantum chemistry calculations. We have utilized moderate resolution cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) to study ambient temperature radicals and high resolution CRDS and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) to study jet-cooled radicals. Peroxy radicals and NO_3 have weak tilde{A}-tilde{X} electronic transitions in the near infrared which we have studied with CRDS. Comparable LIF measurements have been made for the alkoxy species in the UV. Both vibrational and rotational resolution of the electronic spectra is observed. Data obtained from the spectral observations provide information about both the geometric and electronic structure of these radicals as well as their dynamics and also provide the capability for unambiguous diagnostics of their concentrations and reactions.

  6. Transfer-printing of single DNA molecule arrays on graphene for high resolution electron imaging and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cerf, Aline; Alava, Thomas; Barton, Robert A.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2011-01-01

    Graphene represents the ultimate substrate for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, but the deposition of biological samples on this highly hydrophobic material has until now been a challenge. We present a reliable method for depositing ordered arrays of individual elongated DNA molecules on single-layer graphene substrates for high resolution electron beam imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis. This method is a necessary step towards the observation of single elongated DNA molecules with single base spatial resolution to directly read genetic and epigenetic information. PMID:21919532

  7. High resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy for 3D spin vectorial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuda, Taichi; Miyamoto, Koji; Kimura, Akio; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki

    2013-03-01

    Spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (SARPES) is the excellent tool which can directly observe the band structure of crystals with separating spin-up and -down states. Recent findings of new class of materials possessing strong spin orbit interaction such as Rashba spin splitting systems or topological insulators stimulate to develop new SARPES apparatuses and many sophisticated techniques have been reported recently. Here we report our newly developed a SARPES apparatus for spin vectorial analysis with high precision at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center. Highly efficient spin polarimeter utilizing very low energy electron diffraction (VLEED) makes high resolution (ΔE < 10 meV, Δθ ~ +/- 0.2 °) compatible with the SARPES measurement. By placing two VLEED spin detectors orthogonally we have realized the polarization measurement of all spin components (x, y and z) with the high resolution. Some examples of the three-dimensional spin observation will be presented. This work is supported by KAKENHI (23244066), Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  8. Ultra high resolution molecular beam cars spectroscopy with application to planetary atmospheric molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of high resolution pulsed and continuous wave (CW) coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements in pulsed and steady state supersonic expansions were demonstrated. Pulsed molecular beam sources were characterized, and saturation of a Raman transition and, for the first time, the Raman spectrum of a complex molecular cluster were observed. The observation of CW CARS spectra in a molecular expansion and the effects of transit time broadening is described. Supersonic expansion is established as a viable technique for high resolution Raman spectroscopy of cold molecules with resolutions of 100 MH2.

  9. The determination of potential energy curve and dipole moment of the (5)0{sup +} electronic state of {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs molecule by high resolution photoassociation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jinpeng; Zhao, Yanting Ji, Zhonghua; Li, Zhonghao; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang; Kim, Jin-Tae

    2015-12-14

    We present the formation of ultracold {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs molecules in the (5)0{sup +} electronic state by photoassociation and their detection via resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization. Up to v = 47 vibrational levels including the lowest v = 0 vibrational and lowest J = 0 levels are identified with rotationally resolved high resolution photoassociation spectra. Precise Dunham coefficients are determined for the (5)0{sup +} state with high accuracy, then the Rydberg-Klein-Rees potential energy curve is derived. The electric dipole moments with respect to the vibrational numbers of the (5)0{sup +} electronic state of {sup 85}Rb{sup 133}Cs molecule are also measured in the range between 1.9 and 4.8 D. These comprehensive studies on previously unobserved rovibrational levels of the (5)0{sup +} state are helpful to understand the molecular structure and discover suitable transition pathways for transferring ultracold atoms to deeply bound rovibrational levels of the electronic ground state.

  10. High-order multilayer coated blazed gratings for high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Goray, Leonid I.; Warwick, Tony; ...

    2015-02-17

    A grand challenge in soft x-ray spectroscopy is to drive the resolving power of monochromators and spectrometers from the 104 achieved routinely today to well above 105. This need is driven mainly by the requirements of a new technique that is set to have enormous impact in condensed matter physics, Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Unlike x-ray absorption spectroscopy, RIXS is not limited by an energy resolution dictated by the core-hole lifetime in the excitation process. Using much higher resolving power than used for normal x-ray absorption spectroscopy enables access to the energy scale of soft excitations in matter. Thesemore » excitations such as magnons and phonons drive the collective phenomena seen in correlated electronic materials such as high temperature superconductors. RIXS opens a new path to study these excitations at a level of detail not formerly possible. However, as the process involves resonant excitation at an energy of around 1 keV, and the energy scale of the excitations one would like to see are at the meV level, to fully utilize the technique requires the development of monochromators and spectrometers with one to two orders of magnitude higher energy resolution than has been conventionally possible. Here we investigate the detailed diffraction characteristics of multilayer blazed gratings. These elements offer potentially revolutionary performance as the dispersive element in ultra-high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. In doing so, we have established a roadmap for the complete optimization of the grating design. Traditionally 1st order gratings are used in the soft x-ray region, but we show that as in the optical domain, one can work in very high spectral orders and thus dramatically improve resolution without significant loss in efficiency.« less

  11. High-order multilayer coated blazed gratings for high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Goray, Leonid I.; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Padmore, Howard A.

    2015-02-17

    A grand challenge in soft x-ray spectroscopy is to drive the resolving power of monochromators and spectrometers from the 104 achieved routinely today to well above 105. This need is driven mainly by the requirements of a new technique that is set to have enormous impact in condensed matter physics, Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Unlike x-ray absorption spectroscopy, RIXS is not limited by an energy resolution dictated by the core-hole lifetime in the excitation process. Using much higher resolving power than used for normal x-ray absorption spectroscopy enables access to the energy scale of soft excitations in matter. These excitations such as magnons and phonons drive the collective phenomena seen in correlated electronic materials such as high temperature superconductors. RIXS opens a new path to study these excitations at a level of detail not formerly possible. However, as the process involves resonant excitation at an energy of around 1 keV, and the energy scale of the excitations one would like to see are at the meV level, to fully utilize the technique requires the development of monochromators and spectrometers with one to two orders of magnitude higher energy resolution than has been conventionally possible. Here we investigate the detailed diffraction characteristics of multilayer blazed gratings. These elements offer potentially revolutionary performance as the dispersive element in ultra-high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. In doing so, we have established a roadmap for the complete optimization of the grating design. Traditionally 1st order gratings are used in the soft x-ray region, but we show that as in the optical domain, one can work in very high spectral orders and thus dramatically improve resolution without significant loss in efficiency.

  12. High-order multilayer coated blazed gratings for high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Voronov, Dmitriy L; Goray, Leonid I; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Padmore, Howard A

    2015-02-23

    A grand challenge in soft x-ray spectroscopy is to drive the resolving power of monochromators and spectrometers from the 10(4) achieved routinely today to well above 10(5). This need is driven mainly by the requirements of a new technique that is set to have enormous impact in condensed matter physics, Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). Unlike x-ray absorption spectroscopy, RIXS is not limited by an energy resolution dictated by the core-hole lifetime in the excitation process. Using much higher resolving power than used for normal x-ray absorption spectroscopy enables access to the energy scale of soft excitations in matter. These excitations such as magnons and phonons drive the collective phenomena seen in correlated electronic materials such as high temperature superconductors. RIXS opens a new path to study these excitations at a level of detail not formerly possible. However, as the process involves resonant excitation at an energy of around 1 keV, and the energy scale of the excitations one would like to see are at the meV level, to fully utilize the technique requires the development of monochromators and spectrometers with one to two orders of magnitude higher energy resolution than has been conventionally possible. Here we investigate the detailed diffraction characteristics of multilayer blazed gratings. These elements offer potentially revolutionary performance as the dispersive element in ultra-high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. In doing so, we have established a roadmap for the complete optimization of the grating design. Traditionally 1st order gratings are used in the soft x-ray region, but we show that as in the optical domain, one can work in very high spectral orders and thus dramatically improve resolution without significant loss in efficiency.

  13. High-Resolution Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy: Characterization of Polymorphism in Cimetidine, a Pharmaceutical Compound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacilio, Julia E.; Tokarski, John T.; Quiñones, Rosalynn; Iuliucci, Robbie J.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy has many advantages as a tool to characterize solid-phase material that finds applications in polymer chemistry, nanotechnology, materials science, biomolecular structure determination, and others, including the pharmaceutical industry. The technology associated with achieving high resolution…

  14. High-Resolution Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy: Characterization of Polymorphism in Cimetidine, a Pharmaceutical Compound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacilio, Julia E.; Tokarski, John T.; Quiñones, Rosalynn; Iuliucci, Robbie J.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy has many advantages as a tool to characterize solid-phase material that finds applications in polymer chemistry, nanotechnology, materials science, biomolecular structure determination, and others, including the pharmaceutical industry. The technology associated with achieving high resolution…

  15. Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Maroncelli, Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-06-08

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electronic Spectroscopy and Dynamics was held at Colby College, Waterville, NH from 07/19/2009 thru 07/24/2009. The Conference was well-attended with participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. The GRC on Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics showcases some of the most recent experimental and theoretical developments in electronic spectroscopy that probes the structure and dynamics of isolated molecules, molecules embedded in clusters and condensed phases, and bulk materials. Electronic spectroscopy is an important tool in many fields of research, and this GRC brings together experts having diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biophysics, and materials science, making the meeting an excellent opportunity for the interdisciplinary exchange of ideas and techniques. Topics covered in this GRC include high-resolution spectroscopy, biological molecules in the gas phase, electronic structure theory for excited states, multi-chromophore and single-molecule spectroscopies, and excited state dynamics in chemical and biological systems.

  16. Dose-dependent high-resolution electron ptychography

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alfonso, A. J.; Allen, L. J.; Sawada, H.; Kirkland, A. I.

    2016-02-07

    Recent reports of electron ptychography at atomic resolution have ushered in a new era of coherent diffractive imaging in the context of electron microscopy. We report and discuss electron ptychography under variable electron dose conditions, exploring the prospects of an approach which has considerable potential for imaging where low dose is needed.

  17. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). The spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of K{alpha} and K{beta} emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS.

  18. High Resolution Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Au_2^- and Au_4^- by Photoelectron Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Iker; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2013-06-01

    We report high resolution photoelectron spectra of Au_2^- and Au_4^- obtained with a newly-built photoelectron imaging apparatus. Gold anions are produced by laser vaporization and the desired specie is mass selected and focused into the collinear velocity-map imaging (VMI) lens assembly. The design of the imaging lens has allowed us to obtain less than 0.9% energy resolution for high kinetic energy electrons ( > 1eV) while maintaining wavenumber resolution for low kinetic energy electrons. Although gold dimer and tetramer have been studied in the past, we present spectroscopic results under high resolution. For Au_2^-, we report high resolution spectra with an accurate determination of the electron affinity together with a complete vibrational assignment, for both the anion and neutral ground states, while for Au_4^-, we are able to resolve a low frequency mode and obtain accurately the adiabatic detachment energy.

  19. Very high resolution UV and X-ray spectroscopy and imagery of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, M.; Brown, W. A.; Haisch, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    A scientific investigation of the physics of the solar atmosphere, which uses the techniques of high resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy and high resolution UV imagery, is described. The experiments were conducted during a series of three sounding rocket flights. All three flights yielded excellent images in the UV range, showing unprecedented spatial resolution. The second flight recorded the X-ray spectrum of a solar flare, and the third that of an active region. A normal incidence multi-layer mirror was used during the third flight to make the first astronomical X-ray observations using this new technique.

  20. High-resolution mirror temperature mapping in GaN-based diode lasers by thermoreflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierścińska, Dorota; Marona, Łucja; Pierściński, Kamil; Wiśniewski, Przemysław; Perlin, Piotr; Bugajski, Maciej

    2017-02-01

    In this paper accurate measurements of temperature distribution on the facet of GaN-based diode lasers are presented as well as development of the instrumentation for high-resolution thermal imaging based on thermoreflectance. It is shown that thermoreflectance can be successfully applied to provide information on heat dissipation in these devices. We demonstrate the quantitative measurements of the temperature profiles and high-resolution temperature maps on the front facet of nitride lasers and prove that thermoreflectance spectroscopy can be considered as the accurate and fast nondestructive tool for investigation of thermally induced degradation modes of GaN lasers.

  1. High Resolution FTIR Spectroscopy of Trisulfane Hsssh: a Candidate for Detecting Parity Violation in Chiral Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Sieghard; Bolotova, Irina; Chen, Ziqiu; Fábri, Csaba; Quack, Martin; Seyfang, Georg; Zindel, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    The measurement of the parity violating energy difference Δ_{pv}{E} between the enantiomers of chiral molecules is among the major current challenges in high resolution spectroscopy and physical-chemical stereochemistry. Theoretical predictions have recently identified dithiine^{b} and trisulfane as suitable candidates for such experiments. We report the first successful high-resolution analyses of the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of trisulfane. A band centered at 861.0292 cm^{-1} can be assigned unambiguously to the chiral trans conformer by means of ground state combination differences in comparison with known pure rotational spectra. A second band near 864.698 cm^{-1} is tentatively assigned to the cis conformer by comparison with theory. M. Quack , Fundamental Symmetries and Symmetry Violations from High-resolution Spectroscopy, Handbook of High Resolution Spectroscopy, M. Quack and F. Merkt eds.,John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, New York, 2001, vol. 1, ch. 18, pp. 659-722. S. Albert, I. Bolotova, Z. Chen, C. Fábri, L. Horný, M. Quack, G. Seyfang and D. Zindel, Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys.18, 21976-21993 (2016). C. Fábri, L. Horný and M. Quack, ChemPhysChem16, 3584-3589 (2015). M. Liedtke, K. M. T. Yamada, G. Winnewisser and J. Hahn, J.Mol.Struct.413, 265-270 (1997).

  2. Experimental setup for high resolution x-ray spectroscopy of solids and liquid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhong; Rajković, Ivan; Raiser, Dirk; Scholz, Mirko; Techert, Simone

    2013-09-01

    Here we present a next-generation experimental setup for high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of solid and liquid samples in the soft X-ray region to elucidate the complex molecular structures of (bio)chemical systems. The setup consists of a main target chamber, a target holder for either solid samples or a liquid jet delivery system, and a high-resolution soft X-ray grating spectrometer. This setup is in commissioning at PETRA III, presently one of the most brilliant storage ring based X-ray radiation sources in the world. The newly designed grazing incidence grating spectrometer is utilized for high-resolution measurement in the XUV range from 1 nm up to 6 nm.

  3. High-Resolution of Electron Microscopy of Montmorillonite and Montmorillonite/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    AFRL-ML-WP-TP-2006-464 HIGH-RESOLUTION OF ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF MONTMORILLONITE AND MONTMORILLONITE /EPOXY NANOCOMPOSITES Lawrence F...HIGH-RESOLUTION OF ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF MONTMORILLONITE AND MONTMORILLONITE /EPOXY NANOCOMPOSITES 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 5d...transmission electron microscopy the structure and morphology of montmorillonite (MMT), a material of current interest for use in polymer nanocomposites, was

  4. High-resolution inverse Raman and resonant-wave-mixing spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Rahn, L.A.

    1993-12-01

    These research activities consist of high-resolution inverse Raman spectroscopy (IRS) and resonant wave-mixing spectroscopy to support the development of nonlinear-optical techniques for temperature and concentration measurements in combustion research. Objectives of this work include development of spectral models of important molecular species needed to perform coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements and the investigation of new nonlinear-optical processes as potential diagnostic techniques. Some of the techniques being investigated include frequency-degenerate and nearly frequency-degenerate resonant four-wave-mixing (DFWM and NDFWM), and resonant multi-wave mixing (RMWM).

  5. High resolution dissociative electron attachment to gas phase adenine

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, D.; Beikircher, M.; Denifl, S.; Zappa, F.; Matejcik, S.; Bacher, A.; Grill, V.; Maerk, T. D.; Scheier, P.

    2006-08-28

    The dissociative electron attachment to the gas phase nucleobase adenine is studied using two different experiments. A double focusing sector field mass spectrometer is utilized for measurements requiring high mass resolution, high sensitivity, and relative ion yields for all the fragment anions and a hemispherical electron monochromator instrument for high electron energy resolution. The negative ion mass spectra are discussed at two different electron energies of 2 and 6 eV. In contrast to previous gas phase studies a number of new negative ions are discovered in the mass spectra. The ion efficiency curves for the negative ions of adenine are measured for the electron energy range from about 0 to 15 eV with an electron energy resolution of about 100 meV. The total anion yield derived via the summation of all measured fragment anions is compared with the total cross section for negative ion formation measured recently without mass spectrometry. For adenine the shape of the two cross section curves agrees well, taking into account the different electron energy resolutions; however, for thymine some peculiar differences are observed.

  6. High-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Sn-doped ZnO single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, E. Senthil; Mohammadbeigi, F.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Watkins, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Here, Group IV donors in ZnO are poorly understood, despite evidence that they are effective n-dopants. We present high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy studies of unintentionally doped and Sn doped ZnO single crystals grown by the chemical vapor transport method. Doped samples showed greatly increased emission from the I10 bound exciton transition which was recently proven to be related to the incorporation of Sn impurities based on radio-isotope studies. PL linewidths are exceptionally sharp for these samples, enabling clear identification of several donor species. Temperature dependent PL measurements of the I10 line emission energy and intensity dependence reveal a behavior similar to other shallow donors in ZnO. Ionized donor bound exciton and two electron satellite transitions of the I10 transition are unambiguously identified and yield a donor binding energy of 71 meV. In contrast to recent reports of Ge-related donors in ZnO, the spectroscopic binding energy for the Sn-related donor bound exciton follows a linear relationship with donor binding energy (Haynes rule), confirming the shallow nature of this defect center, which we attribute to a SnZn double donor compensated by an unknown single acceptor.

  7. High-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy of Sn-doped ZnO single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, E. Senthil; Mohammadbeigi, F.; Boatner, Lynn A.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Here, Group IV donors in ZnO are poorly understood, despite evidence that they are effective n-dopants. We present high-resolution photoluminescence spectroscopy studies of unintentionally doped and Sn doped ZnO single crystals grown by the chemical vapor transport method. Doped samples showed greatly increased emission from the I10 bound exciton transition which was recently proven to be related to the incorporation of Sn impurities based on radio-isotope studies. PL linewidths are exceptionally sharp for these samples, enabling clear identification of several donor species. Temperature dependent PL measurements of the I10 line emission energy and intensity dependence reveal a behavior similar tomore » other shallow donors in ZnO. Ionized donor bound exciton and two electron satellite transitions of the I10 transition are unambiguously identified and yield a donor binding energy of 71 meV. In contrast to recent reports of Ge-related donors in ZnO, the spectroscopic binding energy for the Sn-related donor bound exciton follows a linear relationship with donor binding energy (Haynes rule), confirming the shallow nature of this defect center, which we attribute to a SnZn double donor compensated by an unknown single acceptor.« less

  8. High resolution rare-earth elements analyses of natural apatite and its application in geo-sciences: Combined micro-PIXE, quantitative CL spectroscopy and electron spin resonance analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, D.; Götte, T.; Meijer, J.; Stephan, A.; Richter, D. K.; Niklas, J. R.

    2000-03-01

    The rare-earth element (REE) distribution in natural apatite is analysed by micro-PIXE, cathodoluminescence (CL) microscopy and spectroscopy and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The micro-PIXE analyses of an apatite crystal from Cerro de Mercado (Mexico) and the summary of 20 analyses of six francolite (conodonts of Triassic age) samples indicate that most of the REEs are enriched in apatite and francolite comparative to average shale standard (NASC). The analyses of fossil francolite revealing the REE-distribution not to be in balance with the REE-distribution of seawater and fish bone debris. Strong inhomogenous lateral REE-distribution in fossil conodont material is shown by CL-mapping and most probably not being a vital effect. Therefore, the resulting REE-signal from fossil francolite is the sum of vital and post-mortem incorporation. The necessary charge compensation for the substitution of divalent Ca by trivalent REE being done by different kind of electron defects and defect ions.

  9. Metals on BN Studied by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangert, U.; Zan, R.; Ramasse, Q.; Jalil, Rashid; Riaz, Ibstam; Novoselov, K. S.

    2012-07-01

    Metal impurities, gold and nickel, have been deliberately introduced into boron-nitride (BN) sheets. The structural and topographic properties of doped BN have been studied by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Analysis revealed that metal atoms cluster preferentially in/on contaminated areas. The metal coverage on BN is almost the same for the same evaporated amount of 1 Å.

  10. Copper Decoration of Carbon Nanotubes and High Resolution Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Camille

    A new process of decorating carbon nanotubes with copper was developed for the fabrication of nanocomposite aluminum-nanotubes. The process consists of three stages: oxidation, activation and electroless copper plating on the nanotubes. The oxidation step was required to create chemical function on the nanotubes, essential for the activation step. Then, catalytic nanoparticles of tin-palladium were deposited on the tubes. Finally, during the electroless copper plating, copper particles with a size between 20 and 60 nm were uniformly deposited on the nanotubes surface. The reproducibility of the process was shown by using another type of carbon nanotube. The fabrication of nanocomposites aluminum-nanotubes was tested by aluminum vacuum infiltration. Although the infiltration of carbon nanotubes did not produce the expected results, an interesting electron microscopy sample was discovered during the process development: the activated carbon nanotubes. Secondly, scanning transmitted electron microscopy (STEM) imaging in SEM was analysed. The images were obtained with a new detector on the field emission scanning electron microscope (Hitachi S-4700). Various parameters were analysed with the use of two different samples: the activated carbon nanotubes (previously obtained) and gold-palladium nanodeposits. Influences of working distance, accelerating voltage or sample used on the spatial resolution of images obtained with SMART (Scanning Microscope Assessment and Resolution Testing) were analysed. An optimum working distance for the best spatial resolution related to the sample analysed was found for the imaging in STEM mode. Finally, relation between probe size and spatial resolution of backscattered electrons (BSE) images was studied. An image synthesis method was developed to generate the BSE images from backscattered electrons coefficients obtained with CASINO software. Spatial resolution of images was determined using SMART. The analysis shown that using a probe

  11. Update of High Resolution (e,e'K^+) Hypernuclear Spectroscopy at Jefferson Lab's Hall A

    SciTech Connect

    Cusanno, F; Bydzovsky, P; Chang, C C; Cisbani, E; De Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Higinbotham, D W; Iodice, M; LeRose, J J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Sotona, M; Urciuoli, G M

    2010-03-01

    Updated results of the experiment E94-107 hypernuclear spectroscopy in Hall A of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab), are presented. The experiment provides high resolution spectra of excitation energy for 12B_\\Lambda, 16N_\\Lambda, and 9Li_\\Lambda hypernuclei obtained by electroproduction of strangeness. A new theoretical calculation for 12B_\\Lambda, final results for 16N_\\Lambda, and discussion of the preliminary results of 9Li_\\Lambda are reported.

  12. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G.E.

    2011-05-31

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry are investigated by high resolution spectroscopic tools. Production, reaction, and energy transfer processes are investigated by transient, double resonance, polarization and saturation spectroscopies, with an emphasis on technique development and connection with theory, as well as specific molecular properties.

  13. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    SciTech Connect

    Hall G. E.; Goncharov, V.

    2012-05-29

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry are investigated by high resolution spectroscopic tools. Production, reaction, and energy transfer processes are investigated by transient, double resonance, polarization and saturation spectroscopies, with an emphasis on technique development and connection with theory, as well as specific molecular properties.

  14. High-resolution extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopy of potassium using anti-Stokes radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothenberg, J. E.; Young, J. F.; Harris, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    The use of a new extreme-ultraviolet radiation source based on spontaneous anti-Stokes scattering for high-resolution absorption spectroscopy of transition originating from the 3p6 shell of potassium is reported. The region from 546.6 to 536.8 A is scanned at a resolution of about 1.2 Kayser. Within this region, four previously unreported lines are observed.

  15. Adaptive optics high-resolution IR spectroscopy with silicon grisms and immersion gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; McDavitt, Daniel L.; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Bernecker, John L.; Miller, Shane

    2003-02-01

    The breakthrough of silicon immersion grating technology at Penn State has the ability to revolutionize high-resolution infrared spectroscopy when it is coupled with adaptive optics at large ground-based telescopes. Fabrication of high quality silicon grism and immersion gratings up to 2 inches in dimension, less than 1% integrated scattered light, and diffraction-limited performance becomes a routine process thanks to newly developed techniques. Silicon immersion gratings with etched dimensions of ~ 4 inches are being developed at Penn State. These immersion gratings will be able to provide a diffraction-limited spectral resolution of R = 300,000 at 2.2 micron, or 130,000 at 4.6 micron. Prototype silicon grisms have been successfully used in initial scientific observations at the Lick 3m telescope with adaptive optics. Complete K band spectra of a total of 6 T Tauri and Ae/Be stars and their close companions at a spectral resolution of R ~ 3000 were obtained. This resolving power was achieved by using a silicon echelle grism with a 5 mm pupil diameter in an IR camera. These results represent the first scientific observations conducted by the high-resolution silicon grisms, and demonstrate the extremely high dispersing power of silicon-based gratings. New discoveries from this high spatial and spectral resolution IR spectroscopy will be reported. The future of silicon-based grating applications in ground-based AO IR instruments is promising. Silicon immersion gratings will make very high-resolution spectroscopy (R > 100,000) feasible with compact instruments for implementation on large telescopes. Silicon grisms will offer an efficient way to implement low-cost medium to high resolution IR spectroscopy (R ~ 1000-50000) through the conversion of existing cameras into spectrometers by locating a grism in the instrument's pupil location.

  16. Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics: High Resolution Spectroscopy and Collision Dynamics of Transient Species

    SciTech Connect

    Hall,G.E.; Sears, T.J.

    2009-04-03

    This research is carried out as part of the Gas-Phase Molecular Dynamics program in the Chemistry Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory. High-resolution spectroscopy, augmented by theoretical and computational methods, is used to investigate the structure and collision dynamics of chemical intermediates in the elementary gas-phase reactions involved in combustion chemistry. Applications and methods development are equally important experimental components of this work.

  17. Analytical Applications Of High-Resolution Molecular Fluorescence Spectroscopy In Low Temperature Solid Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstraat, Johannes W.; van Zeijl, W. J.; Smedes, F.; Ariese, Freek; Gooijer, Cees; Velthorst, Nel H.; Locher, R.; Renn, Alois; Wild, Urs P.

    1989-05-01

    High-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy may be used to obtain highly specific, vibrationally resolved spectral signatures of molecules. Two techniques are presented that both make use of low temperature, solid matrices. In Shpol'skii spectroscopy highly resolved spectra are obtained by employing n-alkanes as solvents that form neat crystalline matrices at low temperatures in which the guest molecules occupy well defined substitutional sites. Fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy is based on the application of selective (mostly laser-) excitation of the guest molecules. Principles and analytical applications of both techniques will be discussed. Specific attention will be paid to the determination of pyrene in bird meat by means of Shpol'skii spectroscopy and to the possibilities of applying two-dimensional fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy.

  18. High resolution fluorescent bio-imaging with electron beam excitation.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Yoshimasa; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru

    2014-11-01

    We have developed electron beam excitation assisted (EXA) optical microscope[1-3], and demonstrated its resolution higher than 50 nm. In the microscope, a light source in a few nanometers size is excited by focused electron beam in a luminescent film. The microscope makes it possible to observe dynamic behavior of living biological specimens in various surroundings, such as air or liquids. Scan speed of the nanometric light source is faster than that in conventional near-field scanning optical microscopes. The microscope enables to observe optical constants such as absorption, refractive index, polarization, and their dynamic behavior on a nanometric scale. The microscope opens new microscopy applications in nano-technology and nano-science.Figure 1(a) shows schematic diagram of the proposed EXA microscope. An electron beam is focused on a luminescent film. A specimen is put on the luminescent film directly. The inset in Fig. 1(a) shows magnified image of the luminescent film and the specimen. Nanometric light source is excited in the luminescent film by the focused electron beam. The nanometric light source illuminates the specimen, and the scattered or transmitted radiation is detected with a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The light source is scanned by scanning of the focused electron beam in order to construct on image. Figure 1(b) shows a luminescence image of the cells acquired with the EXA microscope, and Fig. 1(c) shows a phase contrast microscope image. Cells were observed in culture solution without any treatments, such as fixation and drying. The shape of each cell was clearly recognized and some bright spots were observed in cells. We believe that the bright spots indicated with arrows were auto-fluorescence of intracellular granules and light- grey regions were auto-fluorescence of cell membranes. It is clearly demonstrated that the EXA microscope is useful tool for observation of living biological cells in physiological conditions.jmicro;63/suppl_1/i

  19. High-Resolution Pfi-Zeke Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Cl_2: the Ground (X^+ ^2π{g}) and First Excited (A^+ ^2π{u}) Electronic States of Cl_2^+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollet, Sandro; Merkt, Frederic

    2012-06-01

    Recently, two studies have been devoted to the low-lying electronic states of Cl_2^+, one by PFI-ZEKE photoelectron (PE) spectroscopy of the {X}^+←{X} transition and one by laser-induced-fluorescence spectroscopy of the {A}^+→{X}^+ band system. To complement the information available on the X^+ and A^+ electronic states of Cl_2^+, we have recorded partially rotationally resolved single-photon PFI-ZEKE PE spectra of the {X}^+ ^2π{g,i}←{X} ^1Σg^+ and {A}^+ ^2π{u,i}←{X} ^1Σg^+ (i=3/2, 1/2) photoionizing transitions of Cl_2 in the wavenumber ranges 92 500-96 500 {cm}-1 and 106 750-115 500 {cm}-1. These regions correspond to transitions to low-lying vibrational levels of the X^+ state with v^+=0-5 and to transitions to vibrational levels of the X^+ state with v^+=25-45 and vibrational levels of the A^+ state with v^+≤ 7. The analysis of the rotational structure and the isotopic shifts of these spectra has enabled the derivation of an improved value of the first adiabatic ionization energy (92 647.7±0.3 {cm}-1 for 35Cl_2). In combination with measurements of ion-pair states with n≈ 1800 new values for the dissociation energies D_0 of Cl_2 and Cl_2^+ could also be derived. The potential energy function of the X^+ state of Cl_2^+ was determined in a least-squares fitting procedure. Spin-orbit splittings were derived for many vibrational levels of the X^+ and A^+ states. Combining our results with other resultsb, several low-lying vibrational levels of the upper spin-orbit component of the A^+ state could be assigned for the first time. The PFI-ZEKE PE spectra also contain a series of as yet unassigned lines and reveal numerous perturbations. J. Li, Y. Hao, J. Yang, C. Zhou, and Y. Mo}, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 104307 (2007). M. A. Gharaibeh, and D. J. Clouthier, 66th Int. Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Book of Abstracts, p. 169 (2011). S. Mollet, and F. Merkt, Phys. Rev. A 82, 032510 (2010). R. P. Tuckett, and S. D. Peyerimhoff, Chem. Phys. 83, 203 (1984

  20. High Resolution Inelastic Electron Scattering from LEAD-208.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, James Patrick

    Inclusive electron scattering differential cross sections from ^{208}Pb have been measured with energy resolutions better than 20 keV for over 120 discrete states with excitation energies less than 7.3 MeV. The momentum-transfer dependence of these cross sections has been mapped over a range of 0.5 to 2.8 fm^{-1} in the forward direction and 1.0 to 2.9 fm^{ -1} in the backward scattering direction. Over fifty excitations have been analyzed in the Distorted Wave Born Approximation to yield transition charge, current and magnetization densities. The nuclear structure of discrete excitations are interpreted in the framework of 1p-1h transition. The nuclear structure of levels in the excitation region below 4.8 MeV is studied in detail. Above 4.8 MeV, multiplets from single particle-hole configurations coupling to high spin states (J >=q 7) are investigated. Experimental transition densities are compared to Tamm-Dancoff calculations from a correlated ground state.

  1. High-resolution heteronuclear multi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy in magnetic fields with unknown spatial variations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Huang, Yuqing; Smith, Pieter E S; Wang, Kaiyu; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy is an extremely powerful tool for determining the structures of organic molecules and is of particular significance in the structural analysis of proteins. In order to leverage the method's potential for structural investigations, obtaining high-resolution NMR spectra is essential and this is generally accomplished by using very homogeneous magnetic fields. However, there are several situations where magnetic field distortions and thus line broadening is unavoidable, for example, the samples under investigation may be inherently heterogeneous, and the magnet's homogeneity may be poor. This line broadening can hinder resonance assignment or even render it impossible. We put forth a new class of pulse sequences for obtaining high-resolution heteronuclear spectra in magnetic fields with unknown spatial variations based on distant dipolar field modulations. This strategy's capabilities are demonstrated with the acquisition of high-resolution 2D gHSQC and gHMBC spectra. These sequences' performances are evaluated on the basis of their sensitivities and acquisition efficiencies. Moreover, we show that by encoding and decoding NMR observables spatially, as is done in ultrafast NMR, an extra dimension containing J-coupling information can be obtained without increasing the time necessary to acquire a heteronuclear correlation spectrum. Since the new sequences relax magnetic field homogeneity constraints imposed upon high-resolution NMR, they may be applied in portable NMR sensors and studies of heterogeneous chemical and biological materials.

  2. High-resolution monochromator for iron nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy of biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoda, Yoshitaka; Okada, Kyoko; Wang, Hongxin; Cramer, Stephen P.; Seto, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    A new high-resolution monochromator for 14.4-keV X-rays has been designed and developed for the Fe nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy of biological samples. In addition to high resolution, higher flux and stability are especially important for measuring biological samples, because of the very weak signals produced due to the low concentrations of Fe-57. A 24% increase in flux while maintaining a high resolution better than 0.9 meV is achieved in the calculation by adopting an asymmetric reflection of Ge, which is used as the first crystal of the three-bounce high-resolution monochromator. A 20% increase of the exit beam size is acceptable to our biological applications. The higher throughput of the new design has been experimentally verified. A fine rotation mechanics that combines a weak-link hinge with a piezoelectric actuator was used for controlling the photon energy of the monochromatic beam. The resulting stability is sufficient to preserve the intrinsic resolution.

  3. Applications of High Resolution Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy for Atmospheric and Environmental Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; McManus, J. Barry; Nelson, David; Zahniser, Mark; Herndon, Scott C.; Shorter, Joanne; Yacovitch, Tara I.; Jervis, Dylan; Dyroff, Christoph; Kolb, Charles E.

    2016-06-01

    For the past 20 years, high resolution infrared spectroscopy has served as a valuable tool to measure gas-phase concentrations of ambient gas samples. We review recent advances in atmospheric sampling using direct absorption high resolution mid-infrared spectroscopy from the perspective of light sources, detectors, and optical designs. Developments in diode, quantum cascade and interband cascade laser technology have led to thermoelectrically-cooled single-mode laser sources capable of operation between 800 wn and 3100 wn, with <10 MHz resolution and >10 mW power. Advances in detector and preamplifier technology have yielded thermoelectriocally-cooled sensors capable of room-temperature operation with extremely high detectivities. Finally, novel spectrometer optical designs have led to robust multipass absorption cells capable of >400 m effective pathlength in a compact package. In combination with accurate spectroscopic databases, these developments have afforded dramatic improvements in measurement sensitivity, accuracy, precision, and selectivity. We will present several examples of the applications of high resolution mid-IR spectrometers in real-world field measurements at sampling towers and aboard mobile platforms such as vehicles and airplanes.

  4. High resolution transmission spectroscopy as a diagnostic for Jovian exoplanet atmospheres: constraints from theoretical models

    SciTech Connect

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Perna, Rosalba; Heng, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    We present high resolution transmission spectra of giant planet atmospheres from a coupled three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric dynamics and transmission spectrum model that includes Doppler shifts which arise from winds and planetary motion. We model Jovian planets covering more than two orders of magnitude in incident flux, corresponding to planets with 0.9-55 day orbital periods around solar-type stars. The results of our 3D dynamical models reveal certain aspects of high resolution transmission spectra that are not present in simple one-dimensional (1D) models. We find that the hottest planets experience strong substellar to anti-stellar (SSAS) winds, resulting in transmission spectra with net blueshifts of up to 3 km s{sup –1}, whereas less irradiated planets show almost no net Doppler shifts. We find only minor differences between transmission spectra for atmospheres with temperature inversions and those without. Compared to 1D models, peak line strengths are significantly reduced for the hottest atmospheres owing to Doppler broadening from a combination of rotation (which is faster for close-in planets under the assumption of tidal locking) and atmospheric winds. Finally, high resolution transmission spectra may be useful in studying the atmospheres of exoplanets with optically thick clouds since line cores for very strong transitions should remain optically thick to very high altitude. High resolution transmission spectra are an excellent observational test for the validity of 3D atmospheric dynamics models, because they provide a direct probe of wind structures and heat circulation. Ground-based exoplanet spectroscopy is currently on the verge of being able to verify some of our modeling predictions, most notably the dependence of SSAS winds on insolation. We caution that interpretation of high resolution transmission spectra based on 1D atmospheric models may be inadequate, as 3D atmospheric motions can produce a noticeable effect on the absorption

  5. High resolution coherent three dimensional spectroscopy of NO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Thresa A.; Muthike, Angelar K.; Robinson, Jessica E.; Chen, Peter C.

    2015-06-07

    Expansion from coherent 2D spectroscopy to coherent 3D spectroscopy can provide significant advantages when studying molecules that have heavily perturbed energy levels. This paper illustrates such advantages by demonstrating how high resolution coherent 3D (HRC3D) spectroscopy can be used to study a portion of the visible spectrum of nitrogen dioxide. High resolution coherent 2D spectra usually contain rotational and vibrational patterns that are easy to analyze, but severe congestion and complexity preclude its effective use for many parts of the NO{sub 2} spectrum. HRC3D spectroscopy appears to be much more effective; multidimensional rotational and vibrational patterns produced by this new technique are easy to identify even in the presence of strong perturbations. A method for assigning peaks, which is based upon analyzing the resulting multidimensional patterns, has been developed. The higher level of multidimensionality is useful for reducing uncertainty in peak assignments, improving spectral resolution, providing simultaneous information on multiple levels and states, and predicting, verifying, and categorizing peaks.

  6. Fast acquisition of high-resolution 2D NMR spectroscopy in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liangjie; Wei, Zhiliang; Zeng, Qing; Yang, Jian; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy plays an important role in chemical and biological analyses. In this study, we combine the J-coupling coherence transfer module with the echo-train acquisition technique for fast acquisition of high-resolution 2D NMR spectra in magnetic fields with unknown spatial variations. The proposed method shows satisfactory performance on a 5 mM ethyl 3-bromopropionate sample, under a 5-kHz (10 ppm at 11.7 T) B0 inhomogeneous field, as well as under varying degrees of pulse-flip-angle deviations. Moreover, a simulative ex situ NMR measurement is also conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed pulse sequence.

  7. Performance of the AILES THz-Infrared beamline at SOLEIL for High resolution spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Rouzieres, Mathieu; Roy, Pascale; Manceron, Laurent; Pirali, Olivier; Balcon, Didier; Tchana, Fridolin Kwabia; Boudon, Vincent; Tudorie, M.; Huet, Therese; Cuisset, Arnaud

    2010-02-03

    The new THz beamline (AILES) located at the third generation Synchrotron Radiation source SOLEIL is now operating for applications in a wide variety of research themes. In particular, this source with its adapted optics allows high resolution spectroscopic measurements of molecules in the entire infrared and THz range. This presentation focuses on the performances concerning flux, spectral range and stability for molecular spectroscopy. Thanks to these performances, the coupling of synchrotron radiation from a highly stable third generation source with high resolution FTIR spectrometer and with a long path cell (150 m or more) can be particularly advantageous. This fact is related to the optics of the beamline permitting the entire source to be used without aperture stop (entrance iris), even for measurements at highest-resolution of approx0.1 mueV (10{sup -3} cm{sup -1}).

  8. High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Molecules of Terrestrial and Planetary Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Richard S.

    2001-01-01

    In collaboration with the laboratory spectroscopy group of the Ames Atmospheric Physics Research Branch (SGP), high resolution infrared spectra of molecules that are of importance for the dynamics of the earth's and other planets' atmospheres were acquired using the SGP high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer and gas handling apparatus. That data, along with data acquired using similar instrumentation at the Kitt Peak National Observatory was analyzed to determine the spectral parameters for each of the rotationally resolved transitions for each molecule. Those parameters were incorporated into existing international databases (e.g. HITRANS and GEISA) so that field measurements could be converted into quantitative information regarding the physical and chemical structures of earth and planetary atmospheres.

  9. Method for local temperature measurement in a nanoreactor for in situ high-resolution electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Vendelbo, S B; Kooyman, P J; Creemer, J F; Morana, B; Mele, L; Dona, P; Nelissen, B J; Helveg, S

    2013-10-01

    In situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of solids under reactive gas conditions can be facilitated by microelectromechanical system devices called nanoreactors. These nanoreactors are windowed cells containing nanoliter volumes of gas at ambient pressures and elevated temperatures. However, due to the high spatial confinement of the reaction environment, traditional methods for measuring process parameters, such as the local temperature, are difficult to apply. To address this issue, we devise an electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) method that probes the local temperature of the reaction volume under inspection by the electron beam. The local gas density, as measured using quantitative EELS, is combined with the inherent relation between gas density and temperature, as described by the ideal gas law, to obtain the local temperature. Using this method we determined the temperature gradient in a nanoreactor in situ, while the average, global temperature was monitored by a traditional measurement of the electrical resistivity of the heater. The local gas temperatures had a maximum of 56 °C deviation from the global heater values under the applied conditions. The local temperatures, obtained with the proposed method, are in good agreement with predictions from an analytical model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Transient Thermometry and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Analysis of Filamentary Resistive Switches.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jonghan; Sharma, Abhishek A; Chen, Chao-Yang; Fantini, Andrea; Jurczak, Malgorzata; Herzing, Andrew A; Bain, James A; Picard, Yoosuf N; Skowronski, Marek

    2016-08-10

    We present data on the filament size and temperature distribution in Hf0.82Al0.18Ox-based Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) devices obtained by transient thermometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The thermometry shows that the temperature of the nonvolatile conducting filament can reach temperatures as high as 1600 K at the onset of RESET at voltage of 0.8 V and power of 40 μW. The size of the filament was estimated at about 1 nm in diameter. Hot filament increases the temperature of the surrounding high resistivity oxide, causing it to conduct and carry a significant fraction of the total current. The current spreading results in slowing down the filament temperature increase at higher power. The results of thermometry have been corroborated by HRTEM analysis of the as-fabricated and switched RRAM devices. The functional HfAlOx layer in as-fabricated devices is amorphous. In devices that were switched, we detected a small crystalline region of 10-15 nm in size. The crystallization temperature of the HfAlOx was determined to be 850 K in an independent annealing experiment. The size of the crystalline region agrees with thermal modeling based on the thermometry data. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coordinated with electron energy loss spectroscopy could not detect changes in the chemical makeup of the filament.

  11. Probing the Activity in High-Z ULIRGs: High Resolution Spectroscopy in Neon and Argon Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikola, Thomas; Farrah, Duncan; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven; Higdon, Sarah; Stacey, Gordon

    2006-05-01

    We propose to investigate the nature of a sample of high luminosity infrared bright galaxies in the redshift range of 0.6 to 3 through complete IRS high resolution spectroscopy. Our sample focuses on systems that we will observe in March 2006 in their 158 micron [CII] line emission using Cornell's submm grating spectrometer, ZEUS on the CSO. The combined [CII] and Spitzer IRS spectroscopy will comprise the thesis work of Cornell student Steven Hailey-Dunsheath. The combined data sets will (1) Determine the hardness of the ambient interstellar radiation fields thereby tracing the most massive stars on the main sequence, or revealing the presence of an AGN. (2) Determine the total ionizing flux from stars, hence the relative importance of starformation to accretion in creating the IR luminosity of these sources. (3) Determine the strength of the ambient far-UV radiation fields, hence the physical sizes of the starforming regions. The sources proposed here are among the most distant, and most luminous sources known in the Universe. As such, they are heavily studied by many research groups. We propose deep IRS high resolution spectroscopy for these sources, for which we have built a scientific case coupled to research going on in our group at Cornell. It is clear that the spectra that we obtain will be invaluable for many other science programs including future programs involving Herschel, and JWST. We therefore welcome and encourage collaborations.

  12. Mobile high resolution xenon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the earth's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Appelt, Stephan; Häsing, F Wolfgang; Kühn, Holger; Perlo, Juan; Blümich, Bernhard

    2005-05-20

    Conventional high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra are usually measured in homogeneous, high magnetic fields (>1 T), which are produced by expensive and immobile superconducting magnets. We show that chemically resolved xenon (Xe) NMR spectroscopy of liquid samples can be measured in the Earth's magnetic field (5 x 10(-5) T) with a continuous flow of hyperpolarized Xe gas. It was found that the measured normalized Xe frequency shifts are significantly modified by the Xe polarization density, which causes different dipolar magnetic fields in the liquid and in the gas phases.

  13. High-Resolution Spectroscopy with the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    ScienceCinema

    Canizares, Claude R. [MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2016-07-12

    The capabilities of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XMM-Newton for high-resolution spectroscopy have brought tradition plasma diagnostic techniques to the study of cosmic plasma. Observations have probed nearly every class of astronomical object, from young proto-starts through massive O starts and black hole binaries, supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and the intergalactic medium. Many of these sources show remarkable rich spectra that reveal new physical information, such as emission measure distributions, elemental abundances, accretion disk and wind signatures, and time variability. This talk will present an overview of the Chandra instrumentaton and selected examples of spectral observations of astrophysical and cosmological importance.

  14. High resolution optical spectroscopy of air-induced electrical instabilities in n-type polymer semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Riccardo; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2012-07-03

    We use high-resolution charge-accumulation optical spectroscopy to measure charge accumulation in the channel of an n-type organic field-effect transistor. We monitor the degradation of device performance in air, correlate the onset voltage shift with the reduction of charge accumulated in the polymer semiconductor, and explain the results in view of the redox reaction between the polymer, water and oxygen in the accumulation layer. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A Framework to Combine Low- and High-resolution Spectroscopy for the Atmospheres of Transiting Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogi, M.; Line, M.; Bean, J.; Désert, J.-M.; Schwarz, H.

    2017-04-01

    Current observations of the atmospheres of close-in exoplanets are predominantly obtained with two techniques: low-resolution spectroscopy with space telescopes and high-resolution spectroscopy from the ground. Although the observables delivered by the two methods are in principle highly complementary, no attempt has ever been made to combine them, perhaps due to the different modeling approaches that are typically used in their interpretation. Here, we present the first combined analysis of previously published dayside spectra of the exoplanet HD 209458 b obtained at low resolution with HST/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and Spitzer/IRAC and at high resolution with VLT/CRIRES. By utilizing a novel retrieval algorithm capable of computing the joint probability distribution of low- and high-resolution spectra, we obtain tight constraints on the chemical composition of the planet’s atmosphere. In contrast to the WFC3 data, we do not confidently detect H2O at high spectral resolution. The retrieved water abundance from the combined analysis deviates by 1.9σ from the expectations for a solar-composition atmosphere in chemical equilibrium. Measured relative molecular abundances of CO and H2O strongly favor an oxygen-rich atmosphere (C/O < 1 at 3.5σ ) for the planet when compared to equilibrium calculations including O rainout. From the abundances of the seven molecular species included in this study we constrain the planet metallicity to 0.1–1.0× the stellar value (1σ). This study opens the way to coordinated exoplanet surveys between the flagship ground- and space-based facilities, which ultimately will be crucial for characterizing potentially habitable planets.

  16. High-resolution multi-heterodyne spectroscopy based on Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yin; Wang, Wen; Wysocki, Gerard; Soskind, Michael G.

    2014-01-20

    In this Letter, we present a method of performing broadband mid-infrared spectroscopy with conventional, free-running, continuous wave Fabry-Perot quantum cascade lasers (FP-QCLs). The measurement method is based on multi-heterodyne down-conversion of optical signals. The sample transmission spectrum probed by one multi-mode FP-QCL is down-converted to the radio-frequency domain through an optical multi-heterodyne process using a second FP-QCL as the local oscillator. Both a broadband multi-mode spectral measurement as well as high-resolution (∼15 MHz) spectroscopy of molecular absorption are demonstrated and show great potential for development of high performance FP-laser-based spectrometers for chemical sensing.

  17. High resolution Halpha spectroscopy and R-band photometry of Swift J1357.2-0933

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casares, Jorge; Torres, Manuel A. P.; Negueruela, Ignacio; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Carlos; Corral-Santana, Jesus M.; Zurita, Cristina; Llano, Sergio Rodriguez

    2011-03-01

    We report on high resolution Halpha spectroscopy and time-resolved photometry of the optical counterpart to the X-ray transient Swift J1357.2-0933 in outburst (Krimm et al. ATEL #3138). SPECTROSCOPY: Six 30-33 min spectra were obtained on the nights of 2011 Feb 25-27 using the IDS Spectrograph on the 2.5m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) at the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos. The observations were performed with the H1800V grating and a slit width 1.6 arcsec to yield a spectral coverage of 6270-7000 Angs with a 30 km/s FWHM spectral resolution at Halpha..

  18. Automatic pole-zero/zero-pole digital compensator for high-resolution spectroscopy: Design and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, A.; Pullia, A.; Ripamonti, G.

    1999-08-01

    In a high-resolution spectroscopy system the relatively long exponential decay due to the charge preamplifier is customarily canceled in an analogue fashion by means of a PZ (Pole-Zero) stage. The accurateness of such a compensation has a big impact on the energy resolution because it strongly affects the baseline-stability problems. The authors have automatically and on-line performed such a compensation in a digital way, while maintaining a spectroscopy performance and keeping at minimum both the ADC sampling frequency (thus power consumption) and its resolution (thus cost). This is done through an IIR filter, implemented within a FPGA by a DSP. The so-compensated waveform has, in excellent approximation, an all-pole shape. Starting from such a signal, the minimum-noise filters for energy and/or time measurements are then promptly synthesized and implemented for real time operation through the same DSP.

  19. Photodissociation of ozone at 276nm by photofragment imaging and high resolution photofragment translational spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Blunt, D.A.; Suits, A.G.

    1996-11-01

    The photodissociation of ozone at 276 nm is investigated using both state resolved ion imaging and high-resolution photofragment translational spectroscopy. Ion images from both [3+1] and [2+1] resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization of the O({sup 1}D) photofragment are reported. All images show strong evidence of O({sup 1}D) orbital alignment. Photofragment translation spectroscopy time-of-flight spectra are reported for the O{sub 2} ({sup 1}{Delta}{sub g}) photofragment. Total kinetic energy release distributions determined form these spectra are generally consistent with those distributions determined from imaging data. Observed angular distributions are reported for both detection methods, pointing to some unresolved questions for ozone dissociation in this wavelength region.

  20. High-resolution laser spectroscopy with the Collinear Resonance Ionisation Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at CERN-ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocolios, T. E.; de Groote, R. P.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Budinčević, I.; Day Goodacre, T.; Farooq-Smith, G. J.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Gins, W.; Heylen, H.; Kron, T.; Li, R.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Neyens, G.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Smith, A. J.; Stroke, H. H.; Wendt, K. D. A.; Wilkins, S. G.; Yang, X.

    2016-06-01

    The Collinear Resonance Ionisation Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at CERN has achieved high-resolution resonance ionisation laser spectroscopy with a full width at half maximum linewidth of 20(1) MHz for 219,221 Fr, and has measured isotopes as short lived as 5 ms with 214 Fr. This development allows for greater precision in the study of hyperfine structures and isotope shifts, as well as a higher selectivity of single-isotope, even single-isomer, beams. These achievements are linked with the development of a new laser laboratory and new data-acquisition systems.

  1. Electron Diffraction and High-Resolution Electron Microscopy of Mineral Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nord, Gordon L., Jr.

    This book is a well-written English translation of the original 1981 Russian edition, Strukturnoye issledovaniye mineralov metodami mikrodifraktsii i elechtronnoi mikroskopii vysokogo razresheniya. The 1987 English version has been extensively updated and includes references up to 1986. The book is essentially a text on the theoretical and experimental aspects of transmission electron microscopy and has chapters on the reciprocal lattice, electron diffraction (both kinematic and dynamic), and high-resolution electron microscopy.Electron diffraction is emphasized, especially its use for structure analysis of poorly crystalline and fine-grained phases not readily determined by the more exact X ray diffraction method. Two methods of electron diffraction are discussed: selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and oblique-texture electron diffraction (OTED); the latter technique is rarely used in the west and is never discussed in western electron microscopy texts. A SAED pattern is formed by isolating a small micrometer-size area with an aperture and obtaining single-crystal patterns from the diffracted beams. By tilting the sample and obtaining many patterns, a complete picture of the reciprocal lattice can be taken. An OTED pattern is formed when the incident electron beam passes through an inclined preparation consisting of a great number of thin platy crystals lying normal to the texture axis (axis normal to the support grid). To form an OTED pattern, the plates must all lie on a common face, such as a basal plane in phyllosilicates. Upon tilting the plates, an elliptical powder diffraction pattern is formed. Intensities measured from these patterns are used for a structural analysis of the platy minerals.

  2. High resolution electron microscopy structural studies of organo-clay nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Yaron-Marcovich, Dana; Chen, Yona; Nir, Shlomo; Prost, Rene

    2005-03-01

    Engineering of clay nanocomposite materials by modification of their surfaces can enable the control of retention, transport, and persistence of toxic chemicals in the geosystem. The properties and interactions of clay nanocomposites have been widely studied, but little information exists on their microstructure at a range of scale extending down to atomic dimensions. The pairing of Na-montmorillonite clay with organic cations as well as with the herbicide fluridone, chosen as a model for an organic pollutant, was studied. Three organic cations were selected: hexadecyltrimethylammonium, benzyltrimethylammonium, and benzyltriethylammonium at 0%, 60%, and 100% of cation exchange capacity (CEC) loadings. A detailed microstructural analysis of the organo-clay nanocomposites and of the fluridone nanocomposites was undertaken by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Morphological observations and chemical analyses were performed simultaneously on the same sample. The combined HRTEM and EDS measurements strongly suggest (a) heterogeneous local intercalation of the organic cations manifested by a range in the measured d001 spacing, implying random expansion of the clay layered structure with increased loading of the organic cations; (b) intercalation within the external layers, which is thoroughly influenced by local defect microstructure and/or edge availability of the montmorillonite nanoparticles as well as by the molecular structure of the intercalating organic cation. Additional intercalation of fluridone molecules did not affect the structure (d001 spacing) of the organo-clay nanocomposites.

  3. Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy of liquid water: novel instrumentation, high resolution, and the"map" approach

    SciTech Connect

    Weinhardt, L.; Fuchs, O.; Blum, M.; Bär, M.; Weigand, M.; Denlinger, J.D.; Zubavichus, Y.; Zharnikov, M.; Grunze, M.; Heske, C.; Umbach, E.

    2008-06-17

    Techniques to study the electronic structure of liquids are rare. Most recently, resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has been shown to be an extremely versatile spectroscopy to study both occupied and unoccupied electronic states for liquids in thermodynamic equilibrium. However, XES requires high-brilliance soft x-ray synchrotron radiation and poses significant technical challenges to maintain a liquid sample in an ultra-high vacuum environment. Our group has therefore developed and constructed a novel experimental setup for the study of liquids, with the long-term goal of investigating the electronic structure of biological systems in aqueous environments. We have developed a flow-through liquid cell in which the liquid is separated from vacuum by a thin Si3N4 or SiC window and which allows a precise control of temperature. This approach has significant advantages compared to static liquids cells used in the past. Furthermore, we have designed a dedicated high-transmission, high-resolution soft x-ray spectrometer. The high transmission makes it possible to measure complete resonant XES"maps" in less than an hour, giving unprecedented detailed insight into the electronic structure of the investigated sample. Using this new equipment we have investigated the electronic structure of liquid water. Furthermore, our XES spectra and maps give information about ultra-fast dissociation on the timescale of the O 1s core hole lifetime, which is strongly affected by the initial state hydrogen bonding configuration.

  4. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Observation of Colloidal Nanocrystal Growth Mechanisms using Graphene Liquid Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yuk, Jong Min; Park, Jungwon; Ercius, Peter; Kim, Kwanpyo; Hellebusch, Danny J.; Crommie, Michael F.; Lee, Jeong Yong; Zettl, A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2011-12-12

    We introduce a new type of liquid cell for in-situ electron microscopy based upon entrapment of a liquid film between layers of graphene. We employ this cell to achieve high-resolution imaging of colloidal platinum nanocrystal growth. The ability to directly image and resolve critical steps at atomic resolution provides new insights into nanocrystal coalescence and reshaping during growth.

  5. High resolution simulation of beam dynamics in electron linacs for x-ray free electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, J.; Ryne, R. D.; Venturini, M.; Zholents, A. A.; Pogorelov, I. V.

    2009-10-01

    In this paper we report on large-scale high resolution simulations of beam dynamics in electron linacs for the next-generation x-ray free electron lasers (FELs). We describe key features of a parallel macroparticle simulation code including three-dimensional (3D) space-charge effects, short-range structure wakefields, coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wakefields, and treatment of radio-frequency (rf) accelerating cavities using maps obtained from axial field profiles. We present a study of the microbunching instability causing severe electron beam fragmentation in the longitudinal phase space which is a critical issue for future FELs. Using parameters for a proposed FEL linac at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), we show that a large number of macroparticles (beyond 100 million) is generally needed to control the numerical macroparticle shot noise and avoid overestimating the microbunching instability. We explore the effect of the longitudinal grid on simulation results. We also study the effect of initial uncorrelated energy spread on the final uncorrelated energy spread of the beam for the FEL linac.

  6. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of four active galaxies - Probing the intercloud medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Kenneth S. K.; Canizares, Claude R.; Markert, Thomas H.; Arnaud, Keith A.

    1990-01-01

    The focal plane crystal spectrometer (FPCS) on the Einstein Observatory has been used to perform a high-resolution spectroscopic search for oxygen X-ray line emission from four active galaxies: Fairall 9, Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and PKS 0548 - 322. Specifically, O VIII Ly-alpha and Ly-beta, whose unredshifted energies are 653 and 775 eV, respectively, were sought. No narrow-line emission was detected within the energy bands searched. Upper limits are calculated on the line flux from these sources of 30 eV equivalent width and use a photoionization model to place corresponding upper limits on the densities of diffuse gas surrounding the active nuclei. The upper limits on gas density range from about 0.02-50/cu cm and probe various radial distances from the central source. This is the first time high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy has been used to place constraints on the intercloud medium in active galaxies.

  7. High-resolution absorptive intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence NMR spectroscopy under inhomogeneous fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meijin; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Xi; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence (iMQC) is capable of improving NMR spectral resolution using a 2D shearing manipulation method. A pulse sequence termed CT-iDH, which combines intermolecular double-quantum filter (iDQF) with a modified constant-time (CT) scheme, is designed to achieve fast acquisition of high-resolution intermolecular zero-quantum coherences (iZQCs) and intermolecular double-quantum coherences (iDQCs) spectra without strong coupling artifacts. Furthermore, double-absorption lineshapes are first realized in 2D intermolecular multi-quantum coherences (iMQCs) spectra under inhomogeneous fields through a combination of iZQC and iDQC signals to double the resolution without loss of sensitivity. Theoretically the spectral linewidth can be further reduced by half compared to original iMQC high-resolution spectra. Several experiments were performed to test the feasibility of the new method and the improvements are evaluated quantitatively. The study suggests potential applications for in vivo spectroscopy.

  8. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of four active galaxies - Probing the intercloud medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lum, Kenneth S. K.; Canizares, Claude R.; Markert, Thomas H.; Arnaud, Keith A.

    1990-07-01

    The focal plane crystal spectrometer (FPCS) on the Einstein Observatory has been used to perform a high-resolution spectroscopic search for oxygen X-ray line emission from four active galaxies: Fairall 9, Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and PKS 0548 - 322. Specifically, O VIII Ly-alpha and Ly-beta, whose unredshifted energies are 653 and 775 eV, respectively, were sought. No narrow-line emission was detected within the energy bands searched. Upper limits are calculated on the line flux from these sources of 30 eV equivalent width and use a photoionization model to place corresponding upper limits on the densities of diffuse gas surrounding the active nuclei. The upper limits on gas density range from about 0.02-50/cu cm and probe various radial distances from the central source. This is the first time high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy has been used to place constraints on the intercloud medium in active galaxies.

  9. Diamond-machined ZnSe immersion grating for NIR high-resolution spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Y; Kobayashi, N; Kuzmenko, P J; Little, S L; Yasui, C; Kondo, S; Minami, A; Motohara, K

    2008-07-25

    ZnSe immersion gratings (n {approx} 2.45) provide the possibility of high-resolution spectroscopy for the near-infrared (NIR) region. Since ZnSe has a lower internal attenuation than other NIR materials, it is most suitable for immersion grating, particularly in short NIR region (0.8-1.4 {micro}m). We are developing an extremely high-resolution spectrograph with {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 100,000, WINERED, customized for the short NIR region, using ZnSe (or ZnS) immersion grating. However, it had been very difficult to make fine grooves on ZnSe substrate with a small pitch of less than 50 {micro}m because ZnSe is a soft/brittle material. We have overcome this problem and successfully machined sharp grooves with fine pitch on ZnSe substrates by nano precision fly-cutting technique at LLNL. The optical testing of the sample grating with HeNe laser shows an excellent performance: the relative efficiency more than 87.4 % at 0.633 {micro}m for a classical grating configuration. The diffraction efficiency when used as an immersion grating is estimated to be more than 65 % at 1 {micro}m. Following this progress, we are about to start machining a grating on a large ZnSe prism with an entrance aperture of 23mm x 50mm and the blaze angle of 70{sup o}.

  10. Fragmentation and conformation study of ephedrine by low- and high-resolution mass selective UV spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervenkov, S.; Wang, P. Q.; Braun, J. E.; Neusser, H. J.

    2004-10-01

    The neurotransmitter molecule, ephedrine, has been studied by mass-selective low- and high-resolution UV resonance enhanced two-photon ionization spectroscopy. Under all experimental conditions we observed an efficient fragmentation upon ionization. The detected vibronic peaks in the spectrum are classified according to the efficiency of the fragmentation, which leads to the conclusion that there exist three different species in the molecular beam: ephedrine-water cluster and two distinct conformers. The two-color two-photon ionization experiment with a decreased energy of the second photon leads to an upper limit of 8.3 eV for the ionization energy of ephedrine. The high-resolution (70 MHz) spectrum of the strongest vibronic peak in the spectrum measured at the fragment (m/z=58) mass channel displays a pronounced and rich rotational structure. Its analysis by the use of a specially designed computer-aided rotational fit process yields accurate rotational constants for the S0 and S1 states and the transition moment ratio, providing information on the respective conformational structure.

  11. Electron spectrometer for gas-phase spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, J.D.; Schlachter, A.S.

    1997-04-01

    An electron spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy of gaseous samples using synchrotron radiation has been designed and constructed. The spectrometer consists of a gas cell, cylindrical electrostatic lens, spherical-sector electron energy analyzer, position-sensitive detector and associated power supplies, electronics and vacuum pumps. Details of the spectrometer design are presented together with some representative spectra.

  12. Determining the Grain Composition of the Interstellar Medium with High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Julia C.; Ravel, B.

    2005-04-01

    We investigate the ability of high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy to directly probe the grain composition of the interstellar medium. Using iron K-edge experimental data of likely ISM dust candidates taken at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, we explore the prospects for determining the chemical composition of astrophysical dust and discuss a technique for doing so. Focusing on the capabilities of the Astro-E2 XRS microcalorimeters, we assess the limiting effects of spectral resolution and noise for detecting significant X-ray absorption fine structure signal in astrophysical environments containing dust. We find that given sufficient signal, the resolution of the XRS will allow us to definitively distinguish gas-phase from dust-phase absorption and certain chemical compositions.

  13. High-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of sulfidation of brass at the rubber/brass interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Kenichi; Kakubo, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsunori; Amino, Naoya; Mase, Kazuhiko; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy is utilized to investigate the chemical composition at the rubber/brass interface to elucidate the origin of strong adhesion as well as the degradation between rubber and brass. Special attention has been given to copper sulfides formed at the interface during the vulcanization reaction at 170 °C. At least five sulfur-containing species are identified in the adhesive interlayer including crystalline CuS and amorphous CuxS (x ≃ 2). These copper sulfide species are not uniformly distributed within the layer, but there exits the concentration gradation; the concentration of CuxS is high in the region on the rubber side and is diminished in the deeper region, while vice versa for that of CuS. Degradation of the interface adhesive strength by prolonged vulcanization arises from the decrease in the CuxS/CuS ratio accompanying desulfurization of the adhesive layer.

  14. Superconducting Detector System for High-Resolution Energy-Dispersive Soft X-Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, S; Niedermayr, T; Drury, O; Funk, T; Frank, M; Labov, S E; Cramer, S

    2001-02-21

    Synchrotron-based soft x-ray spectroscopy is often limited by detector performance. Grating spectrometers have the resolution, but lack the efficiency for the analysis of dilute samples. Semiconducting Si(Li) or Ge detectors are efficient, but often lack the resolution to separate weak signals from strong nearby lines in multi-element samples. Superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) operated at temperatures below 1 K can be used as high-resolution high-efficiency x-ray detectors. They combine high energy resolution around 10 eV FWHM with the broad band efficiency of energy-dispersive detectors. We have designed a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate STJ detectors in x-ray fluorescence measurements at beam line 4 of the ALS. We demonstrate the capabilities of such a detector system for fluorescence analysis of dilute metal sites in proteins and inorganic model compounds.

  15. Low energy nuclear spin excitations in Ho metal investigated by high resolution neutron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Tapan; Jalarvo, Niina

    2013-04-17

    We have investigated the low energy excitations in metallic Ho by high resolution neutron spectroscopy. We found at T = 3 K clear inelastic peaks in the energy loss and energy gain sides, along with the central elastic peak. The energy of this low energy excitation, which is 26.59 ± 0.02 μeV at T = 3 K, decreased continuously and became zero at TN ≈ 130 K. By fitting the data in the temperature range 100-127.5 K with a power law we obtained the power-law exponent β = 0.37 ± 0.02, which agrees with the expected value β = 0.367 for a three-dimensional Heisenberg model. Thus the energy of the low energy excitations can be associated with the order parameter.

  16. Multiple Populations in M31 Globular Clusters: Clues from Infrared High Resolution Integrated Light Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakari, Charli; APOGEE Team

    2017-01-01

    Abundance variations are a common feature of Milky Way globular clusters. The globular clusters in M31 are too distant for detailed abundance studies of their individual stars; however, cluster abundances can be determined through high resolution, integrated light (IL) spectroscopy. In this talk, I discuss how IL abundances can be interpreted in the context of multiple populations. In particular, I will present new infrared abudances of 25 M31 globular clusters, derived from IL spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). These H band spectra allow determinations of C, N, and O from molecular features, and Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and K from atomic features. The integrated abundance ratios are then investigated with cluster [Fe/H] and mass.

  17. High resolution absorption coefficients for Freon-12. [by using tunable diode laser spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoell, J. M.; Bair, C. H.; Williams, B.; Harward, C.

    1979-01-01

    The ultra high resolution absorption coefficients of the Q-branch of Freon-12 obtained with tunable diode laser spectroscopy are presented. Continuous spectra are presented from 1155/cm to 1163/cm, and absolute wavelength calibration was obtained using SO2 spectra as a standard and a 5 cm Ge etalon for relative calibration between SO2 lines. The Freon-12 data obtained at a pressure of 0.05 torr showed a rich and highly structured spectra, but with the exception of three isolated features, collisional broadening reduces the spectra to a structureless continuum for nitrogen pressures greater than 20 torr. The spectra at 1161/cm continue to exhibit structure at atmospheric pressure.

  18. Continuous-wave whispering-gallery optical parametric oscillator for high-resolution spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Werner, Christoph S; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo

    2015-03-01

    We achieve a continuous operation of a whispering gallery optical parametric oscillator by stabilizing the resonator temperature T on the mK level and simultaneously locking the pump frequency to a cavity resonance using the Pound-Drever-Hall technique. The millimeter-sized device converts several mW of a pump wave at 1040 nm wavelength to signal and idler waves around 2000 nm wavelength with more than 50% efficiency. Over 1 h, power and frequency of the signal wave vary by <±1% and by <±25  MHz, respectively. The latter can be tuned over 480 MHz without a mode hop by changing T over 120 mK. In order to prove the suitability for high-resolution spectroscopy, we scan the signal frequency across the resonance of a Fabry-Perot interferometer resolving nicely its 10 MHz linewidth.

  19. Past, Present and Future Prospects of High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy of Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaastra, J.

    2006-08-01

    The first high resolution X-ray spectra of clusters of galaxies have revolutionised the study of cooling flows. These excellent data have been obtained with an instrument (the RGS of XMM-Newton) that has not been optimised for spectroscopy of extended sources. I will present a few recent examples of what can be achieved further with the RGS in combination with the imaging EPIC cameras for the study of chemical enrichment of clusters. The new generation of high spectral resolution imaging TES arrays that is currently being studied for a variety of possible future X-ray observatories (such as XEUS, Constellation-X, DIOS, Estremo and NEW) offer exciting new opportunities to study the physics of clusters of galaxies. I will present examples of how these new instruments will achieve this.

  20. High-resolution vibrational and rotational spectroscopy of CD2H+ in a cryogenic ion trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusko, Pavol; Stoffels, Alexander; Thorwirth, Sven; Brünken, Sandra; Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar

    2017-02-01

    The low-lying rotational states (J = 0, … , 5) of CD2H+ have been probed by high-resolution ro-vibrational and pure rotational spectroscopy, applying several action spectroscopic methods in a cryogenic 22-pole ion trap. For this, the ν1 ro-vibrational band has been revisited, detecting 108 transitions, among which 36 are new. The use of a frequency comb system allowed us to measure the ro-vibrational transitions with high precision and accuracy, typically better than 1 MHz. The high precision has been confirmed by comparing equal combination differences in the ground and excited state. Moreover, precise predictions of pure rotational transitions were possible for the ground state. Twenty-five rotational transitions have been detected directly by a novel IR-mm-wave double resonance method, giving rise to highly accurate ground state spectroscopic parameters.

  1. High-resolution optical spectroscopy in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrella, C.; Light, P. S.; Stace, T. M.; Benabid, F.; Luiten, A. N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present detailed high-resolution spectroscopy of rubidium (Rb) vapor confined within a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). We find a very low level of additional frequency broadening associated with this confinement, with spectral features being only 1 MHz broader than the natural linewidth of the excited state. We show that this additional broadening is consistent solely with the atoms' transit across the fiber's optical mode. This low level of decoherence opens the door to a wide variety of applications including compact frequency standards and new types of quantum optical devices based on alkali-metal-loaded HC-PCFs. We highlight the low level of decoherence through observation of electromagnetically induced transparency in the confined vapor.

  2. A Study of the Conformational Isomerism of 1-Iodobutane by High Resolution Rotational Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Arsenault, Eric A.; Obenchain, Daniel A.; Blake, Thomas A.; ...

    2017-03-24

    The first microwave study of 1-iodobutane, performed by Steinmetz et al. in 1977, led to the determination of the B+C parameter for the anti-anti- and gauche-anti-conformers. Nearly 40 years later, in this paper this reinvestigation of 1-iodobutane, by high-resolution microwave spectroscopy, led to the determination of rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (NQCCs), and nuclear-spin rotation constants belonging to both of the two previously mentioned conformers, in addition to the gauche-gauche-conformer, which was observed in this frequency regime for the first time. Finally, comparisons between the three conformers of 1-iodobutane and other iodo- and bromoalkanes are made,more » specifically through an analysis of the nuclear quadrupole coupling constants belonging to the iodine and bromine atoms in the respective chemical environments.« less

  3. Application of a continuously tunable, cw optical parametric oscillator for high-resolution spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gibson, G M; Dunn, M H; Padgett, M J

    1998-01-01

    We report the use of a smoothly tunable, single-frequency continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for high-resolution spectroscopy. The OPO is based on potassium titanyl phosphate and is resonant for both signal and idler fields, resulting in a device with a very low pump power threshold of 30 mW. The frequency-selective nature of the doubly resonant oscillator ensures that the signal and idler modes can be tuned across the entire phase-match bandwidth without the need for additional intracavity frequency-selective components. Smooth frequency tuning of the output of the OPO is obtained by tuning of the pump laser. To demonstrate the practicality of our OPO we recorded the absorption spectrum of cesium vapor in the 1-microm spectral region.

  4. High-Resolution Spectroscopy and Optical Photometry of MWC 349A and MWC 349B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manset, N.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Zharikov, S. V.; Kusakin, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    MWC 349A is a V ˜ 13 mag object with the B[e] phenomenon, a very strong optical emission-line spectrum, maser and laser line emission, and a radio-bright bipolar nebula, attenuated by ˜10 mag of interstellar extinction. MWC 349B is a visual companion of MWC 349A with no previously reported signs of emission. The physical connection of the pair has been the subject of debates toward revealing the evolutionary state of MWC 349A. Only low-resolution spectra reported for MWC 349B resulted in estimating its parameters with a large uncertainty. We report the results of high-resolution optical spectroscopy of both objects as well as their optical photometry.

  5. High resolution spectroscopy of comet C/2002 C1 Ikeya-Zhang with SARG at TNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capria, M. T.; Cremonese, G.; Boattini, A.; de Sanctis, M. C.; D'Abramo, G.; Buzzoni, A.

    2002-11-01

    A program of high resolution spectroscopy of comets is being conducted at TNG in Canary Islands using the echelle spectrograph SARG. The aim of the program is to catalogue known and unknown emission lines, compare them with the lines already listed in existing catalogues and possibly identify unknown lines. In the visible range of the spectrum emission lines of daughter molecules and ions can be found, and many of them are still unidentified. The comet C/2002 C1 Ikeya-Zhang was observed with SARG during the night 19-20 of April and spectra with two different setups were taken. In the first case a narrow band filter was used to isolate the sodium emissions with a long slit and R = 43000. The data show very interesting cometary sodium emissions in the coma. The second setup used a short slit covering the spectral range of 4620-7920 Å with R = 57000.

  6. High Resolution Spectroscopy of Naphthalene Calibrated by AN Optical Frequency Comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Akiko; Nakashima, Kazuki; Matsuba, Ayumi; Misono, Masatoshi

    2015-06-01

    In high-resolution molecular spectroscopy, the precise measure of the optical frequency is crucial to evaluate minute shifts and splittings of the energy levels. On the other hand, in such spectroscopy, thousands of spectral lines distributed over several wavenumbers have to be measured by a continuously scanning cw laser. Therefore, the continuously changing optical frequency of the scanning laser has to be determined with enough precision. To satisfy these contradictory requirements, we have been developed two types of high-resolution spectroscopic systems employing an optical frequency comb. One of the systems employs RF band-pass filters to generate equally spaced frequency markers for optical frequency calibration, and is appropriate for wide wavelength-range measurement with relatively high scanning rate.^a In the other system, the beat frequency between the optical frequency comb and the scanning laser is controlled by an acousto-optic frequency shifter. This system is suitable for more precise measurement, and enables detailed analyses of frequency characteristics of scanning laser.^b In the present study, we observe Doppler-free two-photon absorption spectra of A^1B1u (v_4 = 1) ← X^1A_g (v = 0) transition of naphthalene around 298 nm. The spectral lines are rotationally resolved and the resolution is about 100 kHz. For ^qQ transition, the rotational lines are assigned, and molecular constants in the excited state are determined. In addition, we analyze the origin of the measured linewidth and Coriolis interactions between energy levels. To determine molecular constants more precisely, we proceed to measure and analyze spectra of other transitions, such as ^sS transitions. ^a A. Nishiyama, D. Ishikawa, and M. Misono, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30, 2107 (2013). ^b A. Nishiyama, A. Matsuba, and M. Misono, Opt. Lett. 39, 4923 (2014).

  7. High-resolution laser spectroscopy of long-lived plutonium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, A.; Sonnenschein, V.; Campbell, P.; Cheal, B.; Kron, T.; Moore, I. D.; Pohjalainen, I.; Raeder, S.; Trautmann, N.; Wendt, K.

    2017-03-01

    Long-lived isotopes of plutonium were studied using two complementary techniques, high-resolution resonance ionization spectroscopy (HR-RIS) and collinear laser spectroscopy (CLS). Isotope shifts have been measured on the 5 f67 s27F0→5 f56 d27 s (J =1 ) and 5 f67 s27F1→5 f67 s 7 p (J =2 ) atomic transitions using the HR-RIS method and the hyperfine factors have been extracted for the odd mass nuclei Pu,241239. CLS was performed on the 5 f67 s 8F1 /2→J =1 /2 (27 523.61 cm-1) ionic transition with the hyperfine A factors measured for 239Pu. Changes in mean-squared charge radii have been extracted and show a good agreement with previous nonoptical methods, with an uncertainty improvement by approximately one order of magnitude. Plutonium represents the heaviest element studied to date using collinear laser spectroscopy.

  8. High Resolution Rovibrational Spectroscopy of Large Molecules Using Infrared Frequency Combs and Buffer Gas Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changala, Bryan; Spaun, Ben; Patterson, David; Bjork, Bryce J.; Heckl, Oliver H.; Doyle, John M.; Ye, Jun

    2016-06-01

    We have recently demonstrated the integration of cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy with buffer gas cooling to acquire high resolution infrared spectra of translationally and rotationally cold (˜10 K) gas-phase molecules. Here, we extend this method to significantly larger systems, including naphthalene (C10H_8), a prototypical polyaromatic hydrocarbon, and adamantane (C10H_{16}), the fundamental building block of diamonoids. To the authors' knowledge, the latter molecule represents the largest system for which rotationally resolved spectra in the CH stretch region (3 μm) have been obtained. In addition to the measured spectra, we present several details of our experimental methods. These include introducing non-volatile species into the cold buffer gas cell and obtaining broadband spectra with single comb mode resolution. We also discuss recent modifications to the apparatus to improve its absorption sensitivity and time resolution, which facilitate the study of both larger molecular systems and cold chemical dynamics. B. Spaun, et al. Probing buffer-gas cooled molecules with direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared, WF02, 70th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, Champaign-Urbana, IL, 2015.

  9. High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Slit-Jet Cooled Radicals and Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Melanie A.

    This thesis presents high-resolution spectra of supersonically-cooled organic radicals in the mid-infrared, the details and design of the instruments necessary to obtain the spectra, and the theory to understand the spectra and the larger context of the results. Specifically, four organic radicals are studied: singly-deuterated methyl radical (CH2D), phenyl radical (C6H5), hydroxymethyl radical (CH2OH), and ethynyl radical (C2H). All of the spectroscopic studies presented use an existing mid-infrared high-resolution spectrometer with a frequency precision of better than 10 MHz. The radicals are generated using a discharge to dissociate a neutral precursor and form the radicals. The discharge is localized at the orifice of a slit supersonic expansion, which cools the radicals to around 20 K and allows for sub-Doppler spectral resolution. In addition to the description of the existing spectrometer, the design, construction, and successful testing of a new, automated mid-infrared spectrometer is presented. The new spectrometer is based upon difference frequency generation of a scanning Ti:Sapphire laser and a single-frequency Nd:YAG laser to create high-resolution mid-infrared radiation. The new system speeds up data-taking by fully automating the scanning process. The four radicals studied in this thesis are all intermediates in combustion processes of hydrocarbon fuels. First, the out-of-phase symmetric stretch of phenyl radical is presented. As the first high-resolution infrared study of phenyl, it paves the way for future studies of this and other aromatic radicals. Second, the two fundamental CH stretches in CH2D are studied with full rotational resolution. The narrow linewidth of the transitions reveals resolved fine structure and partially resolved hyperfine structure. This resolution yields additional information regarding the distribution of electrons in the radical. With this study of CH2D, a nearly complete set of vibrational frequencies is present in the

  10. Development of silicon grisms and immersion gratings for high-resolution infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; McDavitt, Daniel L.; Bernecker, John L.; Miller, Shane; Ciarlo, Dino R.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.

    2002-01-01

    silicon-based grating applications in ground and space-based IR instruments is promising. Silicon immersion gratings will make very high-resolution spectroscopy (R>100,000) feasible with compact instruments for implementation on large telescopes. Silicon grisms will offer an efficient way to implement low-cost medium to high resolution IR spectroscopy (R~ 1000-50000) through the conversion of existing cameras into spectrometers by locating a grism in the instrument's pupil location.

  11. Tunable Microcavity-Stabilized Quantum Cascade Laser for Mid-IR High-Resolution Spectroscopy and Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Borri, Simone; Siciliani de Cumis, Mario; Insero, Giacomo; Bartalini, Saverio; Cancio Pastor, Pablo; Mazzotti, Davide; Galli, Iacopo; Giusfredi, Giovanni; Santambrogio, Gabriele; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Eliyahu, Danny; Ilchenko, Vladimir; Akikusa, Naota; Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute; De Natale, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The need for highly performing and stable methods for mid-IR molecular sensing and metrology pushes towards the development of more and more compact and robust systems. Among the innovative solutions aimed at answering the need for stable mid-IR references are crystalline microresonators, which have recently shown excellent capabilities for frequency stabilization and linewidth narrowing of quantum cascade lasers with compact setups. In this work, we report on the first system for mid-IR high-resolution spectroscopy based on a quantum cascade laser locked to a CaF2 microresonator. Electronic locking narrows the laser linewidth by one order of magnitude and guarantees good stability over long timescales, allowing, at the same time, an easy way for finely tuning the laser frequency over the molecular absorption line. Improvements in terms of resolution and frequency stability of the source are demonstrated by direct sub-Doppler recording of a molecular line. PMID:26901199

  12. Design and performance of a soft X-ray interferometer for ultra-high resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Moler, E.J.; Hussain, Z.; Duarte, R.M.; Howells, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    A Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FT-SX) has been designed and is under construction for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a branch of beamline 9.3.2. The spectrometer is a novel soft x-ray interferometer designed for ultra-high resolution (theoretical resolving power E/{delta}E{approx}10{sup 6}) spectroscopy in the photon energy region of 60-120 eV. This instrument is expected to provide experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  13. Design and performance of a soft-x-ray interferometer for ultra-high-resolution fourier transform spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Moler, E.J.; Hussain, Z.; Duarte, R.M.; Howells, M.R.

    1997-04-01

    A Fourier Transform Soft X-ray spectrometer (FT-SX) has been designed and is under construction for the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a branch of beamline 9.3.2. The spectrometer is a novel soft x-ray interferometer designed for ultra-high resolution (theoretical resolving power E/{delta}E{approximately}10{sup 6}) spectroscopy in the photon energy region of 60-120 eV. This instrument is expected to provide experimental results which sensitively test models of correlated electron processes in atomic and molecular physics. The design criteria and consequent technical challenges posed by the short wavelengths of x-rays and desired resolving power are discussed. The fundamental and practical aspects of soft x-ray interferometry are also explored.

  14. Spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectroscopy for magnetically confined fusion plasmas (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Ince-Cushman, A.; Rice, J. E.; Reinke, M. L.; Podpaly, Y.; Marmar, E. S.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Scott, S.; Gu, M. F.; Eikenberry, E.; Broennimann, Ch.; Lee, S. G.

    2008-10-15

    The use of high resolution x-ray crystal spectrometers to diagnose fusion plasmas has been limited by the poor spatial localization associated with chord integrated measurements. Taking advantage of a new x-ray imaging spectrometer concept [M. Bitter et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3660 (2004)], and improvements in x-ray detector technology [Ch. Broennimann et al., J. Synchrotron Radiat. 13, 120 (2006)], a spatially resolving high resolution x-ray spectrometer has been built and installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. This instrument utilizes a spherically bent quartz crystal and a set of two dimensional x-ray detectors arranged in the Johann configuration [H. H. Johann, Z. Phys. 69, 185 (1931)] to image the entire plasma cross section with a spatial resolution of about 1 cm. The spectrometer was designed to measure line emission from H-like and He-like argon in the wavelength range 3.7 and 4.0 A with a resolving power of approximately 10 000 at frame rates up to 200 Hz. Using spectral tomographic techniques [I. Condrea, Phys. Plasmas 11, 2427 (2004)] the line integrated spectra can be inverted to infer profiles of impurity emissivity, velocity, and temperature. From these quantities it is then possible to calculate impurity density and electron temperature profiles. An overview of the instrument, analysis techniques, and example profiles are presented.

  15. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy: a preliminary study of the distribution of Cu2+ and Cu2+/Pb2+ on a Bt horizon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, B; Vega, F A; Serra, C; Silva, L F O; Andrade, M L

    2011-11-15

    Relatively new techniques can help in determining the occurrence of mineral species and the distribution of contaminants on soil surfaces such as natural minerals and organic matter. The Bt horizon from an Endoleptic Luvisol was chosen because of its well-known sorption capability. The samples were contaminated with Cu(2+) and/or Pb(2+) and both sorption and desorption experiments were performed. The preferential distribution of the contaminant species ((63)Cu and (208)Pb) to the main soil components and their associations were studied together with the effectiveness of the surface sorption and desorption processes. The results obtained were compared with non-contaminated samples as well as with previous results obtained by different analytical techniques and advanced statistical analysis. Pb(2+) competes favorably for the sorption sites in this soil, mainly in oxides and the clay fraction. Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) were mainly associated with hematite, gibbsite, vermiculite and chlorite. This study will serve as a basis for further scientific research on the soil retention of heavy metals. New techniques such as spectroscopic imaging and transmission electron microscopy make it possible to check which soil components retain heavy metals, thereby contributing to propose effective measures for the remediation of contaminated soil.

  16. Contamination-free transmission electron microscopy for high-resolution carbon elemental mapping of polymers.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Shin; Hanada, Takeshi; Ebisawa, Masaharu; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Motoyasu; Takahara, Atsushi

    2009-05-26

    Specimen contamination induced by electron beam irradiation has long been a serious problem for high-resolution imaging and analysis by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). It creates a deposition of carbonaceous compounds on a region under study, causing the loss of resolution. We developed a method to reduce the beam-induced specimen contamination by cleaning a TEM with activated oxygen radicals. The hydrocarbon contaminants accumulated inside the microscope's chamber can be etched away by gentle chemical oxidation without causing any damage to the microscope. The "contamination-free TEM" can effectively suppress the deposition of carbon-rich products on a specimen and therefore enables us to perform high-resolution carbon elemental mapping by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM). In this study, we investigated the structure of polymer brushes immobilized on a silica nanoparticle (SiNP), of which molecular weight, length, and density of the brushes had been characterized in detail. The isolated particle showed the stretched formations of the polymer chains growing from the surface, while the densely distributed particles showed the connection of the polymer chains between neighboring particles. Moreover, the polymer brush layer and the surface initiator could be differentiated from each other by the component-specific contrast achieved by electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI). The contamination-free TEM can allow us to perform high-resolution carbon mapping and is expected to provide deep insights of soft materials' nanostructures.

  17. Millimeter and Sub-millimeter High Resolution Spectroscopy: New Frontiers with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziurys, Lucy M.

    2016-06-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that new laboratory data will be critical for the next decade of observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The high spatial resolution offered by ALMA will probe new regions of molecular complexity, including the inner envelopes of evolved stars, regions dominated by UV radiation, and the densest cores of molecular clouds. New molecular lines will be discovered in the wide wavelength range covered by the ALMA bands, and high resolution, gas-phase spectroscopy are needed to provide crucial “rest frequencies.” In particular, highly accurate methods that measure millimeter and sub-millimeter rotational transitions, such as direct absorption and Fourier transform mm-wave techniques, are important, especially when coupled to exotic molecular production schemes. Recent ALMA studies of SH+ and larger organic species have already demonstrated the need for laboratory measurements. New laboratory work will likely be required for circumstellar refractory molecules, radicals and ions generated near photon-dominated regions (PDRs), and large, organic-type species. This talk will give an overview of current contributions of laboratory spectroscopy to ALMA observations, summarize relevant spectroscopic techniques, and provide input into future prospects and directions.

  18. Far Infrared High Resolution Synchrotron FTIR Spectroscopy of the Low Frequency Bending Modes of Dmso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Smirnova, Irina; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Sadovskii, Dmitrii A.; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale

    2010-06-01

    In addition to its importance for industrial and environmental studies, the monitoring of DiMethylSulfOxyde (DMSO, (CH_3)_2SO) concentrations is of considerable interest for civil protection. The existing high resolution gas phase spectroscopic data of DMSO only concerned the pure rotational transitions in the ground state. In the Far-IR domain, the low-frequency rovibrational transitions have never previously resolved. The high brightness of the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and the instrumental sensitivity provided by the multipass cell allowed to measure for the first time these transitions. 1581 A-type and C-type transitions in the ν11 band have been assigned and 25 molecular constants of Watson's s-form hamiltonian developed to degree 8 have been fitted within the experimental accuracy. The use of then synchrotron radiation has opened many possibilities for new spectroscopic studies. Together with several other recent studies, our successful measurement and analysis of DMSO convincingly demonstrates the potential of the AILES beamline for high resolution FIR spectroscopy. Thus our present work is just at the beginning of unraveling the rovibrational structure of low frequency bending and torsional vibrational states of DMSO and yielding important comprehensive structural and spectroscopic information on this molecule. L. Margules, R. A. Motienko, E. A. Alekseev, J. Demaison, J. Molec. Spectrosc., 260(23),2009 V. Typke, M. Dakkouri, J. Molec. Struct., 599(177),2001 A. Cuisset, L. Nanobashvili, I. Smirnova, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, D. Sadovskii, Chem. Phys. Lett., accepted for publication

  19. Developments in High-Resolution Spectroscopy (R 10000) in the EUV Waveband.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruddace, R. G.

    2002-05-01

    We describe a new and mature technology, with which it is possible to build astrophysical EUV spectrometers of high resolving power. Solar research has shown that high resolving power is important in applying a wide range of plasma diagnostics unambiguously, and in studying plasma dynamics through measurements of line profiles and Doppler shifts. The regime 100-300 Å is of special importance, as it contains many strong emission and absorption lines from plasmas at 5 104 to 2 107 K, and because in this band the interstellar medium opacity is low enough to permit not only extensive studies of the local galactic disk, but in some directions galactic halo and extragalactic observations. The instrument concept comprises a multilayer-coated diffraction grating of high ruling density, working at near normal incidence in a Wadsworth mount, which focusses a spectrum onto a microchannelplate focal-plane detector. We summarise the developments over the last decade which have made possible an efficient spectrometer of high resolving power, in particular EUV multilayers and diffraction gratings produced by ion-etching. This included extensive experimental studies of multilayer gratings at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven, and culminated in February 2001 in the successfull flight of a prototype spectrometer on a sounding rocket, which obtained a high-resolution spectrum of the white dwarf G191-B2B in the 225-245 Å band. Finally, to further an assessment of the impact of high-resolution spectroscopy on EUV astronomy, we present a strawman design for an orbiting instrument, capable of achieving a resolving power of ~ 10,000 and an effective area of ~ 20 cm2 over the band 100-300 Å. The work described has been supported by the Office of Naval Research and NRL, and by NASA Research Opportunities in Space Science (ROSS) grants.

  20. On the optical stability of high-resolution transmission electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Barthel, J; Thust, A

    2013-11-01

    In the recent two decades the technique of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy experienced an unprecedented progress through the introduction of hardware aberration correctors and by the improvement of the achievable resolution to the sub-Ångström level. The important aspect that aberration correction at a given resolution requires also a well defined amount of optical stability has received little attention so far. Therefore we investigate the qualification of a variety of high-resolution electron microscopes to maintain an aberration corrected optical state in terms of an optical lifetime. We develop a comprehensive statistical framework for the estimation of the optical lifetime and find remarkably low values between tens of seconds and a couple of minutes. Probability curves are introduced, which inform the operator about the chance to work still in the fully aberration corrected state.

  1. The X+ 2Πg, A+ 2Πu, B+ 2Δu, and a^+ ^4Σ u^- electronic states of Cl_2^+ studied by high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollet, Sandro; Merkt, Frédéric

    2013-07-01

    Ω = 1/2 and Ω = 3/2, separated by 37.5 cm-1. The vibrational energy level structure of both components is regular, which indicates that the splitting results from the interaction with one or more distant ungerade Ω = 1/2 or Ω = 3/2 electronic states.

  2. High-Resolution Analytical Electron Microscopy Characterization of Corrosion and Cracking at Buried Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Thomas, Larry E.

    2001-07-01

    Recent results are presented demonstrating the application of cross-sectional analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM) to corrosion and cracking in high-temperature water environments. Microstructural, chemical and crystallographic characterization of buried interfaces at near-atomic resolutions is shown to reveal evidence for unexpected local environments, corrosion reactions and material transformations. Information obtained by a wide variety of high-resolution imaging and analysis methods indicates the processes occurring during crack advance and provides insights into the mechanisms controlling environmental degradation.

  3. High-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy with transition-edge sensors: present performance and future potential.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, J; Doriese, W B; Fowler, J W; Swetz, D S; Jaye, C; Fischer, D A; Reintsema, C D; Bennett, D A; Vale, L R; Mandal, U; O'Neil, G C; Miaja-Avila, L; Joe, Y I; El Nahhas, A; Fullagar, W; Gustafsson, F Parnefjord; Sundström, V; Kurunthu, D; Hilton, G C; Schmidt, D R; Ullom, J N

    2015-05-01

    X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) is a powerful element-selective tool to analyze the oxidation states of atoms in complex compounds, determine their electronic configuration, and identify unknown compounds in challenging environments. Until now the low efficiency of wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometer technology has limited the use of XES, especially in combination with weaker laboratory X-ray sources. More efficient energy-dispersive detectors have either insufficient energy resolution because of the statistical limits described by Fano or too low counting rates to be of practical use. This paper updates an approach to high-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy that uses a microcalorimeter detector array of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs). TES arrays are discussed and compared with conventional methods, and shown under which circumstances they are superior. It is also shown that a TES array can be integrated into a table-top time-resolved X-ray source and a soft X-ray synchrotron beamline to perform emission spectroscopy with good chemical sensitivity over a very wide range of energies.

  4. The Potential for Bayesian Compressive Sensing to Significantly Reduce Electron Dose in High Resolution STEM Images

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Andrew J.; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D.

    2014-02-11

    The use of high resolution imaging methods in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in-situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high resolution STEM images. These experiments successively reduce the number of pixels in the image (thereby reducing the overall dose while maintaining the high resolution information) and show promising results for reconstructing images from this reduced set of randomly collected measurements. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic resolution images and nanometer resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these post acquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or alignment of the microscope itself.

  5. What can we Expect of High-Resolution Spectroscopies on Carbohydrates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocinero, Emilio J.; Ecija, Patricia; Uriarte, Iciar; Usabiaga, Imanol; Fernández, José A.; Basterretxea, Francisco J.; Lesarri, Alberto; Davis, Benjamin G.

    2015-06-01

    Carbohydrates are one of the most multifaceted building blocks, performing numerous roles in living organisms. We present several structural investigations on carbohydrates exploiting an experimental strategy which combines microwave (MW) and laser spectroscopies in high-resolution. Laser spectroscopy offers high sensitivity coupled to mass and conformer selectivity, making it ideal for polysaccharides studies. On the other hand, microwave spectroscopy provides much higher resolution and direct access to molecular structure of monosaccharides. This combined approach provides not only accurate chemical insight on conformation, structure and molecular properties, but also benchmarking standards guiding the development of theoretical calculations. In order to illustrate the possibilities of a combined MW-laser approach we present results on the conformational landscape and structural properties of several monosaccharides and oligosaccharides including microsolvation and molecular recognition processes of carbohydrates. E.J. Cocinero, A. Lesarri, P. écija, F.J. Basterretxea, J.-U. Grabow, J.A. Fernández and F. Casta {n}o Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 51, 3119-3124, 2012. E.J. Cocinero, A. Lesarri, P. écija, Á. Cimas, B.G. Davis, F.J. Basterretxea, J.A. Fernández and F. Casta {n}o J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 2845-2852, 2013. E.J. Cocinero, P. Çarçabal, T.D. Vaden, J.P. Simons and B.G. Davis Nature 469, 76-80, 2011. C.S. Barry, E.J. Cocinero, P. Çarçabal, D.P. Gamblin, E.C. Stanca-Kaposta, S. M. Fernández-Alonso, S. Rudić, J.P. Simons and B.G. Davis J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 16895-16903, 2013.

  6. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Mars: Recent Results and Implications for Atmospheric Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.; Owen, T. C.; Maillard, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    It is believed that Earth, Venus, and Mars were formed by the same rocky and icy planetesimals, which resembled meteorites and comets in their composition, respectively. These planets are thus expected to have initially had the same chemical and isotope composition. Scaling the mass of the terrestrial ocean by the planetary mass ratio, the expected initial H2O abundance on Mars is a layer of about 1 km thick. Scaling the abundance of CO2 on Venus, the expected initial CO2 abundance on Mars is 15 bars. Evidently, significant parts of the initial H2O and CO2 abundances have been lost. Intense meteorite impact erosion and hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen (which could drag to escape more heavy species) were dominant loss processes in the first 0.8 Byr. Later, atmospheric sputtering by O+ ions resulted in the dissociation of CO2 and massive losses of O, C, and H. Formation of carbonates also reduced CO2 to its present abundance which currently exists in the atmosphere, on the polar caps, and is absorbed by regolith. Water loss is currently due to thermal escape of H and nonthermal escape of O, both formed by photodissociation of H2O. All loss processes resulted in fractionation of the H, O, and C isotopes. Therefore, the current isotope ratios in H2O and CO2 are clues to the history of volatiles on Mars. There are three tools to study H2O and CO2 isotopes in the martian atmosphere: (i) mass spectrometry from landing probes, (ii) analyses of Mars' gases trapped in the SNC meteorites which were ejected from Mars, and (iii) high-resolution spectroscopy of the H2O andCO2 bands. Method (i) is the best but is the most expensive. Mass spectrometers to be used should be designed for high-precision isotope measurements. Method (ii) makes it possible to reach an uncertainty +/- 0.1%. However, the obtained results are affected by some uncontrolled interactions: isotope fractionations of (1) trapped gases and (2) those released in pyrolysis, (3) contribution of the impactor, isotope

  7. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Mars: Recent Results and Implications for Atmospheric Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.; Owen, T. C.; Maillard, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    It is believed that Earth, Venus, and Mars were formed by the same rocky and icy planetesimals, which resembled meteorites and comets in their composition, respectively. These planets are thus expected to have initially had the same chemical and isotope composition. Scaling the mass of the terrestrial ocean by the planetary mass ratio, the expected initial H2O abundance on Mars is a layer of about 1 km thick. Scaling the abundance of CO2 on Venus, the expected initial CO2 abundance on Mars is 15 bars. Evidently, significant parts of the initial H2O and CO2 abundances have been lost. Intense meteorite impact erosion and hydrodynamic escape of hydrogen (which could drag to escape more heavy species) were dominant loss processes in the first 0.8 Byr. Later, atmospheric sputtering by O+ ions resulted in the dissociation of CO2 and massive losses of O, C, and H. Formation of carbonates also reduced CO2 to its present abundance which currently exists in the atmosphere, on the polar caps, and is absorbed by regolith. Water loss is currently due to thermal escape of H and nonthermal escape of O, both formed by photodissociation of H2O. All loss processes resulted in fractionation of the H, O, and C isotopes. Therefore, the current isotope ratios in H2O and CO2 are clues to the history of volatiles on Mars. There are three tools to study H2O and CO2 isotopes in the martian atmosphere: (i) mass spectrometry from landing probes, (ii) analyses of Mars' gases trapped in the SNC meteorites which were ejected from Mars, and (iii) high-resolution spectroscopy of the H2O andCO2 bands. Method (i) is the best but is the most expensive. Mass spectrometers to be used should be designed for high-precision isotope measurements. Method (ii) makes it possible to reach an uncertainty +/- 0.1%. However, the obtained results are affected by some uncontrolled interactions: isotope fractionations of (1) trapped gases and (2) those released in pyrolysis, (3) contribution of the impactor, isotope

  8. Extremely High Resolution Spectroscopy of Oxide Electronic Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-29

    the samples exhibited a strong super-paramagnetic signal, originating from the interface, that coexisted with superconductivity . The magnetism was...2.00 Lu Li, C. Richter, J. Mannhart, R.C. Ashoori. Coexistence of magnetic order and two-dimensional superconductivity at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces...of the material between the plates. This effect is shown in Figure 2. In semiconductor samples, the observed capacitance enhancement is one or two

  9. 130 kV High-Resolution Electron Beam Lithography System for Sub-10-nm Nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okino, Teruaki; Kuba, Yukio; Shibata, Masahiro; Ohyi, Hideyuki

    2013-06-01

    An electron beam lithography (EBL) system, CABL-UH, with a 130 kV high acceleration voltage has been developed that succeeded in minimizing beam size by minimizing Coulomb blur. This system has a short single-stage electron beam (EB) gun with an alignment function of two extractor centers to minimize Coulomb blur. This gun has also succeeded in thoroughly avoiding microdischarges. By adopting this EB gun and many other techniques, high resolution and long-term high stability have been achieved and an extremely fine pattern (4 nm line) has been delineated.

  10. Toward an image compression algorithm for the high-resolution electronic still camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nerheim, Rosalee

    1989-01-01

    Taking pictures with a camera that uses a digital recording medium instead of film has the advantage of recording and transmitting images without the use of a darkroom or a courier. However, high-resolution images contain an enormous amount of information and strain data-storage systems. Image compression will allow multiple images to be stored in the High-Resolution Electronic Still Camera. The camera is under development at Johnson Space Center. Fidelity of the reproduced image and compression speed are of tantamount importance. Lossless compression algorithms are fast and faithfully reproduce the image, but their compression ratios will be unacceptably low due to noise in the front end of the camera. Future efforts will include exploring methods that will reduce the noise in the image and increase the compression ratio.

  11. High resolution 4-D spectroscopy with sparse concentric shell sampling and FFT-CLEAN.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Brian E; Zhou, Pei

    2008-12-01

    Recent efforts to reduce the measurement time for multidimensional NMR experiments have fostered the development of a variety of new procedures for sampling and data processing. We recently described concentric ring sampling for 3-D NMR experiments, which is superior to radial sampling as input for processing by a multidimensional discrete Fourier transform. Here, we report the extension of this approach to 4-D spectroscopy as Randomized Concentric Shell Sampling (RCSS), where sampling points for the indirect dimensions are positioned on concentric shells, and where random rotations in the angular space are used to avoid coherent artifacts. With simulations, we show that RCSS produces a very low level of artifacts, even with a very limited number of sampling points. The RCSS sampling patterns can be adapted to fine rectangular grids to permit use of the Fast Fourier Transform in data processing, without an apparent increase in the artifact level. These artifacts can be further reduced to the noise level using the iterative CLEAN algorithm developed in radioastronomy. We demonstrate these methods on the high resolution 4-D HCCH-TOCSY spectrum of protein G's B1 domain, using only 1.2% of the sampling that would be needed conventionally for this resolution. The use of a multidimensional FFT instead of the slow DFT for initial data processing and for subsequent CLEAN significantly reduces the calculation time, yielding an artifact level that is on par with the level of the true spectral noise.

  12. High-Resolution K-Band Spectroscopy of MWC 480 and V1331 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najita, Joan R.; Doppmann, Greg W.; Carr, John S.; Graham, James R.; Eisner, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution (R = 25,000-35,000) K-band spectroscopy of two young stars, MWC 480 and V1331 Cyg. Earlier spectrally dispersed (R = 230) interferometric observations of MWC 480 indicated the presence of an excess continuum emission interior to the dust sublimation radius, with a spectral shape that was interpreted as evidence for hot water emission from the inner disk of MWC 480. Our spectrum of V1331 Cyg reveals strong emission from CO and hot water vapor, likely arising in a circumstellar disk. In comparison, our spectrum of MWC 480 appears mostly featureless. We discuss possible ways in which strong water emission from MWC 480 might go undetected in our data. If strong water emission is in fact absent from the inner disk, as our data suggest, the continuum excess interior to the dust sublimation radius that is detected in the interferometric data must have another origin. We discuss possible physical origins for the continuum excess. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, in part from telescope time allocated to NASA through the agency's scientific partnership with the California Institute of Technology and the University of California. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  13. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy and the fascinating angular momentum realm of the atomic nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, M. A.; Simpson, J.; Paul, E. S.

    2016-12-01

    In 1974 Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson predicted the different ‘phases’ that may be expected in deformed nuclei as a function of increasing angular momentum and excitation energy all the way up to the fission limit. While admitting their picture was highly conjectural they confidently stated ‘...with the ingenious experimental approaches that are being developed, we may look forward with excitement to the detailed spectroscopic studies that will illuminate the behaviour of the spinning quantised nucleus’. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy has indeed been a major tool in studying the structure of atomic nuclei and has witnessed numerous significant advances over the last four decades. This article will select highlights from investigations at the Niels Bohr Institute, Denmark, and Daresbury Laboratory, UK, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, some of which have continued at other national laboratories in Europe and the USA to the present day. These studies illustrate the remarkable diversity of phenomena and symmetries exhibited by nuclei in the angular momentum-excitation energy plane that continue to surprise and fascinate scientists.

  14. High resolution molecular spectroscopy in the wavelength region from 1 MM to 0.1 MM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wattenbach, R.; Nowak, R.; Densing, R.; Roeser, H.-P.; Salito, S. A.

    The main design goals toward developing a millimeter- and submillimeter-wave laboratory spectrometer are described. The source-modulation spectrometer is basically used to provide rest frequencies of rotational transitions of astrophysically interesting molecules in the frequency range from 68 to 520 GHz. As phase-locked radiation sources, millimeter-wave reflex klystrons and tunable Gunn oscillators are used. The absorption signals are detected with a new digital lock-in amplifier. The smallest peak-absorption coefficient that could be observed is 8 x 10 to the -8th inverse centimeters at 150 GHz and 2 x 10 to the -7th inverse centimeters at 225 GHz in a 400-cm free-space cell. For high-resolution spectroscopy, saturation techniques have been applied to resolve overlapping line profiles. The spectrometer is also used for testing new waveguide and quasi-optical components and complete subsystems for the Cologne 3-m radio telescope, now located at Gornergrat near Zermatt in the Swiss Alps.

  15. Surface structure of an ionic liquid with high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Ohno, A.; Suzuki, M.; Kimura, K.

    2009-02-01

    The surface of an ionic liquid, trimethylpropylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([TMPA] [TFSI]), is observed by high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HRBS). The composition depth profiles are derived from the observed HRBS spectra through spectrum simulation. The observed composition is in good agreement with the stoichiometric composition at depths larger than ∼1 nm. The observed composition profiles, however, show pronounced structures at the surface. Fluorine profile has a sharp peak at ∼0.1 nm and a broad peak at ∼1.0 nm. The sulfur profile also has a peak at ∼0.35 nm. These results indicate that the molecules show preferred orientations at the surface. From the observed profiles, it was concluded that the C1 conformer of the [TFSI] anion is dominant over the C2 conformer at the surface in contrast to bulk, where the C2 conformer is known to be dominant. It was also found that C1 conformers are oriented with their CF3 groups pointing toward the vacuum in the outermost molecular layer.

  16. Hitomi X-ray Astronomy Satellite: Power of High-Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odaka, Hirokazu

    2017-01-01

    Hitomi (ASTRO-H) is an X-ray observatory developed by an international collaboration led by JAXA. An X-ray microcalorimeter onboard this satellite has opened a new window of high-resolution spectroscopy with an unprecedented energy resolution of 5 eV (FWHM) at 6 keV. The spacecraft was launched on February 17, 2016 from Tanegashima Island, Japan, and we completed initial operations including deployment of the hard X-ray imagers on the extensible optical bench. All scientific instruments had successfully worked until the sudden loss of the mission on March 26. We have obtained a spectrum showing fully resolved emission lines through the first-light observation of the Perseus Cluster. The line-of-sight velocity dispersion of 164 +/- 10 km s-1 reveals the quiescent environment of intracluster medium at the cluster core, implying that measured cluster mass requires little correction for the turbulent pressure. We also discuss observations to the Galactic Center which could be performed with Hitomi.

  17. High-resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of metal compounds in neurodegenerative brain tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Collingwood, J.F.; Mikhaylova, A.; Davidson, M.R.; Batich, C.; Streit, W.J.; Eskin, T.; Terry, J.; Barrea, R.; Underhill, R.S.; Dobson, J.

    2008-06-16

    Fluorescence mapping and microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy are used to detect, locate and identify iron biominerals and other inorganic metal accumulations in neurodegenerative brain tissue at sub-cellular resolution (< 5 microns). Recent progress in developing the technique is reviewed. Synchrotron X-rays are used to map tissue sections for metals of interest, and XANES and XAFS are used to characterize anomalous concentrations of the metals in-situ so that they can be correlated with tissue structures and disease pathology. Iron anomalies associated with biogenic magnetite, ferritin and haemoglobin are located and identified in an avian tissue model with a pixel resolution {approx} 5 microns. Subsequent studies include brain tissue sections from transgenic Huntington's mice, and the first high-resolution mapping and identification of iron biominerals in human Alzheimer's and control autopsy brain tissue. Technical developments include use of microfocus diffraction to obtain structural information about biominerals in-situ, and depositing sample location grids by lithography for the location of anomalies by conventional microscopy. The combined techniques provide a breakthrough in the study of both intra- and extra-cellular iron compounds and related metals in tissue. The information to be gained from this approach has implications for future diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration, and for our understanding of the mechanisms involved.

  18. Tracing Supernova Enrichment of the Nearest Young Star Forming Complex with High Resolution Stellar Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubar, Eric Joseph; Mamajek, Eric E.; Pecaut, Mark

    2010-02-01

    The chemical evolution of the galaxy can be examined on a small scale locally by searching for evidence of enrichment by core collapse (type II) supernova explosions among stars belonging to the same star- forming complex. We propose to obtain high resolution spectroscopy of a sample of slowly rotating members of nearby, young stellar groups associated with the nearest star-forming complex: Scorpius-Centaurus. These spectra will be used to perform a precise spectroscopic abundance analysis to test for enrichment of the ~5 Myr-old Upper Scorpius region and neighboring regions by supernova explosions in the neighboring ~ 15 Myr-old Upper Centaurus Lupus and Lower Centaurus Crux subgroups. Enrichment by core-collapse supernovae can be traced by enhancements in oxygen and other alpha- element abundances compared to Fe-peak elements. These abundances can also be used for constraining the chemical homogeneity of members of Upper-Sco. This study will allow us to explore the processes of Galactic chemical evolution and SN enrichment on a small scale (< 0.1 kpc, <10-20 SN) in a complex with a relatively well constrained star formation history and high mass stellar membership.

  19. High-contrast imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy observation of exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji; Mawet, Dimitri; Hu, Renyu; Benneke, Björn

    2016-08-01

    Detection and characterization of exoplanets faces challenges of smaller angular separation and high contrast between exoplanets and their host stars. High contrast imaging (HCI) instruments equipped with coronagraphs are built to meet these challenges, providing a way of spatially suppressing and separating stellar flux from that of a planet. Another way of separating stellar flux can be achieved by high-resolution spectroscopy (HRS), exploiting the fact that spectral features are different between a star and a planet. Observing exoplanets with HCI+HRS will achieve a higher contrast than the spatial or the spectroscopic method alone, improving the sensitivity to planet detection and enabling the study of the physical and chemical processes. Here, we simulate the performance of a HCI+HRS instrument (i.e., the upgrade Keck NIRSPEC and the fiber injection unit) to study its potential in detecting and characterizing currently known directly imaged planets. The simulation considers the spectral information content of an exoplanet, telescope and instrument specifications and realistic noise sources. The result of the simulation helps to set system requirement and informs designs at system-level. We also perform a trade study for a HCI+HRS instrument for a space mission to study an Earth-like planet orbiting a Sun-like star at 10 pc.

  20. HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF [Ne II] EMISSION FROM AA Tau AND GM Aur

    SciTech Connect

    Najita, Joan R.; Doppmann, Greg W.; Bitner, Martin A.; Richter, Matthew J.; Lacy, John H.; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Carr, John S.; Meijerink, Rowin; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Glassgold, Alfred E.

    2009-05-20

    We present high-resolution (R = 80,000) spectroscopy of [Ne II] emission from two young stars, GM Aur and AA Tau, which have moderate to high inclinations. The emission from both sources appears centered near the stellar velocity and is broader than the [Ne II] emission measured previously for the face-on disk system TW Hya. These properties are consistent with a disk origin for the [Ne II] emission we detect, with disk rotation (rather than photoevaporation or turbulence in a hot disk atmosphere) playing the dominant role in the origin of the line width. In the non-face-on systems, the [Ne II] emission is narrower than the CO fundamental emission from the same sources. If the widths of both diagnostics are dominated by Keplerian rotation, this suggests that the [Ne II] emission arises from larger disk radii on average than does the CO emission. The equivalent width of the [Ne II] emission we detect is less than that of the spectrally unresolved [Ne II] feature in the Spitzer spectra of the same sources. Variability in the [Ne II] emission or the mid-infrared continuum, a spatially extended [Ne II] component, or a very (spectrally) broad [Ne II] component might account for the difference in the equivalent widths.

  1. High-resolution laser spectroscopy of ultracold ytterbium atoms using spin-forbidden electric quadrupole transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uetake, S.; Yamaguchi, A.; Hashimoto, D.; Takahashi, Y.

    2008-11-01

    We have successfully observed high-resolution spectra of spin-forbidden electric quadrupole transition (1 S 0→3 D 2) in ytterbium (174Yb) atoms. The differential light shifts between the 1 S 0 and the 3 D 2 states in a far-off resonant trap at 532 nm are also measured. For the spectroscopy, we developed simple, narrow-linewidth, and long-term frequency stabilized violet diode laser systems. Long-term drifts of the excitation laser (404 nm) is suppressed by locking the laser to a length stabilized optical cavity. The optical path length of the cavity is stabilized to another diode laser whose frequency is locked to a strong 1 S 0→1 P 1 transition (399 nm) of Yb. Both lasers are standard extended-cavity diode lasers (ECDLs) in the Littrow configuration. Since the linewidth of a violet ECDL (˜10 MHz) is broader than a typical value of a red or near infra-red ECDL (<1 MHz), we employ optical feedback from a narrow-band Fabry-Perot cavity to reduce the linewidth. The linewidth is expected to be <20 kHz for 1 ms averaging time, and the long-term frequency stability is estimated to be ˜200 kHz/h.

  2. Triplet states in isotopically mixed anthracene crystals: High resolution optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Port, H.; Rund, D.; Wolf, H. C.

    1981-08-01

    The triplet O,O transitions of guest and host in isotopically mixed anthracene crystals of various compositions (A- h10, 13C-monosubstituted A- h10, A- d1h9, A- d2hg in A- d10 and A- d10 in A- h10) have been investigated using high resolution laser excitation spectroscopy. The guest aggregate spectra have been studied in polarized light as a function of guest concentration up to 15%. The analyses allow us to identify the monomer, dimer and trimer lines. From the dimer splittings the dominant resonance pair interactions are dedu The comparison of different mixed crystal systems with guest levels below and above the host exciton band reveals that quasiresonance and superexchange corrections are of minor importance. The experimental resonance pair interactions are used to calculate the triplet exciton band structure of anthracen and the observed guest polarization behaviour is interpreted quantitatively by the Rashba effect. Finally, the lower Davydov component of the host is s and broadened with increasing guest concentration. The shift is discussed using a theoretical model of Lifshitz.

  3. High-resolution Spectroscopy and Spectropolarimetry of Selected δ-Sct Pulsating Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Santosh; Semenko, Eugene; Moiseeva, A.; Sharma, Kaushal; Joshi, Y. C.; Sachkov, M.; Singh, Harinder P.; Yerra, Bharat Kumar

    2017-05-01

    The combination of photometry, spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry of the chemically peculiar stars often aims to study the complex physical phenomena such as stellar pulsation, chemical inhomogeneity, magnetic field and their interplay with stellar atmosphere and circumstellar environment. The prime objective of this study is to determine the atmospheric parameters of a set of Am stars to understand their evolutionary status. Atmospheric abundances and basic parameters are determined using full spectrum fitting technique by comparing the high-resolution spectra to the synthetic spectra. To know the evolutionary status, we derive the effective temperature and luminosity from different methods and compare them with the literature. The location of these stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram demonstrates that all the sample stars are evolved from the zero-age main sequence towards terminal-age main sequence and occupy the region of δ Sct instability strip. The abundance analysis shows that the light elements e.g. Ca and Sc are underabundant while iron peak elements such as Ba, Ce, etc. are overabundant and these chemical properties are typical for Am stars. The results obtained from the spectropolarimetric analysis of our studied stars show that the longitudinal magnetic field is negligible in all of them, which further support to their Am class of peculiarity.

  4. High-resolution spectroscopy of the extremely iron-poor post-AGB star CC Lyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Wako; Matsuno, Tadafumi; Honda, Satoshi; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; Li, Haining; Suda, Takuma

    2017-04-01

    High-resolution optical spectroscopy was conducted for the metal-poor post-AGB star CC Lyr to determine its chemical abundances and spectral line profiles. Our standard abundance analysis confirms its extremely low metallicity ([Fe/H] < -3.5) and a clear correlation between abundance ratios and the condensation temperature for 11 elements, indicating that dust depletion is the cause of the abundance anomaly of this object. The very low abundances of Sr and Ba, which are detected for the first time for this object, suggest that heavy neutron-capture elements are not significantly enhanced in this object by the s-process during its evolution through the AGB phase. The radial velocity of this object and profiles of some atomic absorption lines show variations depending on pulsation phases, which could be formed by dynamics of the atmosphere rather than by binarity or contributions of circumstellar absorption. On the other hand, the Hα emission with double peaks shows no evident velocity shift, suggesting that the emission is originating from the circumstellar matter, presumably the rotating disk around the object.

  5. High-resolution spectroscopy on the laser-cooling candidate La^{-}.

    PubMed

    Jordan, E; Cerchiari, G; Fritzsche, S; Kellerbauer, A

    2015-09-11

    The bound-bound transition from the 5d^{2}6s^{2} ^{3}F_{2}^{e} ground state to the 5d6s^{2}6p ^{3}D_{1}^{o} excited state in negative lanthanum has been proposed as a candidate for laser cooling, which has not yet been achieved for negative ions. Anion laser cooling holds the potential to allow the production of ultracold ensembles of any negatively charged species. We have studied the aforementioned transition in a beam of negative La ions by high-resolution laser spectroscopy. The center-of-gravity frequency was measured to be 96.592 80(10) THz. Seven of the nine expected hyperfine structure transitions were resolved. The observed peaks were unambiguously assigned to the predicted hyperfine transitions by a fit, confirmed by multiconfigurational self-consistent field calculations. From the determined hyperfine structure we conclude that La^{-} is a promising laser cooling candidate. Using this transition, only three laser beams would be required to repump all hyperfine levels of the ground state.

  6. High-resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of metal compounds in neurodegenerative brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collingwood, J. F.; Mikhaylova, A.; Davidson, M. R.; Batich, C.; Streit, W. J.; Eskin, T.; Terry, J.; Barrea, R.; Underhill, R. S.; Dobson, J.

    2005-01-01

    Fluorescence mapping and microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy are used to detect, locate and identify iron biominerals and other inorganic metal accumulations in neurodegenerative brain tissue at sub-cellular resolution (<5 microns). Recent progress in developing the technique is reviewed. Synchrotron X-rays are used to map tissue sections for metals of interest, and XANES and XAFS are used to characterise anomalous concentrations of the metals in-situ so that they can be correlated with tissue structures and disease pathology. Iron anomalies associated with biogenic magnetite, ferritin and haemoglobin are located and identified in an avian tissue model with a pixel resolution ~5 microns. Subsequent studies include brain tissue sections from transgenic Huntington's mice, and the first high-resolution mapping and identification of iron biominerals in human Alzheimer's and control autopsy brain tissue. Technical developments include use of microfocus diffraction to obtain structural information about biominerals in-situ, and depositing sample location grids by lithography for the location of anomalies by conventional microscopy. The combined techniques provide a breakthrough in the study of both intra- and extra-cellular iron compounds and related metals in tissue. The information to be gained from this approach has implications for future diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration, and for our understanding of the mechanisms involved.

  7. Spectral characteristics of chlorites and Mg-serpentines using high- resolution reflectance spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, T.V.V.; Clark, R.N.

    1989-01-01

    The present laboratory study using high-resolution reflectance spectroscopy (0.25-2.7 ??m) focuses on two primary phyllosilicate groups, serpentines and chlorites. The results show that it is possible to spectrally distinguish between isochemical end-members of the Mg-rich serpentine group (chrysotile, antigorite, and lizardite) and to recognize spectral variations in chlorites as a function of Fe/Mg ratio (~8-38 wt% Fe). The position and relative strength of the 1.4-??m absorption feature in the trioctahedral chlorites appear to be correlated to the total iron content and/or the Mg/Si ratio and the loss on ignition values of the sample. Spectral differences in the 2.3-??m wavelength region can be attributed to differences in lattice environments and are characteristic for specific trioctahedral chlorites. The 1.4-??m feature in the isochemical Mg-rich serpentines (total iron content ~1.5-7.0 wt%) show marked spectral differences, apparently due to structural differences. -Authors

  8. Practical high resolution detection method for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew J. Effenberger Jr; Jill R. Scott

    2012-02-01

    A Fabry-Perot etalon was coupled to a Czerny-Turner spectrometer to acquire high-resolution measurements in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The spectrometer was built using an inexpensive etalon coupled to a standard 0.5-m imaging spectrometer. The Hg emission doublet at 313.2 nm was used to evaluate instrument performance because it has a splitting of 29 pm. The 313.2 nm doublet was chosen due to the similar splitting seen in isotope splitting from uranium at 424.437 nm, which is 25 pm. The Hg doublet was easily resolved from a continuous source Hg-lamp with a 2 s acquisition. The doublet was also resolved in LIBS spectra of cinnabar (HgS) from the accumulation of 600 laser shots at rate of 10 Hz, or 1 min, under a helium atmosphere. In addition to observed spitting of the 313.2 nm Hg doublet, the FWHM of the 313.1844 nm line from the doublet is reported at varying He atmospheric pressures. The high performance, low cost, and compact footprint makes this system highly competitive with 2-m double pass Czerny-Turner spectrometers.

  9. High-resolution Spectroscopy and Spectropolarimetry of Selected δ-Sct Pulsating Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Santosh; Semenko, Eugene; Moiseeva, A.; Sharma, Kaushal; Joshi, Y. C.; Sachkov, M.; Singh, Harinder P.; Kumar, Yerra Bharat

    2017-01-01

    The combination of photometry, spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry of the chemically peculiar stars often aims to study the complex physical phenomena such as stellar pulsation, chemical inhomogeneity, magnetic field and their interplay with stellar atmosphere and circumstellar environment. The prime objective of the present study is to determine the atmospheric parameters of a set of Am stars to understand their evolutionary status. Atmospheric abundances and basic parameters are determined using full spectrum fitting technique by comparing the high-resolution spectra to the synthetic spectra. To know the evolutionary status we derive the effective temperature and luminosity from different methods and compare them with the literature. The location of these stars in the H-R diagram demonstrate that all the sample stars are evolved from the Zero-Age-Main-Sequence towards Terminal-Age-Main-Sequence and occupy the region of δ Sct instability strip. The abundance analysis shows that the light elements e.g. Ca and Sc are underabundant while iron peak elements such as Ba, Ce etc. are overabundant and these chemical properties are typical for Am stars. The results obtained from the spectropolarimetric analysis shows that the longitudinal magnetic fields in all the studied stars are negligible that gives further support their Am class of peculiarity.

  10. Quantitative neuropathology by high resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, L. L.; Ma, M. J.; Becerra, L.; Ptak, T.; Tracey, I.; Lackner, A.; González, R. G.

    1997-01-01

    We describe a method that directly relates tissue neuropathological analysis to medical imaging. Presently, only indirect and often tenuous relationships are made between imaging (such as MRI or x-ray computed tomography) and neuropathology. We present a biochemistry-based, quantitative neuropathological method that can help to precisely quantify information provided by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS), an emerging medical imaging technique. This method, high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) 1HMRS, is rapid and requires only small amounts of unprocessed samples. Unlike chemical extraction or other forms of tissue processing, this method analyzes tissue directly, thus minimizing artifacts. We demonstrate the utility of this method by assessing neuronal damage using multiple tissue samples from differently affected brain regions in a case of Pick disease, a human neurodegenerative disorder. Among different regions, we found an excellent correlation between neuronal loss shown by traditional neurohistopathology and decrease of the neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate measured by HRMAS 1HMRS. This result demonstrates for the first time, to our knowledge, a direct, quantitative link between a decrease in N-acetylaspartate and neuronal loss in a human neurodegenerative disease. As a quantitative method, HRMAS 1HMRS has potential applications in experimental and clinical neuropathologic investigations. It should also provide a rational basis for the interpretation of in vivo 1HMRS studies of human neurological disorders. PMID:9177231

  11. Differentiating brown and white adipose tissues by high-resolution diffusion NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sanjay Kumar; Nagashima, Kaz; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Michael, Navin; Lee, Swee Shean; Xianfeng, Tian; Gopalan, Venkatesh; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Anantharaj, Rengaraj; Velan, S Sendhil

    2017-01-01

    There are two types of fat tissues, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which essentially perform opposite functions in whole body energy metabolism. There is a large interest in identifying novel biophysical properties of WAT and BAT by a quantitative and easy-to-run technique. In this work, we used high-resolution pulsed field gradient diffusion NMR spectroscopy to study the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of fat molecules in rat BAT and WAT samples. The ADC of fat in BAT and WAT from rats fed with a chow diet was compared with that of rats fed with a high-fat diet to monitor how the diffusion properties change due to obesity-associated parameters such as lipid droplet size, fatty acid chain length, and saturation. Feeding a high-fat diet resulted in increased saturation, increased chain lengths, and reduced ADC of fat in WAT. The ADC of fat was lower in BAT relative to WAT in rats fed both chow and high-fat diets. Diffusion of fat was restricted in BAT due to the presence of small multilocular lipid droplets. Our findings indicate that in vivo diffusion might be a potential way for better delineation of BAT and WAT in both lean and obese states.

  12. High-efficiency blazed transmission gratings for high-resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2015-09-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy of astrophysical sources is the key to gaining a quantitative understanding of the history, dynamics, and current conditions of the cosmos. A large-area (> 1,000 cm2), high resolving power (R = λ/Δλ> 3000) soft x-ray grating spectrometer (XGS) that covers the lines of C, N, O, Ne and Fe ions is the ideal tool to address a number of high-priority science questions from the 2010 Decadal Survey, such as the connection between super-massive black holes and large-scale structure via cosmic feedback, the evolution of large- scale structure, the behavior of matter at high densities, and the conditions close to black holes. While no grating missions or instruments are currently approved, an XGS aboard a potential future X-ray Surveyor could easily surpass the above performance metrics. To improve the chances for future soft x-ray grating spectroscopy missions or instruments, grating technology has to progress and advance to higher Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). To that end we have developed Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) gratings that combine the advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher diffraction orders) with those of conventional transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed alignment tolerances and temperature requirements, high transparency at higher energies). A CAT grating-based spectrometer can provide performance 1-2 orders of magnitude better than current grating instruments on Chandra and Newton-XMM with minimal resource requirements. At present we have fabricated large-area freestanding CAT gratings with narrow integrated support structures from silicon-on- insulator wafers using advanced lithography and a combination of deep reactive-ion and wet etching. Our latest x-ray test results show record high absolute diffraction efficiencies in blazed orders in excess of 30% with room for improvement.

  13. Metabolomic Analysis of Rat Brain by High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Tissue Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Norbert W.; Béraud, Evelyne; Cozzone, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of gene expression on the RNA and protein levels have long been used to explore biological processes underlying disease. More recently, genomics and proteomics have been complemented by comprehensive quantitative analysis of the metabolite pool present in biological systems. This strategy, termed metabolomics, strives to provide a global characterization of the small-molecule complement involved in metabolism. While the genome and the proteome define the tasks cells can perform, the metabolome is part of the actual phenotype. Among the methods currently used in metabolomics, spectroscopic techniques are of special interest because they allow one to simultaneously analyze a large number of metabolites without prior selection for specific biochemical pathways, thus enabling a broad unbiased approach. Here, an optimized experimental protocol for metabolomic analysis by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy is presented, which is the method of choice for efficient quantification of tissue metabolites. Important strengths of this method are (i) the use of crude extracts, without the need to purify the sample and/or separate metabolites; (ii) the intrinsically quantitative nature of NMR, permitting quantitation of all metabolites represented by an NMR spectrum with one reference compound only; and (iii) the nondestructive nature of NMR enabling repeated use of the same sample for multiple measurements. The dynamic range of metabolite concentrations that can be covered is considerable due to the linear response of NMR signals, although metabolites occurring at extremely low concentrations may be difficult to detect. For the least abundant compounds, the highly sensitive mass spectrometry method may be advantageous although this technique requires more intricate sample preparation and quantification procedures than NMR spectroscopy. We present here an NMR protocol adjusted to rat brain analysis; however, the same protocol can be applied to other tissues with minor

  14. High-efficiency blazed transmission gratings for high-resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopy of astrophysical sources is the key to gaining a quantitative understanding of the history, dynamics, and current conditions of the cosmos. A large-area (> 1,000 cm2), high resolving power (R = λ/Δλ > 3,000) soft x-ray spectrometer that covers the lines of C, N, O, Ne and Fe ions is the ideal tool to address a number of high-priority sciences questions from the 2010 Decadal Survey, such as the connection between super-massive black holes and large-scale structure via cosmic feedback, the evolution of large-scale structure, the behavior of matter at high densities, and the conditions close to black holes. Numerous mission concepts that meet these requirements have been studied and proposed over the last few years, including grating instruments for the International X-ray Observatory. Nevertheless, no grating missions are currently approved. To improve the chances for future soft x-ray grating spectroscopy missions, grating technology has to progress and be advanced to higher TRLs. We have developed Critical-Angle Transmission (CAT) gratings that combine the advantages of blazed reflection gratings (high efficiency, use of higher diffraction orders) with those of conventional transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed alignment tolerances and temperature requirements, transparent at higher energies). A CAT grating-based spectrometer can provide performance 1-2 orders of magnitude better than current grating instruments on Chandra and Newton-XMM with minimal resource requirements. We have fabricated large-area free-standing CAT gratings with minimal integrated support structures from silicon-on-insulator wafers using advanced lithography and a combination of deep reactive-ion and wet etching, and will present our latest x-ray test results showing record high diffraction efficiencies in blazed orders.

  15. High-Resolution Dual-Comb Spectroscopy with Ultra-Low Noise Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsel, Wolfgang; Giunta, Michele; Beha, Katja; Perry, Adam J.; Holzwarth, R.

    2017-06-01

    Dual-comb spectroscopy is a powerful tool for fast broad-band spectroscopy due to the parallel interrogation of thousands of spectral lines. Here we report on the spectroscopic analysis of acetylene vapor in a pressurized gas cell using two ultra-low noise frequency combs with a repetition rate around 250 MHz. Optical referencing to a high-finesse cavity yields a sub-Hertz stability of all individual comb lines (including the virtual comb lines between 0 Hz and the carrier) and permits one to pick a small difference of repetition rate for the two frequency combs on the order of 300 Hz, thus representing an optical spectrum of 100 THz (˜3300 \\wn) within half the free spectral range (125 MHz). The transmission signal is derived straight from a photodetector and recorded with a high-resolution spectrum analyzer or digitized with a computer-controlled AD converter. The figure to the right shows a schematic of the experimental setup which is all fiber-coupled with polarization-maintaining fiber except for the spectroscopic cell. The graph on the lower right reveals a portion of the recorded radio-frequency spectrum which has been scaled to the optical domain. The location of the measured absorption coincides well with data taken from the HITRAN data base. Due to the intrinsic linewidth of all contributing comb lines, each sampling point in the transmission graph corresponds to the probing at an optical frequency with sub-Hertz resolution. This resolution is maintained in coherent wavelength conversion processes such as difference-frequency generation (DFG), sum-frequency generation (SFG) or non-linear broadening (self-phase modulation), and is therefore easily transferred to a wide spectral range from the mid infrared up to the visible spectrum.

  16. High-Resolution Infrared and Electron-Diffraction Studies of Trimethylenecyclopropane ([3]-Radialene)

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Corey; Holmes, Joshua; Nibler, Joseph W.; Hedberg, Kenneth; White, James D.; Hedberg, Lise; Weber, Alfons; Blake, Thomas A.

    2013-05-16

    Combined high-resolution spectroscopic, electron-diffraction, and quantum theoretical methods are particularly advantageous for small molecules of high symmetry and can yield accurate structures that reveal subtle effects of electron delocalization on molecular bonds. The smallest of the radialene compounds, trimethylenecyclopropane, [3]-radialene, has been synthesized and examined in the gas phase by these methods. The first high-resolution infrared spectra have been obtained for this molecule of D3h symmetry, leading to an accurate B0 rotational constant value of 0.1378629(8) cm-1, within 0.5% of the value obtained from electronic structure calculations (density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP/cc-pVTZ). This result is employed in an analysis of electron-diffraction data to obtain the rz bond lengths (in Å): C-H = 1.072 (17), C-C = 1.437 (4), and C=C = 1.330 (4). The analysis does not lead to an accurate value of the HCH angle; however, from comparisons of theoretical and experimental angles for similar compounds, the theoretical prediction of 117.5° is believed to be reliable to within 2°. The effect of electron delocalization in radialene is to reduce the single C-C bond length by 0.07 Å compared to that in cyclopropane.

  17. High-resolution photoelectron imaging spectroscopy of cryogenically cooled Fe4O- and Fe5O-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichman, Marissa L.; DeVine, Jessalyn A.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2016-08-01

    We report high-resolution photodetachment spectra of the cryogenically cooled iron monoxide clusters Fe4O- and Fe5O- obtained with slow photoelectron velocity-map imaging (cryo-SEVI). Well-resolved vibrational progressions are observed in both sets of spectra, and transitions to low-lying excited states of both species are seen. In order to identify the structural isomers, electronic states, and vibrational modes that contribute to the cryo-SEVI spectra of these clusters, experimental results are compared with density functional theory calculations and Franck-Condon simulations. The main bands observed in the SEVI spectra are assigned to the 15A2←16B2 photodetachment transition of Fe4O- and the 17A'←18A″ photodetachment transition of Fe5O-. We report electron affinities of 1.6980(3) eV for Fe4O and 1.8616(3) eV for Fe5O, although there is some uncertainty as to whether the 15A2 state is the true ground state of Fe4O. The iron atoms have a distorted tetrahedral geometry in Fe4O0/- and a distorted trigonal-bipyramidal arrangement in Fe5O0/-. For both neutral and anionic species, the oxygen atom preferably binds in a μ2-oxo configuration along the cluster edge. This finding is in contrast to prior predictions that Fe5O0/- exhibits a μ3 face-bound structure.

  18. Probing Conditions at Ionized/Molecular Gas Interfaces With High Resolution Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Kyle Franklin

    2017-08-01

    Regions of star formation and star death in our Galaxy trace the cycle of gas and dust in the interstellar medium (ISM). Gas in dense molecular clouds collapses to form stars, and stars at the end of their lives return the gas that made up their outer layers back out into the Galaxy. Hot stars generate copious amounts of ultraviolet photons which interact with the surrounding medium and dominate the energetics, ionization state, and chemistry of the gas. The interface where molecular gas is being dissociated into neutral atomic gas by far-UV photons from a nearby hot source is called a photodissociation or photon-dominated region (PDR). PDRs are found primarily in star forming regions where O and B stars serve as the source of UV photons, and in planetary nebulae where the hot core of the dying star acts as the UV source. The main target of this dissertation is molecular hydrogen (H2), the most abundant molecule in the Universe, made from hydrogen formed during the Big Bang. H2 makes up the overwhelming majority of molecules found in the ISM and in PDRs. Far-UV radiation absorbed by H2 will excite an electron in the molecule. The molecule then either dissociates ( 10% of the time; Field et al. 1966) or decays into excited rotational and vibrational ("rovibrational") levels of the electronic ground state. These excited rovibrational levels then decay via a radiative cascade to the ground rovibrational state (v = 0, J = 0), giving rise to a large number of transitions observable in emission from the mid-IR to the optical (Black & van Dishoeck, 1987). These transitions provide an excellent probe of the excitation and conditions within the gas. These transitions are also observed in warm H2, such as in shocks, where collisions excite H2 to higher rovibrational levels. High resolution near-infrared spectroscopy, with its ability to see through dust, and avoid telluric absorption and emission, serves as an effective tool to detect emission from ions, atoms, and molecules

  19. High Resolution Imaging Spectroscopy for Characterizing Soil Properties over Large Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, D.; Kumar, P.

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative mapping of high resolution surface soil texture (percentage sand, silt and clay), soil organic matter and chemical constituents are important for understanding infiltration, runoff and other surficial hydrologic processes at different scales. The Visible Near Infrared Analysis (VNIRA) method, which is a combination of imaging spectroscopy and laboratory chemical analysis with an underlying statistical model, has been established for the quantification of soil properties from imaging spectrometer data. In this study we characterize the feasibility of quantifying soil properties over large areas with the aim that these methods may be extended to space-borne sensors such as HyspIRI. Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is a space-borne NASA mission concept having 10nm contiguous bands in the VSWIR region (380nm to 2500nm) of the electromagnetic spectra. High resolution (7.6m) Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected by NASA immediately after the massive 2011 Mississippi River floods at the Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway, coupled with in situ samples obtained at the time of the flight, is used to generate HyspIRI like data at 60m resolution. The VNIRA method is applied in a data-mining framework for quantification of the different soil textural properties and chemical constituents. The empirical models are further used for creating quantitative maps of the soil properties for the entire BPNM floodway. These maps are compared with the fine resolution AVIRIS maps of the same area for the different legacy landscape features and spatial correlations with the underlying topography immediately disturbed by the flooding event. The scales of variation in the soil constituents captured by the fine resolution data are also compared to the scales of variation captured by coarser resolution data. This study further explores the issues of applicability, challenges (such as the sensitivity of NDVI from mixed neighborhood pixels

  20. High-resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy of iron carbonyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Andrew J; Bauer, Matthias; Jacob, Christoph R

    2015-06-07

    We apply high-energy-resolution fluorescence-detected (HERFD) X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) to study iron carbonyl complexes. Mono-, bi-, and tri-nuclear carbonyl complexes and pure carbonyl complexes as well as carbonyl complexes containing hydrocarbon ligands are considered. The HERFD-XANES spectra reveal multiple pre-edge peaks with individual signatures for each complex, which could not be detected previously with conventional XANES spectroscopy. These peaks are assigned and analysed with the help of TD-DFT calculations. We demonstrate that the pre-edge peaks can be used to distinguish the different types of iron-iron interactions in carbonyl complexes. This opens up new possibilities for applying HERFD-XANES spectroscopy to probe the electronic structure of iron catalysts.

  1. Experiments with the High Resolution Kaon Spectrometer at Jlab Hall C and the New Spectroscopy of ^12_Lambda B Hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Liguang; Chen, Chunhua; Gogami, Toshiyuki; Kawama, Daisuke; Han, Yuncheng; Yuan, Lulin; Matsumura, Akihiko; Okayasu, Yuichi; Seva, Tomislav; Rodriguez, Victor; Baturin, Pavlo; Acha Quimper, Armando; Achenbach, Carsten; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Albayrak, Ibrahim; Androic, Darko; Asaturyan, Arshak; Asaturyan, Razmik; Ates, Ozgur; Badui, Rafael; Baker, Oliver; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Boeglin, Werner; Bono, Jason; Bosted, Peter; Brash, Edward; Carter, Philip; Carlini, Roger; Chiba, Atsushi; Christy, Michael; Cole, Leon; Dalton, Mark; Danagoulian, Samuel; Daniel, Aji; De Leo, Raffaele; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Doi, Daisuke; Egiyan, Kim; Elaasar, Mostafa; Ent, Rolf; Fenker, Howard; Fujii, Yu; Furic, Miroslav; Gabrielyan, Marianna; Gan, Liping; Garibaldi, Franco; Gaskell, David; Gasparian, Ashot; Gibson, Edward; Gueye, Paul; Hashimoto, Osamu; Honda, D; Horn, Tanja; Hu, Bitao; Hungerford, Ed; Jayalath, Chandana; Jones, Mark; Johnston, Kathleen; Kalantarians, Narbe; Kanda, Hiroki; Kaneta, M; Kato, F; Kato, Seigo; Kawai, Masaharu; Keppel, Cynthia; Khanal, Hari; Kohl, M; Kramer, Laird; Lan, Kejian; Li, Ya; Habarakada Liyanage, Anusha; Luo, Wei; Mack, David; Maeda, Kazushige; Malace, Simona; Margaryan, Amur; Marikyan, Gagik; Markowitz, Pete; Maruta, Tomofumi; Maruyama, Nayuta; Maxwell, Victor; Millener, David; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Mkrtchyan, Arthur; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Motoba, Toshio; Nagao, Sho; Nakamura, Satoshi; Narayan, Amrendra; Neville, Casey; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria; Nunez, Angel; Nuruzzaman, nfn; Nomura, Hiroshi; Nonaka, Kenichi; Ohtani, Atsushi; Oyamada, Masamichi; Perez, Naipy; Petkovic, Tomislav; Pochodzalla, J; Qiu, Xiyu; Randeniya, Kapugodage; Raue, Brian; Reinhold, Joerg; Rivera, R; Roche, Julie; Samanta, Chhanda; Sato, Yoshinori; Sawatzky, Bradley; Segbefia, Edwin; Schott, Diane; Shichijo, Ayako; Simicevic, Neven; Smith, Gregory; Song, Yushou; Sumihama, Mizuki; Tadevosyan, Vardan; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Taniya, Naotaka; Tsukada, Kyo; Tvaskis, Vladas; Veilleux, Micah; Vulcan, William; Wells, Steven; Wesselmann, Frank; Wood, Stephen; Yamamoto, Taku; Yan, Chen; Ye, Z; Yokota, Kosuke; Zhamkochyan, Simon; Zhu, Lingyan

    2014-09-01

    Since the pioneering experiment, E89-009 studying hypernuclear spectroscopy using the $(e,e^{\\prime}K^+)$ reaction was completed, two additional experiments, E01-011 and E05-115, were performed at Jefferson Lab. These later experiments used a modified experimental design, the "Tilt Method", to dramatically suppress the large electromagnetic background, and allowed for a substantial increase in luminosity. Additionally, a new kaon spectrometer, HKS (E01-011), a new electron spectrometer, HES, and a new splitting magnet were added to produce precision, high-resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy. These two experiments, E01-011 and E05-115, resulted in two new data sets, producing sub-MeV energy resolution in the spectra of ${}^{7}_{\\Lambda}\\text{He}$, ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ and ${}^{28}_{\\Lambda} \\text{Al}$ and ${}^{7}_{\\Lambda}\\text{He}$, ${}^{10}_{\\Lambda}\\text{Be}$, ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ and ${}^{52}_{\\Lambda}\\text{V}$. All three experiments obtained a ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$, spectrum, which is the most characteristic $p$-shell hypernucleus and is commonly used for calibration. Independent analyses of these different experiments demonstrate excellent consistency and provide the clearest level structure to date of this hypernucleus as produced by the $(e,e^{\\prime}K^+)$ reaction. This paper presents details of these experiments, and the extraction and analysis of the observed ${}^{12}_{\\Lambda}\\text{B}$ spectrum.

  2. Characterization of carbonaceous meteoritic fragments found in Antarctica by high-resolution Raman spectroscopy and SEM/EDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall Asen, Analia; Baer, Brandon; Mittelstaedt, Jake; Gerton, Jordan; Bromley, Benjamin; Kenyon, Scott

    2016-03-01

    Carbonaceous chondritic meteorites are composed mainly of chondrules (micro/millimeter-sized inclusions) surrounding by a matrix of microparticles, and are considered the most primitive surviving materials from the early Solar System. Understanding their properties and history may provide clues to the formation of planets from micron-size dust grains in the Solar nebula. Our approach is to study the structure and composition of carbonaceous chondrites with high-resolution micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. These techniques enable us to capture details on a wide range of spatial scales, from micrometers to millimeters. Here we provide the first analysis of a set of meteorite fragments from Antarctica (MIL 07002 and ALH 84028), mapping elemental and molecular abundances, as well as large-scale morphological features. We present characterizations of individual chondrules and the surrounding matrix, and we consider on how our findings reflect physical processes believed to be operating during the early stages of planet formation.

  3. Live correlative light-electron microscopy to observe molecular dynamics in high resolution.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shouhei; Iwamoto, Masaaki; Haraguchi, Tokuko

    2016-08-01

    Fluorescence microscopy (FM) is a powerful tool for observing specific molecular components in living cells, but its spatial resolution is relatively low. In contrast, electron microscopy (EM) provides high-resolution information about cellular structures, but it cannot provide temporal information in living cells. To achieve molecular selectivity in imaging at high resolution, a method combining EM imaging with live-cell fluorescence imaging, known as live correlative light-EM (CLEM), has been developed. In this method, living cells are first observed by FM, fixed in situ during the live observation and then subjected to EM observation. Various fluorescence techniques and tools can be applied for FM, resulting in the generation of various modified methods that are useful for understanding cellular structure in high resolution. Here, we review the methods of CLEM and live-cell imaging associated with CLEM (live CLEM). Such methods can greatly advance the understanding of the function of cellular structures on a molecular level, and thus are useful for medical fields as well as for basic biology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. High-Resolution Imaging and Spectroscopy at High Pressure: A Novel Liquid Cell for the TEM

    PubMed Central

    Tanase, Mihaela; Winterstein, Jonathan; Sharma, Renu; Aksyuk, Vladimir; Holland, Glenn; Liddle, J. Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate quantitative core-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopy of iron oxide nanoparticles and imaging resolution of Ag nanoparticles in liquid down to 0.24 nm, in both transmission and scanning-transmission modes, in a novel, monolithic liquid cell developed for the transmission electron microscope (TEM). At typical SiN membrane thicknesses of 50 nm the liquid layer thickness has a maximum change of only 30 nm for the entire TEM viewing area of 200 μm × 200 μm. PMID:26650072

  5. High-resolution infrared spectroscopy of ethane in Titan's stratosphere in the Huygens epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, T. A.; Kostiuk, T.; Sonnabend, G.; Annen, J. N.; Fast, K. E.; Tokunaga, A.; Murakawa, K.; Hewagama, T.; Schmülling, F.; Schieder, R.

    2006-11-01

    High-resolution infrared spectroscopy of ethane (C2H6) emission features formed in the stratosphere of Titan was collected on disc center at 11.74 μm wavelength (851 cm-1) on 15 January 2005 UT. The observations were obtained at the Subaru 8.2 m telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Winds and Composition (HIPWAC). Fully resolved rotational-vibrational transitions of C2H6 were measured with resolving power λ/Δλ >= 106 by infrared heterodyne spectroscopy (IRHS). The spectrum is reproduced most effectively by vertical profiles of ethane abundance that are uniform through the stratosphere and enhanced within the mesosphere. Profiles in which there is a significant gradient within the stratosphere are not favored. The retrieved stratospheric ethane mole fraction depends weakly on the form invoked for the mesospheric enhancement. Two forms of the ethane mole fraction profile are found to reproduce the observed spectrum effectively: the best fitting results are obtained with a profile in which the mesospheric ethane concentration increases logarithmically versus decreasing pressure, retrieving a stratospheric ethane concentration of 8.2 +/- 2.1 × 10-6 (1σ), increasing proportional to p-1.2 from the stratopause through the mesosphere (p is pressure). A second form of profile, in which the mesospheric ethane concentration is enhanced uniformly by a factor of 9.5, retrieves a stratospheric concentration of 9.7 +/- 4.9 × 10-6 (1σ), with the enhancement discontinuity at about one scale height above the stratopause. The retrieved stratospheric mole fraction is consistent with earlier retrievals from IRHS and is somewhat less than contemporaneous retrievals from infrared spectroscopy at lower resolution by the Cassini spacecraft. The retrieved mesospheric concentration is consistent with in situ measurements in Titan's thermosphere made by the

  6. Accurate protein crystallography at ultra-high resolution: Valence electron distribution in crambin

    PubMed Central

    Jelsch, Christian; Teeter, Martha M.; Lamzin, Victor; Pichon-Pesme, Virginie; Blessing, Robert H.; Lecomte, Claude

    2000-01-01

    The charge density distribution of a protein has been refined experimentally. Diffraction data for a crambin crystal were measured to ultra-high resolution (0.54 Å) at low temperature by using short-wavelength synchrotron radiation. The crystal structure was refined with a model for charged, nonspherical, multipolar atoms to accurately describe the molecular electron density distribution. The refined parameters agree within 25% with our transferable electron density library derived from accurate single crystal diffraction analyses of several amino acids and small peptides. The resulting electron density maps of redistributed valence electrons (deformation maps) compare quantitatively well with a high-level quantum mechanical calculation performed on a monopeptide. This study provides validation for experimentally derived parameters and a window into charge density analysis of biological macromolecules. PMID:10737790

  7. Accurate protein crystallography at ultra-high resolution: valence electron distribution in crambin.

    PubMed

    Jelsch, C; Teeter, M M; Lamzin, V; Pichon-Pesme, V; Blessing, R H; Lecomte, C

    2000-03-28

    The charge density distribution of a protein has been refined experimentally. Diffraction data for a crambin crystal were measured to ultra-high resolution (0.54 A) at low temperature by using short-wavelength synchrotron radiation. The crystal structure was refined with a model for charged, nonspherical, multipolar atoms to accurately describe the molecular electron density distribution. The refined parameters agree within 25% with our transferable electron density library derived from accurate single crystal diffraction analyses of several amino acids and small peptides. The resulting electron density maps of redistributed valence electrons (deformation maps) compare quantitatively well with a high-level quantum mechanical calculation performed on a monopeptide. This study provides validation for experimentally derived parameters and a window into charge density analysis of biological macromolecules.

  8. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of late-type stars with CHANDRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewe, R.; Raassen, A. J. J.; Kaastra, J. S.; van der Meer, R. L. J.; Brinkman, A. C.

    We have analyzed high-resolution (Δλ ≅ 0.06 Å) X-ray spectra in the region 6-180 Å of the coronae of the cool stars Capella, Procyon, and α Centauri. These stars were observed with the the CHANDRA Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) between Sep. and Dec. 1999. Temperatures are derived from line ratios of helium-like lines and long-wavelength iron lines. Electron densities are obtained for the relatively cooler (few MK) and more tenuous (⪅ 10 11 cm -3) plasma components from the forbidden to intercombination line ratios in the helium-like triplets of O, N, and C and for the hotter (⪆ 5 MK) and denser (⪆ 10 12 cm -3) components (such as occur in Capella) from the helium-like triplets of Mg and Si and the ratios of Fe XIX-Fe XXII 2ℓ-2ℓ' lines above 90 Å. The implications of these results for the coronal structure are discussed.

  9. Lineshape spectroscopy with a very high resolution, very high signal-to-noise crystal spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W.; Brown, G. V.; Chen, H.; Emig, J.; Hell, N.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Allan, P.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Hoarty, D. J.; Hobbs, L. M. R.; James, S. F.

    2016-06-15

    We have developed a high-resolution x-ray spectrometer for measuring the shapes of spectral lines produced from laser-irradiated targets on the Orion laser facility. The instrument utilizes a spherically bent crystal geometry to spatially focus and spectrally analyze photons from foil or microdot targets. The high photon collection efficiency resulting from its imaging properties allows the instrument to be mounted outside the Orion chamber, where it is far less sensitive to particles, hard x-rays, or electromagnetic pulses than instruments housed close to the target chamber center in ten-inch manipulators. Moreover, Bragg angles above 50° are possible, which provide greatly improved spectral resolution compared to radially viewing, near grazing-incidence crystal spectrometers. These properties make the new instrument an ideal lineshape diagnostic for determining plasma temperature and density. We describe its calibration on the Livermore electron beam ion trap facility and present spectral data of the K-shell emission from highly charged sulfur produced by long-pulse as well as short-pulse beams on the Orion laser in the United Kingdom.

  10. Magnetic lens apparatus for a low-voltage high-resolution electron microscope

    DOEpatents

    Crewe, Albert V.

    1996-01-01

    A lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particles of low accelerating voltage is brought to a focus by a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. The lens comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. The lens apparatus comprises the sole focusing lens for high-resolution imaging in a low-voltage scanning electron microscope.

  11. Soot Nanostructure: Using Fringe Analysis Software on High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy of Carbon Soot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Using high resolution transmission electron images of carbon nanotubes and carbon particles, we are able to use image analysis program to determine several carbon fringe properties, including length, separation, curvature and orientation. Results are shown in the form of histograms for each of those quantities. The combination of those measurements can give a better indication of the graphic structure within nanotubes and particles of carbon and can distinguish carbons based upon fringe properties. Carbon with longer, straighter and closer spaced fringes are considered graphite, while amorphous carbon contain shorter, less structured fringes.

  12. Soot Nanostructure: Using Fringe Analysis Software on High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy of Carbon Soot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Using high resolution transmission electron images of carbon nanotubes and carbon particles, we are able to use image analysis program to determine several carbon fringe properties, including length, separation, curvature and orientation. Results are shown in the form of histograms for each of those quantities. The combination of those measurements can give a better indication of the graphic structure within nanotubes and particles of carbon and can distinguish carbons based upon fringe properties. Carbon with longer, straighter and closer spaced fringes are considered graphite, while amorphous carbon contain shorter, less structured fringes.

  13. Crack tip shielding observed with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Adhika, Damar Rastri; Tanaka, Masaki; Daio, Takeshi; Higashida, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    The dislocation shielding field at a crack tip was experimentally proven at the atomic scale by measuring the local strain in front of the crack tip using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and geometric phase analysis (GPA). Single crystalline (110) silicon wafers were employed. Cracks were introduced using a Vickers indenter at room temperature. The crack tip region was observed using HRTEM followed by strain measurements using GPA. The measured strain field at the crack tip was compressive owing to dislocation shielding, which is in good agreement with the strain field calculated from elastic theory.

  14. Crack tip shielding observed with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Adhika, Damar Rastri; Tanaka, Masaki; Daio, Takeshi; Higashida, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The dislocation shielding field at a crack tip was experimentally proven at the atomic scale by measuring the local strain in front of the crack tip using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and geometric phase analysis (GPA). Single crystalline (110) silicon wafers were employed. Cracks were introduced using a Vickers indenter at room temperature. The crack tip region was observed using HRTEM followed by strain measurements using GPA. The measured strain field at the crack tip was compressive owing to dislocation shielding, which is in good agreement with the strain field calculated from elastic theory. PMID:26115957

  15. Structural study of zirconia nanoclusters by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado-Arellano, V.G.; Espitia-Cabrera, M.I.; Reyes-Gasga, J.; Contreras-Garcia, M.E

    2004-06-15

    Monodisperse and uniformly spherical ZrO{sub 2} nanostructured clusters have been synthesized by microwave-assisted sol-gel processing. The techniques used produced molecular-structured precipitates from which zirconia nanometric particles were easily obtained. These particles retained their stability during the subsequent separation process. The microwave treatment was proven to be highly beneficial for assisting the sol-gel processing, mainly because of its contribution to the mixed dispersion and thermal effects. The zirconia nanoclusters thus formed were subsequently characterized by high-resolution electron microscopy to study the nanostructural morphology and transformation defects.

  16. Imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy of the Planetary Nebula NGC 3242

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Muñoz, Marco Antonio; Wendolyn Blanco Cárdenas, Mónica; Vázquez, Roberto; Zavala, Saúl A.; Guillén, Pedro F.; Ayala, Sandra A.

    2015-08-01

    We present a high-resolution imaging and high-dispersion spectroscopy study of the complex morphological and kinematical structure of the planetary nebula NGC 3242. We analyze narrowband Hα, [O III] and [N II] images, addressing important morphological features: in the [O III] image we found one knot oriented to PA=-4°, in the [N II] image, three knots oriented at PA1=155°, PA2=+157°, and PA3=-45.5°, and in the Hα image, two bubbles in the internal region, one of them oriented toward SE and the other toward NW. Additionally we used the unsharp-masking technique and found faint structures in the halo that have not been studied before. These structures are presented in two pairs of arcs, one pair oriented toward PA=-35° and the other toward PA=140°. NGC 3242 is a morphologically rich PN with bubbles, asymmetrical outflows, and some knots in a double-shell nebular structure. Ground-based long-slit echelle spectra were obtained crossing NGC 3242 at twelve different positions to precisely determine kinematical features in the structure of the nebula. We obtain a systemic velocity of VLSR=-6.6 km/s. We have used the software SHAPE (Steffen et al. 2011, IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graphics, 17, 454), to reconstruct a 3D model of NGC 3242 which fits all our observational data. Preliminary results (deprojected velocities and kinematical ages) of all these structures will be presented.This project has been supported by grant PAPIIT-DGAPA-UNAM IN107914. MWB is in grateful receipt of a DGAPA-UNAM postdoctoral scholarship. MAG acknowledges CONACYT for his graduate scholarship.

  17. High Resolution Far Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the NH_2 Radical.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Pirali, O.; Balcon, D.; Vervloet, M.

    2011-06-01

    First identified toward Sgr B2, the NH_2 radical has recently been detected in the interstellar medium by the HIFI instrument on board of Herschel. Despite the fact that this radical has not been detected in brown dwarfs and exoplanets yet, it is already included in physical and chemical models of those environments (temperature higher than 2000 K expected in several objects). Its detection in those objects will depend on the existence of a reliable high temperature and high resolution spectroscopic database on the NH_2 radical.The absorption spectrum of NH_2 has been recorded between 15 and 700 Cm-1 at the highest resolution available using the Bruker IFS125HR Fourier transform interferometer connected to the far infrared AILES beamline at SOLEIL (R=0.001 Cm-1). The radical was produced by an electrical discharge (DC) through a continuous flow of NH_3 and He using the White-type discharge cell developped on the beamline (optical path: 24m). Thanks to the brilliance of the synchrotron radiation, more than 700 pure rotational transitions of NH_2 have been identified with high N values (NMax=25) in its fundamental and first excited vibrational modes. By comparison to the previous FT spectroscopic study on that radical in the FIR spectral range, asymmetric splitting as well as fine and hyperfine structure have been resolved for several transitions. E. F. Van Dishoeck, D. J. Jansen, P. Schilke, T. G. Phillips The Astrophysical Journal 416, L83-L86 (1993) C. M. Persson, J. H. Black, J. Cernicharo et al. Astronomy and Astrophysics 521, L45 (2010) K. Lodders and B. Fegley, Jr Icarus 155, 393-424 (2002) I. Morino and K. Kawaguchi Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 182, 428-438 (1997)

  18. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Stratospheric Ethane Following the Jupiter Impact of 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fast, Kelly; Kostiuk, Theodor; Livengood, Timothy A.; Hewagama, Tilak; Amen, John

    2010-01-01

    We report on high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of ethane (C2H6) performed at the latitude of an impact site on Jupiter discovered on 19 July 2009 by A. Wesley from a location in Murrumbateman, Australia. The observations used the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Heterodyne Instrument for Planetary Wind and Composition (HIPWAC) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. HIPWAC is a mid-infrared (9-12 microns) heterodyne spectrometer operating at the highest limit of spectral resolving power (lambda\\Delta\\lambda > l06), providing information on atmospheric constituent abundance and temperature through fully resolved tine shapes. Ethane is a stable trace product of methane photochemistry that is nearly uniformly mixed in Jupiter's stratosphere, providing an effective probe of that altitude region. Ethane emission line profiles near 11,74 microns in the Ug band were measured in Jupiter's stratosphere at 25 MHz (11.00083/cm) resolution. A sequence of spectra of ethane acquired over a range of longitude at the impact latitude (56S planetocentric) probes constituent abundance and temperature profile, both on and off the impact region. Near the site of the impact, ethane emission increased above levels measured well outside the impact region. Radiative transfer analysis indicates increased ethane mole fraction (30% greater). Variation in the measured continuum level and line intensities within 75deg of the impact longitude indicate the presence of an opacity source (haze) at altitudes near and above the tropopause and as high as the 10-mbar level near the impact site. The indication of possible haze opacity up to the 10-mbar level in the atmosphere is consistent with measurements made by HIPWAC's predecessor as part of the IRTF Shoemaker Levy-9 campaign in 1994.

  19. IGRINS Near-IR High-resolution Spectroscopy of Multiple Jets around LkHα 234

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Heeyoung; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Byeong-Gon; Park, Chan; Chun, Moo-Young; Pak, Soojong; Kim, Kang-Min; Sok Oh, Jae; Jeong, Ueejeong; Yu, Young Sam; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Hwihyun; Hwang, Narae; Kaplan, Kyle; Pavel, Michael; Mace, Gregory; Lee, Hye-In; Nguyen Le, Huynh Anh; Lee, Sungho; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy toward the multiple outflows around the Herbig Be star LkHα 234 using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph. Previous studies indicate that the region around LkHα 234 is complex, with several embedded young stellar objects and the outflows associated with them. In simultaneous H- and K-band spectra from HH 167, we detected 5 [Fe ii] and 14 H2 emission lines. We revealed a new [Fe ii] jet driven by radio continuum source VLA 3B. Position-velocity diagrams of the H2 1-0 S(1) λ2.122 μm line show multiple velocity peaks. The kinematics may be explained by a geometrical bow shock model. We detected a component of H2 emission at the systemic velocity (VLSR = -10.2 km s-1) along the whole slit in all slit positions, which may arise from the ambient photodissociation region. Low-velocity gas dominates the molecular hydrogen emission from knots A and B in HH 167, which is close to the systemic velocity; [Fe ii] emission lines are detected farther from the systemic velocity, at VLSR = -100--130 km s-1. We infer that the H2 emission arises from shocked gas entrained by a high-velocity outflow. Population diagrams of H2 lines imply that the gas is thermalized at a temperature of 2500-3000 K and the emission results from shock excitation. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  20. IGRINS NEAR-IR HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF MULTIPLE JETS AROUND LkHα 234

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Heeyoung; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Byeong-Gon; Park, Chan; Chun, Moo-Young; Kim, Kang-Min; Oh, Jae Sok; Jeong, Ueejeong; Yu, Young Sam; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Hwihyun; Hwang, Narae; Lee, Sungho; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Pak, Soojong; Lee, Hye-In; Le, Huynh Anh Nguyen; Kaplan, Kyle; Pavel, Michael; Mace, Gregory; and others

    2016-02-01

    We present the results of high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy toward the multiple outflows around the Herbig Be star LkHα 234 using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph. Previous studies indicate that the region around LkHα 234 is complex, with several embedded young stellar objects and the outflows associated with them. In simultaneous H- and K-band spectra from HH 167, we detected 5 [Fe ii] and 14 H{sub 2} emission lines. We revealed a new [Fe ii] jet driven by radio continuum source VLA 3B. Position–velocity diagrams of the H{sub 2} 1−0 S(1) λ2.122 μm line show multiple velocity peaks. The kinematics may be explained by a geometrical bow shock model. We detected a component of H{sub 2} emission at the systemic velocity (V{sub LSR} = −10.2 km s{sup −1}) along the whole slit in all slit positions, which may arise from the ambient photodissociation region. Low-velocity gas dominates the molecular hydrogen emission from knots A and B in HH 167, which is close to the systemic velocity; [Fe ii] emission lines are detected farther from the systemic velocity, at V{sub LSR} = −100–−130 km s{sup −1}. We infer that the H{sub 2} emission arises from shocked gas entrained by a high-velocity outflow. Population diagrams of H{sub 2} lines imply that the gas is thermalized at a temperature of 2500–3000 K and the emission results from shock excitation.

  1. High-resolution infrared detector and its electronic unit for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, M.; Montmessin, F.; Korablev, O.; Trokhimovsky, A.; Poiet, G.; Bel, J.-B.

    2015-05-01

    High-resolution infrared detector is used extensively for military and civilian purposes. Military applications include target acquisition, surveillance, night vision, and tracking. Civilian applications include, among others, scientific observations. For our space systems, we want to use the products developed by SOFRADIR Company. Thus, we have developed a space electronic unit that is used to control the high-resolution SCORPIO-MW infrared detector, which has a format of 640×512 pixels with 15μm×15μm pixel pitch. The detector within microelectronics based on infrared mid-wave (MW) complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) uses a micro-cooler in order to keep its temperature around 100 K. The standard wavelength range (3 to 5μm) is adapted to the 2.2 to 4.3μm wavelength range thanks to adaptation of the optical interface of the detector and with an antireflection coating. With our electronic system, we can acquire 3 images per second. To increase the signal to noise ratio, we have the opportunity to make a summation of 15 frames per image. Through this article, we will describe the space electronic system that we have developed in order to achieve space observations (e.g. Atmospheric Chemistry Suite package for ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter).

  2. Novel method of simultaneous multiple immunogold localization on resin sections in high resolution scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nebesarova, Jana; Wandrol, Petr; Vancova, Marie

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method of multiple immunolabeling that is suitable for a broad spectrum of biomedical applications. The general concept is to label both sides of the ultrathin section with the thickness of 70-80 nm with different antibodies conjugated to gold nanoparticles and to distinguish the labeled side by advanced imaging methods with high resolution scanning electron microscopy, such as by correlating images acquired at different energies of primary electrons using different signals. From the Clinical Editor: The use of transmission electron microscopy has become an indispensible tool in the detection of cellular proteins. In this short but interesting article, the authors described their new method of labeling and the identification of four different proteins simultaneously, which represents another advance in imaging technique.

  3. Probing Chemical Dynamics with High Resolution Spectroscopy: Chirped-Pulse Fourier-Transform Microwave Spectroscopy Coupled with a Hyperthermal Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, Nathanael M.; Vara, Vanesa Vaquero; Mehta-Hurt, Deepali N.; Korn, Joseph A.; Dian, Brian C.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2013-06-01

    Chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectroscopy has proven to be a well-suited technique for the rapid study and spectral identification of molecular species due to its ultra-broadband capability and excellent specificity to molecular structure from high-resolution rotational transitions. This talk will describe initial results from combining CP-FTMW detection with a hyperthermal nozzle source. This source has the advantage of producing traditionally high thermal product densities in a pulsed supersonic expansion with a short contact time compared to conventional pyrolysis. Used in tandem, CP-FTMW spectroscopy and the hyperthermal nozzle in a supersonic expansion is a powerful method that can produce and detect changes in conformation and isomer populations, and characterize important intermediates on the reaction surface of a precursor. In particular, we show its utility to provide insight into the unimolecular decomposition pathways of model lignin compounds and alternative biofuels. Preliminary results will be discussed including spectroscopic evidence for formation of cyclopentadienone in the pyrolysis of a lignin derivative guaiacol (o-methoxyphenol).

  4. High-resolution photodetachment spectroscopy from the lowest threshold of O{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Joiner, Anne; Mohr, Robert H.; Yukich, J. N.

    2011-03-15

    We conducted photodetachment spectroscopy near the lowest detachment threshold from O{sup -} in a 1-T field with sufficient resolution to observe a magnetic field structure similar to that observed in experiments conducted at the threshold of the electron affinity. These observations included not only cyclotron structure but also, to a smaller degree, individual Zeeman thresholds. The experiment was conducted in a Penning ion trap and with a single-mode, tunable, amplified diode laser. Finally, analysis of our results yielded a measurement of the lowest threshold energy.

  5. Exploiting high resolution Fourier transform spectroscopy to inform the development of a quantum cascade laser based explosives detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlysle, Felicity; Nic Daeid, Niamh; Normand, Erwan; McCulloch, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is regularly used in forensic analysis, however the application of high resolution Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy for the detection of explosive materials and explosive precursors has not been fully explored. This project aimed to develop systematically a protocol for the analysis of explosives and precursors using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and basic data analysis to enable the further development of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) based airport detection system. This paper details the development of the protocol and results of the initial analysis of compounds of interest.

  6. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; ...

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for themore » analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.« less

  7. Nanoscale deformation analysis with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xueju; Pan, Zhipeng; Fan, Feifei; Wang, Jiangwei; Liu, Yang; Mao, Scott X.; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Shuman

    2015-09-10

    We present an application of the digital image correlation (DIC) method to high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images for nanoscale deformation analysis. The combination of DIC and HRTEM offers both the ultrahigh spatial resolution and high displacement detection sensitivity that are not possible with other microscope-based DIC techniques. We demonstrate the accuracy and utility of the HRTEM-DIC technique through displacement and strain analysis on amorphous silicon. Two types of error sources resulting from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image noise and electromagnetic-lens distortions are quantitatively investigated via rigid-body translation experiments. The local and global DIC approaches are applied for the analysis of diffusion- and reaction-induced deformation fields in electrochemically lithiated amorphous silicon. As a result, the DIC technique coupled with HRTEM provides a new avenue for the deformation analysis of materials at the nanometer length scales.

  8. Ultrastable gold substrates: Properties of a support for high-resolution electron cryomicroscopy of biological specimens

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Christopher J.; Passmore, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) allows structure determination of a wide range of biological molecules and specimens. All-gold supports improve cryo-EM images by reducing radiation-induced motion and image blurring. Here we compare the mechanical and electrical properties of all-gold supports to amorphous carbon foils. Gold supports are more conductive, and have suspended foils that are not compressed by differential contraction when cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These measurements show how the choice of support material and geometry can reduce specimen movement by more than an order of magnitude during low-dose imaging. We provide methods for fabrication of all-gold supports and preparation of vitrified specimens. We also analyse illumination geometry for optimal collection of high resolution, low-dose data. Together, the support structures and methods herein can improve the resolution and quality of images from any electron cryomicroscope. PMID:26592474

  9. Ultrastable gold substrates: Properties of a support for high-resolution electron cryomicroscopy of biological specimens.

    PubMed

    Russo, Christopher J; Passmore, Lori A

    2016-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) allows structure determination of a wide range of biological molecules and specimens. All-gold supports improve cryo-EM images by reducing radiation-induced motion and image blurring. Here we compare the mechanical and electrical properties of all-gold supports to amorphous carbon foils. Gold supports are more conductive, and have suspended foils that are not compressed by differential contraction when cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These measurements show how the choice of support material and geometry can reduce specimen movement by more than an order of magnitude during low-dose imaging. We provide methods for fabrication of all-gold supports and preparation of vitrified specimens. We also analyse illumination geometry for optimal collection of high resolution, low-dose data. Together, the support structures and methods herein can improve the resolution and quality of images from any electron cryomicroscope. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A search for inversion layers in hot Jupiters with high-resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Callie; Birkby, Jayne; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    At present, the existence of thermal inversion layers in hot Jupiter atmospheres is uncertain due to conflicting results on their detection. However, understanding the thermal structure of exoplanet atmospheres is crucial to measuring their chemical compositions because the two quantities are highly interdependent. Here, we present high-resolution infrared spectroscopy of a hot Jupiter taken at 3.5 μm with CRIRES (R~100,000) on the Very Large Telescope. We directly detect the spectrum of the planet by tracing the radial-velocity shift of water features in its atmosphere during approximately one tenth of its orbit. We removed telluric contamination effects and the lines of the host star from our observed combined light spectra using singular value decomposition, then cross-correlated these processed spectra with a grid of high spectral resolution molecular templates containing features from water, methane, and carbon dioxide. The templates included atmospheric profiles with and without thermal inversion i.e. emission and absorption lines, respectively. We find evidence of water emission features in the planet’s dayside spectrum at a signal-to-noise of 4.7, indicative of a thermal inversion in the planet's atmosphere within the pressures ranges probed by our observations. The direct detection of emission lines at high spectral resolution in the planet spectrum make it one of the most unambiguous detections of a thermal inversion layer in an exoplanet atmosphere to date. However, we are carrying out further data analysis to ensure the robustness of the signal. Future observations of other molecules that could cause inversion layers, e.g. titanium oxide, would provide strong additional evidence of the inversion and help further our understanding of the behavior of highly irradiated giant planet atmospheres.The SAO REU program is funded in part by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no. 1262851, and by the

  11. Emerging Trends on the Volatile Chemistry in Comets as Measured with High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dello Russo, Neil; Kawakita, Hideyo; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Weaver, Harold A.

    2016-10-01

    A systematic analysis of the mixing ratios with respect to H2O for eight species (CH3OH, HCN, NH3, H2CO, C2H2, C2H6, CH4, and CO) measured with high-resolution infrared spectroscopy is presented. Some trends are beginning to emerge when mixing ratios in individual comets are compared to average mixing ratios obtained for all species within the population. The variation in mixing ratios for all measured species is at least an order of magnitude. Overall, Jupiter-family comets are depleted in volatile species with respect to H2O compared to long-period Oort cloud comets, with the most volatile species showing the greatest relative depletion. There is a high positive correlation between the mixing ratios of HCN, C2H6, and CH4, whereas NH3, H2CO, and C2H2 are moderately correlated with each other but generally uncorrelated or show only weak correlation with other species. CO is generally uncorrelated with the other measured species possibly because it has the highest volatility and is therefore more susceptible to thermal evolutionary effects. Molecular mixing ratios for CH3OH, HCN, C2H6, and CH4 show an expected behavior with heliocentric distance suggesting a dominant ice source, whereas there is emerging evidence that the mixing ratios of NH3, H2CO, and C2H2 may increase at small heliocentric distances, suggesting the possibility of additional sources related to the thermal decomposition of organic dust. Although this provides information on the composition of the most volatile grains in comets, it presents an additional difficulty in classifying comet chemistry because most comets within this dataset were only observed over a limited range of heliocentric distance. Optical and infrared comparisons indicate that mixing ratios of daughter species and potential parents from cometary ices are sometimes but not always consistent with one another. This suggests that in many comets there are significant sources of C2 and/or CN from grains, and that the importance of these

  12. High resolution cathodoluminescence spectroscopy of carbonate cementation in Khurmala Formation (Paleocene-L. Eocene) from Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Northern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, Muhamed F.; Omer, Dilshad; Zebari, Bahroz Gh.

    2014-12-01

    A combination of high resolution cathodoluminsecnce-spectroscopy (HRS-CL) with spatial electron microprobe analysis and optical microscopy is used to determine paragenesis and history of cementation in the limestones and dolostones of Khurmala Formation which is exposed in many parts of Northern Iraq. Khurmala Formation was subjected to different diagenetic processes such as micritization, compaction, dissolution, neomorphism, pyritization and cementation that occurred during marine to shallow burial stages and culminated during intermediate to deep burial later stages. Five dolomite textures are recognized and classified according to crystal size distribution and crystal-boundary shape. Dolomitization is closely associated with the development of secondary porosity that pre-and postdates dissolution and corrosion; meanwhile such porosity was not noticed in the associated limestones. Microprobe analysis revealed three types of cement, calcite, dolomite and ankerite which range in their luminescence from dull to bright. Cathodoluminescence study indicated four main texture generations. These are (1) unzoned microdolomite of planar and subhedral shape, with syntaxial rim cement of echinoderm that show dull to red luminescence, (2) equant calcite cements filling interparticle pores which shows dull luminescence and weak zonal growth, (3.1) homogenous intrinsic blue stoichiometric calcite with dull luminescence and without activators, (3.2) coarse blocky calcite cement with strong oscillatory zoning and bright orange luminescence which postdates other calcite cements, (4) ankerite cement with red to orange, non-luminescence growth zonation which is the last formed cement.

  13. High-resolution laser excitation spectroscopy of the AΠ(000)-XΣ(000) transition of BaOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.-G.; Tandy, J. D.; Bernath, P. F.

    2008-11-01

    The high-resolution spectrum of the AΠ(0 0 0)-XΣ+(0 0 0) transition of BaOH has been recorded using laser excitation spectroscopy. The BaOH molecules were synthesized through the reaction of Ba atoms with H 2O 2 in a Broida-type oven. Rotational and fine structure parameters have been determined for the AΠ(0 0 0) state through a combined least-squares fit with the millimeter-wave pure rotational data of the XΣ+ state. The Λ-doubling constants observed for the AΠ state are in poor agreement with the predictions of the pure precession model of the interactions between the AΠ and the BΣ+ states of BaOH. In addition to the bands of the AΠ(0 0 0)-XΣ+(0 0 0) transition, three bands located at ˜11 443 cm -1, ˜12 013 cm -1 and ˜12 505 cm -1, respectively, were also observed and analyzed but their vibrational and electronic assignments are not clear. Possible assignments of the three unidentified bands are discussed based on the derived spectroscopic constants and the vibrational assignments of previous low-resolution work.

  14. High Resolution Stark Spectroscopy of Model Donor-Acceptor Aminobenzonitriles in the Gas Phase.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleisher, Adam J.; Clements, Casey L.; Bird, Ryan G.; Pratt, David W.; Alvarez-Valtierra, Leonardo

    2011-06-01

    Electronic communication between donor-acceptor systems is prevalent in many chemical processes. Unfortunately, an accurate description of the changes in molecular geometry responsible for intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) is difficult to ascertain. Reported here are the S0, LA, and LB electronic state structures and dipole moments of two model ICT systems, 4-(1H-pyrrol-l-yl)benzonitrile (PBN) and 4-(1-pyrrolidinyl)benzonitrile (PDBN), as measured by rotationally resolved electronic spectroscopy. As was observed for phenylpyrrole, the unsaturted rings of PBN become collectively more planar following excitation with UV light, in support of the planar ICT model. However, in PDBN the twist/inversion angle between rings is nearly zero in both the ground and excited electronic states. The unperturbed dipole moments measured here, taken in conjunction with available solvatochromism data, provide an estimate for the polarization, dispersion, and charge transfer contributions to solvent-mediated excited state stabilization. J.A. Thomas, J.W. Young, A.J. Fleisher, L. Álvarez-Valtierra, and D.W. Pratt, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 2017 (2010).

  15. High-Resolution Transfer Printing of Graphene Lines for Fully Printed, Flexible Electronics.

    PubMed

    Song, Donghoon; Mahajan, Ankit; Secor, Ethan B; Hersam, Mark C; Francis, Lorraine F; Frisbie, C Daniel

    2017-07-25

    Pristine graphene inks show great promise for flexible printed electronics due to their high electrical conductivity and robust mechanical, chemical, and environmental stability. While traditional liquid-phase printing methods can produce graphene patterns with a resolution of ∼30 μm, more precise techniques are required for improved device performance and integration density. A high-resolution transfer printing method is developed here capable of printing conductive graphene patterns on plastic with line width and spacing as small as 3.2 and 1 μm, respectively. The core of this method lies in the design of a graphene ink and its integration with a thermally robust mold that enables annealing at up to ∼250 °C for precise, high-performance graphene patterns. These patterns exhibit excellent electrical and mechanical properties, enabling favorable operation as electrodes in fully printed electrolyte-gated transistors and inverters with stable performance even following cyclic bending to a strain of 1%. The high resolution coupled with excellent control over the line edge roughness to below 25 nm enables aggressive scaling of transistor dimensions, offering a compelling route for the scalable manufacturing of flexible nanoelectronic devices.

  16. Detecting non-Maxwellian electron velocity distributions at JET by high resolution Thomson scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Beausang, K. V.; Prunty, S. L.; Scannell, R.; Beurskens, M. N.; Walsh, M. J.; Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2011-03-15

    The present work is motivated by a long standing discrepancy between the electron temperature measurements of Thomson scattering (TS) and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics for plasmas with strong auxiliary heating observed at both JET and TFTR above 6-7 keV, where in some cases the ECE electron temperature measurements can be 15%-20% higher than the TS measurements. Recent analysis based on ECE results at JET has shown evidence of distortions to the Maxwellian electron velocity distribution and a correlation with the TS and ECE discrepancies has been suggested. In this paper, a technique to determine the presence of non-Maxwellian behavior using TS diagnostics is outlined. The difficulties and limitations of modern TS system designs to determine the electron velocity distribution are also discussed. It is demonstrated that small deviations such as those suggested by previous ECE analysis could be potentially detected, depending on the spectral layout of the TS polychromators. The spectral layout of the JET high resolution Thomson scattering system is such that it could be used to determine these deviations between 1 and 6 keV, and the results presented here indicate that no evidence of non-Maxwellian behavior is observed in this range. In this paper, a modification to the current polychromator design is proposed, allowing non-Maxwellian distortions to be detected up to at least 10 keV.

  17. Detecting non-maxwellian electron velocity distributions at JET by high resolution Thomson scattering.

    PubMed

    Beausang, K V; Prunty, S L; Scannell, R; Beurskens, M N; Walsh, M J; de la Luna, E

    2011-03-01

    The present work is motivated by a long standing discrepancy between the electron temperature measurements of Thomson scattering (TS) and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics for plasmas with strong auxiliary heating observed at both JET and TFTR above 6–7 keV, where in some cases the ECE electron temperature measurements can be 15%–20% higher than the TS measurements. Recent analysis based on ECE results at JET has shown evidence of distortions to the Maxwellian electron velocity distribution and a correlation with the TS and ECE discrepancies has been suggested. In this paper, a technique to determine the presence of non-Maxwellian behavior using TS diagnostics is outlined. The difficulties and limitations of modern TS system designs to determine the electron velocity distribution are also discussed. It is demonstrated that small deviations such as those suggested by previous ECE analysis could be potentially detected, depending on the spectral layout of the TS polychromators. The spectral layout of the JET high resolution Thomson scattering system is such that it could be used to determine these deviations between 1 and 6 keV, and the results presented here indicate that no evidence of non-Maxwellian behavior is observed in this range. In this paper, a modification to the current polychromator design is proposed, allowing non-Maxwellian distortions to be detected up to at least 10 keV.

  18. Coordination defects in bismuth-modified arsenic selenide glasses: High-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Golovchak, Roman; Shpotyuk, Oleh

    2008-05-01

    The possibility of coordination defects formation in Bi-modified chalcogenide glasses is examined by high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results provide evidence for the formation of positively charged fourfold coordinated defects on As and Bi sites in glasses with low Bi concentration. At high Bi concentration, mixed As{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} nanocrystallites are formed in the investigated Se-rich As-Se glasses.

  19. Tunneling and tunneling switching dynamics in phenol and its isotopomers from high-resolution FTIR spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Albert, Sieghard; Lerch, Philippe; Prentner, Robert; Quack, Martin

    2013-01-02

    Tunneling and chemical reactions by tunneling switching are reported for phenol and ortho-deuterophenol on the basis of high-resolution FTIR spectroscopy. Tunneling splittings are measured for the torsional motion in the ground and several vibrationally excited states of phenol. Tunneling times range from 10 ns to 1 ps, depending on excitation. For more-highly excited torsional levels in ortho-deuterophenol, delocalization and chemical reaction by tunneling switching is found.

  20. Synchrotron-based rotationally resolved high-resolution FTIR spectroscopy of azulene and the unidentified infrared bands of astronomy.

    PubMed

    Albert, Sieghard; Lerch, Philippe; Quack, Martin

    2013-10-07

    Chasing the unidentified IR bands: The first rotationally resolved high-resolution infrared spectrum of azulene is reported using synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy including a rovibrational analysis of the out-of-plane fundamental ν44. Comparison of azulene, naphthalene, indole, and biphenyl infrared bands leads to coincidences with UIR bands at 12.8 μm with naphthalene and at 13.55 and 14.6 μm with biphenyl bands, but excluding azulene as a strong absorber.

  1. High-Resolution Vibration-Rotation Spectroscopy of CO[subscript 2]: Understanding the Boltzmann Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Karen J.

    2007-01-01

    In this undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory experiment, students acquire a high-resolution infrared absorption spectrum of carbon dioxide and use their data to show that the rotational-vibrational state populations follow a Boltzmann distribution. Data are acquired with a mid-infrared laser source and infrared detector. Appropriate…

  2. High-Resolution Vibration-Rotation Spectroscopy of CO[subscript 2]: Understanding the Boltzmann Distribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Karen J.

    2007-01-01

    In this undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory experiment, students acquire a high-resolution infrared absorption spectrum of carbon dioxide and use their data to show that the rotational-vibrational state populations follow a Boltzmann distribution. Data are acquired with a mid-infrared laser source and infrared detector. Appropriate…

  3. High Resolution Microwave Spectroscopy of CH as a Search for Variation of Fundamental Constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truppe, S.; Hendricks, R. J.; Tokunaga, S. K.; Hinds, E. A.; Tarbutt, M. R.

    2013-06-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics assumes that fundamental, dimensionless constants like the fine-structure constant, α, or the ratio of the proton to electron mass, μ, remain constant through time and space. Laboratory experiments have set tight bounds on variations of such constants on a short time scale. Astronomical observations, however, provide vital information about possible changes on long time scales. Recent measurements using quasar absorption spectra provide some evidence for a space-time variation of the fine-structure constant α. It is thus important to verify this discovery by using an entirely different method. Recently the prospect of using rotational microwave spectra of molecules as a probe of fundamental constants variation has attracted much attention. Generally these spectra depend on μ, but if fine and hyperfine structure is involved they also become sensitive to variations of α and the nuclear g-factor. Recent calculations show that the Λ-doublet and rotational spectra of CH are particularly sensitive to possible variations of μ and α. We present recent laboratory based high-resolution spectra of the Λ-doublet transition frequencies of the {F}_2, J=1/2 and {F}_1, J=3/2 states of CH, X^{2}{Π} (v=0) at 3.3GHz and 0.7GHz respectively, with {F} labelling the different spin-orbit manifolds of CH. We also present a measurement of the transition frequency between the two spin-orbit manifolds {F}_2, J=1/2 and {F}_1, J=3/2 at 530GHz. By using a molecular beam of CH in combination with a laser-microwave double-resonance technique and Ramsey's method of separated oscillatory fields, we have measured these transition frequencies to unprecedented accuracy. Hence CH can now be used as a sensitive probe to detect changes in fundamental constants by comparing lab based frequencies to radio-astronomical observations from distant gas clouds. T. Rosenband et al., Science {319}(5871), 1808, 2008 J. K. Webb et al., Physical Review Letters {107

  4. High-resolution Raman Spectroscopy for the Nanostructural Characterization of Explosive Nanodiamond Precursors.

    PubMed

    Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Pichot, Vincent; Spitzer, Denis; Deckert, Volker

    2017-01-18

    The specific attributes of nanodiamonds have attracted increasing interest for electronics or biomedical applications. An efficient synthetic route towards nanodiamonds is via detonation of hexolite (i.e. a mixture of TNT [2,4,6-trinitrotoluene] and RDX [1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine]). In particular, detonation of hexolite crystallized by spray flash evaporation (SFE) yields extremely small diamonds (<4 nm). To unravel the detonation mechanism, a structural characterization of the explosives is required but is challenging due to their thermal instability. We demonstrate a combination of conventional Raman spectroscopy and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) for resolving morphological and structural differences of differently prepared hexolite nanocomposites. The experiments allow for the first time a structural differentiation of individual TNT and RDX crystals and 15-20 nm sized core-shell structures, consequently providing a general approach to investigate the actual composition of mixtures on the nanometer scale. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. High-intensity xenon plasma discharge lamp for bulk-sensitive high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Souma, S.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Baltzer, P.

    2007-12-15

    We have developed a highly brilliant xenon (Xe) discharge lamp operated by microwave-induced electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) for ultrahigh-resolution bulk-sensitive photoemission spectroscopy (PES). We observed at least eight strong radiation lines from neutral or singly ionized Xe atoms in the energy region of 8.4-10.7 eV. The photon flux of the strongest Xe I resonance line at 8.437 eV is comparable to that of the He I{alpha} line (21.218 eV) from the He-ECR discharge lamp. Stable operation for more than 300 h is achieved by efficient air-cooling of a ceramic tube in the resonance cavity. The high bulk sensitivity and high-energy resolution of PES using the Xe lines are demonstrated for some typical materials.

  6. The High-resolution Extreme-ultraviolet Spectrum of N2 by Electron Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heays, A. N.; Ajello, J. M.; Aguilar, A.; Lewis, B. R.; Gibson, S. T.

    2014-04-01

    We have analyzed high-resolution (FWHM = 0.2 Å) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV, 800-1350 Å) laboratory emission spectra of molecular nitrogen excited by an electron impact at 20 and 100 eV under (mostly) optically thin, single-scattering experimental conditions. A total of 491 emission features were observed from N2 electronic-vibrational transitions and atomic N I and N II multiplets and their emission cross sections were measured. Molecular emission was observed at vibrationally excited ground-state levels as high as v'' = 17, from the a 1Π g , b 1Π u , and b'1Σ u + excited valence states and the Rydberg series c'n +1 1Σ u +, cn 1Π u , and on 1Π u for n between 3 and 9. The frequently blended molecular emission bands were disentangled with the aid of a sophisticated and predictive quantum-mechanical model of excited states that includes the strong coupling between valence and Rydberg electronic states and the effects of predissociation. Improved model parameters describing electronic transition moments were obtained from the experiment and allowed for a reliable prediction of the vibrationally summed electronic emission cross section, including an extrapolation to unobserved emission bands and those that are optically thick in the experimental spectra. Vibrationally dependent electronic excitation functions were inferred from a comparison of emission features following 20 and 100 eV electron-impact collisional excitation. The electron-impact-induced fluorescence measurements are compared with Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph observations of emissions from Titan's upper atmosphere.

  7. THE HIGH-RESOLUTION EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM OF N{sub 2} BY ELECTRON IMPACT

    SciTech Connect

    Heays, A. N.; Ajello, J. M.; Aguilar, A.; Lewis, B. R.; Gibson, S. T.

    2014-04-01

    We have analyzed high-resolution (FWHM = 0.2 Å) extreme-ultraviolet (EUV, 800-1350 Å) laboratory emission spectra of molecular nitrogen excited by an electron impact at 20 and 100 eV under (mostly) optically thin, single-scattering experimental conditions. A total of 491 emission features were observed from N{sub 2} electronic-vibrational transitions and atomic N I and N II multiplets and their emission cross sections were measured. Molecular emission was observed at vibrationally excited ground-state levels as high as v'' = 17, from the a {sup 1}Π {sub g} , b {sup 1}Π {sub u} , and b'{sup 1}Σ {sub u} {sup +} excited valence states and the Rydberg series c'{sub n} {sub +1} {sup 1}Σ {sub u} {sup +}, c{sub n} {sup 1}Π {sub u} , and o{sub n} {sup 1}Π {sub u} for n between 3 and 9. The frequently blended molecular emission bands were disentangled with the aid of a sophisticated and predictive quantum-mechanical model of excited states that includes the strong coupling between valence and Rydberg electronic states and the effects of predissociation. Improved model parameters describing electronic transition moments were obtained from the experiment and allowed for a reliable prediction of the vibrationally summed electronic emission cross section, including an extrapolation to unobserved emission bands and those that are optically thick in the experimental spectra. Vibrationally dependent electronic excitation functions were inferred from a comparison of emission features following 20 and 100 eV electron-impact collisional excitation. The electron-impact-induced fluorescence measurements are compared with Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph observations of emissions from Titan's upper atmosphere.

  8. High resolution transmission electron microscopic in-situ observations of plastic deformation of compressed nanocrystalline gold

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guoyong; Lian, Jianshe; Jiang, Qing; Sun, Sheng; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2014-09-14

    Nanocrystalline (nc) metals possess extremely high strength, while their capability to deform plastically has been debated for decades. Low ductility has hitherto been considered an intrinsic behavior for most nc metals, due to the lack of five independent slip systems actively operating during deformation in each nanograin. Here we report in situ high resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) observations of deformation process of nc gold under compression, showing the excellent ductility of individual and aggregate nanograins. Compression causes permanent change in the profile of individual nanograins, which is mediated by dislocation slip and grain rotation. The high rate of grain boundary sliding and large extent of widely exited grain rotation may meet the boundary compatibility requirements during plastic deformation. The in situ HRTEM observations suggest that nc gold is not intrinsically brittle under compressive loading.

  9. Investigation of non-linear imaging in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yunjie; Wang, Yumei; Cui, Yanxiang; Ge, Binghui

    2016-12-01

    Transmission cross-coefficient theory and pseudo-weak-phase object approximation theory were combined to investigate the non-linear imaging in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The analytical expressions of linear and non-linear imaging components in diffractogram were obtained and changes of linear and non-linear components over sample thickness were analyzed. Moreover, the linear and non-linear components are found to be an odd and even-function of the defocus and Cs, respectively. Based on this, a method for separating the linear and non-linear contrasts in Cs-corrected (non-zero Cs conditions included) HRTEM images was proposed, and its effectiveness was confirmed by image simulations with AlN as an example.

  10. Very high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer for an electron beam ion trap

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.; Foerster, E.; Mahiri, J. |; Widmann, K.

    1997-01-01

    A very high resolution vacuum flat-crystal spectrometer was constructed for analyzing soft x rays emitted by an electron beam ion trap. The spectrometer was designed to operate at large Bragg angles ({theta}{le}85{degree}) in order to maximize the spectral dispersion and thus the resolving power. Using a quartz (100) crystal at a Bragg angle of 82{degree}, a measurement of the 2p{sub 1/2}, 2p{sub 3/2}{r_arrow}1s{sub 1/2} transitions in hydrogenic Mg{sup 11+} situated near 8.42 {Angstrom} was made. The nominal resolving power of the instrument was better than 30000 allowing us to infer the ion temperature (246{plus_minus}20 eV) from the observed line widths. A comparison with an existing flat-crystal spectrometer demonstrates the great improvement in resolving power achieved. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Well-orientated cubic boron nitride nanocrystals as studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tsiaoussis, I; Frangis, N

    2006-09-01

    In a boron nitride thin film, grown on a Si (100) substrate by radio frequency magnetron sputtering, a striking nanostructure is observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It consists of cubic boron nitride nanocrystals with a rather good triangular shape, pointing always to the substrate. The nanocrystals are usually highly defected and present their own interesting internal structure. Texture formation is observed within a nanocrystal, with all the subgrains observed to have a common <011> axis, which is also approximately parallel to a <011> axis of the Si substrate, i.e. the nanocrystals are very well structurally orientated in relation to the Si substrate (self-organized). Dislocations and stacking faults are also found in the nanocrystals.

  12. Nano features of Al/Au ultrasonic bond interface observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Hongjun; Li Mingyu Kim, Jong-Myung; Kim, Dae-Won; Wang Chunqing

    2008-10-15

    Nano-scale interfacial details of ultrasonic AlSi1 wire wedge bonding to a Au/Ni/Cu pad were investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The intermetallic phase Au{sub 8}Al{sub 3} formed locally due to diffusion and reaction activated by ultrasound at the Al/Au bond interface. Multilayer sub-interfaces roughly parallel to the wire/pad interface were observed among this phase, and interdiffusional features near the Au pad resembled interference patterns, alternately dark and bright bars. Solid-state diffusion theory cannot be used to explain why such a thick compound formed within milliseconds at room temperature. The major formation of metallurgical bonds was attributed to ultrasonic cyclic vibration.

  13. High resolution transmission electron microscope observation of zero-strain deformation twinning mechanisms in Ag.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Wang, J; Gong, S K; Mao, S X

    2011-04-29

    We have observed a new deformation-twinning mechanism using the high resolution transmission electron microscope in polycrystalline Ag films, zero-strain twinning via nucleation, and the migration of a Σ3{112} incoherent twin boundary (ITB). This twinning mechanism produces a near zero macroscopic strain because the net Burgers vectors either equal zero or are equivalent to a Shockley partial dislocation. This observation provides new insight into the understanding of deformation twinning and confirms a previous hypothesis: detwinning could be accomplished via the nucleation and migration of Σ3{112} ITBs. The zero-strain twinning mechanism may be unique to low staking fault energy metals with implications for their deformation behavior.

  14. High-resolution electron microscopy in spin pumping NiFe/Pt interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ley Domínguez, D. Sáenz-Hernández, R. J.; Faudoa Arzate, A.; Arteaga Duran, A. I.; Ornelas Gutiérrez, C. E.; Solís Canto, O.; Botello-Zubiate, M. E.; Rivera-Gómez, F. J.; Matutes-Aquino, J. A.; Azevedo, A.; Silva, G. L. da; Rezende, S. M.

    2015-05-07

    In order to understand the effect of the interface on the spin pumping and magnetic proximity effects, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) were used to analyze Py/Pt bilayer and Pt/Py/Pt trilayer systems. The samples were deposited by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature on Si (001) substrates. The Py layer thickness was fixed at 12 nm in all the samples and the Pt thickness was varied in a range of 0–23 nm. A diffusion zone of approximately 8 nm was found in the Py/Pt interfaces and confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The FMR measurements show an increase in the linewidth and a shift in the ferromagnetic resonance field, which reach saturation.

  15. High resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data from calcite biominerals in recent gastropod shells.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Dauphin, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean Pierre; Cusack, Maggie

    2011-04-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is a microscopy technique that reveals in situ crystallographic information. Currently, it is widely used for the characterization of geological materials and in studies of biomineralization. Here, we analyze high resolution EBSD data from biogenic calcite in two mollusk taxa, Concholepas and Haliotis, previously used in the understanding of complex biomineralization and paleoenvironmental studies. Results indicate that Concholepas has less ordered prisms than in Haliotis, and that in Concholepas the level of order is not homogenous in different areas of the shell. Overall, the usefulness of data integration obtained from diffraction intensity and crystallographic orientation maps, and corresponding pole figures, is discussed as well as its application to similar studies. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High-resolution visible spectroscopy of the jet-driving star Th 28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerón, F.; Fernández, M.

    2010-02-01

    Context. We present a study of the extreme T Tauri star Th 28, a young stellar object in the Lupus 3 cloud whose spectrum displays all the varieties of signposts associated with early stellar activity. Th 28 is the driving source of a fast jet, making it a very promising target to study the disk-jet connection. Aims: We try to identify and investigate the different structural components that contribute to the different emission lines in the spectrum of the Th 28 central source. Methods: We obtained high-resolution visible spectroscopy with the UVES spectrograph at the VLT, using the resolved profiles of both permitted and forbidden lines as tracers of gas with different kinematic and physical properties, complemented with other observations from the literature. Results: We identify four distinct structural components that contribute to the visible emission-line spectrum of Th 28. The first one, dominating most of the permitted and forbidden lines, is probably associated with the origin of the outflow that in the past produced the Herbig-Haro objects seen to the west of Th 28. The second one is an uncollimated stellar wind characterized by high excitation and temperature, as shown by the broad profile of the intense [OIII] lines. The third component, traced only by permitted lines, appears as a redshifted tail extending up to radial velocities of +450 km s-1, which we attribute to magnetospheric accretion. From the latter component we obtain a rough estimate of 0.6-0.9 M_⊙ for the mass of the central object. Using published equivalent widths of the CaII triplet lines, we estimate an accretion rate of 4.2-6.3 × 10-8M_⊙ yr-1, comparable to the values inferred for other T Tauri stars of similar mass. The last component, which appears most clearly in the [SII] lines and is hardly seen in any lines other than those of [OI], displays signatures that we interpret as coming from rotation, perhaps formed in a disk atmosphere. Following this interpretation, we estimate a

  17. Differential high-resolution stimulated CW Raman spectroscopy of hydrogen in a hollow-core fiber.

    PubMed

    Westergaard, Philip G; Lassen, Mikael; Petersen, Jan C

    2015-06-15

    We demonstrate sensitive high-resolution stimulated Raman measurements of hydrogen using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF). The Raman transition is pumped by a narrow linewidth (< 50 kHz) 1064 nm continuous-wave (CW) fiber laser. The probe light is produced by a homebuilt CW optical parametric oscillator (OPO), tunable from around 800 nm to 1300 nm (linewidth ∼ 5 MHz). These narrow linewidth lasers allow for an excellent spectral resolution of approximately 10(-4) cm(-1). The setup employs a differential measurement technique for noise rejection in the probe beam, which also eliminates background signals from the fiber. With the high sensitivity obtained, Raman signals were observed with only a few mW of optical power in both the pump and probe beams. This demonstration allows for high resolution Raman identification of molecules and quantification of Raman signal strengths.

  18. High-resolution optical spectroscopy of RS Ophiuchi during 2008-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somero, A.; Hakala, P.; Wynn, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    RS Ophiuchi (RS Oph) is a symbiotic variable and a recurrent nova (RN). We have monitored it with the Nordic Optical Telescope and obtained 30 high-resolution (R = 46 000) optical spectra over one orbital cycle during quiescence. To our knowledge, this is the best-sampled high-resolution spectroscopic data set of RS Oph over one orbital period. We do not detect any direct signatures of an accretion disc such as double peaked emission lines, but many line profiles are complex consisting of superimposed emission and absorption components. We measure the spin of the red giant and conclude that it is tidally locked to the binary orbit. We observe Na I absorption features, probably arising from the circumbinary medium, that has been shaped by previous RN outbursts. We do not detect any intrinsic polarization in the optical wavelengths.

  19. Detector arrays for high resolution spectroscopy from 5-28 microns (Contributed)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemann, G.; Jennings, D. E.; Moseley, S. H.; Lamb, G.

    A linear Si:As BIB detector array (Rockwell International) is being implemented in a postdispersion detection system for ground based Fourier transform spectrometers. The array version can be used as a multichannel narrow band filter for extended spectral coverage or for imaging with a narrow bandpass. A Si:As solid state photomultiplier array (Rockwell) is evaluated for use in high resolution infrared spectrometers. Test results and applications are discussed.

  20. High resolution X- and gamma-ray spectroscopy of cosmic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.

    1983-01-01

    A high resolution X-ray spectrometer and large area phoswich detector were designed and co-aligned in a common elevation mounting in order to measure solar and cosmic X-ray and gamma ray emission in the 13 to 600 KeV energy range from a balloon. The instrument is described and results obtained for the Crab Nebula, the supernova remnant Cas A, and the Sun are discussed and analyzed.

  1. Characterization of nonderivatized plant cell walls using high-resolution solution-state NMR spectroscopy

    Treesearch

    Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph; Charles R. Frihart

    2008-01-01

    A recently described plant cell wall dissolution system has been modified to use perdeuterated solvents to allow direct in-NMR-tube dissolution and high-resolution solution-state NMR of the whole cell wall without derivatization. Finely ground cell wall material dissolves in a solvent system containing dimethylsulfoxide-d6 and 1-methylimidazole-d6 in a ratio of 4:1 (v/...

  2. Magnetic lens apparatus for use in high-resolution scanning electron microscopes and lithographic processes

    DOEpatents

    Crewe, Albert V.

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particlesis brought to a focus by means of a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. In illustrative embodiments, a lens apparatus is employed in a scanning electron microscopeas the sole lens for high-resolution focusing of an electron beam, and in particular, an electron beam having an accelerating voltage of from about 10 to about 30,000 V. In one embodiment, the lens apparatus comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. In other embodiments, the lens apparatus comprises a magnetic dipole or virtual magnetic monopole fabricated from a variety of materials, including permanent magnets, superconducting coils, and magnetizable spheres and needles contained within an energy-conducting coil. Multiple-array lens apparatus are also disclosed for simultaneous and/or consecutive imaging of multiple images on single or multiple specimens. The invention further provides apparatus, methods, and devices useful in focusing charged particle beams for lithographic processes.

  3. Focused electron beam induced deposition of copper with high resolution and purity from aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfandiarpour, Samaneh; Boehme, Lindsay; Hastings, J. Todd

    2017-03-01

    Electron-beam induced deposition of high-purity copper nanostructures is desirable for nanoscale rapid prototyping, interconnection of chemically synthesized structures, and integrated circuit editing. However, metalorganic, gas-phase precursors for copper introduce high levels of carbon contamination. Here we demonstrate electron beam induced deposition of high-purity copper nanostructures from aqueous solutions of copper sulfate. The addition of sulfuric acid eliminates oxygen contamination from the deposit and produces a deposit with ∼95 at% copper. The addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Triton X-100, or polyethylene glycole (PEG) improves pattern resolution and controls deposit morphology but leads to slightly reduced purity. High resolution nested lines with a 100 nm pitch are obtained from CuSO4–H2SO4–SDS–H2O. Higher aspect ratios (∼1:1) with reduced line edge roughness and unintended deposition are obtained from CuSO4–H2SO4–PEG–H2O. Evidence for radiation-chemical deposition mechanisms was observed, including deposition efficiency as high as 1.4 primary electrons/Cu atom.

  4. Focused electron beam induced deposition of copper with high resolution and purity from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Esfandiarpour, Samaneh; Boehme, Lindsay; Hastings, J Todd

    2017-03-24

    Electron-beam induced deposition of high-purity copper nanostructures is desirable for nanoscale rapid prototyping, interconnection of chemically synthesized structures, and integrated circuit editing. However, metalorganic, gas-phase precursors for copper introduce high levels of carbon contamination. Here we demonstrate electron beam induced deposition of high-purity copper nanostructures from aqueous solutions of copper sulfate. The addition of sulfuric acid eliminates oxygen contamination from the deposit and produces a deposit with ∼95 at% copper. The addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), Triton X-100, or polyethylene glycole (PEG) improves pattern resolution and controls deposit morphology but leads to slightly reduced purity. High resolution nested lines with a 100 nm pitch are obtained from CuSO4-H2SO4-SDS-H2O. Higher aspect ratios (∼1:1) with reduced line edge roughness and unintended deposition are obtained from CuSO4-H2SO4-PEG-H2O. Evidence for radiation-chemical deposition mechanisms was observed, including deposition efficiency as high as 1.4 primary electrons/Cu atom.

  5. Magnetic lens apparatus for use in high-resolution scanning electron microscopes and lithographic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Crewe, A.V.

    2000-04-18

    Disclosed are lens apparatus in which a beam of charged particles is brought to a focus by means of a magnetic field, the lens being situated behind the target position. In illustrative embodiments, a lens apparatus is employed in a scanning electron microscope as the sole lens for high-resolution focusing of an electron beam, and in particular, an electron beam having an accelerating voltage of from about 10 to about 30,000 V. In one embodiment, the lens apparatus comprises an electrically-conducting coil arranged around the axis of the beam and a magnetic pole piece extending along the axis of the beam at least within the space surrounded by the coil. In other embodiments, the lens apparatus comprises a magnetic dipole or virtual magnetic monopole fabricated from a variety of materials, including permanent magnets, superconducting coils, and magnetizable spheres and needles contained within an energy-conducting coil. Multiple-array lens apparatus are also disclosed for simultaneous and/or consecutive imaging of multiple images on single or multiple specimens. The invention further provides apparatus, methods, and devices useful in focusing charged particle beams for lithographic processes.

  6. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy of human body fluids and tissues in relation to prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra; Dwivedi, Durgesh K; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution NMR spectroscopic studies of prostate tissue extracts, prostatic fluid, seminal fluid, serum and urine can be used for the detection of prostate cancer, based on the differences in their metabolic profiles. Useful diagnostic information is obtained by the detection or quantification of as many metabolites as possible and comparison with normal samples. Only a few studies have shown the potential of high-resolution in vitro NMR of prostate tissues. A survey of the literature has revealed that studies on body fluids, such as urine and serum, in relation to prostate cancer are rare. In addition, the potential of NMR of nuclei other than (1)H, such as (13)C and (31)P, has not been exploited fully. The metabolomic analysis of metabolites, detected by high-resolution NMR, may help to identify metabolites which could serve as useful biomarkers for prostate cancer detection. Such NMR-derived biomarkers would not only help in prostate cancer detection and in understanding the in vivo MRS metabolic profile, but also to investigate the biochemical and metabolic changes associated with cancer. Here, we review the published research work on body fluids in relation to prostate and prostate tissue extracts, and highlight the potential of such studies for future work. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Structure and chemistry of epitaxial ceria thin films on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates, studied by high resolution electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Sinclair, Robert; Lee, Sang Chul; Shi, Yezhou; ...

    2017-03-18

    Here, we have applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to study the structure and chemistry of epitaxial ceria thin films, grown by pulsed laser deposition onto (001) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. There are few observable defects apart from the expected mismatch interfacial dislocations and so the films would be expected to have good potential for applications. Under high electron beam dose rate (above about 6000 e-/Å2s) domains of an ordered structure appear and these are interpreted as being created by oxygen vacancy ordering. The ordered structure does not appear at lower lose ratesmore » (ca. 2600 e-/Å2s) and can be removed by imaging under 1 mbar oxygen gas in an environmental TEM. EELS confirms that there is both oxygen deficiency and the associated increase in Ce3+ versus Ce4+ cations in the ordered domains. In situ high resolution TEM recordings show the formation of the ordered domains as well as atomic migration along the ceria thin film (001) surface.« less

  8. Structure and chemistry of epitaxial ceria thin films on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates, studied by high resolution electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Robert; Lee, Sang Chul; Shi, Yezhou; Chueh, William C

    2017-01-06

    We have applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to study the structure and chemistry of epitaxial ceria thin films, grown by pulsed laser deposition onto (001) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. There are few observable defects apart from the expected mismatch interfacial dislocations and so the films would be expected to have good potential for applications. Under high electron beam dose rate (above about 6000 e(-)/Å(2)s) domains of an ordered structure appear and these are interpreted as being created by oxygen vacancy ordering. The ordered structure does not appear at lower lose rates (ca. 2600 e(-)/Å(2)s) and can be removed by imaging under 1 mbar oxygen gas in an environmental TEM. EELS confirms that there is both oxygen deficiency and the associated increase in Ce(3+) versus Ce(4+) cations in the ordered domains. In situ high resolution TEM recordings show the formation of the ordered domains as well as atomic migration along the ceria thin film (001) surface.

  9. The design and construction of a high-resolution velocity-map imaging apparatus for photoelectron spectroscopy studies of size-selected clusters.

    PubMed

    León, Iker; Yang, Zheng; Liu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    A new velocity-map imaging apparatus equipped with a laser-vaporization supersonic cluster source and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described for high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy studies of size-selected cluster anions. Vibrationally cold anion clusters are produced using a laser-vaporization supersonic cluster source, size-selected by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and then focused co-linearly into the interaction zone of the high-resolution velocity-map imaging (VMI) system. The multilens VMI system is optimized via systematic simulations and can reach a resolution of 1.2 cm(-1) (FWHM) for near threshold electrons while maintaining photoelectron kinetic energy resolutions (ΔKE/KE) of ~0.53% for higher energy electrons. The new VMI lens has superior focusing power over a large energy range, yielding highly circular images with distortions no larger than 1.0025 between the long and short radii. The detailed design, simulation, construction, testing, and performance of the high-resolution VMI apparatus are presented.

  10. The design and construction of a high-resolution velocity-map imaging apparatus for photoelectron spectroscopy studies of size-selected clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, Iker; Yang, Zheng; Liu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    A new velocity-map imaging apparatus equipped with a laser-vaporization supersonic cluster source and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described for high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy studies of size-selected cluster anions. Vibrationally cold anion clusters are produced using a laser-vaporization supersonic cluster source, size-selected by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and then focused co-linearly into the interaction zone of the high-resolution velocity-map imaging (VMI) system. The multilens VMI system is optimized via systematic simulations and can reach a resolution of 1.2 cm-1 (FWHM) for near threshold electrons while maintaining photoelectron kinetic energy resolutions (ΔKE/KE) of ˜0.53% for higher energy electrons. The new VMI lens has superior focusing power over a large energy range, yielding highly circular images with distortions no larger than 1.0025 between the long and short radii. The detailed design, simulation, construction, testing, and performance of the high-resolution VMI apparatus are presented.

  11. The design and construction of a high-resolution velocity-map imaging apparatus for photoelectron spectroscopy studies of size-selected clusters

    SciTech Connect

    León, Iker; Yang, Zheng; Liu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-08-15

    A new velocity-map imaging apparatus equipped with a laser-vaporization supersonic cluster source and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is described for high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy studies of size-selected cluster anions. Vibrationally cold anion clusters are produced using a laser-vaporization supersonic cluster source, size-selected by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and then focused co-linearly into the interaction zone of the high-resolution velocity-map imaging (VMI) system. The multilens VMI system is optimized via systematic simulations and can reach a resolution of 1.2 cm{sup −1} (FWHM) for near threshold electrons while maintaining photoelectron kinetic energy resolutions (ΔKE/KE) of ∼0.53% for higher energy electrons. The new VMI lens has superior focusing power over a large energy range, yielding highly circular images with distortions no larger than 1.0025 between the long and short radii. The detailed design, simulation, construction, testing, and performance of the high-resolution VMI apparatus are presented.

  12. High resolution, low h{nu} photoelectron spectroscopy with the use of a microwave excited rare gas lamp and ionic crystal filters

    SciTech Connect

    Suga, S.; Sekiyama, A.; Funabashi, G.; Yamaguchi, J.; Kimura, M.; Tsujibayashi, M.; Uyama, T.; Sugiyama, H.; Tomida, Y.; Kuwahara, G.; Kitayama, S.; Fukushima, K.; Kimura, K.; Yokoi, T.; Murakami, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Saitoh, Y.; Plucinski, L.; Schneider, C. M.

    2010-10-15

    The need for not only bulk sensitive but also extremely high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy for studying detailed electronic structures of strongly correlated electron systems is growing rapidly. Moreover, easy access to such a capability in one's own laboratory is desirable. Demonstrated here is the performance of a microwave excited rare gas (Xe, Kr, and Ar) lamp combined with ionic crystal filters (sapphire, CaF{sub 2}, and LiF), which can supply three strong lines near the photon energy of hnyu h{nu}=8.4, 10.0, and 11.6 eV, with the h{nu} resolution of better than 600 {mu}eV for photoelectron spectroscopy. Its performance is demonstrated on some materials by means of both angle-integrated and angle-resolved measurements.

  13. Coherent Vibrational Dynamics and High-Resolution Nonlinear Spectroscopy: A Comparison with the Air/DMSO Liquid Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Velarde Ruiz Esparza, Luis A.; Lu, Zhou; Wang, Hongfei

    2013-12-27

    In this report we present a comparative study on the C-H stretching vibrations at air/DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) interface with both the free-induction decay (FID) coherent vibrational dynamics and sub-wavenumber high resolution sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy measurements. In principle the frequency-domain and time-domain spectroscopic measurements should generate identical information for a given molecular system. However, when the molecular systems are with several coupled or overlapping vibrational modes, to obtain detailed spectroscopic and coherent dynamics information is not as straightforward and rather difficult from either the time-domain or the frequency domain measurements. For the case of air/DMSO interface that is with moderately complex vibrational spectra, we show that the frequency-domain measurement with sub-wavenumber high-resolution SFGVS is probably more advantageous than the time-domain measurement in obtaining quantitative understanding of the structure and coherent dynamics of the molecular interface.

  14. High-resolution optical spectroscopy with a buffer-gas-cooled beam of BaH molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, G. Z.; McNally, R. L.; Zelevinsky, T.

    2017-08-01

    Barium monohydride (BaH) is an attractive candidate for extending laser cooling and trapping techniques to diatomic hydrides. The apparatus and high-resolution optical spectroscopy presented here demonstrate progress toward this goal. A cryogenic buffer-gas-cooled molecular beam of BaH was constructed and characterized. Pulsed laser ablation into cryogenic helium buffer gas delivers ˜1 ×1010 molecules/sr/pulse in the X +2Σ (v''=0 ,N''=1 ) state of primary interest. More than 1 ×107 of these molecules per pulse enter the downstream science region with forward velocities below 100 m/s and transverse temperature of 0.1 K. This molecular beam enabled high-resolution optical spectra of BaH in quantum states relevant to laser slowing and cooling. The reported measurements include hyperfine structure and magnetic g factors in the X +2Σ , B +2Σ , and A 1/2 2Π states.

  15. Use of a Continuous Wave Laser and Pockels Cell for Sensitive High-Resolution Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Groote, R P; Budinčević, I; Billowes, J; Bissell, M L; Cocolios, T E; Farooq-Smith, G J; Fedosseev, V N; Flanagan, K T; Franchoo, S; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Li, R; Lynch, K M; Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Rossel, R E; Rothe, S; Stroke, H H; Wendt, K D A; Wilkins, S G; Yang, X

    2015-09-25

    New technical developments have led to a 2 orders of magnitude improvement of the resolution of the collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at ISOLDE, CERN, without sacrificing the high efficiency of the CRIS technique. Experimental linewidths of 20(1) MHz were obtained on radioactive beams of francium, allowing us for the first time to determine the electric quadrupole moment of the short lived [t_{1/2}=22.0(5) ms] ^{219}Fr Q_{s}=-1.21(2) eb, which would not have been possible without the advantages offered by the new method. This method relies on a continuous-wave laser and an external Pockels cell to produce narrow-band light pulses, required to reach the high resolution in two-step resonance ionization. Exotic nuclei produced at rates of a few hundred ions/s can now be studied with high resolution, allowing detailed studies of the anchor points for nuclear theories.

  16. Use of a Continuous Wave Laser and Pockels Cell for Sensitive High-Resolution Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groote, R. P.; Budinčević, I.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Cocolios, T. E.; Farooq-Smith, G. J.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Heylen, H.; Li, R.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Neyens, G.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Stroke, H. H.; Wendt, K. D. A.; Wilkins, S. G.; Yang, X.

    2015-09-01

    New technical developments have led to a 2 orders of magnitude improvement of the resolution of the collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at ISOLDE, CERN, without sacrificing the high efficiency of the CRIS technique. Experimental linewidths of 20(1) MHz were obtained on radioactive beams of francium, allowing us for the first time to determine the electric quadrupole moment of the short lived [t1 /2=22.0 (5 ) ms ] 219Fr Qs=-1.21 (2 ) eb , which would not have been possible without the advantages offered by the new method. This method relies on a continuous-wave laser and an external Pockels cell to produce narrow-band light pulses, required to reach the high resolution in two-step resonance ionization. Exotic nuclei produced at rates of a few hundred ions/s can now be studied with high resolution, allowing detailed studies of the anchor points for nuclear theories.

  17. Helium temperature measurements in a hot filament magnetic mirror plasma using high resolution Doppler spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, S.; McCarthy, P. J.; Ruth, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    Langmuir probe and spectroscopic diagnostics are used to routinely measure electron temperature and density over a wide operating range in a reconfigured Double Plasma device at University College Cork, Ireland. The helium plasma, generated through thermionic emission from a negatively biased tungsten filament, is confined by an axisymmetric magnetic mirror configuration using two stacks of NdFeB permanent magnets, each of length 20 cm and diameter 3 cm placed just outside the 15 mm water cooling jacket enclosing a cylindrical vacuum vessel of internal diameter 25 cm. Plasma light is analysed using a Fourier Transform-type Bruker spectrometer with a highest achievable resolution of 0.08 cm-1 . In the present work, the conventional assumption of room temperature ions in the analysis of Langmuir probe data from low temperature plasmas is examined critically using Doppler spectroscopy of the 468.6 nm He II line. Results for ion temperatures obtained from spectroscopic data for a variety of engineering parameters (discharge voltage, gas pressure and plasma current) will be presented.

  18. Atom-counting in High Resolution Electron Microscopy:TEM or STEM - That's the question.

    PubMed

    Gonnissen, J; De Backer, A; den Dekker, A J; Sijbers, J; Van Aert, S

    2016-10-27

    In this work, a recently developed quantitative approach based on the principles of detection theory is used in order to determine the possibilities and limitations of High Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR STEM) and HR TEM for atom-counting. So far, HR STEM has been shown to be an appropriate imaging mode to count the number of atoms in a projected atomic column. Recently, it has been demonstrated that HR TEM, when using negative spherical aberration imaging, is suitable for atom-counting as well. The capabilities of both imaging techniques are investigated and compared using the probability of error as a criterion. It is shown that for the same incoming electron dose, HR STEM outperforms HR TEM under common practice standards, i.e. when the decision is based on the probability function of the peak intensities in HR TEM and of the scattering cross-sections in HR STEM. If the atom-counting decision is based on the joint probability function of the image pixel values, the dependence of all image pixel intensities as a function of thickness should be known accurately. Under this assumption, the probability of error may decrease significantly for atom-counting in HR TEM and may, in theory, become lower as compared to HR STEM under the predicted optimal experimental settings. However, the commonly used standard for atom-counting in HR STEM leads to a high performance and has been shown to work in practice.

  19. High resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of a milled oxide dispersion strengthened steel powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyer-Prost, M.; Merot, J.-S.; Ribis, J.; Le Bouar, Y.; Chaffron, L.; Legendre, F.

    2016-10-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are promising materials for generation IV fuel claddings as their dense nano-oxide dispersion provides good creep and irradiation resistance. Even if they have been studied for years, the formation mechanism of these nano-oxides is still unclear. Here we report for the first time a High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of an ODS milled powder. It provides clear evidence of the presence of small crystalline nanoclusters (NCs) enriched in titanium directly after milling. Small NCs (<5 nm) have a crystalline structure and seem partly coherent with the matrix. They have an interplanar spacing close to the (011) bcc iron structure. They coexist with larger crystalline spherical precipitates of 15-20 nm in size. Their crystalline structure may be metastable as they are not consistent with any Y-Ti-O or Ti-O structure. Such detailed observations in the as-milled grain powder confirm a mechanism of Y, Ti, O dissolution in the ferritic matrix followed by a NC precipitation during the mechanical alloying process of ODS materials.

  20. Fluid mechanical proximity effects in high-resolution gravure printing for printed electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau, Gerd; Scheideler, William J.; Subramanian, Vivek

    2016-11-01

    Gravure printing is a very promising method for printed electronics because it combines high throughput with high resolution. Recently, printed lines with 2 micrometer resolution have been demonstrated at printing speeds on the order of 1m/s. In order to build realistic circuits, the fluid dynamics of complex pattern formation needs to be studied. Recently, we showed that highly-scaled lines printed in close succession exhibit proximity effects that can either improve or deteriorate print quality depending on a number of parameters. It was found that this effect occurs if cells are connected by a thin fluid film. Here, we present further experimental and modeling results explaining the mechanism by which this thin fluid film affects pattern formation. During the transfer of ink from the roll to the substrate, ink can flow in between connected cells. Asymmetry in the fluid distribution created by the preceding doctor blade wiping process results in net fluid flow from cells that transfer first to cells that transfer subsequently. The proximity of these cells thus affects the final ink distribution on the substrate, which is critically important to understand and design optimally when printing highly-scaled patterns of electronic materials. This work is based upon work supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement No. EEC-1160494.

  1. Development of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectroscopy for fusion and light-source research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Pablant, N. A.; Efthimion, P.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Widmann, K.; Sanchez del Rio, M.

    2014-09-01

    One dimensional spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectroscopy with spherically bent crystals and 2D pixelated detectors is an established technique on magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) experiments world wide for Doppler measurements of spatial profiles of plasma ion temperature and flow velocity. This technique is being further developed for diagnosis of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) plasmas at laser-plasma facilities and synchrotron/x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) facilities. Useful spatial resolution (micron scale) of such small-scale plasma sources requires magnification, because of the finite pixel size of x-ray CCD detectors (13.5 μm). A von-Hamos like spectrometer using spherical crystals is capable of magnification, as well as uniform sagittal focusing across the full x-ray spectrum, and is being tested in laboratory experiments using a tungsten-target microfocus (5-10 μm) x-ray tube and 13-μm pixel x-ray CCD. A spatial resolution better than 10 μm has been demonstrated. Good spectral resolution is indicated by small differences (0.02 - 0.1 eV) of measured line widths with best available published natural line widths. Progress and status of HEDP measurements and the physics basis for these diagnostics are presented. A new type of x-ray crystal spectrometer with a convex spherically bent crystal is also reported. The status of testing of a 2D imaging microscope using matched pairs of spherical crystals with x rays will also be presented. The use of computational x-ray optics codes in development of these instrumental concepts is addressed.

  2. HIGH-RESOLUTION XMM-NEWTON SPECTROSCOPY OF THE COOLING FLOW CLUSTER A3112

    SciTech Connect

    Bulbul, G. Esra; Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam; Cottam, Jean; Loewenstein, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Shafer, Richard

    2012-03-01

    We examine high signal-to-noise XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) and Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) observations to determine the physical characteristics of the gas in the cool core and outskirts of the nearby rich cluster A3112. The XMM-Newton Extended Source Analysis Software data reduction and background modeling methods were used to analyze the XMM-Newton EPIC data. From the EPIC data, we find that the iron and silicon abundance gradients show significant increase toward the center of the cluster while the oxygen abundance profile is centrally peaked but has a shallower distribution than that of iron. The X-ray mass modeling is based on the temperature and deprojected density distributions of the intracluster medium determined from EPIC observations. The total mass of A3112 obeys the M-T scaling relations found using XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of massive clusters at r{sub 500}. The gas mass fraction f{sub gas} = 0.149{sup +0.036}{sub -0.032} at r{sub 500} is consistent with the seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe results. The comparisons of line fluxes and flux limits on the Fe XVII and Fe XVIII lines obtained from high-resolution RGS spectra indicate that there is no spectral evidence for cooler gas associated with the cluster with temperature below 1.0 keV in the central <38'' ({approx}52 kpc) region of A3112. High-resolution RGS spectra also yield an upper limit to the turbulent motions in the compact core of A3112 (206 km s{sup -1}). We find that the contribution of turbulence to total energy is less than 6%. This upper limit is consistent with the energy contribution measured in recent high-resolution simulations of relaxed galaxy clusters.

  3. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy in unstable and inhomogeneous fields via stroboscopic acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meijin; Chen, Xi; Cai, Congbo; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated that despite the insensitivity of intermolecular zero-quantum coherences (iZQCs) to B0 variations, the influence of unstable fields on the observable single-quantum coherence signals causes strong t1 noises in the high-resolution iZQC projection spectra. Stroboscopic acquisition was then proposed for noise suppression. The feasibility of the modified sequences with the proposed acquisition scheme was verified by computer simulations and experiments in different unstable fields generated by the Z0 and Z1 coil current oscillations, which mimic the unstable fields of NMR using externally powered magnets and MRS in the presence of physiological motions, respectively.

  4. High-resolution FTIR spectroscopy of the ν3 band of methyl acetylene-d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Ayan Kumar; Kshirsagar, R. J.

    2014-04-01

    The high-resolution Fourier transform spectrum of methyl acetylene-d1 (CH3CCD) at room temperature has been recorded in the region of the ν3 band (1980-2035 cm-1) at an apodized resolution of 0.004 cm-1. About 600 vibration-rotation transitions have been assigned, with J upto 36 and K upto 6. The spectrum shows the presence of several perturbations. The observed minus calculated deviation of the fit for K = 4 subband is much more than the expected, shows the presence of Fermi resonance with the nearby vibrational state.

  5. From BASIS to MIRACLES: Benchmarking and perspectives for high-resolution neutron spectroscopy at the ESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsapatsaris, Nikolaos; Willendrup, Peter K.; Lechner, Ruep E.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2015-01-01

    Results based on virtual instrument models for the first high-flux, high-resolution, spallation based, backscattering spectrometer, BASIS are presented in this paper. These were verified using the Monte Carlo instrument simulation packages McStas and VITESS. Excellent agreement of the neutron count rate at the sample position between the virtual instrument simulation and experiments was found, in both time and energy distributions. This achievement was only possible after a new component for a bent single crystal analyser in McStas, using a Gaussian approximation, was developed. These findings are pivotal to the conceptual design of the next generation backscattering spectrometer, MIRACLES at the European Spallation Source.

  6. Holmium iron borate: high-resolution spectroscopy and crystal-field parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erofeev, D. A.; Chukalina, E. P.; Popova, M. N.; Malkin, B. Z.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Gudim, I. A.

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution transmission spectra of HoFe3(BO3)4 single crystals were measured in broad spectral (5000-23000 cm-1) and temperature (1.7-300 K) ranges. Crystal-field energies of the Ho3+ ions were determined for a paramagnetic and easy-axis antiferromagnetic phases of the compound. On the basis of these data and of preliminary crystal-field calculations in the frame of the exchange-charge model, crystal-field parameters were found. A parameter of the isotropic Ho-Fe exchange interaction was estimated.

  7. High-resolution spectroscopy with the multi-anode microchannel array detector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.; Joseph, C. L.; Wolf, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a series of high-resolution spectroscopic observations undertaken with a linear (1 x 1024)-pixel visible-light Multi-Anode Microchannel Array (MAMA) detector on the Coudespectrograph of the 2.2-meter telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatory and on the vacuum spectrograph of the McMath Solar telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory are described. In addition, the two-dimensional MAMA detector systems with (16 x 1024)-pixel, (24 x 1024)-pixel, and (256 x 1024)-pixel formats which are now being readied for use in a series of ground-based, balloon, and sounding-rocket observing programs are briefly described.

  8. Soot Structure and Reactivity Analysis by Raman Microspectroscopy, Temperature-Programmed Oxidation, and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knauer, Markus; Schuster, Manfred E.; Su, Dangsheng; Schlögl, Robert; Niessner, Reinhard; Ivleva, Natalia P.

    2009-11-01

    Raman microspectroscopy (RM), temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were combined to get comprehensive information on the relationship between structure and reactivity of soot in samples of spark discharge (GfG), heavy duty engine diesel (EURO VI and IV) soot, and graphite powder upon oxidation by oxygen at increasing temperatures. GfG soot and graphite powder represent the higher and lower reactivity limits. Raman microspectroscopic analysis was conducted by determination of spectral parameters using a five band fitting procedure (G, D1-D4) as well as by evaluation of the dispersive character of the D mode. The analysis of spectral parameters shows a higher degree of disorder and a higher amount of molecular carbon for untreated GfG soot samples than for samples of untreated EURO VI and EURO IV soot. The structural analysis based on the dispersive character of the D mode revealed substantial differences in ordering descending from graphite powder, EURO IV, VI to GfG soot. HRTEM images and EELS analysis of EURO IV and VI samples indicated a different morphology and a higher structural order as compared to GfG soot in full agreement with the Raman analysis. These findings are also confirmed by the reactivity of soot during oxidation (TPO), where GfG soot was found to be the most reactive and EURO IV and VI soot samples exhibited a moderate reactivity.

  9. Synthesis, High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy, and Vibrational Structure of Cubane, C8H8.

    PubMed

    Boudon, V; Lamy, M; Dugue-Boyé, F; Pirali, O; Gruet, S; D'Accolti, L; Fusco, C; Annese, C; Alikhani, M E

    2016-06-30

    Carbon-cage molecules have generated a considerable interest from both experimental and theoretical points of view. We recently performed a high-resolution study of adamantane (C10H16), the smallest hydrocarbon cage belonging to the diamandoid family ( Pirali , O. ; et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2012 , 136 , 024310 ). There exist another family of hydrocarbon cages with additional interesting chemical properties: the so-called platonic hydrocarbons that comprise dodecahedrane (C20H20) and cubane (C8H8). Both possess C-C bond angles that deviate from the tetrahedral angle (109.8°) of the sp(3) hybridized form of carbon. This generates a considerable strain in the molecule. We report a new wide-range high-resolution study of the infrared spectrum of cubane. The sample was synthesized in Bari upon decarboxylation of 1,4-cubanedicarboxylic acid thanks to the improved synthesis of literature. Several spectra have been recorded at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility. They cover the 600-3200 cm(-1) region. Besides the three infrared-active fundamentals (ν10, ν11, and ν12), we could record many combination bands, all of them displaying a well-resolved octahedral rotational structure. We present here a preliminary analysis of some of the recorded bands, performed thanks the SPVIEW and XTDS software, based on the tensorial formalism developed in the Dijon group. A comparison with ab initio calculations, allowing to identify some combination bands, is also presented.

  10. High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and femtosecond intramolecular dynamics of H2CCO + and D2CCO +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Baohua; Bai, Ying; Shirley, David A.

    1993-08-01

    High resolution helium Iα (584 Å) photoelectron spectra of H2CCO and D2CCO are reported. The present spectra of the ground states of ketene cations show more vibrational fine structure than previously reported. The adiabatic ionization energies (AIEs) of the cations' first, second, and fifth excited states are determined unambiguously. The doubletlike fine structures present in the first excited states of ketene cations imply the excitation of a ``soft'' mode that was not observed before. It was assigned to the ν5 mode, which is characterized by the CH2 (CD2) group out-of-plane wagging motion. The complexity of the photoelectron spectra obtained for the ionic first excited states is attributed to the possible dissociation and predissociation of this state. Strong isotope effects are observed in the vibronic (vibrational) couplings in most of the ionic states. Vibrational autocorrelation functions are calculated from the high-resolution photoelectron spectra for four of the six ionic states observed. The dynamics of the ground states of the cations are characterized by a wave packet oscillating with small amplitude around the minimum of the upper potential energy surfaces (PES). The decay dynamics of the ionic first and fifth excited states of ketene are characterized by ultrafast intramolecular processes such as dissociation and predissociation.

  11. Sample-Induced RF Perturbations in High-Field, High-Resolution NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crozier, Stuart; Brereton, Ian M.; Zelaya, Fernando O.; Roffmann, Wolfgang U.; Doddrell, David M.

    1997-05-01

    Conducting dielectric samples are often used in high-resolution experiments at high field. It is shown that significant amplitude and phase distortions of the RF magnetic field may result from perturbations caused by such samples. Theoretical analyses demonstrate the spatial variation of the RF field amplitude and phase across the sample, and comparisons of the effect are made for a variety of sample properties and operating field strengths. Although the effect is highly nonlinear, it tends to increase with increasing field strength, permittivity, conductivity, and sample size. There are cases, however, in which increasing the conductivity of the sample improves the homogeneity of the amplitude of the RF field across the sample at the expense of distorted RF phase. It is important that the perturbation effects be calculated for the experimental conditions used, as they have the potential to reduce the signal-to-noise ratio of NMR experiments and may increase the generation of spurious coherences. The effect of RF-coil geometry on the coherences is also modeled, with the use of homogeneous resonators such as the birdcage design being preferred. Recommendations are made concerning methods of reducing sample-induced perturbations. Experimental high-field imaging and high-resolution studies demonstrate the effect.

  12. Abundances of Local Group Globular Clusters Using High Resolution Integrated Light Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakari, Charli; McWilliam, A.; Venn, K.; Shetrone, M. D.; Dotter, A. L.; Mackey, D.

    2014-01-01

    Abundances and kinematics of extragalactic globular clusters provide valuable clues about galaxy and globular cluster formation in a wide variety of environments. In order to obtain such information about distant, unresolved systems, specific observational techniques are required. An Integrated Light Spectrum (ILS) provides a single spectrum from an entire stellar population, and can therefore be used to determine integrated cluster abundances. This dissertation investigates the accuracy of high resolution ILS analysis methods, using ILS (taken with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope) of globular clusters associated with the Milky Way (47 Tuc, M3, M13, NGC 7006, and M15) and then applies the method to globular clusters in the outer halo of M31 (from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey, or PAndAS). Results show that: a) as expected, the high resolution method reproduces individual stellar abundances for elements that do not vary within a cluster; b) the presence of multiple populations does affect the abundances of elements that vary within the cluster; c) certain abundance ratios are very sensitive to systematic effects, while others are not; and d) certain abundance ratios (e.g. [Ca/Fe]) can be accurately obtained from unresolved systems. Applications of ILABUNDS to the PAndAS clusters reveal that accretion may have played an important role in the formation of M31's outer halo.

  13. High Resolution Spectroscopy of C_2 and CN in the Cygnus OB2 Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Benjamin J.; Oka, Takeshi

    2000-08-01

    The unexpected detection of a large column density of hhh along the lines of sight to Cygnus OB2 #12 and Cygnus OB2 #5 cannot be explained by the standard models of diffuse cloud chemistry, which imply unreasonably long absorption path lengths (hundreds of parsecs). In order to gather more information about the physical condition of the diffuse gas in these lines of sight, we propose to obtain high resolution (R 120 000) visible spectra of several stars in the Cygnus OB2 association, including #12 and #5. The observed rotational distribution of the diatomics çand CN will enable us to estimate the kinetic temperature and number density of the molecular gas. In addition, the high resolution of the HRS at HET will allow us to study the velocity distribution of both the atomic (K I) and molecular (çand CN) gas along these lines of sight. Together with our previous observations of hhh, the temperatures, number densities, and velocity distributions from the proposed observations will seriously constrain theoretical models of these sightlines, such as that recently proposed by Cecchi-Pestellini and Dalgarno.

  14. Studies on High-Resolution Brillouin and Frequency Modulation Laser Absorption Spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattnaik, Radha Krishna

    1992-01-01

    The discovery of quasicrystals in 1984 has invoked considerable interest in the physics of quasiperiodic layered structures. Interfaces between elastically different media modify the acoustic phonons and give rise to new modes. Observation of these modes and their dependence on structural parameters provide a direct insight into the elastic and photoelastic properties of the layered structures. Brillouin scattering is an excellent non-destructive means to detect these excitations. A simple theoretical model for the acoustic phonons in a quasiperiodic, one dimensional, Fibonacci chain is presented. The results show that the density of states is selfsimilar and the higher frequency modes are suppressed as the length of the chain is increased. Electronic energy band structure of the same chain modeled as a Kronig-Penny system is also studied and is seen to have a selfsimilar structure, and as the number of barriers is increased the lower energy states are found to exhibit localization character. Brillouin scattering from such a superlattice constructed out of layers of AlSb and GaSb is discussed and the intensity of the inelastic components is calculated. Experimental results for the first time detecting these components in a backscattering geometry enploying a triple pass Fabry Perot interferometer are presented. In the second part of this work, frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy is extended to the important regime of multimode dye lasers. Theoretical calculations show that the edge of the laser power profile plays a decisive role and under certain circumstances can result in an FM signal that is not limited by the FWHM of the laser line. The theoretical results are demonstrated to be in excellent agreement with experimentally measured FM spectra obtained by probing the atomic sodium D_2 transition line. The measured FWHM of the signal is narrower than the laser bandwidth and is in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  15. Changes in plant defense chemistry (pyrrolizidine alkaloids) revealed through high-resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Sabrina; Macel, Mirka; Schlerf, Martin; Moghaddam, Fatemeh Eghbali; Mulder, Patrick P. J.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2013-06-01

    Plant toxic biochemicals play an important role in defense against natural enemies and often are toxic to humans and livestock. Hyperspectral reflectance is an established method for primary chemical detection and could be further used to determine plant toxicity in the field. In order to make a first step for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detection (toxic defense compound against mammals and many insects) we studied how such spectral data can estimate plant defense chemistry under controlled conditions. In a greenhouse, we grew three related plant species that defend against generalist herbivores through pyrrolizidine alkaloids: Jacobaea vulgaris, Jacobaea erucifolia and Senecio inaequidens, and analyzed the relation between spectral measurements and chemical concentrations using multivariate statistics. Nutrient addition enhanced tertiary-amine pyrrolizidine alkaloids contents of J. vulgaris and J. erucifolia and decreased N-oxide contents in S. inaequidens and J. vulgaris. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids could be predicted with a moderate accuracy. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid forms tertiary-amines and epoxides were predicted with 63% and 56% of the variation explained, respectively. The most relevant spectral regions selected for prediction were associated with electron transitions and Csbnd H, Osbnd H, and Nsbnd H bonds in the 1530 and 2100 nm regions. Given the relatively low concentration in pyrrolizidine alkaloids concentration (in the order of mg g-1) and resultant predictions, it is promising that pyrrolizidine alkaloids interact with incident light. Further studies should be considered to determine if such a non-destructive method may predict changes in PA concentration in relation to plant natural enemies. Spectroscopy may be used to study plant defenses in intact plant tissues, and may provide managers of toxic plants, food industry and multitrophic-interaction researchers with faster and larger monitoring possibilities.

  16. High resolution parallel reaction monitoring with electron transfer dissociation for middle-down proteomics.

    PubMed

    Sweredoski, Michael J; Moradian, Annie; Raedle, Matthias; Franco, Catarina; Hess, Sonja

    2015-08-18

    In recent years, middle-down proteomics has emerged as a popular technique for the characterization and quantification of proteins not readily amenable to typical bottom-up approaches. So far, all high resolution middle-down approaches are done in data-dependent acquisition mode, using both collision-induced dissociation or electron capture/transfer dissociation techniques. Here, we explore middle-down proteomics with electron transfer dissociation using a targeted acquisition mode, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), on an Orbitrap Fusion. As an example of a highly modified protein, we used histone H3 fractions from untreated and DMSO-treated Murine ErythroLeukemia (MEL) cells. We first determined optimized instrument parameters to obtain high sequence coverage using a synthetic standard peptide. We then setup a combined method of both MS1 scans and PRM scans of the 20 most abundant combinations of methylation and acetylation of the +10 charge state of the N-terminal tail of H3. Weak cation exchange hydrophilic interaction chromatography was used to separate the N-terminal H3 tail, primarily, by its acetylation and, to a secondary degree, by its methylation status, which aided in the interpretation of the results. After deconvolution of the highly charged ions, peaks were annotated to a minimum set of 254 H3 proteoforms in the untreated and treated samples. Upon DMSO treatment, global quantitation changes from the MS1 level show a relative decrease of 2, 3, 4, and 5 acetylations and an increase of 0 and 1 acetylations. A fragment ion map was developed to visualize specific differences between treated and untreated samples. Taken together, the data presented here show that middle-down proteomics with electron transfer dissociation using PRM is a novel, attractive method for the effective analysis and quantification of large and highly modified peptides.

  17. High-resolution subtyping of Staphylococcus aureus strains by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Johler, Sophia; Stephan, Roger; Althaus, Denise; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Grunert, Tom

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes a variety of serious illnesses in humans and animals. Subtyping of S. aureus isolates plays a crucial role in epidemiological investigations. Metabolic fingerprinting by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is commonly used to identify microbes at species as well as subspecies level. In this study, we aimed to assess the suitability of FTIR spectroscopy as a tool for S. aureus subtyping. To this end, we compared the subtyping performance of FTIR spectroscopy to other subtyping methods such as pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and spa typing in a blinded experimental setup and investigated the ability of FTIR spectroscopy for identifying S. aureus clonal complexes (CC). A total of 70 S. aureus strains from human, animal, and food sources were selected, for which clonal complexes and a unique virulence and resistance gene pattern had been determined by DNA microarray analysis. FTIR spectral analysis resulted in high discriminatory power similar as obtained by spa typing and PFGE. High directional concordance was found between FTIR spectroscopy based subtypes and capsular polysaccharide expression detected by FTIR spectroscopy and the cap specific locus, reflecting strain specific expression of capsular polysaccharides and/or other surface glycopolymers, such as wall teichoic acid, peptidoglycane, and lipoteichoic acid. Supervised chemometrics showed only limited possibilities for differentiation of S. aureus CC by FTIR spectroscopy with the exception of CC45 and CC705. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy represents a valuable tool for S. aureus subtyping, which complements current molecular and proteomic strain typing.

  18. High resolution infrared spectroscopy: Some new approaches and applications to planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    The principles of spectral line formation and of techniques for retrieval of atmospheric temperature and constituent profiles are discussed. Applications to the atmospheres of Earth, Mars, Venus, and Jupiter are illustrated by results obtained with Fourier transform and infrared heterodyne spectrometers at resolving powers (lambda/delta hyperon lambda of approximately 10,000 and approximately 10 to the seventh power), respectively, showing the high complementarity of spectroscopy at these two widely different resolving powers. The principles of heterodyne spectroscopy are presented and its applications to atmospheric probing and to laboratory spectroscopy are discussed. Direct absorption spectroscopy with tuneable semiconductor lasers is discussed in terms of precision frequency-and line strength-measurements, showing substantial advances in laboratory infrared spectroscopy.

  19. High resolution far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy of radicals at the AILES beamline of SOLEIL synchrotron facility.

    PubMed

    Martin-Drumel, M A; Pirali, O; Balcon, D; Bréchignac, Ph; Roy, P; Vervloet, M

    2011-11-01

    Experimental far-infrared (FIR) spectroscopy of transient species (unstable molecules, free radicals, and ions) has been limited so far in both emission and absorption (mainly by the low probability of spontaneous emission in that spectral range and the low brightness of continuum sources used for absorption measurements, respectively). Nevertheless, the FIR spectral range recently became of high astrophysical relevance thanks to several new observational platforms (HERSCHEL, ALMA...) dedicated to the study of this region suitable for the detection of the emission from cold objects of the interstellar medium. In order to complete the experimental dataset concerning transient species, three discharge experiments dedicated to the recording of high resolution FIR spectra of radicals have been developed at the Advanced Infrared Line Exploited for Spectroscopy (AILES) which extracts the bright FIR synchrotron continuum of the synchrotron facility SOLEIL. These experiments make use of a high resolution (R = 0.001 cm(-1)) Bruker IFS125 Fourier transform (FT) spectrometer. An emission setup (allowing to record spectra of radicals excited at high rotational and vibrational temperatures) and two absorption setups (exploiting the bright synchrotron source at the highest resolution available on the FT) are alternatively connected to the FT. The advantages and limitations of these techniques are discussed on the basis of the recent results obtained on OH and CH radicals. These results constitute the first FIR spectra of radicals using synchrotron radiation, and the first FIR spectrum of a C-bearing radical using FT-spectroscopy.

  20. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Cubane, C_8H_8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudon, Vincent; Pirali, Olivier; Gruet, Sébastien; D'accolti, Lucia; Fusco, Caterina; Annese, Cosimo

    2014-06-01

    Carbon-cage molecules have generated a considerable interest from both experimental and theoretical point of views. We recently performed a high-resolution study of adamantane (C10H16), the smallest hydrocarbon cage belonging to the diamandoid family. There exist another family of hydrocarbon cages with additional interesting chemical properties: the so-called Platonic hydrocarbons that comprise dodecahedrane (C20H20) and cubane (C_8H_8). Both possess C-C bond angles that deviate from the tetrahedral angle (109.8°) of the sp^3 hybridized form of carbon. This generates a considerable strain in the molecule. Cubane itself has the highest density of all hydrocarbons (1.29 g/cm^3). This makes it able to store larges amounts of energy, although the molecule is fully stable. Up to now, only one high-resolution study of cubane has been performed on a few bands [2]. We report here a new wide-range high-resolution study of the infrared spectrum of cubane. The sample was synthesized in Bari upon decarboxylation of 1,4-cubanedicarboxylic acid thanks to the improved synthesis of literature [3]; its {}1H and 13C NMR, FTIR, and mass spectrometry agreed with reported data [4]. Several spectra have been recorded at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL French synchrotron facility. They cover the 800 to 3100 cm-1 region. Besides the three infrared-active fundamentals (ν10, ν11 and ν12), we could record many combination bands, all of them displaying a well-resolved octahedral rotational structure. We present here a preliminary analysis of some of the recorded bands, performed thanks the SPVIEW and XTDS software, based on the tensrorial formalism developed in the Dijon group [5]. [1] O. Pirali, V. Boudon, J. Oomens, M. Vervloet, J. Chem. Phys., 136, 024310 (2012). [2] A. S. Pine, A. G. Maki, A. G. Robiette, B. J. Krohn, J. K. G. Watson, Th. Urbanek, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 106, 891-897 (1984). [3] P. E. Eaton, N. Nordari, J. Tsanaktsidis, P. S. Upadhyaya, Synthesis, 1, 501, (1995). [4] E

  1. A high-resolution coherent transition radiation diagnostic for laser-produced electron transport studies (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, M.; Begishev, I. A.; Brown, R. J.; Mileham, C.; Myatt, J. F.; Nilson, P. M.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Zuegel, J. D.; Guo, C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2008-10-15

    High-resolution images of the rear-surface optical emission from high-intensity (I{approx}10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) laser illuminated metal foils have been recorded using coherent transition radiation (CTR). CTR is generated as relativistic electrons, generated in high-intensity laser-plasma interactions, exit the target's rear surface and move into vacuum. A transition radiation diagnostic (TRD) records time-integrated images in a 24 nm bandwidth window around {lambda}=529 nm. The optical transmission at {lambda}=1053 nm, the laser wavelength, is 15 orders of magnitude lower than the transmission at the wavelength of interest, {lambda}=527 nm. The detector is a scientific grade charge-coupled device (CCD) camera that operates with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10{sup 3} and has a dynamic range of 10{sup 4}. The TRD has demonstrated a spatial resolution of 1.4 {mu}m over a 1 mm field of view, limited only by the CCD pixel size.

  2. Reversible structure transition in gap junction under Ca++ control seen by high-resolution electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, N G; Brown, E; Chillingworth, R K

    1984-01-01

    Deoxycholate-extracted rat liver gap junction was studied by high-resolution low-dose electron microscopy. Communicating channels between two adjoining cells supposedly form along the common axis of two apposed hexameric trans-membrane protein assemblies. These double hexamers are often arranged in large plaques on an ordered hexagonal net (8-9 nm lattice constant) and seem able to undergo structural alteration as a possible permeability control mechanism. Calcium is widely reported to uncouple gap junction, and we observed this alteration on exposure to Ca++ down to 10(-4) M concentration. When EGTA was added at matching concentrations, the alteration was reversible several times over one hour, but with considerable variability. It was imaged in the absence of any negative stain to avoid ionic and other complications. The resulting lack of contrast plus low-dose "shot" noise required digital Fourier filtering and reconstruction, but no detail was recovered below 1.8 nm. In other experiments with negative stain at neutral pH, gap junction connexons were apparently locked in the "closed" configuration and no transition could be induced. However, recovery of repeating detail to nearly 1.0 nm was possible, reproducibly showing a fine connective matrix between connexons . Whether this was formed by unfolded portions of the 28,000-dalton gap junction protein is not known, but its existence could explain the observed lattice invariance during the connexon structural transition.

  3. In-Situ High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigation of Overheating of Cu Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chunlin; Hu, Ziyu; Li, Yanfen; Liu, Limin; Mori, Hirotaro; Wang, Zhangchang

    2016-01-01

    Synthesizing and functionalizing metal nanoparticles supported on substrates is currently the subject of intensive study owing to their outstanding catalytic performances for heterogeneous catalysis. Revealing the fundamental effect of the substrates on metal nanoparticles represents a key step in clarifying mechanisms of stability and catalytic properties of these heterogeneous systems. However, direct identification of these effects still poses a significant challenge due to the complicacy of interactions between substrates and nanoparticles and also for the technical difficulty, restraining our understanding of these heterogeneous systems. Here, we combine in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with molecular dynamics simulations to investigate Cu nanoparticles supported on graphite and Cu2O substrates, and demonstrate that melting behavior and thermal stability of Cu nanoparticles can be markedly influenced by substrates. The graphite-supported Cu nanoparticles do not melt during annealing at 1073 K until they vanish completely, i.e. only the sublimation occurs, while the Cu2O-supported Cu nanoparticles suffer melting during annealing at 973 K. Such selective superheating of the Cu nanoparticles can be attributed to the adsorption of a thin carbon layer on the surface of the Cu nanoparticles, which helps guide further stability enhancement of functional nanoparticles for realistic applications. PMID:26785839

  4. High resolution electron microscopy of metastable precipitates in a Cu-7. 8 at% Be alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, A.; Tsubakino, H. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1994-09-15

    It is known that three metastable phases, the G.P. zone, the [gamma][double prime] and the [gamma][prime] phase precipitate in Cu-rich, Cu-Be alloys prior to the precipitation of the stable [gamma] (CuBe) phase. In addition, a precursor to the G.P. zone was reported in the as-quenched state by Rioja and Laughlin, Koo et al. and Koo and Cohen, which is described as equiaxed'' or ellipsoidal'' Be clusters. There is little known about the phases ability to dissolve to form the following next phase or to continuously transform to the next, except for the formation of the [gamma][double prime] by a stacking of the G.P. zones. The authors of this study have recently suggested, based on the results of a calorimetric study of Cu-Be alloys, that the structure of the G.P. zones and the [gamma][double prime] gradually change with aging toward that of [gamma][double prime] and the [gamma][prime], respectively. The high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) is considered to be a suitable method for examining the structural changes in these precipitates. Therefore, in the present study, the precipitates formed in the Cu-Be alloy are observed in detail by HREM to clarify the relationship between their structures.

  5. High-resolution electron microscopy study of synthetic carbonate and aluminum containing apatites.

    PubMed

    Layani, J D; Cuisinier, F J; Steuer, P; Cohen, H; Voegel, J C; Mayer, I

    2000-05-01

    Aluminum (Al)-containing calcium-deficient carbonated hydroxyapatites were produced by a precipitation method from aqueous solution with carbonate (0-6.1%) and aluminum (0.1-0.5%) concentrations close to those found in biological materials. Two series of apatites were prepared: one at pH 7.0 and another at pH 9. 0. High-resolution electron microscopy has shown that many of them possess structural defects such as screw dislocations, grain boundaries, and central defects. Samples with high carbonate content and high water and high Al(3+) content had a high amount of structural defects. Accordingly, a sample (7Al1) with a relatively high carbonate content (6.1%) and a sample (7Al6) without carbonate but with a relatively high water (2.0 mol) and Al(3+) content (0. 39%) presented the highest amount of structural defects, 54% and 47%, respectively. A sample (7Al13) with a low level of crystalline water (1 mol) and low carbonate (2.5%) showed a small amount of defects. The presence of water associated with Al(3+) induced a high number of crystals having a central defect with a great similarity to the so-called water layer of octacalcium phosphate (OCP). Observed images of all these crystals have shown good correspondence with the computer-simulated image based on the crystal structure of hydroxyapatite, indicating that the addition of Al(3+) and carbonate does not perturb the apatitic structure.

  6. In-Situ High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigation of Overheating of Cu Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chunlin; Hu, Ziyu; Li, Yanfen; Liu, Limin; Mori, Hirotaro; Wang, Zhangchang

    2016-01-01

    Synthesizing and functionalizing metal nanoparticles supported on substrates is currently the subject of intensive study owing to their outstanding catalytic performances for heterogeneous catalysis. Revealing the fundamental effect of the substrates on metal nanoparticles represents a key step in clarifying mechanisms of stability and catalytic properties of these heterogeneous systems. However, direct identification of these effects still poses a significant challenge due to the complicacy of interactions between substrates and nanoparticles and also for the technical difficulty, restraining our understanding of these heterogeneous systems. Here, we combine in situ high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with molecular dynamics simulations to investigate Cu nanoparticles supported on graphite and Cu2O substrates, and demonstrate that melting behavior and thermal stability of Cu nanoparticles can be markedly influenced by substrates. The graphite-supported Cu nanoparticles do not melt during annealing at 1073 K until they vanish completely, i.e. only the sublimation occurs, while the Cu2O-supported Cu nanoparticles suffer melting during annealing at 973 K. Such selective superheating of the Cu nanoparticles can be attributed to the adsorption of a thin carbon layer on the surface of the Cu nanoparticles, which helps guide further stability enhancement of functional nanoparticles for realistic applications.

  7. High resolution transmission electron microscopy study of diamond films grown from fullerene precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, J.S.; Gruen, D.M.; Krauss, A.R.

    1995-07-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) has been used to investigate the microstructure of diamond films grown by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition using fullerene precursors. HRTEM observations of as-grown films revealed an array of larger crystals (>200 nm) within a polycrystalline matrix of much smaller crystallites (<20 nm). The randomly oriented small crystallites were nearly free of structural imperfections such as stacking faults or twins, while the larger ones had preferred <110> orientations with respect to the Si (100) substrate and showed evidence of structural defects on the periphery of the crystals. The most common defects were V-shaped {Sigma}9 twin boundaries, which are generally believed to serve as re-entrant sites for diamond nucleation and growth. The observation of growth steps on both (111) and (110) surfaces seems to support a reaction model in which fragments of C{sub 60}, including C{sub 2}, are considered the growth species. In particular, the nanocrystallinity of the films is most likely due to a high carbon cluster density from C{sub 60} fragmentation at or near the diamond surface, which can serve as nucleation sites for the growth of new crystallites.

  8. Visualizing taste papillae in vivo with scanning electron microscopy of a high resolution cast.

    PubMed

    Myers, W E; Hettinger, T P; D'Ambrosio, J A; Wendt, S L; Pearson, C B; Barry, M A; Frank, M E

    1995-02-01

    A method using polyvinylsiloxane (PVS), a high-resolution dental impression material, to obtain negative images of lingual surfaces is described. Epoxy-resin tongue replicas made from these impressions were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This method has been developed to visualize structural details of the tongue surface of living human beings and laboratory animals. The utility of the method is demonstrated with hamster tongues, which have well-defined fungiform papillae with single taste pores, and human tongues, which have more variable surface structures. Replicas made from PVS impressions of tongues of living hamsters were compared with the same tongues after fixation. The replicas contained much of the detail present in fixed tongues. With SEM, it was possible to identify individual fungiform papillae, which contained depressions with the size and the location of hamster taste pores. Individual papillae could also be recognized in human-tongue replicas, but taste pores could not be identified with certainty. These replicas provide permanent, three-dimensional records of tongue topography that could be used to document changes due to trauma, disease and aging.

  9. Observation of molecular ordering at the surface of trimethylpropylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide using high-resolution rutherford backscattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kaoru; Ohno, Atsushi; Suzuki, Motofumi; Kimura, Kenji

    2008-05-06

    The surface structure of trimethylpropylammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([TMPA] [TFSI]) is studied by high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy at room temperature. The results provide direct evidence of the molecular ordering at the surface. The C1 conformer of the [TFSI] anion is dominant among two stable conformers, and the anions are oriented with their CF3 groups pointing toward the vacuum in the outermost molecular layer. The anions in the second molecular layer also show preferred orientation although it is rather weak.

  10. An atomic beam of 6Li — 7Li for high resolution spectroscopy from matrix isolation sublimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. N.; Sacramento, R. L.; Silva, B. A.; Uhlmann, F. O.; Wolff, W.; Cesar, C. L.

    2016-07-01

    We propose the Matrix Isolation Sublimation (MlSu) technique for generating cold lithium atoms for the measurement of the 6Li - 7Li isotope shift in D1 and D2 transitions. The technique is capable of generating cold 6Li and 7Li beams at 4 K with forward velocity of 125 m/s. Using this beam we offer a distinguished source of lithium atoms for transitions measurements, adding a new possibility to make high resolution spectroscopy towards improving the experimental checks of the theory.

  11. A "magic sandwich" pulse sequence with reduced offset dependence for high-resolution separated local field spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nevzorov, Alexander A; Opella, Stanley J

    2003-09-01

    A pulse sequence for high resolution separated local field spectroscopy based on "magic sandwich" elements is demonstrated on a single crystal sample. Simulations and experimental results show that this pulse sequence has a reduced frequency offset dependence compared to PISEMA (polarization inversion spin exchange at the magic angle). As a result, it has a larger effective range of homonuclear decoupling, reduced zero-frequency spectral distortions, and more reliable scale factors for individual resonances. In addition, it is easier to setup on commercial spectrometers.

  12. High Resolution Far Infrared Spectroscopy of HFC-134a at Cold Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Andy; Medcraft, Chris; Thompson, Christopher; Robertson, Evan Gary; Appadoo, Dominique; McNaughton, Don

    2016-06-01

    Since the signing of the Montreal protocol, long-lived chlorofluorocarbons have been banned due to their high ozone depleting potential. In order to minimise the effect of such molecules, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) were synthesized as replacement molecules to be used as refrigerants and foam blowing agents. HFC-134a, or 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, is one of these molecules. Although HFCs do not cause ozone depletion, they are typically strong absorbers within the 10 micron atmospheric window, which lead to high global warming potentials. A high resolution FT-IR analysis of the νb{8} band (near 665 wn) of HFC-134a has been performed to help understand the intermode coupling between the νb{8} vibrational state and unobserved dark states.

  13. Tissue differentiation by means of high resolution optical emission spectroscopy during electrosurgical intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürger, Ines; Scharpf, Marcus; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Nüßle, Daniela; Spether, Dominik; Neugebauer, Alexander; Bibinov, Nikita; Stenzl, Arnulf; Fend, Falko; Enderle, Markus; Awakowicz, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Electrosurgery is the use of radio-frequency electric current for the cutting of biological tissue e.g. for resection of tumour tissue. In this work, the optical emission of plasma being generated during the electrosurgical procedure is investigated with a high resolution echelle spectrometer to find differences between tumour tissue and normal renal tissue in a pre-clinical ex vivo study. Trace elements like zinc, iron, copper and cadmium are present in the tissue spectra as well as the electrolytes magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium and some diatomic molecules such as hydroxyl radical, cyano radical, dicarbon, nitrogen monohydride and molecular nitrogen which are mainly dissociated from polyatomic molecules. With the atomic emission line of cadmium at 228.8 nm the treated tissue can be differentiated in tumorous and healthy tissue with correct assignment of 95% for tumour tissue and 92% for normal renal tissue.

  14. High-resolution spectroscopy used to measure inertial confinement fusion neutron spectra on Omega (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, C. J.; Radha, P. B.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Knauer, J. P.; Pruyne, A.; Romanofsky, M.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J. III; Stoeckl, C.; Casey, D. T.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Gardner, S.

    2012-10-15

    The areal density ({rho}R) of cryogenic DT implosions on Omega is inferred by measuring the spectrum of neutrons that elastically scatter off the dense deuterium (D) and tritium (T) fuel. Neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) techniques are used to measure the energy spectrum with high resolution. High signal-to-background data has been recorded on cryogenic DT implosions using a well-collimated 13.4-m line of sight and an nTOF detector with an advanced liquid scintillator compound. An innovative method to analyze the elastically scattered neutron spectra was developed using well-known cross sections of the DT nuclear reactions. The estimated areal densities are consistent with alternative {rho}R measurements and 1-D simulations.

  15. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy of encapsulated proteins dissolved in low-viscosity fluids

    PubMed Central

    Nucci, Nathaniel V.; Valentine, Kathleen G.; Wand, A. Joshua

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution multi-dimensional solution NMR is unique as a biophysical and biochemical tool in its ability to examine both the structure and dynamics of macromolecules at atomic resolution. Conventional solution NMR approaches, however, are largely limited to examinations of relatively small (< 25 kDa) molecules, mostly due to the spectroscopic consequences of slow rotational diffusion. Encapsulation of macromolecules within the protective nanoscale aqueous interior of reverse micelles dissolved in low viscosity fluids has been developed as a means through which the ‘slow tumbling problem’ can be overcome. This approach has been successfully applied to diverse proteins and nucleic acids ranging up to 100 kDa, considerably widening the range of biological macromolecules to which conventional solution NMR methodologies may be applied. Recent advances in methodology have significantly broadened the utility of this approach in structural biology and molecular biophysics. PMID:24656086

  16. High-resolution spectroscopy of jet-cooled CH{sub 5}{sup +}: Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, C.; Dong, F.; Nesbitt, D. J.

    2015-01-22

    Protonated methane (CH{sub 5}{sup +}) is thought to be a highly abundant molecular ion in interstellar medium, as well as a potentially bright μwave- mm wave emitter that could serve as a tracer for methane. This paper describes progress and first successful efforts to obtain a high resolution, supersonically cooled spectrum of CH{sub 5}{sup +} in the 2900-3100 cm{sup −1} region, formed in a slit supersonic discharge at low jet temperatures and with sub-Doppler resolution. Short term precision in frequency measurement (< 5 MHz on an hour time scale) is obtained from a thermally controlled optical transfer cavity servoloop locked onto a frequency stabilized HeNe laser. Long term precision (< 20 MHz day-to-day) due to pressure, temperature and humidity dependent index of refraction effects in the optical transfer cavity is also present and discussed.

  17. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy in unstable and inhomogeneous fields via stroboscopic acquisition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meijin; Chen, Xi; Cai, Congbo; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated that despite the insensitivity of intermolecular zero-quantum coherences (iZQCs) to B(0) variations, the influence of unstable fields on the observable single-quantum coherence signals causes strong t(1) noises in the high-resolution iZQC projection spectra. Stroboscopic acquisition was then proposed for noise suppression. The feasibility of the modified sequences with the proposed acquisition scheme was verified by computer simulations and experiments in different unstable fields generated by the Z0 and Z1 coil current oscillations, which mimic the unstable fields of NMR using externally powered magnets and MRS in the presence of physiological motions, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High-resolution spectroscopy and mode identification in non-radially pulsating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, K. R.; Wright, D. J.; Zima, W.; Cottrell, P. L.; De Cat, P.

    2008-12-01

    We have obtained high-resolution spectroscopic data of a sample of non-radially pulsating stars with the HERCULES spectrograph on the 1.0-m telescope at the Mt John University Observatory in New Zealand. We have developed and used a new technique which cross- correlates stellar spectra with scaled delta function templates to obtain high signal-to-noise representative spectral line profiles for further analysis. Using these profiles, and employing the Fourier Parameter Fit method, we have been able to place constraints on the degree, ℓ, and azimuthal order, m, of the non-radial pulsation modes in one β Cephei star, V2052 Oph and two γ Doradus stars, QW Pup and HD 139095.

  19. High Resolution Spectroscopy for the Amateur: Experiences with the LHIRES III Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodenski, Stanley A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes the author's experience with the high resolution LHIRES III spectrograph and other equipment used. It discusses mechanical improvements made that may have increased the calibration accuracy of the spectrograph, problems with guiding, and the need to take flat fields. It also briefly mentions the freeware software used and the types of computer programs written by the author to aid in the reduction and analysis of the spectra. An assessment is made of the method for determining equivalent width the author described in the 2011 issue of the SAS News. It finishes by illustrating the ability to study binary stars, such as V1143 Cyg, with the LHIRES III, and discusses some interesting results that were obtained on Epsilon Aurigae. The evolution of a split line centered at around 5853 Angstroms is mentioned, as well as other aspects of the Sodium D Lines region, such as the constancy of separation between the two lines.

  20. High-resolution laser spectroscopy on H2 at 97 98 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnen, P. C.; Hogervorst, W.; Stolte, S.; Ubachs, W.

    1994-09-01

    A narrowband tunable eXtreme UltraViolet (XUV) laser source is used for a high resolution study of the Lyman ( B 1 Σ {/u +} ™ X 1 Σ {/g +}) band system of molecular hydrogen. Seven rotational transitions of two vibrational bands, (10,0) and (11,0), in the wavelength range from 97.2 98.3 nm have been investigated for the first time under sub-Doppler molecular beam conditions. A calibration procedure using the I2 standard in the visible yielded an absolute frequency accuracy of 0.02 cm-1. The obtained H2 transition frequencies provide a calibration standard in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength region.

  1. High resolution spectroscopy and spectral simulation of C2 using degenerate four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, G. M.; Ewart, P.

    1999-01-01

    Degenerate four-wave mixing in the sub-Doppler phase conjugate geometry was used to record high resolution spectra of the d 3Πg-a3Πu (0-0) Swan band of C2 produced in an oxy-acetylene flame. The line positions of isolated transitions were measured to an accuracy of ˜3×10-3 cm-1 and calibrated using a Fizeau interferometer system. The data obtained from these spectra was used to calculate rotational constants and lambda doubling parameters for the 3Π states from which the line positions for the whole band were calculated. Noticeable improvements between experimental and calculated line positions are seen when compared to previously published values. The effect of inaccuracies in line positions on the simulation of degenerate four-wave mixing spectra is discussed and some examples of the improvement in simulation using the newly calculated line positions are presented.

  2. High Resolution Near-IR Spectroscopy of Protostars With Large Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Tom; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    It is now possible to measure absorption spectra of Class I protostars using D greater than or = 8m telescopes equipped with sensitive cryogenic IR spectrographs. Our latest high-resolution (R approx. 20,000) Keck data reveal that Class I protostars are indeed low-mass stars with dwarf-like features. However, they differ from T Tauri stars in that Class I protostars have much higher IR veilings (tau(sub k) greater than or = 1 - 3+) and they are rotating quickly, v sin i greater than 20 km/s. Interestingly, the vast majority of protostellar absorption spectra show stellar - not disk - absorption features. A preliminary H-R diagram suggests that protostellar photospheres may have different physical structures than T Tauri stars, perhaps due to their higher accretion rates.

  3. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy of biological tissues usingprojected Magic Angle Spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Rachel W.; Jachmann, Rebecca C.; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Pines, Alexander

    2005-01-27

    High-resolution NMR spectra of materials subject toanisotropic broadening are usually obtained by rotating the sample aboutthe magic angle, which is 54.7 degrees to the static magnetic field. Inprojected Magic Angle Spinning (p-MAS), the sample is spun about twoangles, neither of which is the magic angle. This provides a method ofobtaining isotropic spectra while spinning at shallow angles. The p-MASexperiment may be used in situations where spinning the sample at themagic angle is not possible due to geometric or other constraints,allowing the choice of spinning angle to be determined by factors such asthe shape of the sample, rather than by the spin physics. The applicationof this technique to bovine tissue samples is demonstrated as a proof ofprinciple for future biological or medical applications.

  4. High-resolution spectroscopy of 31 Pegasi. The Hγ and He I 4471 line variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorec, J.; Israelian, G.; Ballereau, D.; Chauville, J.

    1996-04-01

    We present high-resolution He I 4471, Mg II 4481 and Hγ line profiles of the Be star 31 Peg obtained simultaneously at four observing dates. In this paper we focus on the He I 4471 line and on the absorption wings of the Hγ line which showed important variations. Models of static stellar atmospheres were calculated to determine the photospheric parameters of the underlying star. However, non-static and out of radiative equilibrium models are needed to better understand the structure of the atmosphere of 31 Peg and the characteristics of the observed He I 4471 and Hγ lines. The implication of deep atmospheric layers in the mass-loss phenomena of Be stars is suggested.

  5. High resolution diode laser spectroscopy of H2O spectra broadened by nitrogen and noble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapitanov, Venedikt A.; Osipov, Konstantin Yu.; Protasevich, Alexander E.; Ponurovskiy, Yakov Ya.

    2014-11-01

    The absorption spectra of pure H2O with mixtures of broadening gases N2, Ar, Xe, He, Ar and air have been measured in 1.39 mμ spectral region by high resolution spectrometer based on diode laser (DFB NEL, Japan). For the processing of pure water spectra and it's mixtures with a different broadening gases in a wide pressure range we used a multispectrum fitting procedure developed at IAO. The program is based on a relatively simple Rautian-Sobel'man line profile and linear pressure dependence of the line profile parameters. H2O measured spectra bulk processing results in the retrieving of such line parameters: zero-pressure line center positions, intensities, self-broadening and self-shift coefficients of pure water, broadening and shift coefficients for other gases which are describes the experiment with the minimum residuals in a wide pressure range.

  6. CARMENES at PPVI. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of M Dwarfs with FEROS, CAFE and HRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Montes, D.; Jeffers, S.; Caballero, J. A.; Zechmeister, M.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Amado, P. J.; Casal, E.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Modroño, Z.; Ribas, I.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Quirrenbach, A.

    2013-07-01

    To ensure an efficient use of CARMENES observing time, and the highest chances of success, it is necessary first to select the most promising targets. To achieve this, we are observing ~500 M dwarfs at high-resolution (R = 30,000-48,000), from which we determine the projected rotational velocity vsini with an accuracy better than 0.5-0.2 km/s and radial-velocity stability better than 0.2-0.1 km/s. Our aim is to have at least two spectra at different epochs of the final 300 CARMENES targets. Our observations with FEROS at ESO/MPG 2.2m La Silla , CAFE at 2.2m Calar Alto and HRS at Hobby Eberly Telescope allow us to identify single- and double-line spectroscopic binaries and, especially, fast rotators, which should be discarded from the target list for exoplanet searches. Here we present preliminary results.

  7. High Resolution X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: Distribution of Matter in and around Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Norbert; MIT/CAT Team

    2015-10-01

    The chemical evolution of the Universe embraces aspects that reachdeep into modern astrophysics and cosmology. We want to know how present and past matter is affected by various levels and types of nucleo-synthesis and stellar evolution. Three major categories were be identified: 1. The study of pre-mordial star formation including periods of super-massive black hole formation, 2. The embedded evolution of the intergalactic medium IGM, 3. The status and evolution of stars and the interstellar medium ISM in galaxies. Today a fourth category relates to our understanding of dark matter in relationwith these three categories. The X-ray band is particularly sensitive to K- and L-shell absorption and scattering from high abundant elements like C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S,Ar, Ca, Fe, and Ni. Like the Lyman alpha forest in the optical band, absorbers in the IGM produce an X-ray line forest along the line of sight in the X-rayspectrum of a background quasar. Similary bright X-ray sources within galaxies and the Milky Way produce a continuum, which is being absorbed by elements invarious phases of the ISM. High resolution X-ray absorption surveys are possible with technologies ready for flight within decade. == high efficiency X-ray optics with optical performance 3== high resolution X-ray gratings with R 3000 for E 1.5 keV== X-ray micro-calorimeters with R 2000 for E 1.5 keV. The vision for the next decade needs to lead to means and strategies which allows us to perform such absorption surveys as effectively as surveys are now or in very near future quite common in astronomy pursued in other wave length bands such as optical, IR, and sub-mm.

  8. KiwiSpec - an advanced spectrograph for high resolution spectroscopy: prototype design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Steve; Barnes, Stuart I.; Hearnshaw, John; Nield, Kathryn; Cochrane, Dave; Grobler, Deon

    2012-09-01

    A new advanced high resolution spectrograph has been developed by Kiwistar Optics of Industrial Research Ltd., New Zealand. The instrument, KiwiSpec R4-100, is bench-mounted, bre-fed, compact (0.75m by 1.5m footprint), and is well-suited for small to medium-sized telescopes. The instrument makes use of several advanced concepts in high resolution spectrograph design. The basic design follows the classical white pupil concept in an asymmetric implementation and employs an R4 echelle grating illuminated by a 100mm diameter collimated beam for primary dispersion. A volume phase holographic grating (VPH) based grism is used for cross-dispersion. The design also allows for up to four camera and detector channels to allow for extended wavelength coverage at high eciency. A single channel prototype of the instrument has been built and successfully tested with a 1m telescope. Targets included various spectrophotometric standard stars and several radial velocity standard stars to measure the instrument's light throughput and radial velocity capabilities. The prototype uses a 725 lines/mm VPH grism, an off-the-shelf camera objective, and a 2k×2k CCD. As such, it covers the wavelength range from 420nm to 660nm and has a resolving power of R ≍ 40,000. Spectrophotometric and precision radial velocity results from the on-sky testing period will be reported, as well as results of laboratory-based measurements. The optical design of KiwiSpec, and the various multi-channel design options, will be presented elsewhere in these proceedings.

  9. KiwiSpec - an advanced spectrograph for high resolution spectroscopy: optical design and variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Stuart I.; Gibson, Steve; Nield, Kathryn; Cochrane, Dave

    2012-09-01

    The KiwiSpec R4-100 is an advanced high resolution spectrograph developed by KiwiStar Optics, Industrial Research Ltd, New Zealand. The instrument is based around an R4 echelle grating and a 100mm collimated beam diameter. The optical design employs a highly asymmetric white pupil design, whereby the transfer collimator has a focal length only 1/3 that of the primary collimator. This allows the cross-dispersers (VPH gratings) and camera optics to be small and low cost while also ensuring a very compact instrument. The KiwiSpec instrument will be bre-fed and is designed to be contained in both thermal and/or vacuum enclosures. The instrument concept is highly exible in order to ensure that the same basic design can be used for a wide variety of science cases. Options include the possibility of splitting the wavelength coverage into 2 to 4 separate channels allowing each channel to be highly optimized for maximum eciency. CCDs ranging from smaller than 2K2K to larger than 4K4K can be accommodated. This allows good (3-4 pixel) sampling of resolving powers ranging from below 50,000 to greater than 100,000. Among the specic design options presented here will be a two-channel concept optimized for precision radial velocities, and a four-channel concept developed for the Gemini High- Resolution Optical Spectrograph (GHOST). The design and performance of a single-channel prototype will be presented elsewhere in these proceedings.

  10. High-resolution characterization of multiferroic heterojunction using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhoushen; Ruan, Jieji; Xie, Lin; Pan, Xiaoqing; Wu, Di; Wang, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Multiferroic tunnel junctions have been considered as potential candidates for nonvolatile memory devices. Understanding the atomic structure at the interface is crucial for optimizing the performances in such oxide electronics. Spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) combined with aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy is employed to measure the compositional profiles across the interfaces of different layers with atomic resolution. Two-dimensional elemental imaging with atomic resolution is demonstrated, and the influences of the interface sharpness, the terminal layer, and cation intermixing are investigated. An asymmetric sublattice intermixing at the Pr0.8Ca0.2MnO3/BaTiO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 interface is observed, which can affect the local Mn valence and coupling. The reduction in the Mn valence at the interface is further studied using EELS near-edge fine structures.

  11. Direct Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction and Electronic System of a Spherical High-Resolution PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuekui Ed.

    In the past decade tremendous efforts have been made to improve the performance of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). To increase photon capture efficiency and thus the intrinsic sensitivity, oblique or cross-plane coincidences are now detected and recorded with, for example, a spherical PET (S-PET) design. This requires direct three-dimensional volume image reconstruction and a high-performance electronic system. There are two types of algorithms for achieving direct three-dimensional volume image reconstruction, namely, parallel beam reconstruction and cone beam reconstruction. The advantages of the cone beam reconstruction algorithm are that it reduces the amount of data rebinning necessary and it improves spatial resolution by virtue of its geometrical structure. In this study, we propose a new analytical three-dimensional cone beam reconstruction algorithm for truncated spherical detection geometry. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is the formation of a spatially invariant 3D blurred backprojected volumetric image by the use of the weighted backprojection of cone beam projection data and subsequent 3D filtering using an acceptance angle dependent rho filter. This approach is extended to other truncated 3D PET geometries such as truncated cylindrical geometry and Fresnel aperture-SPET (F-SPET) geometry. The proposed algorithm is derived analytically and is computationally efficient. Performance of the algorithm is evaluated by the reconstruction of 3D volumetric images from simulated data from arbitrarily truncated spherical detector geometries. In this study, we also review parallel and cone beam 3D algorithms proposed by others. As part of the high-resolution and high-sensitivity spherical F-SPET project, a partial one modular layer prototype system has been completed. The electronic designs, efficient detector calibration schemes and final resolution performance is reported in this study.

  12. High Resolution Analysis of Selected Organic Compounds in Icy Terrains, Using Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnell, J.; Bowden, S. A.; Phillips, S. J.; Wilson, R.; Cooper, J. M.

    2008-03-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy will increase sensitivity by several orders of magnitude over conventional Raman, and should be considered for future missions. We demonstrate detection of organic pigments from ice containing snow algae.

  13. High resolution Raman spectroscopy of complexes and clusters in molecular beams. Performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.M.

    1991-12-31

    The DOE-sponsored project in this laboratory has two facets. The first is the development of methods of nonlinear Raman spectroscopy for application in studies of sparse samples. The second is the application of such methods to structural and dynamical studies of species in supersonic molecular beams. The progress we have made in both of these areas is described in this paper. The report is divided into five remaining sections. The first pertains to theoretical and experimental developments in Fourier transform stimulated emission spectroscopy and Fourier transform hole-burning spectroscopy. The second deals with progress in the development of ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectroscopies (IDSRS). The third describes results from the application of IDSRS methods to studies of jet-cooled benzene clusters. The fourth describes IDSRS results from studies of hydrogen-bonded complexes containing phenols. The fifth relates to studies of carbazole-(Ar){sub n} clusters.

  14. High resolution Raman spectroscopy of complexes and clusters in molecular beams

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    The DOE-sponsored project in this laboratory has two facets. The first is the development of methods of nonlinear Raman spectroscopy for application in studies of sparse samples. The second is the application of such methods to structural and dynamical studies of species in supersonic molecular beams. The progress we have made in both of these areas is described in this paper. The report is divided into five remaining sections. The first pertains to theoretical and experimental developments in Fourier transform stimulated emission spectroscopy and Fourier transform hole-burning spectroscopy. The second deals with progress in the development of ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectroscopies (IDSRS). The third describes results from the application of IDSRS methods to studies of jet-cooled benzene clusters. The fourth describes IDSRS results from studies of hydrogen-bonded complexes containing phenols. The fifth relates to studies of carbazole-(Ar){sub n} clusters.

  15. A compact, high resolution Michelson interferometer for atmospheric spectroscopy in the near ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, Stanley P.; Cageao, Richard P.; Friedl, Randall R.

    1993-01-01

    A new, compact Fourier Transform Michelson interferometer (FTUV) with an apodized resolving power greater than 300,000 at 300 nm, high throughput and wide spectral coverage has been developed. The objectives include atmospheric spectroscopy (direct solar absorption and solar scattering) and laboratory spectroscopy of transient species. In this paper, we will briefly describe the prototype FTUV instrument and the results of preliminary laboratory investigations of OH and ClO spectra in emission and absorption.

  16. Electronic and geometric structure of Pu metal: A high-resolution photoelectron spectromicroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, J.; Schulze, R. K.; Zocco, T.; Lashley, Jason; Farr, J. D.; Heinzelman, K.; Rotenberg, E.; Shuh, D. K.; Blau, M.; Tobin, J.

    2000-07-01

    Soft x-ray techniques (photon energy in the range of 10-1000 eV) such as photoelectron; x-ray emission; and near-edge, x-ray absorption spectroscopies have been used to determine the electronic structure of many (in fact most) materials. However, these techniques have not been fully utilized on the actinides. The safety issues involved in handling the actinides make it necessary to minimize the amount of radioactive materials used in the measurements. To our knowledge, the only synchrotron radiation source in the world where soft x-ray measurements have been performed on plutonium is the Spectromicroscopy Facility at Beam Line 7.0.1 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). We performed core-level photoemission, valence band photoemission, and near-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy on both polycrystalline α-plutonium and δ-plutonium microcrystals.

  17. Electronic Wave Packet Interferometry of Gas Phase Samples: High Resolution Spectra and Collective Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stienkemeier, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Time-resolved coherent spectroscopy has opened many new directions to study ultrafast dynamics in complex quantum systems. While most applications have been achieved in the condensed phase, we are focusing on dilute gas phase samples, in particular, on doped helium droplet beams. Isolation in such droplets at millikelvin temperatures provides unique opportunities to synthesize well-defined complexes, to prepare specific ro-vibronic states, and study their dynamics. To account for the small densities in our samples, we apply a phase modulation technique in order to reach enough sensitivity and a high spectral resolution in electronic wave packet interferometry experiments. The combination with mass-resolved ion detection enabled us e.g. to characterize vibrational structures of excimer molecules. By extending this technique we have observed collective resonances in samples of very low density (10^8 cm^{-3}). With a variant of this method, we are currently elaborating the implementation of nonlinear all-XUV spectroscopy.

  18. High Resolution Simulation of Beam Dynamics in Electron Linacs for Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R.D.; Venturini, M.; Zholents, A.A.; Qiang, J.

    2009-01-05

    In this paper we report on large scale multi-physics simulation of beam dynamics in electron linacs for next generation free electron lasers (FELs). We describe key features of a parallel macroparticle simulation code including three-dimensional (3D) space-charge effects, short-range structure wake fields, longitudinal coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wake fields, and treatment of radiofrequency (RF) accelerating cavities using maps obtained from axial field profiles. A macroparticle up-sampling scheme is described that reduces the shot noise from an initial distribution with a smaller number of macroparticles while maintaining the global properties of the original distribution. We present a study of the microbunching instability which is a critical issue for future FELs due to its impact on beam quality at the end of the linac. Using parameters of a planned FEL linac at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), we show that a large number of macroparticles (beyond 100 million) is needed to control numerical shot noise that drives the microbunching instability. We also explore the effect of the longitudinal grid on simulation results. We show that acceptable results are obtained with around 2048 longitudinal grid points, and we discuss this in view of the spectral growth rate predicted from linear theory. As an application, we present results from simulations using one billion macroparticles of the FEL linac under design at LBNL. We show that the final uncorrelated energy spread of the beam depends not only on the initial uncorrelated energy spread but also depends strongly on the shape of the initial current profile. By using a parabolic initial current profile, 5 keV initial uncorrelated energy spread at 40 MeV injection energy, and improved linac design, those simulations demonstrate that a reasonable beam quality can be achieved at the end of the linac, with the final distribution having about 100 keV energy spread, 2.4 GeV energy, and 1.2 kA peak

  19. High resolution infrared ``vision'' of dynamic electron processes in semiconductor devices (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyutenko, V. K.

    2003-01-01

    Infrared cameras have been traditionally used in semiconductor industry for noncontact measurements of printed circuit boards (PCBs) local overheating. While an effective way to prevent defective PCB application in a "find-problems-before-your-customer-do" manner, this conventional static (25-50 frames/s) and small spatial resolution (>100 μm) approach is incapable, in principle, of explaining the physical reason for the PCB failure. What follows in this report is the demonstration of an IR camera based new approach in high-resolution dynamic study of electron processes responsible for single device performance. More specifically, time resolved two-dimensional visualization of current carrier drift and diffusion processes across the device base that happen in microsecond scale is of prime concern in the work. Thus, contrary to the conventional visualization-through-heating measurements, objective is mapping of electron processes in a device base through negative and positive luminescence (provoked by band-to-band electron transitions) and nonequilibrium thermal emission (provoked by intraband electron transitions) studies inside the region in which current flows. Therefore, the parameters of interest are not only a device thermal mass and thermal conductance, but also free carrier lifetime, surface recombination velocity, diffusion length, and contact properties. The micro-mapping system developed consists of reflective type IR microscope coaxially attached to calibrated scanning IR thermal imaging cameras (3-5 and 8-12 μm spectral ranges, HgCdTe cooled photodetectors, scene spatial resolution of some 20 μm, minimum time resolved interval of 10 μs, and temperature resolution of about 0.5 °C at 30 °C). Data acquisition and image processing (emissivity equalization, noise reduction by image averaging, and external triggering) are computer controlled. Parallel video channel equipped with a CCD camera permits easy positioning and focusing of <1×1 mm2 object

  20. On-chip near-infrared spectroscopy of CO2 using high resolution plasmonic filter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Xinyuan; Li, Erwen; Squire, Kenneth; Wang, Alan X.

    2016-05-01

    We report an ultra-compact, cost-effective on-chip near-infrared spectroscopy system for CO2 sensing using narrow-band optical filter array based on plasmonic gratings with a waveguide layer. By varying the periodicity of the gratings, the transmission spectra of the filters can be continuously tuned to cover the 2.0 μm sensing window with high spectral resolution around 10 nm. Our experimental results show that the on-chip spectroscopy system can resolve the two symmetric vibrational bands of CO2 at 2.0 μm wavelength, which proves its potential to replace the expensive commercial IR spectroscopy system for on-site gas sensing.

  1. High-resolution spectroscopy of the zero-phonon line of the deep donor EL2 in GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, C.; Kummer, R.; Thoms, M.; Winnacker, A.

    1997-05-01

    We investigated the zero-phonon line (ZPL) of the deep donor EL2 in GaAs by means of high-resolution absorption spectroscopy with a narrow-band laser. Frequency-selective bleaching ({open_quotes}spectral-hole burning{close_quotes}) experiments and the measurement of the temperature broadening of the ZPL prove an essentially homogeneous broadening of the transition. The observed asymmetry of the line shape is interpreted to be caused by a Fano resonance of the {sup 1}T{sub 2} excited state with the conduction band. A splitting of the {sup 1}T{sub 2} state as the reason for the asymmetry seems unrealistic. The homogeneous broadening of the ZPL prevents the use of spectral-hole burning spectroscopy to study the effect of external perturbations on the ZPL of the EL2. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. HIGH-RESOLUTION INFRARED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY OF THE Z CANIS MAJORIS SYSTEM DURING QUIESCENCE AND OUTBURST

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkley, Sasha; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Crepp, Justin R.; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Zimmerman, Neil; Brenner, Douglas; Rice, Emily L.; Pueyo, Laurent; Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Jennifer E.; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Burruss, Rick; Wallace, J. Kent; Cady, Eric; Zhai, Chengxing; Kraus, Adam L.; Ireland, Michael J.; Beichman, Charles; Dekany, Richard; Parry, Ian R.; and others

    2013-01-20

    We present adaptive optics photometry and spectra in the JHKL bands along with high spectral resolution K-band spectroscopy for each component of the Z Canis Majoris system. Our high angular resolution photometry of this very young ({approx}<1 Myr) binary, comprised of an FU Ori object and a Herbig Ae/Be star, was gathered shortly after the 2008 outburst while our high-resolution spectroscopy was gathered during a quiescent phase. Our photometry conclusively determines that the outburst was due solely to the embedded Herbig Ae/Be member, supporting results from earlier works, and that the optically visible FU Ori component decreased slightly ({approx}30%) in luminosity during the same period, consistent with previous works on the variability of FU Ori type systems. Further, our high-resolution K-band spectra definitively demonstrate that the 2.294 {mu}m CO absorption feature seen in composite spectra of the system is due solely to the FU Ori component, while a prominent CO emission feature at the same wavelength, long suspected to be associated with the innermost regions of a circumstellar accretion disk, can be assigned to the Herbig Ae/Be member. These findings clarify previous analyses of the origin of the CO emission in this complex system.

  3. High-resolution VUV spectroscopy: New results from the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, F.; Bozek, J.

    1996-06-01

    Third-generation synchrotron light sources are providing photon beams of unprecedented brightness for researchers in atomic and molecular physics. Beamline 9.0.1, an undulator beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), produces a beam in the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) region of the spectrum with exceptional flux and spectral resolution. Exciting new results from experiments in atomic and molecular VUV spectroscopy of doubly excited autoionizing states of helium, hollow lithium, and photoelectron spectroscopy of small molecules using Beamline 9.0.1 at the ALS are reported.

  4. HIGH-RESOLUTION IR ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: THE REALM OF ANHARMONICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Maltseva, Elena; Buma, Wybren Jan; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Oomens, Jos E-mail: petrignani@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2015-11-20

    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3-μm CH stretching region of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold (∼4 K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene. The measured IR spectra show a surprisingly high number of strong vibrational bands. For naphthalene, the observed bands are well separated and limited by the rotational contour, revealing the band symmetries. Comparisons are made to the harmonic and anharmonic approaches of the widely used Gaussian software. We also present calculated spectra of these acenes using the computational program SPECTRO, providing anharmonic predictions with a Fermi-resonance treatment that utilizes intensity redistribution. We demonstrate that the anharmonicity of the investigated acenes is strong, dominated by Fermi resonances between the fundamental and double combination modes, with triple combination bands as possible candidates to resolve remaining discrepancies. The anharmonic spectra as calculated with SPECTRO lead to predictions of the main bands that fall within 0.5% of the experimental frequencies. The implications for the aromatic infrared bands, specifically the 3-μm band, are discussed.

  5. Applications of High Resolution Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Environmental and Biological Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z; Labbe, Nicole; Wagner, Rebekah J.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter details the application of LIBS in a number of environmental areas of research such as carbon sequestration and climate change. LIBS has also been shown to be useful in other high resolution environmental applications for example, elemental mapping and detection of metals in plant materials. LIBS has also been used in phytoremediation applications. Other biological research involves a detailed understanding of wood chemistry response to precipitation variations and also to forest fires. A cross-section of Mountain pine (pinceae Pinus pungen Lamb.) was scanned using a translational stage to determine the differences in the chemical features both before and after a fire event. Consequently, by monitoring the elemental composition pattern of a tree and by looking for abrupt changes, one can reconstruct the disturbance history of a tree and a forest. Lastly we have shown that multivariate analysis of the LIBS data is necessary to standardize the analysis and correlate to other standard laboratory techniques. LIBS along with multivariate statistical analysis makes it a very powerful technology that can be transferred from laboratory to field applications with ease.

  6. High-resolution UV-visible spectroscopy of lunar red spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, B. C.; Lucey, P. G.; Hawke, B. R.

    1991-01-01

    A spectral reflectance study of selected lunar 'red spots', highland areas characterized by an absorption in the ultraviolet relative to the visible was conducted. Some red spots were suggested to be the sites of ancient highland volcanism. High-resolution spectral data of eight red spots on the western portion of the moon over the wavelength region 0.39-0.82 micron were obtained. Much spectral variation among these red spots in the magnitude as well as the wavelength position of the ultraviolet absorption were found. Spectral structure at visible and near-infrared wavelength were also identified. These spectral differences indicate that red spots do not have a single mineralogical composition, which in turn suggests that red spots may have multiple origins. Additional imaging spectroscopic observations were taken of the Herigonius red spot, a morphologically complex region northeast of Mare Humorum. These data reveal significant spectral differences among the various morphological units within the Herigonius red spot. Although some of these are likely due to the effects of the maturation process, others appear to reflect differences in mineral abundances and composition.

  7. Applications of High Resolution Laser: Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Environmental and Biological Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Labbe, Nicole; Wagner, Rebekah J.

    This chapter details the application of LIBS in a number of environmental areas of research such as carbon sequestration and climate change. LIBS has also been shown to be useful in other high resolution environmental applications for example, elemental mapping and detection of metals in plant materials. LIBS has also been used in phytoremediation applications. Other biological research involves a detailed understanding of wood chemistry response to precipitation variations and also to forest fires. A cross-section of Mountain pine (pinceae Pinus pungen Lamb.) was scanned using a translational stage to determine the differences in the chemical features both before and after a fire event. Consequently, by monitoring the elemental composition pattern of a tree and by looking for abrupt changes, one can reconstruct the disturbance history of a tree and a forest. Lastly we have shown that multivariate analysis of the LIBS data is necessary to standardize the analysis and correlate to other standard laboratory techniques. LIBS along with multivariate statistical analysis makes it a very powerful technology that can be transferred from laboratory to field applications with ease.

  8. HIGH-RESOLUTION FOURIER-TRANSFORM MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPY OF METHYL- AND DIMETHYLNAPTHALENES

    SciTech Connect

    Schnitzler, Elijah G.; Zenchyzen, Brandi L. M.; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    High-resolution pure rotational spectra of four alkylnaphthalenes were measured in the range of 6–15 GHz using a molecular-beam Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer. Both a- and b-type transitions were observed for 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN), 1,2-dimethylnaphthalene (1,2-DMN), and 1,3-dimethylnaphthalene (1,3-DMN); only a-type transitions were observed for 2-methylnaphthalene (2-MN). Geometry optimization and vibrational analysis calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory aided in the assignments of the spectra and the characterization of the structures. Differences between the experimental and predicted rotational constants are small, and they can be attributed in part to low-lying out-of-plane vibrations, which distort the alkylnaphthalenes out of their equilibrium geometries. Splittings of rotational lines due to methyl internal rotation were observed in the spectra of 2-MN, 1,2-DMN, and 1,3-DMN, and allowed for the determination of the barriers to methyl internal rotation, which are compared to values from density functional theory calculations. All four species are moderately polar, so they are candidate species for detection by radio astronomy, by targeting the transition frequencies reported here.

  9. High-resolution UV-visible spectroscopy of lunar red spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, B. C.; Lucey, P. G.; Hawke, B. R.

    1991-01-01

    A spectral reflectance study of selected lunar 'red spots', highland areas characterized by an absorption in the ultraviolet relative to the visible was conducted. Some red spots were suggested to be the sites of ancient highland volcanism. High-resolution spectral data of eight red spots on the western portion of the moon over the wavelength region 0.39-0.82 micron were obtained. Much spectral variation among these red spots in the magnitude as well as the wavelength position of the ultraviolet absorption were found. Spectral structure at visible and near-infrared wavelength were also identified. These spectral differences indicate that red spots do not have a single mineralogical composition, which in turn suggests that red spots may have multiple origins. Additional imaging spectroscopic observations were taken of the Herigonius red spot, a morphologically complex region northeast of Mare Humorum. These data reveal significant spectral differences among the various morphological units within the Herigonius red spot. Although some of these are likely due to the effects of the maturation process, others appear to reflect differences in mineral abundances and composition.

  10. ISIS: An Interactive Spectral Interpretation System for High Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, J. C.; Denicola, L. A.

    The Interactive Spectral Interpretation System (ISIS) is designed to facilitate the interpretation and analysis of high resolution X-ray spectra like those obtained using the grating spectrographs on Chandra and XMM and the microcalorimeter on Astro-E. It is being developed as an interactive tool for studying the physics of X-ray spectrum formation, supporting measurement and identification of spectral features, and interaction with a database of atomic structure parameters and plasma emission models. The current version uses the atomic data and collisional ionization equilibrium models in the Astrophysical Plasma Emission Database (APED) of Brickhouse et.al., and also provides access to earlier plasma emission models including Raymond-Smith and MEKAL. Although the current version focuses on collisional ionization equilibrium plasmas, the system is designed to allow use of other databases to provide better support for studies of non-equilibrium and photoionized plasmas. To maximize portability between Unix operating systems, ISIS is being written entirely in ANSI C using free-software components (CFITSIO, PGPLOT and S-Lang).

  11. Slit-Jet Discharge Studies of Polyacetylenic Molecules: Synthesis and High Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Diacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Roberts, Melanie A.; Nesbitt, David J.

    2013-06-01

    Polyacetylenic molecules play an important role in both combustion chemistry as well as chemistry of the interstellar medium. This talk presents first high resolution infrared spectroscopic efforts on the simplest jet-cooled polyacetylene, namely diacetylene (C_4H_2). Specifically, the fundamental anti-symmetric C-H stretching mode (near 3333 cm^{-1}) and several hot combination bands of diacetylene have been investigated under sub-Doppler, jet cooled conditions in a pulsed supersonic slit discharge. Local Coriolis perturbations in the fundamental anti-symmetric C-H stretch manifold are observed and analyzed. Six hot bands are observed, including the H-C-C bending mode (v_8) not observed in previous room temperature studies. The observation of these hot bands under rotationally jet cooled conditions (T_{rot}=15.7(4) K) indicate the presence of highly non-equilibrium relaxation processes between vibration and rotation. G. Guelachvili, A. M. Craig, and D. A. Ramsay, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 105, 156 (1984)

  12. High-Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: The Realm of Anharmonicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2016-01-01

    We report on an experimental and theoretical investigation of the importance of anharmonicity in the 3 micrometers CH stretching region of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We present mass-resolved, high-resolution spectra of the gas-phase cold ((is) approximately 4K) linear PAH molecules naphthalene, anthracene, and tetracene. The measured IR spectra show a surprisingly high number of strong vibrational bands. For naphthalene, the observed bands are well separated and limited by the rotational contour, revealing the band symmetries. Comparisons are made to the harmonic and anharmonic approaches of the widely used Gaussian software. We also present calculated spectra of these acenes using the computational program SPECTRO, providing anharmonic predictions enhanced with a Fermi-resonance treatment that utilizes intensity redistribution. We demonstrate that the anharmonicity of the investigated acenes is strong, dominated by Fermi resonances between the fundamental and double combination modes, with triple combination bands as possible candidates to resolve remaining discrepancies. The anharmonic spectra as calculated with SPECTRO lead to predictions of the main modes that fall within 0.5% of the experimental frequencies. The implications for the Aromatic Infrared Bands, specifically the 3-m band are discussed.

  13. Microstructure development in latex coatings: High-resolution cryo-scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Haiyan

    2005-07-01

    High-resolution cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) was used to investigate microstructure development in drying latex coatings: from a colloidal stable suspension into a coherent strong film by drying. Useful sample preparation artifacts during the freeze-fracture, i.e., pullouts were documented and analyzed. Pullouts indicate both physical properties of latex particles and the drying stages in latex coatings. The mechanism of pullout formation was studied both theoretically and experimentally. Latex coatings must possess satisfactory freeze-thaw stability to avoid problems during transportation and storage in cold winter. The behavior of latex particles during freeze-thaw cycles was visualized by Cryo-SEM. The images indicated that high concentration of polymerizable surfactant in a latex suspension improved its freeze-thaw stability. In film formation, skinning was captured from edge in and top down in coatings of 80nm diameter styrene-butadiene latex particles with exceptional low Tg (-65°C). Effects on skinning of drying conditions and the way the latex was initially stabilized against flocculation were investigated. A skinned pocket was unexpectedly found in the coating. The cause of such a skin around the air bubble was explained by both simple models calculating the dissolution time and force analysis on the particles. The film formation processes in conventional and low volatile organic compound (VOC) latex coatings were compared by time-sectioning Cryo-SEM. Some low-VOC latex coatings were found to dry as fast as conventional ones without deteriorating final good film properties.

  14. USING HIGH-RESOLUTION SOLUTION-STATE NMR SPECTROSCOPY TO INVESTIGATE PMDI REACTIONS WITH WOOD

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Solution-state NMR spectroscopy provides a powerful tool for understanding the formation of chemical bonds between wood components and adhesives. Finely ground cell wall (CW) material fully dissolves in a solvent system containing dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO-d6) and N-methyl¬imidazole (NMI-d6), keeping ...

  15. High resolution scanning of radial strips cut from increment cores by near infrared spectroscopy

    Treesearch

    P. David Jones; Laurence R. Schimleck; Chi-Leung So; Alexander III Clark; Richard F. Daniels

    2007-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy provides a rapid method for the determination of wood properties of radial strips. The spatial resolution of the NIR measurements has generally been limited to sections 10 mm wide and as a consequence the estimation of wood properties of individual rings or within rings has not been possible. Many different NIR instruments can be used...

  16. A high-resolution large-acceptance analyzer for X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, Uwe; Cramer, Stephen P.

    2001-08-02

    A newly designed multi-crystal X-ray spectrometer and its applications in the fields of X-ray fluorescence and X-ray Raman spectroscopy are described. The instrument is based on 8 spherically curved Si crystals, each with a 3.5 inch diameter form bent to a radius of 86 cm. The crystals are individually aligned in the Rowland geometry capturing a total solid angle of 0.07 sr. The array is arranged in a way that energy scans can be performed by moving the whole instrument, rather than scanning each crystal by itself. At angles close to back scattering the energy resolution is between 0.3 and 1 eV depending on the beam dimensions at the sample. The instrument is mainly designed for X-ray absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of transition metals in dilute systems such as metalloproteins. First results of the Mn K{beta} (3p -> 1s) emission in photosystem II are shown. An independent application of the instrument is the technique of X-ray Raman spectroscopy which can address problems similar to those in traditional soft X-ray absorption spectroscopies, and initial results are presented.

  17. High-resolution cryo-electron microscopy on macromolecular complexes and cell organelles.

    PubMed

    Hoenger, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy techniques and computational 3-D reconstruction of macromolecular assemblies are tightly linked tools in modern structural biology. This symbiosis has produced vast amounts of detailed information on the structure and function of biological macromolecules. Typically, one of two fundamentally different strategies is used depending on the specimens and their environment. A: 3-D reconstruction based on repetitive and structurally identical unit cells that allow for averaging, and B: tomographic 3-D reconstructions where tilt-series between approximately ± 60 and ± 70° at small angular increments are collected from highly complex and flexible structures that are beyond averaging procedures, at least during the first round of 3-D reconstruction. Strategies of group A are averaging-based procedures and collect large number of 2-D projections at different angles that are computationally aligned, averaged together, and back-projected in 3-D space to reach a most complete 3-D dataset with high resolution, today often down to atomic detail. Evidently, success relies on structurally repetitive particles and an aligning procedure that unambiguously determines the angular relationship of all 2-D projections with respect to each other. The alignment procedure of small particles may rely on their packing into a regular array such as a 2-D crystal, an icosahedral (viral) particle, or a helical assembly. Critically important for cryo-methods, each particle will only be exposed once to the electron beam, making these procedures optimal for highest-resolution studies where beam-induced damage is a significant concern. In contrast, tomographic 3-D reconstruction procedures (group B) do not rely on averaging, but collect an entire dataset from the very same structure of interest. Data acquisition requires collecting a large series of tilted projections at angular increments of 1-2° or less and a tilt range of ± 60° or more. Accordingly, tomographic data

  18. The Application of High-Resolution Electron Microscopy to Problems in Solid State Chemistry: The Exploits of a Peeping TEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyring, LeRoy

    1980-01-01

    Describes methods for using the high-resolution electron microscope in conjunction with other tools to reveal the identity and environment of atoms. Problems discussed include the ultimate structure of real crystalline solids including defect structure and the mechanisms of chemical reactions. (CS)

  19. High-resolution patterning of graphene by screen printing with a silicon stencil for highly flexible printed electronics.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Woo Jin; Secor, Ethan B; Hersam, Mark C; Frisbie, C Daniel; Francis, Lorraine F

    2015-01-07

    High-resolution screen printing of pristine graphene is introduced for the rapid fabrication of conductive lines on flexible substrates. Well-defined silicon stencils and viscosity-controlled inks facilitate the preparation of high-quality graphene patterns as narrow as 40 μm. This strategy provides an efficient method to produce highly flexible graphene electrodes for printed electronics.

  20. High Resolution Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy of the 430 Band of the tilde{A}^2E'' State of NO_3 Radical.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roudjane, Mourad.; Codd, Terrance J.; Miller, Terry A.

    2012-06-01

    The NO_3 radical is expected to exhibit a Jahn-Teller effect in its degenerate tilde{A}^2E'' electronic state. A more comprehensive understanding of its structure can be achieved using high resolution rotationally resolved absorption spectroscopy of its different vibronic bands. The high resolution absorption spectra of 430 vibronic band of the tilde{A} ^2E'' excited state of NO_3 have been successfully recorded for the first time using our jet cooled cavity ring down apparatus. The parallel 430 band is a vibronically allowed transition and shows the same contour as the one observed previously for 4n0 (n=1,2). The oblate symmetric top model Hamiltonian including both centrifugal distortion and spin rotation terms is used to analyze the spectrum. The rotational analysis of this band, supported by combination differences, demonstrate the existence of doubled lines as were observed for 4n0 (n=1,2) bands.The possible sources of this splitting are being investigated. [1] E. Hirota, T. Ishiwata, K. Kawaguchi, M. Fujitake, N. Ohashi, and I. Tanaka, J. Chem. Phys., 107, 2829, 1997. [2] Chen, M.W. et al. 66th OSU International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 2011, talk WJ-04.