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Sample records for high-resolution inelastic proton

  1. Study of M1 and E1 excitations by high-resolution proton inelastic scattering measurement at forward angles

    SciTech Connect

    Tamii, A.; Adachi, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kaneda, T.; Matsubara, H.; Okamura, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Carter, J.; Dozono, M.; Fujita, H.; Fujita, Y.; Itoh, M.; Kawabata, T.; Nakanishi, K.; Sasamoto, Y.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von

    2007-06-13

    Experimental technique for measuring proton inelastic scattering with high-resolution at 295 MeV and at forward angles including zero degrees is described. The method is useful for extracting spin part of the M1 strength via nuclear excitation as well as E1 strength via Coulomb excitation. An excitation energy resolution of 20 keV, good scattering angle resolution, and low background condition have been achieved. The experimental technique was applied for several sd and pf shell nuclei.

  2. Separation of Pygmy Dipole and M1 Resonances in Zr90 by a High-Resolution Inelastic Proton Scattering Near 0°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, C.; Utsunomiya, H.; Tamii, A.; Akimune, H.; Nakada, H.; Shima, T.; Yamagata, T.; Kawabata, T.; Fujita, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Shimbara, Y.; Nagashima, M.; Suzuki, T.; Fujita, H.; Sakuda, M.; Mori, T.; Izumi, T.; Okamoto, A.; Kondo, T.; Bilgier, B.; Kozer, H. C.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hatanaka, K.

    2012-06-01

    A high-resolution measurement of inelastic proton scattering off Zr90 near 0° was performed at 295 MeV with a focus on a pronounced strength previously reported in the low-energy tail of giant dipole resonance. A forest of fine structure was observed in the excitation energy region 7-12 MeV. A multipole decomposition analysis of the angular distribution for the forest was carried out using the ECIS95 distorted-wave Born approximation code with the Hartree-Fock plus random-phase approximation model of E1 and M1 transition densities and inclusion of E1 Coulomb excitation. The analysis separated pygmy dipole and M1 resonances in the forest at EPDR=9.15±0.18MeV with ΓPDR=2.91±0.64MeV and at EM1=9.53±0.06MeV with ΓM1=2.70±0.17MeV in the Lorentzian function, respectively. The B(E1)↑ value for pygmy dipole resonance over 7-11 MeV is 0.75±0.08e2fm2, which corresponds to 2.1±0.2% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule.

  3. Inelastic proton-solid collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echenique, P. M.; Flores, F.

    1987-05-01

    A first-principles calculation of charge states of moving protons in Al is presented. The many-body self-energy approach combined with ordinary atomic physics has been used. We find that at high velocities, V>2V0 or 3V0 (Bohr velocity), the processes are atomiclike, while at intermediate velocities, 0.7V0proton charges.

  4. Multifractal analysis of high resolution solar wind proton density measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Carbone, Francesco; Leonardis, Ersilia; Chen, Christopher H. K.; Šafránková, Jana; Němeček, Zdenek

    2017-03-01

    The solar wind is a highly turbulent medium, with a high level of field fluctuations throughout a broad range of scales. These include an inertial range where a turbulent cascade is assumed to be active. The solar wind cascade shows intermittency, which however may depend on the wind conditions. Recent observations have shown that ion-scale magnetic turbulence is almost self-similar, rather than intermittent. A similar result was observed for the high resolution measurements of proton density provided by the spacecraft Spektr-R. Intermittency may be interpreted as the result of the multifractal properties of the turbulent cascade. In this perspective, this paper is devoted to the description of the multifractal properties of the high resolution density measurements. In particular, we have used the standard coarse-graining technique to evaluate the generalized dimensions Dq , and from these the multifractal spectrum f (α) , in two ranges of scale. A fit with the p-model for intermittency provided a quantitative measure of multifractality. Such indicator was then compared with alternative measures: the width of the multifractal spectrum, the peak of the kurtosis, and its scaling exponent. The results indicate that the small-scale fluctuations are multifractal, and suggest that different measures of intermittency are required to fully understand the small scale cascade.

  5. High resolution measurement of neutron inelastic scattering cross-sections for 23Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouki, C.; Archier, P.; Borcea, C.; De Saint Jean, C.; Drohé, J. C.; Kopecky, S.; Moens, A.; Nankov, N.; Negret, A.; Noguère, G.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Stanoiu, M.

    2012-04-01

    The neutron inelastic scattering cross-section of 23Na has been measured in response to the relevant request of the OECD-NEA High Priority Request List, which requires a target uncertainty of 4% in the energy range up to 1.35 MeV for the development of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The measurement was performed at the GELINA facility with the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS), featuring eight high purity germanium detectors. The setup is installed at a 200 m flight path from the neutron source and provides high resolution measurements using the (n,n'γ)-technique. The sample was an 80 mm diameter metallic sodium disk prepared at IRMM. Transitions up to the seventh excited state were observed and the differential gamma cross-sections at 110° and 150° were measured, showing mostly isotropic gamma emission. From these the gamma production, level and inelastic cross-sections were determined for neutron energies up to 3838.9 keV. The results agree well with the existing data and the evaluated nuclear data libraries in the low energies, and provide new experimental points in the little studied region above 2 MeV. Following a detailed review of the methodology used for the gamma efficiency calibrations and flux normalization of GAINS data, an estimated total uncertainty of 2.2% was achieved for the inelastic cross-section integrals over the energy ranges 0.498-1.35 MeV and 1.35-2.23 MeV, meeting the required targets.

  6. A high resolution, inelastic neutron scattering investigation of tunnelling methyl groups in aspirin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. R.; Frick, B.; Trommsdorff, H. P.

    1996-08-01

    The tunnel frequency of protonated methyl groups in aspirin has been measured, by inelastic neutron scattering, at 2 K, to be 1.22 μeV. This result and the temperature dependence up to 42 K are in poor agreement with NMR measurements of deuterated methyl groups which conclude that the rotational potential is purely three-fold symmetric. The discrepancy is attributed to a six-fold contribution in the rotational potential for which justification is provided by a calculation of the rotational potential based on the room temperature crystal structure.

  7. Inelastic Scattering Of Electrons By Protons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cone, A. A.; Chen, K. W.; Dunning, J. R. Jr.; Hartwig, G.; Ramsey, N. F.; Walker, J. K.; Wilson, R.

    1966-12-01

    The inelastic scattering of electrons by protons has been measured at incident electron energies up to 5 BeV/c and momentum transfers q{sup 2}=4(BeV/c){sup 2}. Excitation of known nucleon resonances at M=1238, 1512, 1688 and possibly 1920 MeV have been observed. The calculations for the resonance at M=1238 MeV have been compared with calculations by Adler based on the dispersion theory of Chew, Goldberger, Low and Nambu. The agreement is good. Qualitative models are discussed for the other resonances.

  8. The second generation Singapore high resolution proton beam writing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, J. A. van; Malar, P.; Baysic de Vera, Armin

    2012-02-15

    A new proton beam focusing facility, designed for proton beam writing (PBW) applications has been tested. PBW allows for proximity free structuring of high aspect ratio, high-density 3D nanostructures. The new facility is designed around OM52 compact quadrupole lenses capable of operating in a variety of high demagnification configurations. Performance tests show that proton beams can be focused down to 19.0 x 29.9 nm{sup 2} and single line scans show a beam width of 12.6 nm. The ultimate goal of sub 10 nm structuring with MeV protons will be discussed.

  9. Nature of One- and Two-Phonon Mixed Symmetry States in 92Zr and 94Mo from High-Resolution Electron and Proton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Burda, O.; Kuhar, M.; Lenhardt, A.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Wambach, J.; Botha, N. T.; Fearick, R. W.; Carter, J.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Foertsch, S. V.; Neveling, R.; Smit, F. D.; Fransen, C.; Fujita, H.; Pietralla, N.

    2006-03-13

    High-resolution inelastic electron (performed at the S-DALINAC) and proton (performed at iThemba LABS) scattering experiments on 92Zr and 94Mo with emphasis on E2 transitions are presented The measured form factors and angular distributions provide a measure for the F-spin purity, respectively the isovector nature, of the proposed one-phonon mixed symmetry states and furthermore provide a sensitive test of a possible two-phonon character of excited 2+ states.

  10. Inelastic X-ray scattering with very high resolution at the ESRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisch, M.; Sette, F.

    2017-01-01

    The investigation of phonon dispersion in crystalline materials and collective atom motions in disordered matter such as liquids and glasses by inelastic X-ray scattering has attracted a diversified user community with the advent of 3rd generation synchrotron sources. The present article provides a short historical account of the research field and discusses selected highlights of research performed on the ESRF inelastic scattering beamlines ID16 and ID28 in the past ten years.

  11. Multiparticle production in deep inelastic lepton scattering and soft proton proton collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, K.

    1987-06-01

    We demonstrate how the theoretical knowledge about multiparticle production in deep inelastic lepton scattering can be incorporated into a multistring model for low p/sub t/ proton proton collisions. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Spin-Ml and El responses of nuclei probed by proton inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamii, Atsushi; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2014-12-01

    We pick up two studies on the nuclear responses from the recent experiments of high-resolution proton inelastic scattering at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University; 1) study of the nuclear symmetry and the neutron skin thickness by the measurement of energy electric dipole (El) response of 208Pb, and 2) study of the tensor correlation in the ground state by the measurement of the spin-Ml responses of even-even self-conjugate nuclei in the sd-shell nuclei.

  13. Crystal Dynamics of (delta) fcc Pu-Ga by High Resolution Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J; Krisch, M; Farber, D; Occelli, F; Xu, R; Chiang, T C; Clatterbuck, D; Schwartz, A J; Wall, M; Boro, C

    2004-09-28

    We have used a microbeam on large grain sample concept to carry out an inelastic x-ray scattering experiment to map the full phonon dispersion curves of an fcc {delta}-phase Pu-Ga alloy. This approach obviates experimental difficulties with conventional inelastic neutron scattering due to the high absorption cross section of the common {sup 239}Pu isotope and the non-availability of large (mm size) single crystal materials for Pu and its alloys. A classical Born von-Karman force constant model was used to model the experimental results, and no less than 4th nearest neighbor interactions had to be included to account for the observation. Several unusual features including, a large elastic anisotropy, a small shear elastic modulus, (C{sub 11}-C{sub 12})/2, a Kohn-like anomaly in the T{sub 1}[011] branch, and a pronounced softening of the T[111] branch towards the L point in the Brillouin are found. These features can be related to the phase transitions of plutonium and to strong coupling between the crystal structure and the 5f valence instabilities. Our results represent the first full phonon dispersions ever obtained for any Pu-bearing material, thus ending a 40-year quest for this fundamental data. The phonon data also provide a critical test for theoretical treatments of highly correlated 5f electron systems as exemplified by recent dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) calculations for {delta}-plutonium.

  14. Acoustic phonons in chrysotile asbestos probed by high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mamontov, Eugene; Vakhrushev, S. B.; Kumzerov, Yu. A,; Alatas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic phonons in an individual, oriented fiber of chrysotile asbestos (chemical formula Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}) were observed at room temperature in the inelastic x-ray measurement with a very high (meV) resolution. The x-ray scattering vector was aligned along [1 0 0] direction of the reciprocal lattice, nearly parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The latter coincides with [1 0 0] direction of the direct lattice and the axes of the nano-channels. The data were analyzed using a damped harmonic oscillator model. Analysis of the phonon dispersion in the first Brillouin zone yielded the longitudinal sound velocity of (9200 {+-} 600) m/s.

  15. High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Seiichi Fujii, Kento; Morishita, Yuki; Okumura, Satoshi; Komori, Masataka; Toshito, Toshiyuki

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: In proton therapy, imaging of the positron distribution produced by fragmentation during or soon after proton irradiation is a useful method to monitor the proton range. Although positron emission tomography (PET) is typically used for this imaging, its spatial resolution is limited. Cerenkov light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects the visible photons that are produced from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. Because its inherent spatial resolution is much higher than PET, the authors can measure more precise information of the proton-induced positron distribution with Cerenkov light imaging technology. For this purpose, they conducted Cerenkov light imaging of induced positron distribution in proton therapy. Methods: First, the authors evaluated the spatial resolution of our Cerenkov light imaging system with a {sup 22}Na point source for the actual imaging setup. Then the transparent acrylic phantoms (100 × 100 × 100 mm{sup 3}) were irradiated with two different proton energies using a spot scanning proton therapy system. Cerenkov light imaging of each phantom was conducted using a high sensitivity electron multiplied charge coupled device (EM-CCD) camera. Results: The Cerenkov light’s spatial resolution for the setup was 0.76 ± 0.6 mm FWHM. They obtained high resolution Cerenkov light images of the positron distributions in the phantoms for two different proton energies and made fused images of the reference images and the Cerenkov light images. The depths of the positron distribution in the phantoms from the Cerenkov light images were almost identical to the simulation results. The decay curves derived from the region-of-interests (ROIs) set on the Cerenkov light images revealed that Cerenkov light images can be used for estimating the half-life of the radionuclide components of positrons. Conclusions: High resolution Cerenkov light imaging of proton-induced positron distribution was possible. The

  16. Quantum state resolved inelastic and reactive scattering dynamics in molecular systems via high resolution IR laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, William Brewster

    This thesis describes a series of experiments undertaken to investigate inelastic and reactive molecular collision dynamics at the quantum-state resolved level of detail. First, time- and frequency-resolved infrared laser absorption is used to probe state-resolved collisional energy transfer in scattering of fast C1(2P3/2) radicals with room temperature HCl molecules. Final state distributions of HCl are monitored via transient infrared laser absorption yielding absolute integral collisional cross sections for energy transfer into final rotational states. Analysis of translational distributions inferred from high-resolution infrared Dopplerimetry leads to state-resolved differential scattering cross sections, which exhibit forward scattering into all observed levels. Results are compared with quasiclassical trajectory calculations on a recently proposed potential surface. Second, absolute state-to-state cross sections are reported for rotationally inelastic scattering of HF, CH4, and H2O with rare gases in crossed supersonic jets. Column-integrated densities of HF, CH4, and H2O in initial and final scattering states are probed in the jet intersection region via direct infrared laser absorption. Total inelastic cross sections for loss out of rotational ground states and excitation into higher states are determined in absolute units from the dependence of infrared absorption signals on collider gas concentration. Comparison is made with close coupling calculations performed on best available potential energy surfaces for each of the scattering systems. Finally, fluorine radicals from a pulsed discharge source are crossed with supersonically cooled hydrogen molecules to study the F + H2 /to HF(v,J) + H reaction under single collision conditions. HF(v,J) product states are probed with complete rovibrational state resolution via direct infrared laser absorption. The nascent HF(v,J) state distribution is measured for all populated vibrational manifolds at a collision

  17. Measurement of the inelastic proton-proton cross section at √{ s} = 7 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Aguilo, E.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Gartner, J.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Marcken, G.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Anjos, T. S.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Karjalainen, A.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Roinishvili, V.; Anagnostou, G.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.

    2013-05-01

    A measurement is presented of the inelastic proton-proton cross section at a centre-of-mass energy of √{ s} = 7 TeV. Using the CMS detector at the LHC, the inelastic cross section is measured through two independent methods based on information from (i) forward calorimetry (for pseudorapidity 3 < | η | < 5), in collisions where at least one proton loses more than 5 ×10-6 of its longitudinal momentum, and (ii) the central tracker (| η | < 2.4), in collisions containing an interaction vertex with more than one, two, or three tracks with transverse momenta pT > 200 MeV / c. The measurements cover a large fraction of the inelastic cross section for particle production over about nine units of pseudorapidity and down to small transverse momenta. The results are compared with those of other experiments, and with models used to describe high-energy hadronic interactions.

  18. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of seminolipid from bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J G; Storey, B T; Hemling, M L; Grob, R L

    1990-06-01

    The high-resolution one- and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) characterization of seminolipid from bovine spermatozoa is presented. The 1H-NMR data was confirmed by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the partially methylated alditol acetates of the sugar unit, mild alkaline methanolysis of the glyceryl ester, mobility on normal phase and diphasic thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The structure of the molecule corresponds to 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-hexadecanoyl-3-O-beta-D-(3'-sulfo)-galactopyranosyl- sn-glycerol.

  19. A maximum likelihood method for high resolution proton radiography/proton CT.

    PubMed

    Collins-Fekete, Charles-Antoine; Brousmiche, Sébastien; Portillo, Stephen K N; Beaulieu, Luc; Seco, Joao

    2016-12-07

    Multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) is the largest contributor to blurring in proton imaging. In this work, we developed a maximum likelihood least squares estimator that improves proton radiography's spatial resolution. The water equivalent thickness (WET) through projections defined from the source to the detector pixels were estimated such that they maximizes the likelihood of the energy loss of every proton crossing the volume. The length spent in each projection was calculated through the optimized cubic spline path estimate. The proton radiographies were produced using Geant4 simulations. Three phantoms were studied here: a slanted cube in a tank of water to measure 2D spatial resolution, a voxelized head phantom for clinical performance evaluation as well as a parametric Catphan phantom (CTP528) for 3D spatial resolution. Two proton beam configurations were used: a parallel and a conical beam. Proton beams of 200 and 330 MeV were simulated to acquire the radiography. Spatial resolution is increased from 2.44 lp cm(-1) to 4.53 lp cm(-1) in the 200 MeV beam and from 3.49 lp cm(-1) to 5.76 lp cm(-1) in the 330 MeV beam. Beam configurations do not affect the reconstructed spatial resolution as investigated between a radiography acquired with the parallel (3.49 lp cm(-1) to 5.76 lp cm(-1)) or conical beam (from 3.49 lp cm(-1) to 5.56 lp cm(-1)). The improved images were then used as input in a photon tomography algorithm. The proton CT reconstruction of the Catphan phantom shows high spatial resolution (from 2.79 to 5.55 lp cm(-1) for the parallel beam and from 3.03 to 5.15 lp cm(-1) for the conical beam) and the reconstruction of the head phantom, although qualitative, shows high contrast in the gradient region. The proposed formulation of the optimization demonstrates serious potential to increase the spatial resolution (up by 65[Formula: see text]) in proton radiography and greatly accelerate proton computed tomography reconstruction.

  20. A maximum likelihood method for high resolution proton radiography/proton CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins-Fekete, Charles-Antoine; Brousmiche, Sébastien; Portillo, Stephen K. N.; Beaulieu, Luc; Seco, Joao

    2016-12-01

    Multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) is the largest contributor to blurring in proton imaging. In this work, we developed a maximum likelihood least squares estimator that improves proton radiography’s spatial resolution. The water equivalent thickness (WET) through projections defined from the source to the detector pixels were estimated such that they maximizes the likelihood of the energy loss of every proton crossing the volume. The length spent in each projection was calculated through the optimized cubic spline path estimate. The proton radiographies were produced using Geant4 simulations. Three phantoms were studied here: a slanted cube in a tank of water to measure 2D spatial resolution, a voxelized head phantom for clinical performance evaluation as well as a parametric Catphan phantom (CTP528) for 3D spatial resolution. Two proton beam configurations were used: a parallel and a conical beam. Proton beams of 200 and 330 MeV were simulated to acquire the radiography. Spatial resolution is increased from 2.44 lp cm-1 to 4.53 lp cm-1 in the 200 MeV beam and from 3.49 lp cm-1 to 5.76 lp cm-1 in the 330 MeV beam. Beam configurations do not affect the reconstructed spatial resolution as investigated between a radiography acquired with the parallel (3.49 lp cm-1 to 5.76 lp cm-1) or conical beam (from 3.49 lp cm-1 to 5.56 lp cm-1). The improved images were then used as input in a photon tomography algorithm. The proton CT reconstruction of the Catphan phantom shows high spatial resolution (from 2.79 to 5.55 lp cm-1 for the parallel beam and from 3.03 to 5.15 lp cm-1 for the conical beam) and the reconstruction of the head phantom, although qualitative, shows high contrast in the gradient region. The proposed formulation of the optimization demonstrates serious potential to increase the spatial resolution (up by 65 % ) in proton radiography and greatly accelerate proton computed tomography reconstruction.

  1. Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, M.; Caciolli, A.; Calzolai, G.; Climent-Font, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.

    2016-10-01

    Differential cross-sections for proton inelastic scattering on fluorine, 19F(p,p')19F, from the first five excited levels of 19F at 110, 197, 1346, 1459 and 1554 keV were measured for beam energies from 3 to 7 MeV at a scattering angle of 150° using a LiF thin target (50 μg/cm2) evaporated on a self-supporting C thin film (30 μg/cm2). Absolute differential cross-sections were calculated with a method not dependent on the absolute values of collected beam charge and detector solid angle. The validity of the measured inelastic scattering cross sections was then tested by successfully reproducing EBS spectra collected from a thick Teflon (CF2) target. As a practical application of these measured inelastic scattering cross sections in elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS), the feasibility of quantitative light element (C, N and O) analysis in aerosol particulate matter samples collected on Teflon by EBS measurements and spectra simulation is demonstrated.

  2. High-resolution proton and carbon-13 NMR of membranes: why sonicate

    SciTech Connect

    Oldfield, E.; Bowers, J.L.; Forbes, J.

    1987-11-03

    The authors have obtained high-field (11.7-T) proton and carbon-13 Fourier transform (FT) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of egg lecithin and egg lecithin-chloresterol (1:1) multibilayers, using magic-angle sample spinning (MASS) techniques, and sonicated egg lecithin and egg lecithin-cholesterol (1:1) vesicles, using conventional FT NMR methods. Resolution of the proton and carbon-13 MASS NMR spectra of the pure egg lecithin samples is essentially identical with that of sonicated samples, but spectra of the unsonicated lipid, using MASS, can be obtained very much faster than with the more dilute, sonicated systems. With the 1:1 lecithin-cholesterol system, proton MASS NMR spectra are virtually identical with conventional FT spectra of sonicated samples, while the /sup 13/C NMR, the authors demonstrate that most /sup 13/C nuclei in the cholesterol moiety can be monitored, even though these same nuclei are essentially invisible, i.e., are severely broadened, in the corresponding sonicated systems. In addition, /sup 13/C MASS NMR spectra can again be recorded much faster than with sonicated samples, due to concentration effects. Taken together, these results strongly suggest there will seldom be need in the future to resort to ultransonic disruption of lipid bilayer membranes in order to obtain high-resolution proton or carbon-13 NMR spectra.

  3. High-resolution proton-detected NMR of proteins at very fast MAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, Loren B.; Le Marchand, Tanguy; Jaudzems, Kristaps; Pintacuda, Guido

    2015-04-01

    When combined with high-frequency (currently ∼60 kHz) magic-angle spinning (MAS), proton detection boosts sensitivity and increases coherence lifetimes, resulting in narrow 1H lines. Herein, we review methods for efficient proton detected techniques and applications in highly deuterated proteins, with an emphasis on 100% selected 1H site concentration for the purpose of sensitivity. We discuss the factors affecting resolution and sensitivity that have resulted in higher and higher frequency MAS. Next we describe the various methods that have been used for backbone and side-chain assignment with proton detection, highlighting the efficient use of scalar-based 13C-13C transfers. Additionally, we show new spectra making use of these schemes for side-chain assignment of methyl 13C-1H resonances. The rapid acquisition of resolved 2D spectra with proton detection allows efficient measurement of relaxation parameters used as a measure of dynamic processes. Under rapid MAS, relaxation times can be measured in a site-specific manner in medium-sized proteins, enabling the investigation of molecular motions at high resolution. Additionally, we discuss methods for measurement of structural parameters, including measurement of internuclear 1H-1H contacts and the use of paramagnetic effects in the determination of global structure.

  4. High-resolution proton-detected NMR of proteins at very fast MAS.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Loren B; Le Marchand, Tanguy; Jaudzems, Kristaps; Pintacuda, Guido

    2015-04-01

    When combined with high-frequency (currently ∼60 kHz) magic-angle spinning (MAS), proton detection boosts sensitivity and increases coherence lifetimes, resulting in narrow ((1))H lines. Herein, we review methods for efficient proton detected techniques and applications in highly deuterated proteins, with an emphasis on 100% selected ((1))H site concentration for the purpose of sensitivity. We discuss the factors affecting resolution and sensitivity that have resulted in higher and higher frequency MAS. Next we describe the various methods that have been used for backbone and side-chain assignment with proton detection, highlighting the efficient use of scalar-based ((13))C-((13))C transfers. Additionally, we show new spectra making use of these schemes for side-chain assignment of methyl ((13))C-((1))H resonances. The rapid acquisition of resolved 2D spectra with proton detection allows efficient measurement of relaxation parameters used as a measure of dynamic processes. Under rapid MAS, relaxation times can be measured in a site-specific manner in medium-sized proteins, enabling the investigation of molecular motions at high resolution. Additionally, we discuss methods for measurement of structural parameters, including measurement of internuclear ((1))H-((1))H contacts and the use of paramagnetic effects in the determination of global structure.

  5. Inelastic proton scattering of Sn isotopes studied with GRETINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    The chain of semi-magic Sn nuclei, with many stable isotopes, has been a fertile ground for experimental and theoretical studies. Encompassing a major neutron shell from N = 50 to 82, the properties and structure of these nuclei provided important data for the development of the pairing-plus-quadrupole model. Recent experimental information on B(E2) for 106,108,110,112Sn came as a surprise as it indicated a larger collectivity than the predicted parabolic trend of quadrupole collectivity. These data, instead, show an unexpectedly flat trend even as the number of valence particles is reduced from 12 to 6. To fully understand how collectivity is evolving in these isotopes, 108,110,112Sn have been studied using thick-target, inelastic proton scattering with GRETINA tagging inelastic scattering events by detecting gamma-rays from the prompt decay of states excited in the reaction. We will present the trend of 2 + excitation cross-sections, the deduced quadrupole deformation parameters, and observations of other low-lying collective states. Comparison of these (p,p') quadrupole deformation parameters with B(E2) data will provide new insights into the relative importance of proton and neutron contributions to collectivity in these nuclei. GRETINA was funded by the US DOE - Office of Science. Operation of the array at NSCL is supported by NSF under Cooperative Agreement PHY-1102511(NSCL) and DOE under grant DE-AC02-05CH11231(LBNL).

  6. First direct-write lithography results on the Guelph high resolution proton microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. P.; de Kerckhove, D.

    2011-10-01

    The recently completed high-resolution proton microprobe at the University of Guelph is Canada's first one-micron nuclear microprobe, which represents the country's state-of-the-art technology for various nuclear microprobe applications, e.g. direct-write microlithography. Its probe-forming system is comprised of a triplet Oxford Micro beams magnetic quadrupole lenses, along with high-precision objective slits. High energy protons coming off a 3 MV particle accelerator can achieve a nominal resolution of one micro and a beam current of several hundred of picoamperes when arriving at the target. This proton probe is ideal for the use of direct-write lithography with the incorporation of a magnetic scanning system and motorized sample stage. Preliminary lithography results have been obtained using spin-coated PMMA photoresist as specimen. The beam spot size, beam range and straggling inside the substrate and the exposure conditions are investigated by using scanning electron microscopy. This facility is the first in Canada to perform focused direct-write ion beam lithography, which is ideal for modification and machining of polymer and semiconductor materials for biological, microfluidic and ultimate lab-on-chip applications.

  7. Metal-ligand Covalency of Iron Complexes from High-Resolution Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Marcus; Kroll, Thomas; DeBeer, Serena; Bergmann, Uwe; Wilson, Samuel A.; Glatzel, Pieter; Nordlund, Dennis; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O.; Solomon, Edward I.

    2013-01-01

    Data from Kα resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) have been used to extract electronic structure information, i.e., the covalency of metal-ligand bonds, for four iron complexes using an experimentally based theoretical model. Kα RIXS involves resonant 1s → 3d excitation and detection of the 2p → 1s (Kα) emission. This two-photon process reaches similar final states as single-photon L-edge (2p → 3d) X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), but involves only hard X-rays and can therefore be used to get high-resolution L-edge-like spectra for metal proteins, solution catalysts and their intermediates. To analyze the information content of Kα RIXS spectra, data have been collected for four characteristic σ-donor and π-backdonation complexes; ferrous tacn [FeII(tacn)2]Br2, ferrocyanide [FeII(CN)6]K4, ferric tacn [FeIII(tacn)2]Br3 and ferricyanide [FeIII(CN)6]K3. From these spectra metal-ligand covalencies can be extracted using a charge-transfer multiplet model, without previous information from the L-edge XAS experiment. A direct comparison of L-edge XAS and Kα RIXS spectra show that the latter reaches additional final states, e.g., when exciting into the eg (σ*) orbitals, and the splitting between final states of different symmetry provides an extra dimension that makes Kα RIXS a more sensitive probe of σ-bonding. Another key difference between L-edge XAS and Kα RIXS is the π-backbonding features in ferro- and ferricyanide that are significantly more intense in L-edge XAS compared to Kα RIXS. This shows that two methods are complimentary in assigning electronic structure. The Kα RIXS approach can thus be used as a stand-alone method, in combination with L-edge XAS for strongly covalent systems that are difficult to probe by UV/Vis spectroscopy, or as an extension to conventional absorption spectroscopy for a wide range of transition metal enzymes and catalysts. PMID:24131028

  8. Dirac Calculations for Proton Inelastic Scattering at Intermediate Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nohy, N. A.; El-Hammamy, M. N.; Aly, N. E.; Abdel-Moneim, A. M.; Hamza, A. F.

    2016-12-01

    Relativistic proton inelastic scattering from different targets (16O, 24Mg, 28Si, 40Ca, 54Fe, 58Ni, 90Zr, 154Sm, 176Yb, and 208Pb) at intermediate energies is analyzed in the framework of phenomenological optical potentials based on the Dirac formalism. Parameters of the Dirac phenomenological potential with Woods Saxon (WS) shape are obtained. The first order vibrational collective model with one phonon is used to calculate the transition optical potentials to the first low-lying excited state (2+) of the investigated target nuclei. Also, the variation of deformation length ( δ) with energy and mass number is studied. It is noticed that the deformation length increases slightly with energy at intermediate range.

  9. Spin observables in inelastic proton-nucleus scattering at intermediate energy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of spin observables in inelastic proton-nucleus reactions for incident proton energies near 1 GeV. At this energy, the dominant reaction mechanisms are (1) quasi-free knockout of one or more nucleons, and (2) pion production through the resonance. The cross section due to quasi-free knockout can be reasonably well understood theoretically in a multiple scattering picture, which uses measured NN amplitudes as input. Calculations of this sort were carried out in reference (10) using scalar NN amplitudes parameterized as Gaussians. The author has extended this picture to include spin dependent NN amplitudes. This allows calculation of all the spin observables, Ay, DLL, DSS, DNN, DLS, and DSL, as well as the cross section dsigma/dOmegadp due to quasi-free knockout of one or more particles. The cross section and polarization Ay have been measured at the LAMPF High Resolution Spectrometer at T/sub L/ = 800 MeV on SC. The theoretical results agree well with the data in the quasi-free region. The results for the remaining spin observables provide predictions for experiments which can be performed at LAMPF. By comparing the calculations with the data, it may be possible to separate the contribution due to a quasi-free knockout, and see a signature of quasi-free production in the spin observables.

  10. Evaluation of proton inelastic reaction models in Geant4 for prompt gamma production during proton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyasugiththan, Jeyasingam; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2015-10-01

    During proton beam radiotherapy, discrete secondary prompt gamma rays are induced by inelastic nuclear reactions between protons and nuclei in the human body. In recent years, the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit has played an important role in the development of a device for real time dose range verification purposes using prompt gamma radiation. Unfortunately the default physics models in Geant4 do not reliably replicate the measured prompt gamma emission. Determining a suitable physics model for low energy proton inelastic interactions will boost the accuracy of prompt gamma simulations. Among the built-in physics models, we found that the precompound model with a modified initial exciton state of 2 (1 particle, 1 hole) produced more accurate discrete gamma lines from the most important elements found within the body such as 16O, 12C and 14N when comparing them with the available gamma production cross section data. Using the modified physics model, we investigated the prompt gamma spectra produced in a water phantom by a 200 MeV pencil beam of protons. The spectra were attained using a LaBr3 detector with a time-of-flight (TOF) window and BGO active shield to reduce the secondary neutron and gamma background. The simulations show that a 2 ns TOF window could reduce 99% of the secondary neutron flux hitting the detector. The results show that using both timing and active shielding can remove up to 85% of the background radiation which includes a 33% reduction by BGO subtraction.

  11. Evaluation of proton inelastic reaction models in Geant4 for prompt gamma production during proton radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Jeyasugiththan, Jeyasingam; Peterson, Stephen W

    2015-10-07

    During proton beam radiotherapy, discrete secondary prompt gamma rays are induced by inelastic nuclear reactions between protons and nuclei in the human body. In recent years, the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit has played an important role in the development of a device for real time dose range verification purposes using prompt gamma radiation. Unfortunately the default physics models in Geant4 do not reliably replicate the measured prompt gamma emission. Determining a suitable physics model for low energy proton inelastic interactions will boost the accuracy of prompt gamma simulations. Among the built-in physics models, we found that the precompound model with a modified initial exciton state of 2 (1 particle, 1 hole) produced more accurate discrete gamma lines from the most important elements found within the body such as 16O, 12C and 14N when comparing them with the available gamma production cross section data. Using the modified physics model, we investigated the prompt gamma spectra produced in a water phantom by a 200 MeV pencil beam of protons. The spectra were attained using a LaBr3 detector with a time-of-flight (TOF) window and BGO active shield to reduce the secondary neutron and gamma background. The simulations show that a 2 ns TOF window could reduce 99% of the secondary neutron flux hitting the detector. The results show that using both timing and active shielding can remove up to 85% of the background radiation which includes a 33% reduction by BGO subtraction.

  12. Quantitative neuropathology by high resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, L. L.; Ma, M. J.; Becerra, L.; Ptak, T.; Tracey, I.; Lackner, A.; González, R. G.

    1997-01-01

    We describe a method that directly relates tissue neuropathological analysis to medical imaging. Presently, only indirect and often tenuous relationships are made between imaging (such as MRI or x-ray computed tomography) and neuropathology. We present a biochemistry-based, quantitative neuropathological method that can help to precisely quantify information provided by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS), an emerging medical imaging technique. This method, high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) 1HMRS, is rapid and requires only small amounts of unprocessed samples. Unlike chemical extraction or other forms of tissue processing, this method analyzes tissue directly, thus minimizing artifacts. We demonstrate the utility of this method by assessing neuronal damage using multiple tissue samples from differently affected brain regions in a case of Pick disease, a human neurodegenerative disorder. Among different regions, we found an excellent correlation between neuronal loss shown by traditional neurohistopathology and decrease of the neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate measured by HRMAS 1HMRS. This result demonstrates for the first time, to our knowledge, a direct, quantitative link between a decrease in N-acetylaspartate and neuronal loss in a human neurodegenerative disease. As a quantitative method, HRMAS 1HMRS has potential applications in experimental and clinical neuropathologic investigations. It should also provide a rational basis for the interpretation of in vivo 1HMRS studies of human neurological disorders. PMID:9177231

  13. Comparative study of the low-lying valence electronic states of carbon dioxide by high-resolution inelastic x-ray and electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Dong-Dong; Xu, Long-Quan; Liu, Ya-Wei; Yang, Ke; Hiraoka, Nozomu; Tsuei, Ku-Ding; Zhu, Lin-Fan

    2017-07-01

    We report a comparative study of low-lying valence electronic states of carbon dioxide by high-resolution inelastic x-ray and electron scattering. Momentum-transfer-dependent inelastic squared form factors for the two states 1Σu+ and 1Πu and generalized oscillator strength for the 9 eV feature from the ground state X1Σg+ have been derived from the inelastic x-ray scattering method at an impact photon energy around 10 keV, and the electron energy-loss spectra measured at an incident electron energy of 1500 eV. It is found from the comparison between the present results and the previous outcomes that the recent calculations taking the vibronic effects into consideration satisfactorily reproduce the inelastic squared form-factor profile for the 1Σu+ transition and the generalized oscillator strength profile for the 9 eV feature. However, the vibronic effects seem to play no role in the 1Πu transition. The difference existing between the inelastic x-ray scattering and electron energy-loss spectroscopy results in the larger momentum-transfer squared region may be attributed to the increasing role of the higher-order Born terms. Furthermore, the controversy concerning the designations of electronic states around 11 eV is solved by assigning the two peaks centered at 10.98 and 11.05 eV to the vibrational progression 1Σu+' and 1Σu+ , and the peak centered at 11.16 eV to the forbidden transition 21Δu based on the present results.

  14. Inelastic proton scattering as a mean for the determination of neutron and proton matrix element ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamanos, N.; Pakou, A.; Lagoyannis, A.; Musumarra, A.

    1999-12-01

    The determination of ratio of neutron over proton matrix elements by inelastic proton scattering, for 0 +→2 + transitions, is investigated via the comparison between experimental data and theoretical calculations. Calculations into the context of a macroscopic and a microscopic description are performed for a wide mass range nuclei: 18O, 30Si, 32,34S, 48Ca, 88Sr, for which these ratios were determined previously with an independent technique. At that point the choice of the theoretical model may be very critical. It is thus the purpose of this investigation to point out the most suitable model. It is found that in general both theoretical models can be employed for the reliable determination of neutron over proton matrix element ratios.

  15. An alternative scheme of angular-dispersion analyzers for high-resolution medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xian Rong

    2011-11-01

    The development of medium-energy inelastic X-ray scattering optics with meV and sub-meV resolution has attracted considerable efforts in recent years. Meanwhile, there are also concerns or debates about the fundamental and feasibility of the involved schemes. Here the central optical component, the back-reflection angular-dispersion monochromator or analyzer, is analyzed. The results show that the multiple-beam diffraction effect together with transmission-induced absorption can noticeably reduce the diffraction efficiency, although it may not be a fatal threat. In order to improve the efficiency, a simple four-bounce analyzer is proposed that completely avoids these two adverse effects. The new scheme is illustrated to be a feasible alternative approach for developing meV- to sub-meV-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy.

  16. Precision mechanical structure of an ultra-high-resolution spectrometer for inelastic X-ray scattering instrument

    DOEpatents

    Shu, Deming; Shvydko, Yuri; Stoupin, Stanislav A.; Khachatryan, Ruben; Goetze, Kurt A.; Roberts, Timothy

    2015-04-14

    A method and an ultrahigh-resolution spectrometer including a precision mechanical structure for positioning inelastic X-ray scattering optics are provided. The spectrometer includes an X-ray monochromator and an X-ray analyzer, each including X-ray optics of a collimating (C) crystal, a pair of dispersing (D) element crystals, anomalous transmission filter (F) and a wavelength (W) selector crystal. A respective precision mechanical structure is provided with the X-ray monochromator and the X-ray analyzer. The precision mechanical structure includes a base plate, such as an aluminum base plate; positioning stages for D-crystal alignment; positioning stages with an incline sensor for C/F/W-crystal alignment, and the positioning stages including flexure-based high-stiffness structure.

  17. Visualizing proton antenna in a high-resolution green fluorescent protein structure.

    PubMed

    Shinobu, Ai; Palm, Gottfried J; Schierbeek, Abraham J; Agmon, Noam

    2010-08-18

    "Proton-collecting antenna" are conjectured to consist of several carboxylates within hydrogen-bond (HB) networks on the surface of proteins, which funnel protons to the orifice of an internal proton wire leading to the protein's active site. Yet such constructions were never directly visualized. Here we report an X-ray structure of green fluorescent protein (GFP) of the highest resolution to date (0.9 A). It allows the identification of some pivotal hydrogen atoms pertinent to uncertainties concerning the protonation state of the chromophore. Applying a computer algorithm for mapping proton wires in proteins reveals the previously observed "active site wire" connecting Glu222 with the surface carboxylate Glu5. In addition, it is now possible to identify what appears to be a proton-collecting apparatus of GFP. It consists of a negative surface patch containing carboxylates, threonines, and water molecules, connected by a HB network to Glu5. Furthermore, we detect exit points via Asn146 and His148 to a hydrophobic surface region. The more extensive HB network of the present structure, as compared with earlier GFP structures, is not accidental. A systematic investigation of over 100 mutants shows a clear correlation between the observed water content of GFP X-ray structures and their resolution. With increasing water content, the proton wires become progressively larger. These findings corroborate the scenario in which the photodissociated proton from wild-type GFP can leak outside, whereafter another proton is recruited via the proton-collecting apparatus reported herein.

  18. Neutron-driven collectivity in light tin isotopes: Proton inelastic scattering from 104Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, A.; Boissinot, S.; Obertelli, A.; Doornenbal, P.; Dupuis, M.; Lechaftois, F.; Matsushita, M.; Péru, S.; Takeuchi, S.; Wang, H.; Aoi, N.; Baba, H.; Bednarczyk, P.; Ciemala, M.; Gillibert, A.; Isobe, T.; Jungclaus, A.; Lapoux, V.; Lee, J.; Martini, M.; Matsui, K.; Motobayashi, T.; Nishimura, D.; Ota, S.; Pollacco, E.; Sakurai, H.; Santamaria, C.; Shiga, Y.; Sohler, D.; Steppenbeck, D.; Taniuchi, R.

    2015-04-01

    Inelastic scattering cross sections to individual bound excited states of 104Sn were measured at 150 MeV/u beam energy and analyzed to evaluate the contribution of neutron and proton collectivity. State-of-the-art Quasi-Particle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) with the D1M Gogny interaction reproduces the experimental proton collectivity and our inelastic scattering cross sections once used as input for a reaction calculation together with the Jeukenne-Lejeune-Mahaux (JLM) potentials. Experimental inelastic scattering cross section decreases by 40(24)% from 112Sn to 104Sn. The present work shows that (i) proton and neutron collectivities are proportional over a large range of tin isotopes (including 104Sn), as is typical for isoscalar excitations, and (ii) the neutron collectivity dominates. It suggests that the plateau in the mass range A = 106- 112 displayed by E2 transition probabilities is driven by neutron collectivity.

  19. Measurement of inelastic, single- and double-diffraction cross sections in proton-proton collisions at the LHC with ALICE.

    PubMed

    Abelev, B; Adam, J; Adamová, D; Adare, A M; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agocs, A G; Agostinelli, A; Aguilar Salazar, S; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad Masoodi, A; Ahmad, N; Ahn, S A; Ahn, S U; Akindinov, A; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaráz Aviña, E; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altini, V; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Anielski, J; Anson, C; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arbor, N; Arcelli, S; Arend, A; Armesto, N; Arnaldi, R; Aronsson, T; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Asryan, A; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Äystö, J; Azmi, M D; Bach, M; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Baldini Ferroli, R; Baldisseri, A; Baldit, A; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F; Bán, J; Baral, R C; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartke, J; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batyunya, B; Baumann, C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bellwied, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bergognon, A A E; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhom, J; Bianchi, N; Bianchi, L; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Bjelogrlic, S; Blanco, F; Blanco, F; Blau, D; Blume, C; Boccioli, M; Bock, N; Böttger, S; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Bogolyubsky, M; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Bose, S; Bossú, F; Botje, M; Botta, E; Boyer, B; Braidot, E; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brun, R; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Caballero Orduna, D; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Canoa Roman, V; Cara Romeo, G; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carlin Filho, N; Carminati, F; Casanova Díaz, A; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castillo Hernandez, J F; Casula, E A R; Catanescu, V; Cavicchioli, C; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cepila, J; Cerello, P; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chawla, I; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Chochula, P; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Coccetti, F; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Constantin, P; Contin, G; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortese, P; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Cotallo, M E; Crescio, E; Crochet, P; Cruz Alaniz, E; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dainese, A; Dalsgaard, H H; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, K; Das, I; Dash, S; Dash, A; De, S; de Barros, G O V; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; Delagrange, H; Deloff, A; Demanov, V; De Marco, N; Dénes, E; De Pasquale, S; Deppman, A; D Erasmo, G; de Rooij, R; Diaz Corchero, M A; Di Bari, D; Dietel, T; Di Giglio, C; Di Liberto, S; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Dobrowolski, T; Domínguez, I; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Driga, O; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Dutta Majumdar, M R; Dutta Majumdar, A K; Elia, D; Emschermann, D; Engel, H; Erazmus, B; Erdal, H A; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Evans, D; Eyyubova, G; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Falchieri, D; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Fearick, R; Fedunov, A; Fehlker, D; Feldkamp, L; Felea, D; Fenton-Olsen, B; Feofilov, G; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferretti, A; Ferretti, R; Festanti, A; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Garishvili, I; Gerhard, J; Germain, M; Geuna, C; Gheata, M; Gheata, A; Ghidini, B; Ghosh, P; Gianotti, P; Girard, M R; Giubellino, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Gomez, R; Ferreiro, E G; González-Trueba, L H; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Goswami, A; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Graczykowski, L K; Grajcarek, R; Grelli, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoras, A; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, S; Grigoryan, A; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gros, P; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerra Gutierrez, C; Guerzoni, B; Guilbaud, M; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Gutbrod, H; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Han, B H; Hanratty, L D; Hansen, A; Harmanová-Tóthová, Z; Harris, J W; Hartig, M; Hasegan, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayrapetyan, A; Heckel, S T; Heide, M; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Herrmann, N; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hicks, B; Hille, P T; Hippolyte, B; Horaguchi, T; Hori, Y; Hristov, P; Hřivnáčová, I; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hwang, D S; Ichou, R; Ilkaev, R; Ilkiv, I; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Innocenti, P G; Innocenti, G M; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivan, C; Ivanov, A; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Ivanytskyi, O; Jachołkowski, A; Jacobs, P M; Jang, H J; Janik, R; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, S; Jha, D M; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jirden, L; Jones, P G; Jung, H; Jusko, A; Kaidalov, A B; Kakoyan, V; Kalcher, S; Kaliňák, P; Kalliokoski, T; Kalweit, A; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karpechev, E; Kazantsev, A; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khan, M M; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, S; Kim, B; Kim, T; Kim, D J; Kim, D W; Kim, J H; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Klay, J L; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Kliemant, M; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Koch, K; Köhler, M K; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Konevskikh, A; Korneev, A; Kour, R; Kowalski, M; Kox, S; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Kral, J; Králik, I; Kramer, F; Kraus, I; Krawutschke, T; Krelina, M; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Krus, M; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kucheriaev, Y; Kugathasan, T; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kulakov, I; Kumar, J; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A B; Kurepin, A; Kuryakin, A; Kushpil, V; Kushpil, S; Kvaerno, H; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; La Pointe, S L; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; La Rocca, P; Lea, R; Le Bornec, Y; Lechman, M; Lee, S C; Lee, G R; Lee, K S; Lefèvre, F; Lehnert, J; Lenhardt, M; Lenti, V; León, H; Leoncino, M; León Monzón, I; León Vargas, H; Lévai, P; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Liu, L; Loggins, V R; Loginov, V; Lohn, S; Lohner, D; Loizides, C; Loo, K K; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Løvhøiden, G; Lu, X-G; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luo, J; Luparello, G; Luquin, L; Luzzi, C; Ma, K; Ma, R; Madagodahettige-Don, D M; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahapatra, D P; Maire, A; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, M V D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Mangotra, L; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Mao, Y; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Marín, A; Marin Tobon, C A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martashvili, I; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez Davalos, A; Martínez García, G; Martynov, Y; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Matthews, Z L; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzoni, M A; Meddi, F; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitu, C; Mlynarz, J; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montaño Zetina, L; Monteno, M; Montes, E; Moon, T; Morando, M; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moretto, S; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Müller, H; Munhoz, M G; Musa, L; Musso, A; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Nattrass, C; Naumov, N P; Navin, S; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nazarov, G; Nedosekin, A; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Nielsen, B S; Niida, T; Nikolaev, S; Nikolic, V; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Nilsen, B S; Nilsson, M S; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Novitzky, N; Nyanin, A; Nyatha, A; Nygaard, C; Nystrand, J; Ochirov, A; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Oh, S K; Oleniacz, J; Oppedisano, C; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Ortona, G; Oskarsson, A; Ostrowski, P; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozawa, K; Pachmayer, Y; Pachr, M; Padilla, F; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Painke, F; Pajares, C; Pal, S K; Palaha, A; Palmeri, A; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Park, W J; Passfeld, A; Pastirčák, B; Patalakha, D I; Paticchio, V; Pavlinov, A; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Pereira Da Costa, H; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E; Peresunko, D; Pérez Lara, C E; Perez Lezama, E; Perini, D; Perrino, D; Peryt, W; Pesci, A; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petran, M; Petris, M; Petrov, P; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Piccotti, A; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Pitz, N; Piyarathna, D B; Planinic, M; Płoskoń, M; Pluta, J; Pocheptsov, T; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polák, K; Polichtchouk, B; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Pospíšil, V; Potukuchi, B; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puchagin, S; Puddu, G; Pulvirenti, A; Punin, V; Putiš, M; Putschke, J; Quercigh, E; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Rademakers, A; Räihä, T S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Ramírez Reyes, A; Raniwala, S; Raniwala, R; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Read, K F; Real, J S; Redlich, K; Reichelt, P; Reicher, M; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Rettig, F; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Riccati, L; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Rodrigues Fernandes Rabacal, B; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rodriguez Manso, A; Røed, K; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Rosnet, P; Rossegger, S; Rossi, A; Roy, P; Roy, C; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Russo, R; Ryabinkin, E; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Šafařík, K; Sahoo, R; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakaguchi, H; Sakai, S; Sakata, D; Salgado, C A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Sanchez Castro, X; Šándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sano, S; Santo, R; Santoro, R; Sarkamo, J; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Scharenberg, R P; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schreiner, S; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Segato, G; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senyukov, S; Seo, J; Serci, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Shabetai, A; Shabratova, G; Shahoyan, R; Sharma, N; Sharma, S; Rohni, S; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siciliano, M; Sicking, E; Siddhanta, S; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Skjerdal, K; Smakal, R; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Søgaard, C; Soltz, R; Son, H; Song, M; Song, J; Soos, C; Soramel, F; Sputowska, I; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Srivastava, B K; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stan, I; Stefanek, G; Steinpreis, M; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Stolpovskiy, M; Strabykin, K; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Subieta Vásquez, M A; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Sukhorukov, M; Sultanov, R; Šumbera, M; Susa, T; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szostak, A; Szymański, M; Takahashi, J; Tapia Takaki, J D; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terrevoli, C; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Toia, A; Torii, H; Toscano, L; Trubnikov, V; Truesdale, D; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ulery, J; Ullaland, K; Ulrich, J; Uras, A; Urbán, J; Urciuoli, G M; Usai, G L; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; Vande Vyvre, P; van Leeuwen, M; Vannucci, L; Vargas, A; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vechernin, V; Veldhoen, M; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Vikhlyantsev, O; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Vinogradov, Y; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Virgili, T; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Voloshin, S; Voloshin, K; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vranic, D; Øvrebekk, G; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Vyushin, A; Wagner, V; Wagner, B; Wan, R; Wang, M; Wang, D; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Watanabe, K; Weber, M; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilde, M; Wilk, A; Wilk, G; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L; Yaldo, C G; Yamaguchi, Y; Yang, H; Yang, S; Yasnopolskiy, S; Yi, J; Yin, Z; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J; Yu, W; Yuan, X; Yushmanov, I; Zaccolo, V; Zach, C; Zampolli, C; Zaporozhets, S; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zelnicek, P; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, X; Zhang, H; Zhou, D; Zhou, Y; Zhou, F; Zhu, J; Zhu, J; Zhu, X; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zinovjev, G; Zoccarato, Y; Zynovyev, M; Zyzak, M

    Measurements of cross sections of inelastic and diffractive processes in proton-proton collisions at LHC energies were carried out with the ALICE detector. The fractions of diffractive processes in inelastic collisions were determined from a study of gaps in charged particle pseudorapidity distributions: for single diffraction (diffractive mass MX <200 GeV/c(2)) [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text], respectively at centre-of-mass energies [Formula: see text]; for double diffraction (for a pseudorapidity gap Δη>3) σDD/σINEL=0.11±0.03,0.12±0.05, and [Formula: see text], respectively at [Formula: see text]. To measure the inelastic cross section, beam properties were determined with van der Meer scans, and, using a simulation of diffraction adjusted to data, the following values were obtained: [Formula: see text] mb at [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text]. The single- and double-diffractive cross sections were calculated combining relative rates of diffraction with inelastic cross sections. The results are compared to previous measurements at proton-antiproton and proton-proton colliders at lower energies, to measurements by other experiments at the LHC, and to theoretical models.

  20. High-resolution three-dimensional quantitative map of the macromolecular proton fraction distribution in the normal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Naumova, Anna V; Akulov, Andrey E; Khodanovich, Marina Yu; Yarnykh, Vasily L

    2017-02-01

    The presented dataset provides a normative high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) map of the healthy rat brain in vivo and source images used for its reconstruction. The images were acquired using the protocol described elsewhere (Naumova, et al. High-resolution three-dimensional macromolecular proton fraction mapping for quantitative neuroanatomical imaging of the rodent brain in ultra-high magnetic fields. Neuroimage (2016) doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.09.036). The map was reconstructed from three source images with different contrast weightings (proton density, T1, and magnetization transfer) using the single-point algorithm with a synthetic reference image. Source images were acquired from a living animal on an 11.7 T small animal MRI scanner with isotropic spatial resolution of 170 µm(3) and total acquisition time about 1.5 h. The 3D dataset can be used for multiple purposes including interactive viewing of rat brain anatomy, measurements of reference MPF values in various brain structures, and development of image processing techniques for the rodent brain segmentation. It also can serve as a gold standard image for implementation and optimization of rodent brain MRI protocols.

  1. High resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human brain and liver

    SciTech Connect

    Barany, M.; Spigos, D.G.; Mok, E.; Venkatasubramanian, P.N.; Wilbur, A.C.; Langer, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    Water-suppressed and slice-selective proton spectra of live human brain exhibited several resonances that were tentatively assigned to metabolites such as N-acetylaspartate, glutamate, phosphocreatine and creatine, choline derivatives, and taurine. In the liver spectrum of a healthy volunteer, the major resonance was tentatively assigned to a fatty acyl methylene and the minor resonances to protons in carnitine, taurine, glutamate, and glutamine. In the spectrum of a cancerous liver, resonances in addition to those present in the normal liver were seen. Protein degradation in the liver with cancer was indicated by resonances from urea and from the ring protons in tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine. Furthermore, increased nucleic acid synthesis was indicated by resonances from nucleotide protons.

  2. Incremental chemical etching of CR-39 detectors for nondispersive proton spectroscopy with high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chao; Tochitsky, Sergei; Haberberger, Dan; Joshi, Chan

    2011-10-01

    Experiments on shock wave proton acceleration in a hydrogen gas plasma using multi-terawatt CO2 laser have produced ~20MeV proton beams with a narrow energy spread [D.Haberberger et al, Proceedings of PAC2011, New York, Paper TuOBN6]. The laser-accelerated proton beam is detected by a stack of 1 mm thick CR-39 with a 100 ×100 mm2 area. This nondispersive imaging spectrometer, located at 150 mm from the plasma,provided a superb spatial resolution but its spectral resolution was limited due to the 1 mm CR-39 thickness. In order to increase the spectral resolution, the incremental layer etching technique has been developed and tested using a computer control system for proton pits counting and analysis. Using this etching technique we reached spectral resolution <= 60 KeV per etching step and confirmed the generation of mono-energetic proton beam centered around 20MeV with an energy spread dE/E around 1%. Results on bulk etching rate and proton related track size evolution as well as limitations of this method will be presented. This work was supported by DOE grant DE-FG03-92ER40727.

  3. High-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS at the Swiss Light Source for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopies

    PubMed Central

    Strocov, V. N.; Schmitt, T.; Flechsig, U.; Schmidt, T.; Imhof, A.; Chen, Q.; Raabe, J.; Betemps, R.; Zimoch, D.; Krempasky, J.; Wang, X.; Grioni, M.; Piazzalunga, A.; Patthey, L.

    2010-01-01

    The concepts and technical realisation of the high-resolution soft X-ray beamline ADRESS operating in the energy range from 300 to 1600 eV and intended for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) are described. The photon source is an undulator of novel fixed-gap design where longitudinal movement of permanent magnetic arrays controls not only the light polarization (including circular and 0–180° rotatable linear polarizations) but also the energy without changing the gap. The beamline optics is based on the well established scheme of plane-grating monochromator operating in collimated light. The ultimate resolving power E/ΔE is above 33000 at 1 keV photon energy. The choice of blazed versus lamellar gratings and optimization of their profile parameters is described. Owing to glancing angles on the mirrors as well as optimized groove densities and profiles of the gratings, the beamline is capable of delivering high photon flux up to 1 × 1013 photons s−1 (0.01% BW)−1 at 1 keV. Ellipsoidal refocusing optics used for the RIXS endstation demagnifies the vertical spot size down to 4 µm, which allows slitless operation and thus maximal transmission of the high-resolution RIXS spectrometer delivering E/ΔE > 11000 at 1 keV photon energy. Apart from the beamline optics, an overview of the control system is given, the diagnostics and software tools are described, and strategies used for the optical alignment are discussed. An introduction to the concepts and instrumental realisation of the ARPES and RIXS endstations is given. PMID:20724785

  4. Proton-air inelastic cross section at S(1/2) = 30 TeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltrusaitis, R. M.; Cassiday, G. L.; Cooper, R.; Elbert, J. W.; Gerhardy, P. R.; Ko, S.; Loh, E. C.; Mizumoto, Y.; Sokolsky, P.; Steck, D.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of the maxima of high energy cosmic ray induced extensive air showers in the atmosphere was measured as a function of atmospheric depth. From the exponential tail of this distribution, it was determined that the proton-air inelastic cross section at 30 TeV center-of-mass energy to be 540 + or - 40mb.

  5. Dysprosium compounds studied by resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and high-resolution X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, K J; Cui, M Q; Hua, W; Ma, C Y; Zhao, Y D; Huang, Y Y; He, W; Wu, Z Y

    2008-11-15

    A set of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) studies focusing on the 2p64f(n)-->2p54f(n)5d1(2p54f(n+1)5d0)-->2p63d94f(n)5d1(2p63d94f(n+1)5d0) channel of dysprosium in Dy metal, Dy2O3, DyNi3 and Dy25Fe18 compounds have been carried out. Data showed with high statistics and resolution, the different delocalization degree of the 5d band of dysprosium in these compounds, e.g., decreasing from Dy metal to DyNi3, Dy25Fe18 and to dysprosium oxide, in agreement with the high-resolution XANES (HRXANES) spectra. Band structure calculations performed on Dy metal and Dy2O3 confirm both RIXS and HRXANES results in the increasing delocalization of the dysprosium 5d band in Dy metal with respect to Dy2O3. The 5d orbital occupancies of DyNi3 and Dy25Fe18 alloys have been also studied by comparison of the HRXANES white line (WL) area with the behavior of the final states energy position in RIXS spectra and we show that DyNi3 has a higher 5d orbital occupancy than Dy25Fe18.

  6. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Chubar, Oleg; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; ...

    2016-03-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm₋1spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm₋1are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seedingmore » and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 1012 photons s₋1in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. Ultimately, this will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.« less

  7. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    PubMed Central

    Chubar, Oleg; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Madsen, Anders; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd’ko, Yuri; Sutter, John

    2016-01-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm−1 spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm−1 are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 1012 photons s−1 in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS. PMID:26917127

  8. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers.

    PubMed

    Chubar, Oleg; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Madsen, Anders; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd'ko, Yuri; Sutter, John

    2016-03-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm(-1) spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm(-1) are required to close the gap in energy-momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 10(12) photons s(-1) in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  9. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chubar, Oleg; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Madsen, Anders; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd'ko, Yuri; Sutter, John

    2016-02-12

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm-1spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm-1 are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 1012 photons s-1 in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. This will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  10. Ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering at high-repetition-rate self-seeded X-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chubar, Oleg; Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Madsen, Anders; Saldin, Evgeni; Serkez, Svitozar; Shvyd'ko, Yuri; Sutter, John

    2016-03-01

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) is an important tool for studies of equilibrium dynamics in condensed matter. A new spectrometer recently proposed for ultra-high-resolution IXS (UHRIX) has achieved 0.6 meV and 0.25 nm₋1spectral and momentum-transfer resolutions, respectively. However, further improvements down to 0.1 meV and 0.02 nm₋1are required to close the gap in energy–momentum space between high- and low-frequency probes. It is shown that this goal can be achieved by further optimizing the X-ray optics and by increasing the spectral flux of the incident X-ray pulses. UHRIX performs best at energies from 5 to 10 keV, where a combination of self-seeding and undulator tapering at the SASE-2 beamline of the European XFEL promises up to a 100-fold increase in average spectral flux compared with nominal SASE pulses at saturation, or three orders of magnitude more than what is possible with storage-ring-based radiation sources. Wave-optics calculations show that about 7 × 1012 photons s₋1in a 90 µeV bandwidth can be achieved on the sample. Ultimately, this will provide unique new possibilities for dynamics studies by IXS.

  11. Nonlinear effects in the inclusive inelastic proton-air cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, A. V.; Durães, F. O.

    2013-03-01

    In this work we propose a simple model for the total proton-air cross section, which is an improvement of the eikonalized minijet model, with the inclusion of the effects of the first nonlinear corrections to the DGLAP equations. The gluon saturation limits are determined in the DGLAP+GLRMQ approach for the free proton and the inclusive inelastic proton-air cross section is described within the Glauber and multiple scattering approximations. The results are compared with experimental cross sections including recent data obtained by cosmic ray experiments.

  12. Nonlinear effects in the inclusive inelastic proton-air cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Giannini, A. V.; Duraes, F. O.

    2013-03-25

    In this work we propose a simple model for the total proton-air cross section, which is an improvement of the eikonalized minijet model, with the inclusion of the effects of the first nonlinear corrections to the DGLAP equations. The gluon saturation limits are determined in the DGLAP+GLRMQ approach for the free proton and the inclusive inelastic proton-air cross section is described within the Glauber and multiple scattering approximations. The results are compared with experimental cross sections including recent data obtained by cosmic ray experiments.

  13. First measurement of the deep-inelastic structure of proton diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, T.; Aid, S.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Baehr, J.; Bán, J.; Ban, Y.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Beyer, R.; Biddulph, P.; Bispham, P.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Botterweck, F.; Boudry, V.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Buchholz, R.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Burton, M.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Clerbaux, B.; Colombo, M.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormack, C.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cussans, D. G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Droutskoi, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Gonzalez-Pineiro, B.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herynek, I.; Hess, M. F.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hiller, K. H.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Höppner, M.; Horisberger, R.; Hudgson, V. L.; Huet, Ph.; Hütte, M.; Hufnagel, H.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Janoth, J.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kant, D.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Katzy, J.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kazarian, S.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Köhne, J. H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolva, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krämerkämper, T.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Krüner-Marquis, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurča, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lacour, D.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J.-F.; Lebedev, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Link, J.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; List, B.; Lobo, G.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lomas, J.; Lopez, G. C.; Lubimov, V.; Lüke, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Maraček, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, T.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Moreau, F.; Morris, J. V.; Mroczko, E.; Müller, G.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Nicholls, T. C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Niedzballa, Ch.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg-Werther, M.; Oakden, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Panaro, E.; Panitch, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pitzl, D.; Pope, G.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rabbertz, K.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Ribarics, P.; Rick, H.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roloff, H. E.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rouse, F.; Royon, C.; Rüter, K.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Rylko, R.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Schacht, P.; Schiek, S.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, G.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schuhmann, E.; Schwab, B.; Schwind, A.; Sefkow, F.; Seidel, M.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Spiekermann, J.; Spitzer, H.; Starosta, R.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Stiewe, J.; Stösslein, U.; Stolze, K.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Taylor, R. E.; Tchernyshov, V.; Thiebaux, C.; Thompson, G.; Truöl, P.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Uelkes, P.; Usik, A.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Esch, P.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Verrecchia, P.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Wagener, A.; Wagener, M.; Walker, I. W.; Walther, A.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wellisch, H. P.; West, L. R.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wittek, C.; Wright, A. E.; Wünsch, E.; Wulff, N.; Yiou, T. P.; Žáček, J.; Zarbock, D.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmer, M.; Zimmermann, W.; Zomer, F.; Zuber, K.; H1 Collaboration

    1995-02-01

    A measurement is presented, using data taken with the H1 detector at HERA, of the contribution of diffractive interactions to deep-inelastic electron-proton ( ep) scattering in the kinematic range 8.5 < Q2 < 50GeV 2, 2.4 × 10 -4 < Bjorken- x < 0.0133, and 3.7 × 10 -4 < χp < 0.043. The diffractive contribution to the proton structure function F2( x, Q2) is evaluated as a function of the appropriate deep-inelastic scattering variables χp, Q2, β (= {χ}/{χ p}) using a class of deep-inelastic ep scattering events with no hadronic energy flow in an interval of pseudo-rapidity adjacent to the proton beam direction. the dependence of this contribution on χp is measured to be χp- n with n = 1.19 ± 0.06 (stat.) ± 0.07 (syst.) independent of β and Q2, which is consistent with both a diffractive interpretation and a factorisable ep diffractive cross section. A first measurement of the deep-inelastic structure of the pomeron in the form of the Q2 and β dependences of a factorised structure function is presented. For all measured β, this structure function is observed to be consistent with scale invariance.

  14. Inelastic Proton Scattering on 21Na in Inverse Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Roby

    2009-10-01

    R.A.E. Austin, R. Kanungo, S. Reeve, Saint Mary's University; D.G. Jenkins, C.Aa.Diget, A. Robinson, A.G. Tuff, O. Roberts, University of York, UK; P.J. Woods, T. Davinson, G. J. Lotay, University of Edinburgh; C.-Y. Wu, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; H. Al Falou, G.C. Ball, M. Djongolov, A. Garnsworthy, G. Hackman, J.N. Orce, C.J. Pearson, S. Triambak, S.J. Williams, TRIUMF; C. Andreiou, D.S. Cross, N. Galinski, R. Kshetri, Simon Fraser University; C. Sumithrarachchi, M.A. Schumaker, University of Guelph; M.P. Jones, S.V. Rigby, University of Liverpool; D. Cline, A. Hayes, University of Rochester; T.E. Drake, University of Toronto; We describe an experiment and associated technique [1] to measure resonances of interest in astrophysical reactions. At the TRIUMF ISAC-II radioactive beam accelerator facility in Canada, particles inelastically scattered in inverse kinematics are detected with Bambino, a δE-E silicon telescope spanning 15-40 degrees in the lab. We use the TIGRESS to detect gamma rays in coincidence with the charged particles to cleanly select inelastic scattering events. We measured resonances above the alpha threshold in ^22Mg of relevance to the rate of break-out from the hot-CNO cycle via the reaction ^ 18Ne(α,p)^21Na. [1] PJ Woods et al. Rex-ISOLDE proposal 424 Cern (2003).

  15. Measurement of inelastic, single- and double-diffraction cross sections in proton-proton collisions at the LHC with ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Adare, A. M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agocs, A. G.; Agostinelli, A.; Aguilar Salazar, S.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahmad, N.; Ahn, S. A.; Ahn, S. U.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaráz Aviña, E.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anson, C.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Äystö, J.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldit, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Bán, J.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bergognon, A. A. E.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boccioli, M.; Bock, N.; Böttger, S.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bose, S.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Boyer, B.; Braidot, E.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caballero Orduna, D.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carlin Filho, N.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Díaz, A.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castillo Hernandez, J. F.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chawla, I.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Coccetti, F.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Constantin, P.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M. E.; Crescio, E.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Alaniz, E.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dalsgaard, H. H.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, K.; Das, I.; Dash, S.; Dash, A.; De, S.; de Barros, G. O. V.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; Demanov, V.; De Marco, N.; Dénes, E.; De Pasquale, S.; Deppman, A.; D Erasmo, G.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Di Bari, D.; Dietel, T.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domínguez, I.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Driga, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, M. R.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fearick, R.; Fedunov, A.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Fenton-Olsen, B.; Feofilov, G.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferretti, A.; Ferretti, R.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Geuna, C.; Gheata, M.; Gheata, A.; Ghidini, B.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Girard, M. R.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez, R.; Ferreiro, E. G.; González-Trueba, L. H.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goswami, A.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, S.; Grigoryan, A.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerra Gutierrez, C.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Gutbrod, H.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Han, B. H.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harmanová-Tóthová, Z.; Harris, J. W.; Hartig, M.; Hasegan, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hicks, B.; Hille, P. T.; Hippolyte, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hwang, D. S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, P. G.; Innocenti, G. M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanytskyi, O.; Jachołkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, R.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, S.; Jha, D. M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jirden, L.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kaidalov, A. B.; Kakoyan, V.; Kalcher, S.; Kaliňák, P.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khan, M. M.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, S.; Kim, B.; Kim, T.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Koch, K.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Korneev, A.; Kour, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kraus, I.; Krawutschke, T.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kurepin, A.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, V.; Kushpil, S.; Kvaerno, H.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladrón de Guevara, P.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; La Pointe, S. L.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lechman, M.; Lee, S. C.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, K. S.; Lefèvre, F.; Lehnert, J.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; León, H.; Leoncino, M.; León Monzón, I.; León Vargas, H.; Lévai, P.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, L.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohn, S.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Loo, K. K.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Løvhøiden, G.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luo, J.; Luparello, G.; Luquin, L.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, K.; Ma, R.; Madagodahettige-Don, D. M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, M. V. D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez Davalos, A.; Martínez García, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matthews, Z. L.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Moon, T.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Musa, L.; Musso, A.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Naumov, N. P.; Navin, S.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nazarov, G.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Niida, T.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Nilsson, M. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Oleniacz, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Ortona, G.; Oskarsson, A.; Ostrowski, P.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Park, W. J.; Passfeld, A.; Pastirčák, B.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perez Lezama, E.; Perini, D.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Piccotti, A.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Planinic, M.; Płoskoń, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polák, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pospíšil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puchagin, S.; Puddu, G.; Pulvirenti, A.; Punin, V.; Putiš, M.; Putschke, J.; Quercigh, E.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Räihä, T. S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Ramírez Reyes, A.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rodrigues Fernandes Rabacal, B.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roy, P.; Roy, C.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sano, S.; Santo, R.; Santoro, R.; Sarkamo, J.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schreiner, S.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, N.; Sharma, S.; Rohni, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siciliano, M.; Sicking, E.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Son, H.; Song, M.; Song, J.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strabykin, K.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Subieta Vásquez, M. A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sukhorukov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szostak, A.; Szymański, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Trubnikov, V.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Ulrich, J.; Uras, A.; Urbán, J.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Vikhlyantsev, O.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, Y.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Voloshin, S.; Voloshin, K.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vranic, D.; Øvrebekk, G.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, V.; Wagner, B.; Wan, R.; Wang, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, A.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J.; Yu, W.; Yuan, X.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, F.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.; Zyzak, M.

    2013-06-01

    Measurements of cross sections of inelastic and diffractive processes in proton-proton collisions at LHC energies were carried out with the ALICE detector. The fractions of diffractive processes in inelastic collisions were determined from a study of gaps in charged particle pseudorapidity distributions: for single diffraction (diffractive mass M X <200 GeV/ c 2) σ_{SD}/σ_{INEL} = 0.21 ± 0.03, 0.20^{+0.07}_{-0.08}, and 0.20^{+0.04}_{-0.07}, respectively at centre-of-mass energies √{s} = 0.9, 2.76{, and }7 {TeV}; for double diffraction (for a pseudorapidity gap Δ η>3) σ DD/ σ INEL=0.11±0.03,0.12±0.05, and 0.12^{+0.05}_{-0.04}, respectively at √{s} = 0.9, 2.76{, and }7 {TeV}. To measure the inelastic cross section, beam properties were determined with van der Meer scans, and, using a simulation of diffraction adjusted to data, the following values were obtained: σ_{INEL} = 62.8^{+2.4}_{-4.0} (model) ±1.2 (lumi) mb at √{s} = 2.76 {TeV} and 73.2^{+2.0}_{-4.6} (model) ±2.6 (lumi) {mb} at √{s} = 7 {TeV}. The single- and double-diffractive cross sections were calculated combining relative rates of diffraction with inelastic cross sections. The results are compared to previous measurements at proton-antiproton and proton-proton colliders at lower energies, to measurements by other experiments at the LHC, and to theoretical models.

  16. SU-C-207A-01: A Novel Maximum Likelihood Method for High-Resolution Proton Radiography/proton CT

    SciTech Connect

    Collins-Fekete, C; Schulte, R; Beaulieu, L; Seco, J

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Multiple Coulomb scattering is the largest contributor to blurring in proton imaging. Here we tested a maximum likelihood least squares estimator (MLLSE) to improve the spatial resolution of proton radiography (pRad) and proton computed tomography (pCT). Methods: The object is discretized into voxels and the average relative stopping power through voxel columns defined from the source to the detector pixels is optimized such that it maximizes the likelihood of the proton energy loss. The length spent by individual protons in each column is calculated through an optimized cubic spline estimate. pRad images were first produced using Geant4 simulations. An anthropomorphic head phantom and the Catphan line-pair module for 3-D spatial resolution were studied and resulting images were analyzed. Both parallel and conical beam have been investigated for simulated pRad acquisition. Then, experimental data of a pediatric head phantom (CIRS) were acquired using a recently completed experimental pCT scanner. Specific filters were applied on proton angle and energy loss data to remove proton histories that underwent nuclear interactions. The MTF10% (lp/mm) was used to evaluate and compare spatial resolution. Results: Numerical simulations showed improvement in the pRad spatial resolution for the parallel (2.75 to 6.71 lp/cm) and conical beam (3.08 to 5.83 lp/cm) reconstructed with the MLLSE compared to averaging detector pixel signals. For full tomographic reconstruction, the improved pRad were used as input into a simultaneous algebraic reconstruction algorithm. The Catphan pCT reconstruction based on the MLLSE-enhanced projection showed spatial resolution improvement for the parallel (2.83 to 5.86 lp/cm) and conical beam (3.03 to 5.15 lp/cm). The anthropomorphic head pCT displayed important contrast gains in high-gradient regions. Experimental results also demonstrated significant improvement in spatial resolution of the pediatric head radiography. Conclusion: The

  17. Survey of the high resolution frequency structure of the fast magnetosonic mode and proton energy diffusion associated with these waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boardsen, S. A.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.; Santolik, O.; Wygant, J. R.; MacDonald, E.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Kurth, W. S.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2015-12-01

    The fast magnetosonic mode, also referred to as equatorial noise, occurs at frequencies mainly between the proton cyclotron frequency (fcp) and the lower hybrid frequency. The wave properties of this mode are characterized by a strong magnetic compressional component. These waves are observed around the magnetic equator in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. Case studies of the spectra of these waves have found the emissions to be composed of 1) harmonics, usually with spacing near the local fcp, 2) broad band hiss-like structure, or 3) a superposition of the two spectral types. No statistical studies of the frequency structure of these waves have been made. Using ~600,000 burst mode wave captures from the EMFISIS Wave Form Receiver and the EFW instrument on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft this mode will be identified in the high resolution frequency spectra and its frequency structure will be characterized. The variation of the frequency structure will be investigated as a function of normalized frequency, location, and geomagnetic conditions, and with spacecraft separation. The frequency structure will be compared with path integrated gain using proton ring distributions as the wave source. Recently the modulation of the fast magnetosonic mode has been reported, with modulation periods in the range of 30s to 240s. It has been proposed that frequency drift observed during each modulation is due to strong inward diffusion in energy of the proton ring distributions that generate these waves. As the inner edge of the ring distribution diffuses towards lower energies the band of unstable harmonics increases in frequency. If in the source region, for modulations with periods greater than say 100s, the inward energy diffusion should be observable in the HOPE proton data which has a cycle time of 24s.

  18. Development of micro-optics for high-resolution IL spectroscopy with a proton microbeam probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kada, Wataru; Satoh, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Akihito; Koka, Masashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2014-01-01

    Confocal optics for ion luminescence (IL) was developed for the precise analysis of the chemical composition of microscopic targets with an external proton microbeam probe. Anti-reflection-coated confocal micro-lens optics with an effective focus area of approximately 800 × 800 μm was installed on the microbeam line of a single-ended accelerator. Chromatic aberrations of the confocal optics were examined at wavelengths of 300-900 nm. An electrically-cooled back-thinned charge coupled device spectrometer with a wavelength resolution of 0.5 nm was used for the microscopic spectroscopy and IL imaging of microscopic mineral targets. Simultaneous microscopic IL and micro-PIXE analysis were performed using an external 3 MeV H+ microbeam with a current of less than 100 pA. A spectral resolution of 3 nm was achieved for a single IL peak which corresponded to Cr3+ impurities in a single-crystal of aluminum oxide. The use of IL spectroscopy and imaging for aerosol targets revealed microscopic distributions of the chemical and elemental composition in the atmosphere.

  19. High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of ovarian cyst fluid.

    PubMed

    Boss, E A; Moolenaar, S H; Massuger, L F; Boonstra, H; Engelke, U F; de Jong, J G; Wevers, R A

    2000-08-01

    Most ovarian tumors are cystic structures containing variable amounts of fluid. Several studies of ovarian cyst fluid focus on one specific metabolite using conventional assay systems. We examined the potential of (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in evaluation of the overall metabolic composition of cyst fluid from different ovarian tumors. Ovarian cyst fluid samples obtained from 40 patients with a primary ovarian tumor (12 malignant and 28 benign) were examined. After deproteinization and pD standardization, we performed (1)H-NMR spectroscopy on a 600 MHz instrument. With (1)H-NMR spectroscopy we found detectable concentrations of 36 metabolites with high intersample variation. A number of unassigned resonances as well as unexpected metabolites were found. We introduce an overall inventory of the low-molecular-weight metabolites in ovarian cyst fluid with corresponding resonances. Significant differences in concentration (p < 0.01) were found for several metabolites (including an unknown metabolite) between malignant and benign ovarian cysts. Furthermore, higher concentrations in malignant- and lower in benign fluids were found compared to normal serum values, indicating local cyst wall metabolic processes in case of malignant transformation. We conclude that (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can give an overview of low-molecular-weight proton-containing metabolities present in ovarian cyst fluid samples. The metabolic composition of cyst fluid differs significantly between benign and malignant ovarian tumors. Furthermore, differences between benign subgroups possibly related to histopathological behaviour can be detected. The presence of N-acetyl aspartic acid and 5-oxoproline exclusively in serous cystadenoma samples is remarkable. Future studies will concentrate on these findings and explore the possibilities of extrapolating information from the in vitro studies to in vivo practice, in which metabolic differences between malignant and

  20. Challenging nuclear structure models through a microscopic description of proton inelastic scattering off 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, M.; Karataglidis, S.; Bauge, E.; Delaroche, J.-P.; Gogny, D.

    2008-07-01

    Differential cross sections from fully microscopic calculations of inelastic proton scattering off 208Pb are compared to experimental scattering data for incident proton energies between 65 and 201 MeV. The required nucleon-nucleus interactions were formed by folding nuclear structure information with a reliable nucleon-nucleon effective interaction that has no adjustable parameter. The absence of phenomenological normalisation in our approach offers the possibility to interpret with confidence the calculated results in terms of the quality of the underlying nuclear structure description: a feature that had been reserved, until recently, to the electron probe. We have used this method to investigate the effect of long range correlations embedded in excited states on calculated inelastic observables and demonstrate the sensitivity of nucleon scattering predictions to details of the nuclear structure.

  1. Inelastic scattering of 72,74Ni off a proton target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, M. L.; Doornenbal, P.; Obertelli, A.; Pietralla, N.; Werner, V.; Authelet, G.; Baba, H.; Calvet, D.; Château, F.; Corsi, A.; Delbart, A.; Gheller, J.-M.; Gillibert, A.; Isobe, T.; Lapoux, V.; Louchart, C.; Matsushita, M.; Momiyama, S.; Motobayashi, T.; Niikura, M.; Otsu, H.; Péron, C.; Peyaud, A.; Pollacco, E. C.; Roussé, J.-Y.; Sakurai, H.; Santamaria, C.; Sasano, M.; Shiga, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Taniuchi, R.; Uesaka, T.; Wang, H.; Yoneda, K.; Browne, F.; Chung, L. X.; Dombradi, Zs; Franchoo, S.; Giacoppo, F.; Gottardo, A.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Korkulu, Z.; Koyama, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lee, J.; Lettmann, M.; Lozeva, R.; Matsui, K.; Miyazaki, T.; Nishimura, S.; Olivier, L.; Ota, S.; Patel, Z.; Sahin, E.; Shand, C. M.; Söderström, P.-A.; Stefan, I.; Steppenbeck, D.; Sumikama, T.; Suzuki, D.; Vajta, Zs; Wu, J.; Xu, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Inelastic scattering of 72,74Ni off a proton target was performed at RIBF, RIKEN, Japan. The isotopes were produced by the fission of 238U on a thick Beryllium target and were then selected and identified on an event-by-event basis using the BigRIPS separator. Selected isotopes were focused onto the liquid hydrogen target of the MINOS device and gamma rays from the reactions were measured with the DALI2 array. The energy of the ions in the middle of the target was 213 MeV/u. Outgoing particles were identified using the ZeroDegree spectrometer. Here, we report on the current status of the data analysis and preliminary results for the proton inelastic scattering cross sections for both isotopes.

  2. Multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W. )

    1992-02-01

    Measurements of forward multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering are presented. Data were taken with a 490 GeV muon beam incident on a hydrogen target. Jets were defined using the JADE jet finding algorithm. The measured rates are presented as function of W, the hadronic center-of-mass energy and the jet resolution parameter, [ital y][sub [ital cut

  3. Toward a QCD analysis of jet rates in deep-inelastic Muon-Proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic Muon-Proton scattering at Fermilab-E665 are presented. Jet rates defined by the JADE clustering algorithm are compared to perturbative Quantum chromodynamics (PQCD) and different Monte Carlo model predictions. The applicability of the jet-parton duality hypothesis is studied. We obtain hadronic jet rates which are approximately a factor of two higher than PQCD predictions at the parton level. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  4. Evaluating Human Breast Ductal Carcinomas with High-Resolution Magic-Angle Spinning Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Leo Ling; Chang, I.-Wen; Smith, Barbara L.; Gonzalez, R. Gilberto

    1998-11-01

    We report the results of a study of human breast ductal carcinomas, conducted by using high resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HRMAS 1HMRS). This recently developed spectroscopic technique can measure tissue metabolism from intact pathological specimens and identify tissue biochemical changes, which closely correspond to tumorin vivostate. This procedure objectively indicates diagnostic parameters, independent of the skill and experience of the investigator, and has the potential to reduce the sampling errors inherently associated with procedures of conventional histopathology. In this study, we measured 19 cases of female ductal carcinomas. Our results demonstrate that: (1) highly resolved spectra of intact specimens of human breast ductal carcinomas can be obtained; (2) carcinoma-free tissues and carcinomas are distinguishable by alterations in the intensities and the spin-spin relaxation time T2 of cellular metabolites; and (3) tumor metabolic markers, such as phosphocholine, lactate, and lipids, may correlate with the histopathological grade determined from evaluation of the adjacent specimen. Our results suggest that biochemical markers thus measured may function as a valuable adjunct to histopathology to improve the accuracy of and reduce the time frame required for the diagnosis of human breast cancer.

  5. Combination of high-resolution magic angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and microscale genomics to type brain tumor biopsies.

    PubMed

    Tzika, A Aria; Astrakas, Loukas; Cao, Haihui; Mintzopoulos, Dionyssios; Andronesi, Ovidiu C; Mindrinos, Michael; Zhang, Jiangwen; Rahme, Laurence G; Blekas, Konstantinos D; Likas, Aristidis C; Galatsanos, Nikolas P; Carroll, Rona S; Black, Peter M

    2007-08-01

    Advancements in the diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumor patients, and thus in their survival and quality of life, can be achieved using biomarkers that facilitate improved tumor typing. We introduce and implement a combinatorial metabolic and molecular approach that applies state-of-the-art, high-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) proton (1H) MRS and gene transcriptome profiling to intact brain tumor biopsies, to identify unique biomarker profiles of brain tumors. Our results show that samples as small as 2 mg can be successfully processed, the HRMAS 1H MRS procedure does not result in mRNA degradation, and minute mRNA amounts yield high-quality genomic data. The MRS and genomic analyses demonstrate that CNS tumors have altered levels of specific 1H MRS metabolites that directly correspond to altered expression of Kennedy pathway genes; and exhibit rapid phospholipid turnover, which coincides with upregulation of cell proliferation genes. The data also suggest Sonic Hedgehog pathway (SHH) dysregulation may play a role in anaplastic ganglioglioma pathogenesis. That a strong correlation is seen between the HRMAS 1H MRS and genomic data cross-validates and further demonstrates the biological relevance of the MRS results. Our combined metabolic/molecular MRS/genomic approach provides insights into the biology of anaplastic ganglioglioma and a new potential tumor typing methodology that could aid neurologists and neurosurgeons to improve the diagnosis, treatment, and ongoing evaluation of brain tumor patients.

  6. Proton-nucleus total inelastic cross sections - An empirical formula for E greater than 10 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letaw, J. R.; Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    An empirical formula for the total inelastic cross section of protons on nuclei with charge greater than 1 is presented. The formula is valid with a varying degree of accuracy down to proton energies of 10 MeV. At high energies (equal to or greater than 2 GeV) the formula reproduces experimental data to within reported errors (about 2%).

  7. Proton inelastic scattering cross section measurements on 16O and 28Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boromiza, Marian; Borcea, Catalin; Dessagne, Philippe; Ghita, Dan; Glodariu, Tudor; Henning, Gregoire; Kerveno, Maëlle; Marginean, Nicolae; Mihai, Constantin; Negret, Alexandru; Nita, Cristina; Nyman, Markus; Olacel, Adina; Oprea, Andreea; Plompen, Arjan; Sotty, Christophe; Suliman, Gabriel; Suvaila, Rares; Stan, Lucian; Turturica, Andrei; Turturica, Gabriel

    2017-09-01

    A (p, p'γ) experiment was performed at the Tandem accelerator of IFIN-HH (Bucharest) with the purpose of measuring the proton inelastic cross-sections on 16O and 28Si. The goal was to investigate to which extent the neutron cross-sections on these nuclei can be inferred from those obtained with charged particles (i.e., protons). In doing so, we are trying to exploit the isospin symmetry by taking under consideration that the chosen targets are N = Z nuclei and, consequently, two mirror nuclei are formed in the (p,p') and (n,n') reactions. The experimental setup consisted of two HPGe detectors with 100% relative efficiency placed at 110∘ and 150∘ relative to the direction of the incident proton beam. The incident protons, which had energies ranging from 6 up to 17 MeV, were scattered on a thick quartz (SiO2) target. A Faraday cup was used to integrate the beam current, thus allowing an absolute determination of the γ production cross sections. We will briefly describe the data analysis procedure, the experimental particularities and difficulties and some preliminary results of the γ production cross sections for the most intense transitions both in 16O and 28Si.

  8. Inelastic dark matter with spin-dependent couplings to protons and large modulation fractions in DAMA

    SciTech Connect

    Scopel, Stefano; Yoon, Kook-Hyun E-mail: koreasds@naver.com

    2016-02-01

    We discuss a scenario where the DAMA modulation effect is explained by a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) which upscatters inelastically to a heavier state and predominantly couples to the spin of protons. In this scenario constraints from xenon and germanium targets are evaded dynamically, due to the suppression of the WIMP coupling to neutrons, while those from fluorine targets are evaded kinematically, because the minimal WIMP incoming speed required to trigger upscatters off fluorine exceeds the maximal WIMP velocity in the Galaxy, or is very close to it. In this scenario WIMP scatterings off sodium are usually sensitive to the large-speed tail of the WIMP velocity distribution and modulated fractions of the signal close to unity arise in a natural way. On the other hand, a halo-independent analysis with more conservative assumptions about the WIMP velocity distribution allows to extend the viable parameter space to configurations where large modulated fractions are not strictly necessary. We discuss large modulated fractions in the Maxwellian case showing that they imply a departure from the usual cosine time dependence of the expected signal in DAMA. However we explicitly show that the DAMA data is not sensitive to this distortion, both in time and frequency space, even in the extreme case of a 100 % modulated fraction. Moreover the same scenario provides an explanation of the maximum in the energy spectrum of the modulation amplitude detected by DAMA in terms of WIMPs whose minimal incoming speed matches the kinematic threshold for inelastic upscatters. For the elastic case the detection of such maximum suggests an inversion of the modulation phase below the present DAMA energy threshold, while this is not expected for inelastic scattering. This may allow to discriminate between the two scenarios in a future low-threshold analysis of the DAMA data.

  9. High resolution NMR study of T{sub 1} magnetic relaxation dispersion. IV. Proton relaxation in amino acids and Met-enkephalin pentapeptide

    SciTech Connect

    Pravdivtsev, Andrey N.; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V.; Ivanov, Konstantin L.; Vieth, Hans-Martin

    2014-10-21

    Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion (NMRD) of protons was studied in the pentapeptide Met-enkephalin and the amino acids, which constitute it. Experiments were run by using high-resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in combination with fast field-cycling, thus enabling measuring NMRD curves for all individual protons. As in earlier works, Papers I–III, pronounced effects of intramolecular scalar spin-spin interactions, J-couplings, on spin relaxation were found. Notably, at low fields J-couplings tend to equalize the apparent relaxation rates within networks of coupled protons. In Met-enkephalin, in contrast to the free amino acids, there is a sharp increase in the proton T{sub 1}-relaxation times at high fields due to the changes in the regime of molecular motion. The experimental data are in good agreement with theory. From modelling the relaxation experiments we were able to determine motional correlation times of different residues in Met-enkephalin with atomic resolution. This allows us to draw conclusions about preferential conformation of the pentapeptide in solution, which is also in agreement with data from two-dimensional NMR experiments (rotating frame Overhauser effect spectroscopy). Altogether, our study demonstrates that high-resolution NMR studies of magnetic field-dependent relaxation allow one to probe molecular mobility in biomolecules with atomic resolution.

  10. Single and Double Spin Asymmetries for Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering on Proton and Deuteron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, Suman; Kuhn, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions encode information on the transverse motion of quarks and gluons inside the nucleon, and may help us understand their orbital angular momentum. The TMDs can be accessed from the target and double spin asymmetries of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) reactions, where the asymmetries, AUL and ALL are convolutions of the fragmentation functions and the TMDs. The EG1-DVCS experiment with CLAS at Jefferson Lab measured semi-inclusive pion production on longitudinally polarized proton and deuteron targets with polarized electrons of 6 GeV. We will show preliminary results on target single spin asymmetries and target-beam double spin asymmetries for these reactions.

  11. Study of mixed-symmetry excitations in 96Ru via inelastic proton-scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennig, A.; Spieker, M.; Werner, V.; Ahn, T.; Anagnostatou, V.; Cooper, N.; Derya, V.; Elvers, M.; Endres, J.; Goddard, P.; Heinz, A.; Hughes, R. O.; Ilie, G.; Mineva, M. N.; Pickstone, S. G.; Petkov, P.; Radeck, D.; Ross, T.; Savran, D.; Zilges, A.

    2015-02-01

    Mixed-symmetry states of octupole (L = 3) and hexadecapole (L = 4) character have been recently proposed in the N = 52 isotones 92 Zr and 94Mo, based on strong M1 transitions to the lowest-lying 3- and 4+ states, respectively. In order to investigate similar excitations in the heaviest stable N = 52 isotone 96Ru, two inelastic proton-scattering experiments have been performed at the Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory (WNSL), Yale University, USA and the Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne, Germany. From the combined data of both experiments, absolute E1, M1, and E2 transition strengths were extracted, allowing for the identification of candidates for MS octupole and hexadecapole states. The structure of the low-lying 4+ states is investigated by means of sdg-IBM-2 calculations.

  12. Complete dipole response in {sup 208}Pb from high-resolution polarized proton scattering at 0 deg

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Kalmykov, Y.; Poltoratska, I.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Wambach, J.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Bertulani, C. A.; Carter, J.; Fujita, H.; Dozono, M.; Fujita, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Hatanaka, K.

    2009-01-28

    The structure of electric and magnetic dipole modes in {sup 208}Pb is investigated in a high-resolution measurement of the (p-vector,p-vector') reaction under 0 deg. First results on the E1 strength in the region of the pygmy dipole resonance are reported.

  13. Multiplicity and transverse momentum fluctuations in inelastic proton-proton interactions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aduszkiewicz, A.; Ali, Y.; Andronov, E.; Antićić, T.; Antoniou, N.; Baatar, B.; Bay, F.; Blondel, A.; Blümer, J.; Bogomilov, M.; Bravar, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bunyatov, S. A.; Busygina, O.; Christakoglou, P.; Cirković, M.; Czopowicz, T.; Davis, N.; Debieux, S.; Dembinski, H.; Deveaux, M.; Diakonos, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Dynowski, K.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Feofilov, G. A.; Fodor, Z.; Garibov, A.; Gaździcki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Herve, A.; Hierholzer, M.; Igolkin, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Kaptur, E.; Kisiel, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V. P.; Korzenev, A.; Kowalik, K.; Kowalski, S.; Koziel, M.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuich, M.; Kurepin, A.; Larsen, D.; László, A.; Lewicki, M.; Lyubushkin, V. V.; Maćkowiak-Pawłowska, M.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A. I.; Manić, D.; Marcinek, A.; Marton, K.; Mathes, H.-J.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G. L.; Morozov, S.; Mrówczyński, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Naskręt, M.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Pavin, M.; Petukhov, O.; Pistillo, C.; Płaneta, R.; Popov, B. A.; Posiadała, M.; Puławski, S.; Puzović, J.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Redij, A.; Renfordt, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Robert, A.; Röhrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczynski, M.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sarnecki, R.; Schmidt, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seryakov, A.; Seyboth, P.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shibata, M.; Słodkowski, M.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Ströbele, H.; Šuša, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Tefelska, A.; Tefelski, D.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberič, D.; Vechernin, V. V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vinogradov, L.; Wilczek, A.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Wyszyński, O.; Zambelli, L.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of multiplicity and transverse momentum fluctuations of charged particles were performed in inelastic p+p interactions at 20, 31, 40, 80, and 158 { GeV }/c beam momentum. Results for the scaled variance of the multiplicity distribution and for three strongly intensive measures of multiplicity and transverse momentum fluctuations Δ [PT,N], Σ [PT,N] and Φ_{p_T} are presented. For the first time the results on fluctuations are fully corrected for experimental biases. The results on multiplicity and transverse momentum fluctuations significantly deviate from expectations for the independent particle production. They also depend on charges of selected hadrons. The string-resonance Monte Carlo models Epos and Ur qmd do not describe the data. The scaled variance of multiplicity fluctuations is significantly higher in inelastic p+p interactions than in central Pb+Pb collisions measured by NA49 at the same energy per nucleon. This is in qualitative disagreement with the predictions of the Wounded Nucleon Model. Within the statistical framework the enhanced multiplicity fluctuations in inelastic p+p interactions can be interpreted as due to event-by-event fluctuations of the fireball energy and/or volume.

  14. Prospects of high-resolution resonant X-ray inelastic scattering studies on solid materials, liquids and gases at diffraction-limited storage rings

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Thorsten; de Groot, Frank M. F.; Rubensson, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

    The spectroscopic technique of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) will particularly profit from immensely improved brilliance of diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs). In RIXS one measures the intensities of excitations as a function of energy and momentum transfer. DLSRs will allow for pushing the achievable energy resolution, signal intensity and the sampled spot size to new limits. With RIXS one nowadays probes a broad range of electronic systems reaching from simple molecules to complex materials displaying phenomena like peculiar magnetism, two-dimensional electron gases, superconductivity, photovoltaic energy conversion and heterogeneous catalysis. In this article the types of improved RIXS studies that will become possible with X-ray beams from DLSRs are envisioned. PMID:25177995

  15. Prospects of high-resolution resonant X-ray inelastic scattering studies on solid materials, liquids and gases at diffraction-limited storage rings.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Thorsten; de Groot, Frank M F; Rubensson, Jan Erik

    2014-09-01

    The spectroscopic technique of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) will particularly profit from immensely improved brilliance of diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs). In RIXS one measures the intensities of excitations as a function of energy and momentum transfer. DLSRs will allow for pushing the achievable energy resolution, signal intensity and the sampled spot size to new limits. With RIXS one nowadays probes a broad range of electronic systems reaching from simple molecules to complex materials displaying phenomena like peculiar magnetism, two-dimensional electron gases, superconductivity, photovoltaic energy conversion and heterogeneous catalysis. In this article the types of improved RIXS studies that will become possible with X-ray beams from DLSRs are envisioned.

  16. Analytic expressions for the inelastic scattering and energy loss of electron and proton beams in carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Emfietzoglou, D.; Kyriakou, I.; Garcia-Molina, R.; Abril, I.; Kostarelos, K.

    2010-09-15

    We have determined ''effective'' Bethe coefficients and the mean excitation energy of stopping theory (I-value) for multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles based on a sum-rule constrained optical-data model energy loss function with improved asymptotic properties. Noticeable differences between MWCNTs, SWCNT bundles, and the three allotropes of carbon (diamond, graphite, glassy carbon) are found. By means of Bethe's asymptotic approximation, the inelastic scattering cross section, the electronic stopping power, and the average energy transfer to target electrons in a single inelastic collision, are calculated analytically for a broad range of electron and proton beam energies using realistic excitation parameters.

  17. Inelastic cross sections, overlap functions and {C}_{q} moments from ISR to LHC energies in proton interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggio, P. C.

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the energy dependence of the parton-parton inelastic cross sections, parton-parton inelastic overlap functions and the C q moments in proton interactions from \\sqrt{s}=10 to 14000 GeV. The approach we used is based on a phenomenological procedure where elastic and inelastic proton observables are described in a connected way by exploring the unitarity of the S-matrix. Applying a quantum-chromodynamics-inspired eikonal model, that contains contributions of the quark-quark, quark-gluon and gluon-gluon interactions, theoretical predictions on inelastic cross sections and C q moments are compared with measurements and show a successful description of the experimental data. The Koba-Nielson-Olesen hypothesis violation is discussed as a consequence of the semihard contribution to the multiparticle production in the interactions, in accordance with several experimental and theoretical previous results. A prediction of the ratio {σ }{{el}}/{σ }{{tot}} as a function of the collision energy is presented and also compared with the experimental information.

  18. Exploring single and double proton transfer processes in the gas phase: a high resolution electronic spectroscopy study of 5-fluorosalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Young, Justin W; Fleisher, Adam J; Pratt, David W

    2011-02-28

    Two species that possess different absorption and emission properties have been observed in the low resolution fluorescence excitation spectrum of 5-fluorosalicylic acid (FSA) in the gas phase. The two species were identified as monomer and dimer species using high resolution techniques. Studies of these spectra in the presence of an applied electric field, together with ab initio quantum chemistry calculations, show that the monomer is a "closed" form of FSA exhibiting an intramolecular C = O⋅⋅⋅H-O-C hydrogen bond in the ground state. Absorption of light at ∼344 nm transforms this species into the tautomeric form C-O-H⋅⋅⋅O = C via a barrierless proton transfer process. The large charge rearrangement that accompanies this process results in a significantly red-shifted emission spectrum. The (FSA)(2) dimer exhibits two intermolecular C=O⋯H-O-C hydrogen bonds but in this case the double proton transfer leads to a conical intersection with the ground state and rapid nonradiative decay. The onset of this process and the time scale on which it occurs are revealed by a homogeneous broadening of the dimer's high resolution spectrum.

  19. Two-particle correlations in azimuthal angle and pseudorapidity in inelastic p + p interactions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    DOE PAGES

    Aduszkiewicz, A.; Ali, Y.; Andronov, E.; ...

    2017-01-30

    Results on two-particle ΔηΔΦ correlations in inelastic p + p interactions at 20, 31, 40, 80, and 158 GeV/c are presented. The measurements were performed using the large acceptance NA61/SHINE hadron spectrometer at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The data show structures which can be attributed mainly to effects of resonance decays, momentum conservation, and quantum statistics. Furthermore, the results are compared with the Epos and UrQMD models.

  20. Two-particle correlations in azimuthal angle and pseudorapidity in inelastic p + p interactions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aduszkiewicz, A.; Ali, Y.; Andronov, E.; Antićić, T.; Antoniou, N.; Baatar, B.; Bay, F.; Blondel, A.; Bogomilov, M.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bunyatov, S. A.; Busygina, O.; Christakoglou, P.; Ćirković, M.; Czopowicz, T.; Damyanova, A.; Davis, N.; Dembinski, H.; Deveaux, M.; Diakonos, F.; Luise, S. Di; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Feofilov, G. A.; Fodor, Z.; Garibov, A.; Gaździcki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grebieszkow, K.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Haesler, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hervé, A. E.; Hierholzer, M.; Hylen, J.; Igolkin, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Johnson, S. R.; Kadija, K.; Kapoyannis, A.; Kaptur, E.; Kiełbowicz, M.; Kisiel, J.; Knezević, N.; Kobayashi, T.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Kolev, D.; Kondratiev, V. P.; Korzenev, A.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalik, K.; Kowalski, S.; Koziel, M.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kuich, M.; Kurepin, A.; Larsen, D.; László, A.; Lewicki, M.; Lundberg, B.; Lyubushkin, V. V.; Maćkowiak-Pawłowska, M.; Maksiak, B.; Malakhov, A. I.; Manić, D.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Marino, A. D.; Marton, K.; Mathes, H.-J.; Matulewicz, T.; Matveev, V.; Melkumov, G. L.; Merzlaya, A.; Messerly, B.; Mills, G. B.; Morozov, S.; Mrówczyński, S.; Nagai, Y.; Nakadaira, T.; Naskręt, M.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Ozvenchuk, V.; Panagiotou, A. D.; Paolone, V.; Pavin, M.; Petukhov, O.; Pistillo, C.; Płaneta, R.; Popov, B. A.; Posiadała, M.; Puławski, S.; Puzović, J.; Rameika, R.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Redij, A.; Renfordt, R.; Richter-Wąs, E.; Robert, A.; Röhrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Rumberger, B. T.; Rustamov, A.; Rybczynski, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sarnecki, R.; Schmidt, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seryakov, A.; Seyboth, P.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shibata, M.; Słodkowski, M.; Staszel, P.; Stefanek, G.; Stepaniak, J.; Ströbele, H.; Šuša, T.; Szuba, M.; Tada, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tefelska, A.; Tefelski, D.; Tereshchenko, V.; Tsenov, R.; Turko, L.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vassiliou, M.; Veberič, D.; Vechernin, V. V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vinogradov, L.; Walewski, M.; Wickremasinghe, A.; Wilczek, A.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Wyszyński, O.; Zambelli, L.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zwaska, R.

    2017-02-01

    Results on two-particle Δ η Δ φ correlations in inelastic p + p interactions at 20, 31, 40, 80, and 158 GeV/c are presented. The measurements were performed using the large acceptance NA61/SHINE hadron spectrometer at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. The data show structures which can be attributed mainly to effects of resonance decays, momentum conservation, and quantum statistics. The results are compared with the Epos and UrQMD models.

  1. Hadronic Energy Distributions in Deep-Inelastic Electron-Proton Scattering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crombie, Michael Byrne

    An outline of QCD, the theory of string interactions, is given and several QCD Monte Carlo models are described in detail. Energy distributions of the hadronic system produced in neutral current electron-proton deep-inelastic scattering at a centre of mass energy of 296 GeV are presented. Comparisons of the results with the models show that QCD radiation has a strong influence on the characteristics of the hadronic final state. The data is reasonably well produced by the Lund model based on a matrix element calculation in first order of the strong coupling, followed by appropriate parton showers. The colour dipole model also gives a reasonable representation of the data. Neither the first order matrix elements alone nor the Lund parton shower model, without the matrix element calculation, reproduce the data. The HERWIG parton shower model is also deficient. The data was taken with the ZEUS detector at the HERA accelerator in Hamburg, Germany. A general description of the detector design and principles of operation is provided. A three level trigger system is required to handle the high luminosity delivered by HERA. The first two levels involve the local processing of component data. The third level makes a decision based on the global information from an event. It accepts events at 100 Hz, or 20 MBytes/sec, at the design luminosity and reduces this to around 5 Hz. The architecture and implementation of the third level trigger system is discussed.

  2. Strangeness production in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aid, S.; Anderson, M.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Babaev, A.; Bähr, J.; Bán, J.; Ban, Y.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Barschke, R.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bernardi, G.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Beyer, R.; Biddulph, P.; Bispham, P.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Botterweck, F.; Boudry, V.; Braemer, A.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Buchholz, R.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Burton, M. J.; Calvet, D.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charlet, M.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Clerbaux, B.; Cocks, S.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormack, C.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cussans, D. G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Davis, C. L.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Delcourt, B.; Di Nezza, P.; Dirkmann, M.; Dixon, P.; Dlugosz, W.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Droutskoi, A.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Evrard, E.; Fahr, A. B.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Fleischer, M.; Flieseer, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gaede, F.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Glazov, A.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Golec-Biernat, K.; Gonzalez-Pineiro, B.; Gorelov, I.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Griffiths, R. K.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Haiduk, L.; Hampel, M.; Haynes, W. J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. M.; Henschel, H.; Herynek, I.; Hess, M. F.; Hewitt, K.; Hildesheim, W.; Hiller, K. H.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Höppner, M.; Hoffmann, D.; Holtom, T.; Horisberger, R.; Hudgson, V. L.; Hütte, M.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Janoth, J.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kander, M.; Kant, D.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kathage, U.; Katzy, J.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kaufmann, O.; Kazarian, S.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Köhler, T.; Köhne, J. H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krämerkämper, T.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurča, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Lacour, D.; Laforge, B.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Langenegger, U.; Laporte, J.-F.; Lebedev, A.; Lehner, F.; Levonian, S.; Lindström, G.; Lindstroem, M.; Link, J.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; List, B.; Lobo, G.; Lomas, J. W.; Lopez, G. C.; Lubimov, V.; Lüke, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Maraček, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, G.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Mavroidis, T.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.-O.; Megliori, A.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Moeck, J.; Moreau, F.; Morris, J. V.; Mroczko, E.; Müller, D.; Müller, G.; Müller, M.; Müller, M.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Négri, I.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Nicholls, T. C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Niedzballa, Ch.; Niggli, H.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg-Werther, M.; Oakden, M.; Oberlack, H.; Olsson, J. E.; Ozerov, D.; Palmen, P.; Panaro, E.; Panitch, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Pawletta, H.; Peppel, E.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J. P.; Pieuchot, A.; Pitzl, D.; Pope, G.; Prell, S.; Rabbertz, K.; Rädel, G.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Rick, H.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riepenhausen, F.; Riess, S.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roloff, H. E.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rouse, F.; Royon, C.; Rüter, K.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Schacht, P.; Schiek, S.; Schleif, S.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, G.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schuhmann, E.; Schwab, B.; Sefkow, F.; Seidel, M.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Specka, A.; Spiekermann, J.; Spielman, S.; Spitzer, H.; Squinabol, F.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Steiner, H.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stier, J.; Stiewe, J.; Stößlein, U.; Stolze, K.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Taševský, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Theissen, J.; Thiebaux, C.; Thompson, G.; Truöl, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Uelkes, P.; Usik, A.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Esch, P.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vandenplas, D.; Vazdik, Y.; Verrecchia, P.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Wagener, A.; Wagener, M.; Walther, A.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, M.; West, L. R.; Wilksen, T.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wittek, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wünsch, E.; Žáček, J.; Zarbock, D.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zini, P.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; Zuber, K.; zurNedden, M.; H1 Collaboration

    1996-02-01

    Measurements of K0 meson and Λ baryon production in deep-inelastic positron-proton scattering (DIS) are presented in the kinematic range 10 < Q2 < 70 GeV 2 and 10 -4 < x < 10 -2. The measurements, obtained using the H1 detector at the HEPA collider, are discussed in the light of possible mechanisms for increased strangeness production at low Bjorken- x. Comparisons of the xF spectra, where xF is the fractional longitudinal momentum in the hadronic centre-of-mass frame, are made with results from electron-positron annihilation. The xF spectra and the K0 "seagull" plot are compared with previous DIS results. The mean K0 and Λ multiplicities are studied as a function of the centre-of-mass energy W and are observed to be consistent with a logarithmic increase with W when compared with previous measurements. A comparison of strangeness production in diffractive and non-diffractive DIS is made. An upper limit of 0.9 nb, at the 95% confidence level, is placed on the cross section for QCD instanton induced events.

  3. Formation of hydrogen atom in 2s state in proton-sodium inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbah, A. Elkilany

    2015-03-01

    The inelastic collision of protons with sodium atoms are treated for the first time within the framework of the coupled-static and frozen core approximations. The method is used for calculating partial and total cross-sections with the assumption that only two channels (elastic and hydrogen formation in 2s state) are open. In each case, the calculations are carried out for seven values of the total angular momentum ℓ(0 ≤ ℓ ≤ 6). The target is described using the Clementi Roetti wave functions within the framework of the one valence electron model. We use Lipmann-Swinger equation to solve the derived equations of the problem, then apply an iterative numerical method to obtain the code of computer to calculate iterative partial cross-sections. This can be done through calculating the reactance matrix at different values of considered energies to obtain the transition matrix that gives partial and total cross sections. The present results for total hydrogen (2s state) formation cross sections are in agreement with results of other available ones in wide range of incident energy.

  4. Mapping an Extended Neurochemical Profile at 3 and 7 T Using Accelerated High-Resolution Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Stephan; Heckova, Eva; Strasser, Bernhard; Považan, Michal; Hangel, Gilbert J; Minarikova, Lenka; Trattnig, Siegfried; Bogner, Wolfgang

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare high-resolution free induction decay magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (FID-MRSI) at 3 T and 7 T in the brain of healthy subjects and to showcase the clinical potential of accelerated FID-MRSI at 7 T in 2 brain tumor cases. In this institutional review board-approved study, 10 healthy volunteers (8 men/2 women; age: 31 ± 6 years) were measured at 3 T and 7 T (Trio and 7T-Magnetom; Siemens Healthcare, Germany) and 2 patients (a 38-year-old man and a 37-year-old man), 1 with an anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (grade III) and 1 with a low-grade glioma (oligodendroglioma), were measured at 7 T.Free induction decay MR spectroscopic imaging with 3.4 × 3.4 mm in-plane resolution was acquired in 30 minutes/6 minutes (nonaccelerated/accelerated) at both field strengths. In addition, single-slice or multi-slice FID-MRSI at 7 T was measured in the 2 tumor patients at 7 T within 6 minutes/13.3 minutes. Signal-to-noise ratio, Cramer-Rao lower bounds, and parallel imaging efficiency were assessed. High-resolution maps were created for 9 different brain metabolites. At 7 T, 7 of 9 metabolites were reliably mapped over the whole slice but only 3 at 3 T. Parallel imaging efficiency was significantly improved at 7 T. Signal-to-noise ratios were +75%/+66% (P < 0.05) for N-acetylaspartate and +97%/+74%(P < 0.05) for glutamine + glutamate [Glx], and full-widths at half maximum were +112%/+109%(P < 0.05) higher at 7 T than at 3 T (nonaccelerated/accelerated) for N-acetylaspartate. Cramer-Rao lower bounds were more than double at 3 T (P < 0.05). At 7 T, FID-MRSI allowed the assessment of an extended neurochemical profile and yielded better metabolic maps in only approximately 6 minutes at 7 T than in approximately 30 minutes at 3 T. We found several potentially therapy-relevant neurochemical alterations in brain tumors that highlighted the potential of fast clinical FID-MRSI at 7 T.

  5. Measurement of the Inelastic Proton-Proton Cross Section at s=13 TeV with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    DOE PAGES

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; ...

    2016-10-26

    This Letter presents a measurement of the inelastic proton-proton cross section using 60 μb-1 of pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy s of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Inelastic interactions are selected using rings of plastic scintillators in the forward region (2.07 < |η| < 3.86) of the detector. A cross section of 68.1±1.4 mb is measured in the fiducial region ξ=MX2/s > 10-6, where MX is the larger invariant mass of the two hadronic systems separated by the largest rapidity gap in the event. In this ξ range the scintillators are highly efficient. For diffractivemore » events this corresponds to cases where at least one proton dissociates to a system with MX > 13 GeV. The measured cross section is compared with a range of theoretical predictions. When extrapolated to the full phase space, a cross section of 78.1±2.9 mb is measured, consistent with the inelastic cross section increasing with center-of-mass energy.« less

  6. Measurement of the Inelastic Proton-Proton Cross Section at sqrt[s]=13  TeV with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC.

    PubMed

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Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Broughton, J H; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruni, L S; Brunt, B H; Bruschi, M; Bruscino, N; Bryant, P; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bullock, D; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgard, C D; Burghgrave, B; Burka, K; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Burr, J T P; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, A R; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cairo, V M; Cakir, O; Calace, N; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Callea, G; Caloba, L P; Calvente Lopez, S; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Calvet, T P; Camacho Toro, R; Camarda, S; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Caminal Armadans, R; Camincher, C; 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    2016-10-28

    This Letter presents a measurement of the inelastic proton-proton cross section using 60  μb^{-1} of pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy sqrt[s] of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Inelastic interactions are selected using rings of plastic scintillators in the forward region (2.07<|η|<3.86) of the detector. A cross section of 68.1±1.4  mb is measured in the fiducial region ξ=M_{X}^{2}/s>10^{-6}, where M_{X} is the larger invariant mass of the two hadronic systems separated by the largest rapidity gap in the event. In this ξ range the scintillators are highly efficient. For diffractive events this corresponds to cases where at least one proton dissociates to a system with M_{X}>13  GeV. The measured cross section is compared with a range of theoretical predictions. When extrapolated to the full phase space, a cross section of 78.1±2.9  mb is measured, consistent with the inelastic cross section increasing with center-of-mass energy.

  7. Measurement of the Inelastic Proton-Proton Cross Section at √{s }=13 TeV with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

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A.; Viel, S.; Vigani, L.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vittori, C.; Vivarelli, I.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallangen, V.; Wang, C.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, T.; Wang, W.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Washbrook, A.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, M. D.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Whallon, N. L.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilk, F.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winston, O. J.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wolf, T. M. H.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Worm, S. D.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamaguchi, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yao, W.-M.; Yap, Y. C.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yuen, S. P. Y.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zeng, J. C.; Zeng, Q.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    This Letter presents a measurement of the inelastic proton-proton cross section using 60 μb -1 of p p collisions at a center-of-mass energy √{s } of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Inelastic interactions are selected using rings of plastic scintillators in the forward region (2.07 <|η |<3.86 ) of the detector. A cross section of 68.1 ±1.4 mb is measured in the fiducial region ξ =MX2/s >10-6, where MX is the larger invariant mass of the two hadronic systems separated by the largest rapidity gap in the event. In this ξ range the scintillators are highly efficient. For diffractive events this corresponds to cases where at least one proton dissociates to a system with MX>13 GeV . The measured cross section is compared with a range of theoretical predictions. When extrapolated to the full phase space, a cross section of 78.1 ±2.9 mb is measured, consistent with the inelastic cross section increasing with center-of-mass energy.

  8. High-resolution three-dimensional macromolecular proton fraction mapping for quantitative neuroanatomical imaging of the rodent brain in ultra-high magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Naumova, Anna V; Akulov, Andrey E; Khodanovich, Marina Yu; Yarnykh, Vasily L

    2017-02-15

    A well-known problem in ultra-high-field MRI is generation of high-resolution three-dimensional images for detailed characterization of white and gray matter anatomical structures. T1-weighted imaging traditionally used for this purpose suffers from the loss of contrast between white and gray matter with an increase of magnetic field strength. Macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) mapping is a new method potentially capable to mitigate this problem due to strong myelin-based contrast and independence of this parameter of field strength. MPF is a key parameter determining the magnetization transfer effect in tissues and defined within the two-pool model as a relative amount of macromolecular protons involved into magnetization exchange with water protons. The objectives of this study were to characterize the two-pool model parameters in brain tissues in ultra-high magnetic fields and introduce fast high-field 3D MPF mapping as both anatomical and quantitative neuroimaging modality for small animal applications. In vivo imaging data were obtained from four adult male rats using an 11.7T animal MRI scanner. Comprehensive comparison of brain tissue contrast was performed for standard R1 and T2 maps and reconstructed from Z-spectroscopic images two-pool model parameter maps including MPF, cross-relaxation rate constant, and T2 of pools. Additionally, high-resolution whole-brain 3D MPF maps were obtained with isotropic 170µm voxel size using the single-point synthetic-reference method. MPF maps showed 3-6-fold increase in contrast between white and gray matter compared to other parameters. MPF measurements by the single-point synthetic reference method were in excellent agreement with the Z-spectroscopic method. MPF values in rat brain structures at 11.7T were similar to those at lower field strengths, thus confirming field independence of MPF. 3D MPF mapping provides a useful tool for neuroimaging in ultra-high magnetic fields enabling both quantitative tissue

  9. Oligomerization of protegrin-1 in the presence of DPC micelles. A proton high-resolution NMR study.

    PubMed

    Roumestand, C; Louis, V; Aumelas, A; Grassy, G; Calas, B; Chavanieu, A

    1998-01-16

    Protegrins are members of a family of five Cys-rich naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides. The NMR solution structure of protegrin-1 (PG-1) has been previously determined as a monomeric beta-hairpin both in water and in dimethylsulfoxide solution. Protegrins are bactericidal peptides but their mechanism of action is still unknown. In order to investigate the structural basis of their cytotoxicity, we studied the effect of lipid micelles on the structure of PG-1. The NMR study reported in the present work indicates that PG-1 adopts a dimeric structure when it binds to dodecylphosphocholine micelles. Moreover, the amide proton exchange study suggests the possibility of an association between several dimers.

  10. Complete dipole strength distributions in 208Pb from high-resolution polarized proton scattering at 0°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Neumann-Cosel, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Small-angle polarized proton scattering including 0° at incident energies of a few 100 MeV/nucleon is established as a new spectrospcopic tool for the study of E1 and M1 strength distributions. Experiments of this type have been realized recently at RCNP, Osaka, Japan with high energy resolution of the order 25 - 30 keV (FWHM). Using 208Pb as an example, the physics potential of such data is discussed. It includes information on the properties of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance but also on complete E1 and M1 strength distributions and thus the gamma strength function. The E1 polarizability can be extracted with a precision of about 4% providing important experimental constraints on the neutron skin thickness in 208Pb.

  11. High resolution respirometry analysis of polyethylenimine-mediated mitochondrial energy crisis and cellular stress: Mitochondrial proton leak and inhibition of the electron transport system.

    PubMed

    Hall, Arnaldur; Larsen, Anna K; Parhamifar, Ladan; Meyle, Kathrine D; Wu, Lin-Ping; Moghimi, S Moein

    2013-10-01

    Polyethylenimines (PEIs) are highly efficient non-viral transfectants, but can induce cell death through poorly understood necrotic and apoptotic processes as well as autophagy. Through high resolution respirometry studies in H1299 cells we demonstrate that the 25kDa branched polyethylenimine (25k-PEI-B), in a concentration and time-dependent manner, facilitates mitochondrial proton leak and inhibits the electron transport system. These events were associated with gradual reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial ATP synthesis. The intracellular ATP levels further declined as a consequence of PEI-mediated plasma membrane damage and subsequent ATP leakage to the extracellular medium. Studies with freshly isolated mouse liver mitochondria corroborated with bioenergetic findings and demonstrated parallel polycation concentration- and time-dependent changes in state 2 and state 4o oxygen flux as well as lowered ADP phosphorylation (state 3) and mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Polycation-mediated reduction of electron transport system activity was further demonstrated in 'broken mitochondria' (freeze-thawed mitochondrial preparations). Moreover, by using both high-resolution respirometry and spectrophotometry analysis of cytochrome c oxidase activity we were able to identify complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) as a likely specific site of PEI mediated inhibition within the electron transport system. Unraveling the mechanisms of PEI-mediated mitochondrial energy crisis is central for combinatorial design of safer polymeric non-viral gene delivery systems.

  12. Measurement of the inelastic proton-proton cross-section at √s=7 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    2011-09-06

    The dependence of the rate of proton-proton interactions on the centre-of-mass collision energy, √s, is of fundamental importance for both hadron collider physics and particle astrophysics. The dependence cannot yet be calculated from first principles; therefore, experimental measurements are needed. Here we present the first measurement of the inelastic proton-proton interaction cross-section at a centre-of-mass energy, √s, of 7 TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Events are selected by requiring hits on scintillation counters mounted in the forward region of the detector. An inelastic cross-section of 60.3 ± 2.1 mb is measured for ξ > 5×10⁻⁶, where ξ is calculated from the invariant mass, M(X), of hadrons selected using the largest rapidity gap in the event. For diffractive events, this corresponds to requiring at least one of the dissociation masses to be larger than 15.7 GeV.

  13. Combined inclusive diffractive cross sections measured with forward proton spectrometers in deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, F. D.; Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Arslan, O.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bartosik, N.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Bizot, J. C.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bondarenko, K.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bołd, T.; Brümmer, N.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Bruncko, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bunyatyan, A.; Bussey, P. J.; Bylinkin, A.; Bylsma, B.; Bystritskaya, L.; Caldwell, A.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekanov, S.; Chekelian, V.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cvach, J.; D'Agostini, G.; Dainton, J. B.; Dal Corso, F.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Delvax, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; De Pasquale, S.; De Wolf, E. A.; del Peso, J.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dobur, D.; Dodonov, V.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dolinska, G.; Dossanov, A.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Dubak, A.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fang, S.; Favart, L.; Fazio, S.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Forrest, M.; Foster, B.; Gabathuler, E.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Gayler, J.; Geiser, A.; Ghazaryan, S.; Gialas, I.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Y. A.; Göttlicher, P.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grabowska-Bołd, I.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Gwenlan, C.; Hüttmann, A.; Haas, T.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilger, E.; Hiller, K. H.; Hladký, J.; Hochman, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Hori, R.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jacquet, M.; Jakob, H.-P.; Janssen, X.; Januschek, F.; Jones, T. W.; Jönsson, L.; Jüngst, M.; Jung, H.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Kapichine, M.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaur, P.; Kaur, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinwort, C.; Koffeman, E.; Kogler, R.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, I.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kostka, P.; Kotański, A.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Krämer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Krüger, K.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levonian, S.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lipka, K.; Lisovyi, M.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Lohmann, W.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lukina, O. Y.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malinovski, E.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Martin, J. F.; Martyn, H.-U.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Morris, J. D.; Mujkic, K.; Müller, K.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Naumann, T.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nigro, A.; Nikitin, D.; Ning, Y.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Olkiewicz, K.; Olsson, J. E.; Onishchuk, Y.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Pandurovic, M.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perez, E.; Perlański, W.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Pluciński, P.; Pokorny, B.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Povh, B.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycień, M.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Raval, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reeder, D. D.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, A.; Robmann, P.; Roloff, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruiz Tabasco, J. E.; Rusakov, S.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Šálek, D.; Samson, U.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sartorelli, G.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitt, S.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schönberg, V.; Schöning, A.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Sefkow, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Shushkevich, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Słomiński, W.; Sloan, T.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Soloviev, Y.; Son, D.; Sopicki, P.; Sosnovtsev, V.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stella, B.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stoicea, G.; Stopa, P.; Straumann, U.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sykora, T.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, J.; Szuba, D.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Terrón, J.; Theedt, T.; Thompson, P. D.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Trusov, V.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Turnau, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Vázquez, M.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N. N.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Wegener, D.; Whitmore, J. J.; Wichmann, K.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Wünsch, E.; Yagües-Molina, A. G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Zabiegalov, O.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zhokin, A.; Zichichi, A.; Žlebčík, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zolkapli, Z.; Zomer, F.; Zotkin, D. S.; Żarnecki, A. F.

    2012-10-01

    A combination of the inclusive diffractive cross section measurements made by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations at HERA is presented. The analysis uses samples of diffractive deep inelastic ep scattering data at a centre-of-mass energy sqrt{s}=318 GeV where leading protons are detected by dedicated spectrometers. Correlations of systematic uncertainties are taken into account, resulting in an improved precision of the cross section measurement which reaches 6 % for the most precise points. The combined data cover the range 2.5< Q 2<200 GeV2 in photon virtuality, 0.00035 < {x_{{P}}}< 0.09 in proton fractional momentum loss, 0.09<| t|<0.55 GeV2 in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 0.0018< β<0.816 in β=x/{x_{{P}}}, where x is the Bjorken scaling variable.

  14. Measurement of the deep-inelastic spin-dependent structure functions of the proton and neutron at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.H.; Filippone, B.W.; Jourdan, J.; McKeown, R.D.; Milner, R.G.; Woodward, C.E.; Freedman, S.J.; Geesaman, D.F.; Holt, R.J.; Jackson, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    It is possible to measure the deep-inelastic spin-dependent structure functions g/sub 1//sup p/(x) and g/sub 1//sup n/(x) for the proton and neutron using internal polarized hydrogen, deuterium, and /sup 3/He targets of polarization 50% and thickness 10/sup 14/ to 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ and the 60 mA longitudinally polarized 30 GeV electron beam in the HERA electron storage ring. The measurement of the deep-inelastic spin-structure of both isospin states of the nucleon at the same kinematics and using the same apparatus allows the Bjorken sum rule to be experimentally checked. In addition, it uniquely constrains the spin distribution of the u and d quarks as a function of x in any model of the nucleon. Possible target and detector configurations are described and an estimate of the accuracy of such a measurement is presented.

  15. Heavy ion and proton beams in high resolution imaging of a fungi spore specimen using STIM tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formenti, P.; Breese, M. B. H.; Connell, S. H.; Doyle, B. P.; Drummond, M. L.; Machi, I. Z.; Maclear, R. D.; Schaaff, P.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Bench, G.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Antolak, A.; Morse, D.

    1997-07-01

    Scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) tomography as a 3-D imaging technique has been shown to have a range of applications. The energy of the transmitted ion is detected with nearly 100% efficiency as a function of position in the transverse plane. The parameters relating to transmitted ion energy loss in the sample are imaged with statistics given by the energy loss process rather than Poisson counting statistics. This enables very fast collection of a set of relatively noise-free 2-D images. Each image is collected after a small rotation of the sample, and a complete 3-D representation of the sample may be tomographically reconstructed. The small beam currents necessary mean that the technique is non-destructive. One of the fields where these non-destructive 3-D density structure maps are particularly useful is in the analysis of biological tissue. The variation of energy loss with projectile atomic number may be exploited to tune the energy loss contrast to the size and density of the sample (heavy ion STIM). This work develops this point, and applies it to the imaging of the microscopic structure of a 90 μm diameter mycorrhiza fungi spore. This specimen has been imaged non-destructively in 3-D using both a 36 MeV 12C beam and a 2.2 MeV proton beam, both with a spatial resolution of about 1 μm. The gain in contrast in the carbon median energy loss maps was dramatic as expected. The corresponding improvement in the tomogram was found to be visible but less dramatic. The tomographic sections as well as the median energy loss maps of the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi spore clearly show the internal structure. Wall morphology data has relevance to germination behaviour of the spores.

  16. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-05: Validation of High-Resolution 3D Patient QA for Proton Pencil Beam Scanning and IMPT by Polymer Gel Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Cardin, A; Avery, S; Ding, X; Kassaee, A; Lin, L; Maryanski, M

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Validation of high-resolution 3D patient QA for proton pencil beam scanning and IMPT by polymer gel dosimetry. Methods: Four BANG3Pro polymer gel dosimeters (manufactured by MGS Research Inc, Madison, CT) were used for patient QA at the Robert's Proton Therapy Center (RPTC, Philadelphia, PA). All dosimeters were sealed in identical thin-wall Pyrex glass spheres. Each dosimeter contained a set of markers for 3D registration purposes. The dosimeters were mounted in a consistent and reproducible manner using a custom build holder. Two proton pencil beam scanning plans were designed using Varian Eclipse™ treatment planning system: 1) A two-field intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan and 2) one single field uniform dose (SFUD) plan. The IMPT fields were evaluated as a composite plan and individual fields, the SFUD plan was delivered as a single field plan.Laser CT scanning was performed using the manufacturer's OCTOPUS-IQ axial transmission laser CT scanner using a 1 mm slice thickness. 3D registration, analysis, and OD/cm to absorbed dose calibrations were perfomed using DICOM RT-Dose and CT files, and software developed by the manufacturer. 3D delta index, a metric equivalent to the gamma tool, was used for dose comparison. Results: Very good agreement with single IMPT fields and with SFUD was obtained. Composite IMPT fields had a less satisfactory agreement. The single fields had 3D delta index passing rates (3% dose difference, 3 mm DTA) of 98.98% and 94.91%. The composite 3D delta index passing rate was 80.80%. The SFUD passing rate was 93.77%. Required shifts of the dose distributions were less than 4 mm. Conclusion: A formulation of the BANG3Pro polymer gel dosimeter, suitable for 3D QA of proton patient plans is established and validated. Likewise, the mailed QA analysis service provided by the manufacturer is a practical option when required resources are unavailable. We fully disclose that the subject of this research regards a production

  17. /sup 74,76,78,80,82/Se by inelastic scattering of 64. 8 MeV protons

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, K.

    1986-01-01

    The inelastic scattering of 64.8 MeV protons has been studied on the stable even XU YSSe isotopes. The inelastically scattered protons were momentum analyzed in a magnetic spectrograph with a resulting energy resolution of approximately 20 keV. Levels up to the excitation energy of about 5 MeV were investigated. Many new levels were observed for the isotopes studied. The angular distributions obtained were compared with the predictions of distorted-wave Born approximation and coupled-channels calculations and a number of new spin assignments were proposed. Several 4 states with comparable strengths were found at about E/sub x/ = 2.0--5.0 MeV, showing large fragmentation of octupole and hexadecapole transition strengths, in contrast to the case of Zn isotopes. The distributions of the transition strengths for the 2 , 3 , and 4 states were compared with the theoretical calculations based on the random-phase-approximation model for spherical nuclei.

  18. Characterization of biomass burning emissions from cooking fires, peat, crop residue, and other fuels with high-resolution proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockwell, C. E.; Veres, P. R.; Williams, J.; Yokelson, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    We deployed a high-resolution proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) to measure biomass-burning emissions from peat, crop residue, cooking fires, and many other fire types during the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4) laboratory campaign. A combination of gas standard calibrations and composition sensitive, mass-dependent calibration curves was applied to quantify gas-phase non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) observed in the complex mixture of fire emissions. We used several approaches to assign the best identities to most major "exact masses", including many high molecular mass species. Using these methods, approximately 80-96% of the total NMOC mass detected by the PTR-TOF-MS and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was positively or tentatively identified for major fuel types. We report data for many rarely measured or previously unmeasured emissions in several compound classes including aromatic hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds, and furans; many of these are suspected secondary organic aerosol precursors. A large set of new emission factors (EFs) for a range of globally significant biomass fuels is presented. Measurements show that oxygenated NMOCs accounted for the largest fraction of emissions of all compound classes. In a brief study of various traditional and advanced cooking methods, the EFs for these emissions groups were greatest for open three-stone cooking in comparison to their more advanced counterparts. Several little-studied nitrogen-containing organic compounds were detected from many fuel types, that together accounted for 0.1-8.7% of the fuel nitrogen, and some may play a role in new particle formation.

  19. In vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning proton NMR spectroscopy of Drosophila melanogaster flies as a model system to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction in Drosophila GST2 mutants.

    PubMed

    Righi, Valeria; Apidianakis, Yiorgos; Psychogios, Nikolaos; Rahme, Laurence G; Tompkins, Ronald G; Tzika, A Aria

    2014-07-01

    In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), a non-destructive biochemical tool used for investigating live organisms, has recently been performed in studies of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a useful model organism for investigating genetics and physiology. We used a novel high-resolution magic angle-spinning (HRMAS) NMR method to investigate live Drosophila GST2 mutants using a conventional 14.1-T NMR spectrometer equipped with an HRMAS probe. The results showed that, compared to wild-type (wt) controls, the GST2 mutants had a 48% greater (CH(2))n lipid signal at 1.33 ppm, which is an insulin resistance biomarker in Drosophila skeletal muscle (P=0.0444). The mutants also had a 57% greater CH(2)C= lipid signal at 2.02 ppm (P=0.0276) and a 100% greater -CH=CH- signal at 5.33 ppm (P=0.0251). Since the -CH=CH- signal encompasses protons from ceramide, this latter difference is consistent with the hypothesis that the GST2 mutation is associated with insulin resistance and apoptosis. The findings of this study corroborate our previous results, support the hypothesis that the GST2 mutation is associated with insulin signaling and suggest that the IMCL level may be a biomarker of insulin resistance. Furthermore, direct links between GST2 mutation (the Drosophila ortholog of the GSTA4 gene in mammals) and insulin resistance, as suggested in this study, have not been made previously. These findings may thus be directly relevant to a wide range of metabolically disruptive conditions, such as trauma, aging and immune system deficiencies, that lead to increased susceptibility to infection.

  20. Tien Shan experimental results on the inelastic proton-air cross section at 0.5 - 5 PeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterova, N.

    2013-02-01

    The analysis of experimental data from the Tien Shan complex array on extensive air showers originated from 0.5-5 PeV primary cosmic rays is presented. Conclusions are made on the rise of the inelastic proton-air cross section with energy on the base of comparisons with different interaction models. The analysis showed that the rise conforms to (7-9) % per one order of energy from 0.2 TeV (accelerator experiments with fixed targets) to 5 PeV (cosmic rays). These data correspond better to the new QGSJET-II-04 version of the interaction model based on the recent LHC results. This model predicts the slower rise of the cross-section than previous versions of QGSJET-II models.

  1. Detection of atmospheric gaseous amines and amides by a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer with protonated ethanol reagent ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lei; Wang, Ming-Yi; Wang, Xin-Ke; Liu, Yi-Jun; Chen, Hang-Fei; Zheng, Jun; Nie, Wei; Ding, Ai-Jun; Geng, Fu-Hai; Wang, Dong-Fang; Chen, Jian-Min; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wang, Lin

    2016-11-01

    Amines and amides are important atmospheric organic-nitrogen compounds but high time resolution, highly sensitive, and simultaneous ambient measurements of these species are rather sparse. Here, we present the development of a high-resolution time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) method, utilizing protonated ethanol as reagent ions to simultaneously detect atmospheric gaseous amines (C1 to C6) and amides (C1 to C6). This method possesses sensitivities of 5.6-19.4 Hz pptv-1 for amines and 3.8-38.0 Hz pptv-1 for amides under total reagent ion signals of ˜ 0.32 MHz. Meanwhile, the detection limits were 0.10-0.50 pptv for amines and 0.29-1.95 pptv for amides at 3σ of the background signal for a 1 min integration time. Controlled characterization in the laboratory indicates that relative humidity has significant influences on the detection of amines and amides, whereas the presence of organics has no obvious effects. Ambient measurements of amines and amides utilizing this method were conducted from 25 July to 25 August 2015 in urban Shanghai, China. While the concentrations of amines ranged from a few parts per trillion by volume to hundreds of parts per trillion by volume, concentrations of amides varied from tens of parts per trillion by volume to a few parts per billion by volume. Among the C1- to C6-amines, the C2-amines were the dominant species with concentrations up to 130 pptv. For amides, the C3-amides (up to 8.7 ppb) were the most abundant species. The diurnal and backward trajectory analysis profiles of amides suggest that in addition to the secondary formation of amides in the atmosphere, industrial emissions could be important sources of amides in urban Shanghai. During the campaign, photo-oxidation of amines and amides might be a main loss pathway for them in daytime, and wet deposition was also an important sink.

  2. Multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.

    1992-10-01

    Measurements of forward multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muonproton scattering are presented. Data were taken with a 490 GeV muon beam incident on a hydrogen target. Jets were defined using the JADE jet finding algorithm. The measured rates are presented as function of W, the hadronic center-of-mass energy and the jet resolution parameter, y[sub cut], in energies up to W=33 GeV. Good agreement is found in comparisons with predictions of the QCD-inspired Lund Monte Carlo models. Non-perturbative QCD production mechanisms, inside the Lund Model, can not reproduce the results for energies greater than W [approx equal] 20 GeV. Sensitivities of the jet rate measurements to the low x (x [approx equal] 0.02) gluon content of the nucleon and the evolution of [alpha][sub s], are studied.

  3. Multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muon-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Salgado, C.W.; E665 Collaboration

    1992-10-01

    Measurements of forward multi-jet production rates in deep-inelastic muonproton scattering are presented. Data were taken with a 490 GeV muon beam incident on a hydrogen target. Jets were defined using the JADE jet finding algorithm. The measured rates are presented as function of W, the hadronic center-of-mass energy and the jet resolution parameter, y{sub cut}, in energies up to W=33 GeV. Good agreement is found in comparisons with predictions of the QCD-inspired Lund Monte Carlo models. Non-perturbative QCD production mechanisms, inside the Lund Model, can not reproduce the results for energies greater than W {approx_equal} 20 GeV. Sensitivities of the jet rate measurements to the low x (x {approx_equal} 0.02) gluon content of the nucleon and the evolution of {alpha}{sub s}, are studied.

  4. Inelastic scattering of 61 MeV protons by pb-207

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owais, M.

    1976-01-01

    Differential cross sections for the excitation of the first four neutron-hole states and the doublet at 2.61 MeV by 61.2 MeV protons were measured. The data are analyzed in terms of both a purely collective model description and a microscopic model supplemented by macroscopic core polarization. A realistic two-body interaction is used and knock-on amplitudes are included. Core polarization is found to be important but represents a relatively smaller contribution than in most nuclei previously studied. A parallel analysis of similar data at lower proton bombarding energies reveals a surprisingly strong energy dependence of the reaction mechanisms.

  5. Inelastic scattering of 65 MeV protons from /sup 12/C, /sup 24/Mg, /sup 28/Si, and /sup 32/S

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, S.; Okada, K.; Kondo, M.; Hosono, K.; Saito, T.; Matsuoka, N.; Hatanaka, K.; Noro, T.; Nagamachi, S.; Shimizu, H.; Ogino, K.; Kadota, Y.; Matsuki, S.; Wakai, M.

    1985-05-01

    Measurements of angular distributions of the cross sections and analyzing powers for the elastic and inelastic scatterings of 65 MeV polarized protons from /sup 12/C, /sup 24/Mg, /sup 28/Si, and /sup 32/S are reported. Coupled channels analyses of the scattering data are presented assuming the 0/sub 1//sup +/, 2/sub 1//sup +/, and 4/sub 1//sup +/ states to be members of the ground band, the 0/sub 2//sup +/ state to begin the

  6. Search for weak M 1 transitions in 48Ca with inelastic proton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathy, M.; Birkhan, J.; Matsubara, H.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Tamii, A.

    2017-05-01

    Background: The quenching of spin-isospin modes in nuclei is an important field of research in nuclear structure. It has an impact on astrophysical reaction rates and on fundamental processes like neutrinoless double-β decay. Gamow-Teller (GT) and spin-flip M 1 strengths are quenched. Concerning the latter, the Jπ=1+ resonance in the doubly magic nucleus 48Ca, dominated by a single transition, serves as a reference case. Purpose: The aim of the present work is to search for weak M 1 transitions in 48Ca with a high-resolution (p ,p') experiment at 295 MeV and forward angles including 0∘ and a comparison with results from a similar study using backward-angle electron scattering at low momentum transfers in order to estimate their contribution to the total B (M 1 ) strength in 48Ca. Methods: The spin-M 1 cross sections of individual peaks in the spectra are deduced with a multipole decomposition analysis (MDA) and converted to reduced spin-M 1 transition strengths by using the unit cross-section method. For a comparison with electron-scattering results, corresponding reduced B (M 1 ) transition strengths are extracted following the approach outlined in Birkhan et al. [Phys. Rev. C 93, 041302(R) (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevC.93.041302]. Results: In total, 30 peaks containing a M 1 contribution are found in the excitation energy region 7-13 MeV. The resulting B (M 1 ) strength distribution compares well to the electron-scattering results considering different factors limiting the sensitivity in both experiments and the enhanced importance of mechanisms breaking the proportionality of nuclear cross sections and electromagnetic matrix elements for weak transitions as studied here. The total strength of 1.14(7) μN2 deduced assuming a nonquenched isoscalar part of the (p ,p') cross sections agrees with the (e ,e') result of 1.21(13) μN2. A bin-wise analysis above 10 MeV provides an upper limit of 1.51(17) μN2. Conclusions: The present results confirm the previous electron

  7. Measurement of the inelastic cross section in proton-lead collisions at √{sNN} = 5.02TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Mahrous, A.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.

    2016-08-01

    The inelastic hadronic cross section in proton-lead collisions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV is measured with the CMS detector at the LHC. The data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of L = 12.6 ± 0.4 nb-1, has been collected with an unbiased trigger for inclusive particle production. The cross section is obtained from the measured number of proton-lead collisions with hadronic activity produced in the pseudorapidity ranges 3 < η < 5 and/or - 5 < η < - 3, corrected for photon-induced contributions, experimental acceptance, and other instrumental effects. The inelastic cross section is measured to be σinel (pPb) = 2061 ± 3 (stat) ± 34 (syst) ± 72 (lumi) mb. Various Monte Carlo generators, commonly used in heavy ion and cosmic ray physics, are found to reproduce the data within uncertainties. The value of σinel (pPb) is compatible with that expected from the proton-proton cross section at 5.02 TeV scaled up within a simple Glauber approach to account for multiple scatterings in the lead nucleus, indicating that further net nuclear corrections are small.

  8. SU-E-T-47: Application of the Repair-Misrepair-Fixation RBE Model to Describe the Results of High Resolution Proton Irradiation Cell Survival Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, C; Bronk, L; Taleei, R; Guan, F; Grosshans, D; Mirkovic, D; Titt, U; Mohan, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a system to rapidly and accurately calculate RBE with the repair-misrepair-fixation (RMF) model for proton therapy data sets and to evaluate its effectiveness in modeling RBE for cell survival experiments performed with the H460 cell line for a range of proton LET. Methods: A system for using the Monte Carlo Damage Simulation (MCDS) software with high performance computing was developed. Input for the MCDS software for a range of proton energies in increments of 0.1 MeV was generated and simulated. The output data were then used to determine doseaveraged quantities for the RMF model based on equivalently binned proton energy spectra. The method was applied to calculate RBE at 50% survival for experimental cell survival data. Experimental data were obtained using a system which allowed for the accumulation of cell survival data at known values of dose-averaged proton LETs at a range of doses. RBE was calculated based directly on a Cs-137 reference experiment and, additionally, according to fitted values of the θ and κ terms of the RMF model. Results: Dose-averaged RMF model quantities were calculated using the HPC system. Compared to experimental RBE determined using a Cs-137 irradiation as a reference, the RBE from the model differed by at most 49%. RBE based on the fitted values of θ and κ differed by at most 18% for the highest LET. Conclusion: A system for rapidly generating data necessary to calculate RBE with the RMF model has been developed. For the H460 cell line, the RMF model could not reproduce the experimentally determined RBE based solely on the photon reference data. Fitting of the θ and κ terms of the RMF model indicates that their values increase for proton LET exceeding approximately 10 keV/µm. NIH Program Project Grant P01CA021239.

  9. Measurement of single and double spin asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering on proton and deuteron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, Suman Bandhu

    The EG1-DVCS experiment with CLAS at Jefferson Lab collected semi-inclusive pion electro-production data on longitudinally polarized solid state NH3 and ND3 targets with longitudinally polarized electrons of approximately 6 GeV energy. Data on all three pion channels, pi +, pi-- and pi0, were collected simultaneously. The charged pions were identified by their time-of-flight information whereas the neutral pions were reconstructed from the invariant mass of two photons. The experiment covered a wide kinematic range: 1 GeV 2 ≤ Q2 ≤ 3.2 GeV2, 0.12 ≤ xB ≤ 0.48, 0.0 GeV ≤ Ph⊥ ≤ 1.0 GeV and 0.3 ≤ z ≤ 0.7. The beam single (ALU), target single (AUL) and beam-target double ( ALL) spin azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering (SIDIS) off the proton and the deuteron extracted from the data are presented. The results of the azimuthal asymmetries for the proton are presented as a function of two variables: (xB, Ph⊥), (z, P h⊥) and (xB, z). Due to limited statistics, the azimuthal asymmetries for the deuteron are presented as a function of a single variable for the variables xB, z and Ph ⊥. Some theoretical and phenomenological predictions as well as earlier published results are compared with the results from this analysis. All the results are plotted and suitably tabulated for further analysis. The SIDIS azimuthal asymmetries are convolutions of fragmentation functions and transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions (TMDs). The TMDs describe transverse momenta and spins of quarks and gluons inside nucleons. They open a window on the contribution of the orbital angular momentum of the quarks and gluons to the total spin of the nucleons. The results presented in this work are sensitive to these leading twist TMDs: f 1, g1, h⊥ 1L, and h⊥ 1. The significant precision of the results from this analysis will highly constrain the extractions of the associated TMDs which will substantially contribute towards further

  10. High resolution 148Nd(3He,nγ) two proton stripping reaction and the structure of the 02+ state in 150Sm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpey-Schafer, J. F.; Papka, P.; Bvumbi, S. P.; Jones, P. M.; Vymers, P.; Bucher, T. D.; Dinoko, T. S.; Easton, J. L.; Herbert, M. S.; Kheswa, B. V.; Khumalo, N.; Lawrie, E. A.; Lawrie, J. J.; Majola, S. N. T.; Ndayishimye, J.; Negi, D.; Noncolela, S. P.; Orce, J. N.; Shirinda, O.; Sithole, P.; Standkiewicz, M. A.; Wiedeking, M.

    2014-04-01

    The challenge of achieving high resolution in binary reactions involving an outgoing high energy neutron is solved by detecting the γ-ray decay of populated excited states in an array of escape suppressed HPGe detectors in coincidence with fast neutrons detected in a wall of scintillator detectors 2m down beam of the target. The selectivity of the arrangement is of the order of 1 in 1000. The time-of-flight difference is sufficient to separate fast neutrons from direct reactions from a large background of statistical neutrons from fusion-evaporation reactions. Our interest is in the wavefunction of the 02+ state at 740 keV in the N=88 nucleus 150Sm which, with the 02+ state in 100Ru, are the only two excited states observed in 2β2ν double β-decay.

  11. High Resolution Computed Tomography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-31

    samples. 14. SUBJECTTERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 38 High Resolution, Microfocus , Characterization, X - Ray , Micrography, Computed Tomography (CT), Failure...high resolutions (50 g.tm feature sensitivity) when a small field of view (50 mm) is used [11]. Specially designed detectors and a microfocus X - ray ...Wright Laboratories. Feldkamp [14] at Ford used a microfocus X - ray source and an X - ray image intensifier to develop a system capable of 20 g.m

  12. High-Energy-Resolution Inelastic Electron and Proton Scattering and the Multiphonon Nature of Mixed-Symmetry 2{sup +} States in {sup 94}Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Burda, O.; Kuhar, M.; Lenhardt, A.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Wambach, J.; Botha, N.; Fearick, R. W.; Carter, J.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Foertsch, S. V.; Neveling, R.; Smit, F. D.; Fransen, C.; Fujita, H.; Holt, J. D.; Pietralla, N.; Scholten, O.

    2007-08-31

    High-energy-resolution inelastic electron scattering (at the S-DALINAC) and proton scattering (at iThemba LABS) experiments permit a thorough test of the nature of proposed one- and two-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2{sup +} states of the nucleus {sup 94}Mo. The combined analysis reveals the one-phonon content of the mixed-symmetry state and its isovector character suggested by microscopic nuclear model calculations. The purity of two-phonon 2{sup +} states is extracted.

  13. Metabolomics by Proton High-Resolution Magic-Angle-Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Tomato Plants Treated with Two Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Trichoderma.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Pierluigi; Vinale, Francesco; Woo, Sheridan Lois; Pascale, Alberto; Lorito, Matteo; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2016-05-11

    Trichoderma fungi release 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (1) and harzianic acid (2) secondary metabolites to improve plant growth and health protection. We isolated metabolites 1 and 2 from Trichoderma strains, whose different concentrations were used to treat seeds of Solanum lycopersicum. The metabolic profile in the resulting 15 day old tomato leaves was studied by high-resolution magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HRMAS NMR) spectroscopy directly on the whole samples without any preliminary extraction. Principal component analysis (PCA) of HRMAS NMR showed significantly enhanced acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content accompanied by variable amount of amino acids in samples treated with both Trichoderma secondary metabolites. Seed germination rates, seedling fresh weight, and the metabolome of tomato leaves were also dependent upon doses of metabolites 1 and 2 treatments. HRMAS NMR spectroscopy was proven to represent a rapid and reliable technique for evaluating specific changes in the metabolome of plant leaves and calibrating the best concentration of bioactive compounds required to stimulate plant growth.

  14. Analysis of the Thermal Degradation of the Individual Anthocyanin Compounds of Black Carrot (Daucus carota L.): A New Approach Using High-Resolution Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Iliopoulou, Ioanna; Thaeron, Delphine; Baker, Ashley; Jones, Anita; Robertson, Neil

    2015-08-12

    The black carrot dye is a mixture of cyanidin molecules, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of which shows a highly overlapped aromatic region. In this study, the (1)H NMR (800 MHz) aromatic chemical shifts of the mixture were fully assigned by overlaying them with the characterized (1)H NMR chemical shifts of the separated compounds. The latter were isolated using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and their chemical shifts were identified using (1)H and two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy (COSY) NMR spectroscopy. The stability of the black carrot mixture to heat exposure was investigated at pH 3.6, 6.8, and 8.0 by heat-treating aqueous solutions at 100 °C and the powdered material at 180 °C. From integration of high-resolution (1)H NMR spectra, it was possible to follow the relative degradation of each compound, offering advantages over the commonly used ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis) and HPLC approaches. UV/vis spectroscopy and CIE color measurements were used to determine thermally induced color changes, under normal cooking conditions.

  15. High-resolution proton magnetic resonance and catalytic studies concerning brønsted centers of amorphous Al 2O 3-SiO 2 solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunger, M.; Freude, D.; Pfeifer, H.; Bremer, H.; Jank, M.; Wendlandt, K. P.

    1983-08-01

    By application of the magic angle spinning (MAS) technique it was possible to observe highly resolved proton NMR spectra of the OH groups of amorphous silica-alumina. The spectra exhibit two lines at 2 and 7 ppm. The former line must be ascribed to non-acidic OH groups since it also occurs for silica and alumina. The latter line shows a maximum of intensity in the range of 20-30 wt% Al 2O 3. It must be due to acidic hydroxyl groups since the catalytic activity of the silica-aluminas measured by the cracking rate of cumene shows quantitatively the same behaviour with respect to the number of OH groups at 7 ppm.

  16. High-resolution headlamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gut, Carsten; Cristea, Iulia; Neumann, Cornelius

    2016-04-01

    The following article shall describe how human vision by night can be influenced. At first, front lighting systems that are already available on the market will be described, followed by their analysis with respect to the positive effects on traffic safety. Furthermore, how traffic safety by night can be increased since the introduction of high resolution headlamps shall be discussed.

  17. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1993-04-06

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock, pulse train, and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train (as seen in diagram on patent). The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  18. High resolution data acquisition

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, Glenn W.; Fuller, Kenneth R.

    1993-01-01

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock (38) pulse train (37) and analog circuitry (44) for generating a triangular wave (46) synchronously with the pulse train (37). The triangular wave (46) has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter (18, 32) forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter (26) counts the clock pulse train (37) during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer (52) then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  19. Panoramic High Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2008-10-01

    Stellar populations in galaxies are vast repositories of fossil information. In recent years it has become possible to consider high resolution spectroscopic surveys of millions of stars. New high resolution multi-object spectrographs on 4-8m class telescopes (HERMES, WFMOS) will allow us for the first time to make large and detailed chemical abundance surveys of stars in the Galactic disk, bulge and halo, and apply the techniques of chemical tagging to recovering the fossil information left over from galaxy assembly. These instruments will have strong synergies with the GAIA astrometric satellite due to launch in 2011. The level of detail made possible by these future facilities will be necessary if we are to fully understand the physical processes involved in galaxy formation.

  20. High resolution data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, G.W.; Fuller, K.R.

    1992-12-31

    A high resolution event interval timing system measures short time intervals such as occur in high energy physics or laser ranging. Timing is provided from a clock pulse train and analog circuitry for generating a triangular wave synchronously with the pulse train. The triangular wave has an amplitude and slope functionally related to the time elapsed during each clock pulse in the train. A converter forms a first digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the start of the event interval and a second digital value of the amplitude and slope of the triangle wave at the end of the event interval. A counter counts the clock pulse train during the interval to form a gross event interval time. A computer then combines the gross event interval time and the first and second digital values to output a high resolution value for the event interval.

  1. High-Resolution Autoradiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towe, George C; Gomberg, Henry J; Freemen, J W

    1955-01-01

    This investigation was made to adapt wet-process autoradiography to metallurgical samples to obtain high resolution of segregated radioactive elements in microstructures. Results are confined to development of the technique, which was perfected to a resolution of less than 10 microns. The radioactive samples included carbon-14 carburized iron and steel, nickel-63 electroplated samples, a powder product containing nickel-63, and tungsten-185 in N-155 alloy.

  2. Ultra high resolution tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  3. Saturn's rings - high resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Voyager 2 obtained this high-resolution picture of Saturn's rings Aug. 22, when the spacecraft was 4 million kilometers (2.5 million miles) away. Evident here are the numerous 'spoke' features, in the B-ring; their very sharp, narrow appearance suggests short formation times. Scientists think electromagnetic forces are responsible in some way for these features, but no detailed theory has been worked out. Pictures such as this and analyses of Voyager 2's spoke movies may reveal more clues about the origins of these complex structures. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  4. Inelastic proton-air cross section growth from 0.2 TeV to 10 PeV according to TIEN SHAN experimental cosmic ray data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterova, N.

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions are made about the increase with energy of the inelastic proton air cross section σp-air from 0.2 TeV (accelerator experiments with fixed targets) to 10 PeV (cosmic rays). Experimental data from the Tien Shan complex array on various components (mainly hadron, Cherenkov light, and electron) of extensive air showers at 0.5-10 PeV of primary cosmic rays are analyzed. They were compared with many results of different calculated models of cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. The analysis showed that the rise conforms to (7-9)% per one order of energy. These data correspond better to the QGSJET-II-04 version of the interaction model based on the recent LHC results. This model predicts better the slower rise of the cross-section than previous versions of QGSJET-II and some other models.

  5. A high-statistics measurement of transverse spin effects in dihadron production from muon-proton semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alekseev, M. G.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Guskov, A.; Guthörl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Höppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Joerg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V. I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nunes, A. S.; Orlov, I.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesek, M.; Peshekhonov, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rodionov, V.; Rondio, E.; Rychter, A.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wiślicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.

    2014-09-01

    A measurement of the azimuthal asymmetry in dihadron production in deep-inelastic scattering of muons on transversely polarised proton (NH3) targets is presented. They provide independent access to the transversity distribution functions through the measurement of the Collins asymmetry in single hadron production. The data were taken in the year 2010 with the COMPASS spectrometer using a 160 GeV/c muon beam of the CERN SPS, increasing by a factor of about four the overall statistics with respect to the previously published data taken in the year 2007. The measured sizeable asymmetry is in good agreement with the published data. An approximate equality of the Collins asymmetry and the dihadron asymmetry is observed, suggesting a common physical mechanism in the underlying fragmentation.

  6. Thermal evolution of the crystal structure of proton conducting BaCe0.8Y0.2O3-δ from high-resolution neutron diffraction in dry and humid atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Eriksson Andersson, Annika K; Selbach, Sverre M; Grande, Tor; Knee, Christopher S

    2015-06-21

    The crystal structure of the proton conducting perovskite BaCe(0.8)Y(0.2)O(3-δ) (BCY20) has been studied via high-resolution in situ neutron diffraction performed in controlled dry and humid (heavy water) oxygen flow. Two phase transitions, cubic Pm3[combining macron]m→R3[combining macron]c (775 °C)→Imma (250 °C) were observed on cooling from 1000 °C in dry O(2). A significant shift of the phase stability fields was observed on cooling in wet oxygen (pD(2)O ≈ 0.2 atm) with the R3[combining macron]c structure stabilised at 900 °C, and the R3[combining macron]c→Imma transition occurring at 675 °C. On cooling below 400 °C a monoclinic, I2/m, phase started to appear. The structural dependence on hydration level is primarily due to the de-stabilisation of the correlated, octahedra tilts as a consequence of structural relaxation around the oxygen vacancies present in the non-hydrated phase. The tendency of hydrated BaCe(0.8)Y(0.2)O(3-δ) to show octahedral tilting is also found to be enhanced, indicating that the deuteronic (protonic) defects influence the crystal structure, possibly via hydrogen bonding. Stabilisation of the monoclinic I2/m phase is attributed to the structural effect of deuterons that is inferred to increase on cooling as deuterons localise to a greater extent. Changing from wet oxidising (O(2) + D2O(g)) to wet reducing (5% H2 in Ar + D2O(g)) atmosphere did not influence the structure or the phase stability, indicating that Ce(4+) was not reduced under the present conditions. Based on the observed cell volume expansion protonic defects are present in the material at 900 °C at a D(2)O partial pressure of ∼0.2 atm. The origin of the chemical expansion is explained by the effective size of the oxygen vacancy being significantly smaller than the [OD] defect. Rietveld analysis has been used to locate possible sites for the deuterons in the high temperature, R3[combining macron]c and Imma, phases that are most relevant for proton transport.

  7. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks.

  8. High resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    F. Garibaldi

    2005-02-01

    Hypernuclear spectroscopy provides fundamental information for understanding the effective ?-Nucleon interaction. Jefferson Laboratory experiment E94-107 was designed to perform high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy by electroproduction of strangeness in four 1p-shell nuclei: 12C, 9Be, 16O, and 7Li. The first part of the experiment on 12C and 9Be has been performed in January and April-May 2004 in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. Significant modifications were made to the standard Hall A apparatus for this challenging experiment: two septum magnets and a RICH detector have been added to get reasonable counting rates and excellent particle identification, as required for the experiment. A description of the apparatus and the preliminary analysis results are presented here.

  9. High Resolution Inelastic Electron Scattering from LEAD-208.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, James Patrick

    Inclusive electron scattering differential cross sections from ^{208}Pb have been measured with energy resolutions better than 20 keV for over 120 discrete states with excitation energies less than 7.3 MeV. The momentum-transfer dependence of these cross sections has been mapped over a range of 0.5 to 2.8 fm^{-1} in the forward direction and 1.0 to 2.9 fm^{ -1} in the backward scattering direction. Over fifty excitations have been analyzed in the Distorted Wave Born Approximation to yield transition charge, current and magnetization densities. The nuclear structure of discrete excitations are interpreted in the framework of 1p-1h transition. The nuclear structure of levels in the excitation region below 4.8 MeV is studied in detail. Above 4.8 MeV, multiplets from single particle-hole configurations coupling to high spin states (J >=q 7) are investigated. Experimental transition densities are compared to Tamm-Dancoff calculations from a correlated ground state.

  10. High Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on UARS spacecraft during the period 4/l/96 - 3/31/99. During this period, HRDI operation, data processing, and data analysis continued, and there was a high level of vitality in the HRDI project. The HRDI has been collecting data from the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere since instrument activation on October 1, 1991. The HRDI team has stressed three areas since operations commenced: 1) operation of the instrument in a manner which maximizes the quality and versatility of the collected data; 2) algorithm development and validation to produce a high-quality data product; and 3) scientific studies, primarily of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. There has been no significant degradation in the HRDI instrument since operations began nearly 8 years ago. HRDI operations are fairly routine, although we have continued to look for ways to improve the quality of the scientific product, either by improving existing modes, or by designing new ones. The HRDI instrument has been programmed to collect data for new scientific studies, such as measurements of fluorescence from plants, measuring cloud top heights, and lower atmosphere H2O.

  11. High Resolution Formaldehyde Photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, C. T.; Bauer, D.; Hynes, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant and most important organic carbonyl compound in the atmosphere. The sources of formaldehyde are the oxidation of methane, isoprene, acetone, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); fossil fuel combustion; and biomass burning. The dominant loss mechanism for formaldehyde is photolysis which occurs via two pathways: (R1) HCHO + hv → HCO + H (R2) HCHO + hv → H2 + CO The first pathway (R1) is referred to as the radical channel, while the second pathway (R2) is referred to as the molecular channel. The products of both pathways play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. The CO that is produced in the molecular channel undergoes further oxidation to produce CO2. Under atmospheric conditions, the H atom and formyl radical that are produced in the radical channel undergo rapid reactions with O2 to produce the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) via (R3) and (R4). (R3) HCO + O2 → HO2 + CO (R4) H + O2 → HO2 Thus, for every photon absorbed, the photolysis of formaldehyde can contribute one CO2 molecule to the global greenhouse budget or two HO2 radicals to the tropospheric HOx (OH + HO2) cycle. The HO2 radicals produced during formaldehyde photolysis have also been implicated in the formation of photochemical smog. The HO2 radicals act as radical chain carriers and convert NO to NO2, which ultimately results in the catalytic production of O3. Constraining the yield of HO2 produced via HCHO photolysis is essential for improving tropospheric chemistry models. In this study, both the absorption cross section and the quantum yield of the radical channel (R1) were measured at high resolution over the tropospherically relevant wavelength range 304-330 nm. For the cross section measurements a narrow linewidth Nd:YAG pumped dye laser was used with a multi-pass cell. Partial pressures of HCHO were kept below 0.3 torr. Simultaneous measurement of OH LIF in a flame allowed absolute calibration of the wavelength scale. Pressure

  12. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  13. Neutron transition strengths of 2{sub 1}{sup +} states in the neutron-rich oxygen isotopes determined from inelastic proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen Dang Chien; Khoa, Dao T.

    2009-03-15

    A coupled-channel analysis of the {sup 18,20,22}O(p,p{sup '}) data has been performed to determine the neutron transition strengths of the 2{sub 1}{sup +} states in oxygen targets, using the microscopic optical potential and inelastic form factor calculated in the folding model. A complex density- and isospin-dependent version of the CDM3Y6 interaction was constructed, based on the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculation of nuclear matter, for the folding model input. Given an accurate isovector density dependence of the CDM3Y6 interaction, the isoscalar ({delta}{sub 0}) and isovector ({delta}{sub 1}) deformation lengths of the 2{sub 1}{sup +} states in {sup 18,20,22}O have been extracted from the folding model analysis of the (p,p{sup '}) data. A specific N dependence of {delta}{sub 0} and {delta}{sub 1} has been established which can be linked to the neutron shell closure occurring at N approaching 16. The strongest isovector deformation was found for the 2{sub 1}{sup +} state in {sup 20}O, with {delta}{sub 1} about 2.5 times larger than {delta}{sub 0}, which indicates a strong core polarization by the valence neutrons in {sup 20}O. The ratios of the neutron/proton transition matrix elements (M{sub n}/M{sub p}) determined for the 2{sub 1}{sup +} states in {sup 18,20}O have been compared with those deduced from the mirror symmetry, using the measured B(E2) values of the 2{sub 1}{sup +} states in the proton-rich {sup 18}Ne and {sup 20}Mg nuclei, to discuss the isospin impurity in the 2{sub 1}{sup +} excitation of the A=18, T=1 and A=20, T=2 isobars.

  14. High-resolution proton density weighted three-dimensional fast spin echo (3D-FSE) of the knee with IDEAL at 1.5 Tesla: comparison with 3D-FSE and 2D-FSE--initial experience.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Colm J; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J; Wu, Jim S; Yablon, Corrie M; Wei, Jesse L; Rofsky, Neil M; Hochman, Mary G

    2012-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of combining three-dimensional fast spin echo (3D-FSE) and Iterative-decomposition-of water-and-fat-with-echo asymmetry-and-least-squares-estimation (IDEAL) at 1.5 Tesla (T), generating a high-resolution 3D isotropic proton density-weighted image set with and without "fat-suppression" (FS) in a single acquisition, and to compare with 2D-FSE and 3D-FSE (without IDEAL). Ten asymptomatic volunteers prospectively underwent sagittal 3D-FSE-IDEAL, 3D-FSE, and 2D-FSE sequences at 1.5T (slice thickness [ST]: 0.8 mm, 0.8 mm, and 3.5 mm, respectively). 3D-FSE and 2D-FSE were repeated with frequency-selective FS. Fluid, cartilage, and muscle signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and fluid-cartilage contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were compared among sequences. Three blinded reviewers independently scored quality of menisci/cartilage depiction for all sequences. "Fat-suppression" was qualitatively scored and compared among sequences. 3D-FSE-IDEAL fluid-cartilage CNR was higher than in 2D-FSE (P < 0.05), not different from 3D-FSE (P = 0.31). There was no significant difference in fluid SNR among sequences. 2D-FSE cartilage SNR was higher than in 3D FSE-IDEAL (P < 0.05), not different to 3D-FSE (P = 0.059). 2D-FSE muscle SNR was higher than in 3D-FSE-IDEAL (P < 0.05) and 3D-FSE (P < 0.05). Good or excellent depiction of menisci/cartilage was achieved using 3D-FSE-IDEAL in the acquired sagittal and reformatted planes. Excellent, homogeneous "fat-suppression" was achieved using 3D-FSE-IDEAL, superior to FS-3D-FSE and FS-2D-FSE (P < 0.05). 3D FSE-IDEAL is a feasible approach to acquire multiplanar images of diagnostic quality, both with and without homogeneous "fat-suppression" from a single acquisition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry in Forward Angle Inelastic Electron-Proton Scattering using the Q-Weak Apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    ., Nuruzzaman

    2014-12-01

    The Q-weak experiment in Hall-C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has made the first direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton through the precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at low momentum transfer. There is also a parity conserving Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry or transverse asymmetry (B_n) on H_2 with a sin(phi)-like dependence due to two-photon exchange. If the size of elastic B_n is a few ppm, then a few percent residual transverse polarization in the beam, combined with small broken azimuthal symmetries in the detector, would require a few ppb correction to the Q-weak data. As part of a program of B_n background studies, we made the first measurement of B_n in the N-to-Delta(1232) transition using the Q-weak apparatus. The final transverse asymmetry, corrected for backgrounds and beam polarization, was found to be B_n = 42.82 ± 2.45 (stat) ± 16.07 (sys) ppm at beam energy E_beam = 1.155 GeV, scattering angle theta = 8.3 deg, and missing mass W = 1.2 GeV. B_n from electron-nucleon scattering is a unique tool to study the gamma^* Delta Delta form factors, and this measurement will help to improve the theoretical models on beam normal single spin asymmetry and thereby our understanding of the doubly virtual Compton scattering process. To help correct false asymmetries from beam noise, a beam modulation system was implemented to induce small position, angle, and energy changes at the target to characterize detector response to the beam jitter. Two air-core dipoles separated by ~10 m were pulsed at a time to produce position and angle changes at the target, for virtually any tune of the beamline. The beam energy was modulated using an SRF cavity. The hardware and associated control instrumentation will be described in this dissertation. Preliminary detector sensitivities were extracted which helped to reduce the width of the measured asymmetry. The beam modulation system

  16. Beam normal single spin asymmetry in forward angle inelastic electron-proton scattering using the q-weak apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuruzzaman, FNU

    The Q-weak experiment in Hall-C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has made the first direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton through the precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering at low momentum transfer. There is also a parity conserving Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry or transverse asymmetry (Bn) on H2 with a sin(phi)-like dependence due to two-photon exchange. If the size of elastic Bn is a few ppm, then a few percent residual transverse polarization in the beam, combined with small broken azimuthal symmetries in the detector, would require a few ppb correction to the Q-weak data. As part of a program of Bn background studies, we made the first measurement of Bn in the N-to-Delta(1232) transition using the Q-weak apparatus. The final transverse asymmetry, corrected for backgrounds and beam polarization, was found to be Bn = 42.82 +- 2.45 (stat) +- 16.07 (sys) ppm at beam energy Ebeam = 1.155 GeV, scattering angle theta = 8.3 degrees, and missing mass W = 1.2 GeV. Bn from electron-nucleon scattering is a unique tool to study the gamma*DeltaDelta form factors, and this measurement will help to improve the theoretical models on beam normal single spin asymmetry and thereby our understanding of the doubly virtual Compton scattering process. To help correct false asymmetries from beam noise, a beam modulation system was implemented to induce small position, angle, and energy changes at the target to characterize detector response to the beam jitter. Two air-core dipoles separated by ˜10 m were pulsed at a time to produce position and angle changes at the target, for virtually any tune of the beamline. The beam energy was modulated using an SRF cavity. The hardware and associated control instrumentation will be described in this dissertation. Preliminary detector sensitivities were extracted which helped to reduce the width of the measured asymmetry. The beam modulation system has

  17. High resolution NMR study of T1 magnetic relaxation dispersion. III. Influence of spin 1/2 hetero-nuclei on spin relaxation and polarization transfer among strongly coupled protons.

    PubMed

    Korchak, Sergey E; Ivanov, Konstantin L; Pravdivtsev, Andrey N; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V; Kaptein, Robert; Vieth, Hans-Martin

    2012-09-07

    Effects of spin-spin interactions on the nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) of protons were studied in a situation where spin ½ hetero-nuclei are present in the molecule. As in earlier works [K. L. Ivanov, A. V. Yurkovskaya, and H.-M. Vieth, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 234513 (2008); S. E. Korchak, K. L. Ivanov, A. V. Yurkovskaya, and H.-M. Vieth, ibid. 133, 194502 (2010)], spin-spin interactions have a pronounced effect on the relaxivity tending to equalize the longitudinal relaxation times once the spins become strongly coupled at a sufficiently low magnetic field. In addition, we have found influence of (19)F nuclei on the proton NMRD, although in the whole field range, studied protons and fluorine spins were only weakly coupled. In particular, pronounced features in the proton NMRD were found; but each feature was predominantly observed only for particular spin states of the hetero-nuclei. The features are explained theoretically; it is shown that hetero-nuclei can affect the proton NMRD even in the limit of weak coupling when (i) protons are coupled strongly and (ii) have spin-spin interactions of different strengths with the hetero-nuclei. We also show that by choosing the proper magnetic field strength, one can selectively transfer proton spin magnetization between spectral components of choice.

  18. High resolution digital delay timer

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Albert D.

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay (20) provides a first output signal (24) at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits (26, 28) latch the high resolution data (24) to form a first synchronizing data set (60). A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters (142, 146, 154) and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses (32, 34) count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an interval which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD (184) corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD (74) to generate a second set of synchronizing data (76) which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data (60) for presentation to logic circuits (64). The logic circuits (64) further delay the internal output signal (72) to obtain a proper phase relationship of an output signal (80) with the internal pulses (32, 34). The final delayed output signal (80) thereafter enables the output pulse generator (82) to produce the desired output pulse (84) at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse (10, 12).

  19. High-resolution electron microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1977-01-01

    Employing scanning transmission electron microscope as interferometer, relative phases of diffraction maximums can be determined by analysis of dark field images. Synthetic aperture technique and Fourier-transform computer processing of amplitude and phase information provide high resolution images at approximately one angstrom.

  20. Advanced very high resolution radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer development program is considered. The program covered the design, construction, and test of a breadboard model, engineering model, protoflight model, mechanical structural model, and a life test model. Special bench test and calibration equipment was also developed for use on the program.

  1. High Resolution Orientation Imaging Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-02

    Functions, ICCES 2010, Las Vegas. 17. David Fullwood, Brent Adams, Mike Miles, Stuart Rogers, Ali Khosravani, Raj Mishra, Design for Ductility : Defect... Pseudo -Symmetries by High Resolution EBSD Methods, MS&T. 2009: Pittsburgh. 27. Oliver Johnson, Calvin Gardner, David Fullwood, Brent Adams, George...applied to strain measurements ................................... 6 2.3 Recovery of Lattice Tetragonality and Pseudo -Symmetry Resolution

  2. Measurement of the Inelastic Proton-Proton Cross Section at s=13 TeV with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Ali, B.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. 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E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisits, M-S; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. 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K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Burr, J. T. P.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Callea, G.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvente Lopez, S.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelijn, R.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chatterjee, A.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, K. J. R.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cueto, A.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D’amen, G.; D’Auria, S.; D’Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dado, T.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Maria, A.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Dehghanian, N.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Dell’Acqua, A.; Dell’Asta, L.; Dell’Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Clemente, W. K.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Duarte-Campderros, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Dudder, A. Chr.; Duffield, E. M.; Duflot, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dumancic, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edwards, N. C.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellajosyula, V.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Ennis, J. S.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, F.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farina, C.; Farina, E. M.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. 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S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuli, F.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, G.; Gonella, L.; Gongadze, A.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goudet, C. R.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Gozani, E.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Gradin, P. O. J.; Grafström, P.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Gratchev, V.; Gravila, P. M.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Grefe, C.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Grevtsov, K.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Groh, S.; Grohs, J. P.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guan, W.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Gupta, S.; Gustavino, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Hadef, A.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Haney, B.; Hanisch, S.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, M. C.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. 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    2016-10-26

    This Letter presents a measurement of the inelastic proton-proton cross section using 60 μ b -1 of p p collisions at a center-of-mass energy √ s of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Inelastic interactions are selected using rings of plastic scintillators in the forward region ( 2.07 < | η | < 3.86 ) of the detector. A cross section of 68.1 ± 1.4 mb is measured in the fiducial region ξ = M $2\\atop{X}$ / s > 10 - 6 , where M X is the larger invariant mass of the two hadronic systems separated by the largest rapidity gap in the event. In this ξ range the scintillators are highly efficient. For diffractive events this corresponds to cases where at least one proton dissociates to a system with M X > 13 GeV . The measured cross section is compared with a range of theoretical predictions. When extrapolated to the full phase space, a cross section of 78.1 ± 2.9 mb is measured, consistent with the inelastic cross section increasing with center-of-mass energy.

  3. Measurement of the Inelastic Proton-Proton Cross Section at s=13 TeV with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

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    2016-10-26

    This Letter presents a measurement of the inelastic proton-proton cross section using 60 μb-1 of pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy s of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Inelastic interactions are selected using rings of plastic scintillators in the forward region (2.07 < |η| < 3.86) of the detector. A cross section of 68.1±1.4 mb is measured in the fiducial region ξ=MX2/s > 10-6, where MX is the larger invariant mass of the two hadronic systems separated by the largest rapidity gap in the event. In this ξ range the scintillators are highly efficient. For diffractive events this corresponds to cases where at least one proton dissociates to a system with MX > 13 GeV. The measured cross section is compared with a range of theoretical predictions. When extrapolated to the full phase space, a cross section of 78.1±2.9 mb is measured, consistent with the inelastic cross section increasing with center-of-mass energy.

  4. High-Resolution Radar Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-14

    vThe goal of this project is to formulate and investigate new approaches for forming images of radar targets from spotlight-mode, delay-doppler...the new methods we are studying. There are two modules in the program. The first module produces simulated radar back-scatter data. The simulation...gives the model and fundamental estimation equations for the method we are developing. The abstract is: "A new approach to high resolution radar

  5. Single-particle widths in 208Bi and 209Bi determined from the inelastic proton scattering by 207Pb and 208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusler, A.; Glöckner, H.-J.; Grosse, E.; Moore, C. F.; Solf, J.; von Brentano, P.

    2014-05-01

    Single-particle widths in 209Bi for all particle orbits s1/2, d3/2, d5/2, g7/2, g9/2, i11/2, j15/2 and for the hole orbits p1/2, p3/2, f5/2, f7/2 are deduced from the study of about fifty states in 208Pb with rather pure particle-hole configurations. Relative single-particle widths of the 0+ isobaric analog resonance (IAR) in 208Bi for the orbits p3/2, f5/2, f7/2 are deduced from the 207Pb( p, p') reaction. The 207Pb( p, p') and 208Pb( p, p') reactions via IAR were studied in a scattering chamber experiment of the Max-Planck institute for nuclear physics (Heidelberg, Germany) at scattering angles 40° ≤ Θ ≤ 170°. The semiconductor detectors yielded a resolution of 11-15 keV. Proton energies E p = 14.99, 16.30, 16.45, 16.60, 17.40, 17.47, 17.75 MeV covered the g9/2, j15/2, d5/2, g7/2, and d3/2 IARs in 209Bi, and 11.0 < E p < 11.8 MeV the 0{/g.s. +} IAR in 208Bi. The differential cross sections for nearly 70 levels in 208Pb were determined with an uncertainty of the solid angle of about 2%. Similar measurements of 208Pb( p, p') with the Q3D magnetic spectrograph of the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium (Garching, Germany) 35-45 years later yielded a resolution of about 3 keV. The uncertainty of the differential cross section was 10-30%. Scattering angles covered 20° ≤ Θ ≤ 115° and Θ = 139°. The nonresonant ( p, p') reaction often dominates at scattering angles Θ ≲ 100°. Therefore, only the combination of the two data sets, i) backward angles, precise solid angles but modest resolution, ii) medium scattering angles and high resolution, allows to determine in an iterative manner both the structure of particle-hole states in 208Pb and the relevant single-particle widths in 209Bi.

  6. High resolution SPM imaging of organic molecules with functionalized tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Pavel

    2017-08-01

    One of the most remarkable and exciting achievements in the field of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in the last years is the unprecedented sub-molecular resolution of both atomic and electronic structures of single molecules deposited on solid state surfaces. Despite its youth, the technique has already brought many new possibilities to perform different kinds of measurements, which cannot be accomplished by other techniques. This opens new perspectives in advanced characterization of physical and chemical processes and properties of molecular structures on surfaces. Here, we discuss the history and recent progress of the high resolution imaging with a functionalized probe by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). We describe the mechanisms responsible for the high-resolution AFM, STM and IETS-STM contrast. The complexity of this technique requires new theoretical approaches, where a relaxation of the functionalized probe is considered. We emphasise the similarities of the mechanism driving high-resolution SPM with other imaging methods. We also summarise briefly significant achievements and progress in different branches. Finally we provide brief perspectives and remaining challenges of the further refinement of these high-resolution methods.

  7. High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a High Resolution Scanning Reflectarray Antenna (HRSRA) for the purpose of tracking ground terminals and space craft communication applications. The present invention provides an alternative to using gimbaled parabolic dish antennas and direct radiating phased arrays. When compared to a gimbaled parabolic dish, the HRSRA offers the advantages of vibration free steering without incurring appreciable cost or prime power penalties. In addition, it offers full beam steering at a fraction of the cost of direct radiating arrays and is more efficient.

  8. High-resolution multiphoton cryomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    König, Karsten; Uchugonova, Aisada; Breunig, Hans Georg

    2014-03-15

    An ultracompact high-resolution multiphoton cryomicroscope with a femtosecond near infrared fiber laser has been utilized to study the cellular autofluorescence during freezing and thawing of cells. Cooling resulted in an increase of the intracellular fluorescence intensity followed by morphological modifications at temperatures below -10 °C, depending on the application of the cryoprotectant DMSO and the cooling rate. Furthermore, fluorescence lifetime imaging revealed an increase of the mean lifetime with a decrease in temperature. Non-destructive, label-free optical biopsies of biomaterial in ice can be obtained with sub-20 mW mean powers.

  9. A High Resolution CCD Multiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Larry S.; Kadekod i, Narayan; Nugroho, Yohanes; Lo, Mike; Mortz, Margaret; Ibrahim, Ali

    1983-11-01

    This paper describes a high resolution CCD multiplexer for focal plane imaging systems. The multiplexer incorporates quadrilinear readout registers to achieve two times the resolution of conventional bilinear structure while using the same design rules. Complete parallel charge transfer are ensured by a novel buried channel poly gate isolation scheme. A monolithic silicon photodiode array of 8 Am pitch, 3533 elements was designed with the multi-plexer. Video preprocessing circuits of high speed four to one channel stitching, compensated sample and hold and bad pixel deletion were integrated on chip for improved performance. The modulation transfer functions due to the geometry and the transfer inefficiency are discussed. The theoretically calculated total MTF agrees with the experimental result. At Nyquist frequency of 62.5 c/mm the total MTF is better than 0.6 in the absence of the diffusion MTF degradation. The noise spectrum of the CCD and the output amplifier are presented. The RMS noise of the CCD in dark is approximately 0.35 my over 1 MHz bandwidth. The CCD noise increases with light input attributed primarily to the shot noise. The low noise nature of the multiplexer makes it ideal for the high resolution low light level detection applications.

  10. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 A ring TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron registered accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  11. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 Å TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron® accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  12. High-resolution land topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massonnet, Didier; Elachi, Charles

    2006-11-01

    After a description of the background, methods of production and some scientific uses of high-resolution land topography, we present the current status and the prospect of radar interferometry, regarded as one of the best techniques for obtaining the most global and the most accurate topographic maps. After introducing briefly the theoretical aspects of radar interferometry - principles, limits of operation and various capabilities -, we will focus on the topographic applications that resulted in an almost global topographic map of the earth: the SRTM map. After introducing the Interferometric Cartwheel system, we will build on its expected performances to discuss the scientific prospects of refining a global topographic map to sub-metric accuracy. We also show how other fields of sciences such as hydrology may benefit from the products generated by interferometric radar systems. To cite this article: D. Massonnet, C. Elachi, C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  13. HIRAS, high resolution IRAS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontekoe, Tj. R.; Kester, D. J. M.; Wesselius, P. R.

    The IRAS Software Telescope allows everyone to obtain the state-of-the-art IRAS products (survey, pointed observations, as well as low-resolution spectra) from raw uncalibrated scan data to FITS maps and any stage in between, any size area up to five by five degree, within 24 hours response time, and without the tedious proposal and refereeing process. This is done via an electronic mail server, without manual interaction. High Resolution Images can also be made by running HIRAS, which drives the MemSys5 (Gull & Skilling 1991) maximum entropy package. Herewith a resolution of order one arc-minute, instead of the usual five arc-minutes, can be obtained.

  14. High-resolution interferometric spectrophotopolarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1981-01-01

    Spectrophotopolarimetric capability can be added to a laboratory interferometer-spectrometer by use of a specially designed module described herein. With the instrument so augmented, high-resolution spectra can be obtained of the Stokes parameters of the reference beam and the beams diffusely reflected or transmitted by a sample medium of interest. For any such beam, the exponential Fourier transforms of the two interferograms obtained with a polarizer-analyzer oriented along the 0 deg and the 90 deg directions provide the spectra of I and Q, separately. Within experimental (and numerical) noise, this I spectrum should be the same as the one obtained with the polarizer removed. The remaining Stokes parameters U and V are obtained with a third interferogram recorded with the polarizer along the 45 deg direction. The complete theory of this instrument is described including the detailed analysis of the polarization-interferograms it provides.

  15. High Resolution Thermometry for EXACT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, J. S.; Nash, A. E.; Larson, M.; Mulders, N.

    2000-01-01

    High Resolution Thermometers (HRTs) based on SQUID detection of the magnetization of a paramagnetic salt or a metal alloy has been commonly used for sub-nano Kelvin temperature resolution in low temperature physics experiments. The main applications to date have been for temperature ranges near the lambda point of He-4 (2.177 K). These thermometers made use of materials such as Cu(NH4)2Br4 *2H2O, GdCl3, or PdFe. None of these materials are suitable for EXACT, which will explore the region of the He-3/He-4 tricritical point at 0.87 K. The experiment requirements and properties of several candidate paramagnetic materials will be presented, as well as preliminary test results.

  16. HRSC: High resolution stereo camera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neukum, G.; Jaumann, R.; Basilevsky, A.T.; Dumke, A.; Van Gasselt, S.; Giese, B.; Hauber, E.; Head, J. W.; Heipke, C.; Hoekzema, N.; Hoffmann, H.; Greeley, R.; Gwinner, K.; Kirk, R.; Markiewicz, W.; McCord, T.B.; Michael, G.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Murray, J.B.; Oberst, J.; Pinet, P.; Pischel, R.; Roatsch, T.; Scholten, F.; Willner, K.

    2009-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express has delivered a wealth of image data, amounting to over 2.5 TB from the start of the mapping phase in January 2004 to September 2008. In that time, more than a third of Mars was covered at a resolution of 10-20 m/pixel in stereo and colour. After five years in orbit, HRSC is still in excellent shape, and it could continue to operate for many more years. HRSC has proven its ability to close the gap between the low-resolution Viking image data and the high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera images, leading to a global picture of the geological evolution of Mars that is now much clearer than ever before. Derived highest-resolution terrain model data have closed major gaps and provided an unprecedented insight into the shape of the surface, which is paramount not only for surface analysis and geological interpretation, but also for combination with and analysis of data from other instruments, as well as in planning for future missions. This chapter presents the scientific output from data analysis and highlevel data processing, complemented by a summary of how the experiment is conducted by the HRSC team members working in geoscience, atmospheric science, photogrammetry and spectrophotometry. Many of these contributions have been or will be published in peer-reviewed journals and special issues. They form a cross-section of the scientific output, either by summarising the new geoscientific picture of Mars provided by HRSC or by detailing some of the topics of data analysis concerning photogrammetry, cartography and spectral data analysis.

  17. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  18. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  19. High resolution time interval counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Victor S.; Davis, Dick D.; Lombardi, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, we have developed two types of high resolution, multi-channel time interval counters. In the NIST two-way time transfer MODEM application, the counter is designed for operating primarily in the interrupt-driven mode, with 3 start channels and 3 stop channels. The intended start and stop signals are 1 PPS, although other frequencies can also be applied to start and stop the count. The time interval counters used in the NIST Frequency Measurement and Analysis System are implemented with 7 start channels and 7 stop channels. Four of the 7 start channels are devoted to the frequencies of 1 MHz, 5 MHz or 10 MHz, while triggering signals to all other start and stop channels can range from 1 PPS to 100 kHz. Time interval interpolation plays a key role in achieving the high resolution time interval measurements for both counters. With a 10 MHz time base, both counters demonstrate a single-shot resolution of better than 40 ps, and a stability of better than 5 x 10(exp -12) (sigma(sub chi)(tau)) after self test of 1000 seconds). The maximum rate of time interval measurements (with no dead time) is 1.0 kHz for the counter used in the MODEM application and is 2.0 kHz for the counter used in the Frequency Measurement and Analysis System. The counters are implemented as plug-in units for an AT-compatible personal computer. This configuration provides an efficient way of using a computer not only to control and operate the counters, but also to store and process measured data.

  20. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefitted greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  1. Inelastic scattering of polarized protons and a possible hexadecapole-shape transition between the light /sup 74,76,78/Se and the heavy /sup 80,82/Se isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuki, S.; Higo, T.; Ohsawa, T.; Shiba, T.; Yanabu, Y.; Ogino, K.; Kadota, Y.; Haga, K.; Sakamoto, N.; Kume, K.; Matoba, M.

    1983-11-07

    The ground-state band up to the 4/sup +/ state in the even /sup 74approximately82/Se isotopes was studied by inelastic scattering of polarized protons at 65 MeV. Both the cross-section sigma(theta) and the analyzing-power A(theta) measurements leading to the 4/sup +/ state in the light /sup 74,76,78/Se isotopes show quite different shapes from those in the heavy /sup 80,82/Se isotopes. Coupled-channels analyses show that both the sigma(theta) and A(theta) distributions are well reproduced with a positive deformation parameter ..beta../sub 4/ in /sup 74,76,78/Se, but with a negative ..beta../sub 4/ in /sup 80,82/Se, indicating a hexadecapole-shape transition between /sup 78/Se and /sup 80/Se.

  2. Proton Resonance Frequency Chemical Shift Thermometry: Experimental Design and Validation Towards High-Resolution Non-Invasive Temperature Monitoring, and in vivo Experience in a Non-human Primate Model of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Dehkharghani, Seena; Mao, Hui; Howell, Leonard; Zhang, Xiaodong; Pate, K S; Magrath, P R; Tong, Frank; Wei, L; Qiu, D; Fleischer, C; Oshinski, J N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Applications for non-invasive biological temperature monitoring are widespread in biomedicine, and of particular interest in the context of brain temperature regulation, where traditionally costly and invasive monitoring schemes limit their applicability in many settings. Brain thermal regulation therefore remains controversial, motivating the development of non-invasive approaches such as temperature-sensitive NMR phenomena. The purpose of this work was to compare the utility of competing approaches to MR thermometry (MRT) employing proton resonance frequency chemical shift. Three methodologies were tested, hypothesizing the feasibility of a fast and accurate approach to chemical shift thermometry, in a phantom study at 3.0 Tesla. MATERIALS AND METHODS A conventional, paired approach (DIFF-1), an accelerated single-scan approach (DIFF-2), and a new, further accelerated strategy (DIFF-3) were tested. Phantom temperatures were modulated during real-time fiber optic temperature monitoring, with MRT derived simultaneously from temperature-sensitive changes in the water proton chemical shift (~0.01 ppm/°C). MRT was subsequently performed in a series of in vivo non-human primate experiments under physiologic and ischemic conditions testing its reproducibility and overall performance. RESULTS Chemical shift thermometry demonstrated excellent agreement with phantom temperatures for all three approaches (DIFF-1 linear regression R2=0.994, p<0.001, acquisition time 4 min 40 s; DIFF-2 R2=0.996, p<0.001, acquisition time 4 min; DIFF-3 R2=0.998, p<0.001, acquisition time 40 s). CONCLUSION These findings confirm the comparability in performance of three competing approaches MRT, and present in vivo applications under physiologic and ischemic conditions in a primate stroke model. PMID:25655874

  3. Proton resonance frequency chemical shift thermometry: experimental design and validation toward high-resolution noninvasive temperature monitoring and in vivo experience in a nonhuman primate model of acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Dehkharghani, S; Mao, H; Howell, L; Zhang, X; Pate, K S; Magrath, P R; Tong, F; Wei, L; Qiu, D; Fleischer, C; Oshinski, J N

    2015-06-01

    Applications for noninvasive biologic temperature monitoring are widespread in biomedicine and of particular interest in the context of brain temperature regulation, where traditionally costly and invasive monitoring schemes limit their applicability in many settings. Brain thermal regulation, therefore, remains controversial, motivating the development of noninvasive approaches such as temperature-sensitive nuclear MR phenomena. The purpose of this work was to compare the utility of competing approaches to MR thermometry by using proton resonance frequency chemical shift. We tested 3 methodologies, hypothesizing the feasibility of a fast and accurate approach to chemical shift thermometry, in a phantom study at 3T. A conventional, paired approach (difference [DIFF]-1), an accelerated single-scan approach (DIFF-2), and a new, further accelerated strategy (DIFF-3) were tested. Phantom temperatures were modulated during real-time fiber optic temperature monitoring, with MR thermometry derived simultaneously from temperature-sensitive changes in the water proton chemical shift (∼0.01 ppm/°C). MR thermometry was subsequently performed in a series of in vivo nonhuman primate experiments under physiologic and ischemic conditions, testing its reproducibility and overall performance. Chemical shift thermometry demonstrated excellent agreement with phantom temperatures for all 3 approaches (DIFF-1: linear regression R(2) = 0.994; P < .001; acquisition time = 4 minutes 40 seconds; DIFF-2: R(2) = 0.996; P < .001; acquisition time = 4 minutes; DIFF-3: R(2) = 0.998; P < .001; acquisition time = 40 seconds). These findings confirm the comparability in performance of 3 competing approaches to MR thermometry and present in vivo applications under physiologic and ischemic conditions in a primate stroke model. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  4. High resolution imaging at Palomar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    1992-01-01

    For the last two years we have embarked on a program of understanding the ultimate limits of ground-based optical imaging. We have designed and fabricated a camera specifically for high resolution imaging. This camera has now been pressed into service at the prime focus of the Hale 5 m telescope. We have concentrated on two techniques: the Non-Redundant Masking (NRM) and Weigelt's Fully Filled Aperture (FFA) method. The former is the optical analog of radio interferometry and the latter is a higher order extension of the Labeyrie autocorrelation method. As in radio Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), both these techniques essentially measure the closure phase and, hence, true image construction is possible. We have successfully imaged binary stars and asteroids with angular resolution approaching the diffraction limit of the telescope and image quality approaching that of a typical radio VLBI map. In addition, we have carried out analytical and simulation studies to determine the ultimate limits of ground-based optical imaging, the limits of space-based interferometric imaging, and investigated the details of imaging tradeoffs of beam combination in optical interferometers.

  5. High-resolution infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, Charles M.

    2010-08-01

    The hands and mind of an artist are intimately involved in the creative process of image formation, intrinsically making paintings significantly more complex than photographs to analyze. In spite of this difficulty, several years ago the artist David Hockney and I identified optical evidence within a number of paintings that demonstrated artists began using optical projections as early as c1425 - nearly 175 years before Galileo - as aids for producing portions of their images. In the course of our work, Hockney and I developed insights that I have been applying to a new approach to computerized image analysis. Recently I developed and characterized a portable high resolution infrared for capturing additional information from paintings. Because many pigments are semi-transparent in the IR, in a number of cases IR photographs ("reflectograms") have revealed marks made by the artists that had been hidden under paint ever since they were made. I have used this IR camera to capture photographs ("reflectograms") of hundreds of paintings in over a dozen museums on three continents and, in some cases, these reflectograms have provided new insights into decisions the artists made in creating the final images that we see in the visible.

  6. High resolution auditory perception system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Iftekhar; Ghatol, Ashok

    2005-04-01

    Blindness is a sensory disability which is difficult to treat but can to some extent be helped by artificial aids. The paper describes the design aspects of a high resolution auditory perception system, which is designed on the principle of air sonar with binaural perception. This system is a vision substitution aid for enabling blind persons. The blind person wears ultrasonic eyeglasses which has ultrasonic sensor array embedded on it. The system has been designed to operate in multiresolution modes. The ultrasonic sound from the transmitter array is reflected back by the objects, falling in the beam of the array and is received. The received signal is converted to a sound signal, which is presented stereophonically for auditory perception. A detailed study has been done as the background work required for the system implementation; the appropriate range analysis procedure, analysis of space-time signals, the acoustic sensors study, amplification methods and study of the removal of noise using filters. Finally the system implementation including both the hardware and the software part of it has been described. Experimental results on actual blind subjects and inferences obtained during the study have also been included.

  7. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  8. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  9. High resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudin, Jim; Dinyari, Rostam; Huie, Phil; Butterwick, Alex; Peumans, Peter; Palanker, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight in patients with retinal degeneration by delivering pulsed electric currents to retinal neurons via an array of microelectrodes. Most implants use inductive or optical transmission of information and power to an intraocular receiver, with decoded signals subsequently distributed to retinal electrodes through an intraocular cable. Surgical complexity could be minimized by an "integrated" prosthesis, in which both power and data are delivered directly to the stimulating array without any discrete components or cables. We present here an integrated retinal prosthesis system based on a photodiode array implant. Video frames are processed and imaged onto the retinal implant by a video goggle projection system operating at near-infrared wavelengths (~ 900 nm). Photodiodes convert light into pulsed electric current, with charge injection maximized by specially optimized series photodiode circuits. Prostheses of three different pixel densities (16 pix/mm2, 64 pix/mm2, and 256 pix/mm2) have been designed, simulated, and prototyped. Retinal tissue response to subretinal implants made of various materials has been investigated in RCS rats. The resulting prosthesis can provide sufficient charge injection for high resolution retinal stimulation without the need for implantation of any bulky discrete elements such as coils or tethers. In addition, since every pixel functions independently, pixel arrays may be placed separately in the subretinal space, providing visual stimulation to a larger field of view.

  10. High-Resolution Mass Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Alan G.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.

    2008-07-01

    Over the past decade, mass spectrometry has been revolutionized by access to instruments of increasingly high mass-resolving power. For small molecules up to ˜400 Da (e.g., drugs, metabolites, and various natural organic mixtures ranging from foods to petroleum), it is possible to determine elemental compositions (CcHhNnOoSsPp…) of thousands of chemical components simultaneously from accurate mass measurements (the same can be done up to 1000 Da if additional information is included). At higher mass, it becomes possible to identify proteins (including posttranslational modifications) from proteolytic peptides, as well as lipids, glycoconjugates, and other biological components. At even higher mass (˜100,000 Da or higher), it is possible to characterize posttranslational modifications of intact proteins and to map the binding surfaces of large biomolecule complexes. Here we review the principles and techniques of the highest-resolution analytical mass spectrometers (time-of-flight and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass analyzers) and describe some representative high-resolution applications.

  11. Evaluation of Advanced Bionics high resolution mode.

    PubMed

    Buechner, Andreas; Frohne-Buechner, Carolin; Gaertner, Lutz; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Lenarz, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the advantages of the Advanced Bionic high resolution mode for speech perception, through a retrospective analysis. Forty-five adult subjects were selected who had a minimum experience of three months' standard mode (mean of 10 months) before switching to high resolution mode. Speech perception was tested in standard mode immediately before fitting with high resolution mode, and again after a maximum of six months high resolution mode usage (mean of two months). A significant improvement was found, between 11 and 17%, depending on the test material. The standard mode preference does not give any indication about the improvement when switching to high resolution. Users who are converted within any study achieve a higher performance improvement than those converted in the clinical routine. This analysis proves the significant benefits of high resolution mode for users, and also indicates the need for guidelines for individual optimization of parameter settings in a high resolution mode program.

  12. High-resolution slug testing.

    PubMed

    Zemansky, G M; McElwee, C D

    2005-01-01

    The hydraulic conductivity (K) variation has important ramifications for ground water flow and the transport of contaminants in ground water. The delineation of the nature of that variation can be critical to complete characterization of a site and the planning of effective and efficient remedial measures. Site-specific features (such as high-conductivity zones) need to be quantified. Our alluvial field site in the Kansas River valley exhibits spatial variability, very high conductivities, and nonlinear behavior for slug tests in the sand and gravel aquifer. High-resolution, multilevel slug tests have been performed in a number of wells that are fully screened. A general nonlinear model based on the Navier-Stokes equation, nonlinear frictional loss, non-Darcian flow, acceleration effects, radius changes in the wellbore, and a Hvorslev model for the aquifer has been used to analyze the data, employing an automated processing system that runs within the Excel spreadsheet program. It is concluded that slug tests can provide the necessary data to identify the nature of both horizontal and vertical K variation in an aquifer and that improved delineation or higher resolution of K structure is possible with shorter test intervals. The gradation into zones of higher conductivity is sharper than seen previously, and the maximum conductivity observed is greater than previously measured. However, data from this project indicate that well development, the presence of fines, and the antecedent history of the well are important interrelated factors in regard to slug-test response and can prevent obtaining consistent results in some cases.

  13. Next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to jet cross sections and jet rates in deeply inelastic electron-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Graudenz, D. )

    1994-04-01

    Jet cross sections in deeply inelastic scattering in the case of transverse photon exchange for the production of (1+1) and (2+1) jets are calculated in next-to-leading-order QCD (here the +1'' stands for the target remnant jet, which is included in the jet definition). The jet definition scheme is based on a modified JADE cluster algorithm. The calculation of the (2+1) jet cross section is described in detail. Results for the virtual corrections as well as for the real initial- and final-state corrections are given explicitly. Numerical results are stated for jet cross sections as well as for the ratio [sigma][sub (2+1) jet]/[sigma][sub tot] that can be expected at E665 and DESY HERA. Furthermore the scale ambiguity of the calculated jet cross sections is studied and different parton density parametrizations are compared.

  14. Multiplexed high resolution soft x-ray RIXS

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Y.-D.; Voronov, D.; Warwick, T.; Yashchuk, V.; Padmore, H. A.; Anderson, C.; Benk, M.; Goldberg, K.

    2016-07-27

    High-resolution Resonance Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is a technique that allows us to probe the electronic excitations of complex materials with unprecedented precision. However, the RIXS process has a low cross section, compounded by the fact that the optical spectrometers used to analyze the scattered photons can only collect a small solid angle and overall have a small efficiency. Here we present a method to significantly increase the throughput of RIXS systems, by energy multiplexing, so that a complete RIXS map of scattered intensity versus photon energy in and photon energy out can be recorded simultaneously{sup 1}. This parallel acquisition scheme should provide a gain in throughput of over 100.. A system based on this principle, QERLIN, is under construction at the Advanced Light Source (ALS).

  15. High Resolution TPM Cosmological Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guohong

    1995-01-01

    studied several variations of Cold Dark Matter (CDM) type. The standard CDM model, although with many known problems, is treated to compare with the previous simulations. The low density models with and without a cosmological constant are of special interest because they give better fit to the large scale structure and much observational evidence implies that Omega_0 < 1.. With our high resolution simulations, we are specially interested to study the structure of the objects from different cosmological models. The slopes of the dark halo density profiles from different models are only slightly different from each other, with a broad distribution within each model. All the models can successfully produce flat rotation curves for dark halos. We find the biggest difference in the cluster structure among various models is the predicted X-ray core radius. The standard CDM model predicts bigger X-ray core radius than the low density models, but all the models predicts smaller core radius than that from X-ray observations. We find the low density models can produce significant substructures in X-ray clusters to be in agreement with observations, while the X-ray clusters in the standard CDM model are known to have abundant substructures.

  16. Vibrationally inelastic low-energy CO/+/ - Ar collisions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petty, F.; Moran, T. F.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of relative differential cross sections for inelastic scattering of CO(+) by Ar with a high-resolution ion-beam apparatus in which a CO(+) beam interacts with a neutral-Ar beam, and the energy, mass, and angular distribution of scattered ions are measured. Maxima in the inelastic energy-loss spectra occur at energies corresponding to CO(+) spectroscopic vibrational spacings. Weakly inelastic processes are observed below the threshold for vibrational energy loss, corresponding to rotational excitation with the relative importance of rotational transitions increasing with decreasing energy and scattering angle.

  17. Lorentz violation and deep inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostelecký, V. Alan; Lunghi, E.; Vieira, A. R.

    2017-06-01

    The effects of quark-sector Lorentz violation on deep inelastic electron-proton scattering are studied. We show that existing data can be used to establish first constraints on numerous coefficients for Lorentz violation in the quark sector at an estimated sensitivity of parts in a million.

  18. Lorentz violation and deep inelastic scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Kostelecký, V. Alan; Lunghi, E.; Vieira, A. R.

    2017-03-28

    We study the effects of quark-sector Lorentz violation on deep inelastic electron–proton scattering. Here, we show that existing data can be used to establish first constraints on numerous coefficients for Lorentz violation in the quark sector at an estimated sensitivity of parts in a million.

  19. Development of a high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola.

    PubMed

    Jung, D; Hörlein, R; Kiefer, D; Letzring, S; Gautier, D C; Schramm, U; Hübsch, C; Öhm, R; Albright, B J; Fernandez, J C; Habs, D; Hegelich, B M

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report on the development of a novel high resolution and high dispersion Thomson parabola for simultaneously resolving protons and low-Z ions of more than 100 MeV/nucleon necessary to explore novel laser ion acceleration schemes. High electric and magnetic fields enable energy resolutions of ΔE∕E < 5% at 100 MeV/nucleon and impede premature merging of different ion species at low energies on the detector plane. First results from laser driven ion acceleration experiments performed at the Trident Laser Facility demonstrate high resolution and superior species and charge state separation of this novel Thomson parabola for ion energies of more than 30 MeV/nucleon.

  20. High resolution scintillation detector with semiconductor readout

    DOEpatents

    Levin, Craig S.; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2000-01-01

    A novel high resolution scintillation detector array for use in radiation imaging such as high resolution Positron Emission Tomography (PET) which comprises one or more parallelepiped crystals with at least one long surface of each crystal being in intimate contact with a semiconductor photodetector such that photons generated within each crystal by gamma radiation passing therethrough is detected by the photodetector paired therewith.

  1. High Resolution PDF Measurements on Ag Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Tulio C. R.; Martin, Chris; Kycia, Stefan; Zanchet, Daniela

    2009-01-29

    The quantitative analysis of structural defects in Ag nanoparticles was addressed in this work. We performed atomic scale structural characterization by a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD) using the Pair Distribution Function analysis (PDF) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The XRD measurements were performed using an innovative instrumentation setup to provide high resolution PDF patterns.

  2. Vibrations and reorientations of H2O molecules in [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2 studied by Raman light scattering, incoherent inelastic neutron scattering and proton magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Hetmańczyk, Joanna; Hetmańczyk, Lukasz; Migdał-Mikuli, Anna; Mikuli, Edward; Florek-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Harańczyk, Hubert

    2014-04-24

    Vibrational-reorientational dynamics of H2O ligands in the high- and low-temperature phases of [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2 was investigated by Raman Spectroscopy (RS), proton magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), quasielastic and inelastic incoherent Neutron Scattering (QENS and IINS) methods. Neutron powder diffraction (NPD) measurements, performed simultaneously with QENS, did not indicated a change of the crystal structure at the phase transition (detected earlier by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at TC(h)=252.9 K (on heating) and at TC(c)=226.5K (on cooling)). Temperature dependence of the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of νs(OH) band at ca. 3248 cm(-1) in the RS spectra indicated small discontinuity in the vicinity of phase transition temperature, what suggests that the observed phase transition may be associated with a change of the H2O reorientational dynamics. However, an activation energy value (Ea) for the reorientational motions of H2O ligands in both phases is nearly the same and equals to ca. 8 kJ mol(-1). The QENS peaks, registered for low temperature phase do not show any broadening. However, in the high temperature phase a small QENS broadening is clearly visible, what implies that the reorientational dynamics of H2O ligands undergoes a change at the phase transition. (1)H NMR line is a superposition of two powder Pake doublets, differentiated by a dipolar broadening, suggesting that there are two types of the water molecules in the crystal lattice of [Sr(H2O)6]Cl2 which are structurally not equivalent average distances between the interacting protons are: 1.39 and 1.18 Å. However, their reorientational dynamics is very similar (τc=3.3⋅10(-10) s). Activation energies for the reorientational motion of these both kinds of H2O ligands have nearly the same values in an experimental error limit: and equal to ca. 40 kJ mole(-1). The phase transition is not seen in the (1)H NMR spectra temperature dependencies. Infrared (IR), Raman (RS) and inelastic

  3. Investigation of the structure of deep hole states in {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb by means of inelastic proton scattering at 1 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Vorob`ev, A.A.; Dotsenko, Yu.V.; Lobodenko, A.A.

    1995-11-01

    A missing-mass correlation spectrometer with overall energy resolution FWHM = 3.5 MeV is used to study the reactions (p, 2p) and (p, np) on {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb nuclei at energy T{sub 0} = 1.0 GeV under experimental conditions permitting complete kinematic reconstruction. Proton- and neutron-separation-energy spectra are obtained in a wide binding-energy range. Empirical regularities observed in the evolution of the principal parameters of deep hole states of protons and neutrons in going from light to heavy nuclei are discussed. Experimental data are analyzed by the Hartree-Fock method with Skyrme forces, as well as with modified Moszkowski {delta} interaction. 26 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Microcoil high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Hans; Brinkmann, Andreas; van Eck, Ernst R H; van Bentum, P Jan M; Kentgens, Arno P M

    2006-07-12

    We report the construction of a dual-channel microcoil nuclear magnetic resonance probehead allowing magic-angle spinning for mass-limited samples. With coils down to 235 mum inner diameter, this allows high-resolution solid-state NMR spectra to be obtained for amounts of materials of a few nanoliters. This is demonstrated by the carbon-13 spectrum of a tripeptide and a single silk rod, prepared from the silk gland of the Bombyx mori silkworm. Furthermore, the microcoil allows for radio frequency field strengths well beyond current probe technology, aiding in getting the highest possible resolution by efficiently decoupling the observed nuclei from the abundantly present proton nuclei.

  5. Quantum electrodynamics, high-resolution spectroscopy and fundamental constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karshenboim, Savely G.; Ivanov, Vladimir G.

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in high-resolution spectroscopy has delivered us a variety of accurate optical results, which can be used for the determination of the atomic fundamental constants and for constraining their possible time variation. We present a brief overview of the results discussing in particular, the determination of the Rydberg constant, the relative atomic weight of the electron and proton, their mass ratio and the fine structure constant. Many individual results on those constants are obtained with use of quantum electrodynamics, and we discuss which sectors of QED are involved. We derive constraints on a possible time variation of the fine structure constants and me/mp.

  6. NOAA's Use of High-Resolution Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hund, Erik

    2007-01-01

    NOAA's use of high-resolution imagery consists of: a) Shoreline mapping and nautical chart revision; b) Coastal land cover mapping; c) Benthic habitat mapping; d) Disaster response; and e) Imagery collection and support for coastal programs.

  7. Results from the High Resolution Fly's Eye Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Jui, C. C. H.

    2011-09-22

    The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Experiment operated two fluorescence detector sites in the western Utah desert between 1997 and 2006. The HiRes results on the cosmic ray spectrum are consistent with the GZK Suppression predicted at 10{sup 19.8} eV and observe an ankle structure at 10{sup 18.5} eV. These spectral features are consistent with a proton-dominated composition for cosmic rays at the highest energies. The HiRes composition studies of both the mean and the variance of the shower maximum depth (X{sub max}) also give results that are completely consistent with a predominately protonic composition, and inconsistent with heavy nuclei such as iron. We also report on the result of anisotropy studies.

  8. Johann Spectrometer for High Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machek, Pavel; Welter, Edmund; Caliebe, Wolfgang; Brüggmann, Ulf; Dräger, Günter; Fröba, Michael

    2007-01-01

    A newly designed vacuum Johann spectrometer with a large focusing analyzer crystal for inelastic x-ray scattering and high resolution fluorescence spectroscopy has been installed at the DORIS III storage ring. Spherically bent crystals with a maximum diameter of 125 mm, and cylindrically bent crystals are employed as dispersive optical elements. Standard radius of curvature of the crystals is 1000 mm, however, the design of the mechanical components also facilitates measurements with smaller and larger bending radii. Up to four crystals are mounted on a revolving crystal changer which enables crystal changes without breaking the vacuum. The spectrometer works at fixed Bragg angle. It is preferably designed for the measurements in non-scanning mode with a broad beam spot, and offers a large flexibility to set the sample to the optimum position inside the Rowland circle. A deep depletion CCD camera is employed as a position sensitive detector to collect the energy-analyzed photons on the circumference of the Rowland circle. The vacuum in the spectrometer tank is typically 10-6 mbar. The sample chamber is separated from the tank either by 25 μm thick Kapton windows, which allows samples to be measured under ambient conditions, or by two gate valves. The spectrometer is currently installed at wiggler beamline W1 whose working range is 4-10.5 keV with typical flux at the sample of 5×1010photons/s/mm2. The capabilities of the spectrometer are illustrated by resonant inelastic experiments on 3d transition metals and rare earth compounds, and by chemical shift measurements on chromium compounds.

  9. Practical aspects of high resolution esophageal manometry.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de León San Juan, Antonio; Ciriza de Los Ríos, Constanza; Pérez de la Serna Bueno, Julio; Canga Rodríguez-Valcárcel, Fernando; Estremera Arévalo, Fermín; García Sánchez, Raquel; Huamán Ríos, José Walter; Pérez Fernández, María Teresa; Santander Vaquero, Cecilio; Serra Pueyo, Jordi; Sevilla Mantilla, Concepción; Barba Orozco, Elisabeth; Bosque López, María José; Casabona Francés, Sergio; Carrión Bolorino, Silvia; Castillo Grau, Pilar; Delgado Aros, Silvia; Domínguez Carbajo, Ana Belén; Fernández Orcajo, Pilar; García-Lledó, Javier; Gigantó Tomé, Froilán; Iglesias Picazo, Rosa; Lacima Vidal, Gloria; López López, Pilar; Llabrés Rosselló, Magdalena; Mas Mercader, Pilar; Mego Silva, Marianela; Mendarte Barrenetxea, María Usua; Miliani Molina, Carlos; Oreja Arrayago, Milagros; Sánchez Ceballos, Francisco; Sánchez Prudencio, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    High resolution esophageal manometry (HRM) is currently under development as can be seen in the various Chicago classifications. In order to standardize criteria in certain practical aspects with limited scientific evidence, the First National Meeting for Consensus in High Resolution Manometry of the Spanish Digestive Motility Group took place, bringing together a wide group of experts. The proposals were based on a prior survey composed of 47 questions, an exhaustive review of the available literature and the experience of the participants. Methodological aspects relating to the poorly defined analysis criteria of certain new high resolution parameters were discussed, as well as other issues previously overlooked such as spontaneous activity or secondary waves. Final conclusions were drawn with practical applications.

  10. A high-resolution tungstate membrane label

    SciTech Connect

    Hainfeld, J.F.; Quaite, F.E. ); Lipka, J.J. )

    1990-01-01

    A new class of membrane labels was synthesized which contain a tungstate cluster (having 11 tungsten atoms) and an aliphatic organo-tin moiety with various chain lengths (C{sub 4}, C{sub 8}, C{sub 12}, C{sub 18}, C{sub 22}). These molecules were found to insert into synthetic phospholipid vesicles and biological membranes (human red blood cell membranes). The tungstate clusters can be individually visualized in the high resolution STEM or seen en mass in thin-sectioned labeled membranes in the CTEM. These new labels should provide a means for direct high-resolution imaging of lipid-phase systems.

  11. RAPID DAMAGE ASSESSMENT FROM HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan; Bright, Eddie A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2008-01-01

    Disaster impact modeling and analysis uses huge volumes of image data that are produced immediately following a natural or an anthropogenic disaster event. Rapid damage assessment is the key to time critical decision support in disaster management to better utilize available response resources and accelerate recovery and relief efforts. But exploiting huge volumes of high resolution image data for identifying damaged areas with robust consistency in near real time is a challenging task. In this paper, we present an automated image analysis technique to identify areas of structural damage from high resolution optical satellite data using features based on image content.

  12. Inelastic electron scattering from a moving nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, S.E.; Griffioen, K.

    1994-04-01

    The authors propose to measure inelastically scattered electrons in coincidence with spectator protons emitted backwards relative to the virtual photon direction in the reaction d(e, e{prime}p{sub s})X. In a simple spectator model, the backward proton has equal and opposite momentum to the neutron before it is struck, allowing the authors to study the dependence on kinematics and off-shell behaviour of the electron-nucleon inelastic cross section. If the photon couples to a quark in a 6-quark bag, a different dependence of the cross section on the kinematic variables (x, Q{sup 2}, and p{sub s}) can be observed. This proposed experiment requires large acceptance and beam energies above 6 GeV. It is ideally suited for the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS).

  13. High-resolution two dimensional advective transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Larock, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    The paper describes a two-dimensional high-resolution scheme for advective transport that is based on a Eulerian-Lagrangian method with a flux limiter. The scheme is applied to the problem of pure-advection of a rotated Gaussian hill and shown to preserve the monotonicity property of the governing conservation law.

  14. Titania High-Resolution Color Composite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This high-resolution color composite of Titania was made from NASA Voyager 2 images taken Jan. 24, 1986, as the spacecraft neared its closest approach to Uranus. A large, trenchlike feature is seen near the terminator. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00036

  15. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  16. A High-Resolution Stopwatch for Cents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingl, Z.; Kopasz, K.

    2011-01-01

    A very low-cost, easy-to-make stopwatch is presented to support various experiments in mechanics. The high-resolution stopwatch is based on two photodetectors connected directly to the microphone input of a sound card. Dedicated free open-source software has been developed and made available to download. The efficiency is demonstrated by a free…

  17. High-Resolution Global Soil Moisture Map

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-19

    High-resolution global soil moisture map from NASA SMAP combined radar and radiometer instruments, acquired between May 4 and May 11, 2015 during SMAP commissioning phase. The map has a resolution of 5.6 miles (9 kilometers). The data gap is due to turning the instruments on and off during testing. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19337

  18. Inclusive inelastic scattering of heavy ions and nuclear correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.; Khandelwal, Govind S.

    1990-01-01

    Calculations of inclusive inelastic scattering distributions for heavy ion collisions are considered within the high energy optical model. Using ground state sum rules, the inclusive projectile and complete projectile-target inelastic angular distributions are treated in both independent particle and correlated nuclear models. Comparisons between the models introduced are made for alpha particles colliding with He-4, C-12, and O-16 targets and protons colliding with O-16. Results indicate that correlations contribute significantly, at small momentum transfers, to the inelastic sum. Correlation effects are hidden, however, when total scattering distributions are considered because of the dominance of elastic scattering at small momentum transfers.

  19. Mechanism of high-resolution STM, AFM and IETS-STM imaging with functionalized tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temirov, R.; Hapala, P.; Tautz, F. S.; Jelinek, P.

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution AFM and STM with functionalized tips is well established, but a detailed understanding of the image mechanism is still missing. Moreover, recently this family of imaging techniques has been complemented by a method based on inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy. Here we present a comprehensive mechanical and transport simulation model that explains essentially all image features in functionalized tip STM, AFM and IETS-STM. Important aspects of the mechanism are: (i) Images are dominantly determined by Pauli repulsion, (ii) in STM and IETS STM this force signal is transduced into an elastic or inelastic conductance signal, (iii) probe particle relaxation leads to image sharpening, (iv) the apparent imaging of hydrogen bonds can be explained by a relaxation effect, and (v) electrostatic forces may also influence the image contrast.

  20. High Resolution Resonant Inelastic Light Scattering from 185 to 900 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubhausen, Michael; Backstrom, Joakim; Schulz, Benjamin; Kruger, Rilana; Budelmann, Dirk

    2003-03-01

    We present the concept, design, and first results of a spectrally very agile Raman spectrometer that has a fully achromatic and parabolic focussing on the sample and an achromatic coupling into a spectrometer that operates in a wavelength range between 185 and 900 nm. Due to the diffraction limited imaging it features very high spectral and spatial resolution as well as excellent efficiency. A special spatial filter stage between the two subtractively coupled premonochromators allows very high straylight rejection even in the deep ultraviolett spectral range. This filter stage is also common to all systems previously developed in the 'ultimative triple' series by Miles Klein (Urbana-Champaign) and is shown here to be crucial for measurements in this difficult spectral range. First results of resonance Raman measurements on Silicon, LaMnO3 and the Keratin matrix are shown and compared with theoretical expectations.

  1. Backscattering channel-cut high-resolution monochromator for inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushnir, Vladimir I.; Abbamonte, Peter M.; Macrander, Albert T.; Schwoerer-Boehning, Markus

    1997-12-01

    We report on a design and on some experimental results for the performance of a new high energy resolution monochromator. It is a large channel-cut Si crystal with a 197 mm separation between the two faces designed to operate in a near-backscattering regime. The device was tested as a second monochromator on Sector 3 of the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Collaborative Access Team at the Advanced Photon Source using the Si(777) reflection at a photon energy of 13.84 keV. The same monochromator can be used for other energies with reflections of the type (hhh). Special care has been taken to equalize the temperature of the two faces by employing a Peltier heat pump. A Si(111) double-crystal pre-monochromator designed to withstand the high heat load of the undulator radiation was used upstream on the beamline. The measured throughput efficiency of the Si(777) channel-cut monochromator was less than ideal by a factor of 1.9. Dynamical diffraction theory was used to calculate the throughput of an ideally perfect crystal.

  2. Back-scattering channel-cut high-resolution monochromator for inelastic x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kushnir, V.I.; Abbamonte, P.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Schwoerer-Boehning, M.

    1997-08-01

    We report on a design and on some experimental results for the performance of a new high energy resolution monochromator. It is a large channel-cut Si crystal with a 197 mm separation between the two faces designed to operate in a near-backscattering regime. The device was tested as a second monochromator on Sector 3 of the Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation Collaborative Access Team (SRI-CAT) at the Advanced Photon Source using the Si(777) reflection at a photon energy of 13.84 keV. The same monochromator can be used for other energies with reflections of the type (hhh). Special care has been taken to equalize the temperature of the two faces by employing a Peltier heat pump. A Si(111) double-crystal pre-monochromator designed to withstand the high heat load of the undulator radiation was used upstream on the beamline. The measured throughput efficiency of the Si(777) channel-cut monochromator was less ideal by a factor of 1.9. Dynamical diffraction theory was used to calculate the throughput of an ideally perfect crystal.

  3. Results from the High Resolution Fly's Eye Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jui, C. C. H.; HIRES Collaboration

    2007-03-01

    The High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) Experiment has been in operation in monocular mode since 1997. The HiRes results on the cosmic ray spectrum are consistent with the GZK Suppression at 1019.8 eV and observes an ankle structure at 1018.5 eV. Composition studies of Hires stereo data shows a predominantly light composition in the energy range 1018.0 - 1019.3 eV. We also report on the result of the proton-air cross section measurement from the tails of the XMAX distribution. Various anisotropy studies have yielded null results. However, an apparent correlation between HiRes stereo events and BL-Lac objects has been reported.

  4. High Resolution Convective Heat Transfer Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-30

    ONR Thermal Materials Workshop 2001 1 HIGH RESOLUTION CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER MEASUREMENTS Peter Ireland and Terry Jones R-R UTC in Heat Transfer...temperatures. • Fluid dynamics correct through use of Reynolds number, Mach number and Prandtl number. Mach)Pr,(Re,fNu Dimensionless heat transfer...depends on local h su rf ac e te m p T s gas temperature Tg timestart of test hTc Calibration Test data ONR Thermal Materials Workshop 2001 10 Heat

  5. Use of High Resolution Simulations Training Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    observed data or subject matter expert ( SME ) data for development of training programs. Simulation derived data is neither observable nor viewed as...training developer has habitually relied on SMEs and questionaire data gathering techniques. The nature of current high resolution simulations allow for the...system. These task lists describe the individual and collective tasks to be performed by the operators of the new sem. Additionally, the SMEs on the new

  6. High resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.

    1983-01-01

    A class of new explicit second order accurate finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is presented. These highly nonlinear schemes are obtained by applying a nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme to an appropriately modified flux function. The so-derived second order accurate schemes achieve high resolution while preserving the robustness of the original nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the performance of these new schemes.

  7. A high-resolution anatomical rat atlas

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xueling; Yu, Li; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Jie; Li, Anan; Han, Dao; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the availability of a high-resolution atlas of the adult rat. The atlas is composed of 9475 cryosectional images captured in 4600 × 2580 × 24-bit TIFF format, constructed using serial cryosection-milling techniques. Cryosection images were segmented, labelled and reconstructed into three-dimensional (3D) computerized models. These images, 3D models, technical details, relevant software and further information are available at our website, http://vchibp.vicp.net/vch/mice/. PMID:17062027

  8. Stellar Tools for High Resolution Population Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chávez, M.; Bertone, E.; Rodríguez-Merino, L.; Buzzoni, A.

    2005-12-01

    We present preliminary results of the application of a new stellar library of high-resolution synthetic spectra (based upon ATLAS9 and SYNTHE codes developed by R. L. Kurucz) in the calculation of the ultraviolet-optical spectral energy distribution of simple stellar populations (SSPs). For this purpose, the library has been coupled with Buzzoni's population synthesis code. Part of this paper is also devoted to illustrate quantitatively the extent to which synthetic stellar libraries represent real stars.

  9. High-Resolution X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ODell, Stephen L.; Brissenden, Roger J.; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald F.; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terry; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness. Programmatic issues are comparably challenging.

  10. A High Resolution Ammunition Resupply Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Redstone Arsenal, Alabama. HELAPS II is a stochastic, event sequenced simulation that is run on a CDC 6000 series machine with GASP IV simulation language ...high resolution, event sequenced, stochastic model of ground combat. The language used was SINSCRIPT 11.5. Since much of what was developed is still...simulation language . These critical descriptors and the information they convey are as follows: (a) Arcs: length of road segment; type of road

  11. High-Resolution US of Rheumatologic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Gimber, Lana H; Scalcione, Luke R; Miller, Margaret D; Kwoh, C Kent; Klauser, Andrea S

    2015-01-01

    For the past 15 years, high-resolution ultrasonography (US) is being routinely and increasingly used for initial evaluation and treatment follow-up of rheumatologic diseases. This imaging technique is performed by using high-frequency linear transducers and has proved to be a powerful diagnostic tool in evaluation of articular erosions, simple and complex joint and bursal effusions, tendon sheath effusions, and synovitis, with results comparable to those of magnetic resonance imaging, excluding detection of bone marrow edema. Crystal deposition diseases including gouty arthropathy and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) have characteristic appearances at US, enabling differentiation between these two diseases and from inflammatory arthropathies. Enthesopathy, which frequently accompanies psoriatic and reactive arthritis, also has a characteristic appearance at high-resolution US, distinguishing these two entities from other inflammatory and metabolic arthropathies. The presence of Doppler signal in examined joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths indicates active synovitis. Microbubble echo contrast agents augment detection of tissue vascularity and may act in the future as a drug delivery vehicle. Frequently, joint, tendon sheath, and bursal fluid aspirations and therapeutic injections are performed under US guidance. The authors describe the high-resolution US technique including gray-scale, color or power Doppler, and contrast agent-enhanced US that is used in evaluation of rheumatologic diseases of the wrist and hand and the ankle and foot in their routine clinical practice. This article demonstrates imaging findings of normal joints, rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis, CPPD, psoriatic and reactive arthritis, and osteoarthritis.

  12. High-Resolution Traction Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Plotnikov, Sergey V.; Sabass, Benedikt; Schwarz, Ulrich S.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton and transmitted to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through discrete, integrin-based protein assemblies, that is, focal adhesions, are critical to developmental morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis, as well as disease progression in cancer. However, quantitative mapping of these forces has been difficult since there has been no experimental technique to visualize nanonewton forces at submicrometer spatial resolution. Here, we provide detailed protocols for measuring cellular forces exerted on two-dimensional elastic substrates with a high-resolution traction force microscopy (TFM) method. We describe fabrication of polyacrylamide substrates labeled with multiple colors of fiducial markers, functionalization of the substrates with ECM proteins, setting up the experiment, and imaging procedures. In addition, we provide the theoretical background of traction reconstruction and experimental considerations important to design a high-resolution TFM experiment. We describe the implementation of a new algorithm for processing of images of fiducial markers that are taken below the surface of the substrate, which significantly improves data quality. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm and explain how to choose a regularization parameter for suppression of the measurement error. A brief discussion of different ways to visualize and analyze the results serves to illustrate possible uses of high-resolution TFM in biomedical research. PMID:24974038

  13. High-resolution traction force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Plotnikov, Sergey V; Sabass, Benedikt; Schwarz, Ulrich S; Waterman, Clare M

    2014-01-01

    Cellular forces generated by the actomyosin cytoskeleton and transmitted to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through discrete, integrin-based protein assemblies, that is, focal adhesions, are critical to developmental morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis, as well as disease progression in cancer. However, quantitative mapping of these forces has been difficult since there has been no experimental technique to visualize nanonewton forces at submicrometer spatial resolution. Here, we provide detailed protocols for measuring cellular forces exerted on two-dimensional elastic substrates with a high-resolution traction force microscopy (TFM) method. We describe fabrication of polyacrylamide substrates labeled with multiple colors of fiducial markers, functionalization of the substrates with ECM proteins, setting up the experiment, and imaging procedures. In addition, we provide the theoretical background of traction reconstruction and experimental considerations important to design a high-resolution TFM experiment. We describe the implementation of a new algorithm for processing of images of fiducial markers that are taken below the surface of the substrate, which significantly improves data quality. We demonstrate the application of the algorithm and explain how to choose a regularization parameter for suppression of the measurement error. A brief discussion of different ways to visualize and analyze the results serves to illustrate possible uses of high-resolution TFM in biomedical research. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultraprecision motion control technique for high-resolution x-ray instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Toellner, T. S.; Alp, E. E.

    2000-07-17

    With the availability of third-generation hard x-ray synchrotron radiation sources, such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory, x-ray inelastic scattering and x-ray nuclear resonant scattering provide powerful means for investigating the vibrational dynamics of a variety of materials and condensed matter systems. Novel high-resolution hard x-ray optics with meV energy resolution requires a compact positioning mechanism with 20--50-nrad angular resolution and stability. In this paper, the authors technical approach to this design challenge is presented. Sensitivity and stability test results are also discussed.

  15. Advances in high-resolution RIXS for the study of excitation spectra under high pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jungho

    2016-07-09

    Hard x-ray resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) is a promising x-ray spectroscopic tool for measuring low-energy excitation spectra at high pressure which have been stymied heretofore by the technical difficulties inherent in measuring a sample held at high pressure in a diamond anvil cell. The currently available facilities of high resolution (< 200 meV) RIXS has been used to probe low-energy excitation spectra from the diamond anvil cell, by virtue of advanced photon detection instrumentations of high-brilliance synchrotron x-ray radiation sources. Compared to a structural elastic scattering and x-ray emission, RIXS is a photon hungry technique and high-resolution RIXS under high pressure is at its infancy stage. In this review, the fundamentals of RIXS including instrumentation of high-resolution RIXS are presented and then experimental details of diamond anvil cell, sample preparation and measurement geometry are discussed. Experimental data of 3d and 5d transition metal oxides are presented. Finally, future improvements in high-resolution RIXS instrumentation for the high pressure experiment is discussed.

  16. Positron interactions with water–total elastic, total inelastic, and elastic differential cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tattersall, Wade; Chiari, Luca; Machacek, J. R.; Anderson, Emma; Sullivan, James P.; White, Ron D.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, Stephen J.; Garcia, Gustavo; Blanco, Francisco

    2014-01-28

    Utilising a high-resolution, trap-based positron beam, we have measured both elastic and inelastic scattering of positrons from water vapour. The measurements comprise differential elastic, total elastic, and total inelastic (not including positronium formation) absolute cross sections. The energy range investigated is from 1 eV to 60 eV. Comparison with theory is made with both R-Matrix and distorted wave calculations, and with our own application of the Independent Atom Model for positron interactions.

  17. High resolution SAR applications and instrument design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dionisio, C.; Torre, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has viewed, in the last two years, a huge increment of interest from many preset and potential users. The good spatial resolution associated to the all weather capability lead to considering SAR not only a scientific instrument but a tool for verifying and controlling the daily human relationships with the Earth Environment. New missions were identified for SAR as spatial resolution became lower than three meters: disasters, pollution, ships traffic, volcanic eruptions, earthquake effect are only a few of the possible objects which can be effectively detected, controlled and monitored by SAR mounted on satellites. High resolution radar design constraints and dimensioning are discussed.

  18. High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.

    1986-01-01

    The major objectives of the high resolution telescope and spectrograph (HRTS) are: (1) the investigation of the energy balance and mass balance of the temperature minimum, chromosphere, transition zone, and corona in quiet regions on the Sun as well as in plages, flares, and sunspots; (2) the investigation of the velocity field of the lower corona to study the origin of the solar wind; and (3) the investigation of preflare and flare phenomena. The HRTS instruments consists of a telescope, an ultraviolet spectrograph, an ultraviolet spectroheliograph, and an H alpha slit display system, all housed in a thermal control cannister mounted on an instrument pointing system.

  19. High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. L.

    The major objectives of the high resolution telescope and spectrograph (HRTS) are: (1) the investigation of the energy balance and mass balance of the temperature minimum, chromosphere, transition zone, and corona in quiet regions on the Sun as well as in plages, flares, and sunspots; (2) the investigation of the velocity field of the lower corona to study the origin of the solar wind; (3) the investigation of preflare and flare phenomena. The HRTS instruments consists of a telescope, an ultraviolet spectrograph, and ultraviolet spectroheliograph, and an H alpha slit display system, all housed in a thermal control canister mounted on an instrument pointing system.

  20. High resolution extremity CT for biomechanics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, A.E.; Brand, H.; Hollerbach, K.; Logan, C.M.; Martz, H.E.

    1995-09-23

    With the advent of ever more powerful computing and finite element analysis (FEA) capabilities, the bone and joint geometry detail available from either commercial surface definitions or from medical CT scans is inadequate. For dynamic FEA modeling of joints, precise articular contours are necessary to get appropriate contact definition. In this project, a fresh cadaver extremity was suspended in parafin in a lucite cylinder and then scanned with an industrial CT system to generate a high resolution data set for use in biomechanics modeling.

  1. A Portable, High Resolution, Surface Measurement Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Burns, Bradley M.; Youngquist, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    A high resolution, portable, surface measurement device has been demonstrated to provide micron-resolution topographical plots. This device was specifically developed to allow in-situ measurements of defects on the Space Shuttle Orbiter windows, but is versatile enough to be used on a wide variety of surfaces. This paper discusses the choice of an optical sensor and then the decisions required to convert a lab bench optical measurement device into an ergonomic portable system. The necessary trade-offs between performance and portability are presented along with a description of the device developed to measure Orbiter window defects.

  2. Ultra-high resolution DNA structures.

    PubMed

    Wang, A H; Robinson, H; Gao, Y G

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the progress in our efforts at producing ultra-high resolution (< 0.8 A) DNA structures using advanced cryo-crystallography and synchrotron. Our work is aimed at providing reliable geometric (bond length and bond angle), electronic and motional information of DNA molecules in different conformational contexts. These highly-reliable, new structures will be the basis for constructing better DNA force-field parameters, which will benefit the structural refinement of DNA, protein-DNA complexes, and ligand-DNA complexes.

  3. High resolution thermal denaturation of mammalian DNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Guttmann, T; Vítek, A; Pivec, L

    1977-01-01

    High resolution melting profiles of different mammalian DNAs are presented. Melting curves of various mammalian DNAs were compared with respect to the degree of asymmetry, first moment, transition breath and Tmi of individual subtransitions. Quantitative comparison of the shape of all melting curves was made. Correlation between phylogenetical relations among mammals and shape of the melting profiles of their DNAs was demonstrated. The difference between multi-component heterogeneity of mammalian DNAs found by optical melting analysis and sedimentation in CsCl-netropsin density gradient is also discussed. PMID:840642

  4. Biological organization: Macromolecular interactions at high resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, R.M.; Vogel, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The main thrust of this book is to feature important current information on interactions of macromolecules themselves (rather than, say, enzyme-substrate interactions). Viruses, as paradigms of small biological systems, are covered as are the pivotal areas of DNA-protein and of antibody interactions. The treatment of the comparatively new field of membrane structure at high resolution includes the latest results on the photosynthetic reaction center, placed in perspective by contributions on light sensitivity of proteins. Finally, chapters on signal receptors highlight the importance of mechanisms for the control of the other systems presented.

  5. Single shot high resolution digital holography.

    PubMed

    Khare, Kedar; Ali, P T Samsheer; Joseph, Joby

    2013-02-11

    We demonstrate a novel computational method for high resolution image recovery from a single digital hologram frame. The complex object field is obtained from the recorded hologram by solving a constrained optimization problem. This approach which is unlike the physical hologram replay process is shown to provide high quality image recovery even when the dc and the cross terms in the hologram overlap in the Fourier domain. Experimental results are shown for a Fresnel zone hologram of a resolution chart, intentionally recorded with a small off-axis reference beam angle. Excellent image recovery is observed without the presence of dc or twin image terms and with minimal speckle noise.

  6. High resolution millimeter-wave imaging sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, W. J.; Howard, R. J.; Parks, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A scanning 3-mm radiometer is described that has been built for use on a small aircraft to produce real time high resolution images of the ground when atmospheric conditions such as smoke, dust, and clouds make IR and visual sensors unusable. The sensor can be used for a variety of remote sensing applications such as measurements of snow cover and snow water equivalent, precipitation mapping, vegetation type and extent, surface moisture and temperature, and surface thermal inertia. The advantages of millimeter waves for cloud penetration and the ability to observe different physical phenomena make this system an attractive supplement to visible and IR remote sensing systems.

  7. A High Resolution Scale-of-four

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V.

    1949-08-25

    A high resolution scale-of-four has been developed to be used in conjunction with the nuclear particle detection devices in applications where the counting rate is unusually high. Specifically, it is intended to precede the commercially available medium resolution scaling circuits and so decrease the resolving time of the counting system. The circuit will function reliably on continuously recurring pulses separated by less than 0.1 microseconds. It will resolve two pulses (occurring at a moderate repetition rate) which are spaced at 0.04 microseconds. A five-volt input signal is sufficient to actuate the device.

  8. Interatomic inelastic current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Tim; Solomon, Gemma C.; Hansen, Thorsten

    2017-03-01

    In order to identify the location of an inelastic event and to distinguish between situations that are before or after this event, we derive equations for the interatomic inelastic transmission as a perturbation series in the electron-phonon interaction. This series contains both even and odd ordered corrections, and while the even ordered corrections can be thought as a Dyson's expansion of the interatomic elastic transmission in the electron-phonon self-energy, the odd ordered corrections represent something new. We explicitly derive expressions for the interatomic inelastic transmission up to second order and the 1st order correction represents the lowest order term of this new family of terms. We apply this to three model systems and are able to distinguish between situations before and after the inelastic event as steps in the 2nd order transmission. We also see that when the transmission is evaluated between atoms that are coupled by the electron-phonon interaction, the 1st and 2nd order terms must be added together to form a meaningful transmission. Within the limited scope of the models considered here, the 1st order term appears to be the signature of the inelastic event.

  9. High-Resolution Scintimammography: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel F. Brem; Joelle M. Schoonjans; Douglas A. Kieper; Stan Majewski; Steven Goodman; Cahid Civelek

    2002-07-01

    This study evaluated a novel high-resolution breast-specific gamma camera (HRBGC) for the detection of suggestive breast lesions. Methods: Fifty patients (with 58 breast lesions) for whom a scintimammogram was clinically indicated were prospectively evaluated with a general-purpose gamma camera and a novel HRBGC prototype. The results of conventional and high-resolution nuclear studies were prospectively classified as negative (normal or benign) or positive (suggestive or malignant) by 2 radiologists who were unaware of the mammographic and histologic results. All of the included lesions were confirmed by pathology. Results: There were 30 benign and 28 malignant lesions. The sensitivity for detection of breast cancer was 64.3% (18/28) with the conventional camera and 78.6% (22/28) with the HRBGC. The specificity with both systems was 93.3% (28/30). For the 18 nonpalpable lesions, sensitivity was 55.5% (10/18) and 72.2% (13/18) with the general-purpose camera and the HRBGC, respectively. For lesions 1 cm, 7 of 15 were detected with the general-purpose camera and 10 of 15 with the HRBGC. Four lesions (median size, 8.5 mm) were detected only with the HRBGC and were missed by the conventional camera. Conclusion: Evaluation of indeterminate breast lesions with an HRBGC results in improved sensitivity for the detection of cancer, with greater improvement shown for nonpalpable and 1-cm lesions.

  10. High resolution guided wave pipe inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichko, Alexander; Wilcox, Paul D.

    2009-03-01

    Commercial guided wave inspection systems provide rapid screening of pipes, but limited sizing capability for small defects. However, accurate detection and sizing of small defects is essential for assessing the integrity of inaccessible pipe regions where guided waves provide the only possible inspection mechanism. In this paper an array-based approach is presented that allows guided waves to be focused on both transmission and reception to produce a high resolution image of a length of pipe. In the image, it is shown that a signal to coherent noise ratio of over 40 dB with respect to the reflected signal from a free end of pipe can be obtained, even taking into account typical levels of experimental uncertainty in terms of transducer positioning, wave velocity etc. The combination of an image with high resolution and a 40 dB dynamic range enables the detection of very small defects. It also allows the in-plane shape of defects over a certain size to be observed directly. Simulations are used to estimate the detection and sizing capability of the system for crack-like defects. Results are presented from a prototype system that uses EMATs to fully focus pipe guided wave modes on both transmission and reception in a 12 inch diameter stainless steel pipe. The 40 dB signal to coherent noise ratio is obtained experimentally and a 2 mm diameter (0.08 wavelengths) half-thickness hole is shown to be detectable.

  11. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2000-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone, methane, and carbon monoxide, to name a few. Measurements were made using the NASA Langley Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer System (TDL) and several Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems (FTS) around the globe. The results from these studies made remarkable improvements in the line positions and intensities for several molecules, particularly ozone and carbon dioxide in the 2 to 17-micrometer spectral region. Measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients for infrared transitions of ozone, methane, and water vapor were also performed. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon-and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields.

  12. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, D. Chris; Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2000-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, ozone, methane, and carbon monoxide, to name a few. Measurements were made using the NASA Langley Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer System (TDL) and several Fourier Transform Spectrometer Systems (FTS) around the globe. The results from these studies made remarkable improvements in the line positions and intensities for several molecules, particularly ozone and carbon dioxide in the 2 to 17-micrometer spectral region. Measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients for infrared transitions of ozone, methane, and water vapor were also performed. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon- and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields.

  13. High Resolution Laser Spectroscopy of Rhenium Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Allan G.; Hall, Ryan M.; Linton, Colan; Tokaryk, Dennis

    2014-06-01

    The first spectroscopic study of rhenium carbide, ReC, has been performed using both low and high resolution techniques to collect rotationally resolved electronic spectra from 420 to 500nm. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and dispersed fluorescence (DF) techniques were employed. ReC was formed in our laser ablation molecular jet apparatus by ablating a rhenium target rod in the presence of 1% methane in helium. The low resolution spectrum identified four bands of an electronic system belonging to ReC, three of which have been studied so far. Extensive hyperfine structure composed of six hyperfine components was observed in the high resolution spectrum, as well as a clear distinction between the 187ReC and 185ReC isotopologues. The data seems consistent with a ^4Π - ^4Σ- transition, as was predicted before experimentation. Dispersed fluorescence spectra allowed us to determine the ground state vibrational frequency (ωe"=994.4 ± 0.3 wn), and to identify a low-lying electronically excited state at Te"=1118.4 ± 0.4 wn with a vibrational frequency of ωe"=984 ± 2 wn. Personal communication, F. Grein, University of New Brunswick

  14. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  15. High-resolution SAR ATR performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Joel; Burke, Monica; Ettinger, Gil J.

    2004-09-01

    High resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery (e.g., four inch or better resolution) contains features not seen in one foot or lower resolution imagery, due to the isolation of the scatterers into separate resolution cells. These features provide the potential for additional discrimination power for Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) systems. In this paper, we analyze the performance of the Real-Time MSTAR (RT-MSTAR) system as a function of image resolution. Performance is measured both in terms of the probability of correct identification on military targets, and also in terms of confuser rejection. The analysis demonstrates two factors that significantly enhance performance. First, use of the high resolution imagery results in much higher probability of correct identification, as demonstrated using Lynx SAR imagery at 4" and 12". Second, incorporating models of the confusers, when available, greatly reduces false alarms, even at higher resolutions. Several new areas of work emerge, including making use of higher-level feature information available in the imagery, and rapid creation of models for vehicles that pose particular confuser rejection challenges.

  16. High Resolution Camera for Mapping Titan Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, Bianca

    2011-01-01

    Titan, Saturn's largest moon, has a dense atmosphere and is the only object besides Earth to have stable liquids at its surface. The Cassini/Huygens mission has revealed the extraordinary breadth of geological processes shaping its surface. Further study requires high resolution imaging of the surface, which is restrained by light absorption by methane and scattering from aerosols. The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft has demonstrated that Titan's surface can be observed within several windows in the near infrared, allowing us to process several regions in order to create a geological map and to determine the morphology. Specular reflections monitored on the lakes of the North Pole show little scattering at 5 microns, which, combined with the present study of Titan's northern pole area, refutes the paradigm that only radar can achieve high resolution mapping of the surface. The present data allowed us to monitor the evolution of lakes, to identify additional lakes at the Northern Pole, to examine Titan's hypothesis of non-synchronous rotation and to analyze the albedo of the North Pole surface. Future missions to Titan could carry a camera with 5 micron detectors and a carbon fiber radiator for weight reduction.

  17. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2003-01-01

    Spectroscopic parameters (such as line position, intensity, broadening and shifting coefficients and their temperature dependences, line mixing coefficients etc.) for various molecular species of atmospheric interest are determined. In order to achieve these results, infrared spectra of several molecular bands are obtained using high-resolution recording instruments such as tunable diode laser spectrometer and Fourier transform spectrometers. Using sophisticated analysis routines (Multispectrum nonlinear least squares technique) these high-resolution infrared spectra are processed to determine the various spectral line parameters that are cited above. Spectra were taken using the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak, Arizona as well as the Bruker FTS at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) at Richland, Washington. Most of the spectra are acquired not only at room temperature, but also at several different cold temperatures. This procedure is necessary to study the variation of the spectral line parameters as a function of temperature in order to simulate the Earth's and other planetary atmospheric environments. Depending upon the strength or weakness of the various bands recorded and analyzed, the length(s) of the absorption cells in which the gas samples under study are kept varied from a few centimeters up to several meters and the sample temperatures varied from approximately +30 C to -63 C. Research on several infrared bands of various molecular species and their isotopomers are undertaken. Those studies are briefly described.

  18. High-Resolution PET Detector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, Joel

    2014-03-26

    The objective of this project was to develop an understanding of the limits of performance for a high resolution PET detector using an approach based on continuous scintillation crystals rather than pixelated crystals. The overall goal was to design a high-resolution detector, which requires both high spatial resolution and high sensitivity for 511 keV gammas. Continuous scintillation detectors (Anger cameras) have been used extensively for both single-photon and PET scanners, however, these instruments were based on NaI(Tl) scintillators using relatively large, individual photo-multipliers. In this project we investigated the potential of this type of detector technology to achieve higher spatial resolution through the use of improved scintillator materials and photo-sensors, and modification of the detector surface to optimize the light response function.We achieved an average spatial resolution of 3-mm for a 25-mm thick, LYSO continuous detector using a maximum likelihood position algorithm and shallow slots cut into the entrance surface.

  19. High-Resolution Photoelectron and Photoionization Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkt, F.

    2012-06-01

    Since its development in the late 1950s and early 1960s, photoelectron spectroscopy has established itself as an important method to study the electronic structure of molecules, their photoionization dynamics, and the structure and dynamics of molecular cations. In recent years, and particularly since the development of pulsed-field-ionization zero-kinetic-energy (PFI-ZEKE) photoelectron spectroscopy, considerable progress has been made in the resolution that can be achieved by photoelectron spectroscopy. This progress relies on the systematic exploitation of the unusual physical properties of high Rydberg states and enables one today to resolve the rotational structure in the photoelectron spectra of even large molecules and the hyperfine structure in the photoelectron spectra of small molecules. This talk will begin with a brief historical review of photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, the relationship between photoelectron spectroscopy, photoionization spectroscopy and the spectroscopy of high Rydberg states will be discussed. It will be explained how this relationship is currently exploited to improve the resolution achievable by PFI-ZEKE photoelectron spectroscopy. Then, the physical principles that are at the heart of the latest methods related to high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy will be described together with their fundamental limitations. Depending on the resolution and the spectral range needed to address a specific scientific problem, a choice can be made between several different methods with spectral resolutions ranging from 30 GHz to better than 1 MHz. The talk will summarize the current state of the art in gas-phase photoelectron spectroscopy and be illustrated by several examples, primarily taken from the research in my group, in which photoelectron spectroscopy has contributed to answer questions concerning the structure and dynamics of small-sized molecular cations. F. I. Vilesov, B. C. Kurbatov, and N. Terrenin, Soviet Phys. (Doklady) 6

  20. Clementine High Resolution Camera Mosaicking Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This report constitutes the final report for NASA Contract NASW-5054. This project processed Clementine I high resolution images of the Moon, mosaicked these images together, and created a 22-disk set of compact disk read-only memory (CD-ROM) volumes. The mosaics were produced through semi-automated registration and calibration of the high resolution (HiRes) camera's data against the geometrically and photometrically controlled Ultraviolet/Visible (UV/Vis) Basemap Mosaic produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS). The HiRes mosaics were compiled from non-uniformity corrected, 750 nanometer ("D") filter high resolution nadir-looking observations. The images were spatially warped using the sinusoidal equal-area projection at a scale of 20 m/pixel for sub-polar mosaics (below 80 deg. latitude) and using the stereographic projection at a scale of 30 m/pixel for polar mosaics. Only images with emission angles less than approximately 50 were used. Images from non-mapping cross-track slews, which tended to have large SPICE errors, were generally omitted. The locations of the resulting image population were found to be offset from the UV/Vis basemap by up to 13 km (0.4 deg.). Geometric control was taken from the 100 m/pixel global and 150 m/pixel polar USGS Clementine Basemap Mosaics compiled from the 750 nm Ultraviolet/Visible Clementine imaging system. Radiometric calibration was achieved by removing the image nonuniformity dominated by the HiRes system's light intensifier. Also provided are offset and scale factors, achieved by a fit of the HiRes data to the corresponding photometrically calibrated UV/Vis basemap, that approximately transform the 8-bit HiRes data to photometric units. The sub-polar mosaics are divided into tiles that cover approximately 1.75 deg. of latitude and span the longitude range of the mosaicked frames. Images from a given orbit are map projected using the orbit's nominal central latitude. Polar mosaics are tiled into squares 2250 pixels on a

  1. High Resolution Powder Diffraction and Structure Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D. E.

    1999-04-23

    It is clear that high-resolution synchrotrons X-ray powder diffraction is a very powerful and convenient tool for material characterization and structure determination. Most investigations to date have been carried out under ambient conditions and have focused on structure solution and refinement. The application of high-resolution techniques to increasingly complex structures will certainly represent an important part of future studies, and it has been seen how ab initio solution of structures with perhaps 100 atoms in the asymmetric unit is within the realms of possibility. However, the ease with which temperature-dependence measurements can be made combined with improvements in the technology of position-sensitive detectors will undoubtedly stimulate precise in situ structural studies of phase transitions and related phenomena. One challenge in this area will be to develop high-resolution techniques for ultra-high pressure investigations in diamond anvil cells. This will require highly focused beams and very precise collimation in front of the cell down to dimensions of 50 {micro}m or less. Anomalous scattering offers many interesting possibilities as well. As a means of enhancing scattering contrast it has applications not only to the determination of cation distribution in mixed systems such as the superconducting oxides discussed in Section 9.5.3, but also to the location of specific cations in partially occupied sites, such as the extra-framework positions in zeolites, for example. Another possible application is to provide phasing information for ab initio structure solution. Finally, the precise determination of f as a function of energy through an absorption edge can provide useful information about cation oxidation states, particularly in conjunction with XANES data. In contrast to many experiments at a synchrotron facility, powder diffraction is a relatively simple and user-friendly technique, and most of the procedures and software for data analysis

  2. The High Resolution Infrared Spectrum of HCl().

    PubMed

    Doménech, J L; Drouin, B J; Cernicharo, J; Herrero, V J; Tanarro, I

    2016-12-20

    The chloroniumyl cation, HCl(+), has been recently identified in space from Herschel's spectra. A joint analysis of extensive vis-UV spectroscopy emission data together with a few high-resolution and high-accuracy millimiter-wave data provided the necessary rest frequencies to support the astronomical identification. Nevertheless, the analysis did not include any infrared (IR) vibration-rotation data. Furthermore, with the end of the Herschel mission, infrared observations from the ground may be one of the few available means to further study this ion in space. In this work, we provide a set of accurate rovibrational transition wavenumbers as well as a new and improved global fit of vis-UV, IR and millimiter-wave spectroscopy laboratory data, that will aid in future studies of this molecule.

  3. Computer synthesis of high resolution electron micrographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, R.

    1976-01-01

    Specimen damage, spherical aberration, low contrast and noisy sensors combine to prevent direct atomic viewing in a conventional electron microscope. The paper describes two methods for obtaining ultra-high resolution in biological specimens under the electron microscope. The first method assumes the physical limits of the electron objective lens and uses a series of dark field images of biological crystals to obtain direct information on the phases of the Fourier diffraction maxima; this information is used in an appropriate computer to synthesize a large aperture lens for a 1-A resolution. The second method assumes there is sufficient amplitude scatter from images recorded in focus which can be utilized with a sensitive densitometer and computer contrast stretching to yield fine structure image details. Cancer virus characterization is discussed as an illustrative example. Numerous photographs supplement the text.

  4. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  5. High-Resolution Anamorphic SPECT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Durko, Heather L.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a gamma-ray imaging system that combines a high-resolution silicon detector with two sets of movable, half-keel-edged copper-tungsten blades configured as crossed slits. These apertures can be positioned independently between the object and detector, producing an anamorphic image in which the axial and transaxial magnifications are not constrained to be equal. The detector is a 60 mm × 60 mm, one-millimeter-thick, one-megapixel silicon double-sided strip detector with a strip pitch of 59 μm. The flexible nature of this system allows the application of adaptive imaging techniques. We present system details; calibration, acquisition, and reconstruction methods; and imaging results. PMID:26160983

  6. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C/sub 44/H/sub 90/ paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol. 53 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  7. High-resolution MRI: in vivo histology?

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Holly; Clare, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    For centuries scientists have been fascinated with the question of how the brain works. Investigators have looked at both where different functions are localized and how the anatomical microstructure varies across the brain surface. Here we discuss how advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have allowed in vivo visualization of the fine structure of the brain that was previously only visible in post-mortem brains. We present data showing the correspondence between definitions of the primary visual cortex defined anatomically using very high-resolution MRI and functionally using functional MRI. We consider how this technology can be applied to allow the investigation of brains that differ from normal, and what this ever-evolving technology may be able to reveal about in vivo brain structure in the next few years. PMID:16553313

  8. Novel high-resolution VGA QWIP detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, H.; Asplund, C.; Lindberg, A.; Smuk, S.; Alverbro, J.; Evans, D.; Sehlin, S.; Becanovic, S.; Tinghag, P.; Höglund, L.; Sjöström, F.; Costard, E.

    2017-02-01

    Continuing with its legacy of producing high performance infrared detectors, IRnova introduces its high resolution LWIR IDDCA (Integrated Detector Dewar Cooler assembly) based on QWIP (quantum well infrared photodetector) technology. The Focal Plane Array (FPA) has 640×512 pixels, with small (15μm) pixel pitch, and is based on the FLIRIndigo ISC0403 Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC). The QWIP epitaxial structures are grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) at IRnova. Detector stability and response uniformity inherent to III/V based material will be demonstrated in terms of high performing detectors. Results showing low NETD at high frame rate will be presented. This makes it one of the first 15μm pitch QWIP based LWIR IDDCA commercially available on the market. High operability and stability of our other QWIP based products will also be shared.

  9. Ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging

    DOEpatents

    Paulus, Michael J.; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Gleason, Shaun S.; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2002-01-01

    A method for ultra-high resolution computed tomography imaging, comprising the steps of: focusing a high energy particle beam, for example x-rays or gamma-rays, onto a target object; acquiring a 2-dimensional projection data set representative of the target object; generating a corrected projection data set by applying a deconvolution algorithm, having an experimentally determined a transfer function, to the 2-dimensional data set; storing the corrected projection data set; incrementally rotating the target object through an angle of approximately 180.degree., and after each the incremental rotation, repeating the radiating, acquiring, generating and storing steps; and, after the rotating step, applying a cone-beam algorithm, for example a modified tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to the corrected projection data sets to generate a 3-dimensional image. The size of the spot focus of the beam is reduced to not greater than approximately 1 micron, and even to not greater than approximately 0.5 microns.

  10. Cryogenic high resolution translation unit (CTU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, Javier; Moreno Raso, Javier; Pedrosa, Enrique; Moral, Andoni; San Juan, José Luis; Lecina, María; Díez, Lucía; Sanz, Alfonso; Belenguer, Tomás; Ramos, Gonzalo

    2008-07-01

    The CTU (Cryogenics Translation Unit) is a low range (+/-1 mm) high resolution (<50 nm) translation unit to be used at cryogenic temperature (20K). The unit is a multipurpose device capable of fine closed loop positioning. This device can be used as active element in IR Instrumentation for compensating thermo-elastic deformation moving optical elements or sensors. CTU motion system is based in thin flexures deformation to assure repeatability and moves in closed loop mode by means of a fine linear actuator and a calibrated non contact capacitive sensor. This paper describes main design features, how cryogenic testing of main requirements was carried out (including methodologies used for calibration and submicron verification), tested performances, and main lesson learned during the development.

  11. Improved methods for high resolution electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, J. R.

    1987-04-01

    Existing methods of making support films for high resolution transmission electron microscopy are investigated and novel methods are developed. Existing methods of fabricating fenestrated, metal reinforced specimen supports (microgrids) are evaluated for their potential to reduce beam induced movement of monolamellar crystals of C44H90 paraffin supported on thin carbon films. Improved methods of producing hydrophobic carbon films by vacuum evaporation, and improved methods of depositing well ordered monolamellar paraffin crystals on carbon films are developed. A novel technique for vacuum evaporation of metals is described which is used to reinforce microgrids. A technique is also developed to bond thin carbon films to microgrids with a polymer bonding agent. Unique biochemical methods are described to accomplish site specific covalent modification of membrane proteins. Protocols are given which covalently convert the carboxy terminus of papain cleaved bacteriorhodopsin to a free thiol.

  12. The High Resolution Infrared Spectrum of HCl+

    PubMed Central

    Drouin, B. J.; Cernicharo, J.; Herrero, V. J.; Tanarro, I.

    2017-01-01

    The chloroniumyl cation, HCl+, has been recently identified in space from Herschel’s spectra. A joint analysis of extensive vis-UV spectroscopy emission data together with a few high-resolution and high-accuracy millimiter-wave data provided the necessary rest frequencies to support the astronomical identification. Nevertheless, the analysis did not include any infrared (IR) vibration-rotation data. Furthermore, with the end of the Herschel mission, infrared observations from the ground may be one of the few available means to further study this ion in space. In this work, we provide a set of accurate rovibrational transition wavenumbers as well as a new and improved global fit of vis-UV, IR and millimiter-wave spectroscopy laboratory data, that will aid in future studies of this molecule. PMID:28261442

  13. High resolution analysis of satellite gradiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, O. L.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite gravity gradiometry is a technique now under development which, by the middle of the next decade, may be used for the high resolution charting from space of the gravity field of the earth and, afterwards, of other planets. Some data analysis schemes are reviewed for getting detailed gravity maps from gradiometry on both a global and a local basis. It also presents estimates of the likely accuracies of such maps, in terms of normalized spherical harmonics expansions, both using gradiometry alone and in combination with data from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver carried on the same spacecraft. It compares these accuracies with those of current and future maps obtained from other data (conventional tracking, satellite-satellite tracking, etc.), and also with the spectra of various signals of geophysical interest.

  14. High resolution detection system of capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Li Qiang; Shi, Yan; Zheng, Hua; Lu, Zu Kang

    2007-12-01

    The capillary electrophoresis (CE) with laser induced fluorescence detection (LIFD) system was founded according to confocal theory. The 3-D adjustment of the exciting and collecting optical paths was realized. The photomultiplier tube (PMT) is used and the signals are processed by a software designed by ourselves. Under computer control, high voltage is applied to appropriate reservoirs and to inject and separate DNA samples respectively. Two fluorescent dyes Thiazole Orange (TO) and SYBR Green I were contrasted. With both of the dyes, high signals-to-noise images were obtained with the CE-LIFD system. The single-bases can be distinguished from the electrophoretogram and high resolution of DNA sample separation was obtained.

  15. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing.

    PubMed

    Park, Jang-Ung; Hardy, Matt; Kang, Seong Jun; Barton, Kira; Adair, Kurt; Mukhopadhyay, Deep Kishore; Lee, Chang Young; Strano, Michael S; Alleyne, Andrew G; Georgiadis, John G; Ferreira, Placid M; Rogers, John A

    2007-10-01

    Efforts to adapt and extend graphic arts printing techniques for demanding device applications in electronics, biotechnology and microelectromechanical systems have grown rapidly in recent years. Here, we describe the use of electrohydrodynamically induced fluid flows through fine microcapillary nozzles for jet printing of patterns and functional devices with submicrometre resolution. Key aspects of the physics of this approach, which has some features in common with related but comparatively low-resolution techniques for graphic arts, are revealed through direct high-speed imaging of the droplet formation processes. Printing of complex patterns of inks, ranging from insulating and conducting polymers, to solution suspensions of silicon nanoparticles and rods, to single-walled carbon nanotubes, using integrated computer-controlled printer systems illustrates some of the capabilities. High-resolution printed metal interconnects, electrodes and probing pads for representative circuit patterns and functional transistors with critical dimensions as small as 1 mum demonstrate potential applications in printed electronics.

  16. High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Papers and working group summaries presented at the High Resolution, High Frame Rate Video (HHV) Workshop are compiled. HHV system is intended for future use on the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. The Workshop was held for the dual purpose of: (1) allowing potential scientific users to assess the utility of the proposed system for monitoring microgravity science experiments; and (2) letting technical experts from industry recommend improvements to the proposed near-term HHV system. The following topics are covered: (1) State of the art in the video system performance; (2) Development plan for the HHV system; (3) Advanced technology for image gathering, coding, and processing; (4) Data compression applied to HHV; (5) Data transmission networks; and (6) Results of the users' requirements survey conducted by NASA.

  17. Speleothems as high-resolution paleoflood archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denniston, Rhawn F.; Luetscher, Marc

    2017-08-01

    Over the last two decades, speleothems have become widely utilized records of past environmental variability, typically through their stable isotopic and trace elemental chemistry. Numerous speleothem researchers have identified evidence of flooding recorded by detrital layers trapped within speleothems, but few studies have developed paleoflood reconstructions from such samples. Because they can be precisely dated, are generally immune to post-depositional distortion or erosion, and can be tied to a fixed elevational baseline, speleothems hold enormous potential as high-resolution archives of cave floods, and thus as proxies for extreme rainfall or other hydrologic drivers of cave flooding. Here we review speleothem-based paleoflood reconstruction methods, identify potential biases and pitfalls, and suggest standard practices for future studies.

  18. High-Resolution Broadband Spectral Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J

    2002-08-09

    We demonstrate solar spectra from a novel interferometric method for compact broadband high-resolution spectroscopy. The spectral interferometer (SI) is a hybrid instrument that uses a spectrometer to externally disperse the output of a fixed-delay interferometer. It also has been called an externally dispersed interferometer (EDI). The interferometer can be used with linear spectrometers for imaging spectroscopy or with echelle spectrometers for very broad-band coverage. EDI's heterodyning technique enhances the spectrometer's response to high spectral-density features, increasing the effective resolution by factors of several while retaining its bandwidth. The method is extremely robust to instrumental insults such as focal spot size or displacement. The EDI uses no moving parts, such as purely interferometric FTS spectrometers, and can cover a much wider simultaneous bandpass than other internally dispersed interferometers (e.g. HHS or SHS).

  19. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jang-Ung; Hardy, Matt; Kang, Seong Jun; Barton, Kira; Adair, Kurt; Mukhopadhyay, Deep Kishore; Lee, Chang Young; Strano, Michael S.; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Georgiadis, John G.; Ferreira, Placid M.; Rogers, John A.

    2007-10-01

    Efforts to adapt and extend graphic arts printing techniques for demanding device applications in electronics, biotechnology and microelectromechanical systems have grown rapidly in recent years. Here, we describe the use of electrohydrodynamically induced fluid flows through fine microcapillary nozzles for jet printing of patterns and functional devices with submicrometre resolution. Key aspects of the physics of this approach, which has some features in common with related but comparatively low-resolution techniques for graphic arts, are revealed through direct high-speed imaging of the droplet formation processes. Printing of complex patterns of inks, ranging from insulating and conducting polymers, to solution suspensions of silicon nanoparticles and rods, to single-walled carbon nanotubes, using integrated computer-controlled printer systems illustrates some of the capabilities. High-resolution printed metal interconnects, electrodes and probing pads for representative circuit patterns and functional transistors with critical dimensions as small as 1μm demonstrate potential applications in printed electronics.

  20. A simple, high efficiency, high resolution spectropolarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barden, Samuel C.

    2012-09-01

    A simple concept is described that uses volume phase holographic gratings as polarizing dispersers for a high efficiency, high resolution spectropolarimeter. Although the idea has previously been mentioned in the literature as possible, such a concept has not been explored in detail. Performance analysis is presented for a VPHG spectropolarimeter concept that could be utilized for both solar and night-time astronomy. Instrumental peak efficiency can approach 100% with spectral dispersions permitting R~200,000 spectral resolution with diffraction limited telescopes. The instrument has 3-channels: two dispersed image planes with orthogonal polarization and an undispersed image plane. The concept has a range of versatility where it could be configured (with appropriate half-wave plates) for slit-fed spectroscopy or without slits for snapshot/hyperspectral/tomographic spectroscopic imaging. Multiplex gratings could also be used for the simultaneous recording of two separate spectral bands or multiple instruments could be daisy chained with beam splitters for further spectral coverage.

  1. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fowler, J.; Koribalski, B.; Lake, S.; Neill, James D.; Seibert, M.; Stanford, S.; Wright, E.

    2012-01-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 micron, 4.6 micron, 12 micron, and 22 micron. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  2. Constructing a WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Petty, S.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Donoso, E.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fowler, J.; Koribalski, B.; Lake, S.; Neill, James D.; Seibert, M.; Sheth, K.; Stanford, S.; Wright, E.

    2012-08-01

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 μm, 4.6 μm, 12 μm, and 22 μm. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  3. High resolution wavefront measurement of aspheric optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erichsen, I.; Krey, S.; Heinisch, J.; Ruprecht, A.; Dumitrescu, E.

    2008-08-01

    With the recently emerged large volume production of miniature aspheric lenses for a wide range of applications, a new fast fully automatic high resolution wavefront measurement instrument has been developed. The Shack-Hartmann based system with reproducibility better than 0.05 waves is able to measure highly aspheric optics and allows for real time comparison with design data. Integrated advanced analysis tools such as calculation of Zernike coefficients, 2D-Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Point Spread Function (PSF), Strehl-Ratio and the measurement of effective focal length (EFL) as well as flange focal length (FFL) allow for the direct verification of lens properties and can be used in a development as well as in a production environment.

  4. A high resolution ultraviolet Shuttle glow spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, George R.

    1993-01-01

    The High Resolution Shuttle Glow Spectrograph-B (HRSGS-B) is a small payload being developed by the Naval Research Laboratory. It is intended for study of shuttle surface glow in the 180-400 nm near- and middle-ultraviolet wavelength range, with a spectral resolution of 0.2 nm. It will search for, among other possible features, the band systems of excited NO which result from surface-catalyzed combination of N and O. It may also detect O2 Hertzberg bands and N2 Vegard-Kaplan bands resulting from surface recombination. This wavelength range also includes possible N2+ and OH emissions. The HRSGS-B will be housed in a Get Away Special canister, mounted in the shuttle orbiter payload bay, and will observe the glow on the tail of the orbiter.

  5. Venus gravity - A high-resolution map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.; Macneil, P. E.; Shapiro, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    The Doppler data from the radio tracking of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) have been used in a two-stage analysis to develop a high-resolution map of the gravitational potential of Venus, represented by a central mass and a surface mass density. The two-stage procedure invokes a Kalman filter-smoother to determine the orbit of the spacecraft, and a stabilized linear inverter to estimate the surface mass density. The resultant gravity map is highly correlated with the topographic map derived from the PVO radar altimeter data. However, the magnitudes of the gravity variations are smaller than would be expected if the topography were uncompensated, indicating that at least partial compensation has taken place.

  6. High resolution CT of Meckel's cave.

    PubMed

    Chui, M; Tucker, W; Hudson, A; Bayer, N

    1985-01-01

    High resolution CT of the parasellar region was carried out in 50 patients studied for suspected pituitary microadenoma, but who showed normal pituitary gland or microadenoma on CT. This control group of patients all showed an ellipsoid low-density area in the posterior parasellar region. Knowledge of the gross anatomy and correlation with metrizamide cisternography suggest that the low density region represents Meckel's cave, rather than just the trigeminal ganglion alone. Though there is considerable variation in the size of Meckel's cave in different patients as well as the two sides of the same patient, the rather constant ellipsoid configuration of the cave in normal subjects will aid in diagnosing small pathological lesions, thereby obviating more invasive cisternography via the transovale or lumbar route. Patients with "idiopathic" tic douloureux do not show a Meckel's cave significantly different from the control group.

  7. High Resolution Image From Viking Lander 1

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-12-12

    NASA's Viking 1 took this high-resolution picture today, its third day on Mars. Distance from the camera to the nearfield (bottom) is about 4 meters (13 feet); to the horizon, about 3 kilometers (1.8 miles). The photo shows numerous angular blocks ranging in size from a few centimeters to several meters. The surface between the blocks is composed of fine-grained material. Accumulation of some fine-grained material behind blocks indicates wind deposition of dust and sand downwind of obstacles. The large block on the horizon is about 4 meters (13 feet) wide. Distance across the horizon is about 34 meters (110 feet). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00385

  8. CONSTRUCTING A WISE HIGH RESOLUTION GALAXY ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, F.; Tsai, C. W.; Fowler, J.; Petty, S.; Lake, S.; Wright, E.; Cluver, M.; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Bridge, C.; Neill, James D.; Donoso, E.; Koribalski, B.; Seibert, M.; Sheth, K.; Stanford, S.

    2012-08-15

    After eight months of continuous observations, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mapped the entire sky at 3.4 {mu}m, 4.6 {mu}m, 12 {mu}m, and 22 {mu}m. We have begun a dedicated WISE High Resolution Galaxy Atlas project to fully characterize large, nearby galaxies and produce a legacy image atlas and source catalog. Here we summarize the deconvolution techniques used to significantly improve the spatial resolution of WISE imaging, specifically designed to study the internal anatomy of nearby galaxies. As a case study, we present results for the galaxy NGC 1566, comparing the WISE enhanced-resolution image processing to that of Spitzer, Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and ground-based imaging. This is the first paper in a two-part series; results for a larger sample of nearby galaxies are presented in the second paper.

  9. Limits of simulation based high resolution EBSD.

    PubMed

    Alkorta, Jon

    2013-08-01

    High resolution electron backscattered diffraction (HREBSD) is a novel technique for a relative determination of both orientation and stress state in crystals through digital image correlation techniques. Recent works have tried to use simulated EBSD patterns as reference patterns to achieve the absolute orientation and stress state of crystals. However, a precise calibration of the pattern centre location is needed to avoid the occurrence of phantom stresses. A careful analysis of the projective transformation involved in the formation of EBSD patterns has permitted to understand these phantom stresses. This geometrical analysis has been confirmed by numerical simulations. The results indicate that certain combinations of crystal strain states and sample locations (pattern centre locations) lead to virtually identical EBSD patterns. This ambiguity makes the problem of solving the absolute stress state of a crystal unfeasible in a single-detector configuration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High Resolution Spectroscopy to Support Atmospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataraman, Malathy Devi

    2006-01-01

    The major research activities performed during the cooperative agreement enhanced our spectroscopic knowledge of molecules of atmospheric interest such as H2O (water vapor), O3 (ozone), HCN (hydrogen cyanide), CH4 (methane), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) and CO (carbon monoxide). The data required for the analyses were obtained from two different Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS); one of which is located at the National Solar Observatory (NSO) on Kitt Peak, Arizona and the other instrument is located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) at Richland, Washington. The data were analyzed using a modified multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm developed by Dr. D. Chris Benner of the College of William and Mary. The results from these studies made significant improvements in the line positons and intensities for these molecules. The measurements of pressure broadening and pressure induced line shift coefficients and the temperature dependence of pressure broadening and pressure induced shift coefficients for hundreds of infrared transitions of HCN, CO3 CH4 and H2O were also performed during this period. Results from these studies have been used for retrievals of stratospheric gas concentration profiles from data collected by several Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) infrared instruments as well as in the analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra such as those acquired by space-based, ground-based, and various balloon- and aircraft-borne experiments. Our results made significant contributions in several updates of the HITRAN (HIgh resolution TRANsmission) spectral line parameters database. This database enjoys worldwide recognition in research involving diversified scientific fields. The research conducted during the period 2003-2006 has resulted in publications given in this paper. In addition to Journal publications, several oral and poster presentations were given at various Scientific conferences within the United States

  11. Pyramidal fractal dimension for high resolution images.

    PubMed

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Ahammer, Helmut

    2016-07-01

    Fractal analysis (FA) should be able to yield reliable and fast results for high-resolution digital images to be applicable in fields that require immediate outcomes. Triggered by an efficient implementation of FA for binary images, we present three new approaches for fractal dimension (D) estimation of images that utilize image pyramids, namely, the pyramid triangular prism, the pyramid gradient, and the pyramid differences method (PTPM, PGM, PDM). We evaluated the performance of the three new and five standard techniques when applied to images with sizes up to 8192 × 8192 pixels. By using artificial fractal images created by three different generator models as ground truth, we determined the scale ranges with minimum deviations between estimation and theory. All pyramidal methods (PM) resulted in reasonable D values for images of all generator models. Especially, for images with sizes ≥1024×1024 pixels, the PMs are superior to the investigated standard approaches in terms of accuracy and computation time. A measure for the possibility to differentiate images with different intrinsic D values did show not only that the PMs are well suited for all investigated image sizes, and preferable to standard methods especially for larger images, but also that results of standard D estimation techniques are strongly influenced by the image size. Fastest results were obtained with the PDM and PGM, followed by the PTPM. In terms of absolute D values best performing standard methods were magnitudes slower than the PMs. Concluding, the new PMs yield high quality results in short computation times and are therefore eligible methods for fast FA of high-resolution images.

  12. High resolution films for bone regeneration evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jammal, María V; Territoriale, Erika B; Abate, Carlos M; Missana, Liliana R

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic imaging techniques (DIxT) seem to be a useful tool for evaluating bone formation in both human and animal models. There is little evidence on the use of Soft X-Rays (sXR) with high-resolution films for studying the healing process in critical bone size defects (CSD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of soft X-Ray - High Resolution Films (sXR) to distinguish bone regeneration in CSDs. A CSD was created in each of 16 Wistar rat calvariae. The animals were euthanized at 1, 3 and 6 weeks after surgery. The samples were submitted to cXR (conventional X-rays), sXR techniques and histological procedures (HP). Bone formation was observed at CSD edges at all periods of time. At 6 week there was also new bone in the central area. The CSD was not fully regenerated after any period of time. Histometric results were 0.16%; 0.75% and 0.89% new bone formed at weeks 1, 3 and 6 respectively; radiometric results at cXR were 0% in all samples. Evaluation of sXR shows 0.4%; 0.50% and 3.64% bone at weeks 1, 3 and 6. Mean and Standard Deviation were calculated. The data were submitted to statistical analysis using the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient test. The r value was 0.581. Under these experimental conditions, sXR was found to be a suitable method for detecting new bone formation, based on the positive correlation between sXR and HP during the bone healing process of CSDs in rat calvaria. Furthermore, the sXR technique allowed us to obtain samples with appropriate spatial orientation.

  13. High-Resolution Mapping in Manus Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, C. N.; Ferrini, V. L.

    2006-12-01

    Near-bottom seafloor mapping with precisely navigated deep submergence vehicles has become increasingly common in a range of oceanographic settings. Recent mapping efforts at deep-water hydrothermal vent sites have resulted in high-resolution (sub-meter) bathymetry datasets that can be used to identify morphological features associated with volcanic, tectonic, and hydrothermal processes. The resolution of these maps, and our ability to accurately quantify the complex morphologic details of hydrothermal structures has been limited by a number of variables including navigational accuracy, sonar settings (e.g. acoustic wavelength, sonar orientation, ping rate), survey parameters (e.g. altitude, speed), data density, and data processing techniques (e.g. gridding algorithms). We present the results of two near-bottom surveys conducted in August 2006 at the PACMANUS (Papua New Guinea-Australia-Canada Manus) hydrothermal field in the eastern Manus Basin of the Bismarck Sea, south of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Data were simultaneously acquired with two high-resolution multibeam sonar systems mounted on the Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) Jason 2. A Simrad SM2000 (200 kHz) multibeam system was mounted in down-looking mode, and an Imagenex DeltaT (675 kHz) multibeam system was mounted on the brow of the vehicle in a forward-looking orientation. Surveys were conducted in parallel survey lines at 15 m altitude (15 m line spacing), and the can be used to generate sub-meter resolution maps of the seafloor. The maps were assembled using a terrain registration algorithm designed to minimize the affects of navigation error. Together, these sonars provide a complementary dataset that allows us to better quantify the 3-dimensional morphological characteristics of complex hydrothermal vent structures. This information can be used to more accurately estimate the volume of hydrothermal deposits, and render a more complete environmental picture that is less hindered by occlusions and

  14. High-resolution simulation of field emission

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. ); Becker, R. ); Brodie, I.; Rosengreen, A.; Spindt, C.A. )

    1990-03-01

    High-resolution simulations of field emission electron sources have been made using the electron optics program EGN2. Electron emission distributions are made using the Fowler-Nordheim equation. Mesh resolution in the range of 1-5 {angstrom} is required to adequately model surface details that can result in emission currents in the range found experimentally. A typical problem starts with mechanical details with dimensions of about 1{mu}. To achieve high resolution a new boundary is defined by the tip, a nearby equipotential line, and a pair of field lines. The field lines (one of which is normally the axis of symmetry) define Neumann boundaries. This new boundary is then used by the boundary preprocessor POLYGON to create an enlarged version of the problem, typically by a factor of ten. This process can be repeated until adequate resolution is obtained to simulate surface details, such as microprotusion, that could sufficiently enhance the surface electric fields and cause field emission. When simulating experimental conditions under which emission of several microamperes per tip were observed, it was found that both a locally reduced work function and a surface protrusion were needed to duplicate the experimental results. If only a local region of reduced work function is used, the area involved and the extent of the reduction both need to be very large to reproduce the emission. If only a surface protrusion is used, it is possible to get the observed emission current with a reasonable protrusion of length a few times radius, but then the resulting beam spreads over a very large solid angle due to the strong local radial electric fields. 8 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  15. a High-Resolution Study of the SILICON-29

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Paul Matthew

    The gamma-decays of 25 resonances in the ^{29}Si(p, gamma) reaction have been measured in the energy range E_{p} = 1.74 -2.50 MeV. This work was performed at the High Resolution Laboratory at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory and represents a major step toward the goal of the determination of the complete level scheme of ^{30 }P from the ground state to 8820 keV. Previous and concurrent experiments have measured the ^ {29}Si(p.p) cross section as well as gamma-ray yields from the ^{29}Si(p,gamma), ^{29}Si(p,p_1 gamma) and ^{29} Si(p,p_2gamma) reactions in the range E_{p} = 1.04 -3.33 MeV. Future angular distribution experiments are planned. Spectral fluctuation properties are believed to give insight into the dynamics of quantum systems. This work was motivated by results from the study of the fluctuation properties of the nuclide ^{26} Al which indicates dynamics that fall between regular and chaotic. A high-resolution (~220 eV) proton beam is produced by the 4 MeV KN Van de Graaff accelerator housed in the High Resolution Laboratory. This beam is directed onto thin films of ^{29 }Si of thickness 1.5-3.0mug/cm ^2. Two high-purity germanium detectors are used to collect detailed gamma -ray spectra; one detector is surrounded by a bismuth germanate anti-Compton shield. These spectra have been analyzed and branching ratios for the resonances have been deduced. Once the branching ratios were determined, Jpi selection rules and recommended upper limits for reduced transition rates were used to reduce the range of possible quantum number (Jpi ; T ) assignments. Of the 25 resonances, sixteen had previous assignments which were confirmed by this work. The allowed ranges were reduced for seven resonances and two resonances had assignments which were changed outright. In addition, a level at E_{x} = 6006.1 keV was discovered; its branching ratios were determined and Jpi ;T assignment restricted.

  16. Elastic and Inelastic Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2010-01-01

    There have been two articles in this journal that described a pair of collision carts used to demonstrate vividly the difference between elastic and inelastic collisions. One cart had a series of washers that were mounted rigidly on a rigid wooden framework, the other had washers mounted on rubber bands stretched across a framework. The rigidly…

  17. Deep inelastic phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1980-10-01

    Nucleon structure as seen in the context of deep inelastic scattering is discussed. The lectures begin with consideration of the quark-parton model. The model forms the basis of understanding lepton-nucleon inelastic scattering. As improved data in lepton-nucleon scattering at high energies became available, the quark-parton model failed to explain some crucial features of these data. At approximately the same time a candidate theory of strong interactions based on a SU(3) gauge theory of color was being discussed in the literature, and new ideas on the explanation of inelastic scattering data became popular. A new theory of strong interactions, now called quantum chromodynamics provides a new framework for understanding the data, with a much stronger theoretical foundation, and seems to explain well the features of the data. The lectures conclude with a look at some recent experiments which provide new data at very high energies. These lectures are concerned primarily with charged lepton inelastic scattering and to a lesser extent with neutrino results. Furthermore, due to time and space limitations, topics such as final state hadron studies, and multi-muon production are omitted here. The lectures concentrate on the more central issues: the quark-parton model and concepts of scaling, scale breaking and the ideas of quantum chromodynamics, the Q/sup 2/ dependence of structure function, moments, and the important parameter R.

  18. Elastic and Inelastic Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2010-01-01

    There have been two articles in this journal that described a pair of collision carts used to demonstrate vividly the difference between elastic and inelastic collisions. One cart had a series of washers that were mounted rigidly on a rigid wooden framework, the other had washers mounted on rubber bands stretched across a framework. The rigidly…

  19. Mixing of final state spin components in the high resolution spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Cornelius, W.

    1981-12-01

    The mixing of scattered proton spin components by precession in the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) dipole magnets is discussed in terms of focal plane polarimeter (FPP) experiments. Explicit expressions are derived for calculation of polarization transfer parameters from focal plane polarizations. Also discussed are the effects of out-of-plane scattering at small laboratory angles on FPP measurements as well as analyzing power measurements.

  20. Overview of the High Resolution Fly's Eye: Some Results from the HiRes Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. N.

    2010-07-01

    The High Resolution Fly’s Eye (HiRes) made observations of ultra high energy cosmic rays between May 1997 and April 2006. It measured the energy spectrum, anisotropy, and composition in these cosmic rays. It also looked for signs of neutrinos and other exotic events. In addition, it measured the ultra high energy proton to air cross-section forging a link to accelerator measurements. We briefly review some of these measurements, concentrating on the spectrum, anisotropy and composition.

  1. SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE FROM MHD TO SUB-ION SCALES: HIGH-RESOLUTION HYBRID SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Franci, Luca; Verdini, Andrea; Landi, Simone; Matteini, Lorenzo; Hellinger, Petr

    2015-05-10

    We present results from a high-resolution and large-scale hybrid (fluid electrons and particle-in-cell protons) two-dimensional numerical simulation of decaying turbulence. Two distinct spectral regions (separated by a smooth break at proton scales) develop with clear power-law scaling, each one occupying about a decade in wavenumbers. The simulation results simultaneously exhibit several properties of the observed solar wind fluctuations: spectral indices of the magnetic, kinetic, and residual energy spectra in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) inertial range along with a flattening of the electric field spectrum, an increase in magnetic compressibility, and a strong coupling of the cascade with the density and the parallel component of the magnetic fluctuations at sub-proton scales. Our findings support the interpretation that in the solar wind, large-scale MHD fluctuations naturally evolve beyond proton scales into a turbulent regime that is governed by the generalized Ohm’s law.

  2. Efficient Compression of High Resolution Climate Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J.; Schuchardt, K. L.

    2011-12-01

    resolution climate data can be massive. Those data can consume a huge amount of disk space for storage, incur significant overhead for outputting data during simulation, introduce high latency for visualization and analysis, and may even make interactive visualization and analysis impossible given the limit of the data that a conventional cluster can handle. These problems can be alleviated by with effective and efficient data compression techniques. Even though HDF5 format supports compression, previous work has mainly focused on employ traditional general purpose compression schemes such as dictionary coder and block sorting based compression scheme. Those compression schemes mainly focus on encoding repeated byte sequences efficiently and are not well suitable for compressing climate data consist mainly of distinguished float point numbers. We plan to select and customize our compression schemes according to the characteristics of high-resolution climate data. One observation on high resolution climate data is that as the resolution become higher, values of various climate variables such as temperature and pressure, become closer in nearby cells. This provides excellent opportunities for predication-based compression schemes. We have performed a preliminary estimation of compression ratios of a very simple minded predication-based compression ratio in which we compute the difference between current float point number with previous float point number and then encoding the exponent and significance part of the float point number with entropy-based compression scheme. Our results show that we can achieve higher compression ratios between 2 and 3 in lossless compression, which is significantly higher than traditional compression algorithms. We have also developed lossy compression with our techniques. We can achive orders of magnitude data reduction while ensure error bounds. Moreover, our compression scheme is much more efficient and introduces much less overhead

  3. Superconducting High Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Hau, Ionel Dragos

    2006-01-01

    Superconducting high resolution fast-neutron calorimetric spectrometers based on 6LiF and TiB{sub 2} absorbers have been developed. These novel cryogenic spectrometers measure the temperature rise produced in exothermal (n, α) reactions with fast neutrons in 6Li and 10B-loaded materials with heat capacity C operating at temperatures T close to 0.1 K. Temperature variations on the order of 0.5 mK are measured with a Mo/Cu thin film multilayer operated in the transition region between its superconducting and its normal state. The advantage of calorimetry for high resolution spectroscopy is due to the small phonon excitation energies kBT on the order of μeV that serve as signal carriers, resulting in an energy resolution ΔE ~ (kBT2C)1/2, which can be well below 10 keV. An energy resolution of 5.5 keV has been obtained with a Mo/Cu superconducting sensor and a TiB2 absorber using thermal neutrons from a 252Cf neutron source. This resolution is sufficient to observe the effect of recoil nuclei broadening in neutron spectra, which has been related to the lifetime of the first excited state in 7Li. Fast-neutron spectra obtained with a 6Li-enriched LiF absorber show an energy resolution of 16 keV FWHM, and a response in agreement with the 6Li(n, α)3H reaction cross section and Monte Carlo simulations for energies up to several MeV. The energy resolution of order of a few keV makes this novel instrument applicable to fast-neutron transmission spectroscopy based on the unique elemental signature provided by the neutron absorption and scattering resonances. The optimization of the energy resolution based on analytical and numerical models of the detector response is discussed in the context of these applications.

  4. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  5. Deep inelastic neutron scattering in condensed hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bafile, Ubaldo; Celli, Milva; Zoppi, Marco

    1996-02-01

    The neutron cross-section of molecular hydrogen that is measured by deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) is compared with two distinct models. One is a generalization of the molecular Young and Koppel model (1964) that takes into account the modification to the translational kinetic energy that is induced by quantum effects. The second model assumes a free particle wave function for the final state of the proton (C. Andreani et al., 1995). The comparison between these two models, and with the experimental results, provides information on the crossover between the molecular and atomic regime of hydrogen in DINS.

  6. Test of factorization in diffractive deep inelastic scattering and photoproduction at HERA

    SciTech Connect

    Polifka, Richard

    2015-04-10

    The QCD factorization theorem in diffraction is tested by comparing diffractive jet production data to QCD predictions based on fits to inclusive diffractive cross section data. H1 measured dijet production with a leading proton detected in the Very Forward Proton Spectrometer (VFPS), both in deep-inelastic scattering and in photoproduction. The DIS measurements are complemented by measurements of dijet production with an associated rapidity gap and in a data sample selected with a leading proton in the Forward Proton Spectrometer (FPS)

  7. Ultra-high resolution electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Oxley, Mark P; Lupini, Andrew R; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2017-02-01

    The last two decades have seen dramatic advances in the resolution of the electron microscope brought about by the successful correction of lens aberrations that previously limited resolution for most of its history. We briefly review these advances, the achievement of sub-Ångstrom resolution and the ability to identify individual atoms, their bonding configurations and even their dynamics and diffusion pathways. We then present a review of the basic physics of electron scattering, lens aberrations and their correction, and an approximate imaging theory for thin crystals which provides physical insight into the various different imaging modes. Then we proceed to describe a more exact imaging theory starting from Yoshioka's formulation and covering full image simulation methods using Bloch waves, the multislice formulation and the frozen phonon/quantum excitation of phonons models. Delocalization of inelastic scattering has become an important limiting factor at atomic resolution. We therefore discuss this issue extensively, showing how the full-width-half-maximum is the appropriate measure for predicting image contrast, but the diameter containing 50% of the excitation is an important measure of the range of the interaction. These two measures can differ by a factor of 5, are not a simple function of binding energy, and full image simulations are required to match to experiment. The Z-dependence of annular dark field images is also discussed extensively, both for single atoms and for crystals, and we show that temporal incoherence must be included accurately if atomic species are to be identified through matching experimental intensities to simulations. Finally we mention a few promising directions for future investigation.

  8. Ultra-high resolution electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxley, Mark P.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2017-02-01

    The last two decades have seen dramatic advances in the resolution of the electron microscope brought about by the successful correction of lens aberrations that previously limited resolution for most of its history. We briefly review these advances, the achievement of sub-Ångstrom resolution and the ability to identify individual atoms, their bonding configurations and even their dynamics and diffusion pathways. We then present a review of the basic physics of electron scattering, lens aberrations and their correction, and an approximate imaging theory for thin crystals which provides physical insight into the various different imaging modes. Then we proceed to describe a more exact imaging theory starting from Yoshioka’s formulation and covering full image simulation methods using Bloch waves, the multislice formulation and the frozen phonon/quantum excitation of phonons models. Delocalization of inelastic scattering has become an important limiting factor at atomic resolution. We therefore discuss this issue extensively, showing how the full-width-half-maximum is the appropriate measure for predicting image contrast, but the diameter containing 50% of the excitation is an important measure of the range of the interaction. These two measures can differ by a factor of 5, are not a simple function of binding energy, and full image simulations are required to match to experiment. The Z-dependence of annular dark field images is also discussed extensively, both for single atoms and for crystals, and we show that temporal incoherence must be included accurately if atomic species are to be identified through matching experimental intensities to simulations. Finally we mention a few promising directions for future investigation.

  9. Ultra-high resolution electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Oxley, Mark P.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2016-12-23

    The last two decades have seen dramatic advances in the resolution of the electron microscope brought about by the successful correction of lens aberrations that previously limited resolution for most of its history. Here we briefly review these advances, the achievement of sub-Ångstrom resolution and the ability to identify individual atoms, their bonding configurations and even their dynamics and diffusion pathways. We then present a review of the basic physics of electron scattering, lens aberrations and their correction, and an approximate imaging theory for thin crystals which provides physical insight into the various different imaging modes. Then we proceed tomore » describe a more exact imaging theory starting from Yoshioka’s formulation and covering full image simulation methods using Bloch waves, the multislice formulation and the frozen phonon/quantum excitation of phonons models. Delocalization of inelastic scattering has become an important limiting factor at atomic resolution. We therefore discuss this issue extensively, showing how the full-width-half-maximum is the appropriate measure for predicting image contrast, but the diameter containing 50% of the excitation is an important measure of the range of the interaction. These two measures can differ by a factor of 5, are not a simple function of binding energy, and full image simulations are required to match to experiment. The Z-dependence of annular dark field images is also discussed extensively, both for single atoms and for crystals, and we show that temporal incoherence must be included accurately if atomic species are to be identified through matching experimental intensities to simulations. Finally we mention a few promising directions for future investigation.« less

  10. Ultra-high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oxley, Mark P.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2016-12-23

    The last two decades have seen dramatic advances in the resolution of the electron microscope brought about by the successful correction of lens aberrations that previously limited resolution for most of its history. Here we briefly review these advances, the achievement of sub-Ångstrom resolution and the ability to identify individual atoms, their bonding configurations and even their dynamics and diffusion pathways. We then present a review of the basic physics of electron scattering, lens aberrations and their correction, and an approximate imaging theory for thin crystals which provides physical insight into the various different imaging modes. Then we proceed to describe a more exact imaging theory starting from Yoshioka’s formulation and covering full image simulation methods using Bloch waves, the multislice formulation and the frozen phonon/quantum excitation of phonons models. Delocalization of inelastic scattering has become an important limiting factor at atomic resolution. We therefore discuss this issue extensively, showing how the full-width-half-maximum is the appropriate measure for predicting image contrast, but the diameter containing 50% of the excitation is an important measure of the range of the interaction. These two measures can differ by a factor of 5, are not a simple function of binding energy, and full image simulations are required to match to experiment. The Z-dependence of annular dark field images is also discussed extensively, both for single atoms and for crystals, and we show that temporal incoherence must be included accurately if atomic species are to be identified through matching experimental intensities to simulations. Finally we mention a few promising directions for future investigation.

  11. High Resolution BPM for Linear Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, C.; Chel, S.; Luong, M.; Napoly, O.; Novo, J.; Roudier, D.; Baboi, N.; Noelle, D.; Mildner, N.; Zapfe, K.; Rouvière, N.

    2006-11-01

    A high resolution Beam Position Monitor (BPM) is necessary for the beam-based alignment systems of high energy and low emittance electron linacs. Such a monitor is developed in the framework of the European CARE/SRF programme, in a close collaboration between DESY and CEA/DSM/DAPNIA. This monitor is a radiofrequency re-entrant cavity, which can be used either at room or cryogenic temperature, in an environment where dust particle contamination has to be avoided, such as superconducting cavities in a cryomodule. A first prototype of a re-entrant BPM has already delivered measurements at 2K. inside the first cryomodule (ACC1) on the TESLA Test Facility 2 (TTF2). The performances of this BPM are analyzed both experimentally and theoretically, and the limitations of this existing system clearly identified. A new cavity and new electronics have been designed in order to improve the position resolution down to 1 μm and the damping time down to 10 ns.

  12. High Resolution Measurement of the Glycolytic Rate

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Carla X.; Loaiza, Anitsi; Ruminot, Iván; Larenas, Valeria; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Tamara; Gutiérrez, Robin; Córdova, Alex; Valdebenito, Rocío; Frommer, Wolf B.; Barros, L. Felipe

    2010-01-01

    The glycolytic rate is sensitive to physiological activity, hormones, stress, aging, and malignant transformation. Standard techniques to measure the glycolytic rate are based on radioactive isotopes, are not able to resolve single cells and have poor temporal resolution, limitations that hamper the study of energy metabolism in the brain and other organs. A new method is described in this article, which makes use of a recently developed FRET glucose nanosensor to measure the rate of glycolysis in single cells with high temporal resolution. Used in cultured astrocytes, the method showed for the first time that glycolysis can be activated within seconds by a combination of glutamate and K+, supporting a role for astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in the brain. It was also possible to make a direct comparison of metabolism in neurons and astrocytes lying in close proximity, paving the way to a high-resolution characterization of brain energy metabolism. Single-cell glycolytic rates were also measured in fibroblasts, adipocytes, myoblasts, and tumor cells, showing higher rates for undifferentiated cells and significant metabolic heterogeneity within cell types. This method should facilitate the investigation of tissue metabolism at the single-cell level and is readily adaptable for high-throughput analysis. PMID:20890447

  13. High resolution structure of bacterial cell sacculi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutcher, John; Touhami, Ahmed; Matias, Valerio; Clarke, Anthony; Jericho, Manfred; Beveridge, Terry

    2008-03-01

    The major structural component of bacterial cell walls is the peptidoglycan sacculus, which is one of nature's strongest and largest macromolecules that allows the cell to maintain a large internal pressure while allowing the transport of molecules into and out of the cell and cell growth. The three-dimensional structure of this unique biopolymer is controversial, and two models have been proposed: the planar model, in which the glycan strands lie in the plane of the cell surface, and the scaffold model, in which the glycan strands lie perpendicular to the cell surface. In this study we have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the high resolution structure of isolated, intact sacculi of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cells. We have observed a sponge-like structure for both types of sacculi with pore diameters between 5 to 15 nm. Our data for Gram-positive sacculi provide evidence for the validity of the scaffold model, whereas our data for Gram-negative sacculi indicate an orientation along the short axis of the cell which is consistent with the planar model. To further elucidate the structure, we have exposed sacculi to the tAmiB enzyme which cleaves peptide-peptide bonds.

  14. High resolution beamforming for small aperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Chris; Null, Tom; Wagstaff, Ronald A.

    2003-04-01

    Achieving fine resolution bearing estimates for multiple sources using acoustic arrays with small apertures, in number of wavelengths, is a difficult challenge. It requires both large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gains and very narrow beam responses. High resolution beamforming for small aperture arrays is accomplished by exploiting acoustical fluctuations. Acoustical fluctuations in the atmosphere are caused by wind turbulence along the propagation path, air turbulence at the sensor, source/receiver motion, unsteady source level, and fine scale temperature variations. Similar environmental and source dependent phenomena cause fluctuations in other propagation media, e.g., undersea, optics, infrared. Amplitude fluctuations are exploited to deconvolve the beam response functions from the beamformed data of small arrays to achieve high spatial resolution, i.e., fine bearing resolution, and substantial SNR gain. Results are presented for a six microphone low-frequency array with an aperture of less than three wavelengths. [Work supported by U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center.

  15. High-resolution imaging using endoscopic holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1990-08-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help to their control. 1.

  16. Holographic high-resolution endoscopic image recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.

    1991-03-01

    Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help

  17. High Resolution Radar Measurements of Snow Avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, Jim; Sovilla, Betty; Vriend, Nathalie; Brennan, Paul; Ash, Matt; Keylock, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Geophysical mass flows, such as snow avalanches, are a major hazard in mountainous areas and have a significant impact on the infrastructure, economy and tourism of such regions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the dynamics of snow avalanches is crucial for risk assessment and the design of defensive structures. However, because the underlying physics is poorly understood there are significant uncertainties concerning current models, which are poorly validated due to a lack of high resolution data. Direct observations of the denser core of a large avalanche are particularly difficult, since it is frequently obscured by the dilute powder cloud. We have developed and installed a phased array FMCW radar system that penetrates the powder cloud and directly images the dense core with a resolution of around 1 m at 50 Hz over the entire slope. We present data from recent avalanches at Vallee de la Sionne that show a wealth of internal structure and allow the tracking of individual fronts, roll waves and surges down the slope for the first time. We also show good agreement between the radar results and existing measurement systems that record data at particular points on the avalanche track.

  18. High Resolution Radar Measurements of Snow Avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, J. N.; Vriend, N. M.; Sovilla, B.; Keylock, C. J.; Brennan, P.; Ash, M.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical mass flows, such as snow avalanches, are a major hazard in mountainous areas and have a significant impact on the infrastructure, economy and tourism of such regions. Obtaining a thorough understanding of the dynamics of snow avalanches is crucial for risk assessment and the design of defensive structures. However, because the underlying physics is poorly understood there are significant uncertainties concerning current models, which are poorly validated due to a lack of high resolution data. Direct observations of the denser core of a large avalanche are particularly difficult, since it is frequently obscured by the dilute powder cloud. We have developed and installed a phased array FMCW radar system that penetrates the powder cloud and directly images the dense core with a resolution of around 1 m at 50 Hz over the entire slope. We present data from recent avalanches at Vallée de la Sionne that show a wealth of internal structure and allow the tracking of individual fronts, roll waves and surges down the slope for the first time. We also show good agreement between the radar results and existing measurement systems that record data at particular points on the avalanche track.

  19. Titania High-Resolution Color Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This high-resolution color composite of Titania was made from Voyager 2 images taken Jan. 24, 1986, as the spacecraft neared its closest approach to Uranus. Voyager's narrow-angle camera acquired this image of Titania, one of the large moons of Uranus, through the violet and clear filters. The spacecraft was about 500,000 kilometers (300,000 miles) away; the picture shows details about 9 km (6 mi) in size. Titania has a diameter of about 1,600 km (1,000 mi). In addition to many scars due to impacts, Titania displays evidence of other geologic activity at some point in its history. The large, trenchlike feature near the terminator (day-night boundary) at middle right suggests at least one episode of tectonic activity. Another, basinlike structure near the upper right is evidence of an ancient period of heavy impact activity. The neutral gray color of Titania is characteristic of the Uranian satellites as a whole. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  20. Supporting observation campaigns with high resolution modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klocke, Daniel; Brueck, Matthias; Voigt, Aiko

    2017-04-01

    High resolution simulation in support of measurement campaigns offers a promising and emerging way to create large-scale context for small-scale observations of clouds and precipitation processes. As these simulation include the coupling of measured small-scale processes with the circulation, they also help to integrate the research communities from modeling and observations and allow for detailed model evaluations against dedicated observations. In connection with the measurement campaign NARVAL (August 2016 and December 2013) simulations with a grid-spacing of 2.5 km for the tropical Atlantic region (9000x3300 km), with local refinement to 1.2 km for the western part of the domain, were performed using the icosahedral non-hydrostatic (ICON) general circulation model. These simulations are again used to drive large eddy resolving simulations with the same model for selected days in the high definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction (HD(CP)2) project. The simulations are presented with the focus on selected results showing the benefit for the scientific communities doing atmospheric measurements and numerical modeling of climate and weather. Additionally, an outlook will be given on how similar simulations will support the NAWDEX measurement campaign in the North Atlantic and AC3 measurement campaign in the Arctic.

  1. High Resolution Science with High Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhorst, R.

    I will first review high resolution science that has been done with the Hubble Space Telescope on high redshift galaxies Next I will review the capabilities of the 6 5 meter James Webb Space Telescope JWST which is an optimized infrared telescope that can deploy automatically in space slated for launch to a halo L2 orbit in 2013 I will outline how the JWST can go about measuring First Light Reionization and Galaxy Assembly building on lessons learned from the Hubble Space Telescope I will show what more nearby galaxies observed in their restframe UV--optical light may look like to JWST at high redshifts Last I will summarize the Generation-X mission concept for an X-ray telescope designed to study the very early universe with 1000-times greater sensitivity than current facilities Gen-X will study the first generations of stars and black holes in the epoch z 10-20 the evolution of black holes and galaxies from high z to the present the chemical evolution of the universe and the properties of matter under extreme conditions This requires an effective area of 100 m 2 at 1 keV an angular resolution of 0 1 HPD over 0 1-10 keV

  2. High Resolution BPM for Linear Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, C.; Chel, S.; Luong, M.; Napoly, O.; Novo, J.; Roudier, D.; Rouviere, N.

    2006-11-20

    A high resolution Beam Position Monitor (BPM) is necessary for the beam-based alignment systems of high energy and low emittance electron linacs. Such a monitor is developed in the framework of the European CARE/SRF programme, in a close collaboration between DESY and CEA/DSM/DAPNIA. This monitor is a radiofrequency re-entrant cavity, which can be used either at room or cryogenic temperature, in an environment where dust particle contamination has to be avoided, such as superconducting cavities in a cryomodule. A first prototype of a re-entrant BPM has already delivered measurements at 2K. inside the first cryomodule (ACC1) on the TESLA Test Facility 2 (TTF2). The performances of this BPM are analyzed both experimentally and theoretically, and the limitations of this existing system clearly identified. A new cavity and new electronics have been designed in order to improve the position resolution down to 1 {mu}m and the damping time down to 10 ns.

  3. High resolution Fourier interferometer-spectrophotopolarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A high-resolution Fourier interferometer-spectrophotopolarimeter is provided using a single linear polarizer-analyzer the transmission axis azimuth of which is positioned successively in the three orientations of 0 deg, 45 deg, and 90 deg, in front of a detector; four flat mirrors, three of which are switchable to either of two positions to direct an incoming beam from an interferometer to the polarizer-analyzer around a sample cell transmitted through a medium in a cell and reflected by medium in the cell; and four fixed focussing lenses, all located in a sample chamber attached at the exit side of the interferometer. This arrangement can provide the distribution of energy and complete polarization state across the spectrum of the reference light entering from the interferometer; the same light after a fixed-angle reflection from the sample cell containing a medium to be analyzed; and the same light after direct transmission through the same sample cell, with the spectral resolution provided by the interferometer.

  4. High-resolution light microscopy of nanoforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanoy, Vitaly; Pustovyy, Oleg; Vainrub, Arnold

    2007-09-01

    We developed a high resolution light imaging system. Diffraction gratings with 100 nm width lines as well as less than 100 nm size features of different-shaped objects are clearly visible on a calibrated microscope test slide (Vainrub et al., Optics Letters, 2006, 31, 2855). The two-point resolution increase results from a known narrowing of the central diffraction peak for the annular aperture. Better visibility and advanced contrast of the smallest features in the image are due to enhancement of high spatial frequencies in the optical transfer function. The imaging system is portable, low energy, and battery operated. It has been adapted to use in both transmitting and reflecting light. It is particularly applicable for motile nanoform systems where structure and functions can be depicted in real time. We have isolated micrometer and submicrometer particles, termed proteons, from human and animal blood. Proteons form by reversible seeded aggregation of proteins around proteon nucleating centers (PNCs). PNCs are comprised of 1-2nm metallic nanoclusters containing 40-300 atoms. Proteons are capable of spontaneous assembling into higher nanoform systems assuming structure of complicated topology. The arrangement of complex proteon system mimics the structure of a small biological cell. It has structures that imitate membrane and nucleolus or nuclei. Some of these nanoforms are motile. They interact and divide. Complex nanoform systems can spontaneously reduce to simple proteons. The physical properties of these nanoforms could shed some light on the properties of early life forms or forms at extreme conditions.

  5. Structure Identification Using High Resolution Mass ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The iCSS CompTox Dashboard is a publicly accessible dashboard provided by the National Center for Computation Toxicology at the US-EPA. It serves a number of purposes, including providing a chemistry database underpinning many of our public-facing projects (e.g. ToxCast and ExpoCast). The available data and searches provide a valuable path to structure identification using mass spectrometry as the source data. With an underlying database of over 720,000 chemicals, the dashboard has already been used to assist in identifying chemicals present in house dust. This poster reviews the benefits of the EPA’s platform and underlying algorithms used for the purpose of compound identification using high-resolution mass spectrometry data. Standard approaches for both mass and formula lookup are available but the dashboard delivers a novel approach for hit ranking based on functional use of the chemicals. The focus on high-quality data, novel ranking approaches and integration to other resources of value to mass spectrometrists makes the CompTox Dashboard a valuable resource for the identification of environmental chemicals. This abstract does not reflect U.S. EPA policy poster presented at the Eastern Analytical Symposium (EAS) held in Somerset, NJ

  6. CrIS High Resolution Hyperspectral Radiances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepplewhite, C. L.; Strow, L. L.; Motteler, H.; Desouza-Machado, S. G.; Tobin, D. C.; Martin, G.; Gumley, L.

    2014-12-01

    The CrIS hyperspectral sounder flying on Suomi-NPPpresently has reduced spectral resolution in the mid-wave andshort-wave spectral bands due to truncation of the interferograms inorbit. CrIS has occasionally downlinked full interferograms for thesebands (0.8 cm max path, or 0.625 cm-1 point spacing) for a feworbits up to a full day. Starting Oct.1, 2014 CrIS will be commandedto download full interferograms continuously for the remainder of themission, although NOAA will not immediately produce high-spectralresolution Sensor Data Records (SDRs). Although the originalmotivation for operating in high-resolution mode was improved spectralcalibration, these new data will also improve (1) vertical sensitivityto water vapor, and (2) greatly increase the CrIS sensitivity tocarbon monoxide. This should improve (1) NWP data assimilation ofwater vapor and (2) provide long-term continuity of carbon monoxideretrievals begun with MOPITT on EOS-TERRA and AIRS on EOS-AQUA. Wehave developed a SDR algorithm to produce calibrated high-spectralresolution radiances which includes several improvements to theexisting CrIS SDR algorithm, and will present validation of thesehigh-spectral resolution radiances using a variety of techniques,including bias evaluation versus NWP model data and inter-comparisonsto AIRS and IASI using simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNOs). Theauthors are presently working to implement this algorithm for NASASuomi NPP Program production of Earth System Data Records.

  7. Deep Inelastic Scattering and Related Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostini, G.; Nigro, A.

    1997-03-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Organization * Foreword * Welcome Address * PLENARY SESSION: "From Paris to Rome" * Deep Inelastic Physics with H1 * Recent Results from ZEUS * Overview of the Status of Polarised Structure Functions * Quarks and Gluons at Hadron Colliders * Deep Inelastic Scattering - Theory and Phenomenology * WORKING GROUP 1: Structure Functions * Inclusive Jet Cross Section Measurement at CDF * Measurement of Direct Photons by the DØ Experiment * MRS Parton Distributions * Global QCD Analysis, the Gluon Distribution, and High Et Inclusive Jet Data * F2 Measurement and QCD Analysis on 94 H1 Data * The ZEUS 1994 F2 Measurement * Measurement of the Total γ*p Cross Section at very Low x and Q2 at HERA * New Results on F2 Structure Functions * Proton Structure Function and Gluon Distribution Functions from Fermilab Experiment E665 * The Transition from the Photoproduction to the DIS Region * The BFKL Pomeron: Can It Be Detected? * BFKL/CCFM Phenomenology * Physics and Mathematics of Dynamical Partons * k⊥-Factorization and Perturbative Invariants at Small x * Double Scaling Violations * On the Asymptotic Behaviour of F2(x, Q2) * Double Logarithmic Scaling of F2 * Differential Charged Current Cross-Sections at HERA * Neutral Current ep Deep Inelastic Scattering at High Q2 and Limits on New Physics * Charm Production in Charged-Current DIS and Extraction of the Strange Sea Density * Extraction of the Gluon Density * On Problems in Extracting the Gluon Density from the Nucleon Structure Function Measurements * Inclusive Measurement of the Strong Coupling at HERA * A Measurement of R = σL/σT in Deep Inelastic Neutrino-Nucleon Scattering at the Tevatron * A Measurement of R = σL/σT in Deep Inelastic μ - p and μ - d Scattering * A Determination of the Longitudinal Proton Structure Function FL(x, Q2) at Low x at HERA * Prospects for Measuring R = σL/σT at HERA in 1966 Low-Energy Running * A Leading Order, in ln(1/x) as well as

  8. High resolution deuterium NMR studies of bacterial metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Aguayo, J.B.; Gamcsik, M.P.; Dick, J.D.

    1988-12-25

    High resolution deuterium NMR spectra were obtained from suspensions of five bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Deuterium-labeled D-glucose at C-1, C-2, and C-6 was used to monitor dynamically anaerobic metabolism. The flux of glucose through the various bacterial metabolic pathways could be determined by following the disappearance of glucose and the appearance of the major end products in the 2H NMR spectrum. The presence of both labeled and unlabeled metabolites could be detected using 1H NMR spectroscopy since the proton resonances in the labeled species are shifted upfield due to an isotopic chemical shift effect. The 1H-1H scalar coupling observed in both the 2H and 1H NMR spectra was used to assign definitively the resonances of labeled species. An increase in the intensity of natural abundance deuterium signal of water can be used to monitor pathways in which a deuteron is lost from the labeled metabolite. The steps in which label loss can occur are outlined, and the influence these processes have on the ability of 2H NMR spectroscopy to monitor metabolism are assessed.

  9. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S. K.; Lambe, J.

    1983-01-01

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is a useful technique for the study of vibrational modes of molecules adsorbed on the surface of oxide layers in a metal-insulator-metal tunnel junction. The technique involves studying the effects of adsorbed molecules on the tunneling spectrum of such junctions. The data give useful information about the structure, bonding, and orientation of adsorbed molecules. One of the major advantages of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is its sensitivity. It is capable of detecting on the order of 10 to the 10th molecules (a fraction of a monolayer) on a 1 sq mm junction. It has been successfully used in studies of catalysis, biology, trace impurity detection, and electronic excitations. Because of its high sensitivity, this technique shows great promise in the area of solid-state electronic chemical sensing.

  10. Wavefront metrology for high resolution optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, Ryan H.

    Next generation extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical systems are moving to higher resolution optics to accommodate smaller length scales targeted by the semiconductor industry. As the numerical apertures (NA) of the optics become larger, it becomes increasingly difficult to characterize aberrations due to experimental challenges associated with high-resolution spatial filters and geometrical effects caused by large incident angles of the test wavefront. This dissertation focuses on two methods of wavefront metrology for high resolution optical systems. The first method, lateral shearing interferometry (LSI), is a self-referencing interferometry where the test wavefront is incident on a low spatial frequency grating, and the resulting interference between the diffracted orders is used to reconstruct the wavefront aberrations. LSI has many advantages over other interferometric tests such as phase-shifting point diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) due to its experimental simplicity, stability, relaxed coherence requirements, and its ability to scale to high numerical apertures. While LSI has historically been a qualitative test, this dissertation presents a novel quantitative investigation of the LSI interferogram. The analysis reveals the existence of systematic aberrations due to the nonlinear angular response from the diffraction grating that compromises the accuracy of LSI at medium to high NAs. In the medium NA regime (0.15 < NA < 0.35), a holographic model is presented that derives the systematic aberrations in closed form, which demonstrates an astigmatism term that scales as the square of the grating defocus. In the high NA regime (0.35 < NA), a geometrical model is introduced that describes the aberrations as a system of transcendental equations that can be solved numerically. The characterization and removal of these systematic errors is a necessary step that unlocks LSI as a viable candidate for high NA EUV optical testing. The second method is a novel image

  11. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    SciTech Connect

    Braeuer-Krisch, E.; Brochard, T.; Prezado, Y.; Bravin, A.; Berkvens, P.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.

    2010-07-23

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow ({approx}25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 {mu}m microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy

  12. Potential High Resolution Dosimeters For MRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.; Petasecca, M.; Akselrod, M.; Sykora, J.; Bartz, J.; Ptaszkiewicz, M.; Olko, P.; Berg, A.; Wieland, M.; Doran, S.; Brochard, T.; Kamlowski, A.; Cellere, G.; Paccagnella, A.; Siegbahn, E. A.; Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Bravin, A.; Dusseau, L.; Berkvens, P.

    2010-07-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of X-ray microbeams of 50-600 keV, produced by 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron sources, such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in the U.S., and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France, respectively. High dose rates are necessary to deliver therapeutic doses in microscopic volumes, to avoid spreading of the microbeams by cardiosynchronous movement of the tissues. A small beam divergence and a filtered white beam spectrum in the energy range between 30 and 250 keV results in the advantage of steep dose gradients with a sharper penumbra than that produced in conventional radiotherapy. MRT research over the past 20 years has allowed a vast number of results from preclinical trials on different animal models, including mice, rats, piglets and rabbits. Microbeams in the range between 10 and 100 micron width show an unprecedented sparing of normal radiosensitive tissues as well as preferential damage to malignant tumor tissues. Typically, MRT uses arrays of narrow (˜25-100 micron-wide) microplanar beams separated by wider (100-400 microns centre-to-centre, c-t-c) microplanar spaces. We note that thicker microbeams of 0.1-0.68 mm used by investigators at the NSLS are still called microbeams, although some invesigators in the community prefer to call them minibeams. This report, however, limits it discussion to 25-100 μm microbeams. Peak entrance doses of several hundreds of Gy are surprisingly well tolerated by normal tissues. High resolution dosimetry has been developed over the last two decades, but typical dose ranges are adapted to dose delivery in conventional Radiation Therapy (RT). Spatial resolution in the sub-millimetric range has been achieved, which is currently required for quality assurance measurements in Gamma-knife RT. Most typical commercially available detectors are not suitable for MRT applications at a dose rate of 16000 Gy/s, micron

  13. Large Scale, High Resolution, Mantle Dynamics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geenen, T.; Berg, A. V.; Spakman, W.

    2007-12-01

    To model the geodynamic evolution of plate convergence, subduction and collision and to allow for a connection to various types of observational data, geophysical, geodetical and geological, we developed a 4D (space-time) numerical mantle convection code. The model is based on a spherical 3D Eulerian fem model, with quadratic elements, on top of which we constructed a 3D Lagrangian particle in cell(PIC) method. We use the PIC method to transport material properties and to incorporate a viscoelastic rheology. Since capturing small scale processes associated with localization phenomena require a high resolution, we spend a considerable effort on implementing solvers suitable to solve for models with over 100 million degrees of freedom. We implemented Additive Schwartz type ILU based methods in combination with a Krylov solver, GMRES. However we found that for problems with over 500 thousend degrees of freedom the convergence of the solver degraded severely. This observation is known from the literature [Saad, 2003] and results from the local character of the ILU preconditioner resulting in a poor approximation of the inverse of A for large A. The size of A for which ILU is no longer usable depends on the condition of A and on the amount of fill in allowed for the ILU preconditioner. We found that for our problems with over 5×105 degrees of freedom convergence became to slow to solve the system within an acceptable amount of walltime, one minute, even when allowing for considerable amount of fill in. We also implemented MUMPS and found good scaling results for problems up to 107 degrees of freedom for up to 32 CPU¡¯s. For problems with over 100 million degrees of freedom we implemented Algebraic Multigrid type methods (AMG) from the ML library [Sala, 2006]. Since multigrid methods are most effective for single parameter problems, we rebuild our model to use the SIMPLE method in the Stokes solver [Patankar, 1980]. We present scaling results from these solvers for 3D

  14. High-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Esther; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Bowman, Brett; Schwientek, Patrick; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Ciobanu, Doina; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Gies, Esther; Hallam, Steve; Tringe, Susannah; Woyke, Tanja

    2014-03-17

    The representation of bacterial and archaeal genome sequences is strongly biased towards cultivated organisms, which belong to merely four phylogenetic groups. Functional information and inter-phylum level relationships are still largely underexplored for candidate phyla, which are often referred to as microbial dark matter. Furthermore, a large portion of the 16S rRNA gene records in the GenBank database are labeled as environmental samples and unclassified, which is in part due to low read accuracy, potential chimeric sequences produced during PCR amplifications and the low resolution of short amplicons. In order to improve the phylogenetic classification of novel species and advance our knowledge of the ecosystem function of uncultivated microorganisms, high-throughput full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing methodologies with reduced biases are needed. We evaluated the performance of PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing in high-resolution phylogenetic microbial community profiling. For this purpose, we compared PacBio and Illumina metagenomic shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of a mock community as well as of an environmental sample from Sakinaw Lake, British Columbia. Sakinaw Lake is known to contain a large age of microbial species from candidate phyla. Sequencing results show that community structure based on PacBio shotgun and 16S rRNA gene sequences is highly similar in both the mock and the environmental communities. Resolution power and community representation accuracy from SMRT sequencing data appeared to be independent of GC content of microbial genomes and was higher when compared to Illumina-based metagenome shotgun and 16S rRNA gene (iTag) sequences, e.g. full-length sequencing resolved all 23 OTUs in the mock community, while iTags did not resolve closely related species. SMRT sequencing hence offers various potential benefits when characterizing uncharted microbial communities.

  15. Toward high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, Daniel; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander; Asher, Alon; Baccus, Steven

    2005-04-01

    It has been already demonstrated that electrical stimulation of retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), while several thousand pixels are required for functional restoration of sight. We present a design of the optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system that can activate a retinal stimulating array with pixel density up to 2,500 pix/mm2 (geometrically corresponding to a visual acuity of 20/80), and allows for natural eye scanning rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera. The system operates similarly to "virtual reality" imaging devices used in military and medical applications. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. Such a system provides a broad field of vision by allowing for natural eye scanning. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for simultaneous utilization of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical control of the implant allows for simple adjustment of image processing algorithms and for learning. A major prerequisite for high resolution stimulation is the proximity of neural cells to the stimulation sites. This can be achieved with sub-retinal implants constructed in a manner that directs migration of retinal cells to target areas. Two basic implant geometries are described: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. Possibility of the tactile neural stimulation is also examined.

  16. High-resolution downscaling for hydrological management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbrich, Uwe; Rust, Henning; Meredith, Edmund; Kpogo-Nuwoklo, Komlan; Vagenas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological modellers and water managers require high-resolution climate data to model regional hydrologies and how these may respond to future changes in the large-scale climate. The ability to successfully model such changes and, by extension, critical infrastructure planning is often impeded by a lack of suitable climate data. This typically takes the form of too-coarse data from climate models, which are not sufficiently detailed in either space or time to be able to support water management decisions and hydrological research. BINGO (Bringing INnovation in onGOing water management; ) aims to bridge the gap between the needs of hydrological modellers and planners, and the currently available range of climate data, with the overarching aim of providing adaptation strategies for climate change-related challenges. Producing the kilometre- and sub-daily-scale climate data needed by hydrologists through continuous simulations is generally computationally infeasible. To circumvent this hurdle, we adopt a two-pronged approach involving (1) selective dynamical downscaling and (2) conditional stochastic weather generators, with the former presented here. We take an event-based approach to downscaling in order to achieve the kilometre-scale input needed by hydrological modellers. Computational expenses are minimized by identifying extremal weather patterns for each BINGO research site in lower-resolution simulations and then only downscaling to the kilometre-scale (convection permitting) those events during which such patterns occur. Here we (1) outline the methodology behind the selection of the events, and (2) compare the modelled precipitation distribution and variability (preconditioned on the extremal weather patterns) with that found in observations.

  17. Deep inelastic scattering as a probe of entanglement

    DOE PAGES

    Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Levin, Eugene M.

    2017-06-03

    Using nonlinear evolution equations of QCD, we compute the von Neumann entropy of the system of partons resolved by deep inelastic scattering at a given Bjorken x and momentum transfer q 2 = - Q 2 . We interpret the result as the entropy of entanglement between the spatial region probed by deep inelastic scattering and the rest of the proton. At small x the relation between the entanglement entropy S ( x ) and the parton distribution x G ( x ) becomes very simple: S ( x ) = ln [ x G ( x ) ] .more » In this small x , large rapidity Y regime, all partonic microstates have equal probabilities—the proton is composed by an exponentially large number exp ( Δ Y ) of microstates that occur with equal and exponentially small probabilities exp ( - Δ Y ) , where Δ is defined by x G ( x ) ~ 1 / x Δ . For this equipartitioned state, the entanglement entropy is maximal—so at small x , deep inelastic scattering probes a maximally entangled state. Here, we propose the entanglement entropy as an observable that can be studied in deep inelastic scattering. This will then require event-by-event measurements of hadronic final states, and would allow to study the transformation of entanglement entropy into the Boltzmann one. We estimate that the proton is represented by the maximally entangled state at x ≤ 10 -3 ; this kinematic region will be amenable to studies at the Electron Ion Collider.« less

  18. Proton structure functions at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Iris

    2014-05-01

    The "proton structure" is a wide field. Discussed are predominantly the precision measurements of the proton structure functions at HERA and some of their implications for the LHC measurements. In addition, a discussion of what a proton structure function represents is provided. Finally, a connection to nuclear physics is attempted. This contribution is an updated reprint of a contribution to "Deep Inelastic Scattering 2012".1

  19. High Resolution Airborne Shallow Water Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbacher, F.; Pfennigbauer, M.; Aufleger, M.; Ullrich, A.

    2012-07-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive (EU-WFD), authorities face the problem of repeatedly performing area-wide surveying of all kinds of inland waters. Especially for mid-sized or small rivers this is a considerable challenge imposing insurmountable logistical efforts and costs. It is therefore investigated if large-scale surveying of a river system on an operational basis is feasible by employing airborne hydrographic laser scanning. In cooperation with the Bavarian Water Authority (WWA Weilheim) a pilot project was initiated by the Unit of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of Innsbruck and RIEGL Laser Measurement Systems exploiting the possibilities of a new LIDAR measurement system with high spatial resolution and high measurement rate to capture about 70 km of riverbed and foreland for the river Loisach in Bavaria/Germany and the estuary and parts of the shoreline (about 40km in length) of lake Ammersee. The entire area surveyed was referenced to classic terrestrial cross-section surveys with the aim to derive products for the monitoring and managing needs of the inland water bodies forced by the EU-WFD. The survey was performed in July 2011 by helicopter and airplane and took 3 days in total. In addition, high resolution areal images were taken to provide an optical reference, offering a wide range of possibilities on further research, monitoring, and managing responsibilities. The operating altitude was about 500 m to maintain eye-safety, even for the aided eye, the airspeed was about 55 kts for the helicopter and 75 kts for the aircraft. The helicopter was used in the alpine regions while the fixed wing aircraft was used in the plains and the urban area, using appropriate scan rates to receive evenly distributed point clouds. The resulting point density ranged from 10 to 25 points per square meter. By carefully selecting days with optimum water quality, satisfactory penetration down to the river bed was achieved

  20. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Gok, R; Zor, E; Walter, W

    2004-09-03

    We investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet and form a complex tectonic structure. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provided a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure. Zor et al. found an average 46 km thick crust in Anatolian plateau using six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver function alone with many-layered parameterization may result in an apparent depth-velocity tradeoff. In order to improve previous velocity model, we employed the joint inversion method with many layered parameterization of Julia et al. (2000) to the ETSE receiver functions. In this technique, the receiver function and surface-wave observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. We consider azimuthal changes of receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups. We calculated the receiver functions using iterative time-domain deconvolution technique and surface wave group velocity dispersion curves between 10-100 sec. We are making surface wave dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and have incorporated them into a regional group velocity model. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocity in the northeast. This indicates slow upper mantle velocities in the region consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. We started with both the 1-D model that is obtained with the 12 tones dam explosion shot data recorded by ETSE network and the existing receiver function

  1. High Resolution Velocity Structure in Eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Gok, R.; Zor, E.; Walter, W. R.

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the crust and upper mantle structure of eastern Turkey where the Anatolian, Arabian and Eurasian Plates meet, forming a complex tectonic regime. The Bitlis suture is a continental collision zone between the Anatolian plateau and the Arabian plate. Broadband data available through the Eastern Turkey Seismic Experiment (ETSE) provide a unique opportunity for studying the high resolution velocity structure of the region. Zor et al. (2003) found an average 46 km thick crust in the Anatolian plateau using a six-layered grid search inversion of the ETSE receiver functions. Receiver functions are sensitive to the velocity contrast of interfaces and the relative travel time of converted and reverberated waves between those interfaces. The interpretation of receiver functions alone, however, may result in an apparent depth-velocity trade-off [Ammon et al., 1990]. In order to improve upon this velocity model, we have combined the receiver functions with surface wave data using the joint inversion method of Julia et al. (2000). In this technique, the two sets of observations are combined into a single algebraic equation and each data set is weighted by an estimate of the uncertainty in the observations. The receiver functions are calculated using an iterative time-domain deconvolution technique. We also consider azimuthal changes in the receiver functions and have stacked them into different groups accordingly. We are improving our surface wave model by making Love and Rayleigh dispersion measurements at the ETSE stations and incorporating them into a regional group velocity model for periods between 10 and 100 seconds. Preliminary results indicate a strong trend in the long period group velocities toward the northeast, indicating slow upper mantle velocities in the area consistent with Pn, Sn and receiver function results. Starting models used for the joint inversions include both a 1-D model from a 12-ton dam shot recorded by ETSE [Gurbuz et al., 2004] and

  2. Low energy nuclear spin excitations in Ho metal investigated by high resolution neutron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Tapan; Jalarvo, Niina

    2013-04-17

    We have investigated the low energy excitations in metallic Ho by high resolution neutron spectroscopy. We found at T = 3 K clear inelastic peaks in the energy loss and energy gain sides, along with the central elastic peak. The energy of this low energy excitation, which is 26.59 ± 0.02 μeV at T = 3 K, decreased continuously and became zero at TN ≈ 130 K. By fitting the data in the temperature range 100-127.5 K with a power law we obtained the power-law exponent β = 0.37 ± 0.02, which agrees with the expected value β = 0.367 for a three-dimensional Heisenberg model. Thus the energy of the low energy excitations can be associated with the order parameter.

  3. HCN Polymers: Toward Structure Comprehension Using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, Jean-Yves; Thissen, Roland; Frisari, Ma; Vuitton, Veronique; Quirico, Eric; Le Roy, Léna; Fray, Nicolas; Cottin, Hervé; Horst, Sarah; Yelle, Roger

    A lot of solar system materials, including cometary ices and Titan aerosols, contain dark matter that can be interpreted as complex nitrogen bearing organic matter [1]. In laboratory experi-ments, HCN polymers are thus analogs of great interest. In fact they may be present in Titan atmosphere and in comet nuclei and then reprocessed as a CN distributed source [2], when ices began to sublimate and ejects from the nucleus organic matter grains [3]. The presence of HCN polymers is suggested because HCN molecule has been directly observed in 1P/Halley comet [4] and others. HCN polymers are also of prebiotic interest [5] as it can form amino acid under hydrolysis conditions. Even if they have been studied during the last decades, their chemical composition and structure are still poorly understood, and a great analytical effort has to be continued. In this way we present a high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and a high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/HRMS) analysis of HCN polymers. It was shown [6] that this is a suitable technique to elucidate composition and structure of the soluble part of tholins analogs of Titan's atmosphere aerosols. HCN polymers have never been studied by HRMS, thus we used a LTQ-Orbitrap XL high resolution mass spectrometer to analyse the HCN polymers. These are produced at LISA by direct polymerisation of pure liquid HCN, catalyzed by ammonia. HCN polymers have been completely dissolved in methanol and then injected in the mass spectrometer by ElectroSpray Ionization (ESI). This atmospheric pressure ionization process produces protonated or deprotonated ions, but it does not fragment molecules. Thus HRMS, allows a direct access to the stoechiometry of all the ionizable molecules present in the samples. Fragmentation analyses (MS/MS) of selected ions have also been performed. Thess analysis provide information about the different chemical fonctionnalities present in HCN poly-mers and also about their structure. Thus we are able to

  4. High-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Rubén; García, Ricardo; Schwarz, Udo

    2009-07-01

    original papers authored by many of the leading groups in the field with the goal of providing a well-balanced overview on the state-of-the-art in this rapidly evolving field. These papers, many of which are based on notable presentations given during the Madrid conference, feature highlights such as (1) the development of sophisticated force spectroscopy procedures that are able to map the complete 3D tip-sample force field on different surfaces; (2) the considerable resolution improvement of Kelvin probe force microscopy (reaching, in some cases, the atomic scale), which is accompanied by a thorough, quantitative understanding of the contrast observed; (3) the perfecting of atomic resolution imaging on insulating substrates, which helps reshape our microscopic understanding of surface properties and chemical activity of these surfaces; (4) the description of instrumental and methodological developments that pave the way to the atomic-scale characterization of magnetic and electronic properties of nanostructures, and last but not least (5) the extension of dynamic imaging modes to high-resolution operation in liquids, ultimately achieving atomic resolution. The latter developments are already having a significant impact in the highly competitive field of biological imaging under physiological conditions. This special issue of Nanotechnology would not have been possible without the highly professional support from Nina Couzin, Amy Harvey, Alex Wotherspoon and the entire Nanotechnology team at IOP Publishing. We are thankful for their help in pushing this project forward. We also thank the authors who have contributed their excellent original articles to this issue, the referees whose comments have helped make the issue an accurate portrait of this rapidly moving field, and the entire NC-AFM community that continues to drive NC-AFM to new horizons.

  5. ALMA Debuts High-Resolution Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-07-01

    through space as it orbits the Sun. The resolution of these images — enough to study the shape and even some surface features of the asteroid! — are unprecedented for this wavelength. HL Tau is a young star surrounded by a protoplanetary disk. ALMA's detailed observations of this region revealed remarkable structure within the disk: a series of light and dark concentric rings indicative of planets caught in the act of forming. Studying this system will help us understand how multi-planet solar systems like our own form and evolve. The star-forming galaxy SDP.81 — located so far away that the light we see was emitted when the Universe was only 15% of its current age — is gravitationally-lensed into a cosmic arc, due to the convenient placement of a nearby foreground galaxy. The combination of the lucky alignment and ALMA's high resolution grant us a spectacularly detailed view of this distant galaxy, allowing us to study its actual shape and the motion within it. The observations from ALMA's first test of its long baseline demonstrate that ALMA is capable of doing the transformational science it promised. As we gear up for the next cycle of observations, it's clear that exciting times are ahead! Citation: ALMA ship et al. 2015 ApJ 808 L1, L2, L3 and L4. Focus on the ALMA Long Baseline Campaign

  6. Using high-resolution displays for high-resolution cardiac data.

    PubMed

    Goodyer, Christopher; Hodrien, John; Wood, Jason; Kohl, Peter; Brodlie, Ken

    2009-07-13

    The ability to perform fast, accurate, high-resolution visualization is fundamental to improving our understanding of anatomical data. As the volumes of data increase from improvements in scanning technology, the methods applied to visualization must evolve. In this paper, we address the interactive display of data from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scanning of a rabbit heart and subsequent histological imaging. We describe a visualization environment involving a tiled liquid crystal display panel display wall and associated software, which provides an interactive and intuitive user interface. The oView software is an OpenGL application that is written for the VR Juggler environment. This environment abstracts displays and devices away from the application itself, aiding portability between different systems, from desktop PCs to multi-tiled display walls. Portability between display walls has been demonstrated through its use on walls at the universities of both Leeds and Oxford. We discuss important factors to be considered for interactive two-dimensional display of large three-dimensional datasets, including the use of intuitive input devices and level of detail aspects.

  7. Inelastic and Dynamic Fracture and Stress Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atluri, S. N.

    1984-01-01

    Large deformation inelastic stress analysis and inelastic and dynamic crack propagation research work is summarized. The salient topics of interest in engine structure analysis that are discussed herein include: (1) a path-independent integral (T) in inelastic fracture mechanics, (2) analysis of dynamic crack propagation, (3) generalization of constitutive relations of inelasticity for finite deformations , (4) complementary energy approaches in inelastic analyses, and (5) objectivity of time integration schemes in inelastic stress analysis.

  8. A broadband, high-resolution spatial heterodyne spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, J. E.; Harlander, J.; Roesler, F. L.; Labby, Z.

    2009-05-01

    Design and performance parameters of a broadband, high-resolution spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) with a transmitting beamsplitter are described. This Mark 1 SHS achieves more than a factor of five in continuous wavenumber coverage with a resolving power in hundreds of thousands. Progress toward an all reflection, broadband, high-resolution Mark 2 SHS is reported.

  9. High-resolution ground-based spectroscopy: where and how ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallavicini, R.

    2002-07-01

    An overview is presented of high-resolution optical spectrographs in operation or under development at large telescopes, with emphasis on those facilities best suited for the study of late-type stars and stellar surface inhomogeneities. Plans for the development of new high-resolution spectroscopic instruments are discussed with emphasis on the ICE spectrograph for the PEPSI spectropolarimeter at the LBT.

  10. High-resolution Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry for understanding high-resolution optoelectronic modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzaniti, J. Larry; Chipman, Russell A.

    1994-09-01

    A high resolution Mueller matrix imaging polarimetry test bed has been constructed and calibrated that has unique capabilities for characterizing optoelectronic devices, such as liquid crystal modulators, PLZT modulators, quantum well modulators, and surface emitting lasers. Similarly, the instrument can perform end-to-end measurements on optoelectronic systems including optical computers, interconnects, and correlators. It addresses, at the systems level, the need for incorporating polarimetric analysis and measurement techniques into the design, alignment, and testing of photonics technologies. The polarimeter maps the polarization altering characteristics of optical devices and optical systems, producing means of the retardance, the diattenuation, and the depolarization. The polarization mappings may be obtained across individual pixels or across large pixel arrays. The data sets provide a wealth of information not otherwise accessible for characterizing device uniformity, operating parameters, angular bandwidth, as well as identifying non-ideal polarization characteristics.

  11. Magnetic inelastic scattering: Present results and future trends

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.

    1996-04-01

    Experience over the last 15 years has shsown that pulsed neutron spectrometers are able to contribute to the field of magnetic inelastic scattering. Such spectrometers have high resolution and wide dynamic range, both of which are necessary in order to characterize the magnetic response of the complex systems of current interest, ranging from rare earth-transition metal permanent magnets to quantum critical scatterers. Howevera, all these studies have been constrained by current flux limitations. The development of more powerful spallation neutron sources, such as the JHP, is likely to transform these interesting demonstrations of the potential of pulsed neutron scattering into routine tools for the study of magnetic correlations.

  12. Gamma Strength Functions and Level Densities from 300 MeV Proton Scatttering at 0°

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Neumann-Cosel, Peter; Bassauer, Sergej; Martin, Dirk

    The gamma strength function (GSF) as well as total level densities (LDs) in 208Pb and 96Mo were extracted from high-resolution forward angle inelastic proton scattering data taken at RCNP, Osaka, Japan, and compared to experimental results obtained with the Oslo method in order to test the validity of the Brink-Axel (BA) hypothesis in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance. The case of 208Pb is inconclusive because of strong fluctuations of the GSF due to the small level density in a doubly closed-shell nucleus. In 96Mo the data are consistent with the BA hypothesis. The good agreement of LDs provides an independent confirmation of the approach underlying the decomposition of GSF and LDs in Oslo-type experiments.

  13. Inelastic Light Scattering Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fouche, Daniel G.; Chang, Richard K.

    1973-01-01

    Five different inelastic light scattering processes will be denoted by, ordinary Raman scattering (ORS), resonance Raman scattering (RRS), off-resonance fluorescence (ORF), resonance fluorescence (RF), and broad fluorescence (BF). A distinction between fluorescence (including ORF and RF) and Raman scattering (including ORS and RRS) will be made in terms of the number of intermediate molecular states which contribute significantly to the scattered amplitude, and not in terms of excited state lifetimes or virtual versus real processes. The theory of these processes will be reviewed, including the effects of pressure, laser wavelength, and laser spectral distribution on the scattered intensity. The application of these processes to the remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants will be discussed briefly. It will be pointed out that the poor sensitivity of the ORS technique cannot be increased by going toward resonance without also compromising the advantages it has over the RF technique. Experimental results on inelastic light scattering from I(sub 2) vapor will be presented. As a single longitudinal mode 5145 A argon-ion laser line was tuned away from an I(sub 2) absorption line, the scattering was observed to change from RF to ORF. The basis, of the distinction is the different pressure dependence of the scattered intensity. Nearly three orders of magnitude enhancement of the scattered intensity was measured in going from ORF to RF. Forty-seven overtones were observed and their relative intensities measured. The ORF cross section of I(sub 2) compared to the ORS cross section of N2 was found to be 3 x 10(exp 6), with I(sub 2) at its room temperature vapor pressure.

  14. High resolution airborne geophysics at hazardous waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, L.P.; Nyquist, J.E.; Doll, W.E.; Chong Foo, M.; Gamey, T.J.

    1995-06-01

    In 1994, a high resolution helicopter geophysical survey was conducted over portions of the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee. The 1800 line kilometer survey included multi-frequency electromagnetic and magnetic sensors. The areas covered by the high resolution portion of the survey were selected on the basis of their importance to the environmental restoration effort and on data obtained from the reconnaissance phase of the airborne survey in which electromagnetic, magnetic, and radiometric data were collected over the entire Oak Ridge Reservation in 1992--1993. The high resolution phase had lower sensor heights, more and higher EM frequencies, and tighter line spacings than did the reconnaissance survey. When flying over exceptionally clear areas, the high resolution bird came within a few meters of the ground surface. Unfortunately, even sparse trees and power or phone lines could prevent the bird from being towed safely at low altitude, and over such areas it was more usual for it to be flown at about the same altitude as the bird in the reconnaissance survey, about 30m. Even so, the magnetometers used in the high resolution phase were 20m closer to the ground than in the reconnaissance phase because they were mounted on the tail of the bird rather than on the tow cable above the bird. The EM frequencies used in the high resolution survey ranged from 7400Hz to 67000Hz. Only the horizontal coplanar loop configuration was used in the high resolution flyovers.

  15. Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-02

    28-2012 Final Report 04/15/2009 - 11/30/2011 Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization FA9550-09-1-0303 Alexander M...randomly placed sensors. MIMO radar, High-Resolution radar 19 Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization Air Force Office...configured with its antennas collocated [6] or distributed over an area [7, 8]. We refer to radio elements of a MIMO radar as nodes. Nodes may be equipped

  16. High-Resolution Array with Prony, MUSIC, and ESPRIT Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-25

    N avalI Research La bora tory AD-A255 514 Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/FR/5324-92-9397 High-resolution Array with Prony, music , and ESPRIT...unlimited t"orm n pprovoiREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE OMB. o 0 104 0188 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS High-resolution Array with Prony. MUSIC . and...the array high-resolution properties of three algorithms: the Prony algo- rithm, the MUSIC algorithm, and the ESPRIT algorithm. MUSIC has been much

  17. Nuclear forward and inelastic spectroscopy on 125Te and Sb2125 Te3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wille, H.-C.; Hermann, R. P.; Sergueev, I.; Pelzer, U.; Möchel, A.; Claudio, T.; Perßon, J.; Rüffer, R.; Said, A.; Shvyd'ko, Yu. V.

    2010-09-01

    We report on the observation of nuclear forward and nuclear inelastic scattering of synchrotron radiation by 125Te and the application of both spectroscopic methods to tellurium compounds by using a high-resolution backscattering sapphire monochromator in combination with fast detection electronics. The lifetime of the nuclear resonance and the energy of the transition were determined to be 2.131(12) ns and 35493.12(30) eV, respectively. As applications, the nuclear inelastic spectrum in Sb2Te3 and the nuclear forward scattering by Te metal were measured. These measurements open the field of nuclear resonance spectroscopy on tellurium compounds such as thermoelectric and superconducting materials.

  18. Phenomenology of deep-inelastic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.

    1983-03-01

    The field of heavy-ion deep-inelastic reactions is reviewed with particular attention to the experimental picture. The most important degrees of freedom involved in the process are identified and illustrated with relevant experiments. Energy dissipation and mass transfer are discussed in terms of particles and/or phonons exchanged in the process. The equilibration of the fragment neutron-to-proton ratios is inspected for evidence of giant isovector resonances. The angular momentum effects are observed in the fragment angular distributions and the angular momentum transfer is inferred from the magnitude and alignment of the fragments spins. The possible sources of light particles accompanying the deep-inelastic reactions are discussed. The use of the sequentially emitted particles as angular momentum probes is illustrated. The significance and uses of a thermalized component emitted by the dinucleus is reviewed. The possible presence of Fermi jets in the prompt component is shown to be critical to the justification of the one-body theories.

  19. High resolution integral holography using Fourier ptychographic approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaohui; Zhang, Jianqi; Wang, Xiaorui; Liu, Delian

    2014-12-29

    An innovative approach is proposed for calculating high resolution computer generated integral holograms by using the Fourier Ptychographic (FP) algorithm. The approach initializes a high resolution complex hologram with a random guess, and then stitches together low resolution multi-view images, synthesized from the elemental images captured by integral imaging (II), to recover the high resolution hologram through an iterative retrieval with FP constrains. This paper begins with an analysis of the principle of hologram synthesis from multi-projections, followed by an accurate determination of the constrains required in the Fourier ptychographic integral-holography (FPIH). Next, the procedure of the approach is described in detail. Finally, optical reconstructions are performed and the results are demonstrated. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that our proposed approach can reconstruct 3D scenes with high resolution.

  20. Topological Data Analysis of High-Resolution Temporal Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carsteanu, Alin Andrei; Fernández Méndez, Félix; Vásquez Aguilar, Raciel

    2017-04-01

    This study applies topological data analysis (TDA) to the state space representations of high-resolution temporal rainfall intensity data from Iowa City (IIHR, U of Iowa). Using a sufficient embedding dimension, topological properties of the underlying manifold are depicted.

  1. High Resolution CryoFESEM of Microbial Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlandsen, Stanley; Lei, Ming; Martin-Lacave, Ines; Dunny, Gary; Wells, Carol

    2003-08-01

    The outer surfaces of three microorganisms, Giardia lamblia, Enterococcus faecalis, and Proteus mirabilis, were investigated by cryo-immobilization followed by sublimation of extracellular ice and cryocoating with either Pt alone or Pt plus carbon. Cryocoated samples were examined at [minus sign]125°C in either an in-lens field emission SEM or a below-the-lens field emission SEM. Cryocoating with Pt alone was sufficient for low magnification observation, but attempts to do high-resolution imaging resulted in radiolysis and cracking of the specimen surface. Double coating with Pt and carbon, in combination with high resolution backscatter electron detectors, enabled high-resolution imaging of the glycocalyx of bacteria, revealing a sponge-like network over the surface. High resolution examination of bacterial flagella also revealed a periodic substructure. Common artifacts included radiolysis leading to “cracking” of the surface, and insufficient deposition of Pt resulting in the absence of detectable surface topography.

  2. Methodology of high-resolution photography for mural condition database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, R.; Suzuki, T.; Shibata, M.; Taniguchi, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Digital documentation is one of the most useful techniques to record the condition of cultural heritage. Recently, high-resolution images become increasingly useful because it is possible to show general views of mural paintings and also detailed mural conditions in a single image. As mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, it is necessary to record the details of painting condition on high-resolution base maps. Unfortunately, the cost of high-resolution photography and the difficulty of operating its instruments and software have commonly been an impediment for researchers and conservators. However, the recent development of graphic software makes its operation simpler and less expensive. In this paper, we suggest a new approach to make digital heritage inventories without special instruments, based on our recent our research project in Üzümlü church in Cappadocia, Turkey. This method enables us to achieve a high-resolution image database with low costs, short time, and limited human resources.

  3. High resolution Laplace DLTS studies of defects in ion-implanted silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans-Freeman, J. H.; Abdelgader, N.; Kan, P. Y. Y.; Peaker, A. R.

    2002-01-01

    We have used high resolution Laplace deep level transient spectroscopy (LDLTS) to investigate defects in n-type silicon caused by implantation of Si, Ge or Er with doses of the order of 1×10 9 cm-2. These are compared with defects created in proton irradiated n-type silicon. Unlike the simple proton irradiated case, LDLTS spectra of ion implanted silicon show that there are many emission rates associated with defects with energies in the region of Ec-400 meV. We have carried out annealing studies and Laplace DLTS depth profiling and show that the complex spectra measured from a region less than half way through the implant simplify as the profile is moved through the implant and towards the tail. Annealing studies show that these defects survive an anneal that should remove the E-centre.

  4. Comparison of high resolution real time ultrasonography and high resolution computed tomography in an infant with spinal dysraphism.

    PubMed

    James, H E; Scheible, W; Kerber, C; Hilton, S V

    1983-09-01

    An infant with a lumbosacral spinal subcutaneous and intraspinal lipoma involving the conus medullaris was studied with computed tomography and high resolution real time ultrasonography to determine the extent and location of the disease before operation. The high resolution ultrasonogram demonstrated the abnormality with good detail and the added advantage of real time display of the lack of pulsatile mobility of the neural elements, confirming spinal cord tethering. Spinal high resolution ultrasonography is a noninvasive diagnostic tool in infants with spinal abnormalities and should be an important part of a neurosurgeon's diagnostic support system.

  5. NEW APPROACHES: Deep inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allday, J.

    1998-01-01

    Feynman diagrams can be used to explain deep inelastic scattering, but it must be remembered that the emission and absorption of a photon are not independent events - the underlying field is important.

  6. SPARTAN: An Instructional High Resolution Land Combat Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    AD-A248 1681111 1 1 1 11 1 I’Ii’ I! ! DTICELECTIED m APR,0 11992.S Oct-D SPARTAN: An Instructional High Rezolution Land Combat Model THESIS David...SPARTAN: An Instructional Accesion For - High Resolution Land Combat Model NTIS CRA&IDTIC TAB ., THESIS U. a,1:!ot%,ced U 1stilcatonl...developed an instructional high resolution land combat simulation model . The purpose of this model is to demonstrate common techniques of modeling used

  7. AVHRR/1-FM Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer is discussed. The program covers design, construction, and test of a breadboard model, engineering model, protoflight model, mechanical/structural model, and a life test model. Special bench test and calibration equipment was developed for use on the program. The flight model program objectives were to fabricate, assemble and test four of the advanced very high resolution radiometers along with a bench cooler and collimator.

  8. Atomic collisions, inelastic indeed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercegol, Herve; Ferrando, Gwenael; Lehoucq, Roland

    At the turn of the twentieth century, a hot controversy raged about the ability of Boltzmann's framework to take care of irreversibility. The so-called Loschmidt's paradox progressively faded with time during the last hundred years, due to the predictive efficiency of statistical mechanics. However, one detail at the origin of the controversy - the elasticity of atomic collisions - was not completely challenged. A semi-classical treatment of two atoms interacting with the vacuum zero-point field permits to predict a friction force acting against the rotation of the pair of atoms. By its form and its level, the calculated torque is a candidate as a physical cause for diffusion of energy and angular momentum, and consequently for entropy growth. It opens the way to a revision of the standard vision of irreversibility. This presentation will focus on two points. First we will discuss the recent result in a broader context of electromagnetic interactions during microscopic collisions. The predicted friction phenomenon can be compared to and distinguished from Collision-Induced Emission and other types of inelastic collisions. Second we will investigate the consequences of the friction torque on calculated trajectories of colliding atoms, quantifying the generation of dimers linked by dispersion forces.

  9. Spatially adaptive regularized iterative high-resolution image reconstruction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Won Bae; Park, Min K.; Kang, Moon Gi

    2000-12-01

    High resolution images are often required in applications such as remote sensing, frame freeze in video, military and medical imaging. Digital image sensor arrays, which are used for image acquisition in many imaging systems, are not dense enough to prevent aliasing, so the acquired images will be degraded by aliasing effects. To prevent aliasing without loss of resolution, a dense detector array is required. But it may be very costly or unavailable, thus, many imaging systems are designed to allow some level of aliasing during image acquisition. The purpose of our work is to reconstruct an unaliased high resolution image from the acquired aliased image sequence. In this paper, we propose a spatially adaptive regularized iterative high resolution image reconstruction algorithm for blurred, noisy and down-sampled image sequences. The proposed approach is based on a Constrained Least Squares (CLS) high resolution reconstruction algorithm, with spatially adaptive regularization operators and parameters. These regularization terms are shown to improve the reconstructed image quality by forcing smoothness, while preserving edges in the reconstructed high resolution image. Accurate sub-pixel motion registration is the key of the success of the high resolution image reconstruction algorithm. However, sub-pixel motion registration may have some level of registration error. Therefore, a reconstruction algorithm which is robust against the registration error is required. The registration algorithm uses a gradient based sub-pixel motion estimator which provides shift information for each of the recorded frames. The proposed algorithm is based on a technique of high resolution image reconstruction, and it solves spatially adaptive regularized constrained least square minimization functionals. In this paper, we show that the reconstruction algorithm gives dramatic improvements in the resolution of the reconstructed image and is effective in handling the aliased information. The

  10. Proton Resonance Spectroscopy in ALUMINUM-26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeter, Kara Jayne

    1990-01-01

    Excitation functions for proton elastic and inelastic scattering on ^{25}Mg were measured with the KN Van de Graaff accelerator and associated high resolution system at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. Differential cross sections for ^{25}Mg(p,p_0) through (p,p_3) were obtained for the energy range of E_{rm p} = 1.94 to 3.43 MeV. The data were measured at laboratory angles theta = 90 ^circ, 108^circ , 135^circ, 150 ^circ, and 165^circ , with an overall energy resolution of ~400 eV. Resonance spins, parities, partial widths, and channel spin and orbital angular momentum mixing ratios were extracted with a multilevel, multichannel R -matrix based computer program. Resonance parameters were extracted for approximately 64 levels between the excitation energies of 8.23 MeV and 9.61 MeV in the compound nucleus ^{26}Al. The present results complement our earlier data on states in the compound nucleus ^{26 }Al at excitation energies from 6.98 to 8.23 MeV. These previous data were reanalyzed, and several resonance parameter assignments were changed. Results from that reanalysis are presented along with the results of the current measurement. A weak 6^- stretched state was identified at E_ {rm p} = 1.27 MeV, in agreement with a 6^- T = 0 state observed in proton transfer reactions. The primary motivation for this measurement was to study the proposed l = 3, J^pi = 6^- stretched state at E_ x = 9.26 MeV and to determine whether this state is fragmented. The present results confirm the existence of a 6^- state at E_{rm p} = 3.08 MeV (E_ x = 9.27 MeV). There is no evidence for additional fragmentation of this stretched state.

  11. Design and implementation of spaceborne high resolution infrared touch screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tai-guo; Li, Wen-xin; Dong, Yi-peng; Ma, Wen; Xia, Jia-gao

    2015-10-01

    For the consideration of the special application environment of the electronic products used in aerospace and to further more improve the human-computer interaction of the manned aerospace area. The research is based on the design and implementation way of the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen on the basis of FPGA and DSP frame structure. Beside the introduction of the whole structure for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, this essay also gives the detail information about design of hardware for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, FPGA design, GUI design and DSP algorithm design based on Lagrange interpolation. What is more, the easy makes a comprehensive research of the reliability design for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen for the special purpose of it. Besides, the system test is done after installation of spaceborne infrared touch screen. The test result shows that the system is simple and reliable enough, which has a stable running environment and high resolution, which certainly can meet the special requirement of the manned aerospace instrument products.

  12. The proton's spin: A quark model perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Close, F.E. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN )

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic moments and g{sub A}/g{sub V} provide information on the correlations among quark spins and flavors in the proton. I compare this information with the deep inelastic polarized data from EMC which has been claimed to show that very little of the proton's spin is due to the quarks. The possibility that there is significant polarization of strange quarks within protons is discussed. 38 refs.

  13. EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping - further developing a high resolution digital bathymetry for European seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Schmitt, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    Access to marine data is a key issue for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Marine Knowledge 2020 agenda and includes the European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet) initiative. EMODnet aims at assembling European marine data, data products and metadata from diverse sources in a uniform way. The EMODnet data infrastructure is developed through a stepwise approach in three major phases. Currently EMODnet is entering its 3rd phase with operational portals providing access to marine data for bathymetry, geology, physics, chemistry, biology, seabed habitats and human activities, complemented by checkpoint projects, analysing the fitness for purpose of data provision. The EMODnet Bathymetry project has developed Digital Terrain Models (DTM) for the European seas. These have been produced from survey and aggregated data sets that are indexed with metadata by adopting the SeaDataNet Catalogue services. SeaDataNet is a network of major oceanographic data centres around the European seas that manage, operate and further develop a pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management. The latest EMODnet Bathymetry DTM release has a resolution of 1/8 arcminute * 1/8 arcminute and covers all European sea regions. Use has been made of circa 7800 gathered survey datasets and composite DTMs from 27 European data providers from 15 countries. For areas without coverage use has been made of the latest GEBCO DTM. The catalogue services and the generated EMODnet DTM have been published at the dedicated EMODnet Bathymetry portal which includes a versatile DTM viewing service that also supports downloading in various formats. End December 2016 the Bathymetry project has been succeeded by EMODnet High Resolution Seabed Mapping (HRSM) as part of the third phase of EMODnet. This new project will continue gathering of bathymetric in-situ data sets with extra efforts for near coastal waters and coastal zones. In addition Satellite Derived Bathymetry

  14. EDITORIAL: High-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy High-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Rubén; García, Ricardo; Schwarz, Udo

    2009-06-01

    original papers authored by many of the leading groups in the field with the goal of providing a well-balanced overview on the state-of-the-art in this rapidly evolving field. These papers, many of which are based on notable presentations given during the Madrid conference, feature highlights such as (1) the development of sophisticated force spectroscopy procedures that are able to map the complete 3D tip-sample force field on different surfaces; (2) the considerable resolution improvement of Kelvin probe force microscopy (reaching, in some cases, the atomic scale), which is accompanied by a thorough, quantitative understanding of the contrast observed; (3) the perfecting of atomic resolution imaging on insulating substrates, which helps reshape our microscopic understanding of surface properties and chemical activity of these surfaces; (4) the description of instrumental and methodological developments that pave the way to the atomic-scale characterization of magnetic and electronic properties of nanostructures, and last but not least (5) the extension of dynamic imaging modes to high-resolution operation in liquids, ultimately achieving atomic resolution. The latter developments are already having a significant impact in the highly competitive field of biological imaging under physiological conditions. This special issue of Nanotechnology would not have been possible without the highly professional support from Nina Couzin, Amy Harvey, Alex Wotherspoon and the entire Nanotechnology team at IOP Publishing. We are thankful for their help in pushing this project forward. We also thank the authors who have contributed their excellent original articles to this issue, the referees whose comments have helped make the issue an accurate portrait of this rapidly moving field, and the entire NC-AFM community that continues to drive NC-AFM to new horizons.

  15. High-resolution Urban Image Classification Using Extended Features

    SciTech Connect

    Vatsavai, Raju

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution image classification poses several challenges because the typical object size is much larger than the pixel resolution. Any given pixel (spectral features at that location) by itself is not a good indicator of the object it belongs to without looking at the broader spatial footprint. Therefore most modern machine learning approaches that are based on per-pixel spectral features are not very effective in high- resolution urban image classification. One way to overcome this problem is to extract features that exploit spatial contextual information. In this study, we evaluated several features in- cluding edge density, texture, and morphology. Several machine learning schemes were tested on the features extracted from a very high-resolution remote sensing image and results were presented.

  16. In-Phase Ultra High-Resolution In Vivo NMR.

    PubMed

    Fugariu, Ioana; Bermel, Wolfgang; Lane, Daniel; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, Andre J

    2017-04-05

    Although current NMR techniques allow organisms to be studied in vivo, magnetic susceptibility distortions, which arise from inhomogeneous distributions of chemical moieties, prevent the acquisition of high-resolution NMR spectra. Intermolecular single quantum coherence (iSQC) is a technique that breaks the sample's spatial isotropy to form long range dipolar couplings, which can be exploited to extract chemical shift information free of perturbations. While this approach holds vast potential, present practical limitations include radiation damping, relaxation losses, and non-phase sensitive data. Herein, these drawbacks are addressed, and a new technique termed in-phase iSQC (IP-iSQC) is introduced. When applied to a living system, high-resolution NMR spectra, nearly identical to a buffer extract, are obtained. The ability to look inside an organism and extract a high-resolution metabolic profile is profound and should find applications in fields in which metabolism or in vivo processes are of interest.

  17. High-resolution, high-pressure NMR studies of proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Jonas, J; Ballard, L; Nash, D

    1998-01-01

    Advanced high-resolution NMR spectroscopy, including two-dimensional NMR techniques, combined with high pressure capability, represents a powerful new tool in the study of proteins. This contribution is organized in the following way. First, the specialized instrumentation needed for high-pressure NMR experiments is discussed, with specific emphasis on the design features and performance characteristics of a high-sensitivity, high-resolution, variable-temperature NMR probe operating at 500 MHz and at pressures of up to 500 MPa. An overview of several recent studies using 1D and 2D high-resolution, high-pressure NMR spectroscopy to investigate the pressure-induced reversible unfolding and pressure-assisted cold denaturation of lysozyme, ribonuclease A, and ubiquitin is presented. Specifically, the relationship between the residual secondary structure of pressure-assisted, cold-denatured states and the structure of early folding intermediates is discussed. PMID:9649405

  18. Compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum sorter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chenhao; Chen, Jian; Zhan, Qiwen

    2017-03-01

    A compact and high-resolution optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) sorter is proposed and demonstrated. The sorter comprises a quadratic fan-out mapper and a dual-phase corrector positioned in the pupil plane and the Fourier plane, respectively. The optical system is greatly simplified compared to previous demonstrations of OAM sorting, and the performance in resolution and efficiency is maintained. A folded configuration is set up using a single reflective spatial light modulator (SLM) to demonstrate the validity of the scheme. The two phase elements are implemented on the left and right halves of the SLM and connected by a right-angle prism. Experimental results demonstrate the high resolution of the compact OAM sorter, and the current limit in efficiency can be overcome by replacing with transmissive SLMs and removing the beam splitters. This novel scheme paves the way for the miniaturization and integration of high-resolution OAM sorters.

  19. A high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, B.; Zhang, Q.; He, K.; Huo, H.; Yao, Z.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Developing high resolution emission inventory is an essential task for air quality modeling and management. However, current vehicle emission inventories in China are usually developed at provincial level and then allocated to grids based on various spatial surrogates, which is difficult to get high spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a new approach to construct a high-resolution vehicle emission inventory for China. First, vehicle population at county level were estimated by using the relationship between per-capita GDP and vehicle ownership. Then the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were used to drive the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to get monthly emission factors for each county. Finally, vehicle emissions by county were allocated to grids with 5-km horizon resolution by using high-resolution road network data. This work provides a better understanding of spatial representation of vehicle emissions in China and can benefit both air quality modeling and management with improved spatial accuracy.

  20. Retrieving high-resolution tropospheric gradients from multiconstellation GNSS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingxing; Zus, Florian; Lu, Cuixian; Ning, Tong; Dick, Galina; Ge, Maorong; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-05-01

    The developing multi-Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) constellations have the potential to provide accurate high-resolution tropospheric gradients. Such data, closely linked to strong humidity gradients accompanying severe weather phenomena, are considered a new important data source for meteorological studies, e.g., nowcasting of severe rainfall events. Here we describe the development of a multi-GNSS processing system for the precise retrieval of high-resolution tropospheric gradients. The retrieved products were validated by using independent water vapor radiometer (WVR) observations and numerical weather model (NWM) data. The multi-GNSS high-resolution gradients agree well with those, derived from NWM and WVR, especially for the fast-changing peaks which were mostly associated with synoptic fronts. Compared to GPS-only gradients, the correlations with the validation data are significantly improved up to 20-35%. The new data product has significant potential to improve numerical weather prediction and to advance meteorological studies.

  1. Horizontal gradient correction of the high resolution ocean climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Chang, Y. S.; Shin, H. R.

    2016-12-01

    National Oceanography Data Center (NODC) has developed high resolution (0.1° by 0.1°) regional climatologies. They provide reliable temperature and salinity mean fields comparing to those of previous 1°or 0.25° gridded data. However, Chang and Shin (2014) pointed a vertical gradient problem showing abnormal density inverse phenomena along the coastal areas in the East Asian Seas regional climatology. In this study, we additionally recognized abnormal geostrophic currents when we use same climatology. Geostrophic currents show repeated strong patterns at 1° intervals especially in the East Sea, which is related to horizontal temperature gradients at the same areas. It is due to employ new small radius of influence to generate high resolution climatology, meanwhile they still use 1° gridded background and sparse serial observations. Here, we reproduce high resolution climatology by using optimal interpolation method and seek possible horizontal gradient corrections to resolve this problem.

  2. Single sensor processing to obtain high resolution color component signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenn, William E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method for generating color video signals representative of color images of a scene includes the following steps: focusing light from the scene on an electronic image sensor via a filter having a tri-color filter pattern; producing, from outputs of the sensor, first and second relatively low resolution luminance signals; producing, from outputs of the sensor, a relatively high resolution luminance signal; producing, from a ratio of the relatively high resolution luminance signal to the first relatively low resolution luminance signal, a high band luminance component signal; producing, from outputs of the sensor, relatively low resolution color component signals; and combining each of the relatively low resolution color component signals with the high band luminance component signal to obtain relatively high resolution color component signals.

  3. O-space with high resolution readouts outperforms radial imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Tam, Leo; Kopanoglu, Emre; Peters, Dana C; Constable, R Todd; Galiana, Gigi

    2017-04-01

    While O-Space imaging is well known to accelerate image acquisition beyond traditional Cartesian sampling, its advantages compared to undersampled radial imaging, the linear trajectory most akin to O-Space imaging, have not been detailed. In addition, previous studies have focused on ultrafast imaging with very high acceleration factors and relatively low resolution. The purpose of this work is to directly compare O-Space and radial imaging in their potential to deliver highly undersampled images of high resolution and minimal artifacts, as needed for diagnostic applications. We report that the greatest advantages to O-Space imaging are observed with extended data acquisition readouts. A sampling strategy that uses high resolution readouts is presented and applied to compare the potential of radial and O-Space sequences to generate high resolution images at high undersampling factors. Simulations and phantom studies were performed to investigate whether use of extended readout windows in O-Space imaging would increase k-space sampling and improve image quality, compared to radial imaging. Experimental O-Space images acquired with high resolution readouts show fewer artifacts and greater sharpness than radial imaging with equivalent scan parameters. Radial images taken with longer readouts show stronger undersampling artifacts, which can cause small or subtle image features to disappear. These features are preserved in a comparable O-Space image. High resolution O-Space imaging yields highly undersampled images of high resolution and minimal artifacts. The additional nonlinear gradient field improves image quality beyond conventional radial imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement of the Wolfenstein parameters for proton-proton and proton-neutron scattering at 500 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, J.A.

    1984-07-01

    Using liquid hydrogen and liquid deuterium targets respectively, forward angle (ten degrees to sixty degrees in the center of Mass) free proton-proton and quasielastic proton-proton and proton-neutron triple scattering data at 500 MeV have been obtained using the high resolution spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The data are in reasonable agreement with recent predictions from phase shift analyses, indicating that the proton-nucleon scattering amplitudes are fairly well determined at 500 MeV. 32 references.

  5. Practical Applications Using A High Resolution Infrared Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraniak, David W.

    1981-01-01

    Infrared imaging systems can be classified into three general categories, low resolution, medium resolution and high resolution. It is the purpose of this paper to highlight specific applications best suited to high resolution, television capatable, infrared data acquisition techniques. The data was collected from both ground loped andoaerial based mobile positions where the temperature differentials varied from 15 C to 25 C. Specific applications include scanning building complexes from the exterior using a ground based moving vehicle, scanning buildings, concrete bridge decks and terrain from the air using a helicopter and scanning building interiors using a mobile hand truck.

  6. Theoretical Problems in High Resolution Solar Physics, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athay, G. (Editor); Spicer, D. S. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The Science Working Group for the High Resolution Solar Observatory (HRSO) laid plans beginning in 1984 for a series of workshops designed to stimulate a broadbased input from the scientific community to the HRSO mission. These workshops have the dual objectives of encouraging an early start on the difficult theoretical problems in radiative transfer, magnetohydrodynamics, and plasma physics that will be posed by the HRSO data, and maintaining current discussions of results in high resolution solar studies. This workshop was the second in the series. The workshop format presented invited review papers during the formal sessions and contributed poster papers for discussions during open periods. Both are presented.

  7. High Resolution 3d Modeling of the Behaim Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menna, F.; Rizzi, A.; Nocerino, E.; Remondino, F.; Gruen, A.

    2012-07-01

    The article describes the 3D surveying and modeling of the Behaim globe, the oldest still existing and intact globe of the earth, preserved at the German National Museum of Nuremberg, Germany. The work is primarily performed using high-resolution digital images and automatic photogrammetric techniques. Triangulation-based laser scanning is also employed to fill some gaps in the derived image-based 3D geometry and perform geometric comparisons. Major problems are encountered in texture mapping. The 3D modeling project and the creation of high-resolution map-projections is performed for scientific, conservation, visualization and education purposes.

  8. Wide swath and high resolution optical imaging satellite of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kato, Eri; Imai, Hiroko; Sagisaka, Masakazu

    2016-05-01

    The "Advanced optical satellite" (tentative name) is a follow-on mission from ALOS. Mission objectives of the advanced optical satellite is to build upon the existing advanced techniques for global land observation using optical sensors, as well as to promote data utilization for social needs. Wide swath and high resolution optical imager onboard the advanced optical satellite will extend the capabilities of earlier ALOS missions. The optical imager will be able to collect high-resolution (< 1 m) and wide-swath (70 km) images with high geo-location accuracy. This paper introduces a conceptual design of the advanced optical satellite.

  9. On the application and extension of Harten's high resolution scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.; Warming, R. F.; Harten, A.

    1982-01-01

    Extensions of a second order high resolution explicit method for the numerical computation of weak solutions of one dimensonal hyperbolic conservation laws are discussed. The main objectives were (1) to examine the shock resoluton of Harten's method for a two dimensional shock reflection problem, (2) to study the use of a high resolution scheme as a post-processor to an approximate steady state solution, and (3) to construct an implicit in the delta-form using Harten's scheme for the explicit operator and a simplified iteration matrix for the implicit operator.

  10. Modified Noise Power Ratio testing of high resolution digitizers

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.S.

    1994-05-01

    A broadband, full signal range, side-by-side (tandem) test method for estimating the internal noise performance of high resolution digitizers is described and illustrated. The technique involves a re-definition of the traditional Noise Power Ratio (NPR) test, a change that not only makes this test applicable to higher resolution systems than was previously practical, but also enhances its value and flexibility. Since coherence analysis is the basis of this new definition, and since the application of coherence procedures to high resolution data poses several problems, this report discusses these problems and their resolution.

  11. High-resolution seismic studies applied to injected geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.T.; Kasameyer, P.

    1985-01-01

    The application of high-resolution microseismicity studies to the problem of monitoring injected fluids is one component of the Geothermal Injection Monitoring Project at LLNL. The evaluation of microseismicity includes the development of field techniques, and the acquisition and processing of events during the initial development of a geothermal field. To achieve a specific detection threshold and location precision, design criteria are presented for seismic networks. An analysis of a small swarm near Mammoth Lakes, California, demonstrates these relationships and the usefulness of high-resolution seismic studies. A small network is currently monitoring the Mammoth-Pacific geothermal power plant at Casa Diablo as it begins production.

  12. High Resolution EUV & FUV Spectroscopy of DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Good, S. A.; Bannister, N. P.; Burleigh, M. R.; Holberg, J. B.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Cruddace, R. G.; Kowalski, M. P.

    We report on recent results from a high-resolution spectroscopic survey of hot DA white dwarfs, based on IUE, FUSE and HST observations. For the first time, we address the measurement of element abundances in a completely objective manner with a spectroscopic model fitting technique, which allows us to consider formally the limits that can be placed on abundances in stars where no heavy elements are detected. We also include our latest analysis of the high resolution EUV spectrum of G191-B2B recorded by J-PEX.

  13. High-resolution low-dose scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Buban, James P; Ramasse, Quentin; Gipson, Bryant; Browning, Nigel D; Stahlberg, Henning

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades instrumentation in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has pushed toward higher intensity electron probes to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of recorded images. While this is suitable for robust specimens, biological specimens require a much reduced electron dose for high-resolution imaging. We describe here protocols for low-dose STEM image recording with a conventional field-emission gun STEM, while maintaining the high-resolution capability of the instrument. Our findings show that a combination of reduced pixel dwell time and reduced gun current can achieve radiation doses comparable to low-dose TEM.

  14. Color dipole cross section and inelastic structure function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yu Seon; Kim, C. S.; Luu, Minh Vu; Reno, Mary Hall

    2014-11-01

    Instead of starting from a theoretically motivated form of the color dipole cross section in the dipole picture of deep inelastic scattering, we start with a parametrization of the deep inelastic structure function for electromagnetic scattering with protons, and then extract the color dipole cross section. Using the parametrizations of F 2(ξ = x or W 2 , Q 2) by Donnachie-Landshoff and Block et al., we find the dipole cross section from an approximate form of the presumed dipole cross section convoluted with the perturbative photon wave function for virtual photon splitting into a color dipole with massless quarks. The color dipole cross section determined this way reproduces the original structure function within about 10% for 0 .1 GeV2 ≤ Q 2 ≤10 GeV2. We discuss the dipole cross section at large and small dipole sizes and compare our results with other parametrizations.

  15. Deep inelastic scattering at energies near the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Gehring, J.; Rehm, K.E.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1993-10-01

    A large yield for a process that appears to have many of the features of deep inelastic scattering has been observed at energies, near the Coulomb barrier in the systems {sup 112,124}Sn + {sup 58}Ni by Wolfs et al. In order to better understand the mechanisms by which energy dissipation takes place close to the barrier, we have extended the measurements of Wolfs to the system {sup 136}Xe + {sup 64}Ni. The use of inverse kinematics in the present measurements resulted in better mass and energy resolution due to reduced target effects and in more complete angular coverage. We have obtained angular distributions, mass distributions, and total cross sections for deep inelastic scattering at two energies near the barrier. The results on the closed neutron shell nucleus {sup 136}Xe complement those from the closed proton shell Sn nuclei.

  16. Proton-air and proton-proton cross sections from air shower data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsley, J.

    1985-01-01

    Data on the fluctuations in depth of maximum development of cosmic ray air showers, corrected for the effects of mixed primary composition and shower development fluctuations, yield values of the inelastic proton-air cross section for laboratory energies in the range 10 to the 8th power to 10 to the 10th power GeV. From these values of proton-air cross section, corresponding values of the proton-proton total cross section are derived by means of Glauber theory and geometrical scaling. The resulting values of proton-proton cross section are inconsistent with a well known 1n(2)s extrapolation of ISR data which is consistent with SPS data; they indicate a less rapid rate of increase in the interval 540 sq root of s 100000 GeV.

  17. Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.

  18. Mapping Mexico's Forest Lands with Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

    Treesearch

    David J. Evans; Zhiliang Zhu; Susan Eggen-McIntosh; Pedro García Mayoral; Jose Luis Ornelas de Anda

    1992-01-01

    Data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used in a program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization to help scientists from Mexico generate forest-cover maps of that country. Two near-cloud-free composite images were generated for December and March 1990 from...

  19. Evaluating high resolution SPOT 5 satellite imagery for crop identification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High resolution satellite imagery offers new opportunities for crop monitoring and assessment. A SPOT 5 image with four spectral bands (green, red, near-infrared, and mid-infrared) and 10-m pixel size covering intensively cropped areas in south Texas was evaluated for crop identification. Two images...

  20. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  1. High-Resolution Land Use and Land Cover Mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    As the Nation?s population grows, quantifying, monitoring, and managing land use becomes increasingly important. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a long heritage of leadership and innovation in land use and land cover (LULC) mapping that has been the model both nationally and internationally for over 20 years. At present, the USGS is producing high-resolution LULC data for several watershed and urban areas within the United States. This high-resolution LULC mapping is part of an ongoing USGS Land Cover Characterization Program (LCCP). The four components of the LCCP are global (1:2,000,000-scale), national (1:100,000-scale), urban (1:24,000-scale), and special projects (various scales and time periods). Within the urban and special project components, the USGS Rocky Mountain Mapping Center (RMMC) is collecting historical as well as contemporary high-resolution LULC data. RMMC?s high-resolution LULC mapping builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS LULC programs and provides LULC information to meet user requirements.

  2. A Large Scale, High Resolution Agent-Based Insurgency Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    2007). HSCB Models can be employed for simulating mission scenarios, determining optimal strategies for disrupting terrorist networks, or training and...High Resolution Agent-Based Insurgency Model ∑ = ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ − −− = desired 1 move,desired, desired,,desired, desired,, N j ij jmoveij moveiD rp prp

  3. High resolution data base for use with MAP

    SciTech Connect

    Tapley, W.C.; Harris, D.B.

    1987-05-05

    A high resolution cartographic data base of thw World is available from the CIA. We obtained this data, extracted portions of the data, and produced cartographic files of varying resolutions. The resulting data files are of the proper format for use with MAP (2), our in-house cartographic plotting program.

  4. HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING & EVALUATION MEHTODS & REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    SCHOFIELD JS

    2007-10-04

    This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

  5. Persistence Diagrams of High-Resolution Temporal Rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Méndez, F.; Carsteanu, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study applies Topological Data Analysis (TDA), by generating persistence diagrams to uncover patterns in the data of high-resolution temporal rainfall intensities from Iowa City (IIHR, U of Iowa). Persistence diagrams are a way to identify essential cycles in state-space representations of the data.

  6. Evacuee Compliance Behavior Analysis using High Resolution Demographic Information

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Wei; Han, Lee; Liu, Cheng; Tuttle, Mark A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether evacuee compliance behavior with route assignments from different resolutions of demographic data would impact the evacuation performance. Most existing evacuation strategies assume that travelers will follow evacuation instructions, while in reality a certain percent of evacuees do not comply with prescribed instructions. In this paper, a comparison study of evacuation assignment based on Traffic Analysis Zones (TAZ) and high resolution LandScan USA Population Cells (LPC) were conducted for the detailed road network representing Alexandria, Virginia. A revised platform for evacuation modeling built on high resolution demographic data and activity-based microscopic traffic simulation is proposed. The results indicate that evacuee compliance behavior affects evacuation efficiency with traditional TAZ assignment, but it does not significantly compromise the efficiency with high resolution LPC assignment. The TAZ assignment also underestimates the real travel time during evacuation, especially for high compliance simulations. This suggests that conventional evacuation studies based on TAZ assignment might not be effective at providing efficient guidance to evacuees. From the high resolution data perspective, traveler compliance behavior is an important factor but it does not impact the system performance significantly. The highlight of evacuee compliance behavior analysis should be emphasized on individual evacuee level route/shelter assignments, rather than the whole system performance.

  7. High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciel, Gary E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines recent developments in techniques for obtaining high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra on solid samples, discussing the kinds of applications for which these techniques are well suited. Also discusses the characteristics of NMR of solids and generating magnetization for NMR in solids. (JN)

  8. Texture analysis of high-resolution FLAIR images for TLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Elisevich, Kost

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a study of the texture information of high-resolution FLAIR images of the brain with the aim of determining the abnormality and consequently the candidacy of the hippocampus for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery. Intensity and volume features of the hippocampus from FLAIR images of the brain have been previously shown to be useful in detecting the abnormal hippocampus in TLE. However, the small size of the hippocampus may limit the texture information. High-resolution FLAIR images show more details of the abnormal intensity variations of the hippocampi and therefore are more suitable for texture analysis. We study and compare the low and high-resolution FLAIR images of six epileptic patients. The hippocampi are segmented manually by an expert from T1-weighted MR images. Then the segmented regions are mapped on the corresponding FLAIR images for texture analysis. The 2-D wavelet transforms of the hippocampi are employed for feature extraction. We compare the ability of the texture features from regular and high-resolution FLAIR images to distinguish normal and abnormal hippocampi. Intracranial EEG results as well as surgery outcome are used as gold standard. The results show that the intensity variations of the hippocampus are related to the abnormalities in the TLE.

  9. The investigation of classification methods of high-resolution imagery

    Treesearch

    Tracey S. Frescino; Gretchen G. Moisen; Larry DeBlander; Michel Guerin

    2007-01-01

    As remote-sensing technology advances, high-resolution imagery, such as Quickbird and photography from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP), is becoming more readily available for use in forestry applications. Quickbird imagery is currently the highest resolution imagery commercially available. It consists of 2.44-m (8-ft) resolution multispectral bands...

  10. Tamarisk Mapping and Monitoring Using High Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Treesearch

    Jason W. San Souci; John T. Doyle

    2006-01-01

    QuickBird high resolution multispectral satellite imagery (60 cm GSD, 4 spectral bands) and calibrated products from DigitalGlobe’s AgroWatch program were used as inputs to Visual Learning System’s Feature Analyst automated feature extraction software to map localized occurrences of pervasive and aggressive Tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima), an invasive...

  11. High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Solids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maciel, Gary E.

    1984-01-01

    Examines recent developments in techniques for obtaining high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra on solid samples, discussing the kinds of applications for which these techniques are well suited. Also discusses the characteristics of NMR of solids and generating magnetization for NMR in solids. (JN)

  12. High-resolution microscopy and early-stage precipitation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haasen, P.; Wagner, R.

    1992-07-01

    Experimental work by high-resolution microscopy is summarized to check nucleation kinetics in solid/solid phase transformations in alloys; in particular, the NiAl, CuCo, and CuTi systems are discussed. Recent theoretical work makes it possible to analyze decomposition kinetics also in the more general case that nucleation, growth, and Ostwald ripening are concomitant processes.

  13. Laser direct writing of rotationally symmetric high-resolution structures.

    PubMed

    Haefner, Matthias; Pruss, Christof; Osten, Wolfgang

    2011-11-01

    We present a laser direct writing system for the efficient fabrication of high-resolution axicon structures. The setup makes use of scanning beam interference lithography incorporated with a fringe locking scheme for tight fringe phase control and allows us to fabricate large area structures with a period down to 450 nm.

  14. A DVD Spectroscope: A Simple, High-Resolution Classroom Spectroscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito

    2006-01-01

    Digital versatile disks (DVDs) have successfully made up an inexpensive but high-resolution spectroscope suitable for classroom experiments that can easily be made with common material and gives clear and fine spectra of various light sources and colored material. The observed spectra can be photographed with a digital camera, and such images can…

  15. Plant respirometer enables high resolution of oxygen consumption rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, D. L.

    1966-01-01

    Plant respirometer permits high resolution of relatively small changes in the rate of oxygen consumed by plant organisms undergoing oxidative metabolism in a nonphotosynthetic state. The two stage supply and monitoring system operates by a differential pressure transducer and provides a calibrated output by digital or analog signals.

  16. High resolution bone mineral densitometry with a gamma camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.; Evans, H.; Jhingran, S.; Johnson, P.

    1983-01-01

    A technique by which the regional distribution of bone mineral can be determined in bone samples from small animals is described. The technique employs an Anger camera interfaced to a medical computer. High resolution imaging is possible by producing magnified images of the bone samples. Regional densitometry of femurs from oophorectomised and bone mineral loss.

  17. Application of Classification Models to Pharyngeal High-Resolution Manometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielens, Jason D.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors present 3 methods of performing pattern recognition on spatiotemporal plots produced by pharyngeal high-resolution manometry (HRM). Method: Classification models, including the artificial neural networks (ANNs) multilayer perceptron (MLP) and learning vector quantization (LVQ), as well as support vector machines (SVM), were…

  18. Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidman, B.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

  19. Ultrastable reference pulser for high-resolution spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, R.; Lenkszus, F. R.; Sifter, L. L.; Strauss, M. G.

    1970-01-01

    Solid-state double-pulse generator for a high resolution semiconductor detector meets specific requirements for resolution /0.05 percent/, amplitude range /0.1-13 MeV/, and repetition rate /0.1-1000 pulses per second/. A tag pulse is generated in coincidence with each reference pulse.

  20. Application of Classification Models to Pharyngeal High-Resolution Manometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielens, Jason D.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Ciucci, Michelle R.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors present 3 methods of performing pattern recognition on spatiotemporal plots produced by pharyngeal high-resolution manometry (HRM). Method: Classification models, including the artificial neural networks (ANNs) multilayer perceptron (MLP) and learning vector quantization (LVQ), as well as support vector machines (SVM), were…

  1. High Resolution Mass Spectra Analysis with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, David K.

    1980-01-01

    Highlighted are characteristics of programs written for a pocket-sized programmable calculator to analyze mass spectra data (such as displaying high resolution masses for formulas, predicting whether formulas are stable molecules or molecular ions, determining formulas by isotopic abundance measurement) in a laboratory or classroom. (CS)

  2. Large-field high-resolution mosaic movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Sliepen, Guus; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sütterlin, Peter; Lin, Yong; Martin, Sara F.; Panasenco, Olga; Romashets, Eugene P.

    2013-08-01

    Movies with fields-of-view larger than normal, for high-resolution telescopes, will give a better understanding of processes on the Sun such as filament and active region developments and their possible interactions. New active regions can serve as an igniter of the eruption of a nearby filament. A method to create a large field-of-view is to join several fields-of-view into a mosaic. Fields are imaged quickly, one after another, using fast telescope-pointing. Such a pointing cycle has been automated at the Dutch open telescope (DOT), a high-resolution solar telescope located on the Canary Island La Palma. The number and positions of the subfields are calculated automatically and represented by an array of bright points in the guider image which indicates the subfield centers inside the drawn rectangle of the total field on the computer screen with the whole-sun image. Automatic production of flats is also programmed. For the first time, mosaic movies were programmed from stored information on automated telescope motions. The mosaic movies show larger regions of the solar disk in high resolution and fill a gap between available whole-sun images with limited spatial resolution of synoptic telescopes including space instruments and small-field high-cadence movies of high-resolution solar telescopes.

  3. Vehicle Detection and Classification from High Resolution Satellite Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, L.; Sasikumar, M.

    2014-11-01

    In the past decades satellite imagery has been used successfully for weather forecasting, geographical and geological applications. Low resolution satellite images are sufficient for these sorts of applications. But the technological developments in the field of satellite imaging provide high resolution sensors which expands its field of application. Thus the High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) proved to be a suitable alternative to aerial photogrammetric data to provide a new data source for object detection. Since the traffic rates in developing countries are enormously increasing, vehicle detection from satellite data will be a better choice for automating such systems. In this work, a novel technique for vehicle detection from the images obtained from high resolution sensors is proposed. Though we are using high resolution images, vehicles are seen only as tiny spots, difficult to distinguish from the background. But we are able to obtain a detection rate not less than 0.9. Thereafter we classify the detected vehicles into cars and trucks and find the count of them.

  4. High-resolution airway morphometry from polyurethane casts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, Gordon R.; Vargas, John; Hoford, John D.; Craft, Jeanne; Shroff, Sunil; McRae, Karen M.

    1995-05-01

    An airway cast was made and imbedded in a solid polyurethane block of a contrasting color. The block was sequentially milled and photographed. The sequential photographs were scanned to create an image database which was analyzed on VIDA; a multidimensional image analysis software package. The technique shows promise as a semi-automated process for generating a high resolution morphometric database from airway casts.

  5. Human enamel structure studied by high resolution electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, S.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Human enamel structural features are characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. The human enamel consists of polycrystals with a structure similar to Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. This article describes the structural features of human enamel crystal at atomic and nanometer level. Besides the structural description, a great number of high resolution images are included. Research into the carious process in human enamel is very important for human beings. This article firstly describes the initiation of caries in enamel crystal at atomic and unit-cell level and secondly describes the further steps of caries with structural and chemical demineralization. The demineralization in fact, is the origin of caries in human enamel. The remineralization of carious areas in human enamel has drawn more and more attention as its potential application is realized. This process has been revealed by high resolution electron microscopy in detail in this article. On the other hand, the radiation effects on the structure of human enamel are also characterized by high resolution electron microscopy. In order to reveal this phenomenon clearly, a great number of electron micrographs have been shown, and a physical mechanism is proposed. 26 references.

  6. High-resolution NMR study of a synthetic DNA-RNA hybrid dodecamer containing the consensus Pribnow promoter sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, S.H.; Flynn, P.; Reid, B. )

    1989-03-21

    The nonsymmetrical double-helical hybrid dodecamer d(CGTTATAATGCG){center dot}r(CGCAUUAUAACG) was synthesized with solid-phase phosphoramidite methods and studied by high-resolution 2D-NMR. The imino protons were assigned by one-dimensional nuclear Overhauser methods. All the base protons and H1', H2', H2'', H3', and H4' sugar protons of the DNA strand and the base protons, H1', H2', and most of the H3'-H4' protons of the RNA strand were assigned by 2D NMR techniques. The well-resolved spectra allowed a qualitative analysis of relative proton-proton distances in both strands of the dodecamer. The chemical shifts of the hybrid duplex were compared to those of the pure DNA double helix with the same sequence. The intrastrand and cross-strand NOEs from adenine H2 to H1' resonances of neighboring base pairs exhibited characteristic patterns that were very useful for checking the spectral assignments, and their highly nonsymmetric nature reveals that the conformations of the two strands are quite different. Detailed analysis of the NOESY and COSY spectra, as well as the chemical shift data, indicate that the RNA strand assumes a normal A-type conformation (C3'-endo) whereas the DNA strand is in the general S domain but not exactly in the normal C2'-endo conformation.

  7. A measurement of multi-jet rates in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, I.; Ahmed, T.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.-D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Bärwolff, H.; Bán, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H. P.; Behrend, H.-J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besançon, M.; Biddulph, P.; Binder, E.; Bischoff, A.; Bizot, J. C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Bosetti, P. C.; Boudry, V.; Bourdarios, C.; Brasse, F.; Braun, U.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büngener, L.; Bürger, J.; Büsser, F. W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A. J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A. B.; Colombo, M.; Coughlan, J. A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, Ch.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J. B.; Danilov, M.; Dann, A. W. E.; Dau, W. D.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; Devel, M.; de Roeck, A.; Dingus, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J. D.; Dreis, H. B.; Drescher, A.; Duboc, J.; Düllmann, D.; Dünger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebbinghaus, R.; Eberle, M.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T. R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellis, N. N.; Ellison, R. J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Fensome, I. F.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Flauger, W.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formánek, J.; Foster, J. M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Fuhrmann, P.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gellrich, A.; Gennis, M.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Godfrey, L.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodall, A. M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Grässler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Greif, H.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Handschuh, D.; Hanlon, E. M.; Hapke, M.; Harjes, J.; Haydar, R.; Haynes, W. J.; Heatherington, J.; Hedberg, V.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herma, R.; Herynek, I.; Hildesheim, W.; Hill, P.; Hilton, C. D.; Hladký, J.; Hoeger, K. C.; Huet, Ph.; Hufnagel, H.; Huot, N.; Ibbotson, M.; Itterbeck, H.; Jabiol, M.-A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jacobsson, C.; Jaffre, M.; Jansen, T.; Jönsson, L.; Johannsen, K.; Johnson, D. P.; Johnson, L.; Jung, H.; Kalmus, P. I. P.; Kasarian, S.; Kaschowitz, R.; Kasselmann, P.; Kathage, U.; Kaufmann, H. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Ko, W.; Köhler, T.; Kolanoski, H.; Kole, F.; Kolya, S. D.; Korbel, V.; Korn, M.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S. K.; Krasny, M. W.; Krehbiel, H.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, U.; Kubenka, J. P.; Küster, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurča, T.; Kurzhöfer, J.; Kuznik, B.; Lacour, D.; Lamarche, F.; Lander, R.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Langkau, R.; Lanius, P.; Laporte, J. F.; Lebedev, A.; Leuschner, A.; Leverenz, C.; Levonian, S.; Lewin, D.; Ley, Ch.; Lindner, A.; Lindström, G.; Linsel, F.; Lipinski, J.; Loch, P.; Lohmander, H.; Lopez, G. C.; Lüers, D.; Magnussen, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mani, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martens, J.; Martin, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Masson, S.; Mavroidis, A.; Maxfield, S. J.; McMahon, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Mercer, D.; Merz, T.; Meyer, C. A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milone, V.; Monnier, E.; Moreau, F.; Moreels, J.; Morris, J. V.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Murray, S. A.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Newton, D.; Neyret, D.; Nguyen, H. K.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nisius, R.; Nowak, G.; Noyes, G. W.; Nyberg, M.; Oberlack, H.; Obrock, U.; Olsson, J. E.; Orenstein, S.; Ould-Saada, F.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peppel, E.; Peters, S.; Phillips, H. T.; Phillips, J. P.; Pichler, Ch.; Pilgram, W.; Pitzl, D.; Prell, S.; Prosi, R.; Rädel, G.; Raupach, F.; Rauschnabel, K.; Reimer, P.; Reinshagen, S.; Ribarics, P.; Riech, V.; Riedlberger, J.; Riess, S.; Rietz, M.; Robertson, S. M.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rudowicz, M.; Ruffer, M.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sahlmann, N.; Sanchez, E.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Savitsky, M.; Schacht, P.; Schleper, P.; von Schlippe, W.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitz, W.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schulz, M.; Schwab, B.; Schwind, A.; Scobel, W.; Seehausen, U.; Sell, R.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shooshtari, H.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Siegmon, G.; Siewert, U.; Sirois, Y.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, J. R.; Smolik, L.; Soloviev, Y.; Spitzer, H.; Staroba, P.; Steenbock, M.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Stella, B.; Stephens, K.; Stier, J.; Stösslein, U.; Strachota, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Tchernyshov, V.; Thiebaux, C.; Thompson, G.; Tichomirov, I.; Truöl, P.; Turnau, J.; Tutas, J.; Urban, L.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallée, C.; van Esch, P.; Vartapetian, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vecko, M.; Verrecchia, P.; Vick, R.; Villet, G.; Vogel, E.; Wacker, K.; Walker, I. W.; Walther, A.; Weber, G.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wellisch, H. P.; West, L. R.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wolff, Th.; Womersley, L. A.; Wright, A. E.; Wulff, N.; Yiou, T. P.; Žáček, J.; Závada, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zimmer, M.; Zimmermann, W.; Zomer, F.

    1994-03-01

    Multi-jet production is observed in deep-inelastic electron proton scattering with the H1 detector at HERA. Jet rates for momentum transfers squared up to 500 GeV2 are determined using the JADE jet clustering algorithm. They are found to be in agreement with predictions from QCD based models.

  8. High Resolution Rapid Revisits Insar Monitoring of Surface Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhroy, V.; Li, J.; Charbonneau, F.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring surface deformation on strategic energy and transportation corridors requires high resolution spatial and temporal InSAR images for mitigation and safety purposes. High resolution air photos, lidar and other satellite images are very useful in areas where the landslides can be fatal. Recently, radar interferometry (InSAR) techniques using more rapid revisit images from several radar satellites are increasingly being used in active deformation monitoring. The Canadian RADARSAT Constellation (RCM) is a three-satellite mission that will provide rapid revisits of four days interferometric (InSAR) capabilities that will be very useful for complex deformation monitoring. For instance, the monitoring of surface deformation due to permafrost activity, complex rock slide motion and steam assisted oil extraction will benefit from this new rapid revisit capability. This paper provide examples of how the high resolution (1-3 m) rapid revisit InSAR capabilities will improve our monitoring of surface deformation and provide insights in understanding triggering mechanisms. We analysed over a hundred high resolution InSAR images over a two year period on three geologically different sites with various configurations of topography, geomorphology, and geology conditions. We show from our analysis that the more frequent InSAR acquisitions are providing more information in understanding the rates of movement and failure process of permafrost triggered retrogressive thaw flows; the complex motion of an asymmetrical wedge failure of an active rock slide and the identification of over pressure zones related to oil extraction using steam injection. Keywords: High resolution, InSAR, rapid revisits, triggering mechanisms, oil extraction.

  9. Testing cosmic ray acceleration with radio relics: a high-resolution study using MHD and tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittor, D.; Vazza, F.; Brüggen, M.

    2017-02-01

    Weak shocks in the intracluster medium may accelerate cosmic-ray protons and cosmic-ray electrons differently depending on the angle between the upstream magnetic field and the shock normal. In this work, we investigate how shock obliquity affects the production of cosmic rays in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters. For this purpose, we performed a magnetohydrodynamical simulation of a galaxy cluster using the mesh refinement code ENZO. We use Lagrangian tracers to follow the properties of the thermal gas, the cosmic rays and the magnetic fields over time. We tested a number of different acceleration scenarios by varying the obliquity-dependent acceleration efficiencies of protons and electrons, and by examining the resulting hadronic γ-ray and radio emission. We find that the radio emission does not change significantly if only quasi-perpendicular shocks are able to accelerate cosmic-ray electrons. Our analysis suggests that radio-emitting electrons found in relics have been typically shocked many times before z = 0. On the other hand, the hadronic γ-ray emission from clusters is found to decrease significantly if only quasi-parallel shocks are allowed to accelerate cosmic ray protons. This might reduce the tension with the low upper limits on γ-ray emission from clusters set by the Fermi satellite.

  10. Temperature gradient analyzers for compact high-resolution X-ray spectrometers

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, D.; Baron, A. Q. R.

    2010-01-01

    Compact high-resolution X-ray spectrometers with a one-dimensional temperature gradient at the analyzer crystal are considered. This gradient, combined with the use of a position-sensitive detector, makes it possible to relax the usual Rowland-circle condition, allowing increased space at the sample position for a given energy resolution or arm radius. Thus, for example, it is estimated that ∼meV resolution is possible with a 3 m analyzer arm and 200 mm clearance between the sample and detector. Simple analytic formulae are provided, supported by excellent agreement with ray-tracing simulations. One variation of this method also allows the detector position sensitivity to be used to determine momentum transfer, effectively improving momentum resolution without reducing (slitting down) the analyzer size. Application to medium-resolution (∼10–100 meV) inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometers with large angular acceptance is discussed, where this method also allows increased space at the sample. In some cases the application of a temperature gradient can improve the energy resolution even with a single-element detector. PMID:20029107

  11. Design and performance of AERHA, a high acceptance high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Chiuzbăian, Sorin G. Hague, Coryn F.; Brignolo, Stefania; Baumier, Cédric; Lüning, Jan; Avila, Antoine; Delaunay, Renaud; Mariot, Jean-Michel; Jaouen, Nicolas; Polack, François; Thomasset, Muriel; Lagarde, Bruno; Nicolaou, Alessandro; Sacchi, Maurizio

    2014-04-15

    A soft x-ray spectrometer based on the use of an elliptical focusing mirror and a plane varied line spacing grating is described. It achieves both high resolution and high overall efficiency while remaining relatively compact. The instrument is dedicated to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies. We set out how this optical arrangement was judged best able to guarantee performance for the 50 − 1000 eV range within achievable fabrication targets. The AERHA (adjustable energy resolution high acceptance) spectrometer operates with an effective angular acceptance between 100 and 250 μsr (energy dependent) and a resolving power well in excess of 5000 according to the Rayleigh criterion. The high angular acceptance is obtained by means of a collecting pre-mirror. Three scattering geometries are available to enable momentum dependent measurements with 135°, 90°, and 50° scattering angles. The instrument operates on the Synchrotron SOLEIL SEXTANTS beamline which serves as a high photon flux 2 × 200 μm{sup 2} focal spot source with full polarization control.

  12. Design and performance of AERHA, a high acceptance high resolution soft x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiuzbǎian, Sorin G.; Hague, Coryn F.; Avila, Antoine; Delaunay, Renaud; Jaouen, Nicolas; Sacchi, Maurizio; Polack, François; Thomasset, Muriel; Lagarde, Bruno; Nicolaou, Alessandro; Brignolo, Stefania; Baumier, Cédric; Lüning, Jan; Mariot, Jean-Michel

    2014-04-01

    A soft x-ray spectrometer based on the use of an elliptical focusing mirror and a plane varied line spacing grating is described. It achieves both high resolution and high overall efficiency while remaining relatively compact. The instrument is dedicated to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering studies. We set out how this optical arrangement was judged best able to guarantee performance for the 50 - 1000 eV range within achievable fabrication targets. The AERHA (adjustable energy resolution high acceptance) spectrometer operates with an effective angular acceptance between 100 and 250 μsr (energy dependent) and a resolving power well in excess of 5000 according to the Rayleigh criterion. The high angular acceptance is obtained by means of a collecting pre-mirror. Three scattering geometries are available to enable momentum dependent measurements with 135°, 90°, and 50° scattering angles. The instrument operates on the Synchrotron SOLEIL SEXTANTS beamline which serves as a high photon flux 2 × 200 μm2 focal spot source with full polarization control.

  13. Inelastic diffraction at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshin, S. M.; Tyurin, N. E.

    2017-03-01

    The relativistic scattering was one of the scientific fields where Academician V.G. Kadyshevsky has made an important and highly cited contribution [1]. In this paper we discuss the high-energy dependencies of diffractive and non-diffractive inelastic cross-sections in view of the recent LHC data which reveal a presence of the reflective scattering mode.

  14. Magnetic ordering in double perovskites R2CoMnO6 (R = Y , Tb) investigated by high resolution neutron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterji, Tapan; Frick, Bernhard; Nair, Harikrishnan S.

    2012-07-01

    We have investigated low energy nuclear spin excitations in double perovskite compounds R2CoMnO6 (R=Y, Tb) by inelastic neutron scattering with a high resolution back-scattering spectrometer. We observed inelastic signals at about 2.1 μeV for Y2CoMnO6 and also for Tb2CoMnO6 at T = 2 K in both energy-loss and energy-gain sides. We interpret these inelastic peaks to be due to the transitions between the hyperfine split nuclear levels of the 59Co nucleus. The inelastic peaks move towards the central elastic peak and finally merge with it at the magnetic ordering temperature TC. The energy of the low energy excitations decreases continuously and becomes zero at TC ≈ 75 K for Y2CoMnO6 and TC ≈ 100 K for Tb2CoMnO6. For Tb2CoMnO6, which contains magnetic rare earth ions, additional quasielastic scattering due presumably to the fluctuations of large Tb magnetic moments was observed. The present study reveals the magnetic ordering of the Co sublattice. The results of this investigation along with that obtained by us for other compounds indicate the presence of unquenched orbital moments in some of the Co compounds.

  15. Experimental constraints on non-linearities induced by two-photon effects in elastic and inelastic Rosenbluth separations

    SciTech Connect

    Vladas Tvaskis; John Arrington; Michael Christy; Rolf Ent; Cynthia Keppel; Yongguang Liang; Grahame Vittorini

    2006-01-26

    The effects of two-photon exchange corrections, suggested to explain the difference between measurements of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors using the polarization transfer and Rosenbluth techniques, have been studied in elastic and inelastic scattering data. Such corrections could introduce epsilon-dependent non-linearities in inelastic Rosenbluth separations, where epsilon is the virtual photon polarization parameter. It is concluded that such non-linear effects are consistent with zero for elastic, resonance, and deep-inelastic scattering for all Q{sup 2} and W{sup 2} values measured.

  16. High-resolution structure of the native histone octamer

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Christopher M.; Nicholson, James M.; Lambert, Stanley J.; Chantalat, Laurent; Reynolds, Colin D.; Baldwin, John P.

    2005-06-01

    The high-resolution (1.90 Å) model of the native histone octamer allows structural comparisons to be made with the nucleosome-core particle, along with an identification of a likely core-histone binding site. Crystals of native histone octamers (H2A–H2B)–(H4–H3)–(H3′–H4′)–(H2B′–H2A′) from chick erythrocytes in 2 M KCl, 1.35 M potassium phosphate pH 6.9 diffract X-rays to 1.90 Å resolution, yielding a structure with an R{sub work} value of 18.7% and an R{sub free} of 22.2%. The crystal space group is P6{sub 5}, the asymmetric unit of which contains one complete octamer. This high-resolution model of the histone-core octamer allows further insight into intermolecular interactions, including water molecules, that dock the histone dimers to the tetramer in the nucleosome-core particle and have relevance to nucleosome remodelling. The three key areas analysed are the H2A′–H3–H4 molecular cluster (also H2A–H3′–H4′), the H4–H2B′ interaction (also H4′–H2B) and the H2A′–H4 β-sheet interaction (also H2A–H4′). The latter of these three regions is important to nucleosome remodelling by RNA polymerase II, as it is shown to be a likely core-histone binding site, and its disruption creates an instability in the nucleosome-core particle. A majority of the water molecules in the high-resolution octamer have positions that correlate to similar positions in the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle structure, suggesting that the high-resolution octamer model can be used for comparative studies with the high-resolution nucleosome-core particle.

  17. High-resolution climate simulation of the last glacial maximum

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson III, David J

    2008-01-01

    The climate of the last glacial maximum (LGM) is simulated with a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model, the NCAR CCM3 at spectral truncation of T170, corresponding to a grid cell size of roughly 75 km. The purpose of the study is to assess whether there are significant benefits from the higher resolution simulation compared to the lower resolution simulation associated with the role of topography. The LGM simulations were forced with modified CLIMAP sea ice distribution and sea surface temperatures (SST) reduced by 1 C, ice sheet topography, reduced CO{sub 2}, and 21,000 BP orbital parameters. The high-resolution model captures modern climate reasonably well, in particular the distribution of heavy precipitation in the tropical Pacific. For the ice age case, surface temperature simulated by the high-resolution model agrees better with those of proxy estimates than does the low-resolution model. Despite the fact that tropical SSTs were only 2.1 C less than the control run, there are many lowland tropical land areas 4-6 C colder than present. Comparison of T170 model results with the best constrained proxy temperature estimates (noble gas concentrations in groundwater) now yield no significant differences between model and observations. There are also significant upland temperature changes in the best resolved tropical mountain belt (the Andes). We provisionally attribute this result in part as resulting from decreased lateral mixing between ocean and land in a model with more model grid cells. A longstanding model-data discrepancy therefore appears to be resolved without invoking any unusual model physics. The response of the Asian summer monsoon can also be more clearly linked to local geography in the high-resolution model than in the low-resolution model; this distinction should enable more confident validation of climate proxy data with the high-resolution model. Elsewhere, an inferred salinity increase in the subtropical North Atlantic may have

  18. High-Resolution Microcoil ^1H-NMR for Mass-Limited, Nanoliter-Volume Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Dean L.; Peck, Timothy L.; Webb, Andrew G.; Magin, Richard L.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    1995-12-01

    High-resolution, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of 5-nanoliter samples have been obtained with much higher mass sensitivity [signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) per micromole] than with traditional methods. Arginine and sucrose show a mean sensitivity enhancement of 130 compared to 278-microliter samples run in a 5-millimeter tube in a conventional, commercial probe. This can reduce data acquisition time by a factor of >16,000 or reduce the needed sample mass by a factor of about 130. A linewidth of 0.6 hertz was achieved on a 300-megahertz spectrometer by matching the magnetic susceptibility of the medium that surrounds the detection cell to that of the copper coil. For sucrose, the limit of detection (defined at S/N = 3) was 19 nanograms (56 picomoles) for a 1-minute data acquisition. This technique should prove useful with mass-limited samples and for use as a detector in capillary separations.

  19. High-resolution spectroscopy of jet-cooled CH{sub 5}{sup +}: Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, C.; Dong, F.; Nesbitt, D. J.

    2015-01-22

    Protonated methane (CH{sub 5}{sup +}) is thought to be a highly abundant molecular ion in interstellar medium, as well as a potentially bright μwave- mm wave emitter that could serve as a tracer for methane. This paper describes progress and first successful efforts to obtain a high resolution, supersonically cooled spectrum of CH{sub 5}{sup +} in the 2900-3100 cm{sup −1} region, formed in a slit supersonic discharge at low jet temperatures and with sub-Doppler resolution. Short term precision in frequency measurement (< 5 MHz on an hour time scale) is obtained from a thermally controlled optical transfer cavity servoloop locked onto a frequency stabilized HeNe laser. Long term precision (< 20 MHz day-to-day) due to pressure, temperature and humidity dependent index of refraction effects in the optical transfer cavity is also present and discussed.

  20. High-resolution spectrograms of ion acoustic waves in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.

    1979-01-01

    High-resolution, frequency-time spectrograms of ion acoustic waves in the solar wind obtained by the Voyager spacecraft at distances of up to 1.7 AU are examined. The plasma wave instrument on board the Voyager spacecraft used to acquire the spectra employs an electric dipole antenna with a 16-channel step frequency receiver and a high-bit-rate waveform receiver to detect and measure the electric field of plasma waves. Voyager spectrograms show that the ion acoustic waves consist of narrowband, rapidly varying bursts, lasting a few seconds or less, usually in the range between the plasma ion and electron frequencies. Spectrograms taken at 1.7 AU are shown to be essentially identical to similar measurements taken upstream of the earth's magnetosphere, which are produced by suprathermal protons streaming into the solar wind from the bow shock, and to those taken upstream of interplanetary shocks.

  1. Benchmarking Membrane Protein Detergent Stability for Improving Throughput of High-Resolution X-ray Structures

    PubMed Central

    Sonoda, Yo; Newstead, Simon; Hu, Nien-Jen; Alguel, Yilmaz; Nji, Emmanuel; Beis, Konstantinos; Yashiro, Shoko; Lee, Chiara; Leung, James; Cameron, Alexander D.; Byrne, Bernadette; Iwata, So; Drew, David

    2011-01-01

    Summary Obtaining well-ordered crystals is a major hurdle to X-ray structure determination of membrane proteins. To facilitate crystal optimization, we investigated the detergent stability of 24 eukaryotic and prokaryotic membrane proteins, predominantly transporters, using a fluorescent-based unfolding assay. We have benchmarked the stability required for crystallization in small micelle detergents, as they are statistically more likely to lead to high-resolution structures. Using this information, we have been able to obtain well-diffracting crystals for a number of sodium and proton-dependent transporters. By including in the analysis seven membrane proteins for which structures are already known, AmtB, GlpG, Mhp1, GlpT, EmrD, NhaA, and LacY, it was further possible to demonstrate an overall trend between protein stability and structural resolution. We suggest that by monitoring membrane protein stability with reference to the benchmarks described here, greater efforts can be placed on constructs and conditions more likely to yield high-resolution structures. PMID:21220112

  2. High-resolution crystal structures of the solubilized domain of porcine cytochrome b{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Yu; Kimura, Shigenobu; Tamada, Taro

    2015-06-30

    Crystal structures of the solubilized domain of cytochrome b{sub 5} from porcine liver were determined at sub-angstrom resolution in two crystal forms for both the oxidized and reduced states. The high-resolution structures provided information about the factors that are important for regulating the electronic properties of the haem group of cytochrome b{sub 5}. Mammalian microsomal cytochrome b{sub 5} has multiple electron-transfer partners that function in various electron-transfer reactions. Four crystal structures of the solubilized haem-binding domain of cytochrome b{sub 5} from porcine liver were determined at sub-angstrom resolution (0.76–0.95 Å) in two crystal forms for both the oxidized and reduced states. The high-resolution structures clearly displayed the electron density of H atoms in some amino-acid residues. Unrestrained refinement of bond lengths revealed that the protonation states of the haem propionate group may be involved in regulation of the haem redox properties. The haem Fe coordination geometry did not show significant differences between the oxidized and reduced structures. However, structural differences between the oxidized and reduced states were observed in the hydrogen-bond network around the axial ligand His68. The hydrogen-bond network could be involved in regulating the redox states of the haem group.

  3. LC-high-resolution multiple stage spectrometric analysis of diuretic compounds Unusual mass fragmentation pathways.

    PubMed

    Giancotti, Valeria; Medana, Claudio; Aigotti, Riccardo; Pazzi, Marco; Baiocchi, Claudio

    2008-09-29

    The analysis of diuretic compounds has become of great concern because of their extensive use both in therapy and in illicit treatments (such as masking agents in sport doping and drug abuse). The variety of chemical structures of this class of drugs encouraged the development of new methods and techniques of analysis, especially as regards to acidic compounds. LC/MS has so grown to be the reference technique for this kind of analysis in forensic and anti-doping confirmation purposes. Multiple stage MS permits identification of single drugs with high selectivity, but some unexpected pathways could weaken the entire process. In this work we aim to explain some unusual fragmentation steps using high-resolution MSn. For example, in the case of amiloride an intense product ion in MS3 analysis generates an apparent loss of 10Da. Water adduct formation and successive carbon monoxide elimination can explain this uncommon behavior, which was studied using different ion traps. Bendroflumethiazide MSn spectra show instead three successive HF losses, in spite of the presence of a radical site in the parent structure. Homolytic cleavages with radical ion production occur also in the case of protonated positive ion of ethacrynic acid (loss of chlorine radical) showing that such fragmentation behavior is not so rare as generally reported. Different ionization modes were studied and a tentative correlation with acidic-base properties was done. Multiple stage high-resolution mass spectra of positive and negative ions were discussed.

  4. NLO QCD corrections to graviton induced deep inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirling, W. J.; Vryonidou, E.

    2011-06-01

    We consider Next-to-Leading-Order QCD corrections to ADD graviton exchange relevant for Deep Inelastic Scattering experiments. We calculate the relevant NLO structure functions by calculating the virtual and real corrections for a set of graviton interaction diagrams, demonstrating the expected cancellation of the UV and IR divergences. We compare the NLO and LO results at the centre-of-mass energy relevant to HERA experiments as well as for the proposed higher energy lepton-proton collider, LHeC, which has a higher fundamental scale reach.

  5. Leptonic current structure and azimuthal asymmetry in deeply inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong-Fei; Sun, Zhan

    2017-08-01

    We present a compact form of the leptonic currents for the computation of the processes involving an initial virtual boson (photon, W± , or Z0). For deeply inelastic scattering, once the azimuthal angle of the plane expanded by the initial- and final-state leptons is integrated over in the boson-proton center-of-mass frame, the azimuthal-asymmetric terms vanish, which, however, is not true when some physical quantities (such as the transverse momentum of the observed particle) are specified in the laboratory frame. The misuse of the symmetry may lead to wrong results.

  6. Protein-DNA binding in high-resolution.

    PubMed

    Mahony, Shaun; Pugh, B Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in experimental and computational methodologies are enabling ultra-high resolution genome-wide profiles of protein-DNA binding events. For example, the ChIP-exo protocol precisely characterizes protein-DNA cross-linking patterns by combining chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with 5' → 3' exonuclease digestion. Similarly, deeply sequenced chromatin accessibility assays (e.g. DNase-seq and ATAC-seq) enable the detection of protected footprints at protein-DNA binding sites. With these techniques and others, we have the potential to characterize the individual nucleotides that interact with transcription factors, nucleosomes, RNA polymerases and other regulatory proteins in a particular cellular context. In this review, we explain the experimental assays and computational analysis methods that enable high-resolution profiling of protein-DNA binding events. We discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with such approaches.

  7. High-resolution observation by double-biprism electron holography

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Ken; Tonomura, Akira; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Akashi, Tetsuya; Togawa, Yoshihiko

    2004-12-01

    High-resolution electron holography has been achieved by using a double-biprism interferometer implemented on a 1 MV field emission electron microscope. The interferometer was installed behind the first magnifying lens to narrow carrier fringes and thus enabled complete separation of sideband Fourier spectrum from center band in reconstruction process. Holograms of Au fine particles and single-crystalline thin films with the finest fringe spacing of 4.2 pm were recorded and reconstructed. The overall holography system including the reconstruction process performed well for holograms in which carrier fringes had a spacing of around 10 pm. High-resolution lattice images of the amplitude and phase were clearly reconstructed without mixing of the center band and sideband information. Additionally, entire holograms were recorded without Fresnel fringes normally generated by the filament electrode of the biprism, and the holograms were thus reconstructed without the artifacts caused by Fresnel fringes.

  8. Application of spectral phase shaping to high resolution CARS spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Postma, S; van Rhijn, A C W; Korterik, J P; Gross, P; Herek, J L; Offerhaus, H L

    2008-05-26

    By spectral phase shaping of both the pump and probe pulses in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy we demonstrate the extraction of the frequencies, bandwidths and relative cross sections of vibrational lines. We employ a tunable broadband Ti:Sapphire laser synchronized to a ps-Nd:YVO mode locked laser. A high resolution spectral phase shaper allows for spectroscopy with a precision better than 1 cm(-1) in the high frequency region around 3000 cm(-1). We also demonstrate how new spectral phase shaping strategies can amplify the resonant features of isolated vibrations to such an extent that spectroscopy and microscopy can be done at high resolution, on the integrated spectral response without the need for a spectrograph.

  9. High resolution map of light pollution over Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netzel, Henryka; Netzel, Paweł

    2016-09-01

    In 1976 Berry introduced a simple mathematical equation to calculate artificial night sky brightness at zenith. In the original model cities, considered as points with given population, are only sources of light emission. In contrary to Berry's model, we assumed that all terrain surface can be a source of light. Emission of light depends on percent of built up area in a given cell. We based on Berry's model. Using field measurements and high-resolution data we obtained the map of night sky brightness over Poland in 100-m resolution. High resolution input data, combined with a very simple model, makes it possible to obtain detailed structures of the night sky brightness without complicating the calculations.

  10. High resolution computed tomography of advanced composite and ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancey, R. N.; Klima, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced composite and ceramic materials are being developed for use in many new defense and commercial applications. In order to achieve the desired mechanical properties of these materials, the structural elements must be carefully analyzed and engineered. A study was conducted to evaluate the use of high resolution computed tomography (CT) as a macrostructural analysis tool for advanced composite and ceramic materials. Several samples were scanned using a laboratory high resolution CT scanner. Samples were also destructively analyzed at the locations of the scans and the nondestructive and destructive results were compared. The study provides useful information outlining the strengths and limitations of this technique and the prospects for further research in this area.

  11. Turbine component casting core with high resolution region

    DOEpatents

    Kamel, Ahmed; Merrill, Gary B.

    2014-08-26

    A hollow turbine engine component with complex internal features can include a first region and a second, high resolution region. The first region can be defined by a first ceramic core piece formed by any conventional process, such as by injection molding or transfer molding. The second region can be defined by a second ceramic core piece formed separately by a method effective to produce high resolution features, such as tomo lithographic molding. The first core piece and the second core piece can be joined by interlocking engagement that once subjected to an intermediate thermal heat treatment process thermally deform to form a three dimensional interlocking joint between the first and second core pieces by allowing thermal creep to irreversibly interlock the first and second core pieces together such that the joint becomes physically locked together providing joint stability through thermal processing.

  12. Strategies for Interpreting High Resolution Coherent Multidimensional Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Thresa A.; House, Zuri R.; Chen, Peter C.; Strangfeld, Benjamin R.

    2013-06-01

    The electronic spectra of certain molecules can be very complex and consist of a high density of peaks. The high density of peaks results in severe spectral congestion, making conventional data analysis techniques extremely difficult to use. One solution to this problem is to use high resolution coherent 2D spectroscopy (HRC2DS), which can improve resolution and sort peaks into recognizable clusters. This technique requires new data analysis techniques to accurately assign peaks. Even though HRC2DS can improve spectral resolution, some regions of the spectra may still remain congested. The ability to solve this problem using even higher